Snapchat

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pages: 359 words: 96,019

How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional

New York Times, December 31, 2014. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/31/business/media/Snapchat-Plans-a-Global-View-of-New-Years-Festivities.html Webster, Andrew. “Snapchat’s Geofilters Are Now Open to Everyone.” Verge, December 2, 2014. https://www.theverge.com/2014/12/2/7319317/snapchat-geofilters-community Chapter Twenty-Two: “We Need to Make Money” “Advertising on Snapchat.” Snapchat, October 17, 2014. https://www.snap.com/en-US/news/post/advertising-on-snapchat/. Carr, Austin. “Inside Snapchat CEO Evan Spiegel’s Entertainment Empire.” Fast Company, October 19, 2015. https://www.fastcompany.com/3051612/media-tech-and-advertising-to-snapchat-i-aint-afraid-of-no-ghost Chemi, Eric.

Instagram warned users not to use “links asking you to add someone on another service.” This behavior attempted to slow Snapchat’s growth and served to continue the pissing contest Snapchat and Facebook had been having for years; early on after Snapchat released geofilters, they had placed a geofilter over Facebook’s campus featuring the Snapchat ghost pointing and laughing. As for Twitter, Snapchat didn’t even bother fighting back, as Snapchat passed Twitter in daily active users (150 million to 140 million) in June 2016. In August 2016, Instagram released Instagram Stories, a new feature essentially copying Snapchat Stories that let users post photo and video slideshows that disappeared after twenty-four hours.

Memories’s permanence was antithetical to Snapchat’s core ethos, but it was released late enough that users’ behaviors and norms were already well established. Had Snapchat released Memories in 2012, it may have been a disaster that cut into Snapchat’s real-time, fleeting nature. But because Snapchat already had hundreds of millions of users snapping for years before it released Memories, it was able to add to the product without changing core behaviors. Memories makes Snapchat’s camera even more useful, as it lets users store photos, videos, their own Snapchat stories in their entirety—indeed, their memories—all on Snapchat’s servers rather than taking up space on their phone. It is another step toward making Snapchat people’s default camera.


pages: 484 words: 114,613

No Filter: The Inside Story of Instagram by Sarah Frier

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, blockchain, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disinformation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, Travis Kalanick, ubercab, Zipcar

Colao, “Snapchat: The Biggest No-Revenue Mobile App Since Instagram,” Forbes, November 27, 2012, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2012/11/27/snapchat-the-biggest-no-revenue-mobile-app-since-instagram/#6ef95f0a7200. By November 2012, Snapchat: Colao, “Snapchat.” “Thanks :) would be happy… Bay Area,”: Alyson Shontell, “How Snapchat’s CEO Got Mark Zuckerberg to Fly to LA for Private Meeting,” Business Insider, January 6, 2014, https://www.businessinsider.com/evan-spiegel-and-mark-zuckerbergs-emails-2014-1?IR=T. He spent the meeting insinuating: J. J. Colao, “The Inside Story of Snapchat: The World’s Hottest App or a $3 Billion Disappearing Act?

Warr would ask the research subjects. “Probably Snapchat,” they responded. * * * In all of its Snapchat copycatting, Facebook was forced to learn, over and over, that just because it had made one world-changing product didn’t mean it could succeed with another, even when that product was a replica of something already popular. Snapchat, meanwhile, learned that it could ignore Facebook’s repeated attacks. In fact, Facebook was so apparently unthreatening during this period that a Snapchat executive proposed trying something crazy: being friends. Snapchat’s best asset and biggest problem was Evan Spiegel himself.

,” Forbes, January 20, 2014, https://www.forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2014/01/06/the-inside-story-of-snapchat-the-worlds-hottest-app-or-a-3-billion-disappearing-act/. And then, starting the next day: Seth Fiegerman, “Facebook Poke Falls Out of Top 25 Apps as Snapchat Hits Top 5,” Mashable, December 26, 2012, https://mashable.com/2012/12/26/facebook-poke-app-ranking/. Snapchat’s downloads climbed: Fiegerman, “Facebook Poke Falls Out of Top 25 Apps.” In June 2013, Spiegel raised: Mike Isaac, “Snapchat Closes $60 Million Round Led by IVP, Now at 200 Million Daily Snaps,” All Things D, June 24, 2013, http://allthingsd.com/20130624/snapchat-closes-60-million-round-led-by-ivp-now-at-200-million-daily-snaps/.


Crushing It! EPB by Gary Vaynerchuk

"side hustle", augmented reality, fear of failure, follow your passion, Mark Zuckerberg, passive income, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat

Less than a year later, 40 percent of American teenagers were using Snapchat daily. I learned an important lesson from that bad call on Snapchat: a devoted, sticky fan base is willing to be patient as you experiment your way to the next iteration. The next big launch, Discover, saw Snapchat graduate into a bona fide media platform by offering a page where users would find a slew of brands like National Geographic, T-Mobile, and ESPN. Snapchat now had access to advertising revenue, and that meant so did anyone who could crack the Snapchat code. The man who did that is named DJ Khaled, but before I introduce him, we’re going to reminisce about Ashton Kutcher.

Same with Kerry and Jayde Robinson’s salon talk. That means that to be a Snapchat influencer, you need to be strong on the other platforms as well. The content you produce for Snapchat has to be powerful enough to draw views on YouTube, Facebook, and Instagram. The way to get discovered on Snapchat is not much different from the way television stations try to get people to tune in to their programs, which is to market in all the other places where people who might be interested in you are already going. That’s what I did. I was never concerned by the lack of discoverability on Snapchat, because I could see that all I had to do was draw awareness to it through my base on Twitter, YouTube, and my website.

If there’s one thing Shaun had learned from his jewelry-boutique experiment, it’s that he was good at creating safe online communities where people could come together to engage and have fun. “The greatest challenge was trying to grow on a platform that did not cater to growth. Snapchat was a communication platform, like text messaging, so I had to make it into a content-creating platform. Eventually, Snapchat made updates, which helped with that, but I had to get creative at first.” There’s a reason Shaun’s content got so much attention when so many others on Snapchat did not: he treated Snapchat like a business. Many people start pumping out cool content onto a platform and just hope they’ll get noticed and grow their audience enough that brands will come calling.


pages: 468 words: 124,573

How to Build a Billion Dollar App: Discover the Secrets of the Most Successful Entrepreneurs of Our Time by George Berkowski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, QR code, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Travis Kalanick, ubercab, Y Combinator

, article on GIGAOM.com, 29 April 2013, gigaom.com/2013/04/29/chat-apps-have-overtaken-sms-by-message-volume/. 22 Interview with Jan Koum, 20 January 2014, op. cit. 23 J. J. Colao, ‘Snapchat: The Biggest No-Revenue Mobile App Since Instagram’, article on Forbes.com, 27 November 2012, www.forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2012/11/27/snapchat-the-biggest-no-revenue-mobile-app-since-instagram/. 24 Evelyn M. Rusli and Douglas MacMillan, 13 November 2013, op. cit. 25 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Closes $60 Million Round Led by IVP, Now at 200 Million Daily Snaps’, article on AllThingsD.com, 24 June 2013, allthingsd.com/20130624/snapchat-closes-60-million-round-led-by-ivp-now-at-200-million-daily-snaps/. 26 ‘Recent Additions to Team Snapchat’, blog post on Snapchat.com, 24 June 2013, blog.snapchat.com/post/53763657196/recent-additions-to-team-snapchat. 27 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Now Boasts More Than 150 Million Photos Taken Daily’, article on AllThingsD.com, 16 April 2013, allthingsd.com/20130416/snapchat-now-boasts-more-than-150-million-photos-taken-daily/. 28 Justin Lafferty, ‘Facebook Photo Storage Is No Easy Task’, article on AllFacebook.com, 16 January 2013, allfacebook.com/facebook-photo-storage-open-compute_b108640.

Google VP Explains How to Go Big’, article on VentureBeat.com, 19 April 2012, venturebeat.com/2012/04/19/want-to-get-acquired-by-google-google-vp-explains-howto-go-big/. 5 Mike Isaac, ‘Facebook Acquisition Talks With Waze Fall Apart’, article for AllThingsD.com, 29 May 2013, allthingsd.com/20130529/facebook-acquisition-talks-with-waze-fall-apart/. 6 Simone Wilson, ‘Billion-dollar Waze’, article on JewishJournal.com, 19 June 2013, www.jewishjournal.com/cover_story/article/billion_dollar_waze. 7 Ibid. 8 For details of the merger see www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1326801/000132680114000010/form8k_2192014.htm. 9 Gerry Shih and Sarah McBride, ‘Facebook to buy WhatsApp for $19 Billion in Deal Shocker’, article on Reuters.com, 20 February 2014, www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/20/us-whatsapp-facebook-idUSBR EA1I26B20140220. 10 ‘Facebook to Acquire WhatsApp’, press release on FB.com, 19 February 2014, newsroom.fb.com/News/805/Facebook-to-Acquire-WhatsApp. 11 Justin Lafferty, ‘Facebook Revenue Hits $2B in Q3, Now Has 507m Mobile DAUs’, article on InsideFacebook.com, 30 October 2013, www.insidefacebook.com/2013/10/30/facebook-revenue-hits-2b-in-q3-now-has-507m-mobile-daus/. 12 So WhatsApp seems to be processing more messages than all SMS in the world. 13 ‘Facebook to Acquire WhatsApp’, 19 February 2014, op. cit. 14 Adario Strange, ‘Facebook Reportedly Offered $1 Billion to Acquire Snapchat’, article on Mashable.com, mashable.com/2013/10/26/facebook-snapchat/. 15 Evelyn M. Rusli and Douglas MacMillan, ‘Snapchat Spurned $3 Billion Acquisitions Offer from Facebook’, blog post on WSJ.com, 13 November 2013, blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/11/13/snapchat-spurned-3-billion-acquisition-offer-from-facebook/. 16 Cheryl Conner, ‘Facebook’s Reality Check: Death by a Thousand Snapchats?’, article on Forbes.com, 8 July 2013, www.forbes.com/sites/cherylsnappconner/2013/06/08/facebooks-reality-check-death-by-a-thousand-snapchats/. 17 Kara Swisher, ‘Yahoo Tumblrs for Cool: Board Approves $1.1 Billion Deal as Expected’, article on AllThingsD.com, 19 May 2013, allthingsd.com/20130519/yahoo-tumblrs-for-cool-board-approves-1-1-billion-deal/. 18 Todd Wasserman, ‘Tumblr’s Mobile Traffic May Overtake Desktop Traffic This Year’, article on Mashable.com, 21 February 2013, mashable.com/2013/02/21/tumblr-mobile-traffic/. 19 Ibid. 20 Marc Andreessen, ‘Why Software Is Eating the World’, article on WSJ.com, 20 August 2011, online.wsj.com/news/articles/ SB10001424053111903480 904576512250915629460. 21 Leena Rao, ‘As Software Eats the World, Non-Tech Corporations Are Eating Startups’, article on TechCrunch.com, 14 December 2013, TechCrunch.com/2013/12/14/as-software-eats-the-world-non-tech-corporations-are-eating-startups/. 22 Alexia Tsotsis, ‘Monsanto Buys Weather Big Data Company Climate Corporation for Around $1.1B’, article on TechCrunch.com, 2 October 2013, TechCrunch.com/2013/10/02/monsanto-acquires-weather-big-data-company-climate-corporation-for-930m/. 23 Leena Rao, 14 December 2013, op. cit. 24 Ibid. 25 Pitchbook, US, ‘VC Valuations and Trends’, 2014 annual report. 26 ‘Yesterday’s Big Payday for the IRS: 1600 Twitter Employees Now Millionaires’, research on PrivCo.com, 8 November 2013, www.privco.com/the-twitter-mafia-and-yesterdays-big-irs-payday. 27 Sven Grundberg, ‘“Candy Crush Saga” Maker Files for an IPO’, article on WSJ.com, 18 February 2014, online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304675504579390580161044024. 28 ‘UK Mobile Games Maker King Delays IPO Due to Candy Crush Surge’, article on VCPost.com, 9 December 2013, www.vcpost.com/articles/19437/20131209/uk-mobile-games-maker-king-delays-ipo-due-candy-crush.htm. 29 Phillipa Leighton-Jones, ‘Why Candy Crush Is a Success That’s Hard to Copy’, blog post on WSJ.com, 18 February 2014, blogs.wsj.com/money-beat/2014/02/18/why-candy-crush-is-a-success-that-cannot-be-copied/. 30 Mark Berniker and Josh Lipton, ‘Uber CEO Kalanick: No Plans To Go Public Right Now’, article on CNBC.com, 6 November 2013, www.cnbc.com/id/101175342.

Chapter 23: Revenue-Engine Mechanics 1 David Skok, ‘Startup Killer: The Cost of Customer Acquisitions’, article on forEntrepreneurs.com, 22 December 2009, www.forentrepreneurs.com/startup-killer/. 2 Eliana Dockterman, ‘Candy Crush Saga: The Science Behind Our Addiction’, article on Time.com, 15 November 2013, business.time.com/2013/11/15/candy-crush-saga-the-science-behind-our-addiction/. 3 Mia Shanley, ‘How Candy Crush Makes So Much Money’, article on BusinessInsider.com, 8 October 2013, www.BusinessInsider.com/how-candy-crush-makes-so-much-money-2013-10. 4 Dave McClure, ‘Startup Metrics for Pirates’, presented to Wildfire Interactive, May 2012, slide 73, www.slideshare.net/dmc500hats/startup-metrics-4-pirates-wildfire-interactive-may-2012. 5 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Closes $60 Million Round Led by IVP, Now at 200 Million Daily Snaps’, article on AllThingsD.com, 24 June 2013, allthingsd.com/20130624/snapchat-closes-60-million-round-led-byivp-now-at-200-million-daily-snaps/. 6 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Now Boasts More Than 150 Million Photos Taken Daily’, article on AllThingsD.com, 16 April 2013, allthingsd.com/20130416/snapchat-now-boasts-more-than-150-million-photos-taken-daily/. 7 Liz Gannes, ‘Popular Photo Message App Snapchat Adds Video’, article on AllThingsD.com, 14 December 2012, allthingsd.com/20121214/popular-photo-message-app-snapchat-adds-video/. 8 David Skok, ‘The Science Behind Viral Marketing’, article on forEntrepreneurs.com, 15 September 2011, www.forentrepreneurs.com/the-science-behind-viral-marketing/.


pages: 428 words: 136,945

The Happiness Effect: How Social Media Is Driving a Generation to Appear Perfect at Any Cost by Donna Freitas

4chan, fear of failure, Joan Didion, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Skype, Snapchat, Year of Magical Thinking

But for the college students I spoke with, this is an impoverished and limited understanding of Snapchat’s true delights. College students can be silly on Snapchat. They can be ridiculous. They can say dumb things. They can take goofy, ugly, unbecoming photographs and show them to other people. They can be sad, they can be negative, they can be angry, they can even be mean. They can be as emotional as they really feel. They can be honest. And it’s true, on Snapchat college students feel they can be sexy. But most of all, they play on Snapchat and they engage in all kinds of foolishness. And that’s why they love it. On Snapchat college students feel they can do all the things they’ve learned they’re not allowed to do on Facebook or any other platform that is more “permanent” and attached to their names.

And then I’ll be like, ‘Oh, I look nice today.’ ” Jackson likes using the selfie camera like a mirror, he tells me. But when he does take a selfie, he has to decide where it goes: Snapchat? Instagram? Facebook? “I really don’t care what I put on Snapchat,” Jackson says. I could wake up one morning, upload that selfie, and I wouldn’t put that on Instagram compared to my Snapchat, because [the morning selfie] is really more personal.” The same goes for “sleek photos,” which go up on Jackson’s Instagram but not Snapchat. On Facebook or Instagram, Jackson also posts selfies of him doing positive things. Jackson works as a tutor, and this is something he wants to share with people in a more permanent way.

Matthew tried to explain the difference between Facebook and Snapchat to me, and why Snapchat is much more fun. Like many students, Matthew goes onto Facebook a lot, but not to post—posting is too time-consuming and too much work, because every post has become so high-stakes. Mostly, Matthew just scrolls through the feed and lurks, checking out other people’s updates and photos. But Matthew loves Snapchat and goes on it all the time, and unlike with Facebook, on Matthew actually participates. “When I’m bored,” Matthew says, “I’ll snap a picture of something random, send it to, like, five people and wait for somebody to respond. [Snapchat] is really simple and fast, and it’s a way I can see what all my friends are up to, especially all my friends back home, all over the state and stuff.


pages: 328 words: 84,682

The Business of Platforms: Strategy in the Age of Digital Competition, Innovation, and Power by Michael A. Cusumano, Annabelle Gawer, David B. Yoffie

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, gig economy, Google Chrome, independent contractor, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Network effects, pattern recognition, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, transaction costs, transport as a service, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, web application, zero-sum game

The flip side of digital technology accelerating opportunities for differentiation and niche competition was that it could be equally easy for incumbents to copy. Mark Zuckerberg almost immediately recognized Snapchat as a potential threat to Facebook. Given Facebook’s size and scale, he logically tried to buy Snap for $3 billion in cash before the company went public. When Spiegel turned him down, Zuckerberg ordered Instagram to copy Snapchat’s most compelling features and turn Instagram into a Snapchat killer.35 Especially after introducing Instagram Stories, Instagram zoomed past Snapchat, with over 700 million users. Although Snapchat was hardly dead (its market value had fallen dramatically but was still close to $6 billion in late 2018), Facebook’s attack had taken a serious toll.

Instead, they can access the external supply of creativity and software engineering skills available worldwide. But sometimes adding the second platform is more an act of desperation. Snapchat, for example, has struggled with competition from Facebook’s Instagram. In 2018 it opened up its APIs to encourage third parties to build complementary innovations in the hope that some new apps would make Snapchat a more compelling experience for users and a better draw for advertisers.35 Besides Facebook and Snapchat, a less obvious transaction-to-innovation hybrid example was Expedia, the travel services platform. When Expedia established an affiliate program under the banner of “Your Business.

Google executives have made this argument, citing the ease of multi-homing to defray criticism of their dominant position in Internet search, since competitors are merely “one click away.”30 As we discussed earlier with the Facebook example, Mark Zuckerberg may have created the world’s largest social network. However, it is easy for Facebook users to spend time on Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Pinterest, and other platforms, even if they may not take the trouble to adopt another social network for most of their activities. To control some of the revenues associated with multi-homing was at least one reason why Zuckerberg acquired Instagram in 2012 for $1 billion (considered a large sum at the time) and later used it to compete with Snapchat.31 Zuckerberg’s much more costly purchase of WhatsApp in 2014 for what amounted to $19 billion plus another $3 billion in Facebook stock was another defensive move against multi-homing for messaging as well as an offensive move to acquire more users and a potentially new revenue source.32 At the same time, clever use of data and sophisticated AI tools can discourage multi-homing because of better services.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, Tim Cook: Apple, Tragedy of the Commons, web application, WeWork, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K, you are the product

So in 2011, Facebook bought Foursquare’s main independent competitor, Gowalla. Spiegel and Murphy felt that Poke was a pale imitation of Snapchat, and laughed it off. Perhaps they felt a little queasy when immediately after launch, Poke reached number one in Apple’s App Store. But they felt a lot better when Poke did a nosedive in the ratings over the next few days. Not only was Poke a failure for Facebook, but it was a boon for Snapchat. It had legitimized Snapchat’s product vision. Snapchat kept growing, making it even more attractive to Zuckerberg. In 2013, he resumed his hunt, visiting Snapchat’s Venice Beach headquarters with his chief dealmaker, Amid Zoufonoun, in tow.

a review from the FTC: Josh Kosman, “Facebook Boasted of Buying Instagram to Kill the Competition: Sources,” New York Post, February 26, 2019. Snapchat: In addition to interviews, I drew on Billy Gallagher’s definitive book, How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars (St. Martin’s Press, 2018). Also valuable was Sarah Frier and Max Chafkin, “How Snapchat Built a Business by Confusing Olds,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 17, 2016; J. J. Coloa, “The Inside Story of Snapchat: World’s Hottest App or a $3 Billion Disappearing Act?” Forbes, January 6, 2014; and Sarah Frier, “Nobody Trusts Facebook, Twitter Is a Hot Mess, What Is Snapchat Doing?” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, August 22, 2018. “When Snapchat started out”: Brad Stone and Sarah Frier, “Evan Spiegel Reveals Plan to Turn Snapchat into a Real Business,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, May 16, 2015.

In May 2013, Zuckerberg wrote an email outlining all the great things that would happen if Snapchat joined the Facebook family. If Snapchat sold to Facebook, he said, Facebook had a playbook to raise the user base to a billion people. There were private APIs that Facebook didn’t share with developers. What’s more, Zuckerberg wooed Spiegel personally with promises that the younger entrepreneur not only would run Snapchat with some degree of autonomy but would have an opportunity to make an impact on Facebook itself. So even though you’ll spend your time on Snapchat it would be fun to work together closely to figure out how Facebook should evolve as well.


pages: 260 words: 67,823

Always Day One: How the Tech Titans Plan to Stay on Top Forever by Alex Kantrowitz

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, hive mind, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, new economy, Peter Thiel, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, robotic process automation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, super pumped, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, wealth creators, zero-sum game

As time went on, Sayman watched his fellow teens sharing less on Facebook’s family of apps and more on Snapchat. He turned his focus to Snapchat Stories, which he believed Facebook should build into its products. “I wanted the company to feel like Snapchat was an existential threat,” he said. “I wanted Facebook to panic.” Sayman brought his concerns to Zuckerberg, who had heard from others who came to similar conclusions. As a teenager, Sayman was invaluable. He could help Zuckerberg learn Snapchat’s culture. “He would point us to, ‘Here’s the media that I follow,’ or ‘Here are the people I think are influential, who are cool,’” Zuckerberg said.

And that type of sharing was starting to gravitate elsewhere. “The Most Chinese Company in Silicon Valley” At around the same time Facebook was working out its News Feed issues, an upstart messaging app called Snapchat—led by the brash Stanford graduate Evan Spiegel—built a feature called Stories, which let people share photos and videos with friends that disappeared in a day. Snapchat’s users loved how Stories gave them a carefree way to post (in contrast with Facebook, where your posts would go to everyone and stick around forever), and the app’s usage exploded. Spiegel, who once spurned a $3 billion acquisition offer from Zuckerberg, was now hitting him where it hurt.

In the zero-sum game of social media, where time spent on one platform is time not spent on another, Spiegel had the energy, the sharing, and was driving his company toward a hot IPO. As Snapchat took off, an eighteen-year-old developer named Michael Sayman joined Facebook. Sayman had built a game that caught Zuckerberg’s eye, and the company hired him as a full-time engineer in 2015. Sitting through orientation, Sayman heard speeches about how Facebook’s leaders would listen to anyone’s ideas, and took the message to heart. “I believed it,” he told me. Before orientation was over, he spun up a presentation about how teens, already drifting to Snapchat, were using technology, and how Facebook might want to build for them.


pages: 382 words: 105,819

Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee

4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Bill Atkinson, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, disinformation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, Ian Bogost, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The future is already here, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In August 2018, Apple announced that Onavo violated its privacy standards, so Facebook withdrew it from the App Store. One of the competitors Facebook has reportedly tracked with Onavo is Snapchat. There is bad blood between the two companies that began after Snapchat rejected an acquisition offer from Facebook in 2013. Facebook started copying Snapchat’s key features in Instagram, undermining Snapchat’s competitive position. While Snapchat managed to go public and continues to operate as an independent company, the pressure from Facebook continues unchecked and has taken a toll. Under a traditional antitrust regime, Snapchat would almost certainly have a case against Facebook for anticompetitive behavior.

Thanks to photo tagging, users have built a giant database of photos for Facebook, complete with all the information necessary to monetize it effectively. Other platforms play this game, too, but not at Facebook’s scale. For example, Snapchat offers Streaks, a feature that tracks the number of consecutive days a user has traded messages with each person in his or her contacts list. As they build and the number of them grows, Streaks take on a life of their own. For the teens who dominate Snapchat’s user base, Streaks can soon come to embody the essence of a relationship, substituting a Streak number for the elements of true friendship. Another emotional trigger is fear of missing out (FOMO), which drives users to check their smartphone every free moment, as well as at times when they have no business doing so, such as while driving.

Eventually that would create problems it could not resolve with an apology and a promise to do better. 4 The Children of Fogg It’s not because anyone is evil or has bad intentions. It’s because the game is getting attention at all costs. —TRISTAN HARRIS On April 9, 2017, onetime Google design ethicist Tristan Harris appeared on 60 Minutes with Anderson Cooper to discuss the techniques that internet platforms like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, and Snapchat use to prey on the emotions of their users. He talked about the battle for attention among media, how smartphones transformed that battle, and how internet platforms profit from that transformation at the expense of their users. The platforms prey on weaknesses in human psychology, using ideas from propaganda, public relations, and slot machines to create habits, then addiction.


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The Art of Invisibility: The World's Most Famous Hacker Teaches You How to Be Safe in the Age of Big Brother and Big Data by Kevin Mitnick, Mikko Hypponen, Robert Vamosi

4chan, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, connected car, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pattern recognition, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, Tesla Model S, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

Generation Z’s actions on their mobile devices center around WhatsApp (ironically, now part of Facebook), Snapchat (not Facebook), and Instagram and Instagram Stories (also Facebook). All these apps are visual in that they allow you to post photos and videos or primarily feature photos or videos taken by others. Instagram, a photo-and video-sharing app, is Facebook for a younger audience. It allows follows, likes, and chats between members. Instagram has terms of service and appears to be responsive to take-down requests by members and copyright holders. Snapchat, perhaps because it is not owned by Facebook, is perhaps the creepiest of the bunch. Snapchat advertises that it allows you to send a self-destructing photo to someone.

In the United Kingdom, a fourteen-year-old boy sent a naked picture of himself to a girl at his school via Snapchat, again thinking the image would disappear after a few seconds. The girl, however, took a screenshot and… you know the rest of the story. According to the BBC, the boy—and the girl—will be listed in a UK database for sex crimes even though they are too young to be prosecuted.22 Like WhatsApp, with its inconsistent image-blurring capabilities, Snapchat, despite the app’s promises, does not really delete images. In fact Snapchat agreed in 2014 to a Federal Trade Commission settlement over charges that the company had deceived users about the disappearing nature of its messages, which the federal agency alleged could be saved or retrieved at a later time.23 Snapchat’s privacy policy also says that it does not ask for, track, or access any location-specific information from your device at any time, but the FTC found those claims to be false as well.24 It is a requirement of all online services that individuals be thirteen years of age or older to subscribe.

Robert Vamosi, When Gadgets Betray Us: The Dark Side of Our Infatuation with New Technologies (New York: Basic Books, 2011). 9. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2011/08/01/how-face-recognition-can-be-used-to-get-your-social-security-number/. 10. https://techcrunch.com/2015/07/13/yes-google-photos-can-still-sync-your-photos-after-you-delete-the-app/. 11. https://www.facebook.com/legal/terms. 12. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/news/2014/03/how-to-beat-facebook-s-biggest-privacy-risk/index.htm. 13. http://www.forbes.com/sites/amitchowdhry/2015/05/28/facebook-security-checkup/. 14. http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/magazine/2012/06/facebook-your-privacy/index.htm. 15. http://www.cnet.com/news/facebook-will-the-real-kevin-mitnick-please-stand-up/. 16. http://www.eff.org/files/filenode/social_network/training_course.pdf. 17. http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/17/pearson-under-fire-for-monitoring-students-twitter-posts/. 18. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2015/03/14/pearson-monitoring-social-media-for-security-breaches-during-parcc-testing/. 19. http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Passcode/Passcode-Voices/2015/0513/Is-student-privacy-erased-as-classrooms-turn-digital. 20. https://motherboard.vice.com/blog/so-were-sharing-our-social-security-numbers-on-social-media-now. 21. http://pix11.com/2013/03/14/snapchat-sexting-scandal-at-nj-high-school-could-result-in-child-porn-charges/. 22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-34136388. 23. https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2014/05/snapchat-settles-ftc-charges-promises-disappearing-messages-were. 24. http://www.informationweek.com/software/social/5-ways-snapchat-violated-your-privacy-security/d/d-id/1251175. 25. http://fusion.net/story/192877/teens-face-criminal-charges-for-taking-keeping-naked-photos-of-themselves/. 26. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20150206-biggest-myth-about-phone-privacy. 27. http://fusion.net/story/141446/a-little-known-yelp-setting-tells-businesses-your-gender-age-and-hometown/?


pages: 282 words: 63,385

Attention Factory: The Story of TikTok and China's ByteDance by Matthew Brennan

Airbnb, AltaVista, augmented reality, computer vision, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, paypal mafia, Pearl River Delta, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Travis Kalanick, WeWork, Y Combinator

As the platform grew, this group became outright celebrities, in some part due to their creativity, persistence, and hard work, in most part due to the invisible hand of the Shanghai content operations team tilting the attention game heavily in their favor. Younger than Snapchat Once the platform had grown large enough to garner mainstream media attention, the first thing reporters picked up on was the users’ age. “This is no question the youngest social network we’ve ever seen,” exclaimed online marketing guru Gary Vaynerchuk in an article profiling the platform. 158 “Snapchat and Instagram skew a little bit young… but with Musical.ly, you’re talking about first, second, third grade.” Above: A snapshot of the top 10 most popular Musical.ly accounts in late 2016 with numbers of followers and the ages of the creators at the time.

Musical.ly had built a meaningful brand that resonated strongly with American and European teens. ByteDance, Facebook, Tencent, Snapchat, 250 and Kuaishou, had all expressed interest at various times and engaged in talks with the founders. Sometimes referred to as the “Berkshire Hathaway of tech,” Tencent was a prolific investor in other internet companies. Pulling out of talks with Musical.ly and having missed the opportunity to acquire WhatsApp in 2014, Tencent instead opted to gain a foothold in Western social networking via a $2 billion stake in Snapchat. Kevin Systrom, the then CEO of Instagram, had met in person with Musical.ly’s founders in Shanghai and later persuaded Mark Zuckerberg to consider a deal.

As users themselves generated all content, fewer older users meant there was little content suitable for them being produced. Why produce content if there’s no audience? This meant that when older users did join, they quickly left. The solution was to broaden the types of content offerings and slowly age up the user base. “We realized while Instagram and Snapchat are social graph led, the fact that Musical.ly was content & creative led was an opportunity, NOT an obstacle. It would be mobile TV for the smartphone generation, and in order to age up, we needed to broaden the content offering and tell that story to the world,” explained product strategist James Veraldi in a later presentation.


pages: 416 words: 100,130

New Power: How Power Works in Our Hyperconnected World--And How to Make It Work for You by Jeremy Heimans, Henry Timms

"side hustle", 3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, battle of ideas, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Chris Wanstrath, Columbine, Corn Laws, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, future of work, game design, gig economy, hiring and firing, hustle culture, IKEA effect, impact investing, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, Kibera, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, profit motive, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Snapchat, social web, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, web application, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

Spiegel checks this box by abandoning Stanford University only a few credits short of graduation to pursue his Snapchat dream. He then shifts neatly into chapter 3—a legal brouhaha with his co-founders—falling out with Brown, the guy who first had the idea. Brown sues him. Our story hits its climax in chapter 4, when Spiegel gets approached by his entrepreneur-hero, Mark Zuckerberg, who offers to buy Snapchat for $3 billion. But will Spiegel believe enough in his idea to reject his hero and risk it all? Hell yes. You know what happened next. Snapchat grows wildly, Spiegel thrives. The company goes public at a $24 billion valuation.

“trophy case”: Lorenzo Ligato, “Here’s How to Unlock All of the New Snapchat Trophies,” Huffington Post, October 20, 2015. The online service TINYpulse: TINYpulse, July 2017. www.tinypulse.com. It has been adopted: Ibid. “The Founders Generation”: David Sims, “All Hail ‘The Founders,’ ” The Atlantic, December 2, 2015. Our story hits its climax: Jeff Bercovici, “Facebook Tried to Buy Snapchat for $3B in Cash. Here’s Why,” Forbes, November 13, 2013. The company goes public: Portia Crowe, “Snap Is Going Public at a $24 Billion Valuation,” Business Insider, March 1, 2017. “He just wants”: Austin Carr, “What Snapchat’s High-Profile Exec Departures Really Tell Us About CEO Evan Spiegel,” Fast Company, October 20, 2015.

Often the most extensible ideas feel imperfect and incomplete; if the idea feels “untouchable” or overly polished, it is very hard for others to feel they can take the reins and make it their own. An award-winning example of an extensible idea comes from Taco Bell, which for Cinco de Mayo in 2016 created a special lens on Snapchat that allowed people to turn their heads into giant taco shells and have hot sauce poured over the top. It won the title of most popular lens in Snapchat history by scoring 224 million views in one day. Many will scoff, but contrast this engagement to the dynamics of taking a traditional ad slot during prime-time TV programming. The guy on his couch, eating potato chips, may or may not pay attention to the message blaring out of the TV at him and everyone else in that cable district as he waits impatiently for his favorite show to start up again.


pages: 379 words: 109,223

Frenemies: The Epic Disruption of the Ad Business by Ken Auletta

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, corporate raider, crossover SUV, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, Google Glasses, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, NetJets, Network effects, pattern recognition, pets.com, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, éminence grise

So on Instagram you see these photos three days later. On Snapchat, you see Snaps the moment they are created.” Martin Sorrell decided in 2016 to ride the Snapchat horse as a rival worth betting on. He decided to sweeten the ad dollars WPP earmarked for Snapchat. “It does become a threatening alternative to Facebook,” he told CNBC, “and I think that’s the big opportunity for them. . . . I think Facebook is concerned about the potential opposition.” Not that concerned. Sorrell’s threat was pure bluster. Although WPP would over time double the ad dollars it steered to Snapchat, from $90 million in 2016 to $200 million in 2017, it was akin to throwing pebbles in the ocean: WPP’s ad spending on Google rose five times as fast in 2016, totaling $5 billion; WPP purchased $1.7 billion of ads on Facebook in 2016.

By late 2015, many agencies and clients hoped two digital competitors might bust out: AOL, which was armed with new financial resources when Verizon decided it was too risky to be a dumb pipe and acquired AOL in May 2015, or Snapchat, an emerging social network Facebook competitor. With AOL and the Huffington Post providing content and Verizon providing the pipe and data on its 135 million telephone customers, AOL CEO Tim Armstrong boldly proclaimed to an Advertising Week audience in September 2015 that the new entity “has dreams of being the largest mobile media company in the world.” The competitive target, he said, was Google and Facebook. The cofounder and CEO of Snapchat, Evan Spiegel, openly aspires to disrupt Facebook, which he mocked as passé.

Although WPP would over time double the ad dollars it steered to Snapchat, from $90 million in 2016 to $200 million in 2017, it was akin to throwing pebbles in the ocean: WPP’s ad spending on Google rose five times as fast in 2016, totaling $5 billion; WPP purchased $1.7 billion of ads on Facebook in 2016. While Snapchat’s revenues jumped seven times faster in 2016, they only reached $404.5 million. By contrast, Facebook’s ad revenues totaled $27 billion that year. The looming threat to Facebook and Google, which would prompt Sorrell and the agencies and their clients—as well as Facebook and Google—to quake, would not come from Snapchat. It would come from Amazon. 8. THE RISE OF MEDIA AGENCIES “We always had the view that the less a media owner knows about what our objectives are and what our needs are, the more leverage we have in a negotiation.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

,” TechCrunch, June 15, 2011, techcrunch.com/2011/06/15/keen-on-eli-pariser-have-progressives-lost-faith-in-the-internet-tctv. 42 Claire Carter, “Global Village of Technology a Myth as Study Shows Most Online Communication Limited to 100-Mile Radius,” BBC, December 18, 2013; Claire Cain Miller, “How Social Media Silences Debate,” New York Times, August 26, 2014. 43 Josh Constine, “The Data Factory—How Your Free Labor Lets Tech Giants Grow the Wealth Gap.” 44 Derek Thompson, “Google’s CEO: ‘The Laws Are Written by Lobbyists,’” Atlantic, October 1, 2010. 45 James Surowiecki, “Gross Domestic Freebie,” New Yorker, November 25, 2013. 46 Monica Anderson, “At Newspapers, Photographers Feel the Brunt of Job Cuts,” Pew Research Center, November 11, 2013. 47 Robert Reich, “Robert Reich: WhatsApp Is Everything Wrong with the U.S. Economy,” Slate, February 22, 2014. 48 Alyson Shontell, “Meet the 20 Employees Behind Snapchat,” Business Insider, November 15, 2013, businessinsider.com/snapchat-early-and-first-employees-2013-11?op=1. 49 Douglas Macmillan, Juro Osawa, and Telis Demos, “Alibaba in Talks to Invest in Snapchat,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2014. 50 Mike Isaac, “We Still Don’t Know Snapchat’s Magic User Number,” All Things D, November 24, 2013. 51 Josh Constine, “The Data Factory—How Your Free Labor Lets Tech Giants Grow the Wealth Gap,” TechCrunch. 52 Alice E.

There’s also Twitter and Tumblr and Facebook and the rest of a seemingly endless mirrored hall of social networks, apps, and platforms stoking our selfie-centered delusions. Indeed, in an economy driven by innovator’s disasters, new social apps such as WhatsApp, WeChat, and Snapchat—a photo-sharing site that, in November 2013, turned down an all-cash acquisition offer of more than $3 billion from Facebook—are already challenging Instagram’s dominance.22 And by the time you read this, there will, no doubt, be even more destructive new products and companies undermining 2014 disruptors like Snapchat, WhatsApp, and WeChat. For us, however, Instagram—whether or not it remains the “second plotline” of the networked generation—is a useful symbol of everything that has gone wrong with our digital culture over the last quarter of a century.

They wanted us—our labor, our productivity, our network, our supposed creativity. It’s the same reason Yahoo acquired the microblogging network Tumblr, with its 300 million users and just 178 employees, for $1.1 billion in May 2013, or why in November 2013 Facebook made its $3 billion cash offering for the photography-sharing app Snapchat with its mere twenty employees.48 And that’s why Evan Spiegel, Snapchat’s twenty-three-year-old, Stanford-educated CEO, turned down Facebook’s $3 billion offer for his twenty-person startup. Yes, that’s right—he actually turned down $3 billion in cash for his two-year-old startup. But, you see, Spiegel’s minuscule app company—which, six months after rejecting Facebook’s $3 billion deal, was negotiating a new round of financing with the Chinese Internet giant Alibaba at a rumored $10 billion valuation49—isn’t really as tiny as it seems.


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The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Meanwhile, Facebook tugs on the heartstrings by displaying photos of friends who will ‘miss you’ – leveraging its control over uploaded content for commercial purposes. There is evidence that the existing platforms are reaching their peak. Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat have all seen declining user numbers, especially during 2018. Ironically, Snapchat’s fall may have been precipitated by its dependence on celebrity, as a single tweet from Kylie Jenner announcing to her 25 million followers that she didn’t ‘open Snapchat anymore’ instantly wiped $1.3 billion off the company’s value.72 But the trend is universal. Facebook’s announcement that it had lost a million users across Europe in one year has cost it $120 billion worth of value, as teens drop out.

On the fate of these websites and Facebook’s painstaking measures to prevent disconnections, see Tero Karppi, Disconnect: Facebook’s Affective Bonds, University of Minnesota Press: Minnesota, MN, 2018; and also Tero Karppi, ‘Disconnect.Me: User Engagement and Facebook’, University of Turku: Turku, 2014. 72. Ironically, Snapchat’s fall . . . ‘Kylie Jenner “sooo over” Snapchat – and shares tumble’, BBC News, 23 February 2018; Mark Sweeney, ‘Peak social media? Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat fail to make new friends’, Guardian, 10 August 2018; Rupert Neate, ‘Over $119bn wiped off Facebook’s market cap after growth shock’, Guardian, 26 July 2018. 73. Yet, 40 per cent of the world’s entire population . . .

Some of the repetitive banality of selfies can be blamed on the conventions of selfie-taking. Some of it can be blamed on the pursuit of ‘likes’ which incentivizes the repetition of popular images. But the platforms, from Snapchat to Instagram, and apps like Meitu, also offer a form of memetic enchantment. Selfies are worked through a limited range of reality-enhancers, called filters. Snapchat filters make us look cartoonish, with cute puppy ears and noses, while Instagram filters were at first notoriously nostalgic, casting a spell of mal du pays. Filters soften the features and flaws of the face, making us appear polished, perfect, almost mythical.


pages: 199 words: 43,653

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal

Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, IKEA effect, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator

The more swipes, the more potential matches are made; naturally, each match sends notifications to both interested parties. 3. Snapchat As of June 2013, Snapchat, a popular photo-sharing app, boasted of 5 million daily active users collectively sending over 200 million photos and videos daily.12 This tremendous engagement means an average Snapchat user sends forty photos every day! Why are users so in love with Snapchat? Its success can largely be attributed to the fact that users load the next trigger every time they use the service. Snapchat is more than a way to share images. It is a means of communication akin to sending a text message—with the added bonus of a built-in timer that can, based on the sender’s instructions, cause the message to self-destruct after viewing.

Peter Farago, “App Engagement: The Matrix Reloaded,” Flurry (accessed Nov. 13, 2013), http://blog.flurry.com/bid/90743/App-Engagement-The-Matrix-Reloaded. 11. Anthony Ha, “Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints at a Future Beyond Dating, Says the App Sees 350M Swipes a Day,” TechCrunch (accessed Nov. 13, 2013), http://techcrunch.com/2013/10/29/sean-rad-disrupt. 12. Stuart Dredge, “Snapchat: Self-destructing Messaging App Raises $60M in Funding,” Guardian (June 25, 2013), http://www.theguardian.com/technology/appsblog/2013/jun/25/snapchat-app-self-destructing-messaging. 13. Kara Swisher and Liz Gannes, “Pinterest Does Another Massive Funding—$225 Million at $3.8 Billion Valuation (Confirmed),” All Things Digital (accessed Nov. 13, 2013), http://allthingsd.com/20131023/pinterest-does-another-massive-funding-225-million-at-3-8-billion-valuation/.

“On Fifth Anniversary of Apple iTunes Store, YouVersion Bible App Reaches 100 Million Downloads: First-Ever Survey Shows How App Is Truly Changing Bible Engagement,” PRWeb (July 8, 2013), http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/7/prweb10905595.htm. 2. Alexia Tsotsis,“Snapchat Snaps Up a $80M Series B Led by IVP at an $800M Valuation,” TechCrunch (accessed Nov. 13, 2013), http://techcrunch.com/2013/06/22/source-snapchat-snaps-up-80m-from-ivp-at-a-800m-valuation. 3. YouVersion infographics (accessed Nov. 13, 2013), http://blog.youversion.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/themobilebible1.jpg. 4. Henry Alford, “If I Do Humblebrag So Myself,” New York Times (Nov. 30, 2012), http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/02/fashion/bah-humblebrag-the-unfortunate-rise-of-false-humility.html. 5.


pages: 413 words: 106,479

Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language by Gretchen McCulloch

4chan, book scanning, British Empire, citation needed, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flynn Effect, Google Hangouts, Ian Bogost, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, moral panic, multicultural london english, natural language processing, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, the strength of weak ties, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

November 27, 2012. “Snapchat: The Biggest No-Revenue Mobile App Since Instagram.” Forbes. www.forbes.com/sites/jjcolao/2012/11/27/snapchat-the-biggest-no-revenue-mobile-app-since-instagram/#1499ff0e7200. like Instagram and Snapchat: Somini Sengupta, Nicole Perlroth, and Jenna Wortham. April 13, 2012. “Behind Instagram’s Success, Networking the Old Way.” The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2012/04/14/technology/instagram-founders-were-helped-by-bay-area-connections.html. a new format for posts: Robinson Meyer. August 3, 2016. “Why Instagram ‘Borrowed’ Stories from Snapchat.” The Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/08/cameras-with-constraints/494291/.

Awareness that your friends were in the library or watching a movie didn’t explain why people spent an average of fifty minutes per day on Facebook in 2016, up from forty minutes per day in 2014. Moreover, as connectivity became ever easier and more mobile, it was no longer necessary to explain why you were away from the computer: you weren’t. Yet social media posts got more popular, rather than less, joined by mobile-first platforms like Instagram and Snapchat, which required that posts include an image or short video. Snapchat and later Instagram even brought us a new format for posts: the story which vanishes after twenty-four hours, a window into the fun, non-computery things you’ve been doing. A “normal” profile page gradually changed from being a list of static facts about you to a list of things you’ve posted recently.

“From Statistical Panic to Moral Panic: The Metadiscursive Construction and Popular Exaggeration of New Media Language in the Print Media.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11. International Communication Association. pp. 67–701. Ben Rosen. February 8, 2016. “My Little Sister Taught Me How to ‘Snapchat Like the Teens.’” BuzzFeed. www.buzzfeed.com/benrosen/how-to-snapchat-like-the-teens. Mary H.K. Choi. August 25, 2016. “Like. Flirt. Ghost. A Journey into the Social Media Lives of Teens.” Wired. www.wired.com/2016/08/how-teens-use-social-media/. Andrew Watts. January 3, 2015. “A Teenager’s View on Social Media.” Wired. backchannel.com/a-teenagers-view-on-social-media-1df945c09ac6.


pages: 305 words: 79,303

The Four: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Divided and Conquered the World by Scott Galloway

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, California gold rush, cloud computing, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, follow your passion, future of journalism, future of work, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Conference 1984, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Khan Academy, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, passive income, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, working poor, you are the product, young professional

We absorb imagery sixty thousand times faster than words.24 So, images make a beeline for the heart. And if Snapchat is threatening to hive off a meaningful chunk of that market, or even climb into the lead, that threat must be quashed. To do this, Facebook is developing a new camera-first interface in Ireland. It’s a clone of Snapchat. In a 2016 earnings call, Zuckerberg said, and this may sound oddly similar: “We believe that a camera will be the way that we share.” Facebook has already appropriated (that is, stolen) other Snapchat ideas, including Quick Updates, Stories, selfie filters, and one-hour messages. The trend will only continue—unless the government gets in the way.

April 12, 2017. http://www.cnbcafrica.com/news/technology/2017/04/10/many-48-million-twitter-accounts-arent-people-says-study/. 21. L2 Analysis of LinkedIn Data. 22. Novet, Jordan. “Snapchat by the numbers: 161 million daily users in Q4 2016, users visit 18 times a day.” VentureBeat. February 2, 2017. https://venturebeat.com/2017/02/02/snapchat-by-the-numbers-161-million-daily-users-in-q4-2016-users-visit-18-times-a-day/. 23. Balakrishnan, Anita. “Snap closes up 44% after rollicking IPO.” CNBC. March 2, 2017. http://www.cnbc.com/2017/03/02/snapchat-snap-open-trading-price-stock-ipo-first-day.html. 24. Pant, Ritu. “Visual Marketing: A Picture’s Worth 60,000 Words.”

Finally, Snap appeals to teens, a notoriously difficult and influential segment. Snapchat has added lots of features in the months since its founding. It has even pushed into TV, launching a mobile video channel. In 2017, the company is gaining fast on Twitter, and had 161 million daily users when it filed for an IPO.22 It IPO’d with a value of $33 billion.23 We’ll see. Facebook already is positioning itself to crush the young company. Imran Khan, the company’s chief strategy officer, claimed: “Snapchat is a camera company. It is not a social company.” I don’t know if it’s the scorn the Zuck feels after Evan rejected his overtures about acquisition, or a warranted response to a threat.


pages: 225 words: 71,912

So Close to Being the Sh*t, Y'all Don't Even Know by Retta

centre right, Downton Abbey, McMansion, pink-collar, Skype, Snapchat

Let it go, girl, I thought. It’s not that serious! Now I want to send my friend a formal letter of apology and present her with a $1,000 Starbucks gift card. I get it. I’m her. I’m every woman and man who loves coffee and wants to shout it out loud and proud from the rooftops to their Snapchat story! And I do. My Snapchat followers know that every morning, I post a video of my first cup of coffee, as I gleefully sing, “Dark Maaagiiic!” Can’t stop, won’t stop. So much so that since starting my coffee routine, my once relatively pearly whites ain’t so white no mo’. At my last dentist appointment, the hygienist looked in my mouth and frowned.

The jobless spend the most time on Snapchat.   2. Astronauts can tweet from space but I can’t get my Wi-Fi to reach my bedroom.   3. I experience anxiety when I haven’t updated my Bitmoji’s outfit to be season-appropriate.   4. I don’t care how “advanced” we’re supposed to be. I’ll give you my cordless landline when you pry it from my cold, dead hands.   5. When I get an alert that a friend has JUST joined Instagram: .   6. How do we not have voice-activated search on TiVo? So much button pressing. What are we, animals??   7. No one cares about ur Snapchat concert vids. We get it. You’re THERE, we’re not.

Second, I check my notifications on Facebook. I rarely ever look at my feed. Truth be told, I only keep my Facebook account out of respect for the platform … aaaand in the hopes that my former crushes find my page and see the cute pics of myself that I’ve posted. It’s flawed but it’s honest. Third comes Snapchat. At first, I was against Snapchat. I didn’t get it. But once my friend Brian Mahoney (li’l shout-out for @mahone_alone) taught me how to work it, I was hooked. It’s where I document my coffee making and #NoPants life. It’s like my own reality show produced by me! I also enjoy receiving Snaps from like-minded people.


pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, two and twenty, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In many cases, the entrepreneurs of smaller companies feel that if they do not let themselves be acquired, the giant suitor will develop its own competing application and drive them out of business. That is what happened to Snapchat. The company reportedly turned down a $3 billion offer from Facebook. So Facebook added popular Snapchat-like offerings to its own messaging applications—such as new camera filters and a sharing feature called Stories.63 Snapchat still managed to go public in 2017 at $17 per share, at a market cap of about $20 billion.64 But since that time its stock has struggled, and there are many concerns about how the company will fare over the long term in the platform wars.

shareToken=st4499b289902f491a99df8d891ecb83ef&reflink=article_email_share&mg=prod/accounts-wsj (accessed June 27, 2019). 16. Amber Murakami-Fester, “What Are Peer-to-Peer Payments?,” NerdWallet.com, May 31, 2019, https://www.nerdwallet.com/blog/banking/p2p-payment-systems/. 17. Snapchat Support, SnapChat Corporation, https://support.snapchat.com/en-US/a/snapcash-guidelines (accessed June 27, 2019). 18. PopMoney home page, https://www.popmoney.com/ (accessed June 27, 2019). 19. “Ally Bank Review: Everything You Need to Know,” The Balance, https://www.thebalance.com/ally-bank-review-315132. 20. “Why Fintech Won’t Kill Banks,” The Economist, June 17, 2015, https://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/06/economist-explains-12 (accessed June 27, 2019). 21.

John Cook, “John Grisham, Stephen King and More Than 900 Other Authors Press Amazon to Solve Hachette Dispute in NYT Ad,” GeekWire, August 8, 2014, https://www.geekwire.com/2014/john-grisham-stephen-king-900-authors-press-amazon-solve-hachette-dispute/ (accessed June 27, 2019). 63. Queenie Wong, “Facebook vs. Snapchat: Competition Heats Up Between Social Media Firms,” San Jose Mercury News, March 28, 2017, https://www.mercurynews.com/2017/03/28/facebook-vs-snapchat-competition-heats-up-between-social-media-firms/ (accessed June 27, 2019). 64. Anita Balakrishnan, “Snap Closes Up 44% After Rollicking IPO,” CNBC, March 2, 2017, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/03/02/snapchat-snap-open-trading-price-stock-ipo-first-day.html (accessed June 27, 2019). 65. Nicholas Carlson, “Was $1 Billion Too Little to Ask for Instagram?


pages: 416 words: 108,370

Hit Makers: The Science of Popularity in an Age of Distraction by Derek Thompson

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, always be closing, augmented reality, Clayton Christensen, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, full employment, game design, Gordon Gekko, hindsight bias, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, information trail, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Kodak vs Instagram, linear programming, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, subscription business, telemarketer, the medium is the message, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vilfredo Pareto, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, women in the workforce

In other words: maps, videos, and a whole lot of talking. If you think the download counts are skewed, try the independent surveys. According to a 2014 Niche study, the most common mobile uses for teenagers are texting, Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat, Pandora, Twitter, and phone calls. Six of the eight (texting, Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, and the old-fashioned telephone) are just different tools for self-expression—visual, textual, and voice. These social networks really work only when they’re big.46 There is an idea called Metcalfe’s law, which says that the value of a network is proportional to the number of its users squared.

But, like Disney, it is like a promiscuous vine that can live and grow in any climate. In 2016, 80 percent of BuzzFeed’s audience discovered its content somewhere other than its website—on social networks like Facebook and Snapchat, publishing partners like Apple News and Yahoo, and messaging apps like WeChat. For some consumers, BuzzFeed is a digital newspaper. For others, who find it on Snapchat, it is more like a TV company programming content for different cable networks. Content flows out and information flows in. BuzzFeed uses its distribution channels to collect information on what audiences read, watch, and share and turns those lessons into content for some other channel.

As communication choices abounded, modes of talking became fashionable—and then anachronistic. Corded and cordless phones connected teenagers in the 1990s. By the early 2000s, online chatting was the norm. Then centuries flipped, and the social media revolution erupted, with Friendster in 2002, MySpace in 2003, Facebook in 2004, Twitter in 2006, Whatsapp in 2009, Instagram in 2010, and Snapchat in 2011. These platforms were joined by other inventions, like Vine and Yik Yak, and modern twists on pre-alphabet pictograms like emojis, GIF keyboards, and stickers. Each of these apps and features are fundamentally pictures and words in boxes. But they all have a distinct patois and cultural context, and each represents a fashionable improvement or purposeful divergence from the previous dominant technology.


pages: 425 words: 112,220

The Messy Middle: Finding Your Way Through the Hardest and Most Crucial Part of Any Bold Venture by Scott Belsky

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, DevOps, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, the medium is the message, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, WeWork, Y Combinator, young professional

If so, you should consider taking the same tactic yourself. In 2016 and 2017, Instagram infamously copied Snapchat’s tactics over and over again. Both apps were playing in the same field, and Instagram used what Snapchat learned to get ahead of it in its own game. Instagram implemented Snapchat’s “stories” and augmented-reality features, like facial overlays, because these tactics were directly aligned with its strategy: to host the media friends share with one another. Instagram was getting ideas from Snapchat, but these tactics advanced their strategy rather than diverted it. Sometimes the thing you admire most in your competitor isn’t smart or scalable.

The only time you should force new behaviors or terminology is when they enable a unique and important value in your product. For example, Snapchat was the first social network that would open on the camera view when you clicked on the app instead of other competitive products like Instagram and Facebook that open on a feed of others’ content. This behavior struck new users as foreign, but it retrained users for an entirely different kind of social experience. Snapchat aspired to be more of a camera than an app, and launching the product in camera mode sent a strong and differentiating message to its users that helped distinguish Snapchat from other social apps—as well as the kind of content created with it.

Empathy for those suffering the problem must come before your passion for the solution. Consider the rise of the popular camera and messaging app Snapchat. There were a lot of start-ups trying to help people share photos and hoping to compete with Facebook. But founder Evan Spiegel recognized the unique insecurities and preferences of its first users: teenagers. At the time of its founding in 2011, teenagers were especially sensitive to leaving a trail of data online that their parents and teachers could see. The idea of ephemeral content that would quickly disappear relieved the anxieties of these teenage users. Snapchat was also empathetic to the fact that many of these teenagers had hand-me-down smartphones with limited storage and cracked screens.


pages: 223 words: 60,909

Technically Wrong: Sexist Apps, Biased Algorithms, and Other Threats of Toxic Tech by Sara Wachter-Boettcher

Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, Grace Hopper, hockey-stick growth, independent contractor, job automation, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microaggression, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tactical Technology Collective, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Siri’s responses to a series of queries in March 2016. (Sara Wachter-Boettcher) Or in August 2016, when Snapchat launched a new face-morphing filter—one it said was “inspired by anime.” In reality, the effect had a lot more in common with Mickey Rooney playing I. Y. Yunioshi in Breakfast at Tiffany’s than a character from Akira. The filter morphed users’ selfies into bucktoothed, squinty-eyed caricatures—the hallmarks of “yellowface,” the term for white people donning makeup and masquerading as Asian stereotypes. Snapchat said that this particular filter wouldn’t be coming back, but insisted it hadn’t done anything wrong—even as Asian users mounted a campaign to delete the app.

As Adrienne LaFrance, writing in the Atlantic, put it, “The simplest explanation is that people are conditioned to expect women, not men, to be in administrative roles” 9 (just think about who you picture when you hear the term “secretary”). Or let’s look once more at Snapchat. In addition to the so-called “anime-inspired” filter we saw earlier, the app is known for releasing filters that purport to make you prettier, like the popular “beauty” and “flower crown” features. These filters smooth your skin, contour your face so your cheekbones pop, and . . . make you whiter.10 Why is whiter the default standard for beauty? Well, that’s a complex cultural question—but I doubt it’s one that the three white guys from Stanford who founded Snapchat ever thought about. These might seem like small things, but default settings can add up to be a big deal—both for an individual user like Messer, and for the culture at large.

Adrienne LaFrance, “Why Do So Many Digital Assistants Have Feminine Names?” Atlantic, March 30, 2016, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/03/why-do-so-many-digital-assistants-have-feminine-names/475884. 10. For a whole ton of examples, see Neha Prakash, “Snapchat Faces an Outcry against ‘Whitewashing’ Filters,” Mashable, May 16, 2016, http://mashable.com/2016/05/16/snapchat-whitewashing/#pLqUZA7KJuqs. 11. Jessica Nordell, “Stop Giving Digital Assistants Female Voices,” New Republic, June 23, 2016, https://newrepublic.com/article/134560/stop-giving-digital-assistants-female-voices. 12. Todd Rose, The End of Average: How to Succeed in a World That Values Sameness (New York: HarperCollins, 2016). 13.


pages: 475 words: 134,707

The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy, and Our Health--And How We Must Adapt by Sinan Aral

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, computer vision, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, death of newspapers, disinformation, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, hive mind, illegal immigration, income inequality, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, performance metric, phenotype, recommendation engine, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social software, social web, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the strength of weak ties, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra

As a result, “the network effects insulating digital platforms from competitive pressure will be mitigated….Individuals could switch between platforms based on their tastes and preferences as well as the innovations devised by different platforms….The point is that the ability to earn money from a user’s attention will become more contestable as a result of identity portability.” Second, social media services differ from phone calls. Text and voice exchanges are standardized and therefore easier to make interoperable. But messages on Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, and Snapchat are harder to seamlessly exchange across the different networks. Messages on Snapchat disappear, while messages on Facebook persist. Messages on Twitter are public and limited to 240 characters, while messages on WhatsApp are private and unlimited in length. While protocols for distinct message types could be developed, the complexity of interoperability in this context certainly exceeds that of the exchange of voice calls and text messages on mobile phones.

The Hype Machine Every minute of every day, our planet now pulses with trillions of digital social signals, bombarding us with streams of status updates, news stories, tweets, pokes, posts, referrals, advertisements, notifications, shares, check-ins, and ratings from peers in our social networks, news media, advertisers, and the crowd. These signals are delivered to our always-on mobile devices through platforms like Facebook, Snapchat, Instagram, YouTube, and Twitter, and they are routed through the human social network by algorithms designed to optimize our connections, accelerate our interactions, and maximize our engagement with tailored streams of content. But at the same time, these signals are much more transformative—they are hypersocializing our society, scaling mass persuasion, and creating a tyranny of trends.

I was the chief scientist at SocialAmp, one of the first social commerce analytics companies (until its sale to Merkle in 2012) and at Humin, a social platform that The Wall Street Journal called the first “Social Operating System” (until its sale to Tinder in 2016). I have worked directly with senior executives at Facebook, Yahoo!, Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, WeChat, Spotify, Airbnb, SAP, Microsoft, Walmart, and The New York Times. Along with my longtime friend Paul Falzone, I’m a founding partner at Manifest Capital, an investment firm that helps young companies grow into the Hype Machine. From this perch, I evaluate hundreds of companies a year and get to look around the corner at what’s next.


pages: 271 words: 62,538

The Best Interface Is No Interface: The Simple Path to Brilliant Technology (Voices That Matter) by Golden Krishna

Airbnb, Bear Stearns, computer vision, crossover SUV, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, impulse control, Inbox Zero, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, QR code, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator, Y2K

As a reporter at *The Verge,* I interviewed Snapchat CEO Evan Spiegel before the launch of the company’s video chat and texting features. Spiegel said something that really stuck out to me: “The biggest constraint of the next 100 years of computing is the idea of metaphors,” he said. “For Snapchat, the closer we can get to ‘I want to talk to you’—that emotion of wanting to see you and then seeing you — the better and better our product and our view of the world will be.” Instead of allowing you to ring friends for a video chat, as with FaceTime or Skype, Snapchat forces both users to be present inside a chat window before video can begin.

Instead of allowing you to ring friends for a video chat, as with FaceTime or Skype, Snapchat forces both users to be present inside a chat window before video can begin. So, instead of texting someone to set up a FaceTime call, you can simply chat them on Snapchat, and if they log on, you can start a video chat when you’re both in the same conversation. The “Hey, want to chat?” text replaces the ring entirely. You might have thought that Snapchat’s mission was to bring “ephemeral,” disappearing messages to the masses, when it was only one facet of a bigger idea that Spiegel had been stewing over. He had been thinking about digitally replicating the ways we talk in real life — ephemerality just happened to be one means of doing so.

People are inherently drawn to new ideas and not old, derivative ones. People are drawn to hope for better solutions, even if they manifest themselves in tiny, seemingly insignificant ways. *Ring, ring.* Ellis Hamburger was a reporter for the technology news and culture website The Verge from 2012–2015. Now he’s working in marketing at Snapchat. Contents Welcome 1 Introduction Why did you buy this book? Um, why did you buy this book again? 2 Screen-based Thinking Let’s make an app! Tackle a global issue? Improve our lives? No, no. When smart people get together in Silicon Valley they often brainstorm, “What app can we make?”


pages: 284 words: 84,169

Talk on the Wild Side by Lane Greene

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, experimental subject, facts on the ground, framing effect, Google Chrome, illegal immigration, invisible hand, meta-analysis, Money creation, moral panic, natural language processing, obamacare, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Turing test, Wall-E

While writing this, I heard a reporter for the BBC talking about the prospects for Snapchat, the messaging app popular with teens and young adults, and stating that “158 million people use the app every day.” There are two very different ways to hear that same short set of words. One is that Snapchat has a hugely loyal base: there is a distinct group of 158 million people who use the app every single day. But there’s another perfectly possible understanding of those same words: that on any given day, 158 million people use Snapchat, but tomorrow’s 158 million will be a different subset of the global population.

I read three other news reports with similarly ambiguous statements, before reading Snapchat’s original wording: “on average, 158 million people use Snapchat daily.” The “on average” closes the case for the second reading: not a dedicated must-use-daily base of 158 million people, but daily figures of all users that average to 158 million. The ambiguity would never have sent me to Google – would never have been possible – in Lojban. Cowan dutifully translates the possibilities for me. The first is: pa mu bi ki’o ki’o prenu cu pilno la .snaptcat. ca’o ro djedi one five eight thousand thousand person (cu) use (la) Snapchat during each day Or, roughly, “each of the same set of 158 million persons use Snapshot each day.”

The first is: pa mu bi ki’o ki’o prenu cu pilno la .snaptcat. ca’o ro djedi one five eight thousand thousand person (cu) use (la) Snapchat during each day Or, roughly, “each of the same set of 158 million persons use Snapshot each day.” The second is: ca’o ro djedi pa mu bi ki’o ki’o prenu cu pilno la .snaptcat. during each day one five eight thousand thousand person (cu) use (la) Snapchat. during each day, 158MM [million] persons (not necessarily the same ones) use Snapchat. Should the BBC switch to Lojban? Unlike English, it is exactly the kind of language that sticklers (including many journalists) think people should speak. It makes you communicate information precisely, after working out exactly what you want to say in your own mind. Many sticklers assume a lay version of the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis themselves: that thought itself depends on language.


pages: 368 words: 108,222

Parkland: Birth of a Movement by Dave Cullen

3D printing, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Columbine, gun show loophole, impulse control, Lyft, side project, Skype, Snapchat, uber lyft

“Nobody said, ‘No, that’s a bad idea,’” he said. “Nobody necessarily said, ‘That’s a great idea!’ but if you don’t get a no, you take it as a yes.” Dylan described the rest of his process as “so not professionally done.” He uploaded the picture to Snapchat on his phone and typed in his reply caption: “We’ll control our own lives, thank you.” He saved the Snapchat, dumped it into the Photoshop Express app on his phone, and then added the March for Our Lives logo. That failed to save, since it’s a premium option and he was using the free version of Photoshop Express. So he took a screenshot, cropped his phone’s border clutter, and discovered that the image now looked too blurry.

“Well, we’re not taking you,” his dad finally said. David hopped on his bike, and pedaled furiously back. Twenty years. The pace has changed. So has kids’ connection to media. In the Columbine age, teachers sought to make their students wiser media consumers. The members of David’s generation spent much of their waking lives on Snapchat, Instagram, and YouTube—they were already amateur media creators. David was semipro. David got his B-roll and approached the news vans. At 10:05 p.m., he was live with Laura Ingraham on her prime-time Fox News show, with Ash Wednesday ashes on her forehead. For seven minutes, David dutifully answered her questions, highly composed, but looking a bit nervous, head nodding rhythmically through some extended questions.

Everybody was spreading rumors,” Cameron would post on Facebook when he got home. “I heard at least three names dropped as to who the shooter was. We were all so distracted looking at our phones that we forgot somebody was shooting up our school.” Then kids started posting video. “People being shot. People bleeding. Dead bodies. All over Snapchat.” Kids were crying, texting their parents. “You could smell the anxiety. . . . We just wanted to hear that the shooter was gone. We didn’t want to be shot. We had no idea what that even entailed. We’re young. We don’t know real pain.” That went on interminably, then someone smashed the glass out of the door.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disinformation, disintermediation, Dogecoin, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, you are the product, zero day

Such was the case with the highly popular “social photo booth” app known as Snapchat. Snapchat is a service that allows users to send “selfie” photographs (often involving nudity) that purportedly disappear in just a few seconds after arriving on the recipient’s phone. More than one billion photographs have been sent via the service, and in late 2013 Facebook unsuccessfully tried to buy the company for $3 billion. In early 2014, it was revealed that Snapchat contained a security flaw that exposed millions of iPhone users to denial-of-service attacks. The vulnerability meant that hackers could target your phone specifically by sending a thousand Snapchat messages in just five seconds, thereby crashing your phone and making it unavailable for your use until you performed a hard reboot of the device.

The vulnerability meant that hackers could target your phone specifically by sending a thousand Snapchat messages in just five seconds, thereby crashing your phone and making it unavailable for your use until you performed a hard reboot of the device. Moreover, hackers were also able to compromise nearly five million Snapchat user accounts and published a database of user names and phone numbers on a hacker Web site. Worse, it was revealed that Snapchat’s foremost feature—the ability to send naked photographs that would self-destruct in ten seconds or less—was also flawed. The images did not self-destruct as promised and could still be retrieved both on the recipient device and on Snapchat’s own computer servers. As a result, tens of thousands of Snapchat photographs thought to have been deleted have shown up across the Internet, reposted on Instagram and on numerous revenge-porn sites.

Vaughan-Nichols, “First Case of Android Trojan Spreading via Mobile Botnets Discovered,” ZDNet, Sept. 5, 2013. 26 As such, criminals: “Gartner Says Worldwide PC, Tablet, and Mobile Phone Shipments to Grow 5.9 Percent in 2013 as Anytime-Anywhere-Computing Drives Buyer Behavior,” Gartner Newsroom, June 24, 2013. 27 The vulnerability meant: Salvador Rodriguez, “Hackers Can Use Snapchat to Disable iPhones, Researcher Says,” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 7, 2014. 28 Moreover, hackers were also: Selena Larson, “Snapchat Responds to Massive Hack,” ReadWrite, Jan. 3, 2014. 29 Worse, it was revealed: Kashmir Hill, “Snapchats Don’t Disappear: Forensics Firm Has Pulled Dozens of Supposedly Deleted Photos from Android Phones,” Forbes, May 9, 2013. 30 As a result, tens of thousands: Tyler Kingkade, “Ohio University Student Accused of Using Nude Snapchat Photos to Extort Sex,” Huffington Post, Dec. 30, 2013. 31 Today 89 percent of employees: Juniper Networks, “Trusted Mobility Index,” May 2012. 32 For just a few hundred dollars: Brian Montopoli, “For Criminals, Smartphones Becoming Prime Targets,” CBS News, Aug. 7, 2013; Dan Nosowitz, “A Hacked Mobile Antenna in a Backpack Could Spy on Cell Phone Conversations,” Popular Science, July 16, 2013. 33 In Kenya, for example: “Why Does Kenya Lead the World in Mobile Money?


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Hype: How Scammers, Grifters, and Con Artists Are Taking Over the Internet―and Why We're Following by Gabrielle Bluestone

Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, cashless society, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, financial thriller, forensic accounting, gig economy, global pandemic, high net worth, hockey-stick growth, Hyperloop, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, WeWork

In exchange for the free land rental, McFarland promised to “furnish thousands of guests for both weekends of the festival, creating a unique opportunity for Roker Point Estates to capture a relevant demographic who might be interested in purchasing land on Great Exuma or directly know qualified purchasers” and to “make commercially reasonable efforts to introduce the Roker Point Estates to Snapchat who will be running a global story during the festival. If Roker Point Estates chooses to buy media on Snapchat, they may expect millions of impressions.” McFarland did, at least, deliver on that last promise. Still, somehow, McFarland had a deal. Around the same time, Brown resigned abruptly from the festival, sending along with his termination an invoice for $68,106 for services rendered by his company, Institute.

Documentary Film. 120.Emma Brockes, "It’s Not Just the Fyre Festival—This is the Golden Age of the Social Media Con | Emma Brockes," The Guardian, January 17, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/jan/17/fyre-festival-social-media-con-documentaries. 121.Kaya Yurieff, "Snapchat Stock Loses $1.3 Billion after Kylie Jenner Tweet," CNNMoney, February 23, 2018, https://money.cnn.com/2018/02/22/technology/snapchat-update-kylie-jenner/index.html. 122.Brian Feldman, BNet.Substack.com. 123.Alexandra Sternlicht, "Instagram Influencer Danielle Bernstein (WeWoreWhat) Launches Tech Suite For Influencers," Forbes, October 2, 2019, https://www.forbes.com/sites/alexandrasternlicht/2019/10/02/instagram-influencer-danielle-bernstein-weworewhat-launches-tech-suite-for-influencers/. 124.Rachel Strugatz, "How WeWoreWhat’s Danielle Bernstein Sold Nearly $2 Million in Swimwear in 12 Hours," The Business of Fashion, May 3, 2019, https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/retail/how-weworewhats-danielle-bernstein-sold-nearly-2-million-in-swimwear-in-12-hours. 125.Tanya Chen, "A Poshmark Reseller Somehow Got Her Hands on a Major Fashion Influencer’s Unreleased Clothing.

Still, it’s a low-stakes game for most brands and the influencers they rely on, exchanging samples, gifts, and direct deposits for tags, links, and favorable reviews. For most of the companies involved, the worst that can happen is that an influencer will fail to advertise the goods on their page. (Given the contractual nature of these agreements, it also gives companies an easy recourse, like the time Snapchat sued the actor Luka Sabbat for “failing to influence” by reneging on a $45,000 deal to do a series of swipe-up stories modeling the company’s line of camera sunglasses called Specs.20) But in general, these companies tend to be pretty chill about the deals, because just like the Audis and Van Cleefs who advertised with Duchovny’s fake family, these brands aren’t necessarily looking for clicks—they’re looking for credibility.


pages: 324 words: 89,875

Modern Monopolies: What It Takes to Dominate the 21st Century Economy by Alex Moazed, Nicholas L. Johnson

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, hockey-stick growth, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, money market fund, multi-sided market, Network effects, patent troll, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, platform as a service, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, source of truth, Startup school, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the medium is the message, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

In 2015, the top three members of Forbes’s list of most valuable brands were platform companies, as were eleven of the top twenty.15 All of the companies at the heart of the social media boom were also platforms, including Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. In fact, most of today’s biggest IPOs and acquisitions are platforms, as are almost all of the most successful startups. The list includes Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Twitter, Amazon, eBay, Instagram, YouTube, Twitch, Snapchat, WhatsApp, Waze, Uber, Lyft, Handy, Airbnb, Pinterest, Square, Social Finance, Kickstarter, and more. (See Figure 1.4 for examples of platform startups and their latest valuations.) The growth of platforms isn’t isolated to the United States either; platform companies such as Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, and Rakuten have taken over China and much of Asia.

To encourage this, Apple provides a cheap software development kit and many developer application program interfaces (APIs) that allow developers to tap into the core functionality provided by the device. A big part of the value that iOS provides to developers is that it allows them to easily access and combine the phone’s many capabilities to create new experiences, from Candy Crush to Snapchat to Tinder. The developers of all of these apps used iOS as a platform to create something new. Remember Apple’s old slogan: “There’s an app for that.” Apple knew early on that a large part of the value of the iPhone wasn’t just in the phone itself but rather in the new experiences that it enabled developers to build for users.

As we saw when Nokia and BlackBerry lost out to Apple and Google, any features that their phones could offer were far less valuable than the value a consumer received from a large community of app developers. Network effects are “the strongest economic moat of all,” Bill Gurley, of venture capital firm Benchmark, has said.7 Talking heads have been speculating about Facebook’s decline for years, especially with the rise of new social media companies like Twitter and Snapchat and the shift on smartphones from social networks to messaging platforms. Yet as of this writing, Facebook has beaten Wall Street projections in eleven of the last twelve quarters, and its Facebook Messenger platform has taken off, acquiring more than 500 million users within a couple years’ time.


pages: 458 words: 116,832

The Costs of Connection: How Data Is Colonizing Human Life and Appropriating It for Capitalism by Nick Couldry, Ulises A. Mejias

"side hustle", 23andMe, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, corporate governance, dark matter, data acquisition, data is the new oil, different worldview, discovery of the americas, disinformation, diversification, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hiring and firing, income inequality, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, software studies, sovereign wealth fund, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, Thomas Davenport, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, trade route, undersea cable, urban planning, wages for housework

Although WhatsApp claimed it was “built . . . around the goal of knowing as little about you as possible,” a company blog post following WhatsApp’s $19 billion acquisition by Facebook admitted that its logbook of customer phone numbers would become connected with Facebook’s systems, an admission that led to a European Commission fine for Facebook and a string of legal challenges.26 WhatsApp’s own terms now make clear that users are likely to yield up their entire mobile address book when they use the service, and there is evidence that WhatsApp also stores metadata on the time, duration, and location of every communication.27 Snapchat’s disappearing messages have been mimicked by Instagram, also now part of Facebook, and the US Federal Trade Commission has challenged Snapchat on whether sent images really disappear.28 Meanwhile, the growing popularity of ad blocking29 may simply incentivize marketers to find smarter ways of tracking people so that they can be reached with ads. As the CEO of PageFair, a company specializing in such tactics, noted, “Tamper-proof ad serving technology has matured to the point where publishers can serve ads on the blocked web.”30 Whatever the local resistances and derogations, extracting data from a “naturally connected” world has become basic to the very nature of brands: “Understanding that customers are always connected and consuming . . . allows marketers to think of both their digital and offline touchpoints as one fluid and integrated brand presence.”31 This vision of an economy enhanced by the data-gathering possibilities created by “connection” is shared by both market capitalism and state-led capitalism.

I wonder in hindsight if maybe we didn’t build a movement, but rather we built a social media presence that privileged individuals over community, virtual validation over empathy, leadership without accountability and responsibility.”3 Consider now a third starting point—the question that Irish novelist Sally Rooney, dubbed “the J. D. Salinger of the Snapchat generation,” recently asked herself: “Why wasn’t I drinking enough water?”4 Following a series of fainting spells, doctors advised her to increase her hydration because, like many busy people, she sometimes forgets to take a water break. Fortunately, as the cliché goes, there’s an app for that. The makers of Water Minder offer a program to bypass the part of the brain that regulates thirst, reminding you to drink regularly to meet predefined quotas while tracking your progress.

Apple’s subsequent Privacy Policy states that collected data “will not be associated with [a user’s] IP address,”24 yet iPhone features still support the surveillance needs of marketers. Both the iBeacon service and the iPhone’s built-in Wallet app enable push notifications from marketers.25 Responsiveness to surveillance concerns is a selling point for other players too, at least outside China. WhatsApp distinguishes itself by its end-to-end message encryption, while Snapchat has its posted messages disappear, at least from the users’ view, after a short period. But the actual position is more complex. Although WhatsApp claimed it was “built . . . around the goal of knowing as little about you as possible,” a company blog post following WhatsApp’s $19 billion acquisition by Facebook admitted that its logbook of customer phone numbers would become connected with Facebook’s systems, an admission that led to a European Commission fine for Facebook and a string of legal challenges.26 WhatsApp’s own terms now make clear that users are likely to yield up their entire mobile address book when they use the service, and there is evidence that WhatsApp also stores metadata on the time, duration, and location of every communication.27 Snapchat’s disappearing messages have been mimicked by Instagram, also now part of Facebook, and the US Federal Trade Commission has challenged Snapchat on whether sent images really disappear.28 Meanwhile, the growing popularity of ad blocking29 may simply incentivize marketers to find smarter ways of tracking people so that they can be reached with ads.


pages: 198 words: 53,264

Big Mistakes: The Best Investors and Their Worst Investments by Michael Batnick

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, Bear Stearns, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, buy low sell high, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, financial innovation, fixed income, hindsight bias, index fund, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Myron Scholes, Paul Samuelson, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, stocks for the long run, transcontinental railway, two and twenty, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Y Combinator

Sacca estimates his decision to not invest in Dropbox cost him “hundreds of millions of dollars.”13 At close to a $10 billion valuation, Dropbox is one of the biggest misses of Sacca's career. Chris Sacca spoke to Bill Simmons about another miss – passing on Snap, the parent company of Snapchat. At the time, Snapchat was widely considered to be an app ideal for sending photos that are not safe for work. Images sent on Snapchat (called Snaps) automatically disappear seconds after they are viewed. Snap continued developing new functionality, so today users can create Stories, a series of photos that don't disappear. Sacca couldn't see Snap's potential and passed.14 Now, Snapchat functions like a full social media or messaging app, and it has a huge user base, especially among Generation Z.

., 67 Netflix, 139–140 Net working capital, 5 term, usage, 4 New Century Financial, 134 Newton, Isaac, 37 New York Institute of Finance, 4 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 4 listed stock trading, 135 opening, 147 shares, trading level (1934), 6–7 New York Vaporizing Co. (Twain investment), 28 No Bull (Steinhardt), 58, 60 Nocera, Joe, 90 Not safe for work (NSFW), Snapchat categorization, 151 Nudge (Thaler), 126 One‐decision stocks, 50 Options, usage, 131 Oreos, comparison, 91 Oregon Transcontinental Railroad, Twain share purchase, 29 O'Reilly Automotive, Sequoia holding, 111 Overconfidence, impact, 61, 75–76, 82 Overtrading, 159 Paige Compositor Manufacturing Company, 31 Paige, James, 30 Paine Webber, Livermore exit, 16 Palmolive, comparison, 91 Paulson & Co., founding, 132 Paulson, John, 3, 129, 131–132 merger/arbitrage, 133 Pearson, Mike, 113 Buffett, contrast, 114 Pellegrini, Paolo, 132–133 Penn Dixie Cement, shares (purchase), 58 Pershing Square Capital Management, 89 Pittsburgh National Bank, 101 Plasmon (Twain investment), 28 Polaroid, trading level, 70 Poppe, David, 114 Portfolio turnover, 69 Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain (PIIGS), 158 Post‐go‐go years meltdown, 147 Post III, William, 131 Price, Teddy, 19–20 Princeton University, 47–48 Private/public investing, history, 149 Profit sharing, 68 Prospect Theory (Kahneman/Tversky), 126 Pyramid schemes, 93 Qualcomm, gains, 57 Quantitative easing program, 134–135 Quantum Fund, 100, 103 Ramirez, Alberto/Rosa, 132 Rational thinking, suspension, 27 Recession, odds (calculation), 38 Renaissance Technologies, 135 Return on equity, term (usage), 4 Reverse crash, 100 Risk, arrival, 32 Risk management, 23 Roaring Twenties, bull market cycle, 7 Robertson, Julian, 58 Roche, Cullen, 99 Rockefeller, John, 30 Rogers, Henry (“Hell Hound”), 30–32 Rooney, Frank, 80, 81 Rosenfeld, Eric, 39, 41 Ruane, Bill, 4, 109, 112 Ruane & Cunniff, 112 Ruane, Cunniff & Goldfarb, 110–111 Russell 3000, 135 Russia, Quantum Fund loss, 103–104 Sacca, Chris, 145, 149–150 Salomon Brothers, 39 Buffett investment, 79 Samuelson, Paul (remarks), 51 San Francisco Call, 31 Schloss, Walter, 4 Schmidt, Eric, 150 Scholes, Myron, 39 Nobel Prize in Economics, 40–41 Schroeder, Alice, 80 Schwager, Jack, 159 Sears, Ackman targeting, 90 Sears Holdings, 109 Securities and Exchange Act, 7 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 13D registration, 90 creation, 22 Security Analysis (Graham), 3–5 See's Candy Berkshire Hathaway purchase, 78 purchase, 142 Self‐esteem, satisfaction (impact), 75–76 Sequoia Fund, 107 operation, 110–111 Shiller, Robert, 75–76, 87 Short squeeze, 93 Silvan, Jon, 94 Simmons, Bill, 151 Simons, Jim, 135 Slack, Sacca investment, 149 Smith, Adam, 68, 121 Snapchat, 151 Snap, going public, 151 Snowball, The, (Schroeder), 80 Social activities, engagement, 87–88 Soros Fund Management, losses, 105 Soros, George, 58, 60, 100, 103 interaction, 102 reform, 121 South Sea Company shares, 37 Speculation, 15 avoidance, 28 SPY, 62 Stagecoach Corporate Stock Fund, 52 Stamp revenues, trading, 141–142 Standard Oil, 30 Standard & Poor's 500 (S&P500) ETF, 62 gains, 112, 114 performance, comparison, 119 shorting, 163 Valeant performance, comparison, 113 Steinhardt, Fine, Berkowitz & Company, opening, 58 Steinhardt, Michael, 55, 58 performance record, 59–60 Steinhardt Overseas Fund, 60 Stoker, Bram, 30 Stock market, choices, 114–115 Stocks crashing/reverse crashing, 100 return, 99 stock‐picking ability, 88 Stock trader, training, 18 Strategic Aggressive Investing Fund, 102 Sunk cost, 110 Sun Valley Conference, 57 “Superinvestors of Graham‐and‐Doddsville, The,” 111–112 Taleb, Nassim, 42 Target, Ackman targeting, 90 TDP&L, 50 Tech bubble, inflation, 57 Technivest, 50 Thaler, Richard H., 75, 126 Thinking, Fast and Slow, (Kahneman), 15 Thorndike, Dorain, Paine & Lewis, Inc., 48 Time horizons, 120 Time Warner, AOL merger, 49 Tim Ferriss Show, The, (podcast), 150 Tim Hortons, spinoff, 89 Tract on Monetary Reform, A, (Keynes), 125–126 Trader (Jones), 119 Trustees Equity Fund, decline, 50 Tsai, Jerry, 65, 68 stocks, trading, 69 ten good games, 71 Tsai Management Research, sale, 70 Tversky, Amos, 81 Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens), 25, 27, 75 bankruptcy filings, 32 money, losses, 27–32 public opinion, hypersensitivity, 31 Twilio, Sacca investment, 149 Twitter, Sacca investment, 149–150 Uber, Sacca investment, 149 Undervalued issues, selection, 10 Union Pacific, shares (sale), 18 United Copper, cornering, 19 United States housing bubble, 132 University Computing, trading level, 70 US bonds international bonds, spreads, 41 value, decline, 61 U.S. housing bubble, impact, 132 U.S.

., founding, 132 Paulson, John, 3, 129, 131–132 merger/arbitrage, 133 Pearson, Mike, 113 Buffett, contrast, 114 Pellegrini, Paolo, 132–133 Penn Dixie Cement, shares (purchase), 58 Pershing Square Capital Management, 89 Pittsburgh National Bank, 101 Plasmon (Twain investment), 28 Polaroid, trading level, 70 Poppe, David, 114 Portfolio turnover, 69 Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, Spain (PIIGS), 158 Post‐go‐go years meltdown, 147 Post III, William, 131 Price, Teddy, 19–20 Princeton University, 47–48 Private/public investing, history, 149 Profit sharing, 68 Prospect Theory (Kahneman/Tversky), 126 Pyramid schemes, 93 Qualcomm, gains, 57 Quantitative easing program, 134–135 Quantum Fund, 100, 103 Ramirez, Alberto/Rosa, 132 Rational thinking, suspension, 27 Recession, odds (calculation), 38 Renaissance Technologies, 135 Return on equity, term (usage), 4 Reverse crash, 100 Risk, arrival, 32 Risk management, 23 Roaring Twenties, bull market cycle, 7 Robertson, Julian, 58 Roche, Cullen, 99 Rockefeller, John, 30 Rogers, Henry (“Hell Hound”), 30–32 Rooney, Frank, 80, 81 Rosenfeld, Eric, 39, 41 Ruane, Bill, 4, 109, 112 Ruane & Cunniff, 112 Ruane, Cunniff & Goldfarb, 110–111 Russell 3000, 135 Russia, Quantum Fund loss, 103–104 Sacca, Chris, 145, 149–150 Salomon Brothers, 39 Buffett investment, 79 Samuelson, Paul (remarks), 51 San Francisco Call, 31 Schloss, Walter, 4 Schmidt, Eric, 150 Scholes, Myron, 39 Nobel Prize in Economics, 40–41 Schroeder, Alice, 80 Schwager, Jack, 159 Sears, Ackman targeting, 90 Sears Holdings, 109 Securities and Exchange Act, 7 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 13D registration, 90 creation, 22 Security Analysis (Graham), 3–5 See's Candy Berkshire Hathaway purchase, 78 purchase, 142 Self‐esteem, satisfaction (impact), 75–76 Sequoia Fund, 107 operation, 110–111 Shiller, Robert, 75–76, 87 Short squeeze, 93 Silvan, Jon, 94 Simmons, Bill, 151 Simons, Jim, 135 Slack, Sacca investment, 149 Smith, Adam, 68, 121 Snapchat, 151 Snap, going public, 151 Snowball, The, (Schroeder), 80 Social activities, engagement, 87–88 Soros Fund Management, losses, 105 Soros, George, 58, 60, 100, 103 interaction, 102 reform, 121 South Sea Company shares, 37 Speculation, 15 avoidance, 28 SPY, 62 Stagecoach Corporate Stock Fund, 52 Stamp revenues, trading, 141–142 Standard Oil, 30 Standard & Poor's 500 (S&P500) ETF, 62 gains, 112, 114 performance, comparison, 119 shorting, 163 Valeant performance, comparison, 113 Steinhardt, Fine, Berkowitz & Company, opening, 58 Steinhardt, Michael, 55, 58 performance record, 59–60 Steinhardt Overseas Fund, 60 Stoker, Bram, 30 Stock market, choices, 114–115 Stocks crashing/reverse crashing, 100 return, 99 stock‐picking ability, 88 Stock trader, training, 18 Strategic Aggressive Investing Fund, 102 Sunk cost, 110 Sun Valley Conference, 57 “Superinvestors of Graham‐and‐Doddsville, The,” 111–112 Taleb, Nassim, 42 Target, Ackman targeting, 90 TDP&L, 50 Tech bubble, inflation, 57 Technivest, 50 Thaler, Richard H., 75, 126 Thinking, Fast and Slow, (Kahneman), 15 Thorndike, Dorain, Paine & Lewis, Inc., 48 Time horizons, 120 Time Warner, AOL merger, 49 Tim Ferriss Show, The, (podcast), 150 Tim Hortons, spinoff, 89 Tract on Monetary Reform, A, (Keynes), 125–126 Trader (Jones), 119 Trustees Equity Fund, decline, 50 Tsai, Jerry, 65, 68 stocks, trading, 69 ten good games, 71 Tsai Management Research, sale, 70 Tversky, Amos, 81 Twain, Mark (Samuel Clemens), 25, 27, 75 bankruptcy filings, 32 money, losses, 27–32 public opinion, hypersensitivity, 31 Twilio, Sacca investment, 149 Twitter, Sacca investment, 149–150 Uber, Sacca investment, 149 Undervalued issues, selection, 10 Union Pacific, shares (sale), 18 United Copper, cornering, 19 United States housing bubble, 132 University Computing, trading level, 70 US bonds international bonds, spreads, 41 value, decline, 61 U.S. housing bubble, impact, 132 U.S.


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Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, hockey-stick growth, hustle culture, impact investing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen special economic zone , side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, super pumped, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, WeWork, Y Combinator

Chapter 8: PAS DE DEUX 72 Roughly one third: Artturi Tarjanne, “Why VC’s Seek 10x Returns,” Activist VC Blog (blog), Nexit Adventures, January 12, 2018, http://www.nexitventures.com/blog/vcs-seek-10x-returns/. 74 Kalanick frequently compared: Amir Efrati, “Uber Group’s Visit to Seoul Escort Bar Sparked HR Complaint,” The Information, March 24, 2017, https://www.theinformation.com/articles/uber-groups-visit-to-seoul-escort-bar-sparked-hr-complaint. 75 “Software is eating the world”: Andreessen Horowitz, Software Is Eating the World, https://a16z.com/. 75 deals increased by 73 percent: Richard Florida and Ian Hathaway, “How the Geography of Startups and Innovation Is Changing,” Harvard Business Review, November 27, 2018, https://hbr.org/2018/11/how-the-geography-of-startups-and-innovation-is-changing. 75 billions invested post-2010: Center for American Entrepreneurship, “Rise of the Global Startup City,” Startup Revolution, http://startupsusa.org/global-startup-cities/. 75 emerged as the world’s epicenter: Center for American Entrepreneurship, “Rise of the Global Startup City.” 76 “to organize the world’s information”: “From the Garage to the Googleplex,” About, Google, https://www.google.com/about/our-story/. 76 controversial financial instrument: “The Effects of Dual-Class Ownership on Ordinary Shareholders,” Knowledge@Wharton, June 30, 2004, http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-effects-of-dual-class-ownership-on-ordinary-shareholders/. 77 “An Owner’s Manual For Google Investors”: Larry Page and Sergey Brin, “2004 Founders’ IPO Letter,” Alphabet Investor Relations, https://abc.xyz/investor/founders-letters/2004/ipo-letter.html. 77 $3.5-billion acquisition: “Snapchat Spurned $3 Billion Acquisition Offer from Facebook,” Digits (blog), Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2013, https://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/11/13/snapchat-spurned-3-billion-acquisition-offer-from-facebook/. Chapter 9: CHAMPION’S MINDSET 82 Kalanick once said onstage: Liz Gannes, “Travis Kalanick: Uber Is Raising More Money to Fight Lyft and the ‘Asshole’ Taxi Industry,” Recode, May 28, 2014, https://www.recode.net/2014/5/28/11627354/travis-kalanick-uber-is-raising-more-money-to-fight-lyft-and-the. 82 “There’s been so much corruption”: Andy Kessler, “Travis Kalanick: The Transportation Trustbuster,” Wall Street Journal, January 25, 2013, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887324235104578244231122376480. 83 “we’re crushing it”: Alexia Tsotsis, “Spotted!

A tech bro’s greatest worry was whether or not he was working at that year’s hottest “unicorn”—a noun coined in 2013 by a venture capitalist who used it to describe companies valued at more than $1 billion. By the fall of 2015, Uber was the unicorn to end all unicorns; every tech bro had to be there. Uber wasn’t alone as a haven for tech bros. Snapchat, once a darling in the Valley for its innovative approach to social networking, was under fire for emails its founder had sent to fraternity brothers during his college days at Stanford. (“Fuck Bitches Get Leid,” [sic] one read.) A group of Dropbox and Airbnb employees were filmed trying to kick a group of San Francisco kids off a soccer field to make room for their corporate league game.

Fast-rising rents pushed wage earners out of San Francisco, while landlords flipped those former apartments to new, wealthier tenants. The “gig economy” unleashed by companies like Uber, Instacart, TaskRabbit, and DoorDash spurred an entirely new class of workers—the blue-collar techno-laborer. With the rise of Facebook, Google, Instagram, and Snapchat, venture capitalists looked everywhere to fund the next Mark Zuckerberg, Larry Page, or Evan Spiegel—the newest brilliant mind who sought, in the words of Steve Jobs, to “make a dent in the universe.” And as more money flowed into the Valley from outside investors—from hedge funds and private equity firms, sovereign wealth funds and Hollywood celebrities—the balance of power shifted from those who held the purse strings to the founders who brought the bright ideas and willingness to execute them.


pages: 460 words: 130,820

The Cult of We: WeWork, Adam Neumann, and the Great Startup Delusion by Eliot Brown, Maureen Farrell

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, cloud computing, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, future of work, gender pay gap, global pandemic, global supply chain, Google Earth, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hockey-stick growth, housing crisis, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Network effects, new economy, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-oil, railway mania, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, Steve Jobs, super pumped, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, WeWork, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

In 2011, VC firms raised $24 billion from investors, nearly double their haul of 2009. This outpouring of money resulted in a burst of startups that would go on to reshape the Silicon Valley landscape and become household names in Americans’ daily lives. Between 2009 and 2012, VCs wrote early checks to startups like Uber, Airbnb, Pinterest, Instagram, Snapchat, and Square. Suddenly you couldn’t walk into a coffee shop in Silicon Valley without hearing talk of the next industry ripe to be “disrupted” by a startup. Amid all the optimism, there was a noticeable change in venture capital strategy that would set apart this generation of startups from their prerecession forebearers.

Just six months after the T. Rowe Price deal had valued WeWork at $5 billion, Fidelity’s investment valued WeWork at $10 billion. The company was vaulted into a whole new category. Suddenly WeWork was the seventh most valuable startup in the country. Now it would be mentioned in the same breath as Airbnb, Uber, and Snapchat; it was worth more than the $9 billion blood-testing company Theranos and more than all but a handful of publicly traded office landlords. Even the nation’s largest publicly traded office owner, Boston Properties, was now within reach, at $20 billion. WeWork was by far the most valuable startup in New York City.

Dunlevie tried to paint a dark picture for Neumann of what could come if he spurned any guardrails. “Absolute power corrupts absolutely,” he told him, parroting British historian John Dalberg-Acton’s famous quote. Neumann responded by pointing out what he saw as Benchmark’s hypocrisy. Benchmark backed both Snapchat and Uber, two companies in which the CEOs had enhanced voting power that gave them a firm grip on their companies. Amid the influx of money from mutual funds and others, the balance of power had shifted in Silicon Valley. Founders who looked and acted the part—decisive leadership, expansive vision—had plenty of sway over investors eager to place bets on the next Steve Jobs.


pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joan Didion, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, Yochai Benkler

THE SEARCHERS ETERNAL SUNSHINE OF THE SPOTLESS AI MAX LEVCHIN HAS PLANS FOR US EVGENY’S LITTLE PROBLEM THE SHORTEST CONVERSATION BETWEEN TWO POINTS HOME AWAY FROM HOME CHARCOAL, SHALE, COTTON, TANGERINE, SKY SLUMMING WITH BUDDHA THE QUANTIFIED SELF AT WORK MY COMPUTER, MY DOPPELTWEETER UNDERWEARABLES THE BUS THE MYTH OF THE ENDLESS LADDER THE LOOM OF THE SELF TECHNOLOGY BELOW AND BEYOND OUTSOURCING DAD TAKING MEASUREMENT’S MEASURE SMARTPHONES ARE HOT DESPERATE SCRAPBOOKERS OUT OF CONTROL OUR ALGORITHMS, OURSELVES TWILIGHT OF THE IDYLLS THE ILLUSION OF KNOWLEDGE WIND-FUCKING THE SECONDS ARE JUST PACKED MUSIC IS THE UNIVERSAL LUBRICANT TOWARD A UNIFIED THEORY OF LOVE <3S AND MINDS IN THE KINGDOM OF THE BORED, THE ONE-ARMED BANDIT IS KING THESES IN TWEETFORM THE EUNUCH’S CHILDREN: ESSAYS AND REVIEWS FLAME AND FILAMENT IS GOOGLE MAKING US STUPID? SCREAMING FOR QUIET THE DREAMS OF READERS LIFE, LIBERTY, AND THE PURSUIT OF PRIVACY HOOKED MOTHER GOOGLE THE LIBRARY OF UTOPIA THE BOYS OF MOUNTAIN VIEW THE EUNUCH’S CHILDREN PAST-TENSE POP THE LOVE THAT LAYS THE SWALE IN ROWS THE SNAPCHAT CANDIDATE WHY ROBOTS WILL ALWAYS NEED US LOST IN THE CLOUD THE DAEDALUS MISSION Acknowledgments Index UTOPIA IS CREEPY Introduction SILICON VALLEY DAYS IT WAS A SCENE out of an Ambien nightmare: A jackal with the face of Mark Zuckerberg stood over a freshly killed zebra, gnawing at the animal’s innards.

By extending the collection of data to once private spheres of personal activity and then centralizing the storage and processing of that data, the net is shifting the balance back toward the control function. MY COMPUTER, MY DOPPELTWEETER November 22, 2013 NOW THAT WE’RE ALL microcelebrities, we all need micropublicists. No mortal can keep up with Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Tumblr, LinkedIn, Snapchat, ad nauseam, all by herself. There’s just not enough real time in the day. The ever solicitous Google is rushing to our aid. It’s developing a software program that will will take over the hard work of maintaining one’s social media presence. The company was this week granted a patent for “automated generation of suggestions for personalized reactions in a social network.”

Every time a network gets quicker, we get antsier. “Every millisecond matters,” says a Google engineer. As we experience faster flows of information online, we become, in other words, less patient people. But impatience is not just a network effect. The phenomenon is amplified by the constant buzz of Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, texting, and social networking in general. Society’s “activity rhythm” has never been so harried. Impatience is a contagion spread from gadget to gadget. All of this has obvious importance to anyone involved in producing online media or running data centers. But it also has implications for how all of us think, socialize, and in general live.


pages: 324 words: 96,491

Messing With the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers, Terrorists, Russians, and Fake News by Clint Watts

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Chelsea Manning, Climatic Research Unit, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Julian Assange, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, zero day

Cornell University’s Social Media Lab found that its students preferred Snapchat to its forerunners Facebook and Twitter because of the platform’s “ephemerality”—their messages were temporary, not permanent, for all to see. Young college students can lower their inhibitions on Snapchat without worrying about their content being dumped in the open for public consumption. One student, Chang, noted, “The network is a lot smaller, and a lot closer. . . . On larger platforms, you have this large diverse group of friends. On Snapchat, it’s very few and it’s very selected. It would be your closest friends rather than a larger network of professors and other students that you met once in a class.”20 The younger generation’s addiction might be worse, but they’ve learned from their parents about what can happen when you post something on Facebook or Twitter that you grow to regret.

Jason Horowitz, “In Italian Schools, Reading, Writing and Recognizing Fake News,” The New York Times (October 18, 2017). https://www.ny times.com/2017/10/18/world/europe/italy-fake-news.html. 20. Katherine Quinn, “Cornell Researchers Study Snapchat’s Appeal,” Cornell Daily Sun (March 15, 2016). http://cornellsun.com/2016/03/15/cornell-researchers-study-snapchats-appeal. 21. Kayla Webley, “How the Nixon-Kennedy Debate Changed the World,” Time (September 23, 2010). http://content.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,2021078,00.html. EPILOGUE 1. Zack Beauchamp, “Trump’s Republican Party, explained in one photo.”

By sharing information, experiences, and opinions, social media was supposed to support free societies by connecting users who could collaboratively work through their differences—or so we were told. Initially, we laud each of these new platforms—YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Telegram, Instagram, Snapchat. Over time, though, each of these applications ultimately introduces unimagined negative outcomes. Not long after many across the world applauded Facebook for toppling dictators during the Arab Spring revolutions of 2010 and 2011, it proved to be a propaganda platform and operational communications network for the largest terrorist mobilization in world history, bringing tens of thousands of foreign fighters under the Islamic State’s banner in Syria and Iraq.


pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WeWork, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

It was an internal “early bird” warning system that alerted the company to start-ups that were doing well, while giving Facebook an unusually detailed look at what users were doing on those systems.4 In essence, Onavo represented a legal form of corporate spying, one that produced intel that Facebook used to both undermine existing competitors and cut untold numbers of new ventures off at the pass. In 2016, for example, Facebook began paying closer attention to Snapchat, the rival that had grown wildly popular among the younger set. Snapchat’s most distinguishing features were impermanence (instead of being immortalized on a “wall” until the end of time, messages sent via Snapchat would automatically disappear soon after being read) and its animated filters (a user could overlay a photo of themselves with, say, cat ears and whiskers). Coincidentally (or not) it was right at this time that Facebook’s own company Instagram launched a feature called Stories, with similar features.

There is no question about it: Our devices and the things we do on them are just as addictive as nicotine, food, drugs, or alcohol, and there is a trove of research that proves it. According to a Goldman Sachs report looking at this effect, the average user spends 50 minutes per day on Facebook, 30 minutes on Snapchat, and 21 minutes on Instagram. Add that up, and think about the effects on productivity and human relationships. Of course, for Facebook—and the apps it hosts on its platform—this is no happy accident. It has all been carefully strategized and executed. The attention merchants want us to remain plugged in, so that they can collect more data about us and our online habits.

And Cook is being somewhat hypocritical when he criticizes his competitors for “keeping people online for as long as possible,” given that Apple tries, with some exceptions, to do that, too, particularly via its promotion of the “freemium” gaming that hooked my son. But in this particular area, it’s true that other companies—Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, and Google—have the deeper problems. That’s because their core business fundamentally depends on data mining by manipulating behavior, using an odd mix of Las Vegas–style techniques and opaque algorithms to keep users hooked.7 These companies truly are attention merchants. We as consumers perceive their services to be free, but in reality, we are paying—unwittingly—not only with our attention but our data, which they go to great lengths to capture and then monetize.8 What is even more alarming, however, is how vulnerable their complex and opaque digital advertising systems are to exploitation, no matter how many people they put on the problem.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Additionally, some of the results such as the UK rock band Black Girls lack any relationship to Black women and girls. This is an interesting co-optation of identity, and because of the band’s fan following as well as possible search engine optimization strategies, the band is able to find strong placement for its fan site on the front page of the Google search. Figure 2.4. Snapchat faced intense media scrutiny in 2016 for its “Bob Marley” and “yellowface” filters that were decried as racist stereotyping. Published text on the web can have a plethora of meanings, so in my analysis of all of these results, I have focused on the implicit and explicit messages about Black women and girls in both the texts of results or hits and the paid ads that accompany them.

By comparing these to broader social narratives about Black women and girls in dominant U.S. popular culture, we can see the ways in which search engine technology replicates and instantiates these notions. This is no surprise when Black women are not employed in any significant numbers at Google. Not only are African Americans underemployed at Google, Facebook, Snapchat, and other popular technology companies as computer programmers, but jobs that could employ the expertise of people who understand the ramifications of racist and sexist stereotyping and misrepresentation and that require undergraduate and advanced degrees in ethnic, Black / African American, women and gender, American Indian, or Asian American studies are nonexistent.

With all of the aberrations and challenges that tech companies face in charges of data discrimination, the possibility of hiring recent graduates and advanced-degree holders in Black studies, ethnic studies, American Indian studies, gender and women’s studies, and Asian American studies with deep knowledge of history and critical theory could be a massive boon to working through the kinds of complex challenges facing society, if this is indeed the goal of the technocracy. From claims of Twitter’s racist trolling that drives people from its platform34 to charges that Airbnb’s owners openly discriminate against African Americans who rent their homes35 to racial profiling at Apple stores in Australia36 and Snapchat’s racist filters,37 there is no shortage of projects to take on in sophisticated ways by people far more qualified than untrained computer engineers, whom, through no fault of their own, are underexposed to the critical thinking and learning about history and culture afforded by the social sciences and humanities in most colleges of engineering nationwide.


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, WeWork, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

These companies are mobile-centric for today’s always-on young generation, leverage the latest technologies in AI and data analytics, and set the pace in innovation and scale. Their business models and features are often ahead of the West and sometimes are copied. Toutiao uses machine learning to distribute personalized streams of aggregated content to online readers, a BuzzFeed with brains. TikTok spins out 15-second music video clips, akin to Snapchat’s Lens Challenges launched two years after the Chinese app. Meituan is a one-stop superapp that rolls in Uber Eats, Kayak, Yelp, and Groupon in a range of services including food delivery, travel bookings, and movie tickets. The Uber of China, ride-hailing startup Didi Chuxing, actually beat Uber in China.

YY helped to invent the livestreaming business model of making money by taking a chunk of revenue from promotional agencies and from fans virtual gifts to performers. BYTEDANCE: The New “B” In today’s fast-moving and intense digital markets, a new, shorter form of livestreaming—15-second music video selfies—has popped up. It’s popularized by Chinese upstart ByteDance, the most valuable startup in the world and a new challenger to Netflix, YouTube, Snapchat, and Tencent, as well as YY. ByteDance founder and serial entrepreneur Zhang Yiming has a knack for anticipating content trends and leveraging artificial intelligence to bring news and entertainment to an entirely new level. His apps leverage machine learning to find out what viewers and readers prefer and personalizes a feed or stream to them that gets more precise with each use.

In China, where Facebook is blocked, users spend well more than one hour daily on the app, more than the average user of Facebook or Tencent’s WeChat and Weibo. There’s also an English version, TopBuzz, with 36 million monthly users. Its short-video platform, TikTok, has surpassed 500 million monthly active users globally.10 And TikTok is ranked as one of the world’s top downloaded iPhone apps, in the top 20 league with YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat, and Messenger.11 TikTok got a boost internationally when its parent company bought and then merged in Musical.ly, a Chinese social video app with a large following outside China. ByteDance founder Zhang, 36, grew up in the southern province of Fujian and graduated as a software engineer from Nankai University in Tianjin.


pages: 600 words: 72,502

When More Is Not Better: Overcoming America's Obsession With Economic Efficiency by Roger L. Martin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, butterfly effect, call centre, cloud computing, complexity theory, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Frederick Winslow Taylor, High speed trading, income inequality, industrial cluster, inflation targeting, Internet of things, invisible hand, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, open economy, Pluto: dwarf planet, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Tax Reform Act of 1986, The future is already here, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, two-sided market, uber lyft, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

Eliminating the competition feels like a natural goal; it means you’ve won. That’s why Intel attempted to eliminate Advanced Micro Devices, for which it was fined by the European Union.9 That is why Facebook is using its deep pockets and huge user base to empower its Instagram subsidiary to “kneecap” its rival Snapchat by copying Snapchat’s core product.10 Managers feel more secure when their customers have no alternative to the product or service they produce. Given that American monopolists from Rockefeller to Bill Gates to Mark Zuckerberg have become among the richest men in history, the appeal of establishing a monopoly is understandable.

Switching to an alternative can be painful and annoying. And there are, of course, the much discussed network effects in the modern economy. It makes lots of sense to use Facebook for your social networking, because everybody else with whom you would like to network is on Facebook, or to pick Instagram over Snapchat, because Instagram is integrated with its giant social-media owner, Facebook. These network effects are not just found in the online world. There is a benefit to you of buying the leading brand in categories like beer, laundry detergents, and athletic shoes, because the leading brand is most likely to be in stock at whatever retailers you visit (whether physical or online).

They can take Uber sometimes, Lyft others, and taxis still others. They can get some of their news through their Facebook feed and still subscribe to their local newspaper. They can use Facebook for some things but rather than use Facebook subsidiary Instagram for their photo sharing, use Insta gram rival Snapchat. They can buy some things from Amazon Prime and others from their local retailer. The natural tendency is the opposite—and that is why we are seeing so many distributions tending toward Pareto. The effect (using Uber or Facebook or Amazon) becomes the cause of more of the effect (using Uber or Facebook or Amazon even more).


pages: 788 words: 223,004

Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson

23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WeWork, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, you are the product

“Can you believe these companies pay all this money for the shit we do?” he was overheard saying in a Brooklyn bar. Smith’s sense of timing in building the business had been uncanny. He had been at the forefront of distribution on every visual platform: first YouTube, then Snapchat, which began as an app for sending promiscuous pictures that disappeared once seen. Vice was one of the first media companies given a privileged placement on Snapchat’s platform. After that, it had colonized Pinterest, another social network platform, which was popular with women and where users posted pleasing images. On top of the advertising revenue, these deals gave licensing fees to Vice for its content, from all over the world.

She looked perfectly cast for her role as digital innovation czar, and she had the technical chops for the job. She was excited when veteran political reporter Dan Balz decided to give Snapchat a taste of the campaigns he covered. I first met Balz in the late 1980s when he was strictly a pen-and-notepad guy, in the pre-internet era. He was a superb reporter dedicated to conveying the substance and importance of national politics. When I had coffee with Haik I couldn’t help but think what Helen Dewar, a Post lifer who had covered the Senate for decades and looked down on anything faddish, would make of Haik or Balz on Snapchat. Haik earned some measure of respect because she had come from the Seattle Times, where she had been the editor of the website.

For one, she was young: “Meet the Post’s Mobile Leadership, a Q&A with Cory Haik and Julia Beizer,” WashPostPR Blog, Washington Post, October 21, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/pr/wp/2014/10/21/meet-the-posts-mobile-leadership-a-qa-with-cory-haik-and-julia-beizer/?utm_term=.19a01fbbcfc6. She was excited when veteran: Benjamin Mullin, “Washington Post Campaign Reporter Dan Balz Brings Viewers on the Trail with Snapchat,” Poynter, July 17, 2015, https://www.poynter.org/news/washington-post-campaign-reporter-dan-balz-brings-viewers-trail-snapchat. She developed her own data collector: “@MentionMachine Tracks the 2012 Candidates: Who’s Up, Who’s Down on Twitter?,” Washington Post, January 4, 2012, https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/election-2012/post/mentionmachine-tracks-the-2012-candidates-whos-up-whos-down-on-twitter/2011/12/20/gIQAPY8r7O_blog.html?


pages: 232 words: 63,846

Traction: How Any Startup Can Achieve Explosive Customer Growth by Gabriel Weinberg, Justin Mares

Airbnb, Firefox, if you build it, they will come, jimmy wales, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, side project, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, the payments system, Uber for X, web application, working poor, Y Combinator

We interviewed Andrew Chen, founder of Muzy (an app with more than 25 million users) and one of the experts in the viral marketing world. According to Andrew, this traction channel is becoming increasingly important as Facebook, email, and app stores have emerged as “super-platforms” with billions of active users each. As a result, companies can go viral faster than ever before. Dropbox, Instagram, Snapchat, and Pinterest are great examples: they all leveraged virality through these super-platforms to acquire tens of millions of users in just a few years. VIRAL MARKETING STRATEGY Viral marketing strategy begins and ends with viral loops. A viral loop in its most basic form is a three-step process: A customer is exposed to your product or service.

Word of mouth drove Facebook’s early growth among college students, before they started building in more explicit viral hooks (email invites, adding your friends via address books, etc.). Word of mouth also causes many movies, books, diets, and TV shows to take off. Inherent virality occurs when you can get value from a product only by inviting other customers. For example, if your friends don’t have Skype, the application is worthless. Apps like Snapchat and WhatsApp also fall into this category. This type of virality comes with the advantage of “network effects,” where the value of the network increases as more people get on it. That is, the more people who are on Skype, the more valuable it becomes. Other products grow by encouraging collaboration.

CHAPTER TWENTY Existing Platforms Existing platforms are Web sites, apps, or networks with huge numbers of users—sometimes in the hundreds of millions—that you can potentially leverage to get traction. Major platforms include the Apple and Android app stores, Mozilla and Chrome browser extensions, social platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest, as well as newer platforms that are growing rapidly (Tumblr, Snapchat, etc.). When mobile video-sharing app Socialcam launched, it suggested users sign up with Facebook or Twitter, promoted user videos on both platforms, and encouraged people to invite their friends from each site. It went on to hit 60 million users within twelve months—that type of growth just isn’t possible through many other channels.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, disinformation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Tragedy of the Commons, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Yochai Benkler

NYC Mayor’s Office of Technology and Innovation, ‘Preparing for the Internet of Everything’ (undated) <https://www1.nyc.gov/site/ forward/innovations/iot.page> (accessed 6 December 2017). Mat Smith, ‘Ralph Lauren Made a Great Fitness Shirt that Also Happens to Be “Smart”’, Engadget, 18 March 2016 <https://www. engadget.com/2016/03/18/ralph-lauren-polotech-review/> (accessed 6 December 2017). Casey Newton, ‘Here’s How Snapchat’s New Spectacles Will Work’, The Verge, 24 September 2016 <http://www.theverge.com/2016/ 9/24/13042640/snapchat-spectacles-how-to-use> (accessed 28 November 2017). Katherine Bourzac, ‘A Health-Monitoring Sticker Powered by Your Cell Phone’, MIT Technology Review, 3 August 2016 <https://www. technologyreview.com/s/602067/a-health-monitoring-stickerpowered-by-your-cell-phone/?

‘Why Not Smart Guns in this High-Tech Era?’ Editorial, 26 Nov. 2016. <http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/11/26/opinion/ sunday/why-not-smart-guns-in-this-high-tech-era.html?smid=twnytopinion&smtyp=cur&referer=> (accessed 1 Dec. 2017). Newton, Casey. ‘Here’s How Snapchat’s New Spectacles Will Work’. The Verge, 24 Sep. 2016 <http://www.theverge.com/2016/9/24/13042640/ snapchat-spectacles-how-to-use> (accessed 28 Nov. 2017). Nichols, John. ‘If Trump’s FCC Repeals Net Neutrality, Elites Will Rule the Internet—and the Future’. Nation, 24 Nov. 2017 <https://www. thenation.com/article/if-trumps-fcc-repeals-net-neutrality-eliteswill-rule-the-internet-and-the-future/> (accessed 1 Dec. 2017).

Your house might be protected by ‘smart locks’ that use biometric information like handprint, face, and retina scans, to control entry and exit.10 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 44 FUTURE POLITICS Although they’re not to everyone’s taste, apparently nearly half of consumers plan to buy wearable technologies by 2019.11 Pull on a Ralph Lauren ‘PoloTech’ shirt and it will monitor your steps, heart rate, and breathing intensity—providing you with personalized performance feedback.12 Snapchat Spectacles and similar early accoutrements, already on the market, can capture what you see in shareable ten-second clips.13 In the future, more sophisticated products will supersede the first generation of Nike Fuelbands, Jawbone fitness trackers, Fitbit wristbands, and Apple watches. ‘Epidermal electronics’—small stretchy patches worn on the skin—will be able to record your sun exposure, heart rate, and blood oxygenation.14 Meanwhile, when you toss a ball around the garden, the pigskin itself will record the distance, velocity, spin rate, spiral, and catch rate for post-game analysis.15 In public, smart waste bins will know when they are full, highways will know when they are cracked, and supermarket shelves will know when they are empty.


pages: 391 words: 71,600

Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

I find that Europeans tend to be far more sensitive about privacy issues, perhaps in part because they recall how personal privacy was utterly shattered by dictators of the previous century. Yes, millions of people are increasingly comfortable sharing personal information with their friends—but that doesn’t mean they’re comfortable sharing it with the world. It’s fascinating to see how the messaging service Snapchat, created by a twenty-three-year-old, has exploded in popularity thanks to its ingenious value proposition: Snapchat lets you share a photograph with friends knowing that the photograph will disappear from the Internet after twenty-four hours. If that’s not a new standard for shielding personal privacy, I don’t know what is. It’s an illustration of the kind of innovative, empathetic thinking we need from leaders in technology, government, and society at large to develop systems and rules that will serve to enhance and enlarge the zone of safety, security, and trust rather than eroding it.

See also specific products Seattle Children’s Hospital, 8, 41–42 Seattle Seahawks, 4 security, 169–80, 191–94, 202, 205, 224, 227–28, 238 senior leadership team (SLT), 2–6, 10–11, 81–82 sensors, 13, 79, 147–48, 150 September 11, 2001 attacks, 172 Serling, Rod, 159 server and tools business (STB), 53–59 servers, 2, 45, 139 edge of cloud and, 89 private vs. cloud-based, 57 privacy and security and, 173, 176 service sector, 240 Shaikh, Saqib, 200 Snapchat Spectacles, 145 Shaw, Frank, 98, 99 Shenzhen, 229 Shin, Jong-Kyon (J.K.), 133 Shum, Harry, 3, 51–52, 82 Sikhs, 19 silicon photonics, 228 Silicon Valley, 12, 21, 24, 26–27 silos, 57, 102 Sinclair ZX Spectrum kit, 21 Siri, 201 Sirosh, Joseph, 59 skills development, 226–27, 240 Skype, 64, 121, 155, 164, 171 Skype Translator, 59 small firms, 217 smartphones, 45, 66, 73, 132–34. See also mobile phones; and specific products Smith, Brad, 3, 131, 170–71, 173, 189 SMS, 216 Snapchat, 193 Snapdeal, 33 Snow Crash (Stephenson), 143 Snowden, Edward, 172–73, 179–80 Social Connector, 137 social contract, 239 socioeconomic change, 12–13 software design, 27, 49 software engineering, 74 solar, wind, and tidal power, 43, 228 Sony, 28 Sony Pictures Entertainment, 169–70, 177, 179, 189 Soul of a New Machine, The (Kidder), 68 South Zone, 37, 115 sovereignty, 170 space exploration, 145–46 Spain, 215 spam filters, 158 speech recognition, 76, 89, 142, 150–51, 164 Spencer, Phil, 106–7 sports franchises, 15 spreadsheets, 143 SQL (structured query language), 26 SQL Server, 53, 55 Stallone, Sylvester, 44 Stanford University, 64 One Hundred Year Study, 208 Start-up of You, The (Hoffman), 233 Station Q, 162–63, 166 Stephenson, Neal, 143 string theory, 164 Studio D, 65–66 success leadership, 120 Sun Microsystems, 26–29, 54 Super Bowl, 4 supercomputers, 161 superconducting, 162–65 supply-chain operations, 103 Surface, 2, 129 Surface Hub, 89, 137 Surface Pro 3, 85 Surface Studio, 137 Svore, Krysta, 164–65 Sway, 121 Sweden, 44 Swisher, Kara, 138 Sydney Opera House, 98 symbiotic intelligence, 204 Synopsys, 25 Syria, 218 tablets, 45, 85, 134, 141.

Companies are taking different approaches with head-mounted computers. Virtual reality, as provided by our Windows 10 MR devices or Facebook’s Oculus Rift, largely blocks out the real world, immersing the user in a completely digital world. Google Glass, for example, projects information onto your eyeglasses. Snapchat Spectacles let you augment what you see with relevant content and filters. HoloLens provides access to mixed reality in which the users can navigate both their current location—interact with people in the same room—and a remote environment while also manipulating holograms and other digital objects.


pages: 284 words: 92,688

Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, disruptive innovation, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, uber lyft, Y Combinator, éminence grise

Trotsky makes it clear that he’s going to change the way they do things, and that, unlike Zack, he has real authority and is not afraid of them. One change has to do with e-books. The blog writers are supposed to coordinate their efforts with the e-book writers. If the e-book team creates a book about, say, how to use Snapchat to sell pet food, the blog should generate articles about Snapchat and pet food, and use those posts to promote the e-book. Instead, Marcia and Jan do whatever they want. They might write articles about Snapchat and pet food, or they might not. Some of it comes down to whether they like the person who wrote the e-book. Some of it hinges on whether they feel the e-book people were polite enough to them or gave them sufficient notice.

I pore through their website, which talks about something called inbound marketing, which I’ve also never heard of. All I can tell is that they make software used by marketing departments. I call around to friends who work in venture capital, who tell me that HubSpot is the real deal. The company is a bit of a sleeper. It’s not as well known as companies like Snapchat or Instagram, but it is run by a bunch of guys from MIT and headed for an IPO. Over the past seven years HubSpot has raised $100 million in venture capital, and its investors include some of the best firms in the business. Its business is booming. “Those guys,” one of my VC buddies says, “are going to make a shit ton of money.”

“The big secret is that nobody knows what they’re doing. When it comes to management, it’s amateur hour. They just make it up as they go along.” Examples abound of tech start-ups trying to bring in more experienced people who end up leaving, sometimes citing a lack of “culture fit.” Evan Spiegel, the twenty-five-year-old founder of Snapchat, a photo sharing application, raised $1 billion in venture funding and realized, or was told by his investors, that he needed to hire people who could run a business and make money. Spiegel brought in veterans from Facebook and Google, then lost eight top executives in less than a year, with some people lasting only six months, according to Business Insider.


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator, you are the product

The founding myth for social media is that they are the heirs to the ‘hacker culture’ – Facebook’s HQ address is 1, Hacker Way – which ties them to rule-breakers like 1980s phone phreaker Kevin Mitnick, the bureaucracy-hating computer lovers of the Homebrew Club scene and further back to maths geniuses like Alan Turing or Ada Lovelace. But Google, Snapchat, Twitter, Instagram, Facebook and the rest have long ceased to be simply tech firms. They are also advertising companies. Around 90 per cent of Facebook and Google’s revenue comes from selling adverts. The basis of practically the entire business of social media is the provision of free services in exchange for data, which the companies can then use to target us with adverts.* This suggests a very different, and far less glamorous, lineage: a decades-long struggle by suited ad men and psychologists to uncover the mysteries of human decision-making and locate the ‘buy!’

In the 2017 UK general election, the Labour Party took a different approach, although the overall aim – to change the information environment – was the same.16 Rather than sponsored ads, Jeremy Corbyn’s fans produced huge volumes of ‘organic’ content themselves and shared it in tightly networked groups, meaning their messages – real things written by real people – reached far more people and were more believable than they would otherwise have been. There was also an ecosystem of left-wing ‘alternative news’ outlets that churned out widely shared and hyper-partisan pro-Corbyn stories. Corbyn Snapchatted during a brunch with the rapper Jme – it seems unlikely that this was an idea that he came up with himself. One of Labour’s videos, ‘Daddy, why do you hate me?’ was a fictional conversation between a little girl and her dad set in 2030, about why he had voted for Theresa May. It was emotive, misleading, mawkish and potentially offensive – and viewed millions of times in two days.

Finally to Catrin, without whom the project would still be thrashing around in the back of my mind somewhere, and who supported me every moment, from start to finish. * In 2017 $95 billion of Google’s total revenue of $111 billion was from advertising, and it’s a similar proportion for Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat. We sort of signed up to this of course, through the exchange: my data for your free service. You let people spy on you, and they give you an incredible service for free. But this exchange is a bit one-sided. Hardly anyone ever reads the terms and conditions they tick, because they’re long and only comprehensible to a contract lawyer with a background in software engineering and one day a week to spare.


pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disinformation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

Moore, “Chatroulette Is 89 Percent Male, 47 Percent American, and 13 Percent Perverts,” TechCrunch, accessed January 7, 2014, http://techcrunch.com/2010/03/16/chatroulette-stats-male-perverts/. Youths send homemade porn to one another: “Snapchat’s Expired Snaps Are Not Deleted, Just Hidden,” The Guardian, accessed January 7, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/media-network/partner-zone-infosecurity/snapchat-photos-not-deleted-hidden. Surveys conducted in 1980: Eli J. Finkel et al., “Online Dating: A Critical Analysis from the Perspective of Psychological Science,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 13, no. 1 (2012): 3–66.

These forums may be tawdry and voyeuristic, but even innocuous connections made on Facebook often belie a sexual pursuit (its progenitor, Facemash, was a game in which Harvard students rated their classmates as “hot” or “not”).20 Explicitly or otherwise, mainstream technologies are now integral to the game. Youths send homemade porn to one another via their phones, while apps like Snapchat encourage risqué photo sharing because they promise to automatically delete images (although, naturally, this turned out to be untrue). This is not a question of simply transferring offline behavior—meeting via newspaper classifieds, for instance, or picking up a stranger in a bar—onto the Internet.

(Capek), 56–57 Russell, Bertrand, 195 Sabinus, Calvisius, 143–45 Sas, Corina, 156 Science, 142 Scoville, William Beecher, 138 search engines, 142–43, 146 Second Life, 104 Seed, 105 Seife, Charles, 145, 146 Sejong, 12n self-documentation, 68–71 selfies, 68 Seneca, 118, 143–44, 203–4 senses, 161, 179, 205 synesthesia and, 62–63 Sergeant Star, 59–60 Sesame Street, 1–2, 3 sex, 104, 164–77 pornography, 83, 88, 168, 169, 174 Shallows, The (Carr), 38, 86 Shaw, George Bernard, 57 Shelley, Mary, 56 Skinner, B. F., 114 Skype, 106 Sloth Club, 204 Slowness (Kundera), 184 Small, Gary, 10–11, 37–38 smartphones, see phones Smith, Gordon, 186 “smupid” thinking, 185–86 Snapchat, 168 social media, 19, 48, 55, 106, 150–51, 175 Socrates, 32–33, 40 solitude, 8, 14, 39, 46, 48, 188, 193, 195, 197, 199 Songza, 90–91, 125 Space Weather, 107 Squarciafico, Hieronimo, 33, 35 Stanford Engineering Everywhere (SEE), 94 Stanford University, 94–97 Statistics Canada, 174 sticklebacks, 124 Stone, Linda, 10, 169 Storr, Anthony, 203 stress hormones, 10 Study in Scarlet, A (Doyle), 147–48 suicide, 53–54, 63, 67 of Clementi, 63, 67 of Todd, 50–52, 67 sun, 107–9 surveillance, 66n synesthesia, 62–63 Tamagotchis, 29–30 technologies, 7, 18, 20, 21, 99, 179, 188, 192, 200, 203, 205, 206 evolution of, 43 Luddites and, 208 penetration rates of, 31 technology-based memes (temes), 42–44 Technopoly (Postman), 98 television, 7, 17, 27, 31, 69, 120 attention problems and, 121 temes (technology-based memes), 42–44 text messaging, 28, 30–31, 35–36, 100, 169, 192–94 Thamus, King, 32–33, 35, 98, 141, 145 Thatcher, Margaret, 74 theater reviews, 81–84, 88–89 Thompson, Clive, 141–42, 144–45 Thoreau, Henry David, 22, 113, 197–200, 202, 204 Thrun, Sebastian, 97 Thurston, Baratunde, 191 Time, 154 Timehop, 148–51, 160 Tinbergen, Niko, 124 Todd, Amanda, 49–53, 55, 62, 67, 70–72 Todd, Carol, 51–52, 71–72 Tolle, Eckhart, 102 Tolstoy, Leo: Anna Karenina, 125–26 War and Peace, 115, 116, 118, 120, 122–26, 128–29, 131–33, 135, 136 To Save Everything, Click Here (Morozov), 55 touch-sensitive displays, 27 train travel, 200–202 Transcendental Meditation (TM), 76–78 TripAdvisor, 92 Trollope, Anthony, 47–48 Trussler, Terry, 172 Turing, Alan, 60, 61, 67, 68, 186, 190 Turing test, 60–61 Turkle, Sherry, 30, 55–56, 103–4 Twain, Mark, 73 Twitch.tv, 104 Twitter, 9, 31, 46, 63, 149 Udacity, 97 Uhls, Yalda T., 69 Unbound Publishing, 88 Understanding Media (McLuhan), 14 University of Guelph, 53 Valmont, Sebastian, 166 Vancouver, 3–4 Vancouver, 8–11, 15 Vaughn, Vince, 89 Vespasiano da Bisticci, 33 video games, 32, 104 Virtual Self, The (Young), 68, 71 Voltaire, 83 Walden (Thoreau), 113, 198–200 Wales, Jimmy, 77 Walker, C.


pages: 338 words: 74,302

Only Americans Burn in Hell by Jarett Kobek

AltaVista, coherent worldview, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, East Village, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, haute couture, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, mandelbrot fractal, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, sexual politics, Seymour Hersh, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996

Through the torrents of suffering, he authored several brilliant books and one unvarnished masterpiece. He inspires us all.” After the interview, HRH went to a board meeting at the Venice Beach offices of Snapchat. Snapchat was a smartphone app that had achieved a long-standing dream of corporate America: cornering the ever elusive market of child pornography. Following a tip received at an orgy full of unattractive men and female sex workers, all of whom were in the thrall of MDMA, HRH had gotten in on the Series A funding of Snapchat. Snapchat was a late-period capitalist innovation: a corporation either worth nothing or everything, and one with such a complex relationship to money that it was impossible to judge the company’s failure or success.

Snapchat was a late-period capitalist innovation: a corporation either worth nothing or everything, and one with such a complex relationship to money that it was impossible to judge the company’s failure or success. The Series A funding had earned HRH a seat on the board. HRH arrived wearing a suit that’d been tailored in London by Gieves & Hawkes. By the end of the board meeting, the suit was so stained that HRH had to borrow clothes from an employee of Snapchat. “There is a curious lacuna in Abigail, and one that is never revealed through the stylized vocals of King Diamond,” said HRH to Celia. “Speak not of the ludicrous sequel. We are not barbarians, madame. We consider texts unburdened by a priori knowledge. As King Diamond sings, we meet the ghost of Count de LaFey, and also his unfaithful wife, and their descendant Jonathan and his wife Miriam.


pages: 411 words: 98,128

Bezonomics: How Amazon Is Changing Our Lives and What the World's Best Companies Are Learning From It by Brian Dumaine

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, call centre, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, corporate raider, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, independent contractor, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, natural language processing, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, wealth creators, web application, Whole Earth Catalog

That means shoppers can see the products they are ordering as well as their shopping lists, TV shows, music lyrics, feeds from security cameras, and photos from that vacation in Montana, all without pushing any buttons or manipulating a computer mouse. The rise of vision recognition technology—voice recognition’s AI sibling, long used for matching faces of criminals in a crowd—will make shopping on these devices even more convenient. In late 2018, Amazon announced it was testing with Snapchat an app that enables shoppers to take a picture of a product or a bar code with Snapchat’s camera, and then see an Amazon product page on the screen. It’s not hard to imagine that the next step for shoppers will be to use the camera embedded in the Echo Show or in their smartphone to snap a picture of something they’d like to buy and then see on-screen the same or similar items along with prices, ratings, and eligibility for Prime shipping.

As the magazine Collier’s Weekly noted: Ibid., 65. As he wrote in 1901: Ibid., 30. By 1903, Roosevelt had persuaded: Ibid., 206. Facebook and Alphabet together control nearly 60 percent: Molla Rani, “Google’s and Facebook’s Share of the U.S. Ad Market Could Decline for the First Time, Thanks to Amazon and Snapchat,” Recode, March 19, 2018. Netflix has penetrated 75 percent of the homes: Sarah Perez, “Netflix Reaches 75% of US Streaming Service Viewers, But Youtube Is Catching Up,” TechCrunch, April 4, 2017, https://techcrunch.com/2017/04/10/netflix-reaches-75-of-u-s-streaming-service-viewers-but-youtube-is-catching-up/.

See also online shopping addiction to, 18–19 addictive nature of Prime use for, 98–99 Alexa use for, 115–16 Amazon.com versus Walmart.com for, 15 Bezos’s disruptive technologies in, 116 Echo Show device in, 116, 117 free delivery and psychology of, 97 integrating in-store and online experiences in, 193, 194–95, 197–98, 205, 213, 270 shift from brick-and-mortar stores to online, 24, 33 showrooming and, 204 Snapchat pictures in, 116–17 vision recognition in, 116–17 showrooming, 204 Sibay, Cem, 96–97, 99, 100, 101 Siegel, Adam, 224 Simon, Bill, 257 Siri voice assistant app, Apple, 108 Sivasubramanian, Swami, 112, 218 six-pager memos, 44–51 Alexa creation example of, 48–50 Bezos’s reliance on, 44, 45–46, 50–51 customer focus of, 44 managers’ positive and negative reactions to using, 46–47 process of developing over the life of a project, 44–45, 47–48 revisions of, after product release, 49–50 60 Minutes (TV show), 178 Slack, 94 small businesses, 145–61.


pages: 531 words: 125,069

The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure by Greg Lukianoff, Jonathan Haidt

AltaVista, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, helicopter parent, Herbert Marcuse, hygiene hypothesis, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, microaggression, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed

Online appendix can be retrieved from http://www.jeantwenge.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/igen-appendix.pdf 31. Arata, E. (2016, August 1). The unexpected reason Snapchat’s “pretty” filters hurt your self-esteem. Elite Daily. Retrieved from https://www.elitedaily.com/wellness/snapchat-filters-self-esteem/1570236 32. Jowett, V. (2017, July 10). Inside the Snapchat filter surgery boom. Cosmopolitan. Retrieved from http://www.cosmopolitan.com/uk/beauty-hair/a9617028/celebrity-cosmetic-surgery-snapchat-filter-boom 33. Crick & Grotpeter (1995). 34. For example: Thielking, M. (2017, February 8). Surging demand for mental health care jams college services.

But Facebook and other social media platforms didn’t really draw many middle school students until after the iPhone was introduced (in 2007) and was widely adopted over the next few years. It’s best, then, to think about the entire period from 2007 to roughly 2012 as a brief span in which the social life of the average American teen changed substantially. Social media platforms proliferated, and adolescents began using Twitter (founded in 2006), Tumblr (2007), Instagram (2010), Snapchat (2011), and a variety of others. Over time, these companies became ever more skilled at grabbing and holding “eyeballs,” as they say in the industry. Social media grew more and more addictive. In a chilling 2017 interview, Sean Parker, the first president of Facebook, explained those early years like this: The thought process that went into building these applications, Facebook being the first of them . . . was all about: “How do we consume as much of your time and conscious attention as possible?”

For girls, the percentage jumped from 27 to 40.30 Another consequence of social media curation is that girls are bombarded with images of girls and women whose beauty is artificially enhanced, making girls ever more insecure about their own appearance. It’s not just fashion models whose images are altered nowadays; platforms such as Snapchat and Instagram provide “filters” that girls use to enhance the selfies they pose for and edit, so even their friends now seem to be more beautiful. These filters make noses smaller, lips bigger, and skin smoother.31 This has led to a new phenomenon: some young women now want plastic surgery to make themselves look like they do in their enhanced selfies.32 The second reason that social media may be harder on girls is that girls and boys are aggressive in different ways.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, independent contractor, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

The 3M One-Piece GPS Offender Tracking System allows police to “efficiently track offenders virtually anywhere, anytime, at varying levels of intensity through a single, compact, body-worn unit.” •  1-800-Flowers for medicinal marijuana? Eaze, backed by Peter Thiel, offers “easy, quick, professional marijuana delivery” on demand. •  Snapchat for adult dancers? It’s called Snapchat. •  Foursquare for attractive people? Instagram. •  Social game for social outcasts? Foursquare. Truly, there is nothing new under the sun. * * * I cursed my rotten luck as I walked along Market Street past the fortresses of the fortunate. As I neared Uber’s headquarters, a motorcycle peloton rolled past.

The most amazing thing about Silicon Valley in the heady days of 2015 was that most people did not laugh in my face when I told them I planned to make billions of dollars in short order with a startup literally no one had ever heard of. In that particular time and place, such miracles were commonplace, at least if you believed the press. Look at Uber! It came from nowhere. Snapchat! Instagram! Facebook! Every story seemed to confirm our national mythos that pluck and progress deliver milk and honey. But that’s bullshit. The only way 99.99999 percent of us are going to become billionaires is through some Weimaresque economic cataclysm that leaves us pushing wheelbarrows full of high-denomination bills to barren grocery stores, where we can wait in long lines to buy stale bread and muesli cut with sawdust.

The internet came through again. I quickly found a half dozen startup idea generators. My favorite was ItsThisForThat.com. Every time you clicked the refresh button, it spat out a new idea. •  Neural Network for Pets! •  Wearable Computer for Ex-Convicts! •  1-800-Flowers for Medicinal Marijuana! •  Snapchat for Adult Dancers! •  Foursquare for Attractive People! •  Social Game for Social Outcasts! The site delivered pitchable ideas in minutes. There was a problem, however: these ideas, absurd though they seemed, had already been done. To wit: •  Neural network for pets? No More Woof is “an electronic device that promises to analyze dogs’ brain waves and translate a few of their thoughts into rudimentary English


pages: 251 words: 80,831

Super Founders: What Data Reveals About Billion-Dollar Startups by Ali Tamaseb

"side hustle", 23andMe, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, business intelligence, buy and hold, Chris Wanstrath, clean water, cloud computing, coronavirus, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, game design, gig economy, high net worth, hiring and firing, index fund, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, late fees, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, QR code, remote working, ride hailing / ride sharing, robotic process automation, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the payments system, Tony Hsieh, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, web application, WeWork, Y Combinator

Wanstrath’s lack of a degree never got in the way of GitHub’s success, and especially not its acquisition: Microsoft’s co-founders, Bill Gates and Paul Allen, were college dropouts too. The trope of the prodigious college dropout is well known. James Park, the founder of Fitbit, dropped out of Harvard. Michael Dell left the University of Texas at Austin after his freshman year, and he went on to found Dell Technologies. Matt Mullenweg (founder of WordPress), Evan Spiegel (of Snapchat), and Jan Koum (of WhatsApp) are also dropouts. Looking at the data, however, most founders of billion-dollar companies were not school dropouts. It’s most common for founders of billion-dollar companies to hold a bachelor’s degree (36 percent) or a bachelor’s and an MBA (22 percent). About one-third have other advanced degrees, like a master’s, medical degree, law degree, or PhD.

Let’s zoom in to look more closely at what these billion-dollar companies are making. Based on data extracted from PitchBook Data (the data has not been reviewed by PitchBook analysts), the largest subsectors were business productivity software (like Slack), social/consumer and application software (like Snapchat), and e-commerce (like Wish, a shopping app featuring ultra-cheap items from wholesalers). Those subsectors were followed by network-management software (like Palo Alto Networks, which creates firewalls for networks, among other products), database management (like MongoDB, a document-oriented database company), automation/workflow software (like UiPath, a company automating manual tasks for enterprise clients), automotive (like Cruise, a self-driving car company acquired by General Motors), and biotechnology (like Indigo Ag, an agriculture company that works with plant microbes, aiming to improve yields).

Founders are regularly told to build a product that addresses a real need. The problem is, no founder has ever thought that their product isn’t solving a real need. All startups position their product as a solution to a problem, and many founders would rather believe that the problem they’re solving is in need of a painkiller. So how were products like Snapchat and TikTok, arguably vitamin pills, so successful? Let’s first understand the differences in these approaches. One strategy is to go after well-defined and deeply annoying pain points felt by customers. Another is to improve on the way something is done, giving customers better value, efficiency, entertainment, or joy.


pages: 437 words: 105,934

#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

But I will also spend a lot of time on social media, which requires some definitional work. Speaking of pornography, Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart famously wrote, “I know it when I see it.” Do we know social media when we see it? Any particular examples will become dated, but Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat certainly count. According to a helpful definition, social media are “Internet-based platforms that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content, usually using either mobile or web-based technologies.”15 Wikipedia fits that definition, because people use it to produce content. YouTube must be included, because people share content there; Flickr and Vine are also examples.

It should be clear that we are dealing with a highly protean category, and its content changes rapidly over time. In 2006, blogs and the blogosphere were all the rage; while blogs exist and remain important, they have far less centrality (and the very word “blogosphere” seems to be a relic, a bit like “rotary phone” or “groovy”). Twitter was launched in 2006, Tumbler and WhatsApp in 2010, and Snapchat in 2011. Social media often have nothing at all to do with politics or democracy (indeed, they are a kind of vacation from it), and to that extent, they do not trigger my principal concerns here. But even if they are wholly apolitical, they might create niches, and niches produce fragmentation. A WORD ON BASELINES Any assessment of the world of the Internet, and any claims about what’s wrong with it, must ask one question: Compared to what?

Properly understood, the case for deliberating enclaves is that they will improve social deliberation, democratic and otherwise, precisely because enclave deliberation is often required for incubating new ideas and perspectives that will add a great deal to public debate. Social media, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat, can be exemplary here. But for these improvements to take place, members must not insulate themselves from competing positions. At the very least, any such attempt at insulation must not be a prolonged affair. The phenomenon of group polarization suggests that with respect to communications, consumer sovereignty might well produce serious problems for individuals and society at large—and these problems will occur by a kind of iron logic of social interaction.


pages: 390 words: 109,519

Custodians of the Internet: Platforms, Content Moderation, and the Hidden Decisions That Shape Social Media by Tarleton Gillespie

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, borderless world, Burning Man, complexity theory, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, game design, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, Internet Archive, Jean Tirole, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Minecraft, moral panic, multi-sided market, Netflix Prize, Network effects, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, Rubik’s Cube, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, two-sided market, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

Here is a representative but not exhaustive list of the social media platforms I think about, and that will be central to my concern in this book: social network sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, Google+, Hi5, Ning, NextDoor, and Foursquare; blogging and microblogging providers like Twitter, Tumblr, Blogger, Wordpress, and Livejournal; photo- and image-sharing sites like Instagram, Flickr, Pinterest, Photobucket, DeviantArt, and Snapchat; video-sharing sites like YouTube, Vimeo, and Dailymotion; discussion, opinion, and gossip tools like Reddit, Digg, Secret, and Whisper; dating and hookup apps like OK Cupid, Tinder, and Grindr; collaborative knowledge tools like Wikipedia, Ask, and Quora; app stores like iTunes and Google Play; live broadcasting apps like Facebook Live and Periscope.62 To those I would add a second set that, while they do not neatly fit the definition of platform, grapple with many of the same challenges of content moderation in platformlike ways: recommendation and rating sites like Yelp and TripAdvisor; exchange platforms that help share goods, services, funds, or labor, like Etsy, Kickstarter, Craigslist, Airbnb, and Uber; video game worlds like League of Legends, Second Life, and Minecraft; search engines like Google, Bing, and Yahoo.

It is our belief that censoring this content is contrary to a service that bases itself on freedom of expression. However, in order to uphold these values, we need to curb abuses that threaten our ability to provide this service and the freedom of expression it encourages. As a result, there are some boundaries on the type of content that can be hosted with Blogger.” Dreamwidth, Medium, Quora, Snapchat, Tumblr, and Twitter adopt similar positions. Users are declared to be largely responsible for what they say, read, or watch; the rules are reluctantly imposed, and only to the degree necessary. The understanding of users and platforms here is an individualistic, mechanistic, and liberal one: the platform must excise the bad, and the good will flourish.

Don’t let a personal issue strain the rest of the community.”20 Trolls often look to game the platform itself: misusing complaint mechanisms, and wreaking havoc with machine learning algorithms behind recommendation systems and chatbots.21 Unfortunately, platforms must also address behavior that goes well beyond spirited debate gone overboard or the empty cruelty of trolls: directed and ongoing harassment of an individual over time, including intimidation, stalking, and direct threats of violence. This is where the prohibitions often get firm: “Never threaten to harm a person, group of people, or property” (Snapchat). Many sites point to the law as justification for their prohibitions against threats and stalking: “We remove content, disable accounts, and work with law enforcement when we believe there is a genuine risk of physical harm or direct threats to public safety” (Facebook). Identifying and discerning the credibility of such threats is of course extremely difficult.


Reset by Ronald J. Deibert

23andMe, active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, availability heuristic, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Cal Newport, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, liberal capitalism, license plate recognition, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megastructure, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, New Journalism, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, QAnon, ransomware, Robert Mercer, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sorting algorithm, source of truth, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, the medium is the message, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/06/skinner-marketing-were-the-rats-and-facebook-likes-are-the-reward/276613/; Davidow, W. (2012). Overconnected: The promise and threat of the internet. Delphinium Books. One case … is Snapchat: Berthon et al. Addictive de-vices. The app’s promotion of “streaks”: Sattelberg, W. (2020, March 14). Longest Snapchat streak. Retrieved from https://www.techjunkie.com/longest-snapchat-streak/ Referred to in social psychology as a Zeigarnik effect: Berthon et al. Addictive de-vices; Montag, C., Lachmann, B., Herrlich, M., & Zweig, K. (2019). Addictive features of social media/messenger platforms and freemium games against the background of psychological and economic theories.

At their core, social media are vehicles for the relentless collection and monetization of the personal data of their users. Social media are so overwhelming and omnipresent in our lives, it may feel like they have been with us forever. Some of you reading this may have grown up entirely within the universe of Facebook, Google, Snapchat, and TikTok and not know what it’s like to live without them. I’m among those living generations that have experienced life before and after social media. I remember standing in a long line with nothing to do but think. Not everything is social media, but social media influence everything else, so prominent and influential is the business model at their core.

As the author of the book Overconnected, William Davidow, similarly put it, “Thanks to Skinner’s work, brain MRIs, and more recent research by psychologists, neuro-scientists, and behavioral economists, we now know how to design cue, activity, and reward systems to more effectively leverage our brain chemistry and program human behavior.”123 One case where these dynamics are clearly illustrated is Snapchat, the popular app in which users post and view “disappearing” images and videos.124 The fleeting nature of the content, combined with the app’s promotion of “streaks,” in which users review each other’s feeds obsessively, encourages compulsive checks of the platform amongst its users to the point where many do so for thousands of days on end.125 Similarly, many social media feeds encourage obsessive scrolling, as a result of the feeds having no defined endpoint; the apps are “designed to maximize anticipation, rather than reward,” a dynamic that is referred to in social psychology as a Zeigarnik effect.126 As with other products where addiction is a factor (e.g., tobacco, casinos), the behavioural modification parts of the story are only dimly understood by consumers, but they are studied intensively by the people who run the platforms and by the social media analytics companies, marketing firms, and PR consultants that orbit around them.127 As New York University professor Tamsin Shaw put it, “The findings of social psychology and behavioural economics are being employed to determine the news we read, the products we buy, the cultural and intellectual spheres we inhabit, and the human networks, online and in real life, of which we are a part.”128 Indeed, psychological experiments on consumers are essential to refining just about all social media and related digital applications.129 It’s not just the platforms alone that zero in on these mechanisms of addiction and compulsion; huge numbers of marketers and PR firms do so as well.


pages: 389 words: 87,758

No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar

Martin Hirt and Paul Willmott, “Strategic principles for competing in the digital age,” McKinsey Quarterly, May 2014. 54. Amit Chowdhry, “WhatsApp hits 500 million users,” Forbes.com, April 22, 2014, www.forbes.com/sites/amitchowdhry/2014/04/22/whatsapp-hits-500-million-users. 55. Darrell Etherington, “Snapchat accounts for more photo shares than Instagram as pic sharing set to double in 2013,” TechCrunch, May 29, 2013, http://techcrunch.com/2013/05/29/snapchat-accounts-for-more-photo-shares-than-instagram-as-pic-sharing-set-to-double-in-2013. 56. Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and James Manyika, “Ten IT-enabled business trends for the decade ahead,” McKinsey on Business Technology 33, spring 2014; Panzarino, “Leaked Uber numbers”; Rodriguez, “Lyft surpasses 1 million rides.” 57.

Kiva, the world’s largest online platform for peer-to-peer microlending, has facilitated loans worth more than $630 million, mostly in the emerging world.51 Kickstarter, a crowd-funding platform that connects entrepreneurs to individuals interested in funding creative projects, has facilitated pledges of more than $1.4 billion to fund 70,000 creative projects since 2009.52 Small or individual registered investment advisors are the fastest-growing segment of the investment advisory business in the United States; they purchase turnkey back-end systems from companies like Fidelity and Charles Schwab to get all the capabilities they need in order to provide direct advice to consumers.53 In markets such as search, e-commerce, social media, and the sharing economy, the low marginal costs of digital infrastructure allow upstarts to build business models with near-limitless scale. WhatsApp, the mobile messaging platform that Facebook recently snapped up for $19 billion, reached 500 million monthly active users within five years of its launch.54 Snapchat surpassed the photo-sharing activity on both Facebook and Instagram with 400 million users only two years after its foundation.55 Sharing economy start-ups are growing at breathtaking speed. In 2013, some 450,000 active users were launching the Uber app every week, and more than a million Lyft users had requested a ride with the tap of a button.56 Traditional players have also benefited from changes in marginal cost economics to enter new markets, grow rapidly, or optimize processes and cost structures.

But Expedia and its peers now face disruption from a new type of business model represented by Airbnb, the peer-to-peer hospitality site. Airbnb’s millions of customers can research, reserve, pay for, and review lodging at hundreds of thousands of locations without needing to interact with Expedia’s platform. Technology giants such as Facebook and Google must also be aware of new entrants. Snapchat, a photo-messaging app that enables senders to set a time limit for how long receivers can view their “snaps” (pictures), was started in 2011. By 2014, its users had proved more prolific snappers than those on Facebook and Instagram, with four hundred million pictures shared every day.24 WhatsApp reached five hundred million active users and handled over ten billion messages per day in 2014, prompting a $19 billion acquisition by Facebook, a move that was as much defensive as it was a strategic expansion.25 BLURRING LINES Technology has long blurred the boundaries between physical and online consumption, shifting value from books to Kindles and from CDs to iTunes to Spotify, where users can stream music without ever formally taking ownership of it.


pages: 279 words: 71,542

Digital Minimalism: Choosing a Focused Life in a Noisy World by Cal Newport

Burning Man, Cal Newport, Donald Trump, financial independence, game design, index fund, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Pepto Bismol, pre–internet, price discrimination, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs

“Whether there’s a notification or not, it doesn’t really feel that good,” Pearlman said about the experience of checking social media feedback. “Whatever we’re hoping to see, it never quite meets that bar.” A similar drive to regulate social approval helps explain the current obsession among teenagers to maintain Snapchat “streaks” with their friends, as a long unbroken streak of daily communication is a satisfying confirmation that the relationship is strong. It also explains the universal urge to immediately answer an incoming text, even in the most inappropriate or dangerous conditions (think: behind the wheel).

The technology industry has become adept at exploiting this instinct for approval. Social media, in particular, is now carefully tuned to offer you a rich stream of information about how much (or how little) your friends are thinking about you at the moment. Tristan Harris highlights the example of tagging people in photos on services like Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram. When you post a photo using these services, you can “tag” the other users who also appear in the photo. This tagging process sends the target of the tag a notification. As Harris explains, these services now make this process near automatic by using cutting-edge image recognition algorithms to figure out who is in your photos and offer you the ability to tag them with just a single click—an offer usually made in the form of a quick yes/no question (“do you want to tag . . . ?”)

Barksdale, 110 media: news, 45–46, 78–79, 222, 233, 238–42 newspapers, 79, 215, 241 Slow Media, 236–42 see also social media Mehl, Matthias, 138 Mennonite Church, 54–57 mental health and psychological well-being, xi–xii, 104–9, 136–41 mentalizing, 135 messaging tools, 147 anxiety and, 105 digital declutter and, 65 email, see email Snapchat, 22–23 text, see text messaging time spent on, 6 metal welding, 194–95 Millennial generation, 106, 218n Miller, William Lee, 87 minimalism, xv, 57 digital, see digital minimalism missing out and losing access to information, 29, 30, 75, 201, 202, 218n, 252 Moment, 102–3 Montgomery bus boycott, 94–95 Montgomery Improvement Association, 94 mood, xi–xii Morse, Samuel, 249–51, 254 Mouse Book Club, 190–92 movie theaters, 112–13 Mr.


pages: 499 words: 144,278

Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, backpropagation, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, disinformation, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hockey-stick growth, HyperCard, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WeWork, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

trio of coworkers: Laura Fitzpatrick, “Brief History of YouTube,” Time, May 31, 2010, accessed August 18, 2018, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1990787,00.html. one person, Bobby Murphy: Alex Hern, “Snapchat Boss Evan Spiegel on the App That Made Him One of the World’s Youngest Billionaires,” Guardian, December 5, 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/dec/05/snapchat-boss-evan-spiegel-on-the-app-that-made-him-one-of-the-worlds-youngest-billionaires. the pseudonymous “Satoshi Nakamoto”: Joshua Davis, “The Crypto-Currency,” New Yorker, October 10, 2011, accessed August 18, 2018, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/10/10/the-crypto-currency.

“I check and I feel bad,” as Pearlman said. “Whether there’s a notification or not, it doesn’t really feel that good. Whatever we’re hoping to see, it never quite meets that bar.” Rosenstein, too, decided he needed to decouple from the distractions of social media. As he told the Guardian, he blocked sites like Reddit, stopped using Snapchat, and even set up parental controls to keep himself from downloading new apps on his phone. His assistant has the password. It turns out there’s some use, after all, in techniques for slowing things down. < Chapter 6 > 10X, Rock Stars, and the Myth of Meritocracy In the annals of coding, Max Levchin is considered something of a colossus.

The first version of Photoshop was created by two brothers; the version of BASIC that launched Microsoft in 1975 was hacked together in weeks by a young Bill Gates, his former schoolmate Paul Allen, and a Harvard freshman Monte Davidoff. An early and influential blogging tool, LiveJournal, was written by Brad Fitzpatrick. The breakthrough search algorithm that led to Google was a product of two students, Larry Page and Sergey Brin; YouTube was a trio of coworkers; Snapchat a trio (or, the level of the code, one person, Bobby Murphy). BitTorrent was entirely a creation of Bram Cohen, and Bitcoin was reputedly the work of a lone coder, the pseudonymous “Satoshi Nakamoto.” John Carmack created the 3-D-graphics engines that helped usher in the multi-billion-dollar industry of first-person shooter video games.


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Open for Business Harnessing the Power of Platform Ecosystems by Lauren Turner Claire, Laure Claire Reillier, Benoit Reillier

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, blockchain, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, distributed ledger, future of work, George Akerlof, independent contractor, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, multi-sided market, Network effects, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, price discrimination, profit motive, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, The Market for Lemons, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, Y Combinator

As illustrated in Figure 2.5, many of them exhibit strong platform characteristics.15 For example, Didi Chuxing (formerly Didi Kuaidi), headquartered in China, and Lyft, in the US, are platforms matching drivers and passengers 16 The meteoric rise of platform businesses Figure 2.5 Private value of platform-powered unicorn start-ups (US$ billions) Source: CB Insights, 1 August 2016, Launchworks analysis like Uber, and both have raised significant private investments. Snapchat is a well-known and fast-growing communications platform that famously turned down a multibillion-dollar offer from Facebook in 2014. Stripe is a fastgrowing payment platform for e-commerce merchants. Platforms power the sharing economy movement Lastly, platforms are at the heart of the emerging ‘sharing economy’ since many enable the redistribution, sharing and/or reuse of excess capacity in goods and services.

We mentioned above Eventbrite’s viral loop of event organizers inviting attendees to their events. After attendees buy tickets, they discover that they can also use the platform to organize their own events. Acquisition of new users through existing users. Product features such as viral invite loops are a great way to tap into existing users’ networks to acquire new users. For example, Snapchat and WhatsApp ask users to invite their friends by importing their contact books. Acquisition of new producers through existing producers. Finally, existing producers can help acquire new ones. In addition to the techniques mentioned above, new content generated by producers can help acquire new producers and users.

Index Accor Group 3, 201, 211 add-on platforms 77, 88–9, 92, 102, 105 advertising 37, 43, 45, 67–8, 93, 97, 99–100, 142, 144, 183 AdWords (Google) 67, 69, 183, 184 Airbnb 1–2, 3, 4, 15, 24, 168, 188; brand 51–2, 153, 169–70; business model 45; credibility 158–9, 163; feedback 35, 52, 160, 179–80; insurance 164; market sizing 79; match 47, 52, 83; value propositions 83, 95, 123 Alibaba 1, 15, 28, 34, 123, 124, 132, 208 Amazon 8, 12, 13, 14, 15, 125; business model 48, 59, 63; conflict resolution 163; ecosystem 28, 57–8, 59–61, 62, 70; feedback 35, 160; home automation 212 Amazon FBA (Fulfilment by Amazon) 58, 61–2 Amazon Marketplace 26–7, 48, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61–2, 84, 111 Amazon Prime 58, 61, 62 Amazon Web Services (AWS) 58 analytics 50–1, 52, 110, 123, 162, 187, 208, 213; see also data capture Android operating system (Google) 58, 67, 185–6 anticompetitive behaviour 173, 182, 186 APIs (application programming interfaces) 52, 183, 197 Apple 5, 8, 13, 14, 28, 193; App Store 32, 38, 63, 64–6; business model 54, 63, 66; ecosystem 63–6, 70, 132; iPhone 63, 65, 123; iTunes 63, 65 application programming interfaces see APIs Ariba 96 Artfire 143 attract 6, 15, 24, 47, 167; ignition 75, 91–6; maturity 75, 121–2, 131; pre-launch 74; scaling-up 75, 105, 107, 110–14, 117 audience builders 24 AWS see Amazon Web Services balance 48, 50, 106, 111–12, 114, 117, 124, 144–7, 150 Bezos, J. 57, 58 big bang launch strategy see event strategy BlaBlaCar 7, 154, 157, 158, 159; insurance 164; pricing strategies 147, 150, 156; scaling-up 112, 115 BorrowMyDoggy 99 bottlenecks 51, 73, 75–6, 86, 98, 99, 100, 101, 108, 112, 116 bowling pin strategy 54, 95, 109 brand 14–15, 51, 76, 118, 153–70 bundling strategies 61, 131, 182 business architecture 22, 66, 74, 80, 91 business models 6–7, 11, 22, 27, 59, 62, 63, 68, 132; platform businesses 6–7, 11, 22, 23, 27–8, 41–54, 70, 87, 138, 146, 177, 199, 200, 212; traditional businesses 62, 73, 91, 193, 211 card platforms 6, 23, 80, 126 catalyst businesses 23–4 Chesky, B. 1, 2, 169 218 Index Choudary, S. 25 communications platforms see Snapchat; WeChat; WhatsApp communities 44–5, 51, 78, 94, 112, 118, 125, 170 compensation strategy see dollar strategy competing platforms 131, 140, 149 competition 22, 25, 121, 130–2, 140, 173, 193 competition authorities 122, 131, 173-5, 186, 197 complements 31, 38, 130, 131 conflict resolution 126, 163, 167 connect 4, 45–6, 62; ignition 98; maturity 97; pre-launch 85; scaling-up 115, 117 consistency 159–60, 203 contributions 78, 82-3, 94, 118 control 52, 53, 123, 140–1, 162 core transactions 49, 52, 85–6, 98–101, 125, 168 correction activities 162 Craigslist 34, 95, 167 credibility 156, 158–9, 195 critical mass 31, 35–6, 37, 46, 73, 80, 121 cultural meme 97 customer acquisition 93, 107, 127; see also platform participants customer experience 36, 48, 53; maturity 108, 111; pricing strategies 139, 140–1; scaling-up 162 data capture 187; see also analytics dating platforms 13, 36, 48, 50, 95, 166, 176 delay strategy 195 Deliveroo 95, 111, 133, 170, 208 demand coordinators 24–5 denial strategy 194 denigrate strategy 194 deter strategy 194–5 Didi Chuxing 15, 132 digital platforms 4, 5, 12, 17, 73, 157, 167 direct network effects 34–5 direct platforms 80 disintermediation 126, 147–8 dispute resolution see conflict resolution dollar strategy 196 dynamic capabilities 196, 199, 200, 201 eBay 4, 15, 22, 48, 49, 53–4; brand 169, 170; business model 21, 27; connect 4, 85; feedback 159, 160; ignition 54; network effects 33, 34; pricing strategies 129, 140, 144, 146; scaling-up 108, 112, 115, 208; value propositions 83, 112 economic value 4, 14, 197 economies of scale 31, 32–33 ecosystems 6, 13, 17, 26–8, 180–1, 186, 207, 211; Amazon 26–7, 57–8, 59–61, 62, 70; Apple 63–6, 70, 132; Facebook 28, 70; Google 66–7, 68–9, 70, 132, 180–1, 185–6; Microsoft 70, 130, 132 enablers 51, 52, 87; ignition 101; maturity 128; pre-launch 87; scaling-up 118 Etsy 84, 87, 94, 110, 132, 146, 210 Evans, P. 14, 24, 25 event strategy 96 ex ante regulation 173, 188 ex post regulation 173 externalities 31–3, 65, 175, 180 Facebook 8, 13, 14, 52, 124, 131, 163, 168; ecosystem 28, 70; ignition 95, 96; network effects 35; pricing strategies 149; scaling-up 107, 166; search results 124 fast follower strategy 199 fear barriers 168–9 feedback 32, 34–6, 47, 77, 98, 100, 101, 108, 110, 111, 125, 160, 165, 188 Fulfilment by Amazon see Amazon FBA gaming platforms 35, 69, 97, 145 Gawer, A. 14, 25 Gebbia, J. 1, 169 Google 7, 13, 14, 67, 163, 180–6; AdWords 67; Android operating system 67, 185; brand 169; business model 50–1, 68; ecosystem 66–7, 68–9, 70, 132, 180–1, 186; home automation 212; search results 125; YouTube 67, 69, 131, 182 Google+ 69, 182 Index governance 51, 76, 140, 165, 167; prelaunch 87; trust framework 155, 157, 162, 164–70 Gumtree 132, 143 Hailo (MyTaxi) 93, 185 HiGear 163 home automation 212 Honda 27 hotels 1, 3, 7, 79, 179–80 IBM 14, 26, 194 ignition 73, 74, 91–102; eBay 53–4; Facebook 95, 96 indirect network effects 34–5 indirect platforms 80–1 innovation 140, 170, 174; maturity 127, 128; regulation 174, 186, 199 Instagram 70, 99, 107, 110, 133 insurance 164 intervention 175 intimacy 156 IT infrastructure 52 key enablers 51, 52 Kickstarter 78, 109, 210 La Belle Asiette 93–4, 99 labour laws 177 Launchworks 21, 157, 206, 208 leakage 49, 126, 147–8 leverage 61, 62, 70, 88, 124–5 linear businesses 6, 12, 41–2, 44, 52 LinkedIn 49, 70, 100, 107, 143, 150, 159 liquidity 33, 52, 143; ignition 99, 101; scaling-up 117 listing fees 144 Lyft 15, 132, 174, 176, 202 management principles 6, 7, 207 management rules 7, 17 market failures 167, 175–6, 187 market makers 24–5 marketplace platforms 12, 15, 48, 26, 59, 61, 85 marketplaces 6, 26, 64, 49, 59, 84, 85, 208 219 market power 37, 173–6, 180–3, 186, 197 market sizing 79–80 Mastercard 5, 23, 26, 80, 134 match 75; ignition 97–101, 115; maturity 124; platform participants 47–8, 52, 84–5, 95; pre-launch 86; scaling-up 114–15 maturity 73, 75–6, 121–2, 127–8 media companies 25 membership fees 139, 143–4 meshed communities 94–5 Microsoft 13–14, 23, 28, 63, 65, 70, 125, 143; ecosystem 70, 130, 132; home automation 212 minimum viable product see MVP monetization 50, 67, 86, 100, 116, 142, 147 MSP (multisided platforms) 25, 46 multihoming 36–7, 149, 176, 177 multisided markets 5, 23–4, 46 multisided platforms see MSP MVP (minimum viable product) 91, 100–1 MyTaxi 93 negative externalities 32, 180 Netflix 26, 197 network effects 33–5, 35, 48, 52, 68, 99, 133, 176; positive 48, 115, 126, 133, 142, 149 networks 31, 33–5 North Star metric 86, 100, 119 on-boarding processes 107–8, 168 Onefinestay 200–1 online platforms 11, 50, 51, 162 OpenTable 93 operating systems 5, 6, 25, 34; Android 58, 67, 185–6 optimize 50, 76; ignition 100, 101; maturity 128, 130; pre-launch 74, 86; scaling-up 116 over-regulation 174 Parker, G. 23, 25–6 partners 45, 79, 128 payment platforms 6, 24, 48 PayPal 95, 131, 187 performance metrics 100, 117, 127 220 Index personalization 124 piggybacking 95 platform balance 111, 117, 128, 144–6 platform businesses 4, 5–7, 11–14, 205, 207, 212, 214; definitions 21, 24–8 platform business models 4–7, 21–2, 27, 45–7, 146, 199, 205, 207, 212, 214 platform development 73, 77, 88; ignition 73, 75–6, 91–101; maturity 73, 75–6, 122, 125, 126, 128, 130; pre-launch 50, 73, 74, 75–6, 77–8, 82–7, 87, 169; scaling-up 73, 75–6, 91, 105–18, 169, 176 platform disruption 193–9, 201–3, 210–11; traditional businesses 132, 193–4, 206, 198–201 platform ecosystems see ecosystems platform fit 75–6, 91, 92, 100, 105, 169 platform management 6–7, 17, 161, 168 platform owners 79, 84, 95, 100, 105 platform participants 35, 47, 48, 51, 78–80, 113, 142, 165; connect 98; ignition 91, 101; match 35, 84, 97; maturity 121–2; pre-launch 78–9, 86; trust framework 51, 158, 160–1 platforms 11–12 Pokémon Go 97 Porter, M. 6, 42–3 positive externalities 31, 32, 65 positive network effects: match 48; maturity 111, 114; pricing strategies 126, 142, 149; scaling-up 117 pre-launch 73, 74, 75–6, 77–8 premium services 142–3 price discrimination 137–8, 143 price elasticity 37, 137 pricing 50, 81, 116, 126–8, 137, 150 pricing friction 141–4 pricing models 139, 141–4, 146 pricing strategies 23, 138–9, 140, 145–50 producer acquisition 108–9 producer retention 108, 121 producers 78, 107–8 Quora 110, 159 Reddit 49, 78, 84, 94, 209, 210, 213 regulation 167, 173–9, 186–9 reliability 156 retention 47, 107–8, 111, 122 risk management 163 Rochet, J. 23–4 rocket model 46, 51, 73, 82, 116; ignition 73, 74, 91; maturity 73, 122; pre-launch 73, 74; scaling-up 73, 162 Ruby Lane 143, 166 SAP 123 scaling-up 73, 105–6, 116 Schmalensee, R. 24 search results 48, 50, 52, 67, 98, 114, 124, 180–1 self-driving cars 67, 211–12 sharing economy 8, 16, 164, 208–11 single homing 36–7 Snapchat 16, 110 Spotify 123 stakeholders 74, 79, 82, 210 start-ups 15 Stootie 98 strategic enablers 51, 101, 118 substitutes 38 talent platforms 205–6 Taobao 124–5 TaskRabbit 108, 148 taxi market 7, 24, 80, 93, 131, 174, 176, 178, 196 Tesco 27 Tinder 13, 96, 166 tipping point 36 Tirole, J. 7, 23–4 traditional businesses 4, 11, 13, 25, 41, 46, 79, 82, 137, 176; platform disruption 38, 193, 198 traditional business models 33 41, 53, 62, 132, 193, 211; ignition 91; maturity 132, 193 transactional platforms 85, 111 transaction fees 139, 143–4, 146 transaction metrics 111, 115, 116 Transport for London (TfL) 177–8 travel platforms 3, 11; see also Airbnb; Lyft; Uber Index trust 45, 49, 51, 84, 87, 99, 106, 115, 121, 130, 147, 153 trust framework 153, 155, 157, 165, 188 Twitter 69, 96, 159, 163 tying strategies 182–3 Uber 11, 15, 22, 52, 108, 177; business model 24, 79; price strategies 81, 140; regulation 140, 162, 167, 174, 177 UberEATS 133 under-regulation 174 unfair competition 3, 174, 180–1, 186 unicorns 15–16 Upwork 47, 88, 126, 159, 169, 206 user acquisition 93, 97, 107–10, 122; see also platform participants user retention 107–8, 111, 122 221 value chains 6, 42–3, 52–3, 202–3 value creation 11, 50, 78, 139, 174, 193, 211 value propositions 57, 63, 82, 112, 196, 197; maturity 112; pre-launch 82; scaling-up 112, 133, 142 Van Alstyne, M. 23, 25–6 VIP strategy 96 viral loops 110 Visa 5, 14, 23, 26, 80–1, 134 WeChat 6, 97, 132 WhatsApp 70, 110 YouTube (Google) 67–9, 131, 182, 183, 186 Zalando 12, 102, 200


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Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

Talking about these events to anyone on the outside, she said, is “seen as the ultimate betrayal.” Men show up only if directly invited by the host, and they can bring as many women as they want, but guys can’t come along as plus ones (that would upset the preferred gender ratio). Invitations are shared via word of mouth, Facebook, Snapchat (perfect, because messages soon disappear), or even basic Paperless Post. Nothing in the wording screams “sex party” or “cuddle puddle,” just in case the invitation gets forwarded or someone takes a screen shot. No need to spell things out, anyway; the guests on the list understand just what kind of party this is.

Alcohol lubricates the conversation until, after the final course, the designer drugs roll out. Some form of MDMA, a.k.a. Ecstasy or Molly, known for transforming relative strangers into extremely affectionate friends, is de rigueur, including Molly tablets that have been molded into the logos of some of the hottest tech companies such as Tesla and Snapchat. Some refer to these parties as “E-parties.” “People ingest Molly like candy during these events,” says a woman who has partaken. Sometimes guests will mix the bitter powder with a fruity drink or stir it into a coconut. MDMA is a powerful and long-lasting drug whose one-two punch of euphoria and manic energy can keep you rolling for three or four hours.

“We have more cachet than a random rich dude because we make products that touch a lot of people,” says Founder X. “You make a movie, and people watch it for a weekend. You make a product, and it touches people’s lives for years. If I’m Miranda Kerr [the very successful lingerie model], I’d think Evan Spiegel [the co-founder of Snapchat who is now Kerr’s husband] is a much more durable bet than Orlando Bloom [the actor who’s now Kerr’s ex-husband].” Bloom is only a handsome, highly paid actor, Founder X points out. That can hardly compare with Spiegel: “He’s a billionaire, and he’s got an empire.” At least on the financial level, Founder X has a point.


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How to Fix the Future: Staying Human in the Digital Age by Andrew Keen

23andMe, Ada Lovelace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital map, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, Firefox, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, precariat, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, the High Line, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

“That’s frickin’ frightening,” Kahle, who was with Cerf and Berners-Lee a founding inductee into the Internet Hall of Fame, warns about this unaccountable online surveillance. “It shouldn’t be a security decision every time you click on a link.” Part of the problem is that Silicon Valley’s dominant business model—essentially the commercial appropriation of users’ data—is profoundly flawed. Facebook, Google, YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat, WhatsApp, and most of the other dominant internet businesses give away their products at no charge and then make all their money by selling increasingly personalized and intelligent advertising around these free products. Of the $89.46 billion in Google’s 2016 annual revenue, for example, $79.38 billion was generated by advertising revenue.

Instead of throwing billions of dollars into quixotic ventures that will supposedly let us live forever, Mark Zuckerberg would be better off trying to confront the global problem of technological behavioral addiction—the “Facebook hook” and “Instagram hook” that the New York University psychologist Adam Alter argues are shrinking our attention span to less than that of a goldfish. Zuckerberg might, for example, invest some of his time and resources in Tristan Harris’s nonprofit movement Time Well Spent, with its commitment to introducing a new Hippocratic Oath for software developers against the invention of addictive apps like Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram. In July 2017, Reid Hoffman and his friend Mark Pincus, the cofounder of the online game developer Zynga, introduced a new group to hack the Democratic Party called Win the Future (WTF). Their goal, according to the online tech website Recode, is “to force Democrats to rewire their philosophical core, from their agenda to the way they choose candidates in elections.”20 But WTF puts the cart before the horse.

And a few days after these European boycotts made news, a number of major American advertisers, including Starbucks, AT&T, Walmart, Verizon, and Johnson & Johnson, joined the defection, announcing an end to their ad spending on Google until the system is made more accountable.9 These actions have the implicit support of Sir Martin Sorrell, the CEO of WPP, the world’s largest marketing company, who remarked that Google and Facebook have “the same responsibilities as any media companies” and could not “masquerade” as mere technology platforms.10 Sorrell, with whom I’ve spoken at great length over the years about this problem of responsibility and accountability, is absolutely right. The fundamental problem about not just Google and YouTube, but also Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and many other Silicon Valley companies, is their unwillingness to grow up and assume the complex responsibilities of media companies. This means not only ensuring that the content on their networks isn’t stolen or hateful, but also guaranteeing that advertisers don’t find their messages attached to offensive or illegal content that tarnishes their brands.


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The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, impact investing, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

Facebook’s above $500 billion: Matt Egan, “Facebook and Amazon Hit $500 Billion Milestone,” CNN, July 27, 2017. See: https://money.cnn.com/2017/07/27/investing/facebook-amazon-500-billion-bezos-zuckerberg/index.html. The Spatial Web A partnership between Snapchat and Amazon: Josh Constine, “Snapchat Lets You Take a Photo of an Object to Buy It on Amazon,” TechCrunch, September 24, 2018. See: https://techcrunch.com/2018/09/24/snapchat-amazon-visual-search/. Pinterest, meanwhile, has a multitude of visual search tools: See Pinterest’s original announcement: https://newsroom.pinterest.com/en/post/introducing-the-next-wave-of-visual-search-and-shopping.

It’s a new form of advertising, either an extension of frictionless shopping, or a novel type of spam, depending on your perspective. The early version of this reality is already here. Known as “visual search,” the feature is currently available from an assortment of companies. A partnership between Snapchat and Amazon, for example, allows you to point their app-camera at an object, then get a link showing either the product itself or something similar, available for purchase. Pinterest, meanwhile, has a multitude of visual search tools, such as Shop the Look, which dots every object in a photo. Like the couch?

Sears Watch Company, 96 Ryan ToysReview (YouTube program), 129 Sacks, David, 17 Sagan, Carl, 212 Samsung, 51 Samumed, 90, 176–77 Sanford, Glenn, 196–97 Sasson, Steven, 43 satellite communications, 152 network connections and, 40 saved time, 15, 70–72 Scharf, Caleb, 215 Scheherazade (gaming technology), 130, 131 Schumpeter, Joseph, 239 Science, 65 Scientific American, 215 screens, new technologies for, 139–40 sea level rise, 232, 241–42 search engines, 71 Sears, 21, 95–98 Sears, Richard Warren, 95–96 Seasteading Institute, 200 Second Life, 86, 248 Sedol, Lee, 36 Sehgal, Suren, 174–75 self-education, computer-aided, 144–47 senolytic therapies, 90, 175–76 senses, content and, 134–35 sensors, 41–44, 72, 136 insurance rates and, 188 smartphones and, 43 Sentry System, 233 Sequoia Capital, 128 serotonin, 247 service economy, AI and, 34–35 severe combined immunodeficiency (Bubble Boy disease), 65, 66 sex, VR and, 248–49 shipping industry, 182 shopping: AI and, 100–106 AI assistants and, 123–24 bricks-and-mortar stores in, 97–98 cashierless, 104–5 discount pricing and, 96, 98 e-commerce revolution in, 98–100 frictionless, 100, 101, 103, 105 “Internet of Things” and, 104–6 rise of mail order in, 95 robots and, 106–8 3–D body-scanning and, 114 3–D printing and, 108–11 VR and, 113–14 Sidewalk Labs, 235 Sikorsky, Igor, 9 Singularity, 76 Singularity University, xii, 8, 264, 266 Siri, 100, 132 Sirius XM, 152 “Six Ds of Exponentials,” 31 Skirball Cultural Center, 3 Skysource, 214 sleep: disease and, 41 sensors and, 41–42 Slingshot, 213–14 smart cities, 235, 245 smart dust, 44 Smart Finance Group, 194–95 smart grids, water scarcity and, 214–15 smartness economy, 85 smart objects, 59–60 smartphones, 100–101 demonetization and, 78 sensors and, 43 smart shelf technology, 105–6 Snapchat, 119 Snapshot (TripSense), 188 Social Glass, 235 Softbank, 14, 40, 46, 107 Solar Cities, 252 solar energy, 10, 63, 78, 214, 215–18 solid state batteries, 222 Son, Masayoshi, 76–77 Song, Dong, 82 Soul Machines, 103 sovereign wealth funds (SWFs), 76 Soviet Union, space race and, 73 space, colonization of, 249–53 space race, 73 Bezos vs.


pages: 177 words: 56,657

Be Obsessed or Be Average by Grant Cardone

Albert Einstein, eat what you kill, Elon Musk, fear of failure, job-hopping, Mark Zuckerberg, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, white picket fence

Or they’re glued to one of so many made-up sagas about cops solving crimes or battles in imaginary kingdoms. Turn those off, and you live in a world where there are more mobile devices than human beings. We are being blasted by 24-7 Internet jabber, Twitter feeds in the hundreds of billions, eight billion daily Snapchat and YouTube videos, trillions of useless posts every day, and now streaming video where everyone can be a broadcaster puking mindless content. Not to mention we’re constantly being spammed with pornography, celebrity fascinations, and bouncing cats. With this much distraction coming at you nonstop, the chance for success is slight.

Most will not take the challenge—this is not for everyone. But it is for me and I expect it is for you. Hit me up on your favorite social media platform with the message “I am obsessed and refuse to have an average life. #BeObsessed,” and I will know you have read my book. On Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, YouTube, and LinkedIn I am @GrantCardone (or just search for “Grant Cardone”). Come and join the Obsessed movement. If you need anything at all, don’t hesitate to reach out to a member of my team. We’d love the privilege of coaching and serving you, whether it’s using our training materials, delivering a live keynote to your organization, working with your kids’ school or college, speaking at your church, or delivering a virtual seminar to your people, and if I can answer any of your questions, I’m here for you.

It offers Grant Cardone’s most extensive sales training curriculum on the web today. With over thirty years of real-world sales experience, Grant Cardone provides a dynamic sales training tool for use in almost any sales situation for teams and individuals alike. FOR FREE SALES TIPS AND MOTIVATION, FOLLOW GRANT! Twitter: @GrantCardone Facebook: /GrantCardoneFan Snapchat: /GrantCardone GRANTCARDONETV.COM Grant Cardone TV provides programming made especially for entrepreneurs, business owners, go-getters, start-ups, sales organizations, and success-minded people who want to control where they get their news and their solutions. This channel is for those who refuse to be spectators and demand to be in control of the content they receive, understanding that the outcomes of life are literally the thoughts that you consume.


pages: 321 words: 92,828

Late Bloomers: The Power of Patience in a World Obsessed With Early Achievement by Rich Karlgaard

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, fear of failure, financial independence, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hiring and firing, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Sand Hill Road, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, sunk-cost fallacy, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Toyota Production System, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor

Social media platforms like Facebook, Snapchat, and especially Instagram play an outsize role in this transformation. They speak directly to the anxieties of young and old adults alike. We’ve long understood that movies, magazines, and television can shape self-image and enforce social ideals, but social media has now become our most toxic cultural mirror. According to an extensive survey conducted by the Royal Society for Public Health, visual platforms like Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat allow young adults to compare themselves to one another and earn approval based on appearances. The study found Snapchat to be the social media platform most likely associated with high levels of anxiety, depression, and bullying.

In technology, whiz kid Palmer Luckey, the twenty-year-old founder of Oculus VR (acquired by Facebook for $2 billion), became a face of virtual reality, while fourteen-year-old Robert Nay cleared over $2 million in just two weeks with his mobile game Bubble Ball. At twenty-six, Evan Spiegel was worth $5.4 billion when Snapchat issued public stock in 2017. But Spiegel has miles to go to catch up with Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, now an elder statesman at thirty-four, who with $60 billion is one of the five richest people in the world. Even in the stodgy world of chess, Norwegian Magnus Carlsen was a three-time world champion by twenty-five.


pages: 391 words: 123,597

Targeted: The Cambridge Analytica Whistleblower's Inside Story of How Big Data, Trump, and Facebook Broke Democracy and How It Can Happen Again by Brittany Kaiser

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Burning Man, call centre, centre right, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Etonian, haute couture, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, off grid, open borders, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, rolodex, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Bannon, the High Line, the scientific method, WeWork, WikiLeaks, you are the product, young professional

Twitter had a new product called “Conversational Ads,” which showed drop-down lists of suggested hashtags that, once clicked on, automatically retweeted the ad alongside the hashtag, ensuring that the Trump campaign’s tweets trended over Hillary’s. Snapchat also ramped up the innovation with “WebView Ads,” which featured a data-capture component asking users to sign up as campaign supporters, allowing the campaign to keep harvesting data and adding to its target audience. Snapchat employees introduced the CA team to a new, inexpensive product it called “Direct Response,” which targeted young people who spent all their time online. If you swiped upward on a photo, it led you to a screen where you could add your email address; the terms and conditions gave all sorts of new data as well. And Snapchat’s WebView Ads and filters (such as selfies you could take that put you behind bars with Hillary) had also been big winners.

., asking survey questions to targeted individuals who had seen the ad) that they could achieve an 11.3 percent favorability for Trump with an online audience of 147,000 people, and an 8.3 percent increase among them in intention to vote for Trump, not to mention an increase of 18.1 percent in online searches by those same people on issues that had been brought up in the videos. Again, those leading the companywide videocast reiterated to us the value of having Facebook, Snapchat, Google, Twitter, and others as part of the team. A new Facebook product had allowed the team to embed multiple videos in one ad. From one such ad in particular there had been as much as a 3.9 percent increase in intention to vote for Trump, and as much as a 4.9 percent decrease in intention to vote for Hillary.


pages: 246 words: 68,392

Gigged: The End of the Job and the Future of Work by Sarah Kessler

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, financial independence, future of work, game design, gig economy, income inequality, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, law of one price, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, payday loans, post-work, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

In 2013, the company raised a $258 million round of funding led by Google’s investment arm, Google Ventures—an amount that Gawker’s tech blog called “stupefying.”3 The $258 million investment seemed remarkable partly because Uber had so little in common with the hot apps of the time, those for sharing photos, turning phones into walkie- talkies, or making social connections on the street. Though some of these “potential breakout apps” sound trivial or silly in retrospect, they all had the potential to become quickly and massively profitable—Instagram and Snapchat both emerged from this period—which isn’t the case for most companies. By the time Facebook bought Instagram, the most successful of my “2011 breakout apps,” for $1 billion in 2012, the photo-sharing service had 30 million users but only 13 employees, including its cofounders. That’s more than $75 million of value per person.

October 2016. 13   From https://gigster.com; since changed. 14   Kalil, Tom, and Farnamn Jahanian. Computer Science Is for Everyone! Obama White House Archives. December 11, 2013. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2013/12/11/computer-science-everyone. 15   Kessler, Sarah. Tech Interns at Facebook and Snapchat Make Significantly More Than Almost All Americans. Quartz. December 5, 2016. https://qz.com/851945/how-much-interns-at-tech-companies-get-paid/. 16   Though Gigster in 2016 announced it would offer freelance workers a way to earn equity in some of the startups they collectively did work for, Curtis never heard anything about how to participate.

See also Davenport, Terrence; Foster, Gary; Green, Shakira; Logan, Kristen Samasource Schneider, Nathan Scholz, Trebor Schwartz, Emma (Managed by Q employee) Schwarzenegger, Arnold Screen Actors Guild self-driving cars Shea, Katie Shieber, Jon Shyp (shipping service) sick days Silberman, Six Snapchat So Lo Mo (social, local, mobile) Social Security SpaceX Sprig (restaurant delivery service) Starbucks Stern, Andy Stocksy (stock photo cooperative) subcontractors Arise and earnings Managed by Q and Silicon Valley and Sundararajan, Arun Sweet, Julie SXSW (South by Southwest) Taft-Hartley Act Take Wonolo (staffing agency) Target TaskRabbit (odd job marketplace) taxi industry EU regulation and New York Taxi Workers Alliance tips and Uber and US statistics See also Lyft; ride-hailing services; Uber TechCrunch (blog) TechCrunch Disrupt temp workers and agencies early history of earnings freelancers versus injury rate Kelly Services (“Kelly Girls”) Manpower permanent employees versus Silicon Valley and “temp worker” as a category US statistics work satisfaction Teran, Dan Tischen (labor marketplace) Ton, Zeynep Trader Joe’s trucking industry Trudeau, Kevin Trump, Donald Try Caviar (food delivery service) Turker Nation (online forum) Turkopticon Twitch (live streaming video platform) Twitter Uber (ride-hailing service) 180 days of change affiliate marketing program driver-led activism and protests Drivers’ Guild and FTC charges of exaggerated earnings funding growth of guaranteed fares history of independent contractor model lawsuits and legal issues “No shifts.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, disinformation, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, you are the product, Zipcar

Now that every smartphone comes complete with a digital camera as good as any point-and-shoot most of us had a few years ago, there is little reason not to photograph something. Into the camera roll it goes, so that later you can perform the ritual triage: Filter or no filter? Tumblr, Instagram, or Snapchat? The ubiquity of digital photography, along with image-heavy (or image-only) social networks such as Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Imgur, Snapchat, and Facebook, has changed what it means to take and collect photos. No longer do we shoot, develop, and then curate them in frames or albums in the privacy of our homes. If we organize them into albums at all, it’s on Facebook or Flickr—that is, on someone else’s platform—and leave them there to be commented upon and circulated through the network.

The relative decline of Facebook usage among young people may be attributed, at least in part, to this growing feeling of stasis. (The influx of older Facebook users, who render the network uncool and easily monitored by parents and other authority figures, also doesn’t help.) Private and ephemeral messaging apps such as Snapchat, Kik, and WhatsApp offer young people—who are already used to cleverly managing their privacy when dealing with prying parents at home—an opportunity to communicate creatively with less fear of repercussion. Like e-mail, these apps aren’t immune to eavesdropping, but they help return communication to a more protected space.

Privacy becomes networked, as each context may have local standards, controls, and practices, but the information itself—the stuff which privacy dictates we have control over—slops over the sides of the vessel, spreading and multiplying. This can happen in many ways. People share things in other environments: a private message is read aloud; a tweet is posted on Facebook; a screenshot or photograph is taken of a supposedly ephemeral Snapchat. Requests to keep information private go ignored. A friend tags you in a photo without thinking about whether you want to be identified in it. Some people don’t know better—they don’t think how their sharing of some information may violate someone’s privacy, particularly as sharing becomes its own kind of sociocultural value.


We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory by Christine Lagorio-Chafkin

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, compensation consultant, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disinformation, Donald Trump, East Village, game design, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, independent contractor, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technoutopianism, uber lyft, web application, WeWork, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

He knew he liked to build things, and on the weekends he liked to hang out with his friends from back in the Y Combinator days, spending afternoons in large groups lounging at biergartens or in backyards, or nights at dive bars or karaoke. All alcohol-fueled, all a blast. Anonymity wasn’t always easy: His friends, such as Justin Kan, Snapchatted and Instagrammed frequently, and given their success, they lived lives at times filled with conspicuous consumption. Kan, along with Emmett Shear and Michael Seibel, sold Twitch, which started way back when as Justin.tv in the Crystal Towers apartments, to Amazon in 2014 for almost $1 billion. That same summer, Huffman and his friends all flew to Ibiza for Seibel’s bachelor party.

As further verification, or perhaps just to be adorable, she attached a cartoon of herself and Ohanian that he’d drawn of them, with red Snoo eyes and little alien antennae. She may not have posted it herself, but Williams—who likes writing in her spare time—said she wrote it herself. In part inspired by Miranda Kerr and Evan Spiegel’s engagement announcement via the platform he’d created, Snapchat, Williams says she floated to Ohanian the possibility of letting the world in on their engagement on Reddit. She’d been wanting to make an effort to be more involved with her fiancé’s work, so one day she said, of their engagement: “Wouldn’t it be really cool to do a blog on Reddit?” Ohanian told her it would be amazing.

A handful of U.S. companies by this time had employees whose full- or part-time job was to manage their Reddit presence, though Jandali was already looking forward to the day when advertisers or their agencies trained up on doing this themselves. He was prepared for third-party ad vendors to pop up to design and sell Reddit ads, the way several had emerged to specialize in selling Snapchat ads and creating product placements there. If Jandali was the calm and steady leader inside Reddit, all dark-rimmed glasses and cashmere sweaters, Ohanian, in flashy sneakers and T-shirts, had begun to serve as a jet-setting hype man. After Huffman shut down Ohanian’s pet project, Upvoted, he helped shift Ohanian’s priorities to include meeting with potential corporate clients.


pages: 268 words: 76,702

The System: Who Owns the Internet, and How It Owns Us by James Ball

Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, Chelsea Manning, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, packet switching, patent troll, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Crocker, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, yield management, zero day

You can look up what trackers are used by different sites yourself by downloading a browser add-on called ‘Ghostery’, which can both identify and block such trackers. Nine of the nytimes.com trackers – ‘Amazon associates’, ‘BlueKai’, ‘Google AdWords Conversion’, ‘DoubleClick Floodlight’, ‘Twitter advertising’, ‘Facebook custom audience’, ‘Google Publisher Tags’, ‘Yahoo DOT tag’ and ‘Snapchat For Business’ – are marked as directly relating to advertising. A trip to CNN loads twenty-eight trackers, fifteen of them advertising. Thesun.co.uk loads up thirty-five, including fourteen ad trackers. And the tech site wired.com fired up no fewer than forty-four trackers, eighteen of them advertising.6 The number of trackers on each site varies depending on how many ad networks they work with, how much data they collect and how their own site is built.

The fear comes from what telecoms and cable companies do on other networks, where they’re not barred from discriminating between different kinds of traffic – charging extra for any kind of premium service. If your cable company can identify which traffic coming to your device is HD video content, it could offer you a ‘premium package’, allowing you to have internet plus HD streaming for just £5.99 a month extra. If it detects your traffic is from Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat, it could offer you a ‘social package’ with unlimited social networking for just an extra £2.99. This could go further. Let’s imagine your telecoms provider is also the company which provides your internet. Would it really want to let you use services like Skype or Facetime, rather than using your minutes, or paying as you go?

., here routers, here, here Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS), here, here Rubenstein, Michael, here Rusbridger, Alan, here Russia, here, here, here, here Sainsbury’s/Asda merger, here Schneidermann, Eric, here secure operations centres (SOCs), here sensitive compartmented information facilities (SCIFs), here Shaw, Mona, here Silicon Valley, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Sinclair Broadcast Group, here Skype, here, here, here, here Snapchat, here, here Snowden, Edward, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here ‘social credit’, here Soundcloud, here South Korea, here sovereign immunity, here Spotify, here Stanford Research Institute (SRI), here, here, here, here, here, here, here Stripe, here Sun, The, here Sun Microsystems, here surveillance, here, here, here, here resistance to, here Symantec, here, here, here Syria, here, here Taboola, here, here TCP/IP, here, here Telefonica, here Telegram, here telephone networks, here, here, here Tempora, here, here TenCent, here, here terror plots, foiled, here Texas A&M, here Thatcher, Margaret, here Thiel, Peter, here, here Tibet, here Time Warner, here, here Times, The, here Tishgart, Barry, here Topolski, Robb, here traceroute, here, here tracking, see cookies trade unions, here, here, here trademark law, here transatlantic cables, here Tribune newspaper group, here Trump, Donald, here, here, here, here Tuchman, Barbara, here Tumblr, here, here Turkey, bans Wikipedia, here Tweetdeck, here Twitter, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Uber, here Ukraine, here Union Square Ventures (USV), here Universal Declaration of Human Rights, here Universal Studios, here University College, London, here University of California, Los Angeles UCLA, here, here, here, here University of Maryland Law School, here US Congress, here US Constitution, here, here US culture, and internet regulation, here US Department of Commerce, here, here US Department of Defense, here, here, here, here, here, here, here US Department of Energy, here US internet infrastructure, here, here US Supreme Court, here venture capital, here, here, here, here funding phases, here funding series, here, here Verizon, here, here Wales, Jimmy, here WannaCry attack, here Washington Post, here, here, here, here, here web addresses (URLs), here, here, here top-level domains (TLDs), here and WannaCry attack, here WeChat, here Wenger, Albert, here, here, here, here, here WhatsApp, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Wheeler, Tom, here, here, here WikiLeaks, here, here, here Wikipedia, here, here Williams, Evan, here Windows, vulnerability in, here wired.com, here wireless internet, here, here wiretapping, here Woodward, Bob, here World Economic Forum, here World Wide Web, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Wu, Tim, here Yahoo, here, here, here YouTube, here, here, here, here, here, here Zittrain, Jonathan, here Zuckerberg, Mark, here, here, here, here, here, here Zynga, here BLOOMSBURY PUBLISHING Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 50 Bedford Square, London, WC1b 3DP, UK BLOOMSBURY, BLOOMSBURY PUBLISHING and the Diana logo are trademarks of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc First published in Great Britain 2020 This electronic edition published 2020 Copyright © James Ball, 2020 James Ball has asserted his right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as Author of this work All rights reserved.


pages: 128 words: 38,847

The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age by Tim Wu

AltaVista, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Ida Tarbell, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, open economy, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Chicago School

The value in any such site would rest in the quality of its user reviews, and as a newcomer, Google didn’t have any of those. It solved the problem by simply purloining Yelp’s reviews and putting them on its site, making Yelp essentially redundant, and also harvesting the proceeds of its many years of work.* Meanwhile, Facebook cloned so many of its rival Snapchat’s features that it began to seem like a running joke. Amazon has a track record of cloning products that succeed so it can help itself to the margins. To be sure, there is nothing wrong with firms copying to learn from each other; that’s how innovation can happen. But there is a line where copying and exclusion becomes anti-competitive, where the goal becomes the maintenance of monopoly as opposed to real improvement.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Recall that social gaming company Zynga and the photo-sharing services Instagram and Snapchat all started off as mere blips on the Facebook platform. But their social sharing and network effects enabled them to grow fast. Growth of this kind often launches a strategic tug-of-war. The platform may seek to absorb the function of the innovative partner and the value it creates by acquisition. As we’ve noted, Facebook succeeded in acquiring Instagram, purchasing the company for $1 billion in 2012; it has (so far) failed to acquire Snapchat, having made a $3 billion offer that company cofounder Evan Spiegel rejected in December 2013.

Our goal here is to provide not a comprehensive or systematic overview but simply a sketch which we hope will convey the growing scope and importance of platform companies on the world stage. INDUSTRY EXAMPLES Agriculture John Deere, Intuit Fasal Communication and Networking LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Tinder, Instagram, Snapchat, WeChat Consumer Goods Philips, McCormick Foods FlavorPrint Education Udemy, Skillshare, Coursera, edX, Duolingo Energy and Heavy Industry Nest, Tesla Powerwall, General Electric, EnerNOC Finance Bitcoin, Lending Club, Kickstarter Health Care Cohealo, SimplyInsured, Kaiser Permanente Gaming Xbox, Nintendo, PlayStation Labor and Professional Services Upwork, Fiverr, 99designs, Sittercity, LegalZoom Local Services Yelp, Foursquare, Groupon, Angie’s List Logistics and Delivery Munchery, Foodpanda, Haier Group Media Medium, Viki, YouTube, Wikipedia, Huffington Post, Kindle Publishing Operating Systems iOS, Android, MacOS, Microsoft Windows Retail Amazon, Alibaba, Walgreens, Burberry, Shopkick Transportation Uber, Waze, BlaBlaCar, GrabTaxi, Ola Cabs Travel Airbnb, TripAdvisor FIGURE 1.2.

, 275 side switching, 26, 198, 299 Siemens, 76, 204, 247, 284 signal-to-noise ratio, 199, 200 sign-up methods, 66, 81–85, 190 Silicon Valley, 16, 76–77, 112, 252–53, 281–82 siloed industries, 176, 178 Singapore, 160–61, 179 single-side strategy, 95–96, 105 single-user feedback loop, 45–46, 100–101 Siri, 147 Sittercity, 47, 122 Skillshare, 4, 96, 111, 122, 124, 212, 265, 266 Skullcandy, 162 Skype, 200–201 small businesses, 72, 276–77 smart grids, 272–74 smart metrics, 201–2 smartphones, 64, 66, 92, 113, 131, 140 Smith, Adam, 280 Snapchat, 217 social losses, 238, 239 social networks, 3, 11, 36, 41–42, 45, 51, 58, 71, 72, 90–91, 92, 95–104, 113–15, 120–21, 131–33, 152, 163, 185, 198, 204, 217, 218, 221, 226, 245, 251–52 software, 33, 52–54, 57, 62–63, 67, 91–92, 95, 125, 136, 137, 143, 151–53, 159, 170, 173–75, 216–17, 219, 254–55, 267, 295 SolarCity, 273 solar panels, 69, 273 Sollecito, Raffaele, 129–30 Sony, 61, 75, 94, 124, 137, 138–39, 178, 211, 240, 246, 259, 270–71 Sony Corp. of America v.


Mbs: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman by Ben Hubbard

Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Donald Trump, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

One was the same cleric King Abdullah had fired for criticizing his co-ed university. Others had been thrown in prison, kicked off of television, or put under house arrest for preaching that strayed outside of the ever-shifting red lines. But the assets they brought to the meeting were clear: millions of followers on Twitter, Snapchat, and other social media platforms. MBS knew well that no other group of Saudis could so easily land Vision 2030 on the screens of so many cellphones across the kingdom. The other group were intellectuals and journalists who played a role in shaping Saudi public opinion by telegraphing the kingdom’s views and letting the people know how their leaders viewed regional and international issues.

Al-Awda had endorsed extremist views during his younger years and done substantial jail time for questioning the religious legitimacy of the royal family and participating in calls for reform. But he had mellowed with age. His books were widely read, he had hosted popular religious programs on television and YouTube, and he had more than 13 million followers on Twitter. Many of his fans also followed him on Snapchat, where the now-grandfatherly scholar had rebranded himself as a cleric of the people and sent out sunny dispatches about Islam in daily life. He had spoken fondly of the idea of constitutional monarchy and encouraged the kingdom’s leaders to cater to their subjects’ needs to avoid an Arab Spring–style uprising.

Mayor Eric Garcetti of Los Angeles expressed concerns over human rights and the humanitarian crisis in Yemen. But few others raised such matters with MBS. Richard Branson of the Virgin Group discussed space travel with MBS in the California desert. Movie and television producer Brian Grazer hosted a glitzy dinner in the prince’s honor attended by Amazon’s Jeff Bezos, Snapchat’s Evan Spiegel, and Disney’s Bob Iger. Another evening, Rupert Murdoch hosted him in Bel-Air with other film and TV executives, directors James Cameron and Ridley Scott, and actors Michael Douglas, Morgan Freeman, and Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson. Johnson later wrote that it had been “a fun night and great to hear his deep rooted, yet modern views on the world and certainly the positive growth of his country.”


pages: 244 words: 81,334

Picnic Comma Lightning: In Search of a New Reality by Laurence Scott

4chan, Airbnb, airport security, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, clean water, colonial rule, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Herbert Marcuse, housing crisis, Internet of things, Joan Didion, job automation, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, Productivity paradox, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, Y2K, you are the product

With the introduction of the ‘Story’ feature across multiple social-media platforms, you can find Aaker’s sneakiness in action, though the branding here is pretty blatant. To cultivate a life of story, call things ‘stories’. In early 2018, Wired magazine announced that ‘If recent trends7 are any indication, the future of social media lives in Stories.’ The fact that this feature’s name has been standardised across the major sites of Snapchat, Instagram and Facebook makes the Story seem organic and separate from any one platform, a pre-existing thing in the world that social media collects, rather than something that their functionality brings into being. Across all the big platforms, the Story has similar features: it is a temporary compilation of pictures and/or videos, usually clustered around an event or theme and displayed as a slide show.

Across all the big platforms, the Story has similar features: it is a temporary compilation of pictures and/or videos, usually clustered around an event or theme and displayed as a slide show. As with Murdoch’s vision of rubble, these compilations attempt to give form to the timeline or newsfeed, gathering similar posts together. But to what extent are they really stories? On Snapchat, Stories are a set of snaps displayed in chronological order. Here we’re back to the bare bones of a child’s basic grasp of narrative – before they know cause and effect, children can understand events arranged in a temporal sequence: this happens, then that happens. Instagram sees its Stories as offering users the chance to ‘share all the moments of your day, not just the ones you keep on your profile’, and in this vision the distinction between real life and narrative is blurred in the branding.

Herzog (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005); ‘human mind is …’, Jonathan Haidt, The Righteous Mind (London: Allen Lane, 2012). 4 ‘we are all …’, Iris Murdoch, Existentialists and Mystics (London: Penguin, 1997); ‘stories that are …’, Paul Zak, ‘How Stories Change the Brain’, Greater Good Magazine, 17th December 2013. 5 ‘storytelling acts …’, Daniel Smith et al., ‘Cooperation and the evolution of hunter-gatherer storytelling’, Nature Communications, No. 1853, 5th December 2017. 6 ‘cultivate a life …’, Jennifer Aaker lecture for Haas School of Business, University of California Berkeley, published March 2017. 7 ‘If recent trends …’, Arielle Pardes, ‘Snapchat Stories Can Now Live Outside the App’, Wired, 23rd January 2018. 8 ‘pandemic’, ‘Are Digital Distractions The World’s Latest Pandemice’, reMarkable, 6th February 2017. 9 ‘live in this …’, A. S. Byatt interview with Ruth Joos at the International Passa Porta Festival of Literature, 24th March 2013. 10 ‘An experiment performed …’, see Carsten K.


pages: 297 words: 84,009

Big Business: A Love Letter to an American Anti-Hero by Tyler Cowen

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, compensation consultant, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, experimental economics, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, offshore financial centre, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, ultimatum game, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

I’ll lay out these criticisms in more detail, but for now I’ll just say that I think the benefits of the tech companies still far outweigh their costs, as evidenced by how few Americans are trying very hard to opt out. In any case, first I’d like to turn to the charges of monopoly and the disappearance of competition. It is easy enough to see that the contemporary tech industry has plenty of firms that seem to dominate a particular area—just consider Google, Facebook, eBay, Netflix, Apple, Snapchat, Twitter, and Microsoft, among others. But what are we to make of this? Are these new tech monopolies as bad as the price-gouging monopolies of yore? At least so far, it hardly seems so. Many of these “monopolists,” if that is even the right word, charge either nothing or much lower fees than their pre-internet counterparts. eBay takes a commission and never has been connected to a zero-charge model, but typically it is much cheaper to put a lot of items on eBay than to cart them around to resale or antique stores and arrange for their disposition by consignment or outright sale.

In other words, when it comes to advertising, the main source of the company’s revenue, Google has to offer a better deal than what went before it, and indeed it has consistently done so, thus accounting for most of the company’s revenue. So what about Facebook? Doesn’t the company have a kind of monopoly on social networks? Well, I belong to or have considered belonging to the following social networks: LinkedIn, Twitter, Snapchat, email, various chat services, contacts lists in my cell phone, Pinterest, Instagram, and WhatsApp, the last two owned by Facebook (I’ll come back to that). Facebook’s main personal page has to compete with all of those. I also use my blog as a means of social networking, and believe it or not, sometimes I circulate in the physical world as well.

profitability short-termism and venture capitalism and See also income; nonprofit institutions publishing Rand, Ayn Reagan, Ronald See also Republican Party Renaissance rent Republican Party See also Reagan, Ronald; Trump, Donald resale price maintenance (RPM) risk-taking Rite Aid Romney, Mitt Russia Sanders, Bernie Sara Lee Saudi Arabia Scrubbing Bubbles (animated characters) sexual harassment Shell shell companies Shephard, Alex short-termism Shu, Pian smartphones See also Apple Smith, Adam Smyth, Joshua M. Snapchat social media 2016 election and advertising and big business and CEOs and economy and effect on American society “filter bubble” and generational influence privacy and trust and workers and See also Facebook; Instagram; Twitter social responsibility Social Security socialism SpaceX See also Musk, Elon Spool Staiger, Douglas O.


pages: 276 words: 81,153

Outnumbered: From Facebook and Google to Fake News and Filter-Bubbles – the Algorithms That Control Our Lives by David Sumpter

affirmative action, algorithmic bias, Bernie Sanders, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Minecraft, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, p-value, prediction markets, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Mercer, selection bias, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steven Pinker, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, traveling salesman, Turing test

For example, the speed with which users move their mouse during routine computer tasks can reveal the emotional content of what they are looking at on screen.11 Principal component analysis can break down the way you are interacting with your phone or your computer, in order to build up a picture of how you are feeling.12 These developments suggest a future in which Facebook tracks our every emotion and continually manipulates us in our consumer choices, our relationships and our job opportunities. If you regularly use Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter or any other social media site, then you are outnumbered. You are allowing your personality to be placed as a point in hundreds of dimensions, your emotions to be enumerated and your future behaviour to be modelled and predicted. This is all done effectively and automatically, in a way that most of us can hardly comprehend.

No one wants to know the probability a kid will start crying.1 I think instead about those people in the park showing each other their Pokémon decks and the blank spaces that indicate the catches they still have to make. People who wouldn’t normally meet each other enjoying themselves together. I think about my 14 and a half-year-old daughter, Elise. She went off the other week to meet a friend from a chat group on Snapchat. Lovisa and I had been worried at first – might this online ‘friend’ turn out to be a 40-year-old paedophile? Our concerns were unjustified. Elise met up with a normal 13-year-old with bright blue hair. This summer she wants to go to visit another friend she has made online who lives in Poland. They often chat on Skype while they do their homework together.

Candid here, here Fair Housing Act (US) here fairness here fake news here, here, here feedback loops here MacronLeaks here post-truth world here, here, here false negatives here, here false positives here, here, here, here Fark here Feedly here Feller, Avi here Fergus, Rob here Ferrara, Emilio here filter bubbles here, here, here FiveThirtyEight here, here, here, here Flipboard here Flynn, Michael here football here, here robot players here, here Fortunato, Santo here, here Fowler, James here Franks, Nigel here Frostbite here Future of Life Institute here, here Gates, Bill here Gelade, Garry here gender bias here, here, here GloVe (global vectors for word representation) here Genter, Katie here Gentzkow, Matthew here, here Geoengineering Watch here, here Glance, Natalie here GloVe (global vectors for word representation) here Go here, here, here, here Goel, Sharad here Google here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here artificial intelligence (AI) here, here, here black hats here, here, here DeepMind here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here ‘Don’t be evil’ here Google autocomplete here, here Google News here Google Scholar here, here, here, here Google Search here Google+ here personalised adverts here, here, here, here SharedCount here Gore, Al here Grammatas, Angela here, here Guardian here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Guardian US here, here h-index here, here Häggström, Olle here, here, here Here Be Dragons here Hassabis, Demis here, here, here Hawking, Stephen here, here, here He, Kaiming here Her here Higginson, Andrew here Hinton, Geoffrey here HotUKDeal here Huckfeldt, Bob here, here, here, here Huffington Post here, here, here Independent here Instagram here Internet here, here, here, here Internet service providers (ISPs) here Intrade here Ishiguro, Kazuo Never Let Me Go here iTunes here, here James Webb Sapce Telescope here Jie, Ke here job matching here Johansson, Joakim here, here Journal of Spatial Science here Kaminski, Juliane here Kasparov, Garry here, here Keith, David here Kerry, John here Keuschnigg, Marc here Kleinberg, Jon here Kluemper, Donald here Kogan, Alex here, here, here Kosinski, Michal here, here, here, here, here, here, here Kramer, Adam here, here Krizhevsky, Alex here Kulsrestha, Juhi here Kurzweil, Ray here Labour Party here, here Momentum here Lake, Brenden here language here Laue, Tim here Le Comber, Steve here Le Cun, Yan here Le Pen, Marine here Le, Quoc here Lerman, Kristina here, here, here Levin, Simon here Libratus here LinkedIn here, here, here, here literature here logic gates here Luntz, Frank here Machine Bias here Macron, Emmanuel here Major League Soccer (MLS) here, here Mandela effect here, here Mandela, Nelson here Martin, Erik here matchmaking here mathematics here, here assessing bias here mathematical models here, here, here power laws here Matrix, The here May, Lord Robert here McDonald, Glenn here, here Mechanical Turk here, here, here, here, here Medium here Mercer, Robert here Microsoft here, here, here, here, here, here Mikolov, Tomas here, here Minecraft here Mosseri, Adam here, here, here Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas here Ms Pac-Man here, here, here Munafò, Marcus here Musk, Elon here, here, here myPersonality project here National Health Service (NHS) here, here National Women’s Soccer League (NWSL) here, here Nature here, here, here Natusch, Waffles Pi here Netflix here neural networks here, here convolutional neural networks here limitations here recurrent neural networks here New York Times here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here The Upshot here, here news aggregators here Nix, Alexander here, here, here, here Noiszy here Northpointe here, here, here, here O’Neil, Cathy here Weapons of Math Destruction here Obama, Barack here, here Observer here online data collection here, here gender bias here preventing here principal component analysis (PCA) here online help services here OpenWorm here Overwatch here, here Pasquale, Frank The Black Box Society here, here Paul, Jake here, here, here, here Pennington, Jeffrey here personality analysis here Big Five here, here, here, here PewDiePie here Pierson, Emma here Pittsburgh Post-Gazette here political blogs here political discussions here, here, here PolitiFact here polls here, here, here, here Popular Mechanics here post-truth world here, here, here power laws here Pratt, Stephen here, here PredictIt here, here, here, here, here, here Prince here principal component analysis (PCA) here categorising personalities here COMPAS algorithm here probability distributions here ProPublica here, here, here, here, here, here Pundit here Q*bert 214, here Qualtrics here racial bias here, here, here, here, here GloVe (global vectors for word representation) here randomness here Reddit here, here, here, here, here regression models here, here Republican Party here, here, here, here, here RiceGum here, here Richardson, Kathleen here Road Runner here Robotank here, here robots here, here, here, here, here, here Russian interference here, here, here Salganik, Matthew here, here Sanders, Bernie here Scholz, Monika here Science here SCL here, here search histories here Silver, David here Silver, Nate here, here, here The Signal and the Noise here Silverman, Craig here Simonyan, Karen here singularity hypothesis here Skeem, Jen here Sky Sports here slime moulds (Physarum polycephulum) here, here, here Snapchat here Snopes here social feedback here Space Invaders here, here, here, here Spotify here, here, here, here, here, here, here Stack Exchange here StarCraft here statistics here, here, here, here, here regression models here, here Stillwell, David here, here Sullivan, Andrew here, here Sumpter, David Soccermatics here, here, here, here, here, here, here Sun, The here superforecasters here, here superintelligence here, here Szorkovszky, Alex here, here, here, here, here, here Taleb, Nassim here, here, here Tegmark, Max here, here, here, here Telegraph here, here, here, here Tesla here, here, here, here Tetlock, Philip here, here Texas, Virgil here, here, here The Gateway here TIDAL here Times, The here, here Tinder here, here, here Tolstoy, Leo here, here, here Anna Karenina here trolls here true positives here, here Trump, Donald here, here, here, here, here, here election campaign here, here, here, here, here, here election outcome here, here, here Twitter here, here TUI here, here Turing, Alan here Twitter here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here MacronLeaks here Tyson, Gareth here van Seijen, Harm here, here Vinyals, Oriol here vloggers here voter analysis here, here, here Wall Street Journal here Ward, Ashley here Washington Post here, here, here, here Watts, Duncan here, here Which?


pages: 665 words: 159,350

Shape: The Hidden Geometry of Information, Biology, Strategy, Democracy, and Everything Else by Jordan Ellenberg

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, autonomous vehicles, British Empire, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, East Village, Edmond Halley, Elliott wave, Erdős number, facts on the ground, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, greed is good, Henri Poincaré, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Bachelier, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Milgram experiment, Nate Silver, Paul Erdős, pets.com, pez dispenser, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, Ralph Nelson Elliott, random walk, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Snapchat, social graph, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

The question then reappears in 2014 as a poll on a bodybuilding forum. The arguments presented on the bodybuilding forum are different in tone from those that appear in the Australasian Journal of Philosophy, but the outline of the controversy is quite consistent; the answers “zero holes,” “one hole,” and “two holes” all command substantial support. Then a Snapchat clip of two college friends getting angrier and angrier over two holes vs. one hole appeared, and started spreading, eventually drawing more than a million and a half views. The straw question showed up all over Reddit and Twitter and in The New York Times. A group of young, attractive, extremely-confused-about-holes BuzzFeed staffers shot a video, and that too racked up hundreds of thousands of hits.

When I asked my friend Kellie about the straw, she rejected the one-hole theory very simply: “Does that mean the mouth and the anus are the same hole?” (Kellie is a yoga teacher, so she tends to see things anatomically.) It’s a fair question. But let’s say you’re one of those bold enough to accept the “mouth = anus” equation. There are still challenges. Here’s a scene from the college dudes’ Snapchat (but seriously, go watch this yourself, I can’t fully capture the beautifully mounting frustration in words and stage directions). Bro 1 is an advocate of the one-hole theory, while Bro 2 is a two-holer. Bro 2 [holds up a vase]: “How many holes does this have? So this has one hole, right?”

It’s a bit too grainy to explain in this space, but in Poincaré’s system the resulting shape has one zero-dimensional hole and two one-dimensional holes, for an Euler characteristic of –1; in other words, the vandalized pants have the same number of holes as the original ones. You got rid of one when you sewed the two ankle holes together, but created a new one encircled by the two conjoined legs. Is that convincing? It’s a Snapchat argument I’d love to see. Chapter 3 Giving the Same Name to Different Things Symmetry is the basis of geometry as geometers now see it. More than that: what we decide to count as a symmetry is what determines what kind of geometry we’re doing. In Euclidean geometry, the symmetries are the rigid motions: any combination of sliding things around (translations), picking them up and flipping them over (reflections), and rotating them.


pages: 159 words: 45,725

Zest: How to Squeeze the Max Out of Life by Andy Cope, Gavin Oattes, Will Hussey

hedonic treadmill, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, off grid, Richard Feynman, science of happiness, Snapchat

‘You would have to surgically remove a phone from a teenager because their whole life is ingrained in this device.’ Griffiths thinks attachment theory, where we develop emotional dependency on the phone because it holds details of our lives, is a small part of nomophobia. For ‘screenagers’, it is FOMO that creates the most separation anxiety. If they can’t see what’s happening on Snapchat or Instagram, they become panic-stricken about not knowing what’s going on socially, ‘But they adapt very quickly if you take them on holiday and there’s no internet,’ says Griffiths. My response to that is you take your teenagers to somewhere with no internet? First of all, where exactly is that ‘no internet’ place?

You can check Will out at www.artofbrilliance.co.uk or you can tweet him at @aobrillwill Index ABCDE exercise 189, 190–1, 205 Adams, Tony 216 addiction 118 adversity 189, 190 advertisement 111 aggression 88 alive time 215 aliveness 173–4 Allingham, Henry 216 allodoxaphobia 103 altruism 209 Amazon 28 anger 69, 167 angst 70 animation 65, 66 anxiety 30, 63, 83, 86, 87 Ardagh, Philip 75 Ardagh Tips 56 attachment theory 114 attention 111, 112 attitude 153, 165 can-do 72 awareness 195 Balboa, Rocky 177 belief 189, 191 Beschaulich 25 body 54–6 boogie woogie 127 bothered, being 71–2, 169 Bowie, David 44 brain 101–2 evolution of 148 fuel 148 healthy 218–20 brain injury 133 breathing 197–9, 205 Brilliant, Ashleigh 201 BROMO 115, 116 busyness 38–9, 40 Call the Midwife 77 can-do attitudes 72 Calment, Jeanne 216 capitalism 111 carers 132–6 caring profession 136 Carlson, Mary 137 celebration 67–8, 131 change, willingness to 173 children 45, 67–8 Christakis, Nicholas A. 96 clickbait 69 Cliff, Jimmy 26–7 Cognitive Behavioural Therapy 190 commitment 163–9 comparison 104–7 compassion fatigue 135 compound interest 150–1 compulsive gambling 118 confidence 61, 62 conflict 118 connectedness 108 consequence 189, 191 consumption 42 content of experience 195 contentment 42 counselling 177 Crawford, Matthew 111 creativity 158 daily challenges 58–9 Dali, Salvador 220 dead time 215 Dean, James 128 depression 30, 62, 83, 88 as self-reinforcing cycle 132 depressive episode 88 Deresiewicz, William 106, 122 despair 167 destination addiction 92 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edn (DSM5) 63 digital detox 117–21 Dillard, Annie 107 disconnectedness 108 dispute, learning to 189, 191–2 Dryden, Dr Windy 105 education level 84 effort 163, 167 ego 194–7 emotional contagion 94–7 emotional soup 96 emotional spillage 96 emotional tolerance levels, normal 88 empathy 147 employee weaknesses 162 emptiness 40, 42, 88 energization 190, 192 enthusiasm 72 envy 104–7, 121 ethnicity 84 eudaimonia 166, 167, 209 euthymia 168 exercise 155 Exorcist, The 195 explanatory style 187–8 Facebook 39, 108–9 FaceTube 39, 128 failure 175 fake news 69 family extended 217 well-being, emotion and 96–7 Feynman, Richard 55 Field, Tiffany 137 flow 9 FOJI (Fear of Joining In)116 FOMO (Fear of Missing Out) 114, 115, 116 food 83, 211 forgetfulness 71 forgiveness 185–7, 204 Fosbury, Dick 81 Fowler, James H. 96 Freud, Sigmund 193 fun 193, 205 gender 84 Gibran, Khalil 20, 121 Gilbert, Dan 101–2 goals 168 Gogglebox 39 Goggling 37–42 Goleman, Daniel 95, 96 good news 68–71 Googling 37–42 gratitude 66 Griffiths, Mark 114 grudges 186 grumbling 61, 185, 186 grumpiness 86 habit 150–2 happiness 62, 72 50/10/40 ratio 83–5 for no reason 209 hacks 210–11 as in-sperience 90–1 instant 166, 167 moment 131–2, 202 sacrificing 166 search for 42, 92–3 as self-reinforcing cycle 132 spectrum 150 thermostat 94 Happiness Pie 83–5 hara hachi bu 217 hard knocks 28–31 Harlow, Harry 137 hate 56–8 haters 56–8 healing 80 health 84 hedonic treadmill 166 hedonism 166, 209 Hicks, Bill 173 Hodgson, Roger 215–16 hope 72, 152–4 House, Oriah, Mountain Dreamer (Invitation, The) 13–16 hugs 137–8 humour, lack of 34 identity 194 of ego 195, 197 illusory self 194 imagination 149 immersion mode 9 imperfections 184 imposter syndrome 36 improvised comedy 129 income 84 individuality 224 inflammation 70 initials, using middle 26 inner strength 75 in-sperience 86–91 Instagram 112, 114, 115, 116, 139 internet addiction 118 irritability 88 Jake, Adventure Time 210 Jamie and the Magic Torch 169 Japan, longevity in 216–17 JOMO (Joy of Missing Out) 116, 117 kalsarikänni see pantsdrunk Katie, Byron 130 Kerouac, Jack: On the Road 53 keystone habits 150, 152, 169 Kim Ki Joon, Dr 114 kindness 57–8 random acts of 57 King, Martin Luther 178, 179 Kington, Miles 218 Kintsugi 183–5, 204 Knopfler, Mark 89 Knudstorp, Jorgen Vig 158 Kool 53 Krishnamurti, Jiddu 196 Lamott, Anne 221 Larson, Gary 104 learned helplessness 154 learning 56 life expectancy 32–3, 216 life satisfaction 167 lifestyle 84 Lightman, Alan 117–18 Logical Song, The 215 London, Jack 223 loneliness 30, 88, 156 longevity league table 216–17 Lucretius 105 mania 88 Manson, Mark 187 marital status 84 Marsh, Nigel 41 materialism 41–2, 105, 197 Mbuki-mvuki 127 mediocrity 88, 165 memories 202 mental illness 62–3 statistics 80 metanoia 80, 81, 82 mindfulness 201, 202 mirror neurons 95 misery 86 modernity 29 MOMO (Mystery of Missing Out) 115 money 42 mood 154 changes 118 morosity 34 motivations 168 Nagasaki, Kendo 194 names 26 meaning of 179–81 Neanderthals 147, 148 negative emotions 70 negativity 61, 62, 69, 72, 165 neocortex 147, 149 neuroplasticity 149 news fake 69 good 68–71 unbiased 70 nexting 102 niceness 57 Nietzsche, Friedrich 138 nightmares 61 NLP 47, 56 nomophobia 113, 114 Normal, being 34–5 normality 177, 204 now, living in the 68, 199–203 Obama, Michelle 57 obesity 155, 156 Oedipus Complex 193 Ogling 37–42 Opening Night Principle 130 openness 95 optimism 72, 83, 152–4, 190 realistic 26 optimistic explanatory style 188, 190 overimagining 149 overthinking 149 Paddington Bear 46 pain 167 panic attacks 30, 63, 87 Palahniuk, Chuck 55 panicking about the future 149 pantsdrunk 139–41 paramedics 136 para-sympathetic arousal 95 passion, finding 158–60 peer review 79 performance review 162 personal development 158 personal responsibility 61 personality 224 pessimism 33 pessimistic explanatory style 188 phobias 103–4 phone separation anxiety 113 physical appearance 84 physical labour 28–9, 30 play 45–7, 225 playground 45 playtime 46–7 Poe, Edgar Allan 155 Poole, Mary 223 positive emotion 70 positive psychology 82, 88, 91, 150, 175 positivity 62, 72, 97 training in 165 post-traumatic growth 178 potential 163 Powell, Richard 184 pratfall effect 138 Pretoogjes 224 procrastination 211 psychological rebuilding 80 random acts of kindness 57 rationalization 147 realistic optimism 154 re-animation 65 regret 225 relapse 118 relationships, investment in 155–7 relaxation 140 remembering 71 retirement 222 Richards, Keith 215 Rogan, Joe 139 roles, social 29 Rose, Axl 174 rumination 149 Schwartz, Kenneth 136 sea squirts 37–8 seeing clearly 26–7 self-awareness 55 self-envy 106 self-harm 30 self-reinforcing cycle 132 Seligman, Professor Marty 189 separation anxiety 113, 114 set point 94 sex drive 88 sharing etiquette 120 sidekick 178–83, 204 silence 112 Simon, Paul 63 skeletons of the past 203–4, 205 skills 165 sleep 160–1 sleep hygiene 160 SLOMO (Slow to Miss Out) 116 small habits 150 smartphone 113–14 detoxing 119 smile 132, 176 Smith, Col. John ‘Hannibal' 3 smoking 156 Snapchat 114 social deviance 128–9 social media 104–7, 108, 111 addiction 118 social networking 118 social touch 137–8 social withdrawal 118 societal structures 29 spontaneity 57 strengths, personal 163 stress 30 about the past 149 Strong, Nancy 135 struggle 167 suffering 177–8 suicide 30 Sunlounger Principle 47–50 superheroes 180–1 Supertramp 215–16 taxes 28 technology 211 compulsion 118 therapy 177 thinking 196, 205 Thomson, Sir Daley 161–3 Tolle, Eckhart 194 Torschlusspanik 94 transformation 82 trauma 84 triumphs 84 Turkle, Sherry 105, 106 Twitter 39 uncommon sense 79–83 unfairness 58 violence 70 vulnerability 175 wabi-sabi 184, 204 Wanksy 128–129 weaknesses, employee 162 whack-a-mole psychology 79, 82, 83 Wilkins, Richard 60 Williamson, Marianne 182 Wired Cosmos 181 wisdom of advancing years 222 worry 64, 149 Zappa, Frank 128 Ziglar, Zig 186 WILEY END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley’s ebook EULA.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, Garrett Hardin, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, independent contractor, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

At the time of its billion-dollar purchase by Facebook, Instagram had raised $57.5 million, was valued at $500 million, and had generated $0 in revenue.14 It did, however, boast 49.6 million likes per day,15 which has grown to 1.2 billion in the ensuing year and a half.16Likewise, Tumblr netted negative $13 million the year it was purchased by Yahoo for $1.1 billion.17 What it lost in earnings it made up for in social traffic of 900 posts/second.18 Snapchat, a social media app with no revenue, turned down a $3 billion offer from Facebook—all for its users’ 400 million daily, dissolving pings.19 Whether or not all that social activity will someday generate true, sustainable profits is still left to be seen. What we do know is that the likes, follows, favorites, and reposts are not as immediately valuable to the people and things being liked as they are to the companies who mine these big data troves for trends.

Hilary Heino, “Social Media Demographics—Instagram, Tumblr, and Pinterest,” agileimpact.org, 2014. 17. Peter Cohan, “Yahoo’s Tumblr Buy Fails Four Tests of a Successful Acquisition,” forbes.com, May 20, 2013. 18. Chris Isidore, “Yahoo Buys Tumblr, Promises Not to ‘Screw It Up,’” money.cnn.com, May 20, 2013. 19. Jordan Crook, “Snapchat Sees More Daily Photos Than Facebook,” techcrunch.com, November 19, 2013. 20. Vindu Goel, “Facebook Tinkers with Users’ Emotions in News Feed Experiment, Stirring Outcry,” nytimes.com, June 29, 2014. 21. Astra Taylor, The People’s Platform: The Culture of Power in a Networked Age (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2014), 205. 22.

See investors/investing sharing economy, 44–54, 218 crowdsharing apps and, 45–49 crowdsourcing platforms and, 49–50 employment opportunities, technology as replacing and obsolescing, 51–54 getting paid for our data and, 44–45 great decoupling and, 53 jobs assisting with transition to computerized society and, 51–52 learning to code and, 51 Shift Happens (Hagel), 76–77 Shirky, Clay, 27 Sidecar, 93–94 Silk Road, 145 singularity, 91 Slay, Julia, 58 Smith, Adam, 212–13 Snapchat, 32 social branding, 35–37 social graphs, 40 social media, and “likes” economy, 31–37 Somerhalder, Ian, 36 South by Southwest, 19 specialists, 178–79 Spotify, 218 Square, 141 Stallman, Richard, 216 stamp scrip, 158–59 startups, 184–205 angel investors and, 187, 188 burn rate and, 190 crowdfunding and, 198–201 direct public offerings (DPOs) and, 205–6 Google’s IPO, 194–95 hypergrowth expected of, 187–91 microfinancing platforms and, 202–4 model for building real and sustainable businesses, 196–98 playbook for establishing, 187 reverse engineering of, 184–86 Series A round of investment and, 188–89 venture capital and, 189–95 steady-state enterprises, 98–123 alternative corporate structures and, 118–23 appropriate size for business, finding, 104–5 benefit corporations and, 119 contracting with small and medium-sized enterprises and, 112 dividends as means of rewarding shareholders and, 113–14 dual transformation and, 108–9 ecosystem as model for assembling, 105 employee ownership of company and, 116–18 extractive bias of traditional corporate model, eschewing, 104 family business model and, 103–4, 231–32 flexible purpose corporations and, 119–20 growth, shifting away from, 103–6 hybrid approaches to attaining, 106–12 inclusive capitalism and, 111–12 low-profit limited liability company (L3C) and, 120–21 not-for-profits (NFPs) and, 121–23 open sharing and collaborative corporate strategies and, 106–7 privatization and, 114–16 shareholder mentality, changing, 112–18 technological revolutions, phases of, 98–102 stimulative economic policies, 136, 137 stock market crash of 1929, 99 storytelling, 236 Strickler, Yancey, 198 student debt, 153 subsidiarity, 231–32 supermarket chains, hybrid strategies for, 109–10 Supplier Connection, 112 surge pricing, 86 synergy, 99 Talmud, 208 Tapscott, Don, 49n Target, 142 TaskRabbit, 222 tax anticipation scrip, 159 taxi industry, 85–86 TD Waterhouse, 176 Tea Party, 99–100 technological revolutions, 98–102 creative destruction and, 83–87 destructive destruction and, 100 frenzy phase of, 98–99 government intervention and, 99–100 irruption phase of, 98 maturity phase of, 98–99 synergy phase of, 99 turning point phase of, 99 Thatcher, Margaret, 64 theAudience, 36 Thiel, Peter, 120, 191–92 This Changes Everything (Klein), 135 3-d printing, 62–63 360 deals, 34 time dollar systems, 161–63 toy industry, 85 Toyoda, Akio, 105–6 Toyota Motor Corporation, 105–6 tragedy of the commons, 215–16 Treehouse, 59 Tumblr, 32 turning point, 99 Twitter, 7, 8–9, 195 tyranny of choice, 30 Uber, 4, 93, 94, 98–99, 188, 213, 219, 222, 229 peer-to-peer commerce enabled by, 45, 46 as platform monopoly, 85–87 pricing power of, 47–48 unemployment insurance, 99 unemployment solution, 54–67 guaranteed minimum income programs and, 62–65 guaranteed minimum wage public jobs and, 65–66 hourly-wage employment, history of, 56 joblessness as feature of new digital economy and, 55–56 questioning need for work and, 56–58 real needs, getting paid to address, 65–67 reducing 40-hour workweek and, 58–60 sharing productivity gains with employees and, 60–62 Unilever, 112, 205 United Steel Workers, 220 Upwork, 51, 200 USA Today,173 velocity of money, 140–41 venture capital, 189–95 Vicarious, 119–20 Victorian exhibition, 20 Volkswagen, 106 Wall Street Journal,7, 8, 37–38 Walmart, 47, 73–75, 110–11 Watson, 90–91 wealth inequality.


pages: 295 words: 89,430

Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom

autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl

The families and I fraternize, listen to music, watch television and eat all our meals together. During these visits—again, with permission—I go through refrigerators, open desk drawers and kitchen cabinets, scour books, magazines, music and movie collections and downloads, inspect purses, wallets, online search histories, Facebook pages, Twitter feeds, emoji usage and Instagram and Snapchat accounts. In the search for what I call small data, almost nothing is off-limits. I’ve gone so far as to interview consumers through text-messaging—a study shows that people lie less frequently in texts3—though I’m far more likely to take people by surprise by inspecting their microwave ovens and glass and plastic recycling cans.

My research revealed that girls spent around 80 percent of their waking hours mulling what they wore that day, what they were thinking about wearing the next day and clothing in general—a somewhat shocking statistic. They were also online anywhere from two to three hours a day visiting their favorite fashion retailers, websites and Tumblr blogs. Swiss girls were preoccupied by British and German fashion websites, as well as Tumblr, Instagram and Snapchat, while eastern European girls tracked Scandinavian websites. Most girls knew the fashion world intimately well, including the names of the top models, and kept an official or unofficial wish list of outfits they wanted to buy but couldn’t afford. This same preoccupation with fashion could be seen with their smartphones themselves, beginning with their covers, which were plastered with stickers and decals, and extending to the apps: color-matching apps, apps that matched lipstick hues to clothing, apps that gave the locations of the hottest clubs in town and apps offering techniques to improve a girl’s appearance or make her look slimmer than she was.

See also Subtext Research smartphones, 18, 43, 49, 59, 65, 153, 155 and escape/transformation, 64, 188 feature phones, 88–9 prevalence of, 57–8, 153 social media, 8, 14, 18, 43–5, 49, 61, 130, 145, 152, 162, 196, 220 and adolescent girls, 152, 154, 157 and dressing rooms, 167–8 Facebook, 18, 88, 130, 152, 154, 157, 162, 220, 221, 215 and identity, 13–14, 221, 226–7 Instagram, 5, 130, 152, 155, 221, 226 and maskenfreiheit (freedom conferred by masks), 13 Periscope, 164 as reflection of beliefs and biases, 219 and self-esteem, 215 Snapchat, 5, 155 Twitter, 5, 8, 130, 207, 226 and Uber, 225–6 VKontakte.com (VK), 43–4 “What Color Is This Dress?” photo, 207–8, 219 YouTube, 12, 128, 154, 164 See also selfies somatic markers, 65–7, 116, 176–7 sound, 26, 28, 41, 196–8, 204–5 South America, 52–3, 124, 141–2, 177, 212.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Since they all have access to the same information, they can all innovate from there. Hundreds of companies now use viral marketing to distribute a wide variety of product categories. Any product that is communications based uses viral marketing. The AT&T Friends and Family marketing program, the LinkedIn network and the Twitter hashtag are some obvious examples. Facebook and Snapchat use viral marketing to share photos. The founders of Skype implemented several viral elements in growing their audio business and even more when Skype video was introduced. The Skype Video Story I was fascinated by the new peer-to-peer technology that allowed people to share files. I met with Napster, Streamcast, and Grokster as I researched the industry.

Several well-known companies succeeded by creating early success with 16 year olds. When he announced the first Macintosh computer, Steve Jobs targeted high school students, giving them deep discounts on the revolutionary computers. Facebook started with only students in top colleges, but it didn’t really take off until it was opened up to high schoolers. Snapchat was the way high schoolers could share photos and ideas that would disappear after a few seconds, so they wouldn’t be held accountable for anything they said or did on the app. All of these companies hit a teenage nerve, and became or may well become multihundred-billion-dollar businesses. High schoolers set trends that become generational industries if they are properly groomed and cared for.

People could only get Tupperware products if they became sales reps for the product. As sales reps, they were encouraged to throw Tupperware parties to better sell the product. There are many other recent examples of customers becoming the sales force of companies. Every time you take a photo and put it up on Instagram or Facebook or Snapchat, you are spreading their service to your followers. Every time you write a tweet, you are spreading the use of Twitter. Kik and Tango are two services that allow people to get free video calls, but any call that is made on those platforms adds a new customer to Kik or Tango. If you provide these companies with your contacts, their user base spreads, but you can more easily reach your friends.


pages: 307 words: 90,634

Insane Mode: How Elon Musk's Tesla Sparked an Electric Revolution to End the Age of Oil by Hamish McKenzie

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, connected car, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, South China Sea, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Zipcar

People could not only use the app to talk to friends but also to pay bills, order taxis, buy shoes, and send money to their peers, among many other things. By then, Snapchat founder Evan Spiegel had pointed to Tencent as a “role model,” Facebook executive Stan Chudnovsky referred to WeChat as an inspiration for Facebook Messenger, and Kik, a company I worked for part-time, had declared its intention to be the “WeChat of the West.” (Tencent later invested in both Kik and Snapchat.) In the same period, Xiaomi had grown like crazy—in 2015, it sold more than seventy million smartphones—and was briefly (prior to Uber) the world’s most valuable start-up before losing some ground thanks to intensified competition in the smartphone market.

See autonomous vehicles Self-Driving Coalition for Safer Streets, 269 shale, oil from, 216 Shapiro, Danny, 110 Shen, Tiger, 145–147 Shenzhen (China), development of, 128–130 Shirley, Craig, 229 Sierra Club, 46 Silicon Valley Apple and, 105–106, 111–113 entrepreneurial mindset in, 105–111 Fremont development and, 79, 108–109 Singer, Fred, 212 Singulato Motors, 145–147, 267 Sinotel Technologies, 92 smart electric vehicles (SEV), 134, 136–137 Smart microcar (Daimler), 77–79 Snapchat, 141 Snyder, Rick, 49 software, importance to cars, 263–264 SolarCity Buffett’s dispute with, 209 innovation of, 6 products of, 8–9 Tesla acquisition of, 249 solar energy. See also SolarCity Powerpacks and Powerwalls, 195–197 solar shingles, 253 Superchargers and solar canopies, 56 Solyndra, 230 Sommer, Joerg, 243 Soon, Willie, 212 SpaceX capital for inception of, 24 Dragon spacecraft, 85 early financial issues, 76 future of, 251 innovation of, 6, 17 International Space Station contract of, 76 Musk on moral mission of, 32–33 Tesla engineering space at, 121 Sperling, Dan, 104 Spiegel, Evan, 141 Spiegel, Mark, 228 Sproule, Simon, 155–157 steam-powered cars, 29 Stone, Peter, 213 StopElonFromFailingAgain.com, 229 Straubel, JB on battery costs, 172–174 on car software, 264 Gigafactory and, 203 Musk and, 27 Tesla inception and, 63–66 Tesla’s financial investors and, 77, 78 Tesla’s influence on automobile industry and, 178–181 Strickland, Bill, 243 Strickland, David, 269 Stross, Randall, 34 Summey, Brad, 227 Sunac, 242 Suning, 236 Superchargers China network of, 151 Tesla’s plans for, 184 U.S. network of, 12, 55–59 worldwide network for, 166 Super League, 241 supertanker analogy, 176 Suskewicz, Josh, 55 Tarpenning, Mark, 65–66, 69 Tata Motors, 250 TechCrunch, on Faraday Future, 87–93, 96–97 TechCrunch Disrupt conference, 178–181 Tencent, 98, 111, 127–128, 140–141, 143, 236 TerraE, 200 Tesla, Nikola, 66 Tesla Motors, 63–82.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, WeWork, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

There are a number of consequences we have already observed that flow directly from these three invariants: the separation of information from its physical artifacts as witnessed in the music, video entertainment, and publishing industries with the emergence of pure digital products delivered via iTunes, Netflix, and Amazon’s Kindle; the creation of powerful shared digital platforms, ranging from Google Maps to Amazon; and the emergence of increasingly rich digital spaces like Facebook, Snapchat, and WeChat for human interaction of increasing complexity.6 I outline four additional consequences of these digital forces that I believe are fundamental to the emergence and sustained evolution of crowd-based capitalism. They are: (1) the consumerization of the digital; (2) the digitization of the physical; (3) the emergence of decentralized peer-to-peer, and (4) the digitization of trust.

As he notes in an Ethereum Blog post in April 2014, “It is important to first understand that, in the space of tech companies and especially social networking startups, a large number of them are literally backed by almost nothing but social consensus.” He then goes on to explain: Theoretically, it is entirely possible for all of the employees at Snapchat, Tinder, Twitter or any other such startup to all suddenly agree to quit and start their own business, completely rebuild all of the software from scratch within months, and then immediately proceed to build a superior product. The only reason why such companies have any valuation at all is a set of two coordination problems: the problem of getting all employees to quit at the same time, and the problem of getting all of the customers to simultaneously move over onto the new network.

., 131, 133 Scholz, Trebor, 196–197 Schor, Juliet, 6, 198, 208n12 Schwab, Klaus, 205 Scorpio, Jessica, 14 Search engines, 96–97 Second Machine Age, The (Brynjolfsson and McAfee), 165–166 Self-employed persons, 4–5 Self-regulatory organizations (SROs), 152–154, 221–222n25–26 Service platforms, 43–44 Shaffer, Alicia, 107, 177 Shaheen, Susan, 14, 110 Shapiro, Craig, 26, 118 Shapeways, 58 Shareable, 15 “‘Sharing Nicely’: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production” (Benkler), 30, 37 Sharp, Kristin, 161 SherpaShare, 84, 159 Shirky, Clay, 105, 114–115, 117 Shyp, 12, 160, 183 SideCar, 149, 154, 195 Silk Road, 86 Simon, Herbert, 71, 164–165 Sinders, Vanessa, 134 Sjogren, Karl, 199 Skill-biased technical change (SBTC), 166 Skillshare, 82 Small, Jara, 16 Smart contracts, 92–94 Smiley, Lauren, 189 Smith, Adam, 49, 70, 71, 118 Smith, Michael D., 112 Snapchat, 54 Snapgoods, 14 SnappCar, 3, 80 Social capital, 62, 64, 140 Social Capital Markets conference (SOCAP), 198–199 Social cohesion, 36 Social Progress Index, 111 Social safety net, new, 187–192 Sokolowsky, Oren, 94 Spare5, 114 Spotify, 2, 91 SpotOn, 107–108 SROs. See Self-regulatory organizations (SROs) Stancil, Benn, 156 Stangler, Dane, 108 Stein, Joel, 3–4 Stephany, Alex, 28, 29–30, 35 Stern, Andy, 187 “Stranger sharing Street, Satsuma, 106 Strickler, Yancey, 41 Stucke, Maurice, 120 StyleLend, 15–16, 44 Suicide (Durkheim), 45 Sunkist, 197 SupplyDemanded.com, 49 Surowecki, James, 19 Sustainable Economies Law Center (SELC), 196 Swallow, Erica, 3 Swalwell, Eric, 137 Swan, Melanie, 93 Swarm, 199 Swift, 197 Taaki, Amir, 85–86 Tadelis, Steve, 61 “Tales from the Sharing Economy” (Stein), 3 Tambe, Prasanna, 75, 113 Tanz, Jason, 60 TaskRabbit, 3, 11, 77, 114, 157, 183, 197.


pages: 297 words: 88,890

Can't Even: How Millennials Became the Burnout Generation by Anne Helen Petersen

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, big-box store, Cal Newport, call centre, collective bargaining, Covid-19, COVID-19, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, financial independence, future of work, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, helicopter parent, Inbox Zero, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, precariat, remote working, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, school choice, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Vanguard fund, working poor

For years, if you wanted to read more on Facebook or Twitter or Instagram, you’d have to refresh the site; in 2010, Loren Brichter introduced the “pull to refresh” function on the Tweetie app, which has now become standard on social media apps and beyond. These days, “pull to refresh” isn’t really necessary—there’s technology that could automatically refresh your app—but it functions as a sort of slot machine lever, keeping the user engaged far beyond when they’d normally have clicked out of the app. Again, it wasn’t always this way. Snapchat didn’t always alert you when someone was simply typing. News sites didn’t always send push alerts. Neither did apps for meditation, or Starbucks, or dating, or the New England Patriots, or learning Spanish, or the number matching game 2048. Sephora didn’t alert you when you were close to a store, and Google didn’t ask you to rate your subway trip after you finished it.

Facebook is toxic, Facebook is political—and the knowledge of the ways the company has exploited our personal information is too difficult to ignore. Most of my millennial friends have started using it almost exclusively for the groups: private, public, and secret, oriented around podcasts and hobbies and discussion interests. A portion of young millennials still use Snapchat; Twitter remains the compulsion of choice for many writers and academics and wonks; Pinterest has its own psychological attractions. The communities of Reddit have an addictive pull. LinkedIn is Twitter for people with MBAs. But the social media platform most overtly responsible for burnout is Instagram.

., 185 Schulte, Brigid, 222, 224 second jobs, 79–81, 102–3, 144, 186 See also gig and freelance work; Uber and ride-hailing companies Second Shift, The (Hochschild), 211 sexual harassment, 109–11 Shafir, Eldar, 233 Sheehan, Dan, 3 Shell, Ellen Ruppel, 82, 132 Shils, Edward, 9 Shulevitz, Judith, 190 Silicon Valley, 73–74, 141, 172, 187 Skimm, 194–95 Slack, 130, 149–51, 158, 171–74, 176 sleep, lack of burnout and, xvi children, 34, 46, 58 motherhood and, 224 Silicon Valley, 73 stress and, 127–28 Small Animals (Brooks), 213 Snapchat, 156, 159 social media addiction to, 156–58, 170–71 anxiety from hatefulness, 168–69 digital labor, 172 dramatization of news, 169–70 social media influencer, 163 social networks, 199–202 Social Security early history, 7 freelancing and, 139 key economic risks, 8 minimal benefits, 14 postwar expectation, 13 Social Security Act, 13 Spire Stone, 133 Standing, Guy, 96–98, 145–46 Stephens, Bret, 10 Stevenson, David, 62–63 stock market, 103–4, 106, 112, 114 Stockton, Nick, 170 Stoller, Matt, 105 St.


pages: 572 words: 94,002

Reset: How to Restart Your Life and Get F.U. Money: The Unconventional Early Retirement Plan for Midlife Careerists Who Want to Be Happy by David Sawyer

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, beat the dealer, bitcoin, Cal Newport, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Attenborough, David Heinemeier Hansson, Desert Island Discs, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, financial independence, follow your passion, gig economy, hiring and firing, index card, index fund, invention of the wheel, knowledge worker, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, passive income, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart meter, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, sunk-cost fallacy, Tim Cook: Apple, Vanguard fund, Y Combinator

Email newsletters. Online news sites such as BuzzFeed, Huffington Post and, often, electronic versions of traditional media, eg, The Guardian, The New Yorker. Google. Video (whether YouTube, Facebook, LinkedIn). Facebook feed. Facebook groups. Other social networks (Instagram, SnapChat, Twitter, LinkedIn, Messenger, WhatsApp). Because people are going elsewhere for their news (leaving aside the insidious “fake news” that has diminished trust in journalism, a vital part of society), the PR industry has had to change with the times. A new breed of digital PRs has sprung up, urging traditional practitioners to “get with the programme”.

The first is easy once you pass the pitch stage. The second is the toughest thing I’ve ever done. #22 Be an early adopter Gary Vaynerchuk was an early adopter of Google Ads when he ran Wine Library and made a small fortune shaking up the vino industry. And he was in there experimenting at the birth of Snapchat a few years back, now head of his huge New York media organisation: Vayner Media. I remember being an early adopter of LinkedIn Pulse in 2014. I garnered more than four thousand views and hundreds of comments after a blog post I wrote about the business lessons you can learn from caravanning went viral.

Please don’t stare at a screen. You’ll also find that when you have a purpose, goals and a concrete plan you’re working towards, your smartphone addiction will become manageable. #9 Cold turkey If all else fails, you can always go cold turkey. For us middle-class midlifers, not versed in the wiles of Snapchat and the like, it’s Facebook that has us in its thrall. I have nothing but admiration for the two-thirds of adults who aren’t active Facebook users[183]. I shed a tear when a running friend sets up a Facebook account purely to join the running club Facebook group I administer, and honk with brio when they persuade their Facebook-using partner to become a group member instead.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disinformation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Garrett Hardin, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

Toward a Token Economy While we’re thinking of all these ways in which tokens might get people and communities to act honestly and preserve public goods, it would be amiss not to consider whether tokens might address the greatest tragedy facing the biggest commons of them all. Climate change is the biggest threat facing the world. And Erick Miller has a big idea to tackle it. Miller, a frenetic L.A.-based entrepreneur and venture investor, has worked in Hollywood, invested in early dot-coms, and had a vital role in developing Snapchat’s highly popular spectacles. Now he wants to “tokenize the world” through his investment fund CoinCircle. As part of that, he and his partners have come up with a term they call “crypto-impact-economics.” Out of this concept, Miller and a team that includes UCLA finance professor Bhagwan Chowdry and World Economic Forum oceans conservationist Gregory Stone came up with two special value tokens: the Ocean Health Coin and the Climate Coin.

See also identities and identification SenaHill Partners Sequoia Capital SHA-256 algorithm sharing economy Shrier, David Sia Silbert, Barry Silicon Valley Silk Road Sims, Peter single sign-on (SSO) Skry Sloan, Alex Slock.it small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) smart TVs Smith, Mark Snapchat Sneader, Kevin Snowden, Edward social capital social media. See also Facebook; Reddit; Twitter Software Guard Extensions (SGX) Somalia Special Agreement for Future Equity (SAFE) Special Agreement for Future Tokens (SAFT) Sprague, Steven Stampery stamps, digital State Street (bank) Stephens, Bart Stephens, Brad Stone, Gregory Storj Sullivan Worcester Sun Microsystems supply chains Swanson, Tim Symbiont Syria Systemics Szabo, Nick Tapscott, Alex Tapscott, Don Tarnowski, Lucian Tatar, Jack TCP/IP.


pages: 364 words: 100,898

Queenie by Candice Carty-Williams

Kickstarter, off grid, place-making, sexual politics, Snapchat

It’s just too much of one thing. Can’t you cook proper food?” she asked, not taking her eyes off her reflection on the phone’s screen. * * * The next few hours were filled with Diana picking up and putting down every single thing in my room. Mainly snickering, but also taking pictures of things to show her friends on Snapchat with the caption “LOOOOL.” Diana tried out my small range of makeup and told me that it wasn’t good enough to create a “look.” She went through my wardrobe and informed me that all of my clothes were too “granny” for me. She knocked over my jewelry stand and sent rings, necklaces, and earrings flying everywhere, then knocked my lamp off of my bedside table, smashing the bulb.

Let’s get a milkshake, then,” Diana said, grabbing me by the elbow as I emerged and steering me toward one of those weird urban-designed modern ice cream parlors. We sat opposite one another in a booth in the corner by the bathrooms and peeled the sticky menus apart. “What do you want?” Diana said from behind the menu. “I know what I’m getting. Oreo waffle, I always get it.” Diana held up her phone and scanned the room with it. “Hold on, just snapchatting our settings! I’ve captioned it ‘Cuz is 26,’ ” she said, showing me a picture of myself looking at the menu, bewildered by the choice. Twenty-six, and this is my life, I thought, looking around at the teenagers leaning on tackily decorated walls, all staring at their phones. Three years from now and I was meant to have been getting married.

Kyazike refocused. “So, you started chatting on OkCupid, yeah?” “Yes,” I confirmed. “And on this app, you have pictures of yourself?” “Yes. Five of them.” “And in these pictures, are you standing on one leg showing off the red sole of your Louboutins and wearing a bodycon dress the way I do on Snapchat?” Kyazike continued with her line of questioning. “No.” “And in any of these pictures, do you have contour on your face, or fake eyelashes?” “No. And no,” I told her. “Are you rocking a lace-front wig?” “I’m not, no.” “So you see my point, yeah?” she checked. “Or do I have to keep on?” “I do.


pages: 344 words: 96,020

Hacking Growth: How Today's Fastest-Growing Companies Drive Breakout Success by Sean Ellis, Morgan Brown

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, game design, Google Glasses, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, minimum viable product, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional

A growing e-commerce company, for example, might discover that building a community, which is a viral channel, is also a good lever for driving growth; just think about Amazon’s purchase of the book lovers’ community Goodreads. Or a booming social network that has pioneered in new terrain, and that has attracted hefty venture capital, as Instagram and Snapchat both did, might decide to invest in TV, radio, and print ads to solidify its ownership of the territory, rather than relying only on viral mechanisms. But you’ve got to first focus on optimizing the channels that are most cost effective for you. A next step in narrowing options is to consider the characteristics and behaviors of your users, and this means identifying the behaviors that they’re already engaged in, such as the types of Google searches they are doing, the places they are shopping, and the social networks they are using.

In addition to standing out, one of the beauties of tools is that they can be “evergreen,” requiring little continual upkeep to remain an effective new customer magnet, sometimes for many years. Other new tactics one could try could include building a community, as we have done with GrowthHackers.com, or getting the first user advantage on one of the hot new platforms—like the next Snapchat—that are popping up all the time. The point is that even if you have found an established channel or set of tactics that work, new options are always emerging, and you should always be looking for which innovative ones to experiment with. In fact, it is precisely because there are so many new options, both for channels and for specific acquisition tactics, to choose from, that the growth hacking method is so efficient and effective; the data-driven, prioritized, and experimental approach helps you wade through that vast sea of options and smartly focus your efforts, and your marketing dollars.

The core mission for growth teams in retaining users who are in this midterm phase is to make using a product a habit; working to create such a sense of satisfaction from the product or service that over time, users don’t need to be prodded to use it again because they have incorporated the use of the product into their routine. Think of the Snapchat user who constantly checks her friends’ stories while having breakfast and again after dinner. Or the Amazon shopper who always thinks of searching there first for any given product he’s looking for, no prodding required. In the coming sections, we’ll introduce a little about the psychology of habit formation and then introduce tactics growth teams can employ for increasing the number of initially retained users who become habitual ones.


Corbyn by Richard Seymour

anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, first-past-the-post, full employment, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, liberal world order, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Philip Mirowski, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, working-age population, éminence grise

Labour’s own pages notably shared fewer stories than in the previous election, but significantly more video content than in 2015. The content it did share was also far more positive than the Tory campaign, focusing on its social promises to build and inspire support.58 Labour also invested in some more gimmicky fare. Corbyn was the first leader of a political party to sign up for a Snapchat account. And on election day, Snapchat released a Labour paid-for ‘Corbyn’ filter for supporters. Supporters also created a 1980s-style arcade game, Corbyn Run, in which the eponymous hero took on Tories, tax dodgers, the ghost of Margaret Thatcher, and Boris Johnson on a zipline. It would be easy to scoff at this kind of thing were it unveiled as a grand leadership initiative, like the ‘Edstone’, but it worked well as a sideline in a campaign fizzing with energy and confidence.

This isn’t for any profound reason: some young people are, as Catherine Tate would put it, simply not ‘bovvered’ about politics and may not even know who Theresa May is, let alone be able to make educated choices about her or her rivals. The left, which can only win by exploiting their ignorance, therefore sets about trying to buy them with gimmicks, whether it’s Snapchat videos or promises of student funding which don’t stack up.6 To reiterate, this piece was arguing that it was Corbyn who was cynical about the young. The unspoken fear of such pieces, that the young would actually turn out for a party that offered them something to vote for, was echoed in the cynicism of Rod Liddle in the Sun, who advised readers that ‘the civic thing to do is to stop them voting’.


pages: 372 words: 100,947

An Ugly Truth: Inside Facebook's Battle for Domination by Sheera Frenkel, Cecilia Kang

affirmative action, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, immigration reform, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, QAnon, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Sam Altman, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social web, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, surveillance capitalism, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

Respondents said that of all the options, they were most comfortable with a government mandate to unwind Facebook. The company deployed Schrage’s replacement, Nick Clegg, to bat down the idea. Clegg wrote his own op-ed in the New York Times to refute Hughes’s characterization of Facebook as a monopoly, pointing to competition from Snapchat, Twitter, and the rising threat of the Chinese short-video service TikTok. He warned, “Chopping a great American success story into bits is not something that’s going to make those problems go away.”12 Unlike Schrage, Sir Nicholas Clegg was a natural public speaker and an ambassador for the company with global leaders.

Once viewed as a hero hacker among college students, Zuckerberg now came off as a rich thirty-five-year-old father of two. The college students were almost a full generation younger than he. They weren’t using Facebook, a site popular with older audiences. Many were on Instagram but were increasingly spending time on Snapchat and TikTok. Georgetown was a deliberate choice. Facebook’s policy and lobbying staff wanted to find a place for Zuckerberg to deliver his speech where his words would carry intellectual and historical import. The staff wanted to do it in Washington, with Zuckerberg’s most important viewers a few miles east, at the White House and on Capitol Hill.

See freedom of speech issues Hemphill, Scott, 229–232, 261 Hertz, Jessica, 297 Hoefflinger, Mike, 55 Holocaust deniers, Facebook policy and, 205–207, 276–278, 281 Holt, Lester, 257–258 Horowitz, Ben, 191–192 Hughes, Chris New York Times op-ed, 219–222 on origins of Facebook, 253 Wu and, 231–232 Zuckerberg’s “pivot to privacy” and, 224–227 Ifill, Sherrilyn, 255 Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar, of UN, 186 Information Technology Industry Council, 165 Infowars, 204 Instagram, 7, 8, 166, 193–194, 221, 222, 253, 259, 295 Facebook’s “pivot to privacy” and, 222–224 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and, 68 interoperability of messaging apps and, 227–228 Russian Internet Research Agency and, 133 Trump and, 267, 288–290, 292 Wu and Hemphill’s evaluation of Facebook’s acquisition of, 230–231 Zuckerberg’s broken commitment to founders of, 2, 194, 227–229 International Association of Privacy Professionals, 64–65 International Criminal Court, 185–186 Internet Association, 241 Internet Research Agency (IRA), of Russia, 130–134, 137, 143, 144–145 Internet.org, 175–177 iSEC Partners, 101 James, Letitia, 1–2, 3 “JJDIDTIEBUCKLE” (leadership principle), 246 Jobs, Steve, 48, 51, 174 Jones, Alex, 82, 204–205, 206 Kalanick, Travis, 207 Kang-Xing Jin, 51 Kaplan, Joel, 197, 241, 260, 276, 278 Biden administration and, 297–298 Cambridge Analytica and, 150 election of 2016 and, 81, 108–109, 111–112, 123, 125 Kavanaugh hearings and, 200–203 manipulated video of Pelosi and, 236, 238 personality of, 14 political contributions and, 164–165 Sandberg and, 14, 87 Trump administration and, 161, 243–247 Trump and COVID-19, 267–268, 269 Trump’s anti-Muslim rhetoric and hate speech issues, 11–15 Kaplan, Laura Cox, 200 Kavanaugh, Ashley Estes, 200 Kavanaugh, Brett, 200–203 Kaye, David, 174–175 Kellogg, Hansen law firm, 295 Kendall, Tim, 36–37, 51 Kennedy, John, 153 Kenosha Guard, 279–281 Kimmel, Jimmy, 166 King, Bernice, 254, 259 Kirkpatrick, David, 114–115 Klobuchar, Amy, 153 Kogan, Aleksandr, 152–153, 155 Koum, Jan, 194, 229 Kraff, Brian, 41 Krieger, Mike, 228–229 Kushner, Jared, 15, 243–244, 256 Kustomer, acquired by Facebook, 299 Le Pen, Marine, 118 Lean In (Sandberg), 79, 127, 157–158 Leibowitz, Jonathan, 67, 154, 199 Leone, Isabella, 131 Lewandowski, Corey, 112–113 Libra (blockchain currency), 241–242, 256–257, 300 LinkedIn, 175 London, Eric, 155 Losse, Katherine, 49, 50, 124 Lynton, Michael, 56 Ma, Olivia, 26 Mac, Ryan, 272 Macron, Emmanuel, 118, 124–125, 219, 221, 237 Martin, Jenny Beth, 81 Martin, Kevin, 80, 112 Mauer, Greg, 80, 112, 140 Mayer, Marissa, 102–103 McKinsey and Company, 41, 50 McNamee, Roger, 44, 232 Mercer, Robert, 149 MeToo movement, 150, 200–201, 203 Microsoft, 31, 165, 174, 175, 241 advertising and, 51, 53, 54 Modi, Narenda, 106 Montgomery, Kathryn, 58, 60 Moran, Ned, 95–98, 100–101, 105, 129–132, 147 Moskovitz, Dustin, 31 Mossberg, Walt, 43 Mosseri, Adam, 114, 228, 261 Moveon.org, 59 Mubarak, Hosni, 157 Mueller, Robert, 147 Murphy, Laura, 248, 249 Myanmar, hate speech against Rohingya and, 85, 169–173, 176, 178–182, 185–187, 293–294 Narendra, Divya, 21 “net neutrality,” 230 Netscape, 25, 52 New Republic, The, 287 New York Times, 88, 272, 285 Cambridge Analytica and, 149 Chester on behavioral advertising and, 59 Clegg’s op-ed in, 240 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and, 1 Hughes’ op-ed in, 219–222 Myanmar and, 186 Russian election interference and, 130, 215 New Yorker, The, 66 Newsom, Gavin, 266 Next One Billion project, of Facebook, 176–177 Nielsen, 56 Nuland, William, 147 Nuñez, Michael, 70–79 Oath Keepers, 287–288 Obama, Barack and administration of, 11, 67, 82, 118, 121, 138, 146, 184, 230, 236, 248, 251, 252, 255 Observer, 149 Ocasio-Cortez, Alexandria, 257 Oculus VR headset, 80, 81, 190 O’Donnell, Nora, 157–159 Olivan, Javier, 194, 195, 260 Onavo, 195–196, 260 O’Neill, Catlin, 140, 236, 297 Only the Paranoid Survive (Grove), 192 Open Society Foundation, 108 Option B (Sandberg), 79, 258 Overstock, 59–60 Page, Larry, 43, 44, 65, 192 Palihapitiya, Chamath, 51 Parakilas, Sandy, 152, 164 Parikh, Jay, 9, 10 Parker, Sean, 26, 28, 44, 221 Parscale, Brad, 15, 247 Pearlman, Leah, 62–63 Pelosi, Nancy, 233–234, 297 Facebook and manipulated video of, 234–240 Pence, Mike, 290 Philippines, 85, 106, 177, 291 Phillips Exeter Academy, 19–20 Pichai, Sundar, 198 “Pizzagate,” 278 Podesta, John, 100 politics, and Facebook Biden administration and, 286, 296–298 Clegg’s policy of not fact-checking political ads, 249–252 Facebook’s PAC for political contributions, 164–165 liberal favoritism at Facebook, 12–13, 74–75, 78 political ads on Facebook, 212–214 Trump administration and Facebook executives, 243–247 see also election of 2016; election of 2020; freedom of speech issues Price, Bill, 89–92 Pritchett, Lant, 41 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 182–183 Proud Boys, 288 Putin, Vladimir, 121, 123 QAnon, 278–279, 281 Red-State Secession group, 288 Reich, Robert, 226 Reynolds, Tom, 141, 145 Rice, Brian, 141 Robinson, Rashad, 249, 251, 276–277 Rose, Dan, 44, 45, 46, 51 Rosen, Guy, 195, 260, 285 Rosensweig, Dan, 43–44 Rubio, Marco, 161 Russian disinformation, on Facebook platform, 3, 282 Congressional interest in, 127–128, 133–134, 139–145 Facebook board of director’s interest in, 134–137 Facebook employees and, 190 Facebook public relations team and, 208–215 Facebook’s security team’s investigation of, 117–127 French election of 2017 and, 118, 121 Russian Internet Research Agency and, 130–134, 137, 143, 144–145 Sandberg and, 215–217 U.S. election campaign of 2016 and, 95–101, 105–109, 124–125, 248 Zuckerberg and, 196, 204, 215–217 Ryan, Paul, 78 Sai Sitt Thway Aung, 169 Sandberg, Michelle, 43, 44 Sandberg, Sheryl backlash to Lean In and, 157–158 behavioral advertising and data collecting, at Facebook, 2–3, 45–46, 51–56, 59, 60–63, 67, 87, 225 Biden administration and, 297 books by, 79, 127, 157–158, 258 Cambridge Analytica and, 153, 154–156, 159, 160–161 Capital Building storming in January 2021 and, 286–287 Congress and, 153, 170–171, 197–200 Couric’s interview of, 258–260 cyber security and, 97–98, 210 diversity and gender equity and, 50, 202–203, 273 education and professional positions before Facebook, 39–43, 46–47, 50, 52–53 election of 2016 and conservatives, 82–83 election security and, 210 Facebook and privacy, 67 Facebook’s earnings call in 2021 and, 298–299 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and, 45, 295, 296 Goldberg’s death and, 79–81, 233 hate speech issues and, 11–14, 275–277 Hillary Clinton and, 79, 111–112, 243–244 Instagram and WhatsApp and, 228–229 Kaplan and, 14, 87 Kaplan and Kavanaugh hearings and, 201–202 manipulated video of Pelosi and Facebook debates about, 234–240 meets Zuckerberg, 4 Nuñez’s reporting and, 79 organizational changes in 2018 and, 194 parents and siblings of, 41, 44 Pelosi and, 233–234 personal life of, 41, 43, 258, 295 personality of, 2, 45, 199–200 as protective of her image, 4 reaction to emotional contagion research, 183 response to criticisms of Facebook, 156–157 responsible growth and, 86 Russian disinformation investigation and, 118–119, 120, 121, 122–123, 126, 127–128, 134, 136, 139, 143–144, 147, 196–197 Schrage and, 87–88, 89–92 Stamos and, 10–11, 103–104 Zuckerberg hires, 43–48 Zuckerberg’s working relationship with, 54–57, 86–87, 190, 260–261 Sanders, Bernie, 100, 132, 140, 221, 226 Sandy Hook Elementary School, shooting at, 82, 157, 204–205 Sanghvi, Ruchi, 32, 34, 274 Saverin, Eduardo, 30 Scavino, Dan, 243 Schatz, Brian, 166, 236 Schiff, Adam, 140, 142–144 Schissler, Matt, 171–173, 177–182 Schmidt, Eric, 42, 44, 46, 62, 192, 207 Schrage, Elliot Definers Public Affairs and, 216–217 Russian disinformation and, 119, 123, 125–126, 134–135 Sandberg and, 87–88, 89–92 Schumer and, 66–67, 88 Trump’s 2015 anti-Muslim rhetoric and hate speech issues, 12, 13 Schroepfer, Mike, 194, 291 Schumer, Chuck, 66–67, 68, 88 Scott, Kim, 47 Secureworks, 98 Segall, Laurie, 160 Sidley Austin law firm, 295 Smith, Matthew, 185–187, 294 Snapchat, 240, 253 Snowden, Edward, 8 Sorkin, Andrew Ross, 156 Soros, George, 108, 156–157, 215–216, 226 South Park Commons, 274 Sparapani, Tim, 65, 66 Sperling, Gene, 248 Stamos, Alex background before Facebook, 101–103 election of 2020 and, 283–284 investigation and report on Russian meddling and disinformation, 97, 100, 103–107, 116, 117–127, 130, 132, 145–147 2015 report on security of user’s information, 7–11 2018 Facebook reorganization and, 194 as “warranty canary,” 103, 134, 145 Standard Oil, Facebook’s parallel with, 230 Steyer, Jim, 89, 91, 232, 261, 275–276 Stop the Hate for Profit, 275 “Stop the Steal” groups, 288, 292 Stretch, Colin Cambridge Analytica and, 150 Russian disinformation and, 97, 100, 107, 119–120, 125, 135, 144–145, 146, 147 Students Against Facebook News Feed, 34, 35 Sullivan, Joe, 103–104 Summers, Lawrence, 39-42, 47 Swisher, Kara, 29–30, 43, 203–208 Systrom, Kevin, 194, 228–229 Talking Back to Facebook (Steyer), 89, 91 TechCrunch, 64, 65 TechCrunch Disrupt conference, 88, 174 Thiel, Peter Facebook’s board of directors and, 30, 81, 86, 202 Gawker lawsuit and, 202 Zuckerberg and, 25, 29, 31, 206, 244, 256 ThreatConnect, 98 Tiger, Roi, 195 TikTok, 240, 245, 253 Tillery, Kristopher, 20 Time magazine, 127, 177 TPG Capital, 89 Traynham, Robert, 271 Trump, Donald J., 213, 221, 232 Access Hollywood tape and, 100 accusations of voter fraud in 2020 election and, 273–275, 283–285, 290 accused of inciting violence in January 2021 and banned from Facebook, 286–292, 294 anti-Muslim rhetoric and hate speech and, 11–17, 85, 249 comments after George Floyd’s death, 268–273 Facebook and COVID-19 and, 267–268 hackers and 2016 campaign, 105–106, 140 meeting with Facebook executives, 161, 243–247 number of Facebook followers and interactions with, 244, 283 Pelosi and, 234, 235 on Twitter, 232, 244–245, 268–271, 276 Zuckerberg and, 256 Twitter, 15, 37, 63, 75, 98, 231, 240, 253, 287 Cambridge Analytica and, 153 election interference and, 98, 142, 144–145 privacy and, 56, 63–64 Sandberg and, 197–198 Trump and, 232, 244–245, 268–271, 276 Ukraine, Bidens and, 251 United Kingdom, Brexit and, 154 Vaidhyanathan, Siva, 61 Vargas, Jose Antonio, 66 Verge, the, 272 Villarreal, Ryan, 73, 76 Vladeck, David, 199 Vox, 154, 166 Walk Away campaign, 292 Wall Street Journal, 1, 43, 47–48, 88 Walz, Tim, 268 Warner, Mark, 127–128, 132, 246 Warren, Elizabeth, 221, 226, 242, 259, 295 Washington Post, 24, 26–29, 30, 47, 84, 141, 164–165, 234, 236, 272 Wasserman Schultz, Debbie, 100 Waters, Maxine, 256–257 WeChat, 175, 245 Weedon, Jen, 108–109, 129, 147 Weibo, 175 Wexler, Nu, 83 What You Do Is Who You Are (Horowitz), 191–192 WhatsApp, 71–72, 166, 193–194, 221 data security and, 8, 222 Facebook’s acquisition of, 196, 295 Federal Trade Commission and, 68 interoperability of messaging apps and, 227 “pivot to privacy” and, 222–224 Wu and Hemphill’s evaluation of Facebook’s acquisition of, 230–231 Zuckerberg’s broken commitment to founders of, 2, 194, 227–229 Whetstone, Rachel, 204, 206–207 Wicker, Roger, 162 Williams, Maxine, 272–273 Willner, Dave, 92–93 WilmerHale law firm, 160, 197 Winklevoss, Cameron, 21 Winklevoss, Tyler, 21 Wirathu, Ashin, 172 Women@Google, 50 World Anti-Doping Agency, data stolen from, 99 Wu, Tim, 229–232, 261 Xi Jingping, 176 Yahoo, 8, 26–27 global expansion and, 42, 175 Goldberg and, 43–44 offer to buyout Facebook declined by Zuckerman, 30–32, 44 Stamos and, 101–103 Yang, Jerry, 42 Zients, Jeff, 297 Zuboff, Shoshana, 3, 61 Zucked (McNamee), 232 Zuckerberg, Ethan, 163 Zuckerberg, Mark Beacon feature and, 57–63 Black Lives Matter memo and, 71–73 Cambridge Analytica and, 16, 153, 154–156, 160, 204 coding at Phillips Exeter, 19–20 “company over country” and, 124 cyber security and, 97–98 decline of Yahoo’s buyout offer, 30–32, 44 earnings call in 2021 and, 298–299 election of 2016, 113–116 election security and, 210 employees’ internal conversations and, 70 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and, 295–296 free speech issues and, 74–75, 252–261, 263, 269, 281 goals of global expansion and end of economic inequality, 173–177 Goldberg’s death and, 79 hate speech and disinformation issues, 11, 193, 204–208, 275–277 hearing regarding Libra and, 256–257 Kaplan and Kavanaugh hearings and, 201–202 Kaplan’s organization of dinners with politicians, 243–247 manipulated video of Pelosi and, 236–240 meets Sandberg, 4 News Feed and apology for, 32–36 Nuñez’s reporting and, 79 personal privacy and image guarded by, 4, 65–66 personality of, 29–30, 45–46, 48–49 philanthropy of, 174, 262 “pivot to privacy” and reactions to, 222–227, 235 plans for Facebook’s future, 299–300 portrayed in attorneys general complaint, 2 public opinion and, 257–258 reaction to Hughes’ New York Times op-ed, 219–222 reaction to Stamos’ 2015 report on data security, 7, 8–10 reorganization of Facebook in 2018 and, 193–194 responsible growth and, 86 reversing of promises made when acquiring Instagram and WhatsApp, 2, 194, 227–229 Russian disinformation investigation and, 117, 118–119, 120, 121, 126, 134, 136–137, 139, 142, 147, 196, 204 Sandberg’s hiring and, 43–47 testimony before Congress, 150–151, 153, 160–167, 210 Trump banned by, 290–292, 294 “wartime” leadership philosophy and, 189–193, 207 working relationship with Sandberg, 54–57, 86–87, 190, 260–261 yearly goals of, 261–263 About the Authors Sheera Frenkel covers cybersecurity from San Francisco for the New York Times.


Designing Web APIs: Building APIs That Developers Love by Brenda Jin, Saurabh Sahni, Amir Shevat

active measures, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, blockchain, business process, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Google Hangouts, if you build it, they will come, Lyft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, premature optimization, pull request, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software as a service, the market place, uber lyft, web application, WebSocket

For each of these use cases, we list the top developers by market capitalization (market cap) or any other criteria that are important to the business. Table 10-1 shows what this list might look like. Deep Developer Programs | 187 Table 10-1. Top developer partners per target use case Thumbnailing and resizing eBay Amazon CNN Watermarks Getty Images Shutterstock iStock Mobile optimizations Snapchat Instagram Lightroom The list of partners is usually much larger than this and has more details regarding whether the developer is already using the API, where they are in the funnel, and the impact on the business. If there are too many use cases that your API can support, you can run a similar analysis but focus on industries rather than use cases.

Mapping the top companies per industry can be easier than map‐ ping partners per use case in some instances. Table 10-2 shows how this might look. Table 10-2. Top developer partners per target industry Automobile images Ford Honda Tesla Advertising WPP Group Omnicom Group Dentsu Social networks Facebook Twitter Snapchat After mapping your partners by target use case or industries, you need to engage with each of the partners (working together with sales or business development), build a relationship with them, and support these partners in their use of the API. Sometimes these types of activities are called white-glove activities, because they are unique for each partner—some partners require a lot of on-site sup‐ port, some require design or architecture assistance, and others might need to ask a question only once in a while.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The future is already here, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WeWork, Whole Earth Review, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

News banners stream across the bottom of TVs. We subscribe to YouTube streams, called channels. And RSS feeds from blogs. We are bathed in streams of notifications and updates. Our apps improve in a flow of upgrades. Tags have replaced links. We tag and “like” and “favorite” moments in the streams. Some streams, like Snapchat, WeChat, and WhatsApp, operate totally in the present, with no past or future. They just flow past. If you see something, fine. Then it is gone. Flowing time has shifted as well. In the first era, tasks were accomplished in batch mode. You got your bills every month. Taxes were all paid on the same day of the year.

Indeed, every single frame in a big-budget Hollywood action film today has been built up with so many layers of additional details that it should be thought of as a moving painting rather than as a moving photograph. In the great hive mind of image creation, something similar is already happening with still photographs. Every minute, thousands of photographers are uploading their latest photos on websites and apps such as Instagram, Snapchat, WhatsApp, Facebook, and Flickr. The more than 1.5 trillion photos posted so far cover any subject you can imagine; I have not yet been able to stump the sites with an image request that cannot be found. Flickr offers more than half a million images of the Golden Gate Bridge alone. Every conceivable angle, lighting condition, and point of view of the Golden Gate Bridge has been photographed and posted.

See also lifestreaming sensor technology, 226, 230, 267 Sensory Substitution Vest, 225 services, 6–7, 54, 62, 111–14, 125 sex, virtual, 218–19 sharing, 135–64 and aggregated information, 140, 147 and collaborative commenting sites, 136 and consumers as content creators, 19 and crowdfunding, 156–61 and digital socialism, 136–38 and flowing, 8 and hierarchical/nonhierarchical infrastructures, 148–54 and increasing degree of coordination, 138–42 motivation behind, 144 and obscure or niche interests, 155 and open source industry, 135, 141–42, 143, 271 power of, 146 and social impact of connectivity, 271–75 societal problems addressed through, 146 technology facilitating, 145–46 ubiquity of, 139 Shirky, Clay, 138, 148 Sidecar, 62 Simon, Herbert, 176 singularity, 295–97 Siri, 287 sleep tracking, 238, 240 Smarr, Larry, 238 smart technology, 225, 253 smell, sense of, 226 Snapchat, 63, 199 Snowden, Edward, 261 socialism, digital, 136–38, 139, 146 social media and digital storage capacity, 265 influence of, on public conversation, 140 and intermediation of content, 150 and privacy vs. transparency, 262 and tracking technology, 254 value of content created on, 149 video and sound in, 76–77 social networks, 170, 186–87 software open source software, 135, 141–42, 143 as service (SaS), 113 The Sopranos (series), 282 SoundCloud, 75 Spielberg, Steven, 221 Spotify, 74–75, 109, 138, 169, 254 Square, 65, 124 Squid (smart shirt), 225 Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 203 Star Trek, 211 startups, 27, 33, 116–17, 184 Star Wars films, 198–99 statistics, 242–43 stickiness, 69 Stoll, Cliff, 15–16 storage capacity, 166, 264–67 streaming devices, 254.


pages: 371 words: 109,320

News and How to Use It: What to Believe in a Fake News World by Alan Rusbridger

airport security, basic income, Boris Johnson, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, ghettoisation, global pandemic, Google Earth, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Murray Gell-Mann, Narrative Science, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, profit motive, publication bias, Seymour Hersh, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, the scientific method, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism

The teams putting together these daily chronicles are required to have a mixture of skills: ‘part scavenger, part sub-editor and headline writer, part reporter and picture taster, part adman, and they’re often a whizz with Photoshop and video too,’ wrote Adrian Addison in his book Mail Men. ‘They’re also part celebrity-magazine gossip writer; it’s a vital skill to be able to spot a Kardashian in a crowd.’ The website publishes a staggering 1,500 articles and 560 videos – a day! – to 15 million daily readers and 10 million Snapchat users. Add in 250 million video views a month and you arrive at the most read online ‘news’ title in the US, UK and Australia. The constant stream of inconsequential gossip about people who don’t really matter very much is, it turns out, rather addictive, with readers refreshing the home page around ninety-six times a day and then spending a long time scrolling down through the pictures and formulaic words.

Quartz developed an app which didn’t require its readers to read the news so much as chat with it: each story appeared in little chunks, like texts from a friend. More august news organisations such as the Wall Street Journal developed chatbot formats. CNN started providing news in personalised private messages. The Economist started using Snapchat Discover in October 2016, along with the BBC and New York Times. Instead of longish worthy chunks of text (let’s call them ‘articles’), the Economist remade articles as easily absorbable cheat sheets. North Korea, global warming, the legalisation of drugs: they were all translated into snappy visual formats.

As a result, their media literacy when it comes to distinguishing opinion from news is lower than other age groups, although they are less likely to share fake news. The Pew Research Center found that 95 per cent of American teens have access to a smartphone, with 45 per cent online ‘almost constantly’, mostly using YouTube, Instagram, Snapchat and Facebook. When asked to share any positive uses of social media, only 16 per cent cited greater access to news and information. Backing these findings, the Reuters Institute and the research agency Flamingo published a report in 2019 on how young people consume the news. They tracked the smartphone behaviour of twenty participants – all under the age of thirty-five – in the United States and United Kingdom over two weeks, as well as asking a subset to keep a digital diary of the news they consumed.


pages: 229 words: 61,482

The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time Off, and Financing the Life You Want by Diane Mulcahy

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, deliberate practice, diversification, diversified portfolio, fear of failure, financial independence, future of work, gig economy, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, independent contractor, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, mass immigration, mental accounting, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, passive income, Paul Graham, remote working, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, the strength of weak ties, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, wage slave, WeWork, Y Combinator, Zipcar

In 2015, the rate of corporate layoffs continued to increase and included companies such as Microsoft (7,800 workers),3 Proctor & Gamble (6,000 workers),4 JP Morgan Chase (5,000 workers),5 American Express (4,000 workers),6 and Target (2,250 workers).7 Walmart and McDonald’s, the largest employers in America, both laid off hundreds of corporate jobs.8 Even high-growth technology companies aren’t immune. Twitter, Snapchat, and Groupon all conducted layoffs in 2015.9 These cuts may generate returns for shareholders, but they eliminate any sense of job security for workers. Traditional bastions of stability, like government work, teaching, and academia, still exist and offer relatively higher levels of security, but even those industries are under pressure.

life insurance Limited Liability Corporation (LLC) loss aversion Maker’s Schedule Manager’s Schedule marketing, for new jobs Marsh, Nigel Mastermind Dinners (Gaignard) material wealth, vs. personal fulfillment MBA students, planning by McDonald’s mental tasks, combining with physical Merchant, Nilofer MetLife, Study of the American Dream Microsoft middle class impact of home ownership middle managers Mihalic, Joe Mint.com Moment money, perspective on mortgage mortgage calculator National Labor Relations Act National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) negative cash flow net worth, in principal residence networks maintaining 99designs Obituary exercise offer in connecting 168 Hours (Vanderkam) opportunity, income security from opportunity mindset outbound connecting Outliers (Gladwell) overconfidence ownership, vs. access paid leave part-time side gigs passion, pursuing in time off passive income Peers.org pension plans personal branding personal burn rate personal fulfillment, vs. material wealth perspective, time off to change Pew Research Center physical tasks, combining with mental pilot tests planning for best-case scenario in financial flexibility for time off playtime portfolio of gigs building for experiments learning by doing opportunity for connections Postmates power, and expanding time predictors of future feelings priorities checkbook diagnostic exercise on extended family as of others, impact of private sector, job creation decline pro-bono legal adviser Proctor & Gamble Profiting from Uncertainty (Schoemaker) public assistance, eliminating public speaking purchases, time cost of Qapital QuickBooks quitting job, exit strategy for Rae, Amber rates of return, for housing Raw Deal (Hill) referrals, asking for regret, risk of Reich, Robert Reinventing You (Clark) rejuvenation, time off for relationships, impact on success renting growth in households vs. ownership reputation RescueTime resources, allocating to short-term activities vs. long-term goals resume, gaps for time off resume virtues retail workers retirement healthcare costs in new vision of plans to work longer before saving to finance traditional savings plans supplemental income in rewards, time for longer-term risk assessment of of boring life debt and of diploma debt facing fear by identifying size of risk reduction by acceptance by eliminating exercise for facing fear by assessing options with insurance by mitigating risk by shifting risk risk taker, learning to be Rohn, Jim Rolf, David Roth IRA Rowing the Atlantic (Savage) S Corporation S&P 500 companies, average life sabbaticals safety net, creating Sagmeister, Stefan Savage, Roz, Rowing the Atlantic saving for retirement traditional plan savings, financial plan and increase ScheduleOnce Schoemaker, Paul, Profiting from Uncertainty Schrager, Allison security creating from diversifying for income for job self-employment income tax form for risk assessment SEP IRA service workers Shared Security Account Shell, Richard Simmons, Gail skill-based economy, vs. credentials-based economy skill-based employment system, vs. tenure-based employment system skilled workers skills, income security from building Slaughter, Anne-Marie Snapchat social capital, of introducer social contagion social media Social Security Social Security Administration Society for Human Resources Management sole proprietor, independent worker as South by Southwest (SXSW) speaking inbound connecting through skills for specialization spending, auditing Stand Out (Clark) Star Plates start dates, negotiating startup exit strategy for Strayed, Cheryl Stride Health strong ties in network student loans success as contagious defining vision of external versions new American dream as definition refining vision of surrogation sweat equity bucket Target TaskRabbit tax data analysis Tax Policy Center taxes deductions for mortgage interest Schedule C withholding teaching technology for delegating outbound connecting by leveraging technology companies tenure-based employment system, vs. skill-based employment system time age-related difference in perception calculating use employees’ learned helplessness about expanding horizon for savings plan for longer-term rewards management mindfulness about and purchase cost reaction to wasting reclaiming tracking investments time frame, for goals time off benefits developing ideas for exercise financing friends and family reaction gaps in resume from between gigs, vs. paid time off planning for Toastmaster tolerance of risk Ton, Zeynep The Good Jobs Strategy Top Chef Topcoder total cost of home travel Twitter Uber drivers uncertainty, cognitive biases about unearned income unemployment insurance unemployment protection, for self-employed universal basic income (UBI) universality of benefits universities, faculty members Upwork Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center vacation. see also time off Vanderkam, Laura, 168 Hours Vanguard, online calculator Virtues exercise volunteer positions during time off wage insurance Walmart Ware, Bronnie weak ties in network wealth gap WeWork withholding taxes Wolff, Edward work flexibility full-time job disappearance future of workers eliminating categorization of last resort workers’ compensation working lives, end of worst case, facing fear by starting with writing skills inbound connecting through Xero YouCanBook.me ABOUT THE AUTHOR Diane created and teaches The Gig Economy, which was named by Forbes as one of the Top 10 Most Innovative Business School Classes in the country.


pages: 217 words: 63,287

The Participation Revolution: How to Ride the Waves of Change in a Terrifyingly Turbulent World by Neil Gibb

Adam Neumann (WeWork), Airbnb, Albert Einstein, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, gig economy, iterative process, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kodak vs Instagram, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, performance metric, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, urban renewal, WeWork

As I travelled through Indonesia, I noticed keenly the effect that social media and digital tools were having on its culture. Many young people under the age of 35, especially in the capital city of Jakarta, speak perfect English, often with a Californian lilt, picked up from being brought up with access to YouTube, TMZ, and BuzzFeed. They are switched on, savvy, and socially connected via Instagram, Snapchat, and Path. These new tools and platforms are not disruptive; they are participatory. They enable people to participate more fully in society, life, things they need to do, activities they are passionate about. Ten years after Woodman first waded into the water in Bali with a camera in a plastic bag strapped to his hand, GoPro replaced Sony as the best-selling digital imaging camera at American retailer Best Buy – the first time Sony had been usurped in the chain’s history – having totally transformed how video content was made, viewed, and shared.

Once you start to look through the lens of participatory innovation, a lot of things make sense. Instagram makes it easier to participate in sharing our experiences with each other. Google makes it easier to participate in search and finding unbiased information. eBay makes it easier to participate in the process of buying and selling stuff. Snapchat makes it easier to participate in goofing around – especially when you are stuck in a dull office wondering why the hell you are there. The Apple Mac, coupled with a package like Logic Pro, makes it easier to participate in making music; YouTube in sharing and watching the videos; Airbnb in renting out and finding a nice place to stay; Tinder in… well, you know what.


pages: 190 words: 62,941

Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination by Adam Lashinsky

"side hustle", Airbnb, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, gig economy, Golden Gate Park, Google X / Alphabet X, hustle culture, independent contractor, information retrieval, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, pattern recognition, price mechanism, ride hailing / ride sharing, San Francisco homelessness, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, super pumped, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, young professional

Consumers took to Uber so quickly because it is so easy to use. Each time the company opens for business in a new market—at the end of 2016 it operated in more than 450 cities in 73 countries—users discuss their discovery with the zealousness of a convert. Unlike naysayers of Twitter, who try the service but can’t see the utility, or doubters of Snapchat, who believe, justifiably, they’re too old to learn, Uber appeals to everyone who lives in or near a city and has a smartphone. A new customer installs the app, enters their credit card information (personal and business, if they choose), and then requests a driver. The software knows where the request is coming from because the customer’s smartphone has a GPS chip (and other sensor technology) that tells it so.

By early 1999 Scour was beginning to resemble a company, albeit one run by a bunch of college dropouts working from a cramped apartment next to their erstwhile university. “We got to thirteen people working in an office with as many computers,” says Haykinson, who years later would become director of engineering for the messaging service Snapchat, located across town in Venice. “Whenever anyone used the microwave we’d have to turn the power off on the monitors so it didn’t blow the fuses. It was sort of ridiculous.” The Scour team’s origins as entrepreneurial renegades, whether it was appropriating UCLA’s network or building a business off intellectual property they didn’t own, made an imprint on the company—and its founders.


pages: 480 words: 123,979

Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters With Reality and Virtual Reality by Jaron Lanier

4chan, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bill Atkinson, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, cosmological constant, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, impulse control, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Mondo 2000, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

Hacker thinking today doesn’t use the term as much, but it still embraces visions of a future global level of organization that would surpass earlier structures such as religions, markets, and nations. Chapter 15 1.   To bring the little display screens mounted in front of the eyes into focus and fill a wide field of view. 2.   At I write this book, the most publicized device in the genre is probably Snapchat’s Spectacles. 3.   Appendix 3 examines this problem. 4.   There are a few ways to slightly fake the impossible. You can heat air up with powerful lasers until it ionizes and thereby cause little bright bluish stars to spark into being in midair. A small number of such sparks can be coordinated and replenished often enough to form rudimentary floating 3-D phantasms, (This is just the flavor of extremist VR experiments that one expects from the energetic Japanese VR research community.)

See also DataGloves sensorimotor loops sensorimotor mirror sensors “set and setting” principle sex sexism sexual singularity shakuhachi shaman Shankar, Uday ship design shitposting Shulgin, Sasha SIGGRAPH (Special Interest Group on Computer Graphics conference for the Association for Computing Machinery) sign language silence Silicon Graphics Silicon Valley similarity, recognition of simulated code Sinatra, Frank Singapore Singer, Alex singing singularity freaks Sketchpad Skinner, B. F. Skinner box skin sensor cells ski simulator Skype Slater, Mel Smalltalk smartphones Smith, Adam Smith, Alvy Ray Smith, Graham Smith, Jack Smolin, Lee Snapchat Spectacles snark Snow, Michael socialism social media social networking social VR software. See also programming abstractions and obsolescence and two-phase nature of VPL and songlines sonic general purpose programming language Sony PlayStation VR headset Sound of One Hand sounds source code Soviet Union spacetime topological quantum computers Spacewar!


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, algorithmic bias, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Seymour Hersh, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, zero day

Let’s encrypt calls, too,” Wired, https://www.wired.com/2017/04/encrypted-chat-took-now-encrypted-callings-turn. 197These controls ended when the Internet: Whitfield Diffie and Susan Landau (1 Oct 2001), “The export of cryptography in the 20th century and the 21st,” Sun Microsystems, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1870/af818dd0075bb5e79764427a7c932fe3 cfc6.pdf. 197In 2015, then–UK prime minister David Cameron: British Broadcasting Corporation (12 Jan 2015), “David Cameron says new online data laws needed,” BBC News, http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-30778424. Andrew Griffin (12 Jan 2015), “WhatsApp and Snapchat could be banned under new surveillance plans,” Independent, https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/whatsapp-and-snapchat-could-be-banned-under-new-surveillance-plans-9973035.html. 197Current prime minister Theresa May: Charles Riley (4 Jun 2017), “Theresa May: Internet must be regulated to prevent terrorism,” CNN, http://money.cnn.com/2017/06/04/technology/social-media-terrorism-extremism-london/index.html. 198In 2016, I surveyed the market: Bruce Schneier, Kathleen Seidel, and Saranya Vijayakumar (11 Feb 2016), “A worldwide survey of encryption products,” Publication 2016-2, Berkman Center for Internet & Society, Harvard University, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?

But many Internet companies can be very powerful, more so than predominantly brick-and-mortar stores, even chains as enormous as Walmart, because they benefit from what is called the network effect. That is, they become more useful as more people use them. One telephone is useless, and two are marginally useful, but an entire network of telephones is very useful. The same thing is true for fax machines, e-mail, the web, text messages, Snapchat, Facebook, Instagram, PayPal, and everything else. The more people use them, the more useful they are. And the more powerful the companies that control them become, the more control those companies can exert over you. Unless you know how to jailbreak your phone to remove its restrictions, sideload apps, and live with a warranty-free device that can’t receive updates without a lot of effort, the iTunes store is the only place you can go for iPhone apps.


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Ian Bogost, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, Savings and loan crisis, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

We have no idea how many classic stealth interactions— country club conversations, discreet drinks at out-of-the-way bars—take advantage of insider knowledge. It was rumored in 2013 that savvy traders will adopt Snapchat— a video and photo app promising self-destructing messages—to hide wrongdoing.99 If the damning chatter quoted above were merely written down, “snapped” as a picture, messaged, and deleted, misdeeds from banks to rating agencies may have been left uncovered. The “smoking gun” would be ephemeral 1’s and 0’s. But by 2014, Snapchat itself ran afoul of the FTC for lying about how ephemeral its communications were. A “sandbox” feature stored many video chats; other apps grabbed pictures.

Cora Currier, “13 Reasons Goldman’s Quitting Exec May Have a Point,” ProPublica, March 14, 2012, http:// www.propublica.org /article /13-reasons-goldmans-quitting -exec-may-have -a -point. Shahien Nasiripour, “Goldman Sachs Values Assets Low, Sells High to Customers as Senate Panel Alleges Double Dealing,” Huffington Post, April 14, 2011, http://www.huffi ngtonpost.com /2011/04 /14 /goldman-sachs-values-asse _n _849398.html. 99. Kayla Tausche, “Wall Street into Snapchat, and Regulators Are on Alert,” CNBC, July 30, 2013, http://www.cnbc.com /id /100924846. 100. For example, since a “simple fi xed/floating interest-rate swap contract . . . has zero value at the start,” it “is considered neither an asset nor a liability, but is an ‘off-balance-sheet’ item.” Carol J.


pages: 579 words: 183,063

Tribe of Mentors: Short Life Advice From the Best in the World by Timothy Ferriss

23andMe, A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, dematerialisation, don't be evil, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fear of failure, Gary Taubes, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Google Hangouts, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, helicopter parent, high net worth, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, index fund, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, sunk-cost fallacy, TaskRabbit, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Turing machine, uber lyft, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

We shortened nearly every profile and subjectively selected the “best” answers. Best answers sometimes meant eliminating repetition, or focusing on answers detailed enough to be both actionable and non-obvious. In nearly every guest’s profile, I indicate where you can best interact with them on social media: TW=Twitter, FB=Facebook, IG=Instagram, LI=LinkedIn, SC=Snapchat, and YT=YouTube. During outreach to guests, I always asked the same questions in the same order, but in the following pages, I frequently reordered the answers for optimal flow, readability, and impact. I’ve included some non-responses (e.g., “I’m terrible at saying no!”) to make you feel better about having the same challenges.

Right now, his life is being ignored by everyone for a very specific reason: It is hard to look at yourself in the mirror. I recall speaking about Bernays’ life and legacy at a marketing conference in Germany. The organizers were furious—they were hoping I would give them tools to sell products on Snapchat to “millennials.” What purchase of $100 or less has most positively impacted your life in the last six months (or in recent memory)? I spent four dollars to park near a beautiful lake in Oregon. I took a swim and had a trillion-dollar moment with the water. How has a failure, or apparent failure, set you up for later success?

But when the paycheck is half a million dollars for a couple Instagram photos, what would you do in their shoes? I have been in those shoes, and I am proud to say I had to take some of my own medicine that day. Around the time I was starting to really question the advertising industry, two years ago, I was offered a million-dollar contract for a big Snapchat series for Sour Patch Kids. I told them I didn’t eat those candies and would never eat them in front of the camera. They were fine with it. I even remember telling myself, “I would never ever eat one of those candies, even if their marketing director, who was signing the deal, asked me.” That day was a difficult battle between the illusion of needing money and the incorruptible inner voice that told me to not do it.


pages: 267 words: 72,552

Reinventing Capitalism in the Age of Big Data by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Thomas Ramge

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, banking crisis, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Bear Stearns, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, gig economy, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, land reform, lone genius, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, means of production, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, universal basic income, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

There’s a robust debate among lawyers and economists as to the extent that innovation offsets the network effect. Some point to the persistence of dominating platforms, such as Microsoft Windows for PC operating systems and Facebook for social media. Others highlight the fact that Facebook unseated the previous incumbent, MySpace, and is now being threatened by Snapchat, a clever start-up based on the innovative idea of vanishing messages. They also point to the rise of Linux against Windows and the fact that PC operating systems are less important today, as computing is often done on mobile devices and tablets (areas in which Microsoft does not enjoy a dominating market share).

See automation/machine learning Mainichi Shimbun, 109 Malone, Thomas, 7 MAN, 182 market failure, reducing, 6 markets, 35–57 Amazon as, 87–88 chaotic, unplanned nature of, 160 choice limitations in, 13–14 communicative coordination and, 26–28, 30–33 comparison of firms and, 28, 111 competition between firms and, 30, 107 concentrated, 161–169, 171, 217 data-rich (see data-rich markets) decentralization in (see decentralization) feedback effects and, 160–175 fintechs and, 153 historical improvements in, 51–52 irrational decision-making in, 42–44 key difference between firms and, 32–33, 90 limitations of, 63 network effects and, 162–166 for noneconomic activities, 49–50 physical design of, 160–161 prediction, 50–51 resilience of, 39 scale effects and, 162–166 shift from firms to, 10–11, 30–32, 125–126 success of, 4, 49–50, 222 thick, 2, 82–83, 164, 213 Martin, Walt, 181–182 Marx, Karl, 143, 162 Mason, Vicki, 42 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 7, 142, 159, 184, 195, 220 matching, 8–9, 11, 64, 66, 71–85, 212 algorithms for (see algorithms) centralized, 74 complexity of task, 43–44 in conventional vs. data-rich markets, 70–71 decentralized, 74, 127 fintechs and, 151–152 firms and, 127–129 nonmarket providers of, 75–76 variety of contexts for, 74–75 Max Planck Institute for Human Development, 105 McAfee, Andrew, 184 McDonald’s, 215 McGovern, George, 190 McNamara, Robert, 99–100 Medici, Cosimo de’ the Elder, 92, 93 Medici family, 91, 93 Mercedes-Benz, 110 Merrill, Douglas, 151 Merrill Lynch, 155 metadata, 66 Micro Ventures, 152–153 Microsoft, 165, 166, 169 Microsoft Imagine Cup, 75 Minyons club, 17–20 mobile phones iPhone, 136, 164 Kerala fishermen and, 36–37 payment business and, 147 Model T Ford, 29, 98, 162 money, 4, 45–57, 63, 64, 143–144, 212 advantages of using, 45–49 banks’ decreased use of, 136–137 data as a substitute for, 148–149 future role of, 5, 149 historical forms of currency, 47–48 importance of linked to utility, 45 informational function of, 48–49 intrinsic value not required for, 48 market efficiency improved by, 47–49 move from physical to virtual, 48 role of capital affected by demise of, 141 signaling with, 142 work unbundled from, 203–206, 218 See also capital; price monopolies, 30, 203 moon landing, 22, 159 Mosaic, 189 motorcycle manufacturing, 30–32, 33 Musk, Elon, 78, 189 My Years with General Motors (Sloan), 99 MySpace, 166 NASDAQ Composite Index, 196 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 22 national champions, 30 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 133 negative income tax, 190 Netflix, 74, 75, 161, 196, 209 Netherlands, 191 network effects, 162–166 New York Central Railroad, 96 New York Times, 88–89, 208–209 Nixon, Richard, 190 Nobel Prize winners, 39, 74, 190 nominal tax rate, 198 Nordstrom, 211 Northwestern University, 83, 194 oligopolies, 30 Omidyar, Pierre, 1 ontology, 67–70, 81, 84, 136 defined, 67 firms and, 128 labor market and, 204 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, 28 organized labor, 205 Orwell, George, 179 Otto, 181–183 Paine, Thomas, 190 Parthenon Group, 207 participatory policy measures, 186, 188–189, 190, 193, 200–202 patent system, 199 payment solutions businesses, 146–147, 149 PayPal, 135–136, 146, 189 Pearson, 69 Peep Trade, 76, 152 peer-to-peer lending, 152–153 Pentland, Sandy, 142 Peruzzi family, 91 Piketty, Thomas, 186 Pinterest, 210 poker, 59–62 populism, 13, 186 post-price retailers, 209 prediction markets, 50–51 preferences complexity of processing, 43–44 fintech extraction of, 151–152 improved means of capturing, 8, 64, 71–72, 76–81 standard language for comparing, 64 See also matching price, 7, 45–57 data-rich markets’ advantages over, 70–71, 72, 136–137 deemphasis on, 3, 122, 129, 136–137, 138, 212 detailed information lacking in, 4, 52–56 future role of, 5 information condensed by, 4, 46–47, 48–49, 63, 65 internal talent management and, 128 markets and, 36 volatility of, 36 PriceBlink, 52 PriceGrabber, 52 PriOS, 115 privacy issues, 145, 174 Procter & Gamble, 128 profits, 195–197 progressive consumption tax (PCT), 198 progressive data-sharing mandate, 12, 171, 199, 203 choice expanded by, 217 explained, 167–169 Prüfer, Jens, 167 punch-card tabulator, 96 Qin, Emperor, 24 Rack Habit, 207–208 Rawls, John, 223 regulatory measures for banks and financial institutions, 139–140 for feedback problems, 171–175 research and development, 196 resource scarcity, overcoming, 220–221 retail sector, 138, 207–212 retirement savings, 143–144, 195 returns on investments, 195 Robinhood Markets, 146 robo tax, 186–187 Rognlie, Matthew, 194 Ron, Lior, 182–183 Roth, Alvin, 74 Ryanair, 112 Saberr, 75 salary bands, 128, 129 salt (as currency), 47 Samsung, 196 Sandholm, Tuomas, 60, 62 SAP, 100 scale effects, 162–166 Scania, 182 Schottmüller, Christoph, 167 Schumpeter, Joseph, 120 scientific management, 96 Second Payment Service Directive (European Union), 140 Seedcamp, 75 self-employment, 185–186 Shapley, Lloyd, 74 Shepherd, Alistair, 75 shipping industry, 213 SigFig, 3, 151–152, 153, 156 silver standard, 48 Simon, Herbert, 104 Simon, Julian, 220 Siri, 79, 164 Six Sigma, 112 Sloan, Alfred P., 98–99, 101 Sloan School of Business, 220 Smith, Adam, 27, 143, 223 Snapchat, 166 Social Security, 192 SoFi, 150, 151 Soll, Jacob, 91 Solomon, Madi, 69–70 SOP. See standard operating procedure South Korea, 196 Soviet Union, 177 Spotify, 74, 75, 121–125, 196, 215 squadification, 123–125 St. Peter’s Basilica, 21 Stalin, Joseph, 177 standard operating procedure (SOP), 100–101, 106 start-ups, 141, 146, 199 increased capital available for, 142–143 network effects and, 165–166 See also fintechs Stash, 151, 215 steam engine, 111, 113 steel industry, 161 Stitch Fix, 208–212, 215 stock markets, 146 decreased investment options in, 143 share prices in, 2–3, 6, 196 Stripe and Square, 147 Stucke, Maurice, 166 subprime mortgage crisis, 6, 41, 55–56, 134, 155, 173 Suez Canal, 21 superstar firms, 195–197 Suzuki, 30 Switzerland, 136 Synco.


pages: 202 words: 72,857

The Wealth Dragon Way: The Why, the When and the How to Become Infinitely Wealthy by John Lee

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, butterfly effect, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Donald Trump, financial independence, high net worth, intangible asset, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, negative equity, passive income, payday loans, self-driving car, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, stocks for the long run, stocks for the long term, Tony Hsieh, Y2K

A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.” (He also said, “You miss 100 percent of the shots you don't take.”) And here's a great example of that philosophy. In the heat of the social media and smartphone application explosion, two Stamford students turned a craze on its head. They created an app called Snapchat. The software allows users to take photos and record messages that they can send out to recipients who have a small window in which to view them before the messages are deleted forever! In June 2013 their company was valued at $800,000. Six months later Evan Spiegel, one of the company's cofounders, reportedly turned down an offer of $3 billion from Facebook; a month later, he turned down $4 billion from China's Tencent Holdings.

Ruffin, Giavanni Sacrifices, making Salaries Sandford, Lee Saving, undesirable truth about Saving face Scarcity thinking Self-control Self-employment Self-importance Seller motivation The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (Covey) Shakespeare, William Shaw, George Bernard Simpson, O. J. Smith, Adam Snapchat Social media Spending money to make money Spiegel, Evan Stallone, Sylvester Strauss-Kahn, Dominique Strength Sugar, Alan Sun Tzu Surveyors Teaching Teamwork approach Tenant problems Think and Grow Rich (Hill) Thinking big Thomas, Eric Time Tolle, Ekhart Trump, Donald Truths.


pages: 296 words: 78,631

Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms by Hannah Fry

23andMe, 3D printing, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, Brixton riot, chief data officer, computer vision, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, ransomware, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, Shai Danziger, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web of trust, William Langewiesche, you are the product

Terence Carney, ‘Regulation 28: report to prevent future deaths’, coroner’s report on the case of Tamara Mills, 29 Oct. 2015, https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/publications/tamara-mills/. 45. Jamie Grierson and Alex Hern, ‘Doctors using Snapchat to send patient scans to each other, panel finds’, Guardian, 5 July 2017, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jul/05/doctors-using-snapchat-to-send-patient-scans-to-each-other-panel-finds. 46. Even if you get around all of those issues, sometimes the data itself just doesn’t exist. There are thousands of rare diseases with an underlying genetic cause that are effectively unique.


pages: 258 words: 74,942

Company of One: Why Staying Small Is the Next Big Thing for Business by Paul Jarvis

Airbnb, big-box store, Cal Newport, call centre, corporate social responsibility, David Heinemeier Hansson, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, follow your passion, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, Inbox Zero, independent contractor, index fund, job automation, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, passive investing, Paul Graham, pets.com, remote work: asynchronous communication, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, uber lyft, web application, Y Combinator, Y2K

Especially in a company of one, where you aren’t the largest player in your niche and probably not the cheapest, using your quirks and standing for something can be exactly how and why you gain customers’ attention. A personality is required for your company of one, regardless of size. Your human characteristics are the way your brand speaks and behaves. For example, Harley-Davidson is a brand that connotes rebelliousness, while Snapchat is associated with being young and fresh (although calling it “young and fresh” probably means that I’m neither). If you don’t think about the personality of your business, your audience will assign one to you—because people relate to other people, and your audience wants to relate to your brand when they see it.

See adaptability Ressler, Cali, 15 retention, customer, 61–63, 106, 185, 190–94 retention, of employees, 6–7 ReWork (Fried), 90 Riley, Pat, 33 risk, 37–40, 221 ROWEs (Results-Only Work Environments), 15, 18 Rubel, Steve, 96–97 Ruby on Rails, 54–55 runway buffer, 211–12 S SaaS, 110, 131 salary, 125, 165, 208, 210–11 SalesForce Pardot, 115 Sandberg, Sheryl, 47 Satornino, Cinthia, 189 savings, 211–12 scalability, 124–34 collaboration, 132–34 communication, 126, 129–31 examples of, 124–27 product development, 127–29 Scarcity (Mullainathan and Shafir), 91 Schachter, Joshua, 20 scheduling, 89–92 scope of influence, 70–73 Sears, 177 self-awareness, 57 selling, 180 Semco Partners, 27 Semler, Ricardo, 27, 219 servant leadership, 48 service, 48, 105–7, 108–11 Seventh Generation, 78–79 Shafir, Eldar, 91 Sharp, 46 Sheldon, Jeff, 115–16, 154, 163–64, 169–70 “shinise”, 216–17 Shopify, 124, 158 Silver, Spencer, 8 simplicity, 20–23, 167–69 single-tasking, 88 Sivers, Derek, 100, 172–73 skills, 51–54 autonomy, 14–18 generalists, 17–18, 200–202 growth, 33 passion, 82, 86 success, 83 slow fashion, 128 small, as goal, 24–44 better vs. bigger, 24–30 career advancement, 70–73 envy, 42–44 growth drawbacks, 30–34 meaningful growth, 60–64 minimum viable profit, 164–66 profit vs. growth, 68–70 risk and, 37–40 vs. traditional approach, 34–40 upper bounds, 40–42 when starting a business, 64–68, 163–74 SmallBizTrends, on referrals, 109 Snapchat, 95 So Good They Can’t Ignore You (Newport), 82 social capital, 187–90 social media brand reputation, 192 mistakes and, 120 personality, 97–99 relationships, 115–16, 188, 189 scalability, 126 viral content, 159–60 social views on business growth, 4–5, 24–25 on leaders, 45–49 on work, 34–40 Socrates, 42 Sorenson, Olav, 171 Southwest Airlines, 40–42 spamvite, 183, 184 specialization, vs. generalist, 51–54 speed, 18–19 Staples, 181 Starbucks, 31–32 starting a business.


pages: 235 words: 74,200

We're Going to Need More Wine: Stories That Are Funny, Complicated, and True by Gabrielle Union

double helix, equal pay for equal work, jitney, old-boy network, period drama, pre–internet, Snapchat, women in the workforce

“There are so many more people than you realize,” she told us girls, “people who look up to the same sun and the moon and the stars. It’s your birthright to explore this world.” It’s only as small as you make it. six WHO HATES YOU MOST? The cast of Being Mary Jane was holed up in a conference room while the crew investigated a gas leak on our Atlanta soundstage. Eventually we each reached the end of memes and Snapchat filters on our phones, so to kill time we started trading stories. “Okay, who in your life has hated you the most?” someone asked. People talked about a costar they’d gotten fired, an ex they brazenly cheated on. Amateur hour. Basic stuff. I knew I had the winner: a girl from high school named Queeshaun.

The school officials could see it coming, and I could tell a stepmother’s delivering the death blow made it especially painful. OUR FRIEND PHIL BOUGHT A HOME IN OUR MIAMI NEIGHBORHOOD AND converted it into a basketball gym. Not just a court—we are talking Olympic-level training facilities. It’s insane. I know this is some rich-people shit. When you see me owning the court on Snapchat? That’s where I am. I should say this, too: Phil Collins bought J. Lo’s house up the road from us. Different Phil. However, if I could get the drum crash from “In the Air Tonight” playing each time I sink a basket? Yes, please. The gym is about eleven blocks away from our place and our friend Phil gave us a set of keys.


pages: 232 words: 78,701

I'm Judging You: The Do-Better Manual by Luvvie Ajayi

affirmative action, bitcoin, Burning Man, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, clean water, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, microaggression, Skype, Snapchat, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, upwardly mobile

We get to paint our lives and curate them for those who meet us in our digital spaces, and it is up to us to decide how much of the total experience of our days we pass on for public consumption. Some of us share everything. Every single thing. We wake up and share a pic of the sun coming up outside our window. We take a shower and we post a mirror selfie. We tweet that we just took an amazing dump. We Snapchat ourselves putting on clothes; the actual process of putting legs in pants is now post-worthy. We are Generation Overshare, hear us roar and then post a Facebook status about it. I know what you did last summer. And last night. And two minutes ago. I know how you felt through all of it. I know when you’re heartbroken (see chapter 15), and I probably found out three minutes after it happened.

At this point, you can chart their day: if you wanted to rob them, you’d know they’re out the house and in their car and at the Starbucks drive-thru they love so much at precisely 8:43 a.m. Sometimes, they’ll even make your burglary research easier by geotagging their morning mirror selfie so you can also pinpoint their house. They share anything and everything, and none of it is interesting. “I just ate.” CONGRATULATIONS! No one cares! They happen to be obsessed with Snapchat now, too, so if you don’t see them tweet, it’s because they’re in their car posting video of them at a red light. You want to tell them that their life bores you to tears and you wish they’d stop. But then you realize that they make you feel like the Most Interesting Person in the World. Unfortunately, most oversharers are this person, so when you go to their account on Twitter and see that they’ve accumulated six hundred thousand tweets in two years, it’s because they are constantly posting trite rubbish.


pages: 366 words: 76,476

Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One's Looking) by Christian Rudder

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Howard Zinn, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, p-value, pre–internet, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, race to the bottom, selection bias, Snapchat, social graph, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, the strength of weak ties, two and twenty

It’s hard to see why you’d need one now that Facebook’s around, although according to the company’s last quarterly report, people under eighteen aren’t using Facebook as much as they used to. So maybe the kids need the printed copy again, I don’t know.1 But however teenagers are staying in touch—whether it’s through Snapchat or WhatsApp or Twitter—I’m positive they’re doing it with words. Pictures are part of the appeal of all of these services, obviously, but you can only say so much without a keyboard. Even on Instagram, the comments and the captions are essential—the photo after all is just a few inches square. But the words are the words are the words.

Phish, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6 photobombing photographs, 5.1, 7.1, 9.1, 14.1, 14.2, bm1.1 captions of, 3.1, 5.1 on OkCupid, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 14.1, nts.1 scrambled, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 phrenologists Pinterest, 7.1, 7.2, nts.1 Pitbull Pixar, 4.1, nts.1 pixels pizza, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, nts.1 planets, 10.1, nts.1 poetry, itr.1, 3.1, 11.1 polio vaccine politics, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 11.1 gridlock in, 9.1, 14.1 liberal vs. conservative, 6.1, 9.1, 9.2 party, 5.1, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 14.1, nts.1 racism and Twitter use and popular culture, 3.1, 11.1 pornography gay, 11.1, 12.1, nts.1, nts.2 women-with-women Potomac River, 3.1, 3.2 PowerPoint presentations, 2.1, 14.1 “pratfall effect,” 2.1, nts.1 pravastatin Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, US psychology, 6.1, 10.1 neuro- social, 2.1, 7.1 punk rock puns, 3.1, 6.1 Quantcast, 6.1, nts.1 Quantified Self movement “Quantitative Analysis of Culture Using Millions of Digitized Books” (Michel and Aiden), n race, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, 7.1, 8.1, 8.2 attractiveness and, 6.1, 6.2 four largest groupings by Internet use and, itr.1, 6.1, 6.2 jokes about, 8.1n, 8.2, 9.1 quantitative analysis of, 6.1, nts.1 rhetoric about tokenism and racism, itr.1, 1.1, 5.1, 8.1, 9.1, 11.1 data on, itr.1, 6.1, nts.1 dating and, 6.1, 6.2 expression of, itr.1, 6.1, 8.1, 9.1, nts.1 Obama on pervasiveness of, 6.1, 8.1 politics and stereotypes of, 8.1, 10.1 radio CB, 9.1, nts.1 ratings compatibility, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 congressional, itr.1, itr.2 of men and women, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, itr.4, itr.5, 1.1 pizza, itr.1, itr.2 Reagan, Ronald Reddit, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, 2.1, 12.1, 13.1, 14.1n, nts.1, nts.2 community and subreddit pages on, 2.1n, 12.1 relationships assimilated bonds of, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 breakup of, 1.1, 4.1 common interests in connectors in, 4.1, 4.2 of couples, 1.1, 4.1, 5.1, bm2.1 courtship, 1.1, 4.1 evaluation of family leading separate lives in, 4.1, 4.2 progression of “real life,” romantic, 1.1, 2.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, nts.1 stability in, itr.1, 4.1 see also dating; friends; marriage Republican National Convention of 2008 Republican Party, 5.1, 8.1, 13.1, 14.1, nts.1 Richter scale, 7.1, 12.1, nts.1 Rieger, Gerulf, 11.1, nts.1 Romans, ancient Romney, Mitt, Twitter followers of, 13.1, 13.2, nts.1 Rorschach tests Rove, Karl Russia, 9.1n, bm1.1 Ruthstrom, Ellyn, 11.1, nts.1 Sacco, Justine, 9.1, 9.2, 12.1, 13.1, nts.1 Salesforce.com, 13.1, 13.2, nts.1 Salk, Jonas Samsung Sapolsky, Robert, 7.1, nts.1 SAT science, itr.1, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 6.1, 9.1 computer, 4.1, 13.1, 14.1 data, itr.1, itr.2, 2.1, 8.1n, 12.1, 12.2, 13.1, 14.1, 14.2, bm1.1, bm2.1, bm2.2 genetic network analysis political social, itr.1, itr.2, 5.1, 6.1, 8.1, 9.1, 10.1, bm2.1 Scientific American, 14.1, 14.2, nts.1, nts.2 Scruff, n Seacrest, Ryan seismology, 7.1, 12.1 selfies September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks sex, itr.1, 1.1, 6.1, 8.1, 10.1, 11.1 attractiveness and, itr.1, 1.1, 2.1, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, bm2.1 casual, 5.1, 11.1 regret and, itr.1, nts.1 threesome see also bisexuality; homosexuality; lesbianism; lust Shakespeare, William Sharpton, Al Shazam Shiftgig, 7.1, 7.2, nts.1 showers, 12.1, 12.2 Silver, Nate, 11.1, 11.2, 14.1, nts.1 Simmons, Gene “six degrees of separation” theory Slackers (film) Slate, itr.1n, 3.1, 13.1, nts.1 smartphones, itr.1, 12.1, 12.2 smell, sense of, 2.1, nts.1 Snapchat Snowden, Edward, 14.1, 14.2 social desirability bias social graphs, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4 social media, 4.1, 6.1, 7.1, 9.1, 9.2, 13.1, 13.2, 14.1, nts.1 unrest and protest fanned on social physics solar eclipse of 1919 Sorell, C. Joseph, 10.1n, nts.1 Sparks, Nicholas speech hate, 8.1, 9.1 partisan Spielberg, Steven sports, 6.1, 8.1, 10.1, 12.1 Stanford-Binet test states’ rights statistics, itr.1, 6.1, 6.2, 10.1, 10.2 Stephens-Davidowitz, Seth, 8.1n, 8.2, 11.1, 11.2, bm2.1, nts.1, nts.2, nts.3 stock market predictions Street Fighter II string theory Strunk, William Suler, John Supreme Court, US, 8.1, 13.1 symmetric beta distribution Taboo (game) talking points Target, 13.1, nts.1 tattoos, 2.1, 2.2 taxation, 8.1, 14.1, 14.2 Tea Party, 8.1, 9.1 technology, itr.1, itr.2, 4.1, 5.1, 9.1, 12.1, 13.1, 14.1 cultural effect of, 3.1, 3.2, 9.1 harnessing of telephones, itr.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 9.1 television, 6.1, 6.2, 14.1n Tennyson, Alfred, Lord terrorism Texas, 8.1, 12.1, 12.2 text messages, 3.1, 3.2, 14.1 average length of, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 copy-and-paste vs. from-scratch keystrokes used on, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 response rates to, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 revision of time spent on, 3.1, 3.2 Thoreau, Henry David, 11.1, nts.1 thought, 1.1, 8.1, 8.2 time, 3.1, 3.2, 8.1 passage of, 3.1, 3.2 spent on messages, 3.1, 3.2 Tinder, itr.1, 7.1 tribes, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2, 9.1, nts.1 Trump, Donald Tufte, Edward R., bm1.1, nts.1 Tumblr, itr.1, 7.1, 9.1, 9.2, nts.1, nts.2 Clients from Hell posts on Twitter, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, itr.4, itr.5, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 8.1, 9.1, 12.1, 12.2, 13.1, nts.1 average word length on black users of, 13.1, nts.1 common hashtags on, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3 followers on, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3 #HasJustineLandedYet topic on, 9.1, 9.2, nts.1 language style and vocabulary on, 3.1, 13.1, nts.1 messaging patterns of subgroups on most common words on, 3.1, 10.1, 10.2 140-character limit on, 3.1, 3.2 TeamFollowBack on, 13.1, 13.2 Trending Topics list on tweets and retweets on, itr.1, itr.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 6.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 12.1, 12.2, 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, nts.1 TwitterWind ugliness, 1.1, 2.1, 6.1, 8.1 race and social costs of Ulysses (Joyce) uniform resource locators (URLs), 2.1, 3.1n Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), 12.1, nts.1 United Kingdom (UK), 6.1, 12.1, 13.1, 14.1, nts.1 United States, 6.1, 8.1, 8.2, 12.1 Internet usage in moving in, 12.1, nts.1 national security apparatus of, itr.1, 14.1 Twitter use in universal product code (UPC) Utsunomiya variance concept verbs, 3.1, 3.2 Viet-Cong, 8.1, nts.1 Vietnam Memorial, bm1.1, nts.1 Vietnam War, 8.1, bm1.1, nts.1 visual perception, itr.1n, 6.1 Wall Street Journal, 7.1, nts.1 Walmart, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, nts.1 Warden, Pete Washington, DC, “Million” marches on, 14.1, nts.1 Washington Post, 14.1, 14.2, 14.3, nts.1 Waters, John, 2.1, 2.2, nts.1 Watson, James wealth, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2n, 7.3, 11.1, 13.1 One Percent of websites, itr.1, 4.1, 6.1, 12.1, 12.2 company dating, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 7.1, 12.1 job, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2 person-to-person interaction on, itr.1, itr.2, 2.1, 5.1, 6.1 ratings on, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, itr.4, itr.5, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1 social, itr.1, 4.1, 6.1 see also specific websites WEIRD research, itr.1, 7.1n, nts.1 Wendy’s, 13.1, nts.1 “What Is Beautiful Is Good,” 7.1, nts.1 WhatsApp WhoBeefed81 Who Owns the Future?


pages: 232 words: 71,965

Dead Companies Walking by Scott Fearon

bank run, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fear of failure, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, housing crisis, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, McMansion, moral hazard, new economy, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, young professional

Barely a decade after the dotcom crash, people in Silicon Valley and the Bay Area tech world as a whole started to party, to paraphrase Prince, like it was 1999 all over again. Even after the harsh lessons of the first bubble, venture capitalists and larger corporations began to throw huge piles of money at every start-up with a half-baked smartphone app. In 2013, the founders of Snapchat—an application mostly used by teenagers to send goofy photos to each other—turned down a $3 billion buyout offer from Facebook. I don’t know what’s more maniacal: that one company offered that kind of cash for the rights to an obscure product or that the other said no to it. Another sector that has behaved maniacally for years is renewable energy.

., 58–59 Oracle, 93, 153 Orange County, California, 19–22, 143 Oyster Point, 78–79 PageNet (PAGE), 124, 126 Paine Webber, 88 Palm, 164 Paulson, Henry, 233 Paulson, John, 210 PayPal, 84 PlanetRx (PLRX), 78–82, 86, 91 power suppliers, 16 power worship, 206, 208 Prechter, Robert, 204–5 Price Club, 37, 39 Provenge, 157–58 quick service restaurants (QSR), 46 Quokka Sports (QKKA), 89–93, 119 Raymond, Geoff, 7–11, 14, 21, 35, 40, 44, 133, 137, 171, 197 RBS, 58 recession, 173, 177, 182, 184, 229 renewable energy, 94 Robertson, Julian, 210 Robertson Stephens, 165 Rocker, David, 5, 58 Rollerblades, 69–72, 130 Safeway, 83 Sahaf, Mohammed Said al, 123 Salomon Smith Barney, 205 Sam’s Club, 47 Sarbanes-Oxley, 181 scaling, 78, 86 Sears, 39 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 31, 59, 224 self-delusion, 32 self-improvement, 72 September 11, 2001, 63, 155, 173 Shaman Pharmaceuticals (SHMN), 101–5, 119 Shearson Lehman Brothers, 204 Sherden, William A., 204–5 SHL Systemshouse (SBN), 201 shock therapy, 138–40 Signet (SIG), 187 Silk Greenhouse, 161–63, 167 Sinclair, Upton, 197 “sluggish economy,” 155–56, 176 Smith, Adam, 1 Smith, Gary, 54, 112, 114, 236 snake oil, 105–6 Snapchat, 94 Southwest Airlines, 136, 140 Starbucks, 33, 36–42, 47, 127, 173, 179 start-ups, 23, 81, 77, 94 Strachman, Daniel, 210 Super Bowl, 93 supercycles, 13–14, 25, 145, 182 Supermedia (SPMD), 57–59 synergies, 121, 166 Texas Air, 132–33, 137–39 Texas Commerce Bank, 7–8, 10, 14, 25–27, 137 TGI Fridays, 17–18, 24 Tiger Management Hedge Fund, 210 Transco, 15, 29 TXU Electric Delivery, 14, 16–17 Tyco, 51 Ultimate Electronics (ULTE), 126–28 “unbanked” customers, 68 value investing, 8, 16–18, 40 Value Merchants (VLMR), 43–47, 162–63 Vanguard, 58, 207, 212 Vera Wang, 184–85, 193 Walgreens, 76 Walmart, 83, 175–77, 193 Washington Mutual (WaMu), 233 Watson, Thomas J., 1 Webvan, 81–83, 86–88 Welch, Jack, 115 Westwood One Radio (WON), 201 Wiles, Q.


pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, animal electricity, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

“It got a lot of rave reviews, but where it became a cultural game-changer was after they allowed developers in. Letting them build their software. That’s what it is, right? How often do you use your phone as an actual phone? Most of the time, you’re sitting in line at the grocery store Tweeting about who-gives-a-fuck. You don’t use it as a phone.” No, we use the apps. We use Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter. We use Maps. We text, but often on nonnative apps like Messenger, WeChat, and WhatsApp too. In fact, of the use cases that Apple imagined for the product—phone, iPod, internet communicator—only one truly made the iPhone transformative. “That’s how Steve Jobs used his product,” says Horace Dediu, the Apple analyst.

“Of course, now, everyone’s writing fart apps, but he was the original,” Grignon says. “Apple had minted this new economy. And the early gold diggers won big.” This new economy, now colloquially known as the app economy, has evolved into a multibillion-dollar market segment dominated by nouveau-riche Silicon Valley companies like Uber, Facebook, Snapchat, and Airbnb. The App Store is a vast universe, housing hopeful start-ups, time-wasting games, media platforms, spam clones, old businesses, art projects, and experiments with new interfaces. But, given the extent to which the iPhone has entered the app into the global vernacular, I thought it was worth taking stock of what, at its core, an app actually is, and what this celebrated new market segment represents.

In 2016, one report estimated that the app economy was worth $51 billion and that it would double by 2020. In early 2017, Apple announced it had paid out $20 billion to developers in 2016 and that January 1 was the single biggest day in App Store sales in the company’s history; people downloaded $240 million worth of apps. Snapchat, a video-messaging app, is valued at $16 billion. Airbnb is worth $25 billion. Instagram, which was acquired by Facebook for $1 billion five years ago, is allegedly worth $35 billion now. And the biggest app-based company of all, Uber, is currently valued at $62.5 billion. “The app industry is now bigger than Hollywood,” Dediu tells me, “but nobody really talks about it.”


pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, Andy Carvin, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, the strength of weak ties, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

It is a television, a phone, a notebook, and performs other actions for which we have no historical analogs. The programs that run on it make an additional range of connections possible. Facebook pages allow people to post messages, refer back to them in time, and share them across a wide network, unlike Snapchat, for example, which, in its current iteration, makes messages unavailable after the intended recipient has seen them. In 2011, the first year of the Arab uprisings that are sometimes called the Arab Spring, there were many articles in the Western press about the upheaval. But, as a group, reporters overwhelmingly focused on the technology.

In a smaller community, pseudonymity might not have such negative effects; indeed, in the early days of Twitter, even with a user base in the millions, it was largely composed of early adopters whose more uniform cultural preferences dominated practices on the platform. Harassment and abusive behavior that now has many users dispirited was not as dominant a complaint as it is now with a much larger and more diverse user base. Persistence and reputation are often intertwined as well. Behavior on Snapchat, which eschews showing metrics to users and discourages persistence, differs from that on Twitter or Facebook. Some online communities not only are distant from offline identities but also have little or no persistence or reputational impact. It is as if people are talking to each other while walking by without a promise that they will encounter each other again—and without any way to verify that the person they are talking to is the same person as before.

See also names and identities Reddit: “Ask Me Anything” sessions on, 165 child pornographers and pedophiles using, 164–69 Creepshots subreddit on, 165, 168 internal norms of communities on, 164–65, 166, 167–69 Jailbait subreddit on, 165–69, 178 karma reputation system on, 165, 166, 169, 171 pseudonym use on, 164–69, 170, 171 Reddit Gold symbol, 165 report and takedown policing model for, 165 refugee deaths, credibility denials of, 247–49 RenRen, 232 reputation: anonymous social interaction without accrual of, 175 journalism accuracy and, 43 online development of, 164–65, 166, 167, 168–69, 170–72, 175 Reddit’s karma representing, 165, 166, 169, 171 Russia: communication restrictions in, 117 government countermeasures and censorship in, 179, 238–39, 244 platforms and algorithms in, 134 “troll army” in, 238–39 Rustin, Bayard, 66–68 Said, Khaled and Said murder protests, 22–23, 139–42 Sanders, Bernie, campaign of, 81, 216, 275 Seattle WTO protests, 86, 213 self-expression, culture of protest supporting, 88–90, 111 Sen, Amartya, 191, 296n7 September 11th terrorist attacks, 104, 213 Sidi Bouzid protests, 14–15 signals. See capacity signaling “slacktivism,” 16–17 “smart mobs,” 60 smartphones. See cell phones Snapchat, 118, 172 soccer fans: censorship during media broadcast to, 225 as Gezi Park protesters, 107–8 social media, networked protests using. See networked protests; specific platforms social movements: antiauthoritarian movements as, 13, 38, 81, 83–112, 198, 209–16, 217, 221–22, 269–70, 274–75, 276 antiwar movement as, 100–101, 123, 189, 190, 204, 205, 221 Black Lives Matter movement as, 154–56, 177–78, 197, 205–9, 275, 298nn23–24 civil rights movement as, 61–70, 81–82, 94, 96–99, 134, 140, 193, 197 networked protests of (see networked protests); Occupy movement as, 38, 81, 83, 86, 87, 91, 93, 95–100, 209–16, 217, 221–22, 275, 276 street protests of (see street protests); Tea Party movement as, 11–12, 216–18 women’s movement as, 193–94 social-technological interactions, 115–31 affordances in, 118, 124–26, 128–29 anticensorship objectives in, 129 at Arab Bloggers Conference, 115–16 architecture of connectivity in, 129–31 cause and effect dynamics in, 119–24 consequences of, 123, 124–26, 130 context influencing, 116–17, 118 ecological effects of, 117–18 innovation in, 129 mass media technology focus with, 118–19 social construction of technology, 126–29 technodeterminism and, 119 technology as tool in, 119, 124–25 Spain: capacity signaling in, 196, 210, 275–77 Indignados protests in, 87, 93, 99, 210, 275, 276 political party formation in, 81, 196, 275–77 spammers, reporting activists as, 144 “special masks,” 171 Stop Online Piracy Act and Protect Intellectual Property Act (SOPA/PIPA), 219–20 “stranger on a train” effect, 172 street protests: capacity signaling of, 203 civil rights movement protests as, 61–70, 81–82, 94, 96–99 Gafsa protests as, 14 Gezi Park protests as (see Gezi Park protests); Occupy protests as (see Occupy movement); Sidi Bouzid protests as, 14–15 social-technological interactions via, 131 Tahrir Square protests as (see Tahrir Square protests); Tahrir Supplies supporting, 38, 53–60 Tea Party protests as, 11–12, 216–18 weather impacting, 11–12 Streisand Effect, 228, 241, 273 surveillance, 251–54 “swatting,” 180 Sweden, NATO membership disinformation about, 239 Syria: “Amina” hoax in, 183–85 networked journalism in, 42 tactical freezes, 71, 75, 77–82, 215, 270 Tahrir Square protests: backfire of censorship during, 226–28 capacity signaling via, 197, 202–3, 210 culture of protest in, 83, 84, 85–86, 93, 99, 102, 105 governmental countermeasures during, 226–28, 231 networked public sphere affecting, 8–10, 23–24 organizational structure of, 77–78, 79–80, 83 platforms and algorithms influencing participation in, 133–34 “Republic of Tahrir,” 84, 112 Tahrir Supplies: organizational coordination and communication of, 53–60 speed of expansion of, 38, 53 taxation: as government countermeasure, 33 Tea Party protests on, 11–12, 216–17 Tea Party movement, 11–12, 216–18 technodeterminism, 119 technologies.


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

In the United States, over 80 percent use a smartphone or tablet to access these social media.23 For every minute on the Internet, there are over two million Facebook likes, over seventy hours of YouTube video uploaded, three hundred thousand tweets, two hundred thousand Instagram and one hundred thousand Snapchat photos shared, and tens of thousands of interactions on LinkedIn, Pinterest, tumblr, flickr, and countless other social media networks.3 While not all of this connectivity is occurring via smartphones and tablets, it is quickly and asymptotically approaching that endpoint. But connecting people can also create wars and revolutions.

You can try to buy some privacy with such tools as the Blackphone, an Android smartphone costing $628,16 which has specialized software for users to make encrypted calls and send encrypted texts, the OFF Pocket cellphone case that for $85 blocks the signal from the phone to avoid location detection.17 The Snapchat app promises the automatic deletion of data, removing texts, photos, and videos from the recipient’s device and the company’s servers one to ten seconds after the data has been reviewed. (There are also Secret, Confide, Younity, Gliph, and Wickr “ephemeral” apps.)18 Efforts to limit data collection on a national scale have had little effect.

patient access to test results, 108 patient-generated data, 135–136 prescription medication adherence, 132–134 price comparator apps, 154 printing press and, 41(fig.), 46(fig.) privacy and security concerns, 228–230 real-time test results, 121 social networking, 42–44 Smeeth, Liam, 227 Smith, Adam, 42 Snapchat, 221 Snowden, Edward, 219, 225 Snyder, Michael, 88 Social graph of the individual, 81–83 Social media clinical trials through, 212–214 data collection through, 220–221, 223 global spread increasing global autonomy, 47–48 identifying genetic commonalities in disease, 9 importance of online health communities, 10–12 machine learning, 245 managed competition, 51 open-source software, 197 predictive analysis at the individual level, 243–245 social graphs, 82–83 Social networks, 42–44 Soon-Shion, Patrick, 203–204 Spatiotemporal applications, 79–80 Spinal fusion, 214–215 Splinter, Mike, 175 Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), 211–212 The Sports Gene (Epstein), 94 Sports injuries, 94–95 Stanford University, 112 Star Trek (television program), 286 Statins, 31–33 Stephens, Richard, 226–227 Stethoscope, 96, 119–120, 175–176, 253–256, 276, 289 Stone, Neil, 33 Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 92, 103 Supreme Court, US, 74–76 Surgery Center of Oklahoma, 152–153 Surveillance, 219–224 Take Care clinics, 163 Target, 224, 239 Targeted marketing, 221–225, 243 Tay-Sachs disease, 89 TechFreedom, 69 Technion Institute, Haifa, Israel, 110 Technology adoption, 7(fig.)


pages: 506 words: 133,134

The Lonely Century: How Isolation Imperils Our Future by Noreena Hertz

"side hustle", Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, Cass Sunstein, centre right, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, independent contractor, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Pepto Bismol, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, rent control, RFID, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Great Good Place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, Wall-E, WeWork, working poor

Crucially in these, the participants weren’t simply asked to report their social media habits; instead they were directed by the researchers to actively change them. This meant that the effects of those changes on their behaviour and mood could be directly observed and compared, and causality could be established.72 The results were enlightening. One of the studies found that limiting Snapchat and Instagram along with Facebook to ten minutes per platform per day produced a significant reduction in loneliness.73 The other, a gold standard of a study of nearly 3,000 people in which over a two-month period half of the participants used Facebook as normal and the other half – the ‘Treatment’ group – fully deactivated their Facebook accounts, found that the group that had deactivated Facebook didn’t simply use the time they would have spent on that platform on other websites.

One parent told me of the pain he felt watching his daughter manically ‘liking’ every post of every person on her feed to try and ensure a reciprocal response when she posted herself. Peter, a four-foot-nothing bespectacled Year 9 student from London, described to me the ‘agony’ he felt ‘posting, waiting, and hoping and no one replying and then asking myself again and again why am I not liked? What am I doing wrong?’ And Jamie told me of how the thought of any of her Snapchat streaks ending sent her into a panic. ‘It makes me feel physically sick,’ she explained. It’s not that being popular wasn’t always important to the young. Indeed, it’s the theme at the heart of most high-school dramas. What is different is, once again, the powerful and inescapable impact that social media has brought to these dynamics.

11 Add to these festivals like Vienna’s Donauinselfest, Brazil’s Rock in Rio or Rabat’s Mawazine, each of which in 2019 attracted more than 700,000 visitors, and it’s clear just how strong the appetite for shared live experiences has become.12 Even as life was being designed to be ever more contactless and technology was enabling us to substitute ‘real’ relationships for those with YouTubers, TikTokers and Alexas, and even as we were being urged to ‘join the conversation’ via Twitter, or ‘share a moment’ on Snapchat and migrate more and more of our conversations online, in those millions of festival-goers we saw evidence of something else. A burgeoning counter-movement of people for whom virtual interactions weren’t enough, and who, in response to their growing feelings of disconnection and atomisation, were actively breaking out of their own digital bubbles and seeking out community in analogue, face-to-face forms.


pages: 520 words: 134,627

Unacceptable: Privilege, Deceit & the Making of the College Admissions Scandal by Melissa Korn, Jennifer Levitz

"side hustle", affirmative action, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, blockchain, call centre, Donald Trump, Gordon Gekko, helicopter parent, high net worth, impact investing, independent contractor, Jeffrey Epstein, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Menlo Park, performance metric, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Thorstein Veblen, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, yield management, young professional, zero-sum game

While still in high school, she had a personal trainer whose other clients included Courtney Cox, Julianne Moore, and David Duchovny. She made no secret of her distaste for academic life. She hated physics and bemoaned homework. “My favorite subject is free period because I don’t have to do anything,” she said at one point. Another time she was asked via Snapchat how she balanced high school with her YouTube channel. “Psh, you don’t,” Bella interjects, chuckling, as the pair sit on an overstuffed gray love seat. “You’ve just got to learn to just put YouTube before school because school is so not important,” Olivia says, her eye twinkling as Bella gets more agitated.

All the while, Singer and his team churned out those donation receipts confirming “no goods or services were exchanged” for the money. 15 THE TARGET WHEN THE OTHER MOM at Jack Buckingham’s soccer game in 2016 mentioned college counselors, Jane Buckingham swung into action. She got Singer’s contact information, and then a second reference from another friend. She called both Singer and the other recommended expert, a hot L.A. counselor named Danny Ruderman, known for steering the eventual founder of Snapchat into Stanford. Ruderman was very busy and required clients to come to his office for sessions. Singer had an opening, and he made house calls. She chose Singer. Buckingham was at a turning point in her life. Her husband, Marcus, moved out in early 2016, a month before their twentieth anniversary.

she had a personal trainer: February 6, 2018, tweet by @oliviajadee, https://twitter.com/oliviajadee/status/961077315424808960?lang=en, and testimonials on MichelleLovitt.com http://www.michellelovitt.com/testimonials/. She hated physics: Comments about Olivia Giannulli’s academic interests come from YouTube videos, including “Get to Know Me Tag,” December 24, 2016, and “Snapchat Q&A w Bella,” January 3, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O5lbyUoGErQ. Singer asked Janke to craft: July 14, 2017, email from Rick Singer to Laura Janke, in affidavit. He emailed Giannulli and Loughlin: July 16, 2017, email from Rick Singer to Mossimo Giannulli and Lori Loughlin, in ibid.


pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

CB Insights, “The Unicorn List: Current Private Companies Valued at $1 Billion and Above,” https://www.cbinsights.com/research-unicorn-companies. The following ten companies were the largest in order of valuation; companies in [brackets] are not multisided platforms. Uber, [Xiaomi], Airbnb, [Palantir Technologies], Snapchat, Flipkart, Didi Kuaidi, [SpaceX], Pinterest, and Dropbox. 6. The company was initially called easyeats.com but changed its name early on. 7. The company also signed up restaurants in Chicago at first. 8. Unless otherwise noted, all monetary values we report are not adjusted for inflation. 9.

According to Bloomberg, market capitalization for Apple and Google was $665 billion and $527 billion, respectively, as of November 20, 2015. See Ibid. for the rankings as of March 2015. 4. As of November 25, 2015. CBInsight, “The Unicorn List: Current Private Companies Valued at $1B and Above,” https://www.cbinsights.com/research-unicorn-companies. 5. Ibid. These include Uber, Airbnb, Snapchat, Flipkart, Didi Kuaidi, Pinterest and Dropbox. 6. For an interesting history of much of this digital revolution, see Walter Isaacson, The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2014). 7. The iPhone 6 has a speed of 1.4 GHz, compared to 4.77 MHz for the 1981 IBM PC.


pages: 389 words: 81,596

Quit Like a Millionaire: No Gimmicks, Luck, or Trust Fund Required by Kristy Shen, Bryce Leung

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, barriers to entry, buy low sell high, call centre, car-free, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, follow your passion, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, index fund, longitudinal study, low cost airline, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, obamacare, offshore financial centre, passive income, Ponzi scheme, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the rule of 72, working poor, Y2K, Zipcar

Getting rich isn’t fast or easy. Anyone who tells you otherwise had advantages or is trying to trick you into giving them money. I’m not here to trick you. I don’t need your money. I’m already a millionaire, remember? In fact, this book almost didn’t exist at all. Since I didn’t buy Apple stock at $10, invent the next Snapchat, or do anything all that exceptional by the time I was thirty, I thought my story wasn’t that interesting. If I showed you my university transcript, you’d see I’m not even that smart. Why would anyone care? It took an editor from Penguin Random House, Nina Shield, to convince me that my story is worth telling.

I guess here is where we say good-bye, for now at least. My journey from poverty to millionaire wasn’t straightforward or easy, but it’s reproducible, and that’s what matters. You can do what I did, you can accomplish what I accomplished, and all you have to do is copy my moves. I didn’t create the next Snapchat; I didn’t bet on Amazon when it was $10. All I did was work hard and never take a dollar for granted, and I turned our above-average-but-not-unreasonably-so salary into a million dollars and retired at thirty-one. If you understand money, life is incredibly easy. If you don’t understand money, life is incredibly hard.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

In 1995, 710 million rolls of film were developed at thousands of processing centers. By 2005, nearly 200 billion digital photographs, equaling about eight billion rolls, had been taken and edited, stored and displayed in ways that were unimaginable just a few years before. Today, web users upload almost one billion photographs per day to sites like Snapchat, Facebook and Instagram. As we saw in Chapter One, the shift from analog to digital is occurring in multiple core technologies that feature multiplier effects at their intersections. This process of “virtualizing” one industry after another is not just advancing exponentially, but at multiples of even that as data about the many different components of a single item or process is systematically analyzed and automated by software (data analytics).

Throughout every industry, the democratization of accelerating technologies is allowing hundreds of startups to attack and disrupt traditional markets: Bitcoin, Uber, Twitch, Tesla, Hired, Clinkle, Modern Meadow, Beyond Verbal, Vayable, GitHub, WhatsApp, Oculus Rift, Hampton Creek, Airbnb, Matternet, Snapchat, Jaunt VR, Homejoy, Waze, Quirky, Tongal, BuzzFeed—the list of disruptors is virtually endless. And while of course many newcomers won’t succeed, their sheer number means that plenty will be around long enough to create a revolution. Large companies must identify and track disruptive ExOs with the aim of observing, partnering with, investing in and/or acquiring them.


pages: 239 words: 80,319