Turing complete

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pages: 960 words: 125,049

Mastering Ethereum: Building Smart Contracts and DApps by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood Ph. D.

Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, continuous integration, cryptocurrency, Debian, Dogecoin, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, functional programming, Google Chrome, intangible asset, Internet of things, litecoin, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, node package manager, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, sealed-bid auction, sharing economy, side project, smart contracts, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vickrey auction, web application, WebSocket

Ethereum programs run “everywhere,” yet produce a common state that is secured by the rules of consensus. Turing Completeness as a “Feature” Hearing that Ethereum is Turing complete, you might arrive at the conclusion that this is a feature that is somehow lacking in a system that is Turing incomplete. Rather, it is the opposite. Turing completeness is very easy to achieve; in fact, the simplest Turing-complete state machine known has 4 states and uses 6 symbols, with a state definition that is only 22 instructions long. Indeed, sometimes systems are found to be “accidentally Turing complete.” A fun reference of such systems can be found at http://bit.ly/2Og1VgX.

Town Crier, Data Authentication transaction call, Transaction/message call context transaction fees (see gas) transaction receipt, Events transactions, Transactions-Conclusionsas atomic, Life Cycle of a Smart Contract basic structure, The Structure of a Transaction contract creation, Special Transaction: Contract Creation-Special Transaction: Contract Creation defined, Quick Glossary digital signatures and, Digital Signatures-Raw Transaction Creation with EIP-155 gas, Transaction Gas-Transaction Gas multiple-signature, Multiple-Signature (Multisig) Transactions nonces, The Transaction Nonce-Concurrency, Transaction Origination, and Nonces propagation of, Transaction Propagation raw transaction creation with EIP-1455, Raw Transaction Creation with EIP-155 raw transaction creation/signing, Raw Transaction Creation and Signing recipient of, Transaction Recipient recording on the blockchain, Recording on the Blockchain separating signing and transmission, Separating Signing and Transmission (Offline Signing)-Separating Signing and Transmission (Offline Signing) signature prefix value (v) and public key recovery, The Signature Prefix Value (v) and Public Key Recovery signing in practice, Transaction Signing in Practice smart contracts and, Life Cycle of a Smart Contract transmitting data payload to EOAs and contracts, Transmitting a Data Payload to an EOA or Contract-Transmitting a Data Payload to an EOA or Contract transmitting value to EOAs and contract, Transmitting Value to EOAs and Contracts value and data fields, Transaction Value and Data-Transmitting a Data Payload to an EOA or Contract warnings and cautions, Ethereum Addresses and Transactions in this Book transfer functionERC20 token standard, ERC20 workflows: “transfer” and “approve & transferFrom”-ERC20 workflows: “transfer” and “approve & transferFrom” to reduce reentrancy vulnerabilities, Preventative Techniques trapdoor functions, Public Key Cryptography and Cryptocurrency tree structure, navigating, Navigating the HD wallet tree structure TrueBit, Computation Oracles Truffle, Truffle-Using the Truffle consoleas test framework, Testing Smart Contracts configuring, Configuring truffle console, Using the Truffle console-Using the Truffle console contract deployment with, Using truffle to deploy a contract creating a project directory, Creating a truffle project directory-Creating a truffle project directory defined, Quick Glossary installing, Installing the Truffle framework integrating a prebuilt Truffle project, Integrating a prebuilt Truffle project (Truffle Box) interacting with METoken via Truffle console, Interacting with METoken using the Truffle console-Interacting with METoken using the Truffle console migrations, Truffle migrations — understanding deployment scripts-Truffle migrations — understanding deployment scripts running test transaction with, Catching events Truffle Box, Integrating a prebuilt Truffle project (Truffle Box) Trust Wallet, Mobile (Smartphone) Wallets trusted execution environments (TEEs), Data Authentication trustless systems, Oracles(see also oracles) Turing completenessas feature, Turing Completeness as a “Feature” defined, Quick Glossary Ethereum and, Ethereum and Turing Completeness EVM and, What Is the EVM?, Turing Completeness and Gas implications of, Implications of Turing Completeness Turing, Alan, Ethereum and Turing Completeness tx object, Transaction context tx.origin authentication security threatpreventative techniques, Preventative Techniques vulnerability, The Vulnerability typecasting, Variable Typecasting typographical conventions, Conventions Used in This Book U unchecked CALL return value security threat, Unchecked CALL Return Values-Real-World Example: Etherpot and King of the Etherpreventative techniques, Preventative Techniques real-world example: Etherpot and King of the Ether, Real-World Example: Etherpot and King of the Ether vulnerability, The Vulnerability underflow, Arithmetic Over/Underflows-Real-World Examples: PoWHC and Batch Transfer Overflow (CVE-2018–10299), The Vulnerability unexpected etherpreventative techniques, Preventative Techniques security threat from, Unexpected Ether-Further Examples vulnerability, The Vulnerability-The Vulnerability uninitialized storage pointers security threat, Uninitialized Storage Pointers-Real-World Examples: OpenAddressLottery and CryptoRoulette Honey Potspreventative techniques, Preventative Techniques real-world examples: OpenAddressLottery and CryptoRoulette honey pots, Real-World Examples: OpenAddressLottery and CryptoRoulette Honey Pots vulnerability, The Vulnerability-The Vulnerability Universal Turing machine (UTM), Ethereum and Turing Completeness user interface, as DApp frontend, Frontend (Web User Interface) utilities, EthereumJS helpeth: A Command-Line Utilitydapp.tools, dapp.tools EthereumJS helpeth, EthereumJS helpeth: A Command-Line Utility SputnikVM, SputnikVM utility currency, ether as, Compared to Bitcoin utility tokensdefined, Using Tokens: Utility or Equity equity tokens disguised as, It’s a Duck!

Further Reading The following references provide additional information on the technologies mentioned here: The Ethereum Yellow Paper: https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf The Beige Paper, a rewrite of the Yellow Paper for a broader audience in less formal language: https://github.com/chronaeon/beigepaper ÐΞVp2p network protocol: http://bit.ly/2quAlTE Ethereum Virtual Machine list of resources: http://bit.ly/2PmtjiS LevelDB database (used most often to store the local copy of the blockchain): http://leveldb.org Merkle Patricia trees: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Patricia-Tree Ethash PoW algorithm: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethash Casper PoS v1 Implementation Guide: http://bit.ly/2DyPr3l Go-Ethereum (Geth) client: https://geth.ethereum.org/ Parity Ethereum client: https://parity.io/ Ethereum and Turing Completeness As soon as you start reading about Ethereum, you will immediately encounter the term “Turing complete.” Ethereum, they say, unlike Bitcoin, is Turing complete. What exactly does that mean? The term refers to English mathematician Alan Turing, who is considered the father of computer science. In 1936 he created a mathematical model of a computer consisting of a state machine that manipulates symbols by reading and writing them on sequential memory (resembling an infinite-length paper tape).


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Dogecoin, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

This has been fine for the Blockchain 1.0 implementation of currency and payment transactions, but for the more complicated tier of Blockchain 2.0 applications such as the recording and transfer of more complex assets like smart property and smart contracts, we need the third step—a more robust scripting system—and ultimately, Turing completeness (the ability to run any coin, protocol, or blockchain). Nakamoto envisioned not just sending money from point A to point B, but having programmable money and a full feature set to enable it. One blockchain infrastructure project aiming to deliver a Turing-complete scripting language and Turing-complete platform is Ethereum. Ethereum is a platform and a programming language for building and publishing distributed applications. More fundamentally, Ethereum is a foundational general-purpose cryptocurrency platform that is a Turing-complete virtual machine (meaning that it can run any coin, script, or cryptocurrency project).

-M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy and consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe extensibility of, Extensibility of Blockchain Technology Concepts for facilitating big data predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation future applications, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe limitations of (see limitations) organizational capabilities, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity tracking capabilities, Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange-Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange blockchain-recorded marriage, Decentralized Governance Services BlockCypher, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs BOINC, DAOs and DACs bond deposit postings, Technical Challenges Brin, David, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel BTCjam, Financial Services business model challenges, Business Model Challenges Buttercoin, Financial Services Byrne, Patrick, Financial Services C Campus Cryptocurrency Network, Campuscoin Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin censorship, Internet (see decentralized DNS system) Chain, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs challenges (see see limitations) charity donations, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost China, Relation to Fiat Currency ChromaWallet, Wallet Development Projects Chronobit, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit Circle Internet Financial, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Codius, Financial Services coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption coin mixing, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity coin, defining, Terminology and Concepts, Currency, Token, Tokenizing Coinapult, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Coinapult LOCKS, Relation to Fiat Currency Coinbase, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin, Financial Services CoinBeyond, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinffeine, Financial Services Coinify, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinprism, Wallet Development Projects Coinspace, Crowdfunding CoinSpark, Wallet Development Projects colored coins, Smart Property, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Communitycoin, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention complementary currency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable concepts, redefining, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe consensus-derived information, Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe contagious disease relief, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts-The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence (see also smart contracts) crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding financial services, Financial Services-Financial Services marriage, Decentralized Governance Services prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property wallet development projects, Wallet Development Projects copyright protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Counterparty, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform Counterparty currency (XCP), Currency, Token, Tokenizing Counterwallet, Wallet Development Projects crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding cryptocurrencies benefits of, Currency, Token, Tokenizing cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity mechanics of, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin cryptosecurity challenges, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity cryptowallet, Blockchain Neutrality currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Regulatory Status, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption Communitycoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin decentralizing, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention defining, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Currency, Token, Tokenizing, Currency: New Meanings demurrage, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency monetary and nonmonetary, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies new meanings, Currency: New Meanings technology stack, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency currency mulitplicity, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies D DAOs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Blockchain Government Dapps, Dapps-Dapps, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Dark Coin, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity dark pools, Technical Challenges Dark Wallet, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations DDP, Crowdfunding decentralization, Smart Contracts, Centralization-Decentralization Tension and Equilibrium decentralized applications (Dapps), Dapps-Dapps decentralized autonomous organization/corporation (DAO) (see DAOs/DACs) decentralized autonomous societies (DASs), DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations decentralized autonomy, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity decentralized DNS, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity challenges of, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services and digital identity, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services decentralized file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation decentralized secure file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation deeds, Decentralized Governance Services demurrage currencies, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features action-incitory features, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features limitations of, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also blockchain attestation services) hashing and timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection digital cryptography, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 digital divide, defining, Digital Divide of Bitcoin digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution DIYweathermodeling, Community Supercomputing DNAnexus, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Dogecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Scandals and Public Perception DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems DriveShare, DAOs and DACs dynamic redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) E education (see learning and literacy) Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models EMR (electronic medical record) system, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage Ethereum, Crowdfunding, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine-Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity ExperimentalResultscoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin F Fairlay, Bitcoin Prediction Markets fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation financial services, Regulatory Status, Financial Services-Financial Services, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity, Government Regulation Fitbit, Personal Thinking Blockchains, Blockchain Health Research Commons, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Florincoin, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel Folding@Home, DAOs and DACs, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing franculates, Blockchain Government freedom of speech, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel (see also decentralized DNS system) Freicoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable fundraising (see crowdfunding) futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets G GBIcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives), Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable Gems, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Dapps Genecoin, Blockchain Genomics Genomecoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Genomic Data Commons, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomic sequencing, Blockchain Genomics 2.0: Industrialized All-Human-Scale Sequencing Solution-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin GenomicResearchcoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomics, consumer, Blockchain Genomics-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Git, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation GitHub, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief GoCoin, Financial Services GoToLunchcoin, Terminology and Concepts governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance decentralized services, Decentralized Governance Services-Decentralized Governance Services dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personalized governance services, Blockchain Government random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections societal maturity impact of blockchain governance, Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance government regulation, Regulatory Status, Government Regulation-Government Regulation Gridcoin, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin H hashing, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Technical Challenges Hayek, Friedrich, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable, Conclusion, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology health, Blockchain Health-Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup as demurrage currency, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features doctor vendor RFP services, Doctor Vendor RFP Services and Assurance Contracts health notary services, Blockchain Health Notary health research commons , Blockchain Health Research Commons health spending, Healthcoin healthcare decision making and advocacy, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personal health record storage, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage virus bank and seed vault backup, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Healthcoin, Healthcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable I identity authentication, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records Indiegogo, Crowdfunding, Dapps industry scandals, Scandals and Public Perception infrastructure needs and issues, Technical Challenges inheritance gifts, Smart Contracts intellectual property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also digital art) Internet administration, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Internet Archive, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Personal Thinking Blockchains Internet censorship prevention (see Decentralized DNS system) Intuit Quickbooks, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin IP protection, Hashing Plus Timestamping IPFS project, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation J Johnston, David, Blockchain Technology Could Be Used in the Administration of All Quanta Journalcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Judobaby, Crowdfunding justice applications for censorship-resistant organizational models, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models-Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also digital art, blockchain attestation services) digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records freedom of speech/anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance (see also governance) Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also decentralized DNS) K Kickstarter, Crowdfunding, Community Supercomputing Kipochi, Blockchain Neutrality, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Koinify, Crowdfunding, Dapps Kraken, Financial Services L latency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Technical Challenges, Technical Challenges, Scandals and Public Perception LaZooz, Dapps, Campuscoin, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Learncoin, Learncoin learning and literacy, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges learning contract exchanges, Learning Contract Exchanges Ledra Capital, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List legal implications crowdfunding, Crowdfunding smart contracts, Smart Contracts lending, trustless, Smart Property Lighthouse, Crowdfunding limitations, Limitations-Overall: Decentralization Trends Likely to Persist business model challenges, Business Model Challenges government regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation personal records privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records scandals and public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections Litecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Technical Challenges literacy (see learning and literacy) LTBcoin, Wallet Development Projects, Currency, Token, Tokenizing M M2M/IoT infrastructure, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-The Blockchain Is Not for Every Situation, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology Maidsafe, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Technical Challenges Manna, Crowdfunding marriage, blockchain recorded, Decentralized Governance Services Mastercoin, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects mechanics of cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works Medici, Financial Services mega master blockchain list, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List Melotic, Crowdfunding, Wallet Development Projects merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant payment fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Dapps, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services, Technical Challenges MetaDisk, DAOs and DACs mindfiles, Personal Thinking Blockchains MIT Bitcoin Project, Campuscoin Monegraph, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection money (see currency) MOOCs (massive open online courses), Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Moroz, Tatiana, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention multicurrency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable N Nakamoto, Satoshi, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Nationcoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable notary chains, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure notary services, Hashing Plus Timestamping, Blockchain Health Notary NSA surveillance, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel NXT, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects O offline wallets, Technical Challenges OneName, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Identity Verification OneWallet, Wallet Development Projects online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection-Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Open Assets, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Open Transactions, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects OpenBazaar, Dapps, Government Regulation Ostel, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel P passports, Decentralized Governance Services PayPal, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems, Financial Services, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models peer-to-peer lending, Financial Services Peercoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency personal cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity personal data rights, Blockchain Genomics personal mindfile blockchains, Personal Thinking Blockchains personal thinking chains, Personal Thinking Blockchains-Personal Thinking Blockchains physical asset keys, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property plagiarism detection/avoidance, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Precedent, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Terminology and Concepts prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations, Decentralized Governance Services, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Predictious, Bitcoin Prediction Markets predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records private key, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Proof of Existence, Proof of Existence-Proof of Existence proof of stake, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges proof of work, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges property ownership, Smart Property property registration, Decentralized Governance Services public documents registries, Decentralized Governance Services public health, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception public/private key cryptography, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101-Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 publishing, academic, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin pull technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity push technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity R random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections Realcoin, Relation to Fiat Currency redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation regulatory status, Regulatory Status reputation vouching, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Researchcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin REST APIs, Technical Challenges Ripple, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Relation to Fiat Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Ripple Labs, Financial Services Roadcoin, Blockchain Government S Saldo.mx, Blockchain Neutrality scandals, Scandals and Public Perception science, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Sean's Outpost, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost secret messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine security issues, Technical Challenges self-bootstrapped organizations, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations self-directing assets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets self-enforced code, Smart Property self-sufficiency, Smart Contracts SETI@home, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing size and bandwidth, Technical Challenges smart contracts, Smart Contracts-Smart Contracts, Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence automatic markets and tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets Counterparty, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs Dapps, Dapps-Dapps DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations Ethereum, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine increasingly autonomous, Dapps, DAOs, DACs, and DASs: Increasingly Autonomous Smart Contracts-Automatic Markets and Tradenets smart literacy contracts, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection smartwatch, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Snowden, Edward, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models social contracts, Smart Contracts social network currencies, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies Stellar, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs stock market, Financial Services Storj, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Dapps, Technical Challenges Stripe, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Swancoin, Smart Property swaps exchange, Financial Services Swarm, Crowdfunding, Dapps Swarm (Ethereum), Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Swarmops, Crowdfunding T Tatianacoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Tendermint, Technical Challenges Tera Exchange, Financial Services terminology, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts 37Coins, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief throughput, Technical Challenges timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations titling, Decentralized Governance Services tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets transaction fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Tribecoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption trustless lending, Smart Property Truthcoin, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Turing completeness, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Twister, Dapps Twitter, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection U Uber, Government Regulation unbanked/underbanked markets, Blockchain Neutrality usability issues, Technical Challenges V value chain composition, How a Cryptocurrency Works versioning issues, Technical Challenges Virtual Notary, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit voting and prediction, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets W wallet APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs wallet companies, Wallet Development Projects wallet software, How a Cryptocurrency Works wasted resources, Technical Challenges Wayback Machine, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation Wedbush Securities, Financial Services Whatevercoin, Terminology and Concepts WikiLeaks, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Wikinomics, Community Supercomputing World Citizen project, Decentralized Governance Services X Xapo, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Z Zennet Supercomputer, Community Supercomputing Zooko's Triangle, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity About the Author Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contemporary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII.

-M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy and consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe extensibility of, Extensibility of Blockchain Technology Concepts for facilitating big data predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation future applications, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe limitations of (see limitations) organizational capabilities, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity tracking capabilities, Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange-Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange blockchain-recorded marriage, Decentralized Governance Services BlockCypher, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs BOINC, DAOs and DACs bond deposit postings, Technical Challenges Brin, David, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel BTCjam, Financial Services business model challenges, Business Model Challenges Buttercoin, Financial Services Byrne, Patrick, Financial Services C Campus Cryptocurrency Network, Campuscoin Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin censorship, Internet (see decentralized DNS system) Chain, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs challenges (see see limitations) charity donations, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost China, Relation to Fiat Currency ChromaWallet, Wallet Development Projects Chronobit, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit Circle Internet Financial, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Codius, Financial Services coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption coin mixing, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity coin, defining, Terminology and Concepts, Currency, Token, Tokenizing Coinapult, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Coinapult LOCKS, Relation to Fiat Currency Coinbase, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin, Financial Services CoinBeyond, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinffeine, Financial Services Coinify, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinprism, Wallet Development Projects Coinspace, Crowdfunding CoinSpark, Wallet Development Projects colored coins, Smart Property, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Communitycoin, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention complementary currency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable concepts, redefining, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe consensus-derived information, Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe contagious disease relief, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts-The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence (see also smart contracts) crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding financial services, Financial Services-Financial Services marriage, Decentralized Governance Services prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property wallet development projects, Wallet Development Projects copyright protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Counterparty, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform Counterparty currency (XCP), Currency, Token, Tokenizing Counterwallet, Wallet Development Projects crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding cryptocurrencies benefits of, Currency, Token, Tokenizing cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity mechanics of, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin cryptosecurity challenges, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity cryptowallet, Blockchain Neutrality currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Regulatory Status, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption Communitycoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin decentralizing, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention defining, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Currency, Token, Tokenizing, Currency: New Meanings demurrage, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency monetary and nonmonetary, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies new meanings, Currency: New Meanings technology stack, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency currency mulitplicity, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies D DAOs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Blockchain Government Dapps, Dapps-Dapps, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Dark Coin, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity dark pools, Technical Challenges Dark Wallet, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations DDP, Crowdfunding decentralization, Smart Contracts, Centralization-Decentralization Tension and Equilibrium decentralized applications (Dapps), Dapps-Dapps decentralized autonomous organization/corporation (DAO) (see DAOs/DACs) decentralized autonomous societies (DASs), DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations decentralized autonomy, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity decentralized DNS, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity challenges of, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services and digital identity, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services decentralized file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation decentralized secure file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation deeds, Decentralized Governance Services demurrage currencies, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features action-incitory features, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features limitations of, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also blockchain attestation services) hashing and timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection digital cryptography, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 digital divide, defining, Digital Divide of Bitcoin digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution DIYweathermodeling, Community Supercomputing DNAnexus, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Dogecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Scandals and Public Perception DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems DriveShare, DAOs and DACs dynamic redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) E education (see learning and literacy) Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models EMR (electronic medical record) system, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage Ethereum, Crowdfunding, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine-Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity ExperimentalResultscoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin F Fairlay, Bitcoin Prediction Markets fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation financial services, Regulatory Status, Financial Services-Financial Services, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity, Government Regulation Fitbit, Personal Thinking Blockchains, Blockchain Health Research Commons, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Florincoin, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel Folding@Home, DAOs and DACs, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing franculates, Blockchain Government freedom of speech, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel (see also decentralized DNS system) Freicoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable fundraising (see crowdfunding) futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets G GBIcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives), Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable Gems, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Dapps Genecoin, Blockchain Genomics Genomecoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Genomic Data Commons, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomic sequencing, Blockchain Genomics 2.0: Industrialized All-Human-Scale Sequencing Solution-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin GenomicResearchcoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomics, consumer, Blockchain Genomics-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Git, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation GitHub, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief GoCoin, Financial Services GoToLunchcoin, Terminology and Concepts governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance decentralized services, Decentralized Governance Services-Decentralized Governance Services dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personalized governance services, Blockchain Government random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections societal maturity impact of blockchain governance, Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance government regulation, Regulatory Status, Government Regulation-Government Regulation Gridcoin, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin H hashing, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Technical Challenges Hayek, Friedrich, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable, Conclusion, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology health, Blockchain Health-Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup as demurrage currency, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features doctor vendor RFP services, Doctor Vendor RFP Services and Assurance Contracts health notary services, Blockchain Health Notary health research commons , Blockchain Health Research Commons health spending, Healthcoin healthcare decision making and advocacy, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personal health record storage, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage virus bank and seed vault backup, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Healthcoin, Healthcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable I identity authentication, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records Indiegogo, Crowdfunding, Dapps industry scandals, Scandals and Public Perception infrastructure needs and issues, Technical Challenges inheritance gifts, Smart Contracts intellectual property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also digital art) Internet administration, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Internet Archive, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Personal Thinking Blockchains Internet censorship prevention (see Decentralized DNS system) Intuit Quickbooks, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin IP protection, Hashing Plus Timestamping IPFS project, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation J Johnston, David, Blockchain Technology Could Be Used in the Administration of All Quanta Journalcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Judobaby, Crowdfunding justice applications for censorship-resistant organizational models, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models-Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also digital art, blockchain attestation services) digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records freedom of speech/anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance (see also governance) Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also decentralized DNS) K Kickstarter, Crowdfunding, Community Supercomputing Kipochi, Blockchain Neutrality, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Koinify, Crowdfunding, Dapps Kraken, Financial Services L latency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Technical Challenges, Technical Challenges, Scandals and Public Perception LaZooz, Dapps, Campuscoin, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Learncoin, Learncoin learning and literacy, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges learning contract exchanges, Learning Contract Exchanges Ledra Capital, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List legal implications crowdfunding, Crowdfunding smart contracts, Smart Contracts lending, trustless, Smart Property Lighthouse, Crowdfunding limitations, Limitations-Overall: Decentralization Trends Likely to Persist business model challenges, Business Model Challenges government regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation personal records privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records scandals and public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections Litecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Technical Challenges literacy (see learning and literacy) LTBcoin, Wallet Development Projects, Currency, Token, Tokenizing M M2M/IoT infrastructure, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-The Blockchain Is Not for Every Situation, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology Maidsafe, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Technical Challenges Manna, Crowdfunding marriage, blockchain recorded, Decentralized Governance Services Mastercoin, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects mechanics of cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works Medici, Financial Services mega master blockchain list, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List Melotic, Crowdfunding, Wallet Development Projects merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant payment fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Dapps, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services, Technical Challenges MetaDisk, DAOs and DACs mindfiles, Personal Thinking Blockchains MIT Bitcoin Project, Campuscoin Monegraph, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection money (see currency) MOOCs (massive open online courses), Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Moroz, Tatiana, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention multicurrency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable N Nakamoto, Satoshi, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Nationcoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable notary chains, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure notary services, Hashing Plus Timestamping, Blockchain Health Notary NSA surveillance, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel NXT, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects O offline wallets, Technical Challenges OneName, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Identity Verification OneWallet, Wallet Development Projects online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection-Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Open Assets, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Open Transactions, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects OpenBazaar, Dapps, Government Regulation Ostel, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel P passports, Decentralized Governance Services PayPal, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems, Financial Services, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models peer-to-peer lending, Financial Services Peercoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency personal cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity personal data rights, Blockchain Genomics personal mindfile blockchains, Personal Thinking Blockchains personal thinking chains, Personal Thinking Blockchains-Personal Thinking Blockchains physical asset keys, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property plagiarism detection/avoidance, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Precedent, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Terminology and Concepts prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations, Decentralized Governance Services, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Predictious, Bitcoin Prediction Markets predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records private key, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Proof of Existence, Proof of Existence-Proof of Existence proof of stake, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges proof of work, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges property ownership, Smart Property property registration, Decentralized Governance Services public documents registries, Decentralized Governance Services public health, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception public/private key cryptography, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101-Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 publishing, academic, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin pull technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity push technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity R random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections Realcoin, Relation to Fiat Currency redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation regulatory status, Regulatory Status reputation vouching, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Researchcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin REST APIs, Technical Challenges Ripple, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Relation to Fiat Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Ripple Labs, Financial Services Roadcoin, Blockchain Government S Saldo.mx, Blockchain Neutrality scandals, Scandals and Public Perception science, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Sean's Outpost, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost secret messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine security issues, Technical Challenges self-bootstrapped organizations, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations self-directing assets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets self-enforced code, Smart Property self-sufficiency, Smart Contracts SETI@home, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing size and bandwidth, Technical Challenges smart contracts, Smart Contracts-Smart Contracts, Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence automatic markets and tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets Counterparty, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs Dapps, Dapps-Dapps DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations Ethereum, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine increasingly autonomous, Dapps, DAOs, DACs, and DASs: Increasingly Autonomous Smart Contracts-Automatic Markets and Tradenets smart literacy contracts, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection smartwatch, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Snowden, Edward, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models social contracts, Smart Contracts social network currencies, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies Stellar, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs stock market, Financial Services Storj, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Dapps, Technical Challenges Stripe, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Swancoin, Smart Property swaps exchange, Financial Services Swarm, Crowdfunding, Dapps Swarm (Ethereum), Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Swarmops, Crowdfunding T Tatianacoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Tendermint, Technical Challenges Tera Exchange, Financial Services terminology, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts 37Coins, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief throughput, Technical Challenges timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations titling, Decentralized Governance Services tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets transaction fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Tribecoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption trustless lending, Smart Property Truthcoin, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Turing completeness, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Twister, Dapps Twitter, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection U Uber, Government Regulation unbanked/underbanked markets, Blockchain Neutrality usability issues, Technical Challenges V value chain composition, How a Cryptocurrency Works versioning issues, Technical Challenges Virtual Notary, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit voting and prediction, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets W wallet APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs wallet companies, Wallet Development Projects wallet software, How a Cryptocurrency Works wasted resources, Technical Challenges Wayback Machine, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation Wedbush Securities, Financial Services Whatevercoin, Terminology and Concepts WikiLeaks, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Wikinomics, Community Supercomputing World Citizen project, Decentralized Governance Services X Xapo, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Z Zennet Supercomputer, Community Supercomputing Zooko's Triangle, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity About the Author Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contemporary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, animal electricity, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

On the basis of this, Turing4 designed an electromechanical device – called ‘bombe’ because of the terrible noise it produced – that could predict some of the daily settings of the Enigma machines by replicating the actions of several Enigma machines wired together. This idea of a machine (the bombe) effectively simulating other machines (the Enigma) is central to computer theory. When a machine can simulate every other machine this is called ‘Turing complete’. We saw how Babbage’s Analytical Engine was the first ‘Turing complete’ machine in the world. Our modern computers are also Turing complete. But to get from the Analytical Engine to modern computers required a giant leap in the early 1940s, as the British and the Americans fought the Germans in the Atlantic. Turing’s bombe cannot be considered a precursor of modern computer architecture.

Points on the new patterns will be either 0 or 1 depending on their current value as well as the value of their neighbours. In the early 1980s, the English mathematician Stephen Wolfram conjectured that a particular cellular automaton called ‘Rule 110’ might be ‘Turing complete’,21 a conjecture that was later proved by Matthew Cook. ‘Turing complete’ means that Rule 110 is capable of universal computation, i.e. any calculation or computer program can be simulated using this automaton. What is particularly interesting about Rule 110 is its behaviour on the boundary between stability and chaos. It is neither stable nor completely chaotic.

At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 20Rebeck, J. (1994), ‘Synthetic Self-Replicating Molecules’, in: Scientific American, July 1994, pp. 48–55. 21Wolfram had conjectured that Rule 110 was Turing complete. Proof that Rule 110 is Turing complete was published by Matthew Cook. The proof is found in: Wolfram, S. (2002), A New Kind of Science, Wolfram Media. 22Or a transition to another state of dynamic equilibrium. In this case we have a ‘bifurcation’ point beyond which the system transits unpredictably to another attractor.


pages: 332 words: 93,672

Life After Google: The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy by George Gilder

23andMe, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Asilomar, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Bob Noyce, British Empire, Brownian motion, Burning Man, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, index fund, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, random walk, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, telepresence, Tesla Model S, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Marching to and fro across stages at Fintech conferences, Wright declares the bitcoin a superior platform for any kind of smart contract or “Turing-complete” thaumaturgy. “Smart contracts,” embodied in rigorous software, were proposed by Nick Szabo in the 1990s along with much of the rest of the bitcoin portfolio. They are self-executing contracts that can ride on an immutable blockchain and bypass lawyers and accountants. But to implement such contracts a computer platform must be fully programmable as a “Turing machine.” With an abstruse discourse on the properties of the Forth programming language, Wright attempts to show that bitcoin is as Turing-complete as any other platform. Szabo curtly disputes that claim, as well as nearly everything else that Wright says.

Focusing on security, its “script” language is serviceable but not Turing-complete, lacking recursive loops. So it is limited in its ability to accommodate smart contracts, but limited also in its vulnerability to hacks. Its Lightening extension gives it potential scalability for smaller transactions. Its key figures are Satoshi and Nick Szabo, who foreshadowed it with bit gold. Ethereum, seven years old, is still the most versatile platform for smart contracts and initial coin offerings. Its software language, Solidity, is Turing-complete. Its coin—ether—commands the second-highest market cap among cryptocurrencies.

Realizing that “crypto projects were taking up thirty hours per week of my time,” he dropped out of university in April 2013.2 In the Waterloo meeting with Strachman and Gibson, his last chance to get their attention before he transgressed into his over-the-hill twenties, Buterin proposed to revolutionize the Internet and the global financial system. “That’s what Peter Thiel wanted, right?” As he recited a litany of ambitiously cockeyed schemes—“Turing-complete” blockchains, new software languages, currencies, computer platforms, smart contracts—Strachman and Gibson could see that he was a genius. But his grandiosity and apparent lack of focus defied all the rules of successful enterprise. They decided to support him anyway. In November 2013, Buterin wrote the Ethereum white paper, and on June 5, 2014, Peter Thiel announced a new group of twenty Thiel Fellows, which included Buterin.


Mastering Blockchain, Second Edition by Imran Bashir

3D printing, altcoin, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, connected car, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, Debian, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Dogecoin, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, full stack developer, general-purpose programming language, gravity well, interest rate swap, Internet of things, litecoin, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, Network effects, new economy, node package manager, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, prediction markets, QR code, RAND corporation, Real Time Gross Settlement, reversible computing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, single page application, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, web application, x509 certificate

Think of it as a calculator that only supports standard preprogrammed arithmetic operations. As such, Bitcoin script language cannot be called Turing complete. In simple words, Turing complete language means that it can perform any computation. It is named after Alan Turing who developed the idea of Turing machine that can run any algorithm however complex. Turing complete languages need loops and branching capability to perform complex computations. Therefore, Bitcoin's scripting language is not Turing complete, whereas Ethereum's Solidity language is. To facilitate arbitrary program development on a blockchain, Turing complete programming language is needed, and it is now a very desirable feature of blockchains.

Many organizations around the world have introduced platforms that promise to make distributed application development easy, accessible, and secure. Some of these platforms are described next. Ethereum Ethereum tops the list as being the first blockchain to introduce a Turing-complete language and the concept of a virtual machine. This is in stark contrast to the limited scripting language in Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies. With the availability of its Turing-complete language called Solidity, endless possibilities have opened for the development of decentralized applications. This blockchain was first proposed in 2013 by Vitalik Buterin, and it provides a public blockchain to develop smart contracts and decentralized applications.

Nevertheless, the security of such languages is a crucial question and an essential and ongoing research area. We will discuss this in greater detail in Chapter 5, Introducing Bitcoin, Chapter 9, Smart Contracts, and Chapter 13, Development Tools and Frameworks, later in this book. Virtual machine: This is an extension of the transaction script introduced earlier. A virtual machine allows Turing complete code to be run on a blockchain (as smart contracts); whereas a transaction script is limited in its operation. However, virtual machines are not available on all blockchains. Various blockchains use virtual machines to run programs such as Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and Chain Virtual Machine (CVM).


pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, Laplace demon, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

By avoiding uninteresting CAs, Conway was also avoiding Wolfram’s Class 1 and Class 2 behavior, and probably Class 3 as well. If we believe Wolfram’s Principle of Computational Equivalence, we expect GoL to be in Class 4, and it is. The Game of Life was proved Turing complete in 1982 (and again, independently, in 1983). Since then, several people have constructed GoL patterns that implement a Turing machine or another machine known to be Turing complete. Example 7-3. Many named patterns are available in portable file formats. Modify Life.py to parse one of these formats and initialize the grid. Realism Stable patterns in GoL are hard not to notice, especially the ones that move.

So far I have focused on scientific challenges to determinism, but the longest-standing objection is the conflict between determinism and human free will. Complexity science provides a possible resolution of this apparent conflict; we come back to this topic in Free Will. Structures The behavior of Class 4 CAs is even more surprising. Several 1-D CAs, most notably Rule 110, are Turing complete, which means that they can compute any computable function. This property, also called universality, was proved by Matthew Cook in 1998. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_110. Figure 6-5 shows what Rule 110 looks like with an initial condition of a single cell and 100 time steps. At this time scale, it is not apparent that anything special is going on.

Functions in this set are called Turing computable. To say that a Turing machine can compute any Turing-computable function is a tautology: it is true by definition. But Turing computability is more interesting than that. It turns out that just about every reasonable model of computation anyone has come up with is Turing complete; that is, it can compute exactly the same set of functions as the Turing machine. Some of these models, like lambda calculus, are very different from a Turing machine, so their equivalence is surprising. This observation led to the Church-Turing thesis, which is essentially a definition of what it means to be computable.


pages: 612 words: 187,431

The Art of UNIX Programming by Eric S. Raymond

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, correlation coefficient, David Brooks, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, finite state, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Innovator's Dilemma, job automation, Larry Wall, MVC pattern, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, pre–internet, publish or perish, revision control, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Steven Levy, transaction costs, Turing complete, Valgrind, wage slave, web application

They reach this level when they are explicitly Turing-complete—that is, they can do both conditionals and loops (or recursion)[80] with features that are designed to be used as control structures. Some languages, by contrast, are only accidentally Turing-complete — they have features that can be used to implement control structures as a sort of side effect of what they are actually designed to do. The bc(1) and dc(1) interpreters we looked at in Chapter 7 are good examples of specialized imperative minilanguages that are explicitly Turing-complete. We are over the border into general-purpose interpreters when we reach languages like Emacs Lisp and JavaScript that are designed to be full programming languages run in specialized contexts.

The PostScript version of a troff document is derived from the troff source; the command to make the former from the latter is a troff invocation. There are many other kinds of derivation; makefiles can express almost all of them. [80] Any Turing-complete language could theoretically be used for general-purpose programming, and is theoretically exactly as powerful as any other Turing-complete language. In practice, some Turing-complete languages would be far too painful to use for anything outside a specified and narrow problem domain. Applying Minilanguages Designing with minilanguages involves two distinct challenges. One is having existing minilanguages handy in your toolkit, and recognizing when they can be applied as-is.

Typing info m4 at your shell prompt will probably display on-line documentation for this language. Example 8.2. A sample m4 macro. define(`OS', `operating system') The m4 macro language supports conditionals and recursion. The combination can be used to implement loops, and this was intended; m4 is deliberately Turing-complete. But actually trying to use m4 as a general-purpose language would be deeply perverse. The m4 macro processor is usually employed as a preprocessor for minilanguages that lack a built-in notion of named procedures or a built-in file-inclusion feature. It's an easy way to extend the syntax of the base language so the combination with m4 supports both these features.


pages: 349 words: 102,827

The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-Hackers Is Building the Next Internet With Ethereum by Camila Russo

4chan, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, altcoin, always be closing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asian financial crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Dogecoin, Donald Trump, East Village, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hacker house, Internet of things, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, mobile money, new economy, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X

“The Ethereum Virtual Machine,” Texture said, scrolling through the paper. “Yeah, which is Turing-complete, so it can process whatever piece of code you throw at it,” Adam said. “Turing completeness” is a concept named after mathematician Alan Turing. Turing-complete machines are able to run any computer code. Bitcoin has a scripting language that supports some computation, but Ethereum’s Turing-complete language is designed to support anything a programmer could dream of, and still run in a decentralized way. “The problem with Turing-complete machines is that infinite loops can break them. Like, for example, you ask the computer to add x + x, as long as the result is less than 5, and you also tell it that x equals 1.

This makes running applications with self-executing code easier, as there’s no need for someone to pull the trigger. If the purpose of blockchain technology was to remove the middleman, this concept was ingrained at the core of Ethereum. All these parts come together to form a foundational layer: a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language, allowing anyone to write smart contracts and decentralized applications. Some of the applications that could be created on top of Ethereum, Vitalik wrote, are digital currencies, hedging contracts, a domain-name system, a reputation system, a shareholder-run corporation where decisions on where to move funds can be made by a quorum of investors, “and potentially even the groundwork for a social network.”

“Other cryptocurrencies aim to add complexity and increase the number of ‘features,’” he wrote. Ethereum, on the other hand, takes features away. The protocol does not “support” multisignature transactions, multiple inputs and outputs, hash codes, lock times or many other features that even Bitcoin provides. Instead, all complexity comes from an all-powerful, Turing-complete assembly language, which can be used to build up literally any feature that is mathematically describable. By the end of the white paper, Vitalik’s excitement was palpable. “As a result, we have a cryptocurrency protocol whose codebase is very small, and yet which can do anything that any cryptocurrency will ever be able to do,” the paper concluded.


pages: 210 words: 62,771

Turing's Vision: The Birth of Computer Science by Chris Bernhardt

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, British Empire, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Conway's Game of Life, discrete time, Douglas Hofstadter, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture

In 1961, Minsky showed how any Turing machine can be emulated by a tag system. This means that given any algorithm, there is a tag system that computes it. This fact is sometimes expressed in the literature by saying that tag systems are Turing complete. It has even been shown that you only ever need to consider systems that drop the first two letters — 2-tag systems — to get Turing completeness.10 Given an algorithm, we can in theory design a Turing machine that implements it, and then convert to a tag system. However, the resulting tag system is usually extremely complicated. It would be nice to construct the tag system without first constructing a Turing machine.

Consequently, anything a Turing machine, or computer, can do a tag system can do — at least in theory.4 When we looked at one-dimensional cellular automata, we made the observation that some of the rules could be considered as algorithms for computations. Surprisingly, they can also simulate universal Turing machines. Stephen Wolfram conjectured that Rule 110 was Turing complete. This is one of the rules that shows a mixture of chaos and stability depending on the starting tape. For some starting tapes the rule produces very simple output. For other starting tapes the output looks chaotic. Wolfram’s conjecture was that Rule 110 should be able to do any computation whatsoever.

(It would be Post who followed up and proved the major results concerning oracles in the 1940s.) But these machines have also proved to be an important part of theoretical computer science. As Robert Soare has commented, you can think of your laptop being a Turing machine and the oracle as being the web. After Turing completed his Ph.D., von Neumann offered him a position as his assistant, but Turing decided not to accept and instead returned to England. During the time that Turing was working on his Ph.D. another breakthrough paper was written. This was on logic and switching circuits and was written by Claude Shannon.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application, Yochai Benkler

In 2013, attention started to shift to the “blockchain 2.0” applications: uses of the same technology that underlies Bitcoin's decentralization and security to other applications, ranging from domain name registration to financial contracts to crowdfunding and even games. The core insight behind my own platform, Ethereum, was that a Turing-complete programming language, embedded into the protocol at the base layer, could be used as the ultimate abstraction, allowing developers to build applications with any kind of business logic or purpose while benefiting from the blockchain's core properties. Around the same time, systems such as the decentralized storage platform InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) began to emerge, and cryptographers came out with powerful new tools that could be used in combination with blockchain technology to add privacy, particularly zk-SNARKs, or zero-knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive ARgument Knowledge.

Around the same time, systems such as the decentralized storage platform InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) began to emerge, and cryptographers came out with powerful new tools that could be used in combination with blockchain technology to add privacy, particularly zk-SNARKs, or zero-knowledge Succinct Non-Interactive ARgument Knowledge. The combination of Turing-complete blockchain computing, non-blockchain decentralized networks using similar cryptographic technologies, and the integration of blockchains with advanced cryptography was what I chose to call “crypto 2.0”—a title that may be ambitious, but which I feel best captures the spirit of the movement in its widest form.

The next generation of smart contracts will include user-friendly entry points, like a Web browser. That will allow any business user to configure smart contracts via a graphical user interface, or perhaps a text-based language input. 8. Smart contracts are safe. Even in the Ethereum implementation, smart contracts run as quasi-Turing complete programs. This means there is finality in their execution, and they do not risk looping infinitely. 9. Smart contract have a wide range of applications. Like HTML, the applications are limited by whoever writes them. Smart contracts are ideal for interacting with real-world assets, smart property, Internet of Things (IoT), and financial services instruments.


pages: 309 words: 54,839

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard

altcoin, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Dogecoin, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, functional programming, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, margin call, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, slashdot, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, tulip mania, Turing complete, Turing machine, WikiLeaks

Humans are bad at tasks requiring perfection. But when programming errors have drastic consequences, the usual approach is to make it harder to shoot yourself in the foot: functional programming languages, formal methods, mathematical verification of the code, don’t use a full computer language (avoid Turing completeness), and so on. Szabo wrote up some requirements and a simple example language in 2002.344 This is particularly important when you have multiple smart contracts interacting with each other – massively concurrent programming, with unknown possibly-hostile programs calling into functions of yours.

Development is substantially sponsored by the US government, both for their own use and to help dissidents in oppressive countries. (Even as the NSA doesn’t like it at all.) Also favoured by Internet trolls and darknet users. Tulip: a pretty flower, and the subject of the 1637 bubble known as “tulip mania,” one of the first well-documented bubbles. Turing complete: when a computer or computer language is sophisticated enough that it can theoretically solve any problem that any other computer can … given enough memory and time. You often don’t want this, because it makes it harder to prove mathematical correctness when you really need to be certain, e.g. in a smart contract.

Petersburg Bowl 77 Status 95, 98 Stellar 48 Stephenson, Neal 19 streaming 127 Szabo, Nick 19, 32, 59, 101, 102, 105, 107 TAO, The 135 TechUK 115 Telstra 73 Temkin, Max 75 Thiel, Peter 18 Thornburg, Jonathan 23 Tiny Human 129 Today (Radio 4) 67 Todd, Peter 59, 68 Top500 65 Tor 49, 59 Tual, Stephen 109 Tucker, Jeffrey 40 Tulip Mania 35 Tulip Trust 64 Turing completeness 107 Ujo Music 129 UK Government Office for Science 123 Ukash 73 Ulbricht, Lyn 53 Ulbricht, Ross 26, 48, 64 unbanked 29 Underhanded C Contest 106 Underhanded Solidity Coding Contest 106 Venezuela 31 Ver, Roger 17, 37, 44, 47, 48, 50 virtual reality 135 Visa 28, 36 wallet 12 Walpole, Sir Mark 123 WannaCry 73 Washington Post 32 Wells Fargo 87 Western Union 28 Westwood, Adam 64 WhollyHemp 76 WikiLeaks 36, 62 Wikimedia Foundation 76 Wikipedia 76 Wilcke, Jeffrey 94 Willybot 82 Winter Olympics 93 Wired 64 Wise, Josh 93 Wood, Gavin 94 WordPress 75 Wright Family Trust 63 Wright, Craig 61, 139 Yapizon 89 YouTube 137 Zamovskiy, Andrey 120 Zero Hedge 24 Zhoutong 83 Notes [1] Satoshi Nakamoto.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

(Prolific founder, that is.) Ask his legion of followers about Ethereum, and they’ll tell you it’s a “blockchain-based, arbitrary-state, Turing-complete scripting platform.”1 It has attracted IBM, Samsung, UBS, Microsoft, and the Chinese auto giant Wanxiang, and an army of the smartest software developers in the world, all of whom think that Ethereum may be the “planetary scale computer” that changes everything.2 When Buterin explained “arbitrary-state, Turing-complete” to us, we got a glimpse of his mind. Listening to music is very different from reading a book or calculating the day’s revenues and expenses, and yet you can do all three on your smart phone, because your smart phone’s operating system is Turing complete.

Listening to music is very different from reading a book or calculating the day’s revenues and expenses, and yet you can do all three on your smart phone, because your smart phone’s operating system is Turing complete. That means that it can accommodate any other language that is Turing complete. So innovators can build just about any digital app imaginable on Ethereum—apps that perform very dissimilar tasks, from smart contracts and computational resource marketplaces to complex financial instruments and distributed governance models. Buterin is a polyglot. He speaks English, Russian, French, Cantonese (which he learned in two months on vacation), ancient Latin, ancient Greek, BASIC, C++, Pascal, and Java, to name a few.3 “I specialize in generalism,” he said.

See Design principles ShapeShift, 260 Shapiro, Melanie, 287 Shareholders, 11, 78–79, 100, 107, 125–28 Sharing economy, 17–18, 134–35, 187 Sidechains, 60 Silbert, Barry, 86, 284 Silk Road, 9, 276 Simplified payment verification (SPV), 50 Simpson, Arianna, 287 Skogstad, Anselm, 240 Skynet, 273 Slack, 89 Smart contracts, 101–3, 109, 126, 142, 219 aid groups and, 190 DApps, 120, 121 definition of, 101–2 MFIs and, 192 multisig authentication, 103–5 ownership rights and, 46–48 for political reputations, 210–11 Smart devices, 150–54 economic payoffs, 161–64 future developments, 164–67 hacking your future, 168–69 twelve disruptions, 156–61 Smart homes, 161, 275 Smart locks, 117 Smart pills, 151, 158 Smartwallet, 83, 131, 153 Snow Crash (Stephenson), 38, 315n Snowden, Edward, 243 Social contracts, 99 Social energy, 148–50 Social production, 129–32 Social Security, 80, 176 Societal change, 257–58 Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT), 42, 59, 262 Society of European Stage Authors and Composers (SESAC), 229 Song, Dawn, 288 Sony Music Entertainment, 229, 230 Soul of a New Machine, The (Kidder), 150 Spain, Agora Voting, 218–19 Spam, 34, 39, 255, 321n Spotify, 88, 229, 230, 239, 319n Srinivasan, Balaji, 178–79 Stakeholders, 262 Standards networks, 304–6 Stark, Elizabeth, 288 Steiner, Peter, 3 Stellar, 32, 37, 170–71 Stellar Development Foundation, 170–71 Stephenson, Neal, 315 Stiglitz, Joseph, 35–36, 57, 107 Storing value, in financial services, 61–62, 64 Storj, 95, 120 Streaming music, 229, 230 Streaming open and trusted data, 208–9 Streamium, 233 Student debt, 248–49 SUber, 165–67 Subledger, 73–74 Surveillance, 25, 42, 44–45, 212, 243–44, 274–75 Swan, Melanie, 110, 204, 224, 247–49 Sybil attacks, 36, 37, 315n Systemic risk, 59 Szabo, Nick, 4–5, 37, 101–2, 255 Talking Heads, 227, 228 “Taps,” 146–47 Tapscott, Bob, 261, 268 Taylor, Simon, 75 TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), 43, 50 Technology democracy and, 212–14 as implementation challenge, 254–58 Termen, Lev Sergeyevich, 253–54, 277 Terms of third-party engagement, 234 Tezos, 95 Theory of the firm, 92–93, 100, 105–6, 121, 319n Theremin, 253–54 Thiel, Peter, 93–94 360-degree deals, 229 Ticoll, David, 25, 109, 134 Tinsley, Michelle, 155 Title registration, 8, 19–20, 51, 188–89, 193–95, 198 Todd, Peter, 133, 268 Tools of abundance, 178–79 Top-down management, 89, 92, 106 Tor, 263 Torvalds, Linus, 88, 282 Totalitarianism, 34, 52, 141, 145 TradeNet, 165 Trading volume, 256 Transactional capacity, 255 Transaction costs, 92–93, 95–101, 107, 142, 193, 269 Transparency, 10, 11, 298 aid groups and, 190–91 design principles and, 30, 39, 41, 44, 45 financial services and, 66–67, 77 government and political institutions, 205, 210, 296 MFIs and, 192 music and, 232–33, 236 Transportation, 137, 156–57, 164–67, 206 Treat, David, 70 Triple-entry accounting, 77, 78–79, 180 Trump, Donald, 210 Trust achieving in the digital age, 10–11 costs of (re-)building, 107–9, 143 networked integrity, 30–33 in political institutions, 201–2 Trust Barometer, 10 Trusted data, 208–9 Trusted systems. See Walled gardens Trust protocol, 4–6, 58, 309–11 Turing completeness, 278 22Hertz, 237–38 Twister, 246 Twoway peg, 60 Uber, 17, 118, 134, 135, 164–65, 270 Ulbricht, Ross William, 9 Unbanked and underbanked, 170–72, 175–78 Unemployment, 173 UNESCO, 249 UNICEF, 189–90 Unicoin, 190 Unique node list, 32 Universal Music, 229, 230 Usage data analytics, 233–34 Utility grids, 145–50 Value as incentive, 35–39, 202 Value innovation, 60 Value templates, 232 Vavilov, Valery, 261, 268 “Vectors of disruption,” 163 Vegetabile, Andrew, 267 Venture capitalists (VCs), 284, 287 Ver, Roger, 263, 284 VeriCoin, 266 VerifyID, 116 Verisart, 133 Vertical search, 97 Virtru Corporation, 40 Virtual private networks (VPNs), 118 Visa, 187–88 Vogogo, 72 Voorhees, Erik, 56, 81–82, 260, 284 Voter ID fraud, 217 Voter intimidation, 216–17 Voter turnout, 200–201 Voting, 198, 202, 214–15, 218–19 electronic (e-voting), 198, 215–17 Waldemeyer, Moritz, 228 Wales, Jimmy, 282 Walled gardens, 13, 70, 265 Warner Music Group, 229 Wassenaar Arrangement, 243–44 Waste management, in IoTs, 157 Watchdog networks, 303–4 Water management, in IoTs, 157 Wealth of Networks, The (Benkler), 277 Wealth tax, 173 WeatherDApp, 124–25 Weathernet, 123–24 WeatherNodes, 123–25, 147, 158 Western Union, 20, 56, 115, 185–86, 187–88 WhatsApp, 184 White, Derek, 68–69 Wikinomics, 128, 137 Wikipedia, 12, 129, 130–32, 282 Wilkins, Carolyn, 9, 294, 295–96 Williamson, Oliver, 93–94, 100, 105–6, 320n Windowing strategy, 235–36 Winklevoss, Tyler, 175, 255–56, 301 Winter, Alex, 21 Wisdom of the crowds, 84–85, 221 WISeKey, 11, 14, 154, 204 Women leaders in blockchain, 287–89 Wong, Pindar, 300, 305 Wood, Gavin, 119 World Bank, 193, 295, 300 World Economic Forum (WEF), 175, 270, 306 World Health Organization, 281 World Trade Organization, 281 World Wide Ledger, 6–8, 75–77, 95–96, 142 World Wide Web Consortium, 271, 299 Wozniak, Steve, 129, 274 Wright, Aaron, 103, 258, 264, 265, 293 YouTube, 230, 234, 235, 236 Zeall, Anson, 217 Zelaya, Manuel, 193 Zero to One (Thiel), 94 Zimbabwe, voter intimidation, 216–17 Zipcar, 134, 137, 187 Zyskind, Guy, 27–28 Looking for more?


pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kim Stanley Robinson, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mondo 2000, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, you are the product

Until then, the internet remains imperfect, a hell that is fun, ruled by idiots and thieves, providing users with slingshots for self-expression but no shield from the bile that rebounds. It is our potential, our conscription, and our reality: platforms that trap us, platforms that cannot accommodate us, platforms that don’t deserve us. NOTES INTRODUCTION Olia Lialina’s 2012 essay “Turing Complete User” is available on her website: contemporary-home-computing.org/turing-complete-user/. The email from a Mechanical Turk worker to Jeff Bezos was part of a letter-writing campaign organized through the MTurk collective Dynamo. Will Oremus has written about Amazon as a surveillance company, with products like Ring and Echo, in the Medium publication OneZero (“Amazon Is Watching,” June 27, 2019).

“User” is a particular status, activity, and state of being, but the word is hated by some. Don Norman, who coined “UX”—user experience—said in 2008, “One of the horrible words we use is ‘users.’ I am on a crusade to get rid of the word ‘users.’ I would prefer to call them ‘people.’” But the word “people,” as the artist Olia Lialina responded in her essay, “Turing Complete User,” hides the “existence of two classes of people—developers and users.” It is not a mellifluous word or elegant, but “user” is, uh, useful. Developers scripted these mazes, these interfaces, which users use to communicate and keep in touch. There are humans on the outside and humans on the inside; the platforms created by and used by humans outline and define identities, boxing users in, while tendering new methods of expression.


Turing's Cathedral by George Dyson

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, Brownian motion, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, Danny Hillis, dark matter, double helix, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Georg Cantor, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, IFF: identification friend or foe, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, SETI@home, social graph, speech recognition, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture

“Only because of our conversation on the bench in Central Park I was able to understand…[that] given is an actually infinite system of points (the actual infinity is worth stressing because nothing will make sense on a finite no matter how large model),” noted Ulam, who then sketched out how he and von Neumann had hypothesized the evolution of Turing-complete (or “universal”) cellular automata within a digital universe of communicating memory cells. The definitions had to be made mathematically precise: A “universal” automaton is a finite system which given an arbitrary logical proposition in form of (a linear set L) tape attached to it, at say specified points, will produce the true or false answer.

“Double line trick, etc.” is evocative of the double-helix replication of DNA, and “Degeneration (?)” probably refers to how any enduring system of self-reproduction must depend on error-correcting codes in translating from one generation to the next. “Ulam!” probably refers to Ulam’s interest in the powers of Turing-complete cellular automata, now evidenced by many of the computational processes surrounding us today. The triplicate appearance of “Turing!” reflects how central Turing’s proof of universality was to any theory of self-reproduction, whether applied to mathematics, biology, or machines. The Institute for Advanced Study computer was duplicated, with variation, by a first generation of immediate siblings that included SEAC in Washington, D.C., ILLIAC at the University of Illinois, ORDVAC at Aberdeen, JOHNNIAC at the RAND Corporation, MANIAC at Los Alamos National Laboratory, AVIDAC at Argonne, ORACLE at Oak Ridge, BESK in Stockholm, DASK in Copenhagen, SILLIAC in Sydney, BESM in Moscow, PERM in Munich, WEIZAC in Rehovot, and the IBM 701.

“This synthesis can be executed by a digital computer, in particular, by the computer to be designed if sufficiently large,” they reported in April 1956, concluding that “it appears that we have thereby exhibited a machine which can reproduce (i.e. design) itself. This result seems to be related to the self-reproducing machines of von Neumann.”19 They were right. Codes populating the growing digital universe soon became Turing-complete, much as envisioned by Ulam and von Neumann in 1952. Turing’s ACE, a powerful Universal Machine, was to have had a memory of 25 kilobytes, or 2 × 105 bits. The present scale of the digital universe has been estimated at 1022 bits. The number of Turing machines populating this universe is unknown, and increasingly these machines are virtual machines that do not necessarily map to any particular physical hardware at any particular time.


pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, functional programming, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

PIC started out only able to draw, but it rapidly became clear that it needed arithmetic expressions to handle computations on coordinates and the like, and it needed variables to store results, and it needed loops to create repetitive structures. All of these were added, but each one was kind of awkward and shaky. In the end, PIC was quite powerful, a Turing-complete language, but one wouldn’t want to write a lot of code in it. How do you define success in terms of your work? Brian: One of the most rewarding things is to have someone say that they used your language or tool and found that it helped them get their job done better. That’s really satisfying.

It’s a difficult balance, and I think he did a very good job. To what degree can you pursue backward compatibility versus trying to introduce something new and revolutionary? Brian: That’s a dilemma in absolutely every field, and I don’t see any way out of it. You mentioned that a lot of little languages started adding features and becoming Turing-complete and losing their conceptual purity. Are there design principles to apply if you’re taking a little language and making it more general purpose without losing its way? Brian: I guess. I remember saying that on a variety of occasions, and I often wondered how much of it was a parochial view. That is, all of the languages I had touched had this property and maybe nothing else did.

Extensibility The language should have a well-defined, general-purpose mechanism whereby new functionality can be added, ideally with little or no impact on the syntax of the language. For example, a database query language might provide a facility for adding user-defined functions written in a separate Turing-complete programming language. Abstraction The language should not expose or depend on aspects of a specific implementation. For example, eliminating duplicates from a set of values should be specified in terms of an abstract concept such as a “primary key” rather than a physical strategy such as a “unique index.”


pages: 416 words: 106,532

Cryptoassets: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond by Chris Burniske, Jack Tatar

Airbnb, altcoin, asset allocation, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, Bear Stearns, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Blythe Masters, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Dogecoin, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Network effects, packet switching, passive investing, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, risk free rate, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Sharpe ratio, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, smart contracts, social web, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, two and twenty, Uber for X, Vanguard fund, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Dmitry Buterin is also very much involved in the cryptoasset world as cofounder of Blockgeeks and other influential startups. 3. http://fortune.com/ethereum-blockchain-vitalik-buterin/. 4. http://www.ioi2012.org/competition/results-2/. 5. https://backchannel.com/the-uncanny-mind-that-built-ethereum-9b448dc9d14f#.4yr8yhfp8. 6. https://blog.ethereum.org/2014/01/23/ethereum-now-going-public/. 7. http://counterparty.io/platform/. 8. https://steemit.com/ethereum/@najoh/beyond-bitcoin-and-crypto-currency-ethereum. 9. https://blog.ethereum.org/2014/01/23/ethereum-now-going-public/. 10. https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/white-paper. 11. Turing complete refers to a system that is effectively capable of the full functionality of a general purpose computer. Bitcoin was intentionally constructed not to be Turing complete to constrain complexity and prioritize security. 12. https://ethereum.org/ether. 13. Nathaniel Popper, Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Monday, Harper, 2015. 14. http://www.coindesk.com/peter-thiel-fellowship-ethereum-vitalik-buterin/. 15. http://www.wtn.net/summit-2014/2014-world-technology-awards-winners. 16. http://ether.fund/market. 17. https://www.ethereum.org/foundation. 18. https://blog.ethereum.org/2015/03/14/ethereum-the-first-year/. 19. http://ethdocs.org/en/latest/introduction/history-of-ethereum.html. 20. http://ether.fund/market. 21. http://ethdocs.org/en/latest/introduction/history-of-ethereum.html. 22.

By having no affiliation with “coin” in its name, Ethereum was moving beyond the idea of currency into the realm of cryptocommodities. While Bitcoin is mostly used to send monetary value between people, Ethereum could be used to send information between programs. It would do so by building a decentralized world computer with a Turing complete programming language.11 Developers could write programs, or applications, that would run on top of this decentralized world computer. Just as Apple builds the hardware and operating system that allows developers to build applications on top, Ethereum was promising to do the same in a distributed and global system.


pages: 52 words: 13,257

Bitcoin Internals: A Technical Guide to Bitcoin by Chris Clark

bitcoin, fiat currency, peer-to-peer, Satoshi Nakamoto, transaction costs, Turing complete

This ensures that these parameters of the transaction can not change without a new signature. The script in Bitcoin looks quite a bit different though, because Bitcoin uses its own custom scripting language. 7.3 Scripting The scripting language used in Bitcoin is a stack-based language similar to Forth. It is intentionally not Turing-complete so that it can be executed without concern for whether the script will hang. It works like a reverse polish notation calculator. The script is read from left to right. When a value is encountered in the script, it is pushed onto a stack. When an operator is encountered in the script, some values are popped off the stack, the operator is applied to these values, and the result is pushed onto the stack.


pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Atkinson, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, linear model of innovation, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Yochai Benkler

BLETCHLEY PARK Although few outsiders knew it at the time—and would not know for more than three decades—another electronic computer using vacuum tubes had been secretly built at the end of 1943 on the grounds of a redbrick Victorian manor in the town of Bletchley, fifty-four miles northwest of London, where the British had sequestered a team of geniuses and engineers to break the German wartime codes. The computer, known as Colossus, was the first all-electronic, partially programmable computer. Because it was geared for a special task, it was not a general-purpose or “Turing-complete” computer, but it did have Alan Turing’s personal fingerprints on it. Turing had begun to focus on codes and cryptology in the fall of 1936, when he arrived at Princeton just after writing “On Computable Numbers.” He explained his interest in a letter to his mother that October: I have just discovered a possible application of the kind of thing I am working on at present.

It was also a special-purpose computer and not programmable. Herman Zuse’s Z3, completed in May 1941, was the first automatically controlled, programmable, electrical, binary machine. It was designed to do engineering problems rather than be a general-purpose machine. However, it was later shown that, in theory, it could have been used as a Turing-complete machine. Its major difference from modern computers was that it was electromechanical, dependent on clacking and slow relay switches, rather than electronic. Another shortcoming is that it never really went into full-scale service. It was destroyed by the Allied bombing of Berlin in 1943. The computer designed by John Vincent Atanasoff, which was complete but not fully workable by the time Atanasoff abandoned it to serve in the Navy in September 1942, was the world’s first electronic digital computer, but it was only partly electronic.

Also, Atanasoff never got it fully operational, and it disappeared into a basement at Iowa State. Bletchley Park’s Colossus I, completed in December 1943 by Max Newman and Tommy Flowers (with input from Alan Turing), was the first digital computer that was fully electronic, programmable, and operational. It was not, however, a general-purpose or Turing-complete machine; it was geared to the specific purpose of breaking Germany’s wartime codes. Howard Aiken’s Harvard Mark I, built with IBM and put into operation in May 1944, was programmable, as we will see in the following chapter, but it was electromechanical rather than electronic. ENIAC, completed by Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in November 1945, was the first machine to incorporate the full set of traits of a modern computer.


Practical OCaml by Joshua B. Smith

cellular automata, Debian, domain-specific language, functional programming, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, John Conway, Paul Graham, slashdot, SpamAssassin, text mining, Turing complete, type inference, web application, Y2K

Less Code There are several reasons why this is true, and one of the biggest is that functional languages are often more terse than their structured counterparts. This terseness does not hamper their expressiveness, and because functional languages are just as Turing-complete as their structured brethren. Expressiveness is more than simple Turing completeness; the functional programming style encourages short functions that perform simple actions. Less code is also a direct result of more general modularity. The ability to decompose problems into smaller parts is dependent on the ability to utilize those parts.

Random BMP 620Xch27final.qxd 9/22/06 1:22 AM Page 389 CHAPTER 27 ■ PROCESSING BINARY FILES Figure 27-3. xor BMP Figure 27-4. and BMP 389 620Xch27final.qxd 390 9/22/06 1:22 AM Page 390 CHAPTER 27 ■ PROCESSING BINARY FILES Conway’s Game of Life In 1970, a British mathematician named John Conway created the field of cellular automata when he published the first article on the subject. Conway’s “game” isn’t so much a game played by people as it is a mathematical experiment. The game is an example of emergent behavior because there are only four simple rules that generate an amazing amount of complexity. Conway’s game is also Turing Complete, which means that (given the right initial conditions) the game is as powerful as any “real” computer. The game itself is represented (in its original version) by a matrix of cells. These cells can be either alive or dead, as determined by the cells’ neighbors and the rules of the game. This representation of cells is why Conway’s game provides an excellent graphical target to shoot for.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disinformation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Garrett Hardin, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

Here are just a few: digital “self-sovereign” identity; decentralized medical record sharing; automated, market-driven solar microgrids; decentralized commodity exchanges; crowdfunded, ownerless investment funds; blockchain-certified marriage certificates; provably secure online voting systems; decentralized supply-chain and logistics platforms; security for the Internet of Things. The list goes on and on. Ethereum’s internal programming language is described as being “Turing complete”—which essentially means it has great versatility, allowing people to write an unlimited variety of programs. The key breakthrough was that this structure, beyond its easy-to-use programming language, would enable smart contracts. As they were first raised in the pre-Bitcoin era by crypto-systems theorist Nick Szabo, smart contracts are a way to express, in a piece of computing code, instructions for executing transactions according to previously agreed contractual conditions.

See also ledger-keeping Trump, Donald trust, distributed trusted computing Trusted Computing Group Trusted IoT Alliance trusted third parties and Bitcoin and blockchain-inspired startups and blockchain property registries and cloud computing and energy sector and governance and identity and permissioned systems truth discovery truth machine Tual, Stephan Turing, Alan “Turing complete” Uber “God’s View” knowledge Ubitquity UBS Ujo Ulbricht, Ross UNESCO Union Square Ventures United Kingdom Brexit Financial Conduct Authority Government Office for Science blockchain report and universal basic income United Nations UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) UNHCR identity program World Food Program (WFP) universal basic income (UBI) user attention Veem venture capital (VC) Ver, Roger Veripart Verisign Vertcoin Vigna, Paul.


pages: 372 words: 101,174

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed by Ray Kurzweil

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, brain emulation, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer age, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, George Gilder, Google Earth, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, linear programming, Loebner Prize, mandelbrot fractal, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Turing and Alonzo Church (1903–1995), his former professor, went on to develop the Church-Turing thesis, which states that if a problem that can be presented to a Turing machine is not solvable by it, it is also not solvable by any machine, following natural law. Even though the Turing machine has only a handful of commands and processes only one bit at a time, it can compute anything that any computer can compute. Another way to say this is that any machine that is “Turing complete” (that is, that has equivalent capabilities to a Turing machine) can compute any algorithm (any procedure that we can define). A block diagram of a Turing machine with a head that reads and writes the tape and an internal program consisting of state transitions. “Strong” interpretations of the Church-Turing thesis propose an essential equivalence between what a human can think or know and what is computable by a machine.

Because the Turing machine (and therefore any computer) is capable of basing its future course of action on results it has already computed, it is capable of making decisions and modeling arbitrarily complex hierarchies of information. In 1939 Turing designed an electronic calculator called Bombe that helped decode messages that had been encrypted by the Nazi Enigma coding machine. By 1943, an engineering team influenced by Turing completed what is arguably the first computer, the Colossus, that enabled the Allies to continue decoding messages from more sophisticated versions of Enigma. The Bombe and Colossus were designed for a single task and could not be reprogrammed for a different one. But they performed this task brilliantly and are credited with having enabled the Allies to overcome the three-to-one advantage that the German Luftwaffe enjoyed over the British Royal Air Force and win the crucial Battle of Britain, as well as to continue anticipating Nazi tactics throughout the war.


pages: 214 words: 31,751

Software Engineering at Google: Lessons Learned From Programming Over Time by Titus Winters, Tom Manshreck, Hyrum Wright

anti-pattern, computer vision, continuous integration, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, functional programming, job automation, loss aversion, microservices, transaction costs, Turing complete

This is exactly the approach taken by Blaze and the other artifact-based build systems descended from it (which include Bazel, Pants, and Buck). Like with task-based build systems, we still have buildfiles, but the contents of those buildfiles are very different. Rather than being an imperative set of commands in a Turing-complete scripting language describing how to produce an output, buildfiles in Blaze are a declarative manifest describing a set of artifacts to build, their dependencies, and a limited set of options that affect how they’re built. When engineers run blaze on the command line, they specify a set of targets to build (the “what”), and Blaze is responsible for configuring, running, and scheduling the compilation steps (the “how”).


pages: 489 words: 148,885

Accelerando by Stross, Charles

business cycle, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, disinformation, dumpster diving, Extropian, finite state, Flynn Effect, glass ceiling, gravity well, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, knapsack problem, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, packet switching, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, South China Sea, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, The Chicago School, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, web of trust, Y2K, zero-sum game

He's not sure Pamela ever let him see her fully naked: She thought skin was more sexy when it was covered. Annette squeezes him again, and he stiffens. "More!" By the time they finish, he's aching, and she shows him how to use the bidet. Everything is crystal clear, and her touch is electrifying. While she showers, he sits on the toilet seat lid and rants about Turing-completeness as an attribute of company law, about cellular automata and the blind knapsack problem, about his work on solving the Communist Central Planning problem using a network of interlocking unmanned companies. About the impending market adjustment in integrity, the sinister resurrection of the recording music industry, and the still-pressing need to dismantle Mars.

If Amber sells herself into slavery to this company, she will become a slave and the company will be legally liable for her actions and upkeep. The rest of the legal instrument – about ninety percent of it, in fact – is a set of self-modifying corporate mechanisms coded in a variety of jurisdictions that permit Turing-complete company constitutions, and which act as an ownership shell for the slavery contract. At the far end of the corporate shell game is a trust fund of which Amber is the prime beneficiary and shareholder. When she reaches the age of majority, she'll acquire total control over all the companies in the network and can dissolve her slave contract; until then, the trust fund (which she essentially owns) oversees the company that owns her (and keeps it safe from hostile takeover bids).


pages: 680 words: 157,865

Beautiful Architecture: Leading Thinkers Reveal the Hidden Beauty in Software Design by Diomidis Spinellis, Georgios Gousios

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, continuous integration, corporate governance, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, functional programming, general-purpose programming language, iterative process, linked data, locality of reference, loose coupling, meta-analysis, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, smart cities, social graph, social web, SPARQL, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, web application, zero-coupon bond

With the <fb:-if-can-see> tag and others like it, an application can specify a target user in the attributes such that the child elements are rendered only if the viewer can see that target user’s specific content. Thus, the privacy values themselves are not exposed to the application, yet it allows an application to enforce privacy. In this sense, FBML is a trusted declarative execution environment, in contrast to an imperative execution environment such as C or PHP. In a strict sense, FBML is not “Turing-complete” like these languages (for instance, no looping constructs are available). Much like HTML itself, no state can be saved during the execution except that implied by the tree traversal; for instance, <fb:tab-item> makes sense only within <fb:tabs>. However, FBML enables a great deal of the functionality that most developers want to provide to their users, through making data available to the user within the trusted system.

Iverson (of APL fame) was devoted to the importance of notation for expressing our thoughts. The SWH is controversial—after all, everybody has had the experience of not being able to find the words for something, so we are able to think of more than we can say—but in computer code the link between languages and programs is clear. We know that computer languages are Turing complete, but we also know that for some things some languages fit better than others. But apart from influencing program architecture, a language’s architecture is interesting in its own right. We will take a glimpse at Smalltalk’s own architecture—implementation choices, design concepts, and patterns.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Dogecoin, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

You could have programmable money and you could have programmable smart contracts that extended Bitcoin into something beyond just a money system – into a kind of a replacement for the current way the internet works. But he felt that there were a lot of concerns from scalability to security, so he purposefully neutered the scripting language of Bitcoin, so as to not enable this. We call it state and Turing completeness. ‘So, it’s been five years, we’ve learned a huge amount of lessons, there’s been a lot of overlay protocols, other attempts to increase the functionality of Bitcoin. What we did with Ethereum is we kind of unified a lot of the 2.0 actors and put them into a big bucket and we’re building a completely new block chain and we’re building a completely new scripting language that basically adds in those missing features.


pages: 218 words: 68,648

Confessions of a Crypto Millionaire: My Unlikely Escape From Corporate America by Dan Conway

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, bank run, basic income, Bear Stearns, bitcoin, blockchain, buy and hold, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, financial independence, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, high net worth, independent contractor, job satisfaction, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, rent control, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, Tragedy of the Commons, Turing complete, Uber for X, universal basic income, upwardly mobile

Which reminds me of what Winston Churchill said about modern government: “Democracy is the worst form of government, except for all of the others.” The same could have been said of the modern firm. Until it wasn’t. While I was struggling to master the corporate world, which had always eluded me, a young genius named Vitalik Buterin was creating Ethereum. More on Vitalik later. Ethereum is a “Turing complete blockchain,” which means it can be programmed to do anything. Whereas Bitcoin has the functionality of a calculator and can transact digital money, Ethereum has the functionality of a computer and is a trustless—thus, supremely trustworthy —platform to transact any type of business. To understand this, you need to think of Ethereum not as a way to buy coffee with digital money but as a computer that can be accessed with the cryptocurrency, ether (ETH).


pages: 931 words: 79,142

Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming by Peter Van-Roy, Seif Haridi

computer age, Debian, discrete time, Donald Knuth, Eratosthenes, fault tolerance, functional programming, G4S, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Menlo Park, natural language processing, NP-complete, Paul Graham, premature optimization, sorting algorithm, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference

Chapter 13 gives the semantics of this model and all its subsets. D.3 Concepts Let us now recapitulate the design methodology of the general model by starting with a simple base model and briefly explaining what new expressiveness each concept brings. All models are Turing complete, i.e., they are equivalent in computing power to a Turing machine. However, Turing completeness is only a small part of the story. The ease with which programs can be written or reasoned about differs greatly in these models. Increased expressiveness typically goes hand in hand with increased difficulty to reason about programs. D.3.1 Declarative models Strict functional model The simplest practical model is strict functional programming with values.

This model is defined in section 2.8.1. In this model there are no unbound variables; each new variable is immediately bound to a value. This model is close to the λ calculus, which contains just procedure definition and application and leaves out the conditional and pattern matching. The λ calculus is Turing complete but is much too cumbersome for practical programming. Sequential declarative model The sequential declarative model is defined in chapter 2. It contains all concepts in table D.1 up to and including procedure application, conditionals, and pattern matching. It extends the strict functional model by introducing dataflow variables.


pages: 1,201 words: 233,519

Coders at Work by Peter Seibel

Ada Lovelace, Bill Atkinson, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, functional programming, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Perl 6, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

When I put in the calculation of prime numbers into the TeX manual I was not thinking of this as the way to use TeX. I was thinking, “Oh, by the way, look at this: dogs can stand on their hind legs and TeX can calculate prime numbers.” Seibel: But people use the fact that it's a Turing-complete programming language to do typesetting-related computations. If it wasn't Turing-complete they would be unable to do those things. Knuth: Yeah, that's right. I wrote a programming language for simulation in the '60s that I had to work hard to kill because it had a lot of users, but then when Simula came out I liked Simula better and I told people to stop using my SOL language.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kim Stanley Robinson, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

He is a recognised authority in the mechanical engineering of non-humanoid robotics. Q. Eliot, you’ve talked previously about the core drivers in designing robots for the future and you’ve made a case that robots don’t need to look like humans to be effective. Can you tell me about your thesis behind this? A. In a nutshell, there is no Turing complete mechanical system. Atoms do not generalise in the same way that bits generalise. Looking at the history of computers is misleading. A key central innovation (the general-purpose CPU) could be arbitrarily reprogrammed to any other data manipulation task, as the movement of data bits was pretty close to free.


pages: 416 words: 106,582

This Will Make You Smarter: 150 New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking by John Brockman

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, biofilm, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, data acquisition, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, Garrett Hardin, hive mind, impulse control, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, market design, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, open economy, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, placebo effect, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, randomized controlled trial, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Satyajit Das, Schrödinger's Cat, security theater, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, twin studies, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

As you begin to form these and other concepts, the chaos on the screen gradually becomes more comprehensible. Developing concepts that carve nature at its joints is the first crucial step toward understanding, not only in the Game of Life but in science and in ordinary life as well. At a more advanced level, we discover that the Game of Life is Turing complete. That is, it’s possible to build a pattern that acts like a Universal Turing Machine (a computer that can simulate any other computer). Thus, any computable function could be implemented in the Game of Life—including perhaps a function that describes a universe like the one we inhabit. It’s also possible to build a universal constructor in the Game of Life, a pattern that can build many types of complex objects, including copies of itself.


pages: 444 words: 111,837

Einstein's Fridge: How the Difference Between Hot and Cold Explains the Universe by Paul Sen

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, anti-communist, British Empire, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, Ernest Rutherford, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, traveling salesman, Turing complete, Turing test

Submitted in late 1951, this paper was nothing less than an attempt to propose a mechanism by which embryos are shaped as they develop in the womb. Turing considered it his best work since his 1936 paper laying down the foundations of computing. By any measure it’s a work of extraordinary scientific imagination. For in it, Turing completely recast the second law of thermodynamics. Here it is perhaps important to remember that since the discovery in the mid-nineteenth century that entropy always increases, the second law has often had strongly negative connotations. The inevitable dissipation of energy, such as the flow of heat from hot to cold, became seen as synonymous with decay and death.


pages: 436 words: 127,642

When Einstein Walked With Gödel: Excursions to the Edge of Thought by Jim Holt

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, anthropic principle, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, cellular automata, computer age, dark matter, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fellow of the Royal Society, four colour theorem, Georg Cantor, George Santayana, haute couture, Henri Poincaré, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Monty Hall problem, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, Paul Erdős, Peter Singer: altruism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, random walk, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific worldview, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, selection bias, Skype, stakhanovite, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, union organizing, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, wage slave

Von Neumann and Turing were virtual opposites in character and appearance: the older man a portly, well-attired, and clubbable sybarite who relished wielding power and influence; the younger one a shy, slovenly, dreamy ascetic (and homosexual), fond of intellectual puzzles, mechanical tinkering, and long-distance running. Yet the two shared a knack for getting to the logical essence of things. After Turing completed his Ph.D. in 1938, von Neumann offered him a salaried job as his assistant at the institute, but with war seemingly imminent Turing decided to return to England instead. “The history of digital computing,” Dyson writes in his 2012 book, Turing’s Cathedral, “can be divided into an Old Testament whose prophets, led by Leibniz, supplied the logic, and a New Testament whose prophets, led by von Neumann, built the machines.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disinformation, disintermediation, Dogecoin, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

All the secondary protocols being built upon it were similarly narrow. He was essentially saying it was like DOS, before Windows was created. What if he built an entirely independent protocol and blockchain that could sustain any kind of application written in any programming language, one that was, as developers say, “Turing complete”? What if it could support any decentralized service—currency-trading systems, smart contracts, shareholder registrations, voting systems, DApps, DACs, DAOs, whatever—and let developers construct as pretty an interface as they felt their market needed? The solution he came up with quickly took the cryptocurrency world by storm: a completely redesigned, fully versatile, decentralized blockchain that could function as an open platform on which all manner of contracts and decentralized applications could be installed.


pages: 519 words: 142,646

Track Changes by Matthew G. Kirschenbaum

active measures, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, David Brooks, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, forensic accounting, future of work, Google Earth, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, HyperCard, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Joan Didion, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, mail merge, Marshall McLuhan, Mother of all demos, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, pattern recognition, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, text mining, thinkpad, Turing complete, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K, Year of Magical Thinking

When we ran it, conversation ceased and flakes of plaster would drift down from the ceiling. The room thrummed. We purchased earplugs in bulk.”45 Hyperbole, of course, but it conveys the essence of the experience. Berezin remains particularly proud of the fact that despite its name the Data Secretary was not “just” a hardwired word processor. It was a real computer, Turing-complete as the jargon goes: “The only thing that made it a word processor was the program.”46 Its integrated circuits could, in theory, be repurposed for other applications, albeit not necessarily efficiently. By September 1971 Redactron was ready to begin shipping. Next came advertising and promotion, and this presented its own challenges; it was a “very new idea,” as Berezin recalls.47 She enlisted the aid of Roslyn Willett, an old friend who now ran a public relations agency—noteworthy in itself in an era when such agencies were dominated by (mad) men.


pages: 647 words: 43,757

Types and Programming Languages by Benjamin C. Pierce

Albert Einstein, combinatorial explosion, experimental subject, finite state, functional programming, Henri Poincaré, Perl 6, Russell's paradox, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference, Y Combinator

That is, we want to introduce typing rules for variables, abstractions, and applications that (a) maintain type safety—i.e., satisfy the type preservation and progress theorems, 8.3.2 and 8.3.3—and (b) are not too conservative—i.e., they should assign types to most of the programs we actually care about writing. Of course, since the pure lambda-calculus is Turing complete, there is no hope of giving an exact type analysis for these primitives. For example, there is no way of reliably determining whether a program like if <long and tricky computation> then true else (λx.x) yields a boolean or a function without actually running the long and tricky computation and seeing whether it yields true or false.


pages: 999 words: 194,942

Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand

Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, finite state, Firefox, functional programming, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

It should be clear that some languages offer more powerful means of abstraction than others. Imagine for a moment a programming language without loops. Such a language might be usable, but unrolling all loops by hand would be incredibly tedious. Similarly, a language without functions might be able to do anything any other Turing-complete language can do, but code would have to be repeated over and over. In short, when a language lacks proper means of abstraction, the result is boilerplate and repetition, both signs of fundamental weaknesses in that language. Macros are powerful because they give you a way to define entirely new levels of abstraction within the language itself.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, sunk-cost fallacy, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Tragedy of the Commons, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

For example if you’d like to get your blog posts rated highly then you can use similar types of tricks to have them submit themselves to social news site Digg [647]. Another proof-ofconcept used LaTeX to implement a virus that infects other LaTeX documents, 49 Security issues are actually a secondary problem with these Turing machines, with the primary one being that any Turing-complete domain-specific language starts out being a hammer and then at some point ends up being used as a screwdriver, pocket knife, spanner, car jack, lint remover, bandsaw and, eventually, a nail. User Education, and Why it Doesn’t Work 199 although this could easily have been extended to perform standard malware functions like stealing data or downloading and installing binaries to add assorted supplemental functionality to the operating environment [648][649].

For example the Norwegian banks use a weird inside-out design in which a centralised system controlled by the Norwegian Banks’ Payment and Clearing Centre generates a private key on behalf of the user, sends the public portion out to the user’s bank to be turned into a certificate, and then performs all signing operations in the centralised infrastructure with the user having no control over, or even access to, their own keys and certificates [114][115]. The user’s interaction with the banking system is the standard password/PIN used by any other bank, although in this case with special twists that make them more vulnerable to attack, as discussed in “Banking Passwords” on page 606. In other 147 Whether certificate paths are Turing-complete is an open problem. Certificate Chains 671 words this has all the overhead and complexity of a PKI while providing a service no different from what any other bank achieves without any PKI components. Combine this with the fact that using the whole system requires the use of the horribly vulnerability-prone Java environment in the browser and it’s no surprise that attackers have already figured out how to bypass it and perform unauthorised withdrawals of funds from customer accounts [116].


pages: 1,737 words: 491,616

Rationality: From AI to Zombies by Eliezer Yudkowsky

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, anti-pattern, anti-work, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, backpropagation, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, different worldview, discovery of DNA, disinformation, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, effective altruism, experimental subject, Extropian, friendly AI, fundamental attribution error, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hindsight bias, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, mental accounting, meta-analysis, money market fund, Monty Hall problem, Nash equilibrium, Necker cube, NP-complete, P = NP, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, planetary scale, prediction markets, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Saturday Night Live, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific mainstream, scientific worldview, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Solar eclipse in 1919, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Pinker, strong AI, sunk-cost fallacy, technological singularity, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the map is not the territory, the scientific method, Turing complete, Turing machine, ultimatum game, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

There is no soul anywhere that need fear true annihilation; God will prevent it. What if you build your own simulated universe? The classic example of a simulated universe is Conway’s Game of Life. I do urge you to investigate Life if you’ve never played it—it’s important for comprehending the notion of “physical law.” Conway’s Life has been proven Turing-complete, so it would be possible to build a sentient being in the Life universe, although it might be rather fragile and awkward. Other cellular automata would make it simpler. Could you, by creating a simulated universe, escape the reach of God? Could you simulate a Game of Life containing sentient entities, and torture the beings therein?

And it’s not likely that anyone will defy the Khan; if they did, someone would strike them with a sword, and the sword would disrupt their organs and they would die, and that would be the end of that. So the victims die, screaming, and no one helps them; that is the answer to the what-if question. Could the victims be completely innocent? Why not, in the what-if world? If you look at the rules for Conway’s Game of Life (which is Turing-complete, so we can embed arbitrary computable physics in there), then the rules are really very simple. Cells with three living neighbors stay alive; cells with two neighbors stay the same; all other cells die. There isn’t anything in there about innocent people not being horribly tortured for indefinite periods.


pages: 1,076 words: 67,364

Haskell Programming: From First Principles by Christopher Allen, Julie Moronuki

c2.com, en.wikipedia.org, functional programming, natural language processing, spaced repetition, tiling window manager, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference, web application, Y Combinator

Recursion is a means of expressing code that must take an indefinite number of steps to return a result. But the lambda calculus does not appear on the surface to have any means of recursion, because of the anonymity of expressions. How do you call something without a name? Being able to write recursive functions, though, is essential to Turing completeness. We use a combinator – known as the Y combinator or fixed-point combinator – to write recursive functions in the lambda calculus. Haskell has native recursion ability based on the same principle as the Y combinator. It is important to have a solid understanding of the behavior of recursive functions.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, functional programming, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kim Stanley Robinson, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

The machinic image is qualified by many little sinkholes between the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real, and at a global scale of billions of Users, the interfacial image is also partially a function of sheer machinic quantity. With the comparatively instantaneous adoption of mobile devices (a Turing complete processor + camera + homing tether + telephonic voice relay), we have seen an explosion in the absolute volume of mechanical images of and in the world, dwarfing the total sum produced before the mobile phone appeared in our hands. Unlike images of the painting-photographic-cinematic era, these images do not pass into an archive only after their practical life is passed; rather, through various Apps, images are produced through the medium of the archival database itself, socialized through the archive, and assigned searchable metadata through the archive.