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Moby-Duck: The True Story of 28,800 Bath Toys Lost at Sea and of the Beachcombers, Oceanographers, Environmentalists, and Fools, Including the Author, Who Went in Search of Them by Donovan Hohn
carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, Google Earth, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, intermodal, Isaac Newton, means of production, microbiome, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, post-Panamax, profit motive, Skype, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, traveling salesman
He’d just need a few weeks’ notice to set everything up. Dongguan, I learned, is an industrial town in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, an alluvial maze of factories and shipping routes radiating outward into Guangdong Province from Hong Kong. The Pearl River Delta is mainly what people have in mind when they talk about China’s “economic miracle.” Newspapers often refer to it as “the workshop of the world,” a phrase, first applied to England in the nineteenth century, that has in the twenty-first century drifted east. The iPod is manufactured in the Pearl River Delta, and so is Chicken Dance Elmo. So are most of the cheap, ubiquitous goods labeled MADE IN CHINA that we Americans buy. Although, reading the newspaper, I tended to imagine the Pearl River Delta as a polluted wasteland where workers toiled miserably away in dark Satanic mills, not all my Pearl River dreams were bad ones.
In Shenzhen, known as the Overnight City because of the speed with which it sprouted up, mushroomlike, out of the rice paddies and fishing towns that preceded it, the annual growth rate in some years surpassed 30 percent. Despite recent competition from Beijing and Shanghai, the Pearl River Delta remains China’s most productive region. Home to just 3 percent of the country’s population, it nonetheless accounts for more than 25 percent of China’s foreign trade. The late Chinese sociologist Fei Xiaotong once described the Pearl River Delta as “a store at the front and a factory in the back.” Hong Kong is the store; Guangdong Province is the factory. Journeying from the one to the other, I imagined, would be like traveling upstream toward the headwaters of my material universe. The Toys & Games Fair, where buyers from Western toy companies come to find Chinese suppliers, seemed like a good place to start.
Instead, when my turn comes, the customs officer glances once at my face, stamps my passport with the bored, silent efficiency of a grocery store cashier, and sends me on my way, to meet up with Henry Tong. It might be different elsewhere in China, but here in the Pearl River Delta the entropy of the marketplace has overwhelmed much of the bureaucratic order, for better and for worse. The crime rates in some of the Delta’s boomtowns, among the highest in China, are almost downright American, and so, almost, are the freedoms.22 If anything, it’s piratical capitalists not bureaucratic Communists that one has to worry most about in the Pearl River Delta.23 The previous June, when a business correspondent for the New York Times paid a surprise visit to the RC2 Industrial Park in Dongguan that had produced those leaded toy trains, a factory boss held him hostage for several hours, refusing to surrender him even after government officials arrived to negotiate his release.
World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen
active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
Land‐limited cities such as Singapore have not spilled over into a manufacturing hinterland, whereas Hong Kong has been able to through its relationship with the Pearl River Delta. But, for many emerging world cities, the major challenge is dealing with scale and getting 12 World Cities and Nation States Table 1.2: Size and scale of world cities and world city regions City City population/m. City size/ km2 Hong Kong London Moscow 7.3 8.8 12.2 1100 1500 2500 Mumbai 12.6 440 New York Paris São Paulo 8.5 2.2 12 1100 105 1500 Shanghai Singapore Seoul Tokyo Toronto 24.2 5.5 9.8 13.5 2.9 6200 720 605 2200 630 Regional population/m Region Greater Pearl River Delta Greater South East Moscow and Moscow Region Mumbai Metropolitan Region Tri‐state region Île‐de‐France São Paulo Metropolitan Region Yangtze River Delta — National Capital Region Tokyo Metropolis Greater Toronto Area 65 24 19 Region size/km2 55,000 39,700 47,000 21.5 4350 23 12 21 34,000 12,000 8000 100 — 26 36 6.7 100,000 — 12,000 14,000 14,000 Sources: Census and Statistics Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 2015; Greater London Authority Datastore, 2015; INSEE, 2016a, 2016b; Russian Federation Federal Statistics Service, 2014; Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 2015; IBGE, 2015; National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2015; Department of Statistics Singapore, 2015; Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2015; Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2014; Ontario Ministry of Finance, 2014; Statistics Bureau of Guangdong Province, 2015; Office for National Statistics (UK), 2014; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2014; United States Census Bureau, 2014; EMPLASA, 2016; Statistics Korea, 2016; Geographical Information Authority of Japan, 2014; OECD Stat., 2016.
Within and across national borders, networks of cities often form a complementary system of different functions and specialisations. This often demands new national approaches. In China, for example, since the mid‐2000s the national urban policy has begun to plan its huge scale of urbanisation by identifying large regional city clusters as strongholds of future sustainable development. The Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regions have all become the subject of regional plans, with the aim of accelerating development, bridging regional divides and restructuring the economy. The third trend to which nation states have to respond is the emerging capacity of multiple cities in the same nation to acquire international roles. As new waves of globalisation occur, new economic sectors internationalise and integrate, and a larger range of cities has the potential to enter the global system of trade and exchange.
City size/ km2 Hong Kong London Moscow 7.3 8.8 12.2 1100 1500 2500 Mumbai 12.6 440 New York Paris São Paulo 8.5 2.2 12 1100 105 1500 Shanghai Singapore Seoul Tokyo Toronto 24.2 5.5 9.8 13.5 2.9 6200 720 605 2200 630 Regional population/m Region Greater Pearl River Delta Greater South East Moscow and Moscow Region Mumbai Metropolitan Region Tri‐state region Île‐de‐France São Paulo Metropolitan Region Yangtze River Delta — National Capital Region Tokyo Metropolis Greater Toronto Area 65 24 19 Region size/km2 55,000 39,700 47,000 21.5 4350 23 12 21 34,000 12,000 8000 100 — 26 36 6.7 100,000 — 12,000 14,000 14,000 Sources: Census and Statistics Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, 2015; Greater London Authority Datastore, 2015; INSEE, 2016a, 2016b; Russian Federation Federal Statistics Service, 2014; Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 2015; IBGE, 2015; National Bureau of Statistics of China, 2015; Department of Statistics Singapore, 2015; Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2015; Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2014; Ontario Ministry of Finance, 2014; Statistics Bureau of Guangdong Province, 2015; Office for National Statistics (UK), 2014; United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2014; United States Census Bureau, 2014; EMPLASA, 2016; Statistics Korea, 2016; Geographical Information Authority of Japan, 2014; OECD Stat., 2016. Shanghai* Tokyo Hong Kong** São Paulo London Moscow Seoul Toronto Mumbai Paris Singapore City Area in km2 Metropolitan Region Area in km2 * Metro area = Area of Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone ** Metro area = Area of Pearl River Delta Economic Zone Figure 1.2: Comparative size of world cities and their metropolitan regions. New York Introduction: Clash of the centuries? 13 30,000 City density Metro density 25,000 People per km2 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 ai gh an nt o Sh w ro To co os nd on M ng ky o Lo To rk Ko g Yo on H or e ew N Si ng ap ul o l Pa ou o Se ris Pa Sã M um ba i 0 NB: Population and area data for metro regions from OECD where available, otherwise based on independent sources.
Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China by Leslie T. Chang
anti-communist, Deng Xiaoping, estate planning, financial independence, index card, invention of writing, job-hopping, land reform, Mason jar, mass immigration, new economy, Pearl River Delta, risk tolerance, special economic zone
Two decades after the first factories were built, development still feels new. The innards of a mountain spill out, red-earthed and raw, where its face was blasted away; exit ramps off the highway disappear in fields of marshy weeds. A brand-new corporate headquarters looks out on rice paddies, fishponds, and duck farms; miraculously, people are still farming here. In the seventeenth century, settlers turned the floodplains of the Pearl River Delta into one of China’s most fertile regions, supplying fish, vegetables, and rice to the country and exporting silk to Europe. Today in the land of full-throttle industry, it is these glimpses of nature that are unsettling. The farmers are mostly migrants, the lowest of the low, for they have traveled a thousand miles from home but have still not left the farm behind. The bus slows for the Dongguan exit, and now the factories appear up close.
Before they went out from home, the two girls had made a pact: If jobs at the first factory fell through, they would go straight home. But when jobs at the first factory fell through, they stayed. They had come to the city, and already they were changed. I MET YONGXIA AND DALI on my second day in town. It was a hot February morning, the sky bleached a dingy white and the air humming with heat and motorcycle exhaust; in the Pearl River Delta, summer would begin in another month. I took the girls to a noodle shop and ordered Cokes. They sipped them carefully through straws as they told me the story of how they had left home. I explained that I was a reporter for the Wall Street Journal. Yongxia turned my business card over and over, mulling its unfamiliar Beijing address. “Can we write you letters?” she said suddenly. “We miss our mothers.
The network-sales model was ideally suited to a Chinese society in which traditional morality had broken down and only the harshest rules—trust no one, make money fast—still applied. The companies relied on traditional networks of extended family and friends; the first thing a chuanxiao salesman usually did was to browbeat every friend and relative into buying something. They promised wealth and fulfillment. And they offered a clear road map to success: Get to know three people a day. The industry flourished in the small towns and migrant communities of the Pearl River Delta. Here where rural and urban worlds met, people envied the success of others and were hungry to have it themselves. If someone they knew promised instant wealth and a miracle cure, they were easily swayed. The rise of chuanxiao companies worried the central government. Some of the companies traded in fake, smuggled, or shoddy goods; their training meetings, where charismatic leaders drove members into an evangelical selling frenzy, came to look disturbingly similar to cults.
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
Hong Kong developed its functions as a global business center. 3 However, Hong Kong’s manufacturing exports capacity did not fade away: it simply modified its industrial organization and its spatial location. In about ten years, between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, Hong Kong’s industrialists induced one of the largest- scale processes of industrialization in human history in the small towns of the Pearl River Delta. By the end of 1994, Hong Kong investors, often using family and village connections, had established in the Pearl River Delta 10,000 joint ventures and 20,000 processing factories, in which were working about 6 million workers, depending upon various estimates. Much of this population, housed in company dormitories in semi-rural locations, came from surrounding provinces beyond the borders of Guandong. This gigantic industrial system was being managed on a daily basis from a multilayered managerial structure, based in Hong Kong, regularly traveling to Guangzhou, with production runs being supervised by local managers throughout the rural area.
For Emma Kiselyova-Castells, without whose love, work, and support this book would not exist Figures 2.1 Productivity growth in the United States, 1995–1999 2.2 Estimate of evolution of productivity in the United States, 1972–1999 93 2.3 Growth in trade and capital flows, 1970–1995 2.4 Goods in international trade by level of technological intensity, 1976/1996 2.5 Foreign direct investment 2.6 Cross-border mergers and acquisitions, 1992–1997 2.7 Export shares 2.8 Share of growth from high-tech sector in the United States, 1986–1998 2.9 Declining dividends payments 4.1 Percentage of the United States’ population that is foreign-born, 1900–1994 4.2 Total fertility rates for nationals and foreigners in selected OECD countries 4.3 Index of employment growth by region, 1973–1999 4.4 Part-time workers in employed labor force in OECD countries, 1983–1998 4.5 Self-employed workers in employed labor force in OECD countries, 1983–1993 4.6 Temporary workers in employed labor force in OECD countries, 1983–1997 4.7 Non-standard forms of employment in employed labor force in OECD countries, 1983–1994 4.8 Employment in the temporary help industry in the United States, 1982–1997 4.9 Percentage of working-age Californians employed in “traditional” jobs, 1999 4.10 Distribution of working-age Californians by “traditional” job status and length of tenure in the job, 1999 4.11 The Japanese labor market in the postwar period 4.12 Annual growth of productivity, employment, and earnings in OECD countries, 1984–1998 5.1 Media sales in 1998 for major media groups 5.2 Strategic alliances between media groups in Europe, 1999 5.3 Internet hosts, 1989–2006 5.4 Internet CONE and country code domain names by city worldwide, July 1999 5.5 Internet CONE and country code domain names by city in North America, July 1999 5.6 Internet CONE and country code domain names by city in Europe, July 1999 5.7 Internet CONE and country code domain names by city in Asia, July 1999 6.1 Largest absolute growth in information flows, 1982 and 1990 6.2 Exports of information from the United States to major world regions and centers 6.3 System of relationships between the characteristics of information technology manufacturing and the industry’s spatial pattern 6.4 The world’s largest urban agglomerations (>10 million inhabitants in 1992) 6.5 Diagrammatic representation of major nodes and links in the urban region of the Pearl River Delta 6.6 Downtown Kaoshiung 6.7 The entrance hall of Barcelona airport 6.8 The waiting room at D.E. Shaw and Company 6.9 Belleville, 1999 6.10 Las Ramblas, Barcelona, 1999 6.11 Barcelona: Paseo de Gracia 6.12 Irvine, California: business complex 7.1 Labor force participation rate (%) for men 55–64 years old in eight countries, 1970–1998 7.2 Ratio of hospitalized deaths to total deaths (%), by year, 1947–1987, in Japan 7.3 War deaths relative to world population, by decade, 1720–2000 Tables 2.1 Productivity rate: growth rates of output per worker 2.2 Productivity in the business sector 2.3 Evolution of the productivity of business sectors 2.4 Evolution of productivity in sectors not open to free trade 2.5 Evolution of US productivity by industrial sectors and periods 2.6 Cross-border transactions in bonds and equities, 1970–1996 2.7 Foreign assets and liabilities as a percentage of total assets and liabilities of commercial banks for selected countries, 1960–1997 2.8 Direction of world exports, 1965–1995 2.9 Parent corporations and foreign affiliates by area and country 2.10 Stocks valuation, 1995–1999 4.1 United States: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1920–1991 4.2 Japan: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1920–1990 4.3 Germany: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1925–1987 4.4 France: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1921–1989 4.5 Italy: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1921–1990 4.6 United Kingdom: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1921–1992 4.7 Canada: percentage distribution of employment by industrial sector and intermediate industry group, 1921–1992 4.8 United States: employment statistics by industry, 1920–1991 4.9 Japan: employment statistics by industry, 1920–1990 4.10 Germany: employment statistics by industry, 1925–1987 4.11 France: employment statistics by industry, 1921–1989 4.12 Italy: employment statistics by industry, 1921–1990 4.13 United Kingdom: employment statistics by industry, 1921–1990 4.14 Canada: employment statistics by industry, 1921–1992 4.15 Occupational structure of selected countries 4.16 United States: percentage distribution of employment by occupation, 1960–1991 4.17 Japan: percentage distribution of employment by occupation, 1955–1990 4.18 Germany: percentage distribution of employment by occupation, 1976–1989 4.19 France: percentage distribution of employment by occupation, 1982–1989 4.20 Great Britain: percentage distribution of employment by occupation, 1961–1990 4.21 Canada: percentage distribution of employment by occupation, 1950–1992 4.22 Foreign resident population in Western Europe, 1950–1990 4.23 Employment in manufacturing by major countries and regions, 1970–1997 4.24 Employment shares by industry/occupation and ethnic/gender group of all workers in the United States, 1960–1998 4.25 Information technology spending per worker (1987–1994), employment growth (1987–1994), and unemployment rate (1995) by country 4.26 Main telephone lines per employee (1986 and 1993) and Internet hosts per 1,000 population (January 1996) by country 4.27 Men’s and women’s employment ratios, 15–64 years old, 1973–1998 4.28 Percentage of standard workers in the chuki koyo system of Japanese firms 4.29 Concentration of stock ownership by income level in the United States, 1995 7.1 Annual hours worked per person, 1870–1979 7.2 Potential lifelong working hours, 1950–1985 7.3 Duration and reduction of working time, 1970–1987 7.4 Principal demographic characteristics by main regions of the world, 1970–1995 7.5 Total fertility rates of some industrialized countries, 1901–1985 7.6 First live births per 1,000 women by age group of mother (30–49 years) and by race in the United States, 1960 and 1990 7.7 Comparisons of infant mortality rates, selected countries, 1990–1995 (estimates) Preface to the 2010 Edition of The Rise of the Network Society We live in confusing times, as is often the case in periods of historical transition between different forms of society.
In the United States, in 2005, the Urban Land Institute defined 10 megalopolitan areas housing 68 percent of the American population. Yet, the largest metropolitan regions in the world are in Asia. The largest one, which I identified early in the first edition of this volume, is a loosely connected region that extends from Hong Kong to Guangzhou, incorporating the manufacturing villages of the Pearl River Delta, the booming city of Shenzhen, on the Hong Kong border, and the adjacent areas of Zhuhai and Macau, each one with a distinctive economy and polity, fully interdependent with the other components of this South China metropolitan region, with a population of approximately 60 million people. This prefigures the megapolitan future of China. These metropolitan regions constitute the heart of the new, increasingly globalized China, the manufacturing power house of the world in the twenty-first century.
The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce
Deindustrialisation of older production centres occurred everywhere from Pittsburgh’s, Sheffield’s and Essen’s steel industry to Mumbai’s textile industry. This was paralleled by an astonishing spurt in the industrialisation of entirely new spaces in the global economy, particularly those with specific resource or organisational advantages – Taiwan, South Korea, Bangladesh and the special production zones such as Mexico’s maquiladoras (tax-free assembly plants) or the export platforms created in China’s Pearl River delta. Global shifts in production capacity accompanied by highly competitive technological innovations, many of which were labour-saving, contributed further to the disciplining of global labour. The United States still retained immense financial power, even as it lost its earlier dominance (though not significance) in the realm of production. Increasingly, the US relied upon the extraction of rents, either on the basis of its advantages in technological and financial innovation or from intellectual property rights.
Compact industrial centres with names like Manchester and Birmingham were linked with each other and to the main commercial port cities of Bristol and Liverpool, as well as to the teeming capital city of London, by threads of dirt turnpikes and skinny slivers of canals. Barges full of coal and raw materials were laboriously towed along the canals either by sweating horses or, as Marx records in Capital, by almost starving women. Locomotion was slow. Flying over the Pearl River delta in 1980, one would have seen tiny villages and towns with names like Shenzhen and Dongguan nestled in a largely self-sufficient agrarian landscape of rice, vegetable, livestock production and fish farming, socialised into communes ruled with an iron fist by local party officials who were also carrying an ‘iron rice bowl’ to guard against the threat of starvation. Flying over both these areas in 2008, the landscapes of sprawling urbanisation below would be totally unrecognisable, as would be the forms of production and transportation, the social relations, the technologies, the ways of daily life and the forms of consumption on the ground.
Indeed, we can reconceptualise crisis formation in terms of the tensions and antagonisms that arise between the different activity spheres as, for example, new technologies play against the desire for new configurations in social relations or disrupt the organisation of existing labour processes. But instead of examining these spheres sequentially as we did earlier in the analysis of capital circulation, we now think of them as collectively co-present and co-evolving within the long history of capitalism. In a given society at a particular point in space and time – Britain in 1850, or the Pearl River delta of China now, say – we can define its general character and condition largely in terms of how these seven spheres are organised and configured in relation to each other. Something can also be said about the likely future development of the social order in such places given the tensions and contradictions between the activity spheres, even as it is recognised that the likely evolutionary dynamic is not determinant but contingent. ——— Capital cannot circulate or accumulate without touching upon each and all of these activity spheres in some way.
Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell
affirmative action, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, corporate raider, crew resource management, medical residency, old-boy network, Pearl River Delta, popular electronics, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, union organizing, upwardly mobile, why are manhole covers round?
[sound of groans] 1:42:30:54. [sound of tone] END OF RECORDING Outliers, The Story of Success CHAPTER EIGHT Rice Paddies and Math Tests “NO ONE WHO CAN RISE BEFORE DAWN THREE HUNDRED SIXTY DAYS A YEAR FAILS TO MAKE HIS FAMILY RICH.” Outliers, The Story of Success 1. The gateway to the industrial heartland of Southern China runs up through the wide, verdant swath of the Pearl River Delta. The land is covered by a thick, smoggy haze. The freeways are crammed with tractor trailers. Power lines crisscross the landscape. Factories making cameras, computers, watches, umbrellas, and T-shirts stand cheek by jowl with densely packed blocks of apartment buildings and fields of banana and mango trees, sugarcane, papaya, and pineapple destined for the export market. Few landscapes in the world have changed so much in so short a time.
By the time lahp cheun (the “turning of the spring”) came, you were back in the fields at dawn. Working in a rice field is ten to twenty times more labor-intensive than working on an equivalent-size corn or wheat field. Some estimates put the annual workload of a wet-rice farmer in Asia at three thousand hours a year. Outliers, The Story of Success 4. Think, for a moment, about what the life of a rice farmer in the Pearl River Delta must have been like. Three thousand hours a year is a staggering amount of time to spend working, particularly if many of those hours involve being bent over in the hot sun, planting and weeding in a rice paddy. What redeemed the life of a rice farmer, however, was the nature of that work. It was a lot like the garment work done by the Jewish immigrants to New York. It was meaningful. First of all, there is a clear relationship in rice farming between effort and reward.
Second, and perhaps more important, what happens in the north of China, which isn't a wet-rice agriculture society but historically a wheat-growing culture, much like Western EuropeAre they good at math tooThe short answer is that we don't know. The psychologist James Flynn points out, though, that the overwhelming majority of Chinese immigrants to the Westthe people who have done so well in math hereare from South China. The Chinese students graduating at the top of their class at MIT are the descendants, chiefly, of people from the Pearl River Delta. He also points out that the lowest achieving Chinese Americans are the so-called Sze Yap people, who come from the edges of the Delta, “where soil was less fertile and agriculture less intense.” + There is actually a significant scientific literature measuring Asian “persistence.” In a typical study, Priscilla Blinco gave large groups of JapaneseandAmericanfirstgradersaverydifficultpuzzleandmeasured how long they worked at it before they gave up.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
In the summer of 2014, while traveling around the Pearl River delta region of southern China—a loop from Guangzhou via Zhongshan to Zhuhai and Macau and up the eastern side via Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Dongguan—I witnessed firsthand how a country’s economic master plan is as important as its military grand strategy. In 1990, a decade after China’s opening to the world economy, primary industries such as agriculture, mining, and fishing represented 27 percent of its economy, while secondary sectors such as manufacturing and construction were 40 percent, and the tertiary sector of services (retail, transportation, health care, tourism, and others) was only 30 percent. By 2010, agriculture had fallen to 10 percent, and manufacturing had risen to 46 percent and services to 44 percent. A tour around the Pearl River delta reveals some of the most novel strategies in combining urbanization, SEZs, and innovation to breed megacities that become pillars of innovation and growth.
Linked by the dual highway-railway Øresund Bridge, the economies of Denmark’s capital, Copenhagen, and Sweden’s Malmö have become so connected that many now refer to them as KoMa. Copenhagen airport is now closer for Malmö residents than their own, and Swedish taxis have their own stands there. Baltic nations tried to form an entente shortly after World War I but were split by Soviet expansionism. A century later, the much larger Baltic Union has emerged from Norway to Lithuania and is directly connected to western Europe by the Øresund Bridge. In China’s Pearl River delta—where cities such as Hong Kong, Macau, and Zhuhai have very different legal arrangements with Beijing—a Y-shaped bridge (over artificial islands and through a six-kilometer tunnel) set to open in 2017 will connect all three cities, cutting the passage across the southern mouth of the delta from four hours to one hour. The entire delta region is becoming one giant urban archipelago despite differences in political status.
The population of the greater Mexico City region is larger than that of Australia, as is that of Chongqing, a collection of connected urban enclaves spanning an area the size of Austria. Cities that were once hundreds of kilometers apart have now effectively fused into massive urban archipelagoes, the largest of which is Japan’s Taiheiyo Belt that encompasses two-thirds of Japan’s population in the Tokyo-Nagoya-Osaka megalopolis. China’s Pearl River delta, Greater São Paulo, and Mumbai-Pune are also becoming more integrated through infrastructure. At least a dozen such megacity corridors have emerged already. China is in the process of reorganizing itself around two dozen giant megacity clusters of up to 100 million citizens each.*3 And yet by 2030, the second-largest city in the world behind Tokyo is expected not to be in China but to be Manila.
A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent
Competition of this sort heightened in the more fluid and open systems of trading relations established after 1970. The general progress of neoliberalization has therefore been increasingly impelled through mechanisms of uneven geographical developments. Successful states or regions put pressure on everyone else to follow their lead. Leapfrogging innovations put this or that state (Japan, Germany, Taiwan, the US, or China), region (Silicon Valley, Bavaria, Third Italy, Bangalore, the Pearl River delta, or Botswana), or even city (Boston, San Francisco, Shanghai, or Munich) in the vanguard of capital accumulation. But the competitive advantages all too often prove ephemeral, introducing an extraordinary volatility into global capitalism. Yet it is also true that powerful impulses of neoliberalization have emanated, and even been orchestrated, from a few major epicentres. Clearly, the UK and the US led the way.
They are putting the finishing touches on a vast, entirely new annex city that they hope will draw 300,000 engineers and researchers, the vanguard of a new China’.18 It is also the site of construction for what is slated to be the largest shopping mall in the world (built by a Chinese billionaire, it has seven zones modelled on Amsterdam, Paris, Rome, Venice, Egypt, the Caribbean, and California, each constructed with such close attention to detail as to be indistinguishable, we are told, from the real thing). Such new tier cities are locked in ferocious inter-urban competition. In the Pearl River delta, for example, each city is now trying to capture as much business as possible ‘by outbuilding its neighbors, often with duplicative results. Five international airports were built in the late 1990s in a 100–kilometer radius, and a similar boom is starting for ports and bridges’.19 Provinces and cities resist Beijing’s efforts to rein in their investments, in part because they have the power to fund their own projects by selling rights to develop real estate.
Hourly wages in textile production in China in the late 1990s stood at 30 cents compared to Mexico’s and South Korea’s $2.75, Hong Kong’s and Taiwanese levels hovering around $5, and the US’s cost of more than $10.33 Chinese production was, however, largely subservient in the initial stages to the Taiwanese and Hong Kong merchants, who commanded the access to global markets, took the lion’s share of the trading profits, and increasingly achieved backward integration into production by buying out or investing in the TVEs or SOEs. Production facilities employing as many as 40,000 workers are not uncommon in the Pearl River delta. Furthermore, low rates of pay make capital-saving innovations possible. Highly productive US plants use expensive automated systems, but ‘Chinese factories reverse this process by taking capital out of the production process and reintroducing a greater role for labor’. The total capital required is typically reduced by one-third. ‘The combination of lower wages and less capital typically raises the return on capital above the US factory levels.’34 Incredible wage labour advantages of this sort mean that China can compete against other low-cost locations such as Mexico, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand in low-value-added production sectors (such as textiles).
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
The fundamental laws of real estate—location, location, location—have been supplanted by three new ones: access, access, access. Here, Kasarda’s framework dovetails with what we already know about globalization. The world is a network. Cities now connect more easily to each other than to the towns and villages that lie just beyond their borders, or to the national capitals that supposedly call their shots. It’s how the cities of the Pearl River Delta can become “the world’s factory,” and why their fate is bound up in the flat-screen TV you dragged home from Best Buy. It’s how Las Vegas and Macau—an oasis and an island, separated by seven thousand miles—can duel to become the world’s gambling mecca. And it’s why the manicured lawns of the Infosys campus in Bangalore still abut urban squalor outside its gates: because the Microsoft of India has nothing in common with the countryside.
So while we fret about the making—about exchange rates and spare factory capacity and a real estate bubble threatening to dwarf our own—China is quietly preparing to set loose its people on the world. It’s there for the taking. Inside the “World’s Factory” Crossing the border from Hong Kong means passing from the developed world to the developing one, from a city of skyscrapers to a sprawl of factory towns on a scale Henry Ford could not have foreseen. Beyond lies the Pearl River Delta, stretching for a hundred miles inland. For Liam Casey this chasm is his commute. Twice, his driver handed over our passports at checkpoints, opening the van doors so the attendants could match the names to our faces. “You’re going to love this,” Casey said, just when I thought we were in the clear. A few seconds later, my door was opened again, this time by a guardsman in the People’s Liberation Army.
Liam Casey arrived in 1996, a few years after paramount leader Deng Xiaoping declared “to get rich is glorious” while passing through the city on his farewell tour. Deng is the father of Shenzhen, having chosen this sleepy fishing village as the first of China’s “special economic zones” in 1980. Foreign firms were invited to open shop here with few constraints or taxes, triggering the transformation of the Pearl River Delta into “the factory of the world” and Shenzhen into the “Overnight City,” having grown two-hundred-fold since then. While Shanghai’s Blade Runner landscape symbolizes China’s future, Shenzhen is the template for its instant cities. Until the crisis, the Delta was the world’s biggest boomtown, crowding 5 percent of China’s population into less than 1 percent of its land, where they produced 20 percent of the country’s GDP and 40 percent of its exports.
The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan
"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stocks for the long run, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K, zero-sum game
That shift was not only the result of people moving to cities and some definitional changes but also the result of rural land being urbanized as new manufacturing enclaves began to sprout up ; mainly in the Pearl River delta contiguous to vibrant Hong Kong. In the 1970s this fertile area was home to sleepy farms and villages, but in the last fifteen years pioneering foreign investors from Hong Kong and elsewhere have stoked the region's growth. The delta now produces everything from toys to textiles, most of it manufactured for export. Hong Kong's example and assistance in the development of the Pearl River delta's economy has been striking. When China reestablished its sovereignty over Hong Kong in 1997, I did not hold much hope for the survival of Hong Kong capitalism. The notion that China would honor its pledge that Hong Kong would remain a bastion of capitalism for fifty years seemed to me rather naive.
Not only did the economies of the former Soviet bloc, after some chaos, embrace the ways of market capitalism, but so did most of what we previously called the third world—countries that had been neutral in the cold war but had practiced central planning or had been so heavily regulated that it amounted to the same thing. Communist China, which had edged toward market capitalism as early as 1978, accelerated the movement of its vast, tightly regulated, then more-than-500-million-person workforce toward the Free Trade Zones of the Pearl River delta. China's shift in protecting the property rights of foreigners, while subtle, was substantial enough to induce a veritable explosion in foreign direct investment (FDI) into China following 1991. From a level of $57 million 12 More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright. I NTRODUCTION in 1980, FDI drifted upward, reaching $4 billion in 1991, and then accelerated at a 21 percent annual rate, reaching $70 billion in 2006.
I absorbed a great deal from Ted, but after a long, distinguished Federal Reserve career, in 1998 Truman was appointed assistant secretary of the treasury for international affairs. His replacement, Karen Johnson, with a doctorate from MIT, continued my education. During my Fed years, I interacted with experts on virtually every international economic issue imaginable, from the opaque budget accounting rules governing our financial contributions to the IMF to the economics of China's Pearl River delta. I also had to continually recalibrate my views of how the U.S. economy worked in the context of ever-expanding globalization. Overseeing my schooling on the U.S. economy in addition to Don Kohn was David Stockton, the Fed's chief economist since 2000 and a Fed staffer since 1981. He never sought nor received the press that Fed governors get, but when the governors gave speeches, it was his forecast of the U.S. economy that Fed watchers were getting.
The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna
3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War
After clashes with the Qing Dynasty over the Illi River region at the border of Xinjiang, it also cemented its control over Turkestan. British expansionism compounded the Qing Dynasty’s difficulties. Seeking to grow its trade surpluses, the British forced the Qing to absorb ever greater volumes of opium from India, leading to widespread addiction. In 1838, the British responded to the destruction of 20,000 cases of opium with military force, sailing up the Pearl River delta with gunboats and bombarding Chinese defenses, repeating the intrusions in the 1850s. These humiliations were exacerbated by European imperialists seizing Chinese ports as their own dominions in Shanghai, Tianjin, Ningbo, Fuzhou, Xiamen, and Hong Kong. China was also plagued by civil wars such as the Taiping Rebellion. In the late nineteenth century, the reformist Guangxu emperor attempted to establish a constitutional monarchy, but a coup d’état led by the conservative dowager empress Cixi thwarted him.
Vietnam and China fought a brief border war as well in 1979, but China withdrew its forces once satisfied that the Soviets would not assist Vietnam. Starting in 1978, Mao’s successor, Deng Xiaoping, sought to blend socialism with the opportunities of the global economy. He decollectivized agriculture, allowed private enterprise, and opened the country to foreign trade and investment as the “tiger” economies had done in the preceding decade. In May 1980, Shenzhen in the Pearl River delta became the first Chinese Special Economic Zone, luring foreign capital with tax exemptions and light regulation. It rapidly achieved a 30 percent annual growth rate and mushroomed from a village with a population of 30,000 to a bustling city of 10 million. While making China the leading developing-country destination for foreign investment, Deng also signed a landmark Treaty of Peace and Friendship with Japan and improved ties with both the US and USSR.
Much as Vietnam has done, India is seeking to lure investment away from China toward its own coastal special economic zones for manufacturing exports.41 Whereas for decades Mumbai was India’s only significant economic hub, today the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are major commercial centers. The Bangalore-Chennai-Hyderabad industrial triangle in southern India has become the country’s Pearl River delta, with 30 million people contributing 80 percent of the country’s IT services, plus innovative clusters around biomedical engineering and digital finance. India’s fastest-growing states in the past decade have been some of its most remote and backward, such as Sikkim and Bihar. Driven by construction, power generation, and manufacturing (and tourism in Sikkim’s Himalayan region), both states have been growing by 12 percent to 25 percent per year.
Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock
Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working-age population, Yom Kippur War
A thousand years ago, trading vessels would make their way from India east across that part of the Indian Ocean known as the Andaman Sea, into the Malacca Strait and on to Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula, often stopping at the capital of the Srivijaya empire (Palembang) before turning north to Tonkin and the Chinese ports of Beihai, Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou, and Xiamen (Amoy) and Ningbo. Guangzhou, the biggest port of them all, lies at the head of the Pearl River Delta and has a history dating back 3,000 years. As early as the Tang dynasty (618–907 ce) it was home to thriving communities of Indian and Arab traders. Long before the great fifteenth century, Chinese armadas sailed out from Taicang (a port area near Shanghai) under the command of Admiral Zheng He to explore the “western oceans” and trade with Southeast Asia, India, Africa, the Middle East, and (possibly) the Mediterranean states.
The special economic zones that began in the early 1980s with the sleepy fishing village of Shenzhen, just across from Hong Kong on the Chinese mainland, were beginning to deliver on their trade and investment potential. In 2000, the city of Shenzhen—by then its population swollen past 10 million people—marked Deng’s role as a “great planner and contributor” to its development, unveiling a 6 m bronze statue in Lianhua (Lotus) Mountain park that shows Deng in a purposeful pose. Today, Shenzhen’s economic zone has expanded to take in the container port of Yantian and it forms part of the powerful Pearl River Delta region with Guangzhou and Hong Kong. China’s gross domestic product overtook that of Japan midway through 2010 for it to become the world’s No. 2 economy, though per capita income, even on the basis of purchasing power parity, is only about one-fifth of Japan’s. According to the International Monetary Fund, U.S. nominal gross domestic product in 2010 was $14.5 trillion, compared with $5.88 trillion for China and $5.46 trillion for Japan.
Japanese business strategist and globalisation pioneer Kenichi Ohmae suggested in 1995 that the end of the nation state was nigh—that countries were dinosaurs waiting to die, and in their place would arise “new engines of prosperity” based on natural economic zones.8 He identified some of them as northern Italy, the upper Rhine, Silicon Valley/Bay Area, Hong Kong/southern China, Singapore-Johore-Batam, Pusan, and Fukuoka, San Diego, and Tijuana. Some of this regionalisation has come to pass—notably the Pearl River Delta encompassing Hong Kong and southern China—but equally we have seen countries keen to form supranational groupings and unions over the past 15 years: G8, G20, G77, APEC, GCC, Mercosur, the expanded EU (see Exhibit 15.1). Russian leader Vladimir Putin has created a Common Economic Space with Belarus and Kazakhstan and has even spoken of a Eurasian Union that would bring back into the fold some of the Central Asian nations that went their own way after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman
anti-communist, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate raider, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, mass immigration, means of production, mittelstand, Naomi Klein, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game
As in China, ideological change accompanied the shift in practical policies, with the Communist Party speaking of the objective laws of the market with a certainty once reserved for the virtues of central planning. Membership in the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 deepened Vietnam’s integration into global markets and further facilitated export manufacturing.18 In China, the new market-oriented policies rapidly transformed the Pearl River Delta region in Guangdong. The region was selected as one of the first special economic zones because of its relative isolation from the major population and power centers of the country and its proximity to Hong Kong and Macao, and that proved critical to its success. At the time, the economy of Hong Kong (still under British control) depended heavily on manufacturing, trade, and transportation.
Hong Kong businesses, in many cases with extensive experience in international trade, initially moved their simplest, most labor-intensive operations to the People’s Republic, taking advantage of far lower labor and land costs and the free reign they were given in managing labor relations. They kept their administrative, design, and marketing operations in Hong Kong and used the territory’s advanced infrastructure, including the world’s busiest container port and extensive airfreight capacity, for exporting Chinese-made goods. As the authors of a study of the Pearl River Delta put it, “Third World level costs are combined with First World caliber management, infrastructure, and market knowledge.”19 As the initial Hong Kong–based forays into manufacturing in China proved successful and the Chinese government further loosened regulations and spent heavily on infrastructure serving the special economic zones, more investment flowed in. Hong Kong firms began shifting more complex manufacturing processes, logistics, quality control, sourcing, and packing to China.
See, also, Cheng Tsu-yuan, Ashan Steel Factory in Communist China (Hong Kong: The Urban Research Institute, 1955). 12.Andors, China’s Industrial Revolution, 144–47, 158–59. 13.Andors, China’s Industrial Revolution, 135–42. 14.While there was a push during the Cultural Revolution for the despecialization of factories, there apparently was not an effort to despecialize the work of individual workers in the production process, even as they were given expanded roles in management and other aspects of factory function. Andors, China’s Industrial Revolution, 160–240. 15.Ngai, Migrant Labor, 11, 15. 16.Henry Yuhuai He, Dictionary of the Political Thought of the People’s Republic of China (London: Routledge, 2015), 287; Michael J. Enright, Edith E. Scott, and Ka-mun Chang, Regional Powerhouse: The Greater Pearl River Delta and the Rise of China (Singapore: John Wiley & Sons, 2005), 6, 36–38. 17.Pun Ngai, Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005), 1, 7. 18.Gabriel Kolko, Vietnam: Anatomy of a Peace (London: Routledge, 1997); The World Bank, “Vietnam, Overview,” Apr. 11, 2016, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/vietnam/overview; Nguyen Thi Tue Anh, Luu Minh Duc, and Trinh Doc Chieu, “The Evolution of Vietnamese Industry,” Learning to Compete Working Paper No. 19, Brookings Institution (accessed Aug. 13, 2016), https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/L2C_WP19_Nguyen-Luu-and-Trinh-1.pdf. 19.Enright, Scott, and Chang, Regional Powerhouse, 6, 12, 16, 36, 38–39, 67–68, 74, 98, 101–02, 117. 20.Enright, Scott, and Chang, Regional Powerhouse, 75, 98, 108; Andrew Ross, Fast Boat to China: Corporate Flight and the Consequences of Free Trade—Lessons from Shanghai (New York: Pantheon, 2006), 24–26; Bloomberg Businessweek, Sept. 13, 2010. 21.Enright, Scott, and Chang, Regional Powerhouse, 47. 22.Ngai, Migrant Labor, 2, 20–21, 25, 32, 76–78. 23.The Guardian, July 31, 2014, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/31/china-reform-hukou-migrant-workers; Ren, ed., China on Strike, 4-5; Ngai, Made in China, 36, 43–46. 24.For an interesting portrait of life in a state-owned factory during the 1980s, see Lijoa Zhang, “Socialism Is Great!”
Riding for Deliveroo: Resistance in the New Economy by Callum Cant
Airbnb, call centre, collective bargaining, deskilling, Elon Musk, future of work, gig economy, housing crisis, illegal immigration, information asymmetry, invention of the steam engine, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, Pearl River Delta, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce
Meituan, one of the world’s ten largest start-ups, is a food-delivery platform similar to Deliveroo but at much larger scale. Whereas Deliveroo is valued at $2 billion, Meituan is valued at $53 billion.8 Its workers make a colossal 13 million deliveries a day. They were also responsible for 11 per cent of total strike action in the service sector in China over the first half of 2017.9 The average Meituan courier is a middle-aged ex-factory-worker, ejected from the shrinking industrial sector of the Pearl River Delta and forced into the expanding urban surplus population which relies upon hyper-precarious gig work to survive.10 They rush across cities like Shenzen at dangerous speed to deliver food to the new white-collar tech workforce employed at companies like Tencent. These platform workers, often veterans of fights in their factory jobs, end up grappling with the familiar problems of work intensification, safety issues, and low wages in a new context.
These platform workers, often veterans of fights in their factory jobs, end up grappling with the familiar problems of work intensification, safety issues, and low wages in a new context. The resulting strikes are often nationally coordinated across platforms, and sometimes result in violent confrontations with the police.11 Across the world, the expansion of food-platform work has led to the expansion of food-platform worker resistance. The fundamental dynamics we experienced in Brighton were the same as those experienced by workers in the Pearl River Delta. Invisible Organization Romano Alquati – an Italian workerist and sociologist – developed the concept of ‘invisible organization’ to suggest that the ‘spontaneous’ emergence of strikes at FIAT manufacturing plants near Turin in the 1960s were actually not very spontaneous at all. Instead, he proposed that the strikes were the result of a non-union form of self-organization which was invisible to external observers, including the union itself.12 The same concept applies almost exactly at Deliveroo.
Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud
autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
The Spatial Structures of Large Metropolitan Areas Are Changing The spatial structures of cities are changing in most of the world. Large lower-density suburbs are developing around the traditional urban core and CBDs. In Asia, where urbanization is still low compared to the rest of the world (except Africa), we are seeing the emergence of large urban clusters like Delhi, Mumbai, Beijing-Tianjin, Shanghai-Suzhou, the Pearl River Delta, and Seoul-Incheon. These cities of more than 20 million people are evolving into much larger clusters with populations expected to exceed 30 million people by 2020. The spatial structures of these cities are demand driven and reflect the modernization of their economies, wherein large supply chains of services and manufacturing have different spatial requirements than the ones encountered in the traditional monocentric city of the past.
I have worked in a few cities where “visionary planners” pretended to include the design of new “Silicon Valley” satellite towns in their Master Plans. These visions never took off. By contrast, where some of Silicon Valley conditions are met—a great university next to open land with flexible land use—similar creative activities may emerge. This has been the case in Beijing, for instance, in the area located between Peking University and Tsinghua University, and in some areas of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. However, the role played by nonvisionary but competent planners was indispensable to the success of Silicon Valley. Indeed, its success depended on the municipal management teams being able to adjust to changing demand for urban services and infrastructure that were required by the sudden transformation of an area, originally largely residential, to a new type of land use.
Growing and Shrinking Cities Will Not Be Randomly Geographically Distributed Most cities of the world will not face the trials of Toyama. There are still many countries with very young populations who are ready to move from rural areas to urban areas, or to emigrate anywhere in the world toward the dynamic cities that would welcome them. From the beginning of the twenty-first century we will see a strong divergence between very dynamic megacities like the Pearl River Delta cities, for instance, and shrinking cities in Europe and some parts of the North American continent. Let us now look at the potential for dynamic cities. In 2014 the United Nations published a report titled “World Urbanization Prospects 2014.” I reproduce one of the major graphs from the report in figure 8.6. The graph displays the growth rates between 2000 and 2014 for world cities sorted by continents and by size class.
China's Disruptors: How Alibaba, Xiaomi, Tencent, and Other Companies Are Changing the Rules of Business by Edward Tse
3D printing, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, bilateral investment treaty, business process, capital controls, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, experimental economics, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Lyft, money market fund, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, reshoring, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, wealth creators, working-age population
The economy may be many times bigger than it was fifteen years ago, and its consumers may have much more spending power, but the country is anything but a single market. Rather, it is a collection of multiple, fragmented customer segments. Though the country’s poorer inland and western regions have closed the gap on the coast in recent years, their richest cities still lag those of the eastern coast. Within any single province, wealth levels vary enormously. Even in the country’s richest regions, such as the Pearl River delta in south China, the Yangtze River delta centered on Shanghai, and the Beijing-Tianjin axis in north China, most household incomes remain those of an emerging economy, not those of a developed one. The net effect of all this fragmentation may be positive for companies seeking consumers: people recognize the benefits enjoyed by their wealthier neighbors, and want to join their ranks. The liberalization of China’s markets has engendered ferocious competition.
As we have seen, many international companies entered China in the last two decades without first preparing for a long-term commitment. They set up operations to test the water, rotated expat managers in and out of the country, and periodically flew in their CEO to shake hands with officials. A lot of them went on to develop successful sourcing and export operations, tapping into the sourcing networks that rapidly built up around the Pearl River delta in Guangdong, the Yangtze river delta around Shanghai, and at several other locations. But when it came to selling into China’s markets, many struggled. Despite their global experience, financial strength, and technological advantages, many were surprised when strategies tested and tried in other parts of the world failed in China. Some were ambushed by local firms. Others were justifiably upset when their partners took their technology and started separate businesses of their own, making a similar or in some cases identical product.
Belt and Road: A Chinese World Order by Bruno Maçães
active measures, Admiral Zheng, autonomous vehicles, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, cloud computing, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, global value chain, industrial cluster, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, one-China policy, Pearl River Delta, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade liberalization, trade route, zero-sum game
I had flown to Malaysia from San Francisco, where I had met tech people who are thinking about how to build technologically optimized cities and realize the old dream of the founders of Google: “give us a city and put us in charge.” They seem to regard it as the natural next step for those who have already mastered building social networks on the internet. And so, the race is on—between two Bay Areas in San Francisco and the Pearl River Delta.1 * * * What will the world look like after the Belt and Road? In the first Belt and Road summit in 2017 Xi Jinping hailed it as the “project of the century.” If all goes according to plan, the Belt and Road will change the shape of the world economy and world politics, returning us to a time when China occupied, if not the center, at least a central place in global networks. Many of the features of the contemporary world that we take for granted would change rather dramatically as a result, but every future scenario must start by seeking answers to two questions: will the Belt and Road succeed?
INDEX Abbasi, Zafar Mahmood, 126 Abe, Shinzo, 118, 137 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 68 Aden Gulf, 72 Adil, Umer, 60 Advancing the Development of the One Belt, One Road Leading Group, 39 aerospace, 88, 103 Afghanistan, 53, 107, 127, 128, 129, 135, 172 Africa, 3, 8, 25, 44, 124, 163 Djibouti, 4, 12, 46, 63, 67–8, 101, 117 Ethiopia, 46, 68, 154, 170, 186 manufacturing, 68, 77 Maritime Silk Road, 23, 26, 45, 62 oil, 64 Partnership for Quality Infrastructure, 138 piracy, 72 telecommunications, 101, 170–71 aging population, 75 Agricultural Bank of China, 48 agriculture, 11, 61, 76, 99–100, 103 Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 138 aircraft, 81, 91, 103 Akto, Xinjiang, 60 Aktogay, East Kazakhstan, 103 Alibaba, 44 Allison, Graham, 7–8 Alps, 189 aluminum, 17, 20, 88 Andalusia, Spain, 189 Andijan, Uzbekistan, 54 anti-dumping, 92, 113 Antwerp, Flanders, 65 Apollo program, 9 aquaculture, 71 Arabian Sea, 72, 106 Arctic, 4, 62, 66, 188 artificial intelligence (AI), 44, 75, 88 Arunachal Pradesh, India, 111 Asian Development Bank, 45, 137 Asian Financial Forum, 49 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, 48 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 122 Astana International Exchange, 56 Astana, Kazakhstan, 25–6, 39, 56, 58 asteroids, 187 Athens, 8 Atlantic Ocean, 3, 115, 119, 138, 139 Atushi, Xinjiang, 60 Australia, 5, 12, 25, 119, 121, 122, 132–3, 135 automated vehicles, 88, 90, 186, 187, 190 automobile industry, 74, 81, 86, 90–91, 97, 104 Autor, David, 177 aviation, 81, 91, 103 Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), 60 Azerbaijan, 186 Badakhshan, Afghanistan, 128 Baidu, 188 Baldwin, Richard, 74, 80 Balkans, 8, 12, 140 Balochistan, Pakistan, 60, 105 Gwadar port, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 105–7, 117 separatism and terrorism, 106, 127, 128 Baltic Sea, 51 Bangkok, Thailand, 65, 136–7 Bangladesh, 48, 53, 64, 109, 134, 136, 138, 150, 189 Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM-EC), 52, 62 Bank of China, 48 banking, 46–51 bargaining theory, 152–3 Bay of Bengal, 22, 64, 72, 119 Beijing, China, 20, 28, 48, 126, 165 Beijing University, 183, 188 Belgium, 56, 65 Belgrade, Serbia, 143 Belt, see Silk Road Economic Belt Belt and Road Advancing the Development of the One Belt, One Road Leading Group, 39 backlash against, 12, 108, 121–4, 130–46, 155 bridges, 40, 54, 156, 173, 186 Buddhism, 112 cities, 11, 43, 44, 48, 149–52, 187–8 ‘community of shared destiny’, 26–9, 33, 36, 43, 45, 170 connectivity (wu tong), 42, 43, 52–3, 127, 158, 167 currency integration, 26 data, 44 debt, 12, 46, 47, 108, 109, 124, 126, 130, 132, 153–62 digital infrastructure, 43–4, 59, 86 e-commerce, 44, 59 economic corridors, 2, 11, 51–4, 55, 62 economic policy coordination, 28 energy, 11, 17, 19, 20–23, 40, 46, 48, 49, 52, 61, 64, 86, 92, 188 financing, 11, 36, 46–51, 54, 108–9, 124, 126, 130, 132, 138, 141, 153–64 Forum for International Cooperation (2017), 12, 108, 143, 152 impatience, 152–3 inauguration (2013), 11, 17, 23 industrial capacity cooperation, 85–8 industrial parks, 10, 43, 55, 61, 67, 99, 102 infrastructure, see infrastructure internal discontent, 163 international court, 28, 190 loans, 11, 36, 46–7, 54, 108–9, 124, 126, 130, 132, 138, 141, 153–62, 163 maps, 2–6, 24, 41, 64, 69 Maritime Silk Road, 24, 26, 28, 39, 41 market integration, 41 military bases, 12, 67, 71, 72, 101, 117, 126–7 overcapacity, 19 ports, see ports railways, 9–10, 11, 12, 18, 43, 46, 52, 53–4, 68, 86, 122, 130 roads, 9, 19, 40, 43, 52, 54 security, 127–9 Silk Road, 2, 9–10, 23–6, 45, 82, 138 Silk Road Economic Belt, 24, 25–6, 28, 39, 51–62, 83 success, definition of, 164, 174 telecommunications, 43–4, 52, 86, 101, 170–71 timeline, 10 TIR Convention, 55 transnational industrial policy, 81, 84 transport infrastructure, 9–10, 11, 18, 19, 25, 26, 40, 48, 49, 53–4, 83 urban development, 11, 43, 44, 48, 149–52 Vision and Actions document (2015), 40, 41, 45, 49, 50, 52, 62, 67, 78 Vision for Maritime Cooperation (2017), 62 Bering Strait, 66 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 110 Bhat, Vinayak, 107 Bhutan, 107–8 big data, 44 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 127 Blackwater, 128 blue economic passage, 62 Boao Forum for Asia (2015), 27, 32 Brahmaputra river, 136 Brazil, 174 Brewster, David, 63 BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), 19, 174 bridges, 40, 54, 156, 173, 186 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 188 Budapest, Hungary, 143 Buddhism, 111–12 Bush, George Walker, 169 California, United States, 64 Cambodia, 52, 54, 70, 129, 132, 155 Cameroon, 68, 187 Canada, 136 car industry, see automobile industry Caribbean, 25 Carr, Robert ‘Bob’, 122 Cartagena, Spain, 92 Caspian Sea, 186 Caucasus, 20, 129 CDMA (code-division multiple access), 89 cement, 17, 49–50, 83 Center for Strategic and International Studies, 19, 123 center of gravity, 115 Central African Republic, 186 Central Asia, 9, 20, 25, 51, 52, 82–3, 188 energy, 22, 106 Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), 57–9 India, trade with, 107 industrial capacity cooperation, 104 Islamism, 127 Russia, relations with, 57–9, 129, 133 steel industry, 82–3 terrorism, 127 textile industry, 101 transport infrastructure, 9, 54 Central Huijin Investment, 49, 50 Central Military Commission, 166 century of humiliation (1839–1949), 165, 186 Chabahar, Sistan-Baluchistan, 106–7 Chalay Thay Saath, 60 Chao Phraya River, 65 ChemChina, 48 Chengdu Economic Daily, 129 China Abbasi’s visit (2018), 126 Academy of Information and Communications Technology, 44 aging population, 75 Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission, 50 Bishkek Embassy bombing (2016), 127 Boao Forum for Asia (2015), 27, 32 Buddhism, 111–12 century of humiliation (1839–1949), 165, 186 Doklam plateau dispute, 107–8, 113 energy, see energy EU-China summit (2015), 138 five-year plan (2016–20), 41 Food and Drug Administration, 114 Foreign Policy Center of the Central Party School, 7 Gants Mod crossing closure (2016), 36 General Navigation Office, 69 ‘Going Out’ strategy, 86 Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group bankruptcy (2016), 16 Guiding Opinion on Promoting International Industrial Capacity (2015), 86 Guiding Opinion on Standardizing the Direction of Overseas Investment (2017), 86 incremental approach, 7 Indian Dilemma, 21 Institute of International Studies, 92 International Trust and Investment Corporation, 132 Investment Corporation, 48 keeping a low profile (tao guang yang hui), 15, 18, 32 labour shortages, 75 Macron’s visit (2018), 146–7 Made in China 2025 strategy, 85, 87, 90–92, 93 Malacca Dilemma, 21–2, 64, 131 Merchants, 68–9 middle-income trap, 75–7, 85 migrant workers, 75 military, 12, 13, 59, 67, 71, 72, 101, 117, 126–7 minimum wage, 75 Ministry of Commerce, 21, 40, 93 Ministry of Communications, 69 Ministry of Finance, 49 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 40 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 19 Ministry of Transportation, 14 Modi–Xi summit (2018), 135 National Bureau of Statistics, 75 National Congress, 28, 29, 44, 165, 181 National Cybersecurity Work Conference (2018), 84 National Development and Reform Commission, 40, 98 National Health Commission, 114 Opium War, First (1839–1842), 165 overcapacity, 16, 19–20, 88 Overseas Chinese Affairs Office, 19 Overseas Investment Industrial Guiding Policy, 86 People’s Navigation Company, 69 Ports-Park-City model, 67 presidential term limits repeal (2018), 164, 174 real estate market, 16, 75 reform and opening up, 13–15, 73 renminbi, 22–3, 159 responsible stakeholder, 169 shipbuilding, 14, 17 soft power, 111, 170 Soviet Union, relations with, 13, 14, 15 State Administration of Foreign Exchange, 48 State Council, 19, 39, 40, 49, 66, 86 state-owned companies, 42, 153, 160–61, 189 steel industry, 16–17, 18, 20, 82–4, 86, 88 striving for achievement, 18 Swaraj’s visit (2018), 135 Taiwan, relations with, 14, 26, 142 technology transfers, 85–92, 97, 177–8 Thucydides’ trap, 8 Tianxia, 26–7, 29, 31–5, 78, 79, 192–3 TIR Convention, 55 Trump’s visit (2017), 124 ‘two heads abroad’ (liangtou zai haiwai), 17 United States, relations with, see Sino–US relations Working Conference on Neighborhood Policy (2013), 17–18 China Construction Bank, 48 China Development Bank, 16, 48, 49, 97, 98, 99, 103, 160 China Export & Credit Insurance Corp, 104 China Export-Import Bank, 46, 47, 48, 49, 103, 154 China Fantasy, The (Mann), 177 China Global Television Network, 188 China Nonferrous Metals Industry Group, 103 China Three Gorges Corp, 48 China-Indian Ocean-Africa-Mediterranean Sea Blue Economic Passage, 62 China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor, 51, 52, 54, 62 China-Oceania-South Pacific, 62 China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), 52, 59, 60, 62, 105–7, 108 Chinese Communist Party Advancing the Development of the One Belt, One Road Leading Group, 39 and Australia, 133 Constitution, 41, 164 founding of (1921), 165 National Congress, 18th (2012), 28 National Congress, 19th (2017), 29, 44, 165, 181 and New Zealand, 132 Politburo, 39, 40, 165 reform and opening up, 13–15 and steel industry, 16 Third Plenum of the 18th Party Central Committee (2013), 39 Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies, 106 Christianity, 128 Churchill, Winston, 183 cities, 11, 43, 44, 48, 149–52, 187–8 climate change, 4, 66, 85, 171 Clinton, William ‘Bill’, 177 cloud computing, 44 CloudWalk Technology, 44 Club Med, 189 CNN, 188 cobalt, 81, 104 Cold War, 2, 14, 21–2, 36, 40, 125, 171 Colombo, Sri Lanka, 156, 162 colonialism, 120, 162 ‘community of shared destiny’, 26–9, 33, 36, 43, 45, 135, 170 Confucianism, 31, 34 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 81, 104 connectivity, 42, 43, 52–3, 109, 122, 127, 146, 158, 167 Connectivity Platform, 139 construction, 18, 75, 86, 98 convergence, 4, 14, 166, 167, 169, 174, 177 copper, 103, 104 corridors, see economic corridors corruption, 133, 155–6, 158, 187 cosmopolitan neighborhoods, 4 Country Garden, 151 Cowboys and Indians, 188 cultural exchanges, 42, 43, 56–7 currency, 22–3, 26, 159–60 customs cooperation, 55, 57, 59, 63 Cyprus, 140 Dalai Lama, 36, 112 Dalian, Liaoning, 55, 93 Daming Palace, Xi’an, 147 Dangal, 111 data, 44 Davidson, Phillip, 125–6 Davos, Switzerland, 168 Dawn of Eurasia, The (Maçães), 185, 191 Dawood, Abdul Razak, 158 debt, 12, 16, 46, 47, 108, 109, 124, 126, 130, 132, 153–62 democracy, 125, 133, 166, 171, 172, 174, 175, 176, 181–3 Democratic Republic of Congo, 81, 104 Deng Xiaoping, 13–15, 18, 31, 32, 69, 73, 183 Diaoyu Islands, 187 digital infrastructure, 43–4 division of labor, 53, 78, 79, 80 Djibouti, 4, 12, 46, 63, 67–8, 101, 117, 186 Doklam plateau, 107–8, 113 Doraleh, Djibouti, 63, 67–8 DP World, 68 dry ports, 57 Dubai, UAE, 62, 68, 160 Dudher Zinc project, 127 Duterte, Rodrigo, 156 DVD (digital versatile disc), 89 e-commerce, 44, 59 East China Sea, 118 economic corridors, 2, 11, 51–4, 55 economic nationalism, 102 economic policy coordination, 28 Economist, The, 190 Egypt, 101 electric cars, 81, 104 electricity, 40, 46, 49, 52, 61, 98, 156, 188 end of history, 36 energy, 4, 11, 17, 19, 20–23, 48, 49, 82, 86, 92, 188 electricity, 40, 46, 49, 52, 61, 98, 156, 188 gas, 21, 22, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 hydropower, 48 oil, 21, 22, 23, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 renewable, 21, 187, 188 English language, 111, 188 Enhanced Mobile Broadband coding scheme, 89 Enlightenment, 193 environmental sustainability, 75 Erenhot, Inner Mongolia, 55 Ethiopia, 46, 68, 154, 170, 186 Eurasia, 1–5, 11, 20, 26, 45, 52, 57, 63, 120, 121, 138 Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), 57–9 Eurasian Resources Group, 103 European Commission, 143, 145 European empires, 120–21 European Union (EU), 5, 29, 57, 58, 138–47, 159, 176, 179 and Belt and Road, 10, 12, 30, 138–47 Connecting Europe and Asia strategy (2018), 145–6 and Djibouti, 67 economic policy coordination, 28 5G mobile networks, 43 immigration, 187 steel industry, 17 tariffs, 83 technology transfers, 87–8, 178 transnational framework, 81 Turkey, relations with, 4 Export-Import Bank of China, 46, 47, 48, 49, 103, 154 exports, 15, 17, 19, 79 Facebook, 188 facial recognition, 44, 190 fashion industry, 101 fate, 34 Fergana Valley, 54 fertilizers, 19 fibre-optic connectivity, 101 fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, 43–4, 89 finance, 11, 36, 46–51, 54, 126, 138, 141, 153–64 Financial Times, 10, 63, 143, 154, 157, 158, 159 five-year plan (2016–20), 41 Folding Beijing (Hao), 150 food imports, 76 foreign direct investment, 46, 144–6 foreign exchange, 16, 94, 153 Forest City, Johor, 149–51, 155 France, 11, 96, 129, 141, 144, 146–7, 189 free and open order, 125 free-trade zones, 11, 42, 55–6, 71 freedoms of speech, 172, 189 French Foreign Legion, 129 French, Howard, 13 Frontier Services Group, 128–9 Fu Chen, 129 Fu Ying, 140 Fukuyama, Francis, 184–5 Gabon, 96 Gabriel, Sigmar, 142 Gang of Four, 14 Gants Mod crossing closure (2016), 36 gas, 21, 22, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 General Navigation Office, 69 generic drugs, 114 Genghis Khan, 2, 25 Georgia, 58 Germany, 11, 65, 80, 87–8, 90, 100, 141–2, 144, 189 ghost ships, 186 Gibraltar, 92 Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, 54, 60, 108 Gland Pharma, 113 glass, 17, 83 Global Energy Interconnection, 188 global financial crisis (2008), 16–17, 85, 161, 178 Global Infrastructure Center, 190 Global Times, 67, 109, 131 global value chain revolution, 74 global warming, 4, 66, 85 globalization, 19, 28, 66, 78, 102, 124, 144, 168, 174, 192 ‘Going Out’ strategy, 86 good governance, 183–4 Google, 152, 188 Goubet, Djibouti, 67 government procurement, 12, 59 Grand Palace, Bangkok, 65 Grand Trunk Road, 53 Greece, 30, 31, 65, 140, 141, 142 GSM (Global System for Mobile communications), 89 Guangdong, China, 28, 75, 151 Guangxi Beibu Gulf International Port Group, 67 Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group, 16 Guiding Opinion on Promoting International Industrial Capacity (2015), 86 Guiding Opinion on Standardizing the Direction of Overseas Investment (2017), 86 Guo Chu, 33 Gwadar, Balochistan, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 105–7, 117 Hainan, China, 71 Hambantota, Sri Lanka, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 117, 162 Hamburg, Germany, 65 Hamilton, Clive, 133 Han Empire (206 BC–220 AD), 25 Hao Jingfang, 150 ‘harmonious world’, 33, 36 Havelian, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 54 He Yafei, 19, 168 heavy industry, 75, 82 Hebei, China, 83 Heilongjiang, China, 55 Hesteel, 83 high-speed railways, 18, 53–4, 83, 89, 98, 122, 130, 137, 138, 143, 186–7 highways, see roads Hillman, Jonathan, 8 Hobbes, Thomas, 27 Holslag, Jonathan, 189 Hong Kong, 49, 103 Hongshi Holding Group, 49 Horgos, Xinjiang, 55, 55–6, 57 Horn of Africa, 3 Hu Huaibang, 49, 97 Hu Jintao, 21, 33, 70 Hu Xiaolian, 154 Huang Libin, 19 Huangyan Island, 187 Huawei, 89–90, 101, 171 Hub, Balochistan, 127 hukou (household registration), 76 human rights, 141–2, 170, 171, 189 Hun Sen, 155 Hungary, 30, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144 Huntington, Samuel, 184 Hussain, Chaudhry Fawad, 157 hydropower, 48 Ibrahim Ismail, Sultan of Johor, 151 immigration, 187 impatience, 152–3 imports, 17, 19, 22, 79–84 India and the Indian Ocean (Panikkar), 118 India, 3, 5, 64, 105–25, 134–6, 174, 179 Bangladesh Liberation War (1971), 109 and Belt and Road, 11, 12, 52, 72, 105–15, 130, 133 Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (2017), 12, 108 British Raj (1858–1947), 107 Buddhism, 111–12 cosmopolitan neighborhoods, 4 cultural mission to China (1952), 113 Doklam plateau dispute, 107–8, 113 economic autarchy, 110, 117 free and open order, 125 Grand Trunk Road, 53 imports, 113–14 and Indian Ocean, 3, 116–19 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125 Japan, relations with, 118 Kashmir dispute, 108–9, 117 Malabar naval exercises (2018), 135 and maritime hegemony, 72 migrant workers, 150 military bases, 3, 131 Modi–Xi summit (2018), 135 Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed railway, 138 nuclear tests (1998), 109 Pakistan, relations with, 105–7, 108–9, 117, 134 pharmaceuticals, 113, 114 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), 105–6 and Sabang Island, 131 Siliguri Corridor, 107–8 Southeast Asia, 113, 117–18 Swaraj’s visit to China (2018), 135 Tibet, relations with, 111–12, 117, 136 United States, relations with, 119, 121–2, 134, 135 Indian Dilemma, 21 Indian Ocean, 3, 8, 9, 26, 51, 62, 63, 66, 68, 71–2, 116–19 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125, 126 and Japan, 4 Kra Isthmus canal proposal, 65, 186 meticulous selection, 72 Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, 64, 72 oil, 21, 64 and Pakistan, 59, 61, 64 individualism, 27, 189 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125, 126 Indo-Pacific Business Forum, 122 Indo-Pacific Command, US, 126 Indochina, 51, 52, 54, 62 Indonesia, 2, 5, 18, 26, 39, 48, 83, 117, 131 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, 48, 49, 103 industrial capacity cooperation, 85–8, 98, 102–4 industrial internet, 44 industrial parks, 10, 43, 55, 61, 67, 99, 102 Industrial Revolution, 84 information technology, 43–4, 74, 81, 86, 90, 94, 111, 170–71, 190 infrastructure, 3, 23, 26, 30, 40–45, 48, 50, 55, 58, 63, 86, 88, 124, 139, 141, 162, 167, 186 Afghanistan, 135 communications, 81, 118 digital, 43–4 European Union, 10, 141, 145 India, 64, 118, 135 Japan, 4, 136–8 Maritime Silk Road, 66, 67 Mediterranean, 65 Pakistan, 54, 62, 99, 105 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Southeast Asia, 18–19, 70, 117, 130, 132 steel industry, 18 transportation, see transportation value chains, 96 Xinjiang, 20, 54 Inner Mongolia, China, 55 innovation, 76 Institute for International Finance, 153 intellectual property, 59, 88–9, 91, 97, 180, 190 international courts, 28, 190 international industrial capacity cooperation, 85–8, 98, 102–4 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 15, 156–7, 158–9, 172 Internet, 43–4, 86, 170–71 internet of things, 90, 94 Iran, 4, 22, 105–6 Iraq, 24 Irkeshtam, Xinjiang, 55 iron, 17 Islamabad, Pakistan, 60, 99, 101, 127, 157 Islamic State, 128 Islamism, 127–9 Istanbul, Turkey, 4, 24, 65 Italy, 48, 65, 140, 189 Izumi, Hiroto, 137 Jadhav, Kulbhushan, 105–6 Jakarta, Indonesia, 2, 5, 26, 39 Japan, 1, 5, 22, 123, 133, 136–8, 145, 165, 166, 169, 189 Buddhism, 111 Cold War, 21–2 India, relations with, 118 Indian Ocean, 4 infrastructure development, 4, 136–8 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Second World War (1937–45), 119, 165 Javaid, Nadeem, 46 Jiang Qing, 14 Jiang Shigong, 183–4 Jiang Zemin, 15 Jiangsu Delong, 83 Jin Qi, 98 Jinnah Town, Quetta, 128 Johor, Malaysia, 149–51 Joint Statement on Cooperation on EEU and Silk Road Projects (2015), 57–8 joint ventures, 97 Journey to the West, 186, 188 Juncker, Jean-Claude, 138 Kaeser, Joe 170 Karachi, Sindh, 59, 100, 105, 106, 127 Karakoram Highway, 54, 60, 64 Kashgar, Xinjiang, 54, 59, 60, 64, 101 Kashmir, 60, 108–9, 117 Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo, 104 Kaz Minerals 103 Kazakhstan, 8, 55–9, 129, 189 Astana International Exchange, 56 China–EEU free-trade agreement signing (2018), 58 and Eurasian Economic Union, 57 gateway to Europe, 56 Horgos International Cooperation Center, 55–6 industrial capacity cooperation, 103–4 railways, 54 Xi’s speech (2013), 23, 25–6, 39 Kazakhstan Aluminum, 103 keeping a low profile (tao guang yang hui), 15, 18, 32 Kenya, 101, 138, 171 Khan, Imran, 157–8 Khawar, Hasaan, 53 Khunjerab Pass, 101 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 54, 60, 100 Kizilsu Kirghiz, Xinjiang, 60 knowledge, 74, 76, 87 Kolkata, West Bengal, 64 Kortunov, Andrey, 135 kowtow, 35 Kra Isthmus, Thailand, 65, 186 Kuala Linggi Port, Malacca, 63 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 130 Kuantan, Pahang, 63, 67 Kudaibergen, Dimash, 57 Kunming, Yunnan, 188 Kyaukpyu, Rakhine, 63, 64, 132, 154 Kyrgyzstan, 53, 54, 55, 103, 127 labor costs, 74, 83, 85, 99 labor shortages, 75 Lagarde, Christine, 158–9 Lahore, Punjab, 100, 157 Laos, 50, 52, 54, 129, 132 Latin America, 25, 187, 188 Leifeld Metal Spinning AG, 88 Lenin, Vladimir, 6, 78 Lenovo, 89–90 Li Hongzhang, 69 Li Keqiang, 44 Li Ruogu, 47 Liaoning, China, 55 liberal values, 123, 125, 133, 170 liberal world order, 141, 144, 167–86, 190, 192 Lighthizer, Robert, 91 lignite, 61 liquefied natural gas (LNG), 48, 66 Lisbon, Portugal, 2, 5 lithium-ion batteries, 81 Liu Chuanzhi, 89–90 Liu He, 92 loans, 11, 36, 46–7, 54, 108–9, 124, 126, 130, 132, 138, 141, 153–63, 190 London, England, 65, 160 Lord of the Rings, The (Tolkien), 1 Lou Jiwei, 76 Luo Jianbo, 7 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 31–4 machinery, 81, 90, 98, 156 Mackinder, Halford, 120 Macron, Emmanuel, 146–7 Made in China 2025 strategy, 85, 87, 90–92, 93 Mahan, Alfred, 120 Mahathir Mohamad, 130–31, 151, 155 Malabar naval exercises (2018), 135 Malacca, Malaysia, 3, 63 Malacca Strait, 21–2, 64, 65, 72, 117, 131 Malay Mail, 155 Malaysia, 3, 70, 117, 130–31, 154 debt, 154 Forest City, 149–51, 155 high-speed railways, 54, 130 Mahathir government (2018–), 130–31, 151, 155 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal (2015–), 155 ports, 63, 67 Maldives, 134, 155 Mali, 129 Malik, Ashok, 109 Malta, 140 Mandarin, 107, 149, 188 Manila, Philippines, 122 Mann, James, 177 manufacturing, 11, 19, 68, 77, 85, 99 outsourcing, 68, 99 value chains, 3, 43, 64, 73–4, 79–82, 84–5, 94–104, 141 Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia, 55 Mao Zedong, 13–14, 31, 183 maps, 2–6, 24, 41, 64, 69 Maritime Silk Road, 24, 26, 28, 39, 41, 53, 62–72, 117 market integration, 41 Mars, 187 Marshall Plan, 40 Marx, Karl, 6 Marxism, 78 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 177 Matarbari port, Bangladesh, 138 matchmaking services, 11 Mattis, James, 124 McMahon Line, 111 Mediterranean Sea, 4, 51, 62, 65, 119 Mei Xinyu, 21 Mekong Delta, 8 mergers and acquisitions, 42 Merkel, Angela, 88, 141, 144 meticulous selection, 72 Middle East, 4, 6, 22, 64, 120, 129, 163, 171 middle-income trap, 75–7, 85 migrant workers, 75 Milanovic, Branko, 173 military, 3, 12, 67, 71, 72, 101, 117, 126–7 Ming Empire (1368–1644), 163 Ming Hao, 30 minimum wage, 75 Ministry of Commerce, 21, 40, 93 Ministry of Communications, 69 Ministry of Finance, 49 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 40 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 19 Ministry of Transportation, 14 Minmetals International Trust Co, 16 mobile payments, 193 Modi, Narendra, 106, 135–6 Mohan, Raja, 3, 121 Mombasa, Kenya, 138 Mongol Empire (1206–1368), 2, 25 Mongolia, 8, 36, 52, 55, 111 Moon, 187 Moraes, Frank, 112–13 Moscow, Russia, 4 Most Favored Nation status, 15 Mozambique, 138 multinationals, 74, 88–9 multipolar world system, 179 Mumbai, Maharashtra, 4, 105, 138 Myanmar, 52, 54, 63, 64, 72, 129, 132, 138, 154 Nacala, Nampula, 138 narcotics trade, 127 Nathan, Andrew, 159 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 9 National Bureau of Statistics, 75 National Congress 18th (2012), 28 19th (2017), 29 National Cybersecurity Work Conference (2018), 84 National Development and Reform Commission, 40, 98 National Health Commission, 114 National League for Democracy, Myanmar, 132 National Museum of China, Beijing, 165, 166 National Party of New Zealand, 132 National People’s Congress, 44 National Rescue Party of Cambodia, 155 Nazarbayev University, 25–6 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 113 Nepal, 134, 135, 150 Netherlands, 56, 65 New Zealand, 132–3 Nigeria, 68 Ning Jizhe, 137 Nordin, Astrid, 42 Northern Sea Route, 66 Northwest Passage, 66 NPK fertilizer, 99 nuclear power/weapons, 21, 83, 88, 109, 166, 187 oil, 21, 22, 23, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal (2015–), 155 One China policy, 142 Open Times, 183 Opium War, First (1839–1842), 165 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 79 Osh, Kyrgyzstan, 54 overcapacity, 16, 19–20, 88 Overseas Chinese Affairs Office, 19 Overseas Investment Industrial Guiding Policy, 86 Pacific Command, US, 125–6 Pacific Journal, 71 Pacific Ocean, 3, 5, 9, 26, 45, 62, 116, 117, 125–6, 139 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125, 126 Pakistan, 12, 20, 46, 48, 52, 59–62, 64, 98–102, 105, 126–9, 133–4, 155, 156–8 Abbasi’s Beijing visit (2018), 126 agriculture, 99–100 balance of payments crisis, 156–8 Economic Corridor, 52, 59, 60, 62, 105, 108, 156–8 electricity production, 61 fibre-optic connectivity, 101 gateway to the Indian Ocean, 59 Grand Trunk Road, 53 Gwadar port, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 105–7, 117 hydropower, 48 IMF loans, 156–7 India, relations with, 105–7, 108–9, 117, 134 investment, 48 Jadhav arrest (2016), 105–6 Karakoram Highway, 54, 60, 64 Kashmir dispute, 108–9 loans, 46, 54, 156–8 manufacturing, 99 safe city project, 101 Tehreek-e-Insaf, 157–8 television, 101 terrorism, 106, 127–8, 135 textiles, 100 Thar desert, 61 value chains, 98–102 Pakistan-East Africa Cable Express, 101 Pandjaitan, Luhut, 131 Panikkar, Kavalam Madhava, 118 Pantucci, Raffaello, 134 Partnership for Quality Infrastructure, 137–8 patents, 88–9, 190 Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, 103 Peak Pegasus, 93 Pearl River Delta, China, 152 Peking University, 183, 188 Penang, Malaysia, 63 People’s Daily, 57 People’s Liberation Army (PLA), 32, 169 People’s Navigation Company, 69 Pericles, 8 Persian Gulf, 51, 64, 72 Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 100 petcoke, 103 Petrochina, 103 pharmaceuticals, 113, 114 Phaya Thai Station, Bangkok, 137 Philippines, 19, 70, 117, 122, 156 philosophy, 40, 183 Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 70 phosphate, 19 piracy, 72 Piraeus, Greece, 65 Pirelli, 48 Plato, 150 Poland, 58, 140 Polar Silk Road, 66 Politburo, 39, 40, 165 political correctness, 182 Polo, Marco, 2, 10 Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, 156 Pompeo, Michael, 122–3, 157 ports, 9, 10, 12, 19, 36, 40, 46–7, 57, 63–5, 67–9, 96 Chabahar, Iran, 106–7 Doraleh, Djibouti, 63, 67–8 Gwadar, Pakistan, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 117 Hambantota, Sri Lanka, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 117, 162 Kuala Linggi, Malaysia, 63 Kuantan, Malaysia, 63, 67 Kyaukpyu, Myanmar, 63, 64, 132, 154 Mediterranean, 65 Mombasa, Kenya, 138 Nacala, Mozambique, 138 Penang, Malaysia, 63 Ports-Park-City model, 67 Portugal, 2, 3, 5, 140, 163 power, see energy Prince, Erik, 128–9 property bubbles, 75 protectionism, 102, 114 public procurement, 12, 59 Punjab, Pakistan, 60, 99, 100, 157 Putin, Vladimir, 3, 57 Pyrenees, 189 Qing Empire (1636–1912), 107, 178 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Qualcomm, 89 Quetta, Balochistan, 128 Raikot, Gilgit-Baltistan, 54 railways, 9–10, 11, 12, 18, 43, 52, 53–4, 57, 68, 83, 86, 89, 98, 100, 135 Addis Ababa–Djibouti, 46, 68 Bangkok–Chiang Mai, 137 Belgrade–Budapest, 143 Djibouti–Yaoundé, 68, 186–7 Islamabad–Gwadar, 60 Kashgar–Andijan, 54 Kuala Lumpur–Singapore, 130 Lahore overhead, 157 Mumbai–Ahmedabad, 138 United States, 122 Yunnan–Southeast Asia, 54 Rawat, Bipin, 108 RB Eden, 92 real estate market, 16, 75 reciprocity, 178–80 Red Sea, 72 reform and opening up, 13–15, 73 Ren Zhengfei, 90 Renaissance, 7 renewable energy, 21, 187, 188 Renmin University, 106 renminbi, 22–3, 159 Rennie, David, 190 Republic (Plato), 150 Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), 105–6 responsible stakeholder, 169 Rio Tinto, 36 Road Towards Renewal exhibition (2012), 165 Road, see Maritime Silk Road roads, 9, 19, 40, 43, 52, 54, 55, 57, 67, 107–8 robotics, 75, 88, 90 Rogin, Josh, 122 Rolland, Nadège, 188, 190 Ross, Wilbur, 92 Rotterdam, South Holland, 65 Ruan Zongze, 92 rule of law, 28, 109, 111, 183–4 Russia, 5, 51, 52, 55, 133, 134, 139, 174, 175–6, 180, 181 and Central Asia, 57–9, 129, 133 energy, 22, 23 Eurasian Economic Union, 57–9 Eurasianism, 3–4 Joint Statement on Cooperation on EEU and Silk Road Projects (2015), 57–8 Pacific Fleet, 118 and renminbi internationalization, 23 Soviet era, see under Soviet Union steel industry, 82 Ukraine crisis (2013–), 176 Western values, rejection of, 175, 180, 181 Yamal LNG project, 48, 66 Sabang, Indonesia, 131 safe cities, 101, 171 salt, 67, 71 San Francisco, California, 151–2 Saravan, Sistan-Baluchistan, 105 Sargsyan, Tigran, 59 Sassanian Empire (224–651), 4 satellites, 187 second unbundling, 74 Second World War (1939–45), 165 self-driving vehicles, 88, 90, 186, 187, 190 Serbia, 83, 143 Set Aung, U, 132 Shandong University, 163 Shanghai, China, 2, 20, 92 Shanghai Cooperation Organization, 136 Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical, 113 Shanghai Pudong Development Bank, 16 Shanghai Stock Exchange, 50, 56, 103 Sharif, Nawaz, 133–4 sharp power, 170 sheet glass, 17, 83 Shenwan Hongyuan Securities, 16 Shenzhen, Guangdong, 28, 151 shipbuilding, 14, 17, 81, 186 Sichuan, China, 149 Siemens, 170 silicon dioxide, 103 Siliguri Corridor, India, 107–8 Silk Road, 2, 9–10, 23–6, 45, 53, 82, 138 Silk Road Economic Belt, 24, 25–6, 28, 39, 51–62, 83 Silk Road Fund, 48, 56, 98 silk, 23–4 Sindh, Pakistan, 59, 60, 99, 100, 101, 105, 106, 127 Singapore, 54, 77, 92, 119, 130, 150, 151, 160 Sino–Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, 64, 72 Sino–US relations, 116, 119, 121–6, 136, 179–80 and Belt and Road, 5–6, 11, 12, 15, 72, 121–4, 130, 136, 168 and Cold War, 14 and foreign exchange reserves, 16 and Indo-Pacific, 116, 119, 121–3, 125, 126 and Kra Isthmus canal proposal, 65 and Malacca Dilemma, 21–2, 64 and maritime hegemony, 70, 72 and Most Favored Nation status, 15 and Pakistan, 157 and reciprocity, 179–80 and reform and opening up, 14–15 and renminbi internationalization, 23 and South China Sea, 70 and steel, 17 Strategic and Economic Dialogue, 39 and Taiwan, 14 and tariffs, 83, 90–94 and technology transfers, 90–92, 178 Thucydides’ trap, 8 and trade deficit, 90, 92 trade war, 92–4, 173 war, potential for, 5, 8, 13, 14 Yangtze River patrols (1854–1937), 165 and ZTE, 94 Sirisena, Maithripala, 155–6 Sistan-Baluchistan, Iran, 105, 106–7 SLJ900/32, 54 Small, Andrew, 59, 158 smart cities, 44, 151–2 Smederevo, Serbia, 83 soft power, 111, 170 solar power, 187, 188 Somalia, 72 Somersault Cloud, 186 sorghum, 92 South Africa, 101 South America, 25, 187, 188 South China Sea, 21, 62, 65, 69–71, 118, 142, 170, 179 South Korea, 1, 77, 96, 97, 128 South Sudan, 186 Southeast Asia, 6, 8, 12, 18, 100, 131–2, 189 Buddhism, 111 China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor, 51, 52, 54, 62 Indo–Chinese relations, 113, 117–18 Kra Isthmus canal proposal, 65, 186 Maritime Silk Road, 26 phosphate market, 19 South China Sea dispute, 21, 69–71, 142, 170, 179 textile industry, 100 Soviet Union, 1, 13, 14, 15, 21–2, 57, 104 soybeans, 90, 93 space travel, 187 Spain, 92, 140, 189 Sparta, 8 Sri Lanka, 12, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 89, 117, 134, 155–6, 162 Hambantota port, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 117, 162 Sirisena’s grant announcement (2018), 156 standards, 89–90 State Administration of Foreign Exchange, 48 State Council, 19, 39, 40, 49, 66, 86 state-owned companies, 42, 153, 160–61, 189 steamships, 69 steel industry, 16–17, 18, 20, 67, 82–4, 86, 88 striving for achievement, 18 Stuenkel, Oliver, 167 subprime mortgage crisis (2007–10), 153 Suez Canal, 3, 66, 68, 72, 119 Suifenhe Port, Heilongjiang, 55 Sukkur, Sindh, 99, 101 Sulawesi, Indonesia, 83 Sumatra, Indonesia, 3 Sun Pharmaceuticals, 114 Sun Wenguang, 163 Surkov, Vladislav, 3–4 surveillance, 44, 101, 171, 187, 190 Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, 137 Swamy, Subramanian, 110 Swaraj, Sushma, 135 Switzerland, 160, 168 Syria, 24 Tadjoura gulf, Djibouti, 67 taikonauts, 187 Taiwan, 14, 142 Tajikistan, 48, 127 Tanjung Pelepas Johor, 150 Tanzania, 138 tao guang yang hui, 15, 18, 32 Taoism, 11, 51 tariffs, 17, 56, 58, 79, 82, 83, 179 Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh, 111 tax holidays, 61 TBM Slurry, 54 technology transfers, 85–92, 97, 118, 177–8 Tehreek-e-Insaf, 157–8 telecommunications, 43–4, 52, 86, 89–90, 98, 101, 170–71 television, 101 terrorism, 106, 127–9, 135, 171 Texas, United States, 92 textiles, 86, 100–101 Thailand, 18, 54, 65, 83, 89, 129, 132, 136–7, 186 Thakot, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 54 Thar desert, 61 Thein Sein, 132 Thilawa special economic zone, Myanmar, 138 throw-money diplomacy, 163 Thucydides’ trap, 8 Tianjin, China, 129 Tianxia, 26–7, 29, 31–5, 78, 79, 192–3 Tibet, 36, 111–12, 117, 136, 189 Tibetan Academy of Buddhism, 112 Tillerson, Rex, 11, 123, 125 timber, 96 Times of India, 109 Tinbergen, Jan, 20 TIR (Transports Internationaux Routiers) Convention, 55 titanium dioxide, 103 Tokyo, Japan, 137 Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel, 1 tourism, 10, 11, 61, 71 trade wars, 92–4, 113–14, 173 trains, 9–10, 11, 12, 18, 43, 46 Trans-Siberian railway, 10 Transatlantic trade, 3, 139 transnational industrial policy, 81, 84 Transpacific trade, 3, 139 transparency, 12, 28, 109, 143, 144, 146, 157, 173, 193 Transpolar Route, 66 transportation, 9–10, 19, 25–6, 48–9, 52–4, 63–4, 81–3, 99, 103, 104, 118, 143, 162, 186 maritime, 63 railways, see railways roads, 9, 19, 40, 43, 52, 54, 55, 57, 67, 107–8 tributary system, 34–5 Trieste, Italy, 65 Trump, Donald, 83, 91, 93, 122, 124, 167, 179 Tsinghua University, 76, 163 Tsingshan Group Holdings, 83 Tumshuq, Xinjiang, 60 Turkey, 4, 24, 65, 82 Turkmenistan, 186 Twitter, 188 ‘two heads abroad’ (liangtou zai haiwai), 17 Ukraine, 11, 82, 176 United Arab Emirates, 62, 68, 160 United Kingdom, 2, 3, 17, 43, 65, 107, 112, 160, 165, 189, 193 United Nations, 29, 55, 72, 142, 172 United States, 1–2, 5–7, 8, 11, 12, 121–6, 161, 166–9, 176, 185–6 Apollo program, 9 Bush administration (2001–9), 169 Camp Lemonnier Djibouti, 68 China, relations with, see Sino–US relations Clinton administration (1992–2001), 177 Cold War, 14 immigration, 187 India, relations with, 119, 121–2, 134, 135 industrial output per person, 193 and International Monetary Fund (IMF), 157 Marshall Plan, 40 midterm elections (2018), 12–13 National Defense Strategy (2018), 116 National Security Strategy (2017), 179–80 Pacific Command, 125–6 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Senate Armed Services Committee, 124 State Department, 123–4 steel industry, 17 subprime mortgage crisis (2007–10), 153 Taiwan, relations with, 14 Trump administration (2017–), 83, 90–94, 122–4, 167, 179 universal values, 175, 181, 184 Urdu, 128 Urumqi, Xinjiang, 20, 101, 188 Uyghurs, 20 Uzbekistan, 53, 54, 129 value chains, 3, 43, 64, 73–4, 79–82, 84–5, 94–104, 141 vanadium pentoxide, 103 Venice, Veneto, 65 Vietnam, 19, 54, 70, 100, 117, 132 Vision and Actions document (2015), 40, 41, 45, 49, 50, 52, 67, 78 Vision for Maritime Cooperation (2017), 62 Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, 118 Wakhan corridor, Afghanistan, 128 Wallerstein, Immanuel, 78 Wang Changyu, 112 Wang Huning, 40 Wang Jisi, 31, 76 Wang Yang, 39 Wang Yi, 40, 60, 123 Wang Yingyao, 50–51 Wang Yiwei, 26 Wang Zhaoxing, 50 Warsaw, Poland, 140 Washington Post, 122 Wei Fenghe, 126 Weibo, 188 Weissmann, Mikael, 42 Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 83 West Asia corridor, 51, 52 West Germany (1949–90), 22, 166 Western world, 5, 30, 31, 165–86, 190–93 Asia-Pacific region, 13 Cold War, 1, 2 cultural imperialism, 28 democracy, 125, 133, 166, 171, 172, 174, 176, 181–3 end of history, 36 global financial crisis (2008), 16–17, 161 individualism, 27, 189 liberal world order, 141, 144, 167–86, 190, 192 Machiavellianism, 31–4 market economies, 16 Marxism, 78 polis, 31 rule of law, 183 rules-based order, 11, 35, 179 separation of powers, 182 soft power, 111 standards, 89 technology, 15, 87, 177–8 telecommunications, 101 and Tianxia, 30–34, 78, 192 value chains, 95, 96, 100, 104 values, 123, 125, 133, 167, 175, 177–8 white elephants, 51 Wickremesinghe, Ranil, 47 win-win, 27–8, 33, 37 wind power, 188 Witness to an Era (Moraes), 113 Working Conference on Neighborhood Policy (2013), 17–18 World Bank, 15, 172 World Economic Forum, 168 World Trade Organization, 170, 177 world-systems theory, 78 Wright, Thomas, 174 Xi Jinping, 11, 183 Astana speech (2013), 23, 25–6, 39 Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (2017), 152 Boao Forum for Asia speech (2015), 27, 32 and Constitution, 164 Davos speech (2017), 168 Duterte, relationship with, 156 Jakarta speech (2013), 23, 26, 39 Joint Statement on Cooperation on EEU and Silk Road Projects (2015), 57 London visit (2015), 43 Mahathir’s letter (2018), 130–31 Modi, summit with (2018), 135 National Congress, 19th (2017), 29, 181 National Cybersecurity Work Conference (2018), 84 presidential term limits repeal (2018), 164, 174 Road Towards Renewal exhibition (2012), 165 Sirisena, grant to (2018), 156 and state-owned companies, 42, 153 Sun Wenguang’s letter (2018), 163 telecommunications, 43 Trump’s visit (2017), 124 and value chains, 94 Wang Huning, relationship with, 40 and Western democracy, 166, 181 Working Conference on Neighborhood Policy (2013), 17–18 Xi’an, Shaanxi, 24, 28, 147, 188 Xinhua, 24, 41, 64 Xinjiang, 20, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 100–101, 128–9, 188, 189 Xiong Guangkai, 32 Xu Jin, 33 Xu Zhangrun, 163–4 Yamal LNG project, 48, 66 Yang Jian, 132 Yang Jiechi, 39, 171 Yang Jing, 40 Yangtze River, 165 Yao Yunzhu, 169–70 Ye Peijian, 187 yuan, see renminbi Yunnan, China, 54, 129, 149, 188 Zeng Jinghan, 181 zero-sum, 27 Zhang Gaoli, 39 Zhang Qian, 25 Zhang Weiwei, 182–3, 184 Zhao Tingyang, 27 Zheng He, 162–3 Zhi Zhenfeng, 84 Zimbabwe, 12, 44 Zoellick, Robert, 169 ZTE, 94, 170–71 Zurich, Switzerland, 160 First published in the United Kingdom in 2018 by C.
Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler
Airbnb, Airbus A320, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar
In addition to all of these construction measures, the PARK incentive program was initiated to encourage people to share rides in driverless taxis. According to studies, each one of these taxis replaces some 20 cars on Istanbul’s streets, thus creating more room for public space. For every trip they take, users earn points that can be redeemed to rent parking spaces in front of their homes. PARK has also become a social platform where people can discuss their ideas about political and social topics. Autonomous Driving 386 (4) The Pearl River Delta and its showcase city Shenzhen is home to multiple production facilities and is surrounded by a network of railways, canals and streets. Within 30 years, the city grew from its original 30,000 residents to a metropolis of 15 million, and it totals 42 million inhabitants with its surrounding conurbation. The massive growth has led to a situation in which the trafﬁc infrastructure takes up a great deal of space, and there is no variety in how the remaining land is used.
Optimal throughput can only be achieved by creating effective interaction with the infrastructure. There is still the challenge of providing the necessary infrastructure and establishing the necessary regulatory framework. These efforts have to come primarily from the private sector, since the government does not have the resources. Urban Development 389 With 650,000 employees and 150,000 inhabitants, China’s Qianhai Water City is considered to be the Wall Street of the Pearl River Delta. In recent years, the region has become a centre for developing innovative residential and trafﬁc concepts. Currently, luxury apartments are being built at premium locations with a wide selection of shops, cafes, parks and recreational and sports facilities. The trafﬁc concept has been integrated into urban planning, which means that several new opportunities are available for designing intermodal mobility.
See Le Super Electric Ecosystem (LeSee) Lexus, 173 Liability, 355 356 law, 237 mechanism, 237 Lieu, Ted, 145 Life magazine, 40 436 Light detection and ranging technology (lidar technology), 95, 96, 126 lane-level and intersection mapping based on, 105 sensors, 338 systems, 181, 331 Line-haul transportation, 160 168 Little, Patrick, 126 Live roads, 100, 102 Living Machine, The, 39 Localisation, 94 accurate lane, 103 vehicle’s own, 104 Localising, 94, 101 104 Logistics operations, 159 London Centre for Economic and Business Research in, 189 dynamic patterns of movement in city of, 390 lidar print cloud of Blackfriars Bridge in, 104 pedestrians in trafﬁc in, 196 Long-distance autonomous vehicle, interior of, 15, 16 Long-haul trucks, 69 Long-term evolution (LTE), 65 LTE-V, 131 133 Luxe app, 319 Lyft, 174, 344 Ma, Jun, 373 Machine-learning, 99, 113, 332 333 algorithms, 93, 96, 98, 116 117, 336 technology, 332 Macroeconomic analyses, 243 ‘Made in China 2025’, 371 372 Magna, 9 Manufacturers, 17, 21, 45, 55, 84, 179 181, 263, 331 Mapping, 94, 101 104 Index Mars Rover Curiosity, 153 Mass motorisation, 39 McKinsey & Company, 320 Megacities, 58, 381 383 Megatrends in mobility, 25 connectivity, 25 26 electriﬁcation, 26 27 sustainability, 27 28 urbanisation, 26 Melody of speech, 292 Mercedes, 137, 179, 180, 316, 318, 322, 332 333, 398 F015, 282 Mercedes-Benz, 372 Mercedes-Benz robot, 290 S-Class cars, 184, 261 Self-Driving F015, 5 Mercedes’ Self-Driving F015, 5 Metaphors, 290 Metropolises, 382, 406 Meyer, Andreas, 175 Microsoft Windows, 9, 183, 247, 327 Military industry, 153 Mobileye, 9, 16 Mobility, 363 autonomous, 171 172 behaviours, 222 connected, 138 platforms, 174 177, 184, 317 Mobility as social interaction communication, 198 200 cultural differences, 195 197 pedestrians in trafﬁc in London, 196 pedestrians in trafﬁc in Teheran, 197 Mobility, disruptions in, 31, 34 arguments, 34 35 history, 32 33 OICA, 34 Mobility, megatrends in, 25 connectivity, 25 26 electriﬁcation, 26 27 Index sustainability, 27 28 urbanisation, 26 Mobility, problem with implications of congestion in United States, 188 safety, 192 193 time, costs and emissions, 187 192 Modes of transportation, 12, 81, 138, 343, 384 Modiﬁed 3-series BMW, 180 MOIA Company, 317 Monitoring, 106 108 Monotonous voices, 292 Montparnasse Station, Paris, accident at, 32, 33 Moore’s Law, 124 Moovel mobility platform, 19, 174, 317 Moral behavior, 253 254 Morgan Stanley Research, 65, 66 MP3 technology, 312 Multi-layered cyber security approach, 145 Multi-purpose vehicles, 14 Multimodal approach, 281 Multimodal transport app, Finland, 371 Multipliers, 225, 228 Musk, Elon, 181 National Highway Trafﬁc Safety Administration, 55, 57, 61, 125, 144, 191 Nauto, 41, 42 Navia, 158 Navya, 41, 42 Nelson, Bill, 146 Netﬂix, 141, 311, 319 Network coverage, 403 Neural Networks, 99, 115 116 New Displays, 283, 284 New York City public transportation network, 363 437 Nida-Rümelin, Julian, 253 254 Nielsen’s ten usability heuristics, 283 NioEV’s new sports car Nio EP9, 5 Nissan, 6, 198 Nissan Leaf, 27 Nissan Teatro for Dayz, 273 274 Nokia, 130, 131 Norms, 241 242, 243 246 NuTonomy, 6, 9, 16, 112, 315 Nvidia, 6, 9, 16, 117, 125, 183, 315 Object recognition, 55, 93 Ohlsen, Jörg, 83 Online services, 129, 136 137 OnStar, 136 137 Open-source software, 119 Operating costs, 301 302 Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles (OICA), 34 Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), 146 Orix, 317, 344 Output layer, 119 Over-provisioning, 127 Paolo (Netﬂix Design Director), 228 PARK incentive program, 385 Park24, 317, 344 Parking space, 304 system, 78 Parsons, Philip, 388 Particulate matter (PM), 191, 204 Pearl River Delta, 386, 389 Pedestrians car’s interactions with, 200 trafﬁc in London, 196 trafﬁc in Teheran, 197 Index 438 Peer-to-peer car sharing, 342 343 service, 350 351 Perceptual errors, 249 Peters, Gary, 146 Peugeot Instinct concept car, 273 Physical roadside objects, 103 Pikes Peak drive, 179 Pivotal 2015, 320 Planning, 94, 106 108, 406 behavioural, 107 mission, 106 107 trajectory, 336 Platooning, 133, 163, 165 autonomous truck, 347 vehicle, 299 Platoons, 8, 49, 164, 166, 299, 369 Players manufacturers, 179 181 mobility platforms, 184 new players, 183 suppliers, 181 182 technology companies, 182 183 Playing ﬁelds, autonomous driving agricultural sector, 154 157 autonomous tractor in use, 156 last-mile delivery, 168 line-haul transportation, 160 168 logistics operations, 159 military and aerospace industry, 153 public transportation, 157 159 warehouse transportation, 159 Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, 26 Pokrzywa, Jack (Director of SAE), 244 245 Politicians, 172, 249 Politics, 171 173 Polmans, Kristof, 123 124 Pooling, 342 345 Power, J.
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
But behind every handset is another story: that of the labor arrangements, supply chains and flows of capital that we implicate ourselves in from the moment we purchase one, even before switching it on for the first time. Whether it was designed in studios in Cupertino, Seoul or somewhere else, it is highly probable that the smartphone in your hand was assembled and prepared for shipment and sale at facilities within a few dozen kilometers of Shenzhen City, in the gritty conurbation that has sprawled across the Pearl River Delta since the Chinese government opened the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone for business in August 1980.4 These factories operate under circumstances that are troubling at best. Hours are long; the work is numbingly repetitive, produces injuries at surreal rates,5 and often involves exposure to toxic chemicals.6 Wages are low and suicide rates among the workforce are distressingly high.7 The low cost of Chinese labor, coupled to workers’ relative lack of ability to contest these conditions, is critical to the industry’s ability to assemble the components called for in each model’s bill of materials, apply a healthy markup8 and still bring it to market at an acceptable price point.
Most recently this has involved the launch of a program called Flex, in which same-day deliveries are outsourced to swarms of nonprofessional contract drivers scheduled by optimization algorithm.9 It has also started to lease its own fleet of cargo aircraft, to reduce its dependence on carriers like FedEx.10 It is even pursuing the idea that some degree of sorting might be pushed back up the supply chain to its wellsprings in the Pearl River Delta, with all the items destined to be delivered to a given neighborhood already allotted onto location-specific pallets on the other side of the Pacific. A July 2016 Deutsche Bank research paper outlines how Amazon plans to consolidate its investments in logistical innovation, deploying a mesh of autonomous trucking, mobile warehousing and drone-based delivery assets, knit together by network-analysis and demand-anticipation algorithms.
John Ribeiro, “US patent office rejects claims of Apple ‘pinch to zoom’ patent,” PCWorld, July 29, 2013. 4.Ann Fenwick, “Evaluating China’s Special Economic Zones,” Berkeley Journal of International Law Volume 2, Issue 2, Fall 1984. 5.“According to a report by the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, each year about forty thousand fingers are either cut off or crushed in factories in the Pearl River Delta alone, mostly during assembly line operations for the export business”: Jack Linchuan Qiu, Working-Class Network Society, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009, p. 104. 6.Michael Blanding and Heather White, “How China Is Screwing Over Its Poisoned Factory Workers,” Wired, April 6, 2015. 7.Jenny Chan, “A Suicide Survivor: The Life of a Chinese Migrant Worker at Foxconn,” Truthout, August 25, 2013.
Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
Created in 1983, the Shanghai Economic Zone is the biggest subnational planning entity in the world, encompassing the metropolis and five adjoining provinces with an aggregate population almost as large as that of the United States.16 These new Chinese megalopolises, according to two leading researchers, may be only the first stage in the emergence of "a 13 Jean-Marie Cour and Serge Snrech (eds), Preparing for the Future: A Vision of West Africa in the Year 2020, Paris 1998, p. 94. 14 Ibid, p. 48. 15 See Yue-man Yeung, "Viewpoint: Integration of the Pearl River Delta," International Development Planning Tkeview 25:3 (2003). 16 Aprodicio Laquian, "The Effects of National Urban Strategy and Regional Development Policy on Patterns of Urban Growth in China," in Gavin Jones and Pravin Visaria (eds), Urbanisation in Large Developing Countries: China, lnonesia, Brazil, and India, Oxford 1997, pp. 62-63. continuous urban corridor stretching from Japan/North Korea to West Java."17 As it takes shape over the next century, this great dragon-lice sprawl of cities will constitute the physical and demographic culmination of millennia of urban evolution.
With a huge reservoir of redundant peasant labor (including more than half of the labor force of Sichuan, according to the People's Daily) the loosening of the bureaucratic dike produced a literal "peasant flood."33 Officially sanctioned migration was overshadowed by a huge stream of unauthorized immigrants or "floaters." Without the official citizenship in the city provided by a valid household registration card, this immense mass of poor peasants (currendy estimated at 100 million) had no legal entitlement to social services or housing. Instead they became super-cheap human fuel for the export sweatshops of the Pearl River Delta and the building sites of Shanghai and Beijing, while housing themselves in makeshift shacks and overcrowded rooms at the edges of the cities. The return of capitalism to China brought with it the squalid urban shantytown. Finally, in the late 1980s South Africa's rulers, faced with the most significant shantytown uprising in world history (the "civics" movement in the black townships), were forced to dismantle the totalitarian system of controls — first, the Pass Law in 1986, then the Group Areas Act in 1991 — that had restricted African urban migration and residence.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
But as our ability to build has accelerated through improvements in construction engineering, the frenetic business of real estate development, and new financing schemes, that historic way of designing cities has come undone. As a result, in fast-growing cities decisions about the location of different buildings, facilities, or roads have become ad hoc, arbitrary, and ill informed. Architect Rem Koolhaas, who studied the rapid urbanization of China’s Pearl River Delta region in the 1990s, described the pace of design there, telling students, “in China, 40-story buildings are designed on Macintoshes in less than a week.”42 One can hardly expect good decisions amid such haste. Oddly, just as the pace of building the physical world speeds up, there are signs that as computing hits the streets, the pace of innovation is about to slow down, or at least get a lot more complicated.
They get people talking to each other. Right now the problem with the Internet of Things is we get so focused on the thing itself that we fail to recognize that the potential to find new ways to express ourselves to each other through this medium.”43 As electronics makers all around the world have learned, the most telling sign of success is to have your product knocked off by the “shanzhai” factories of China’s Pearl River Delta region just north of Hong Kong. Numbering in the thousands, these tiny, fiercely competitive manufacturers are always looking for a niche to exploit before the others. In 2011, while trying to troubleshoot one student’s flaky Arduino, Igoe noticed something was off. The reset button was green, instead of the usual red. Flipping it over, he noticed there was also no Italian flag logo, the Arduino team’s patriotic mark of manufacturing quality on the boards.
., 5, 57–61, 294 Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis, 85 Centrino processor, 132 Cerdà, Ildefons, 43–44, 93 Cerf, Vint, 303 Chambers, John, 24 Chattanooga, Tenn., 287–88 Chernobyl, 257 Chicago, Ill., 36, 94, 207–11, 292, 307 Chicago Shovels in, 208 industrialization of, 5 Neighborhood Health Index for, 209–10 Snow Corps of, 208 China: growth of smartphones in, 4 migration into cities in, 47–48 pace of building design in, 112 Pearl River Delta in, 112, 141 special economic zones in, 24 as threat to high-tech industry, 26 “tofu buildings” in, 257 urban development plans of, 2, 30 urban surveillance projects in, 273–74, 276 Chisinau, 168, 171 Chongqing, 273 “Peaceful Chongqing” surveillance in, 273 Cisco Systems, 8, 34, 38, 39, 44, 55, 249, 273, 290 Bangalore Globalisation Centre East of, 45 planners of new data networks by, 44–46 as planners of Songdo’s technology, 24, 26–28 as promoter of smart cities, 31–32 at Shanghai Expo 2010, 48, 172 videoconferencing through, 46–49 vision of future by, 47–49 Cities From the Sky (Campanella), 72 Cities in Evolution (Geddes), 97 CityMart, 246–47 City-search, 121 Civic Commons, 158–59 civic hackers: advantages over big tech companies of, 162–63 alternative visions of, 9 institutionalized techniques of, 239 problems with, 165–66, 224–25 Claris Networks, 288 Clark, David, 109 Clarke, Arthur C., 6 climate change, 112 Clinton, Bill, 248 cloud computing, 263–65, 289, 294 CNN, 116 Coast, Steve, 187 CoDeck, 233–34 Code for America, 237–43, 291 Brigade of, 243 Cold War, 79, 277 Collier’s, 56 Collins, John, 77, 84 Colorado, 197–98 Comer, Andrew, 290–91 Cometa Networks, 130 Community Access, 175 community antennas (CAs), 116 community media, 133, 154 Compass systems, 265 “computational leadership networks,” 242 computer modeling, 77–79, 81, 85 Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, 62 Congress, U.S., 57–58 Connected Cities (Haselmayer), 245 Constitution, U.S., 57 “control revolution,” 59, 64, 316 Convensia Convention Center, 23–24 Cook, Justin, 83–85, 298 Corbett, Peter, 200 Costa Rica, 176 Council on Foreign Relations, U.S., 63 Coward, Andrew, 274 Cowen, Tyler, 107–9 crowd-sourcing, 121, 151, 155, 166, 192, 203, 214–15, 308–9 traffic apps through, 157, 202 Crowley, Dennis, 121–26, 134, 144–52 Crystal Palace (London), 19–21 Convensia evoked in, 23 Cuartielles, David, 137 Cummings, E.
A Week at the Airport: A Heathrow Diary by Alain de Botton
One might have come from Shanghai to join Malcolm and Mike for a drive down to Bournemouth to learn English for the summer: a two-month sojourn in a bed and breakfast near the pier, with regular lessons from a tutor who would teach her class how to say ‘ought’ and help them master business English, a subcategory of the language that would vouchsafe future careers in the semi-conductor and textile industries of the Pearl River delta. For his part, Mohammed was waiting for Chris’s flight from San Francisco. The former, originally from Lahore, was at present based in Southall, while the latter, from Portland, Oregon, now lived in Silicon Valley – not that either man would attempt to discover these details about the other. In an otherwise uninhabited universe, how strange that one should so easily be able to sit in silence with another human being in a black Mercedes S-Class sedan.
Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic by David Quammen
Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, conceptual framework, coronavirus, dark matter, digital map, double helix, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Fellow of the Royal Society, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, Google Earth, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, South China Sea, urban sprawl
The problems were eventually solved but the delays were consequential. When the infection first crossed the border, from Guangdong to Hong Kong, very little information crossed with it. Guangdong is drained by the Zhu (Pearl) River, and the whole coastal area encompassing Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou, and a new border metropolis called Shenzhen, as well as Foshan, Zhongshan, and other surrounding cities, is known in English as the Pearl River Delta. On November 16, 2002, a forty-six-year-old man in Foshan came down with fever and respiratory distress. He was the first case of this new thing, so far as epidemiological sleuthing can determine. No samples of his blood or mucus were later available for laboratory screening, but the fact that he triggered a chain of other cases (his wife, an aunt who visited him in the hospital, the aunt’s husband and daughter) strongly suggests that SARS was what he had.
Feeling sick in Shenzhen, he commuted home to another city, Heyuan, and sought medical treatment there at the Heyuan City People’s Hospital, where he infected at least six health-care workers before being transferred to a hospital in Guangzhou, about 130 miles to the southwest. One young doctor who rode to Guangzhou in the ambulance with him also became infected. Not long afterward, during late December and January, other such illnesses started occurring in Zhongshan, sixty miles south of Guangzhou and just west across the Pearl River Delta from Hong Kong. Within the next several weeks, twenty-eight cases were recognized there. Symptoms included headache, high fever, chills, body aches, severe and persistent coughing, coughing up bloody phlegm, and progressive destruction of the lungs, which tended to stiffen and fill with fluid, causing oxygen deprivation that in some cases led to organ failure and death. Thirteen of the Zhongshan patients were health-care workers and at least one was another chef, whose bill of fare included snakes, foxes, civets (smallish mammals, distantly related to mongooses), and rats.
Those samples were what first led Leo Poon (who did the molecular analysis), Malik Peiris, Guan Yi himself—and, eventually, scientists and health officials all over the world—to cast their suspicious attentions upon a mammal called the civet cat. 36 In a crowded country with 1.3 billion hungry citizens, it should be no surprise that people eat snake. It should be no surprise that there are Cantonese recipes for dog. Stir-fried cat, in such a context, seems sadly inevitable rather than shocking. But the civet cat (Paguma larvata) is not really a cat. More accurately known as the masked palm civet, it’s a member of the viverrid family, which includes the mongooses. The culinary trade in such unusual wild animals, especially within the Pearl River Delta, has less to do with limited resources, dire necessity, and ancient traditions than with booming commerce and relatively recent fashions in conspicuous consumption. Close observers of Chinese culture call it the Era of Wild Flavor. One of those observers is Karl Taro Greenfeld, who served as editor of Time Asia in Hong Kong during 2003, oversaw the magazine’s coverage of SARS, and soon afterward wrote a book about it, China Syndrome.
The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells
"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, cognitive bias, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, endowment effect, energy transition, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, failed state, fiat currency, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Whole Earth Catalog, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator
By 2100, if we do not halt emissions, as much as 5 percent of the world’s population will be flooded every single year. Jakarta is one of the world’s fastest-growing cities, today home to ten million; thanks to flooding and literal sinking, it could be entirely underwater as soon as 2050. Already, China is evacuating hundreds of thousands every summer to keep them out of the range of flooding in the Pearl River Delta. What would be submerged by these floods are not just the homes of those who flee—hundreds of millions of new climate refugees unleashed onto a world incapable, at this point, of accommodating the needs of just a few million—but communities, schools, shopping districts, farmlands, office buildings and high-rises, regional cultures so sprawling that just a few centuries ago we might have remembered them as empires unto themselves, now suddenly underwater museums showcasing the way of life in the one or two centuries when humans, rather than keeping their safe distance, rushed to build up at the coastline.
What would be submerged by these floods are not just the homes of those who flee—hundreds of millions of new climate refugees unleashed onto a world incapable, at this point, of accommodating the needs of just a few million—but communities, schools, shopping districts, farmlands, office buildings and high-rises, regional cultures so sprawling that just a few centuries ago we might have remembered them as empires unto themselves, now suddenly underwater museums showcasing the way of life in the one or two centuries when humans, rather than keeping their safe distance, rushed to build up at the coastline. It will take thousands of years, perhaps millions, for quartz and feldspar to degrade into sand that might replenish the beaches we lose. Much of the infrastructure of the internet, one study showed, could be drowned by sea-level rise in less than two decades; and most of the smartphones we use to navigate it are today manufactured in Shenzhen, which, sitting right in the Pearl River Delta, is likely to be flooded soon, as well. In 2018, the Union of Concerned Scientists found that nearly 311,000 homes in the United States would be at risk of chronic inundation by 2045—a timespan, as they pointed out, no longer than a mortgage. By 2100, the number would be more than 2.4 million properties, or $1 trillion worth of American real estate—underwater. Climate change may not only make the miles along the American coast uninsurable, it could render obsolete the very idea of disaster insurance; by the end of the century, one recent study showed, certain places could be struck by six different climate-driven disasters simultaneously.
Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ellen Ruppel Shell
barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, loss aversion, market design, means of production, mental accounting, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, washing machines reduced drudgery, working poor, yield management, zero-sum game
Hu Jindou, a professor of economics at Beijing University of Technology, put it bluntly in an interview with the International Herald Tribune: “In order to achieve modernization, people will go to any ends to earn money, to advance their interests, leaving behind morality, humanity and even a little bit of compassion, let alone the law or regulations, which are poorly implemented. Everything is about the economy now, just like everything was about politics in the Mao era, and forced labor or child labor is far from an isolated phenomenon. It is rooted deeply in today’s reality, a combination of capitalism, socialism, feudalism and slavery.” DONGGUAN , a boomtown in China’s industrial Pearl River Delta region, boasts steel and glass high-rises, staggering traffic jams, and the world’s biggest shopping mall. Dongguan lies a few hours’ drive north of Hong Kong in Guangdong, China’s most populated province and also its richest, thanks to the labor of roughly 30 million workers. Most of these are migrants, peasants from the neighboring provinces of Guangxi, Hainan, Fujian, Hunan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Jiangxi.
So there is no way for executives to distance themselves from China without also distancing themselves from their own product.” Sellers of consumer goods of all kinds typically obscure the pedigrees of their products, making it difficult for consumers to know just what it is we are getting. Tracing the lead-painted Thomas the Train caboose to the Ohio-based RC2 Corporation, one would assume it was made in the American Midwest, not the Pearl River Delta. The same might be said for many other toy manufacturers. How are we consumers to know where our purchases come from when even Mattel’s iconic American Girl Doll is made in China? And the pricier the purchase, the more difficult it is to trace—be it to China, Vietnam, India, or Latin America. Executives at high-end shirt maker Tommy Bahama may not want customers to know that its $100 Tortola Trance shirts are made by Oxford Industries, the same parent company that makes $12.99 Mercerized Simple Luxury Polos for Dockers.
Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason
Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, microservices, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wages for housework, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
Gell et al, ‘The Development of Single Crystal Superalloy Turbine Blades’, Superalloys, 1980, p. 205 5. http://www.mtu.de/en/technologies/engineering_news/others/Sieber_Aero_Engine_Roadmap_en.pdf 6. Data on the Balance Sheet, SAS Institute/CEBR, June 2013 7. P. Drucker, Post-capitalist Society (Oxford, 1993), p. 40 8. Ibid., p. 175 9. Ibid., p. 193 10. Y. Peng, ‘Internet Use of Migrant Workers in the Pearl River Delta’, in P.-L. Law (ed.), New Connectivities in China: Virtual, Actual and Local Interactions (Dordrecht, 2012), p. 94 11. P. Romer, ‘Endogenous Technological Change’, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 98, no. 5, pt 2 (1990), pp. S71–S102 12. Ibid. p. S72 13. Ibid., pp. S71–S102 14. http://www.billboard.com/biz/articles/news/digital-and-mobile/1567869/business-matters-average-itunes-account-generates-just 15.
Ibid. 57. http://homes.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/publications/littleboxes/littlebox.PDF 58. R. Sennett, The Culture of the New Capitalism (New Haven, 2005) 59. R. Sennett, The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism (New York, 1998) 60. A. Negri and M. Hardt, Declaration, ebook, 2012, https://antonionegriinenglish.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/93152857-hardt-negri-declaration-2012.pdf 61. Y. Peng, ‘Internet Use of Migrant Workers in the Pearl River Delta’, Knowledge, Technology, and Policy, 21, 2008, pp. 47–54 PART III 1. G. Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four (London, 1949) 8. ON TRANSITIONS 1. A. Bogdanov, Red Star: The First Bolshevik Utopia (Bloomington, 1984), p. 65 2. http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/photo/1908/007.htm 3. Quoted in J. E. Marot, ‘Alexander Bogdanov, Vpered and the Role of the Intellectual in the Workers’ Movement’, Russian Review, vol. 49 (3) (1990), pp. 241–64 4. http://www.marxists.org/glossary/orgs/w/o.htm#workers-opposition 5.
Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day
China’s urban population catapulted from about 200 million to almost 400 million people in four short, hectic years of transformation.48 China’s next urban boom began after 1992: Deng Xiaoping embarked on his historic Southern Tour of China’s southeast coastal region (during which he may have proclaimed, “To get rich is glorious”), solidified pro-market reforms as Communist Party dogma, and prompted an export-driven expansion that lured rural labor to the coast. Shenzhen, on China’s Pearl River Delta, became the modern-day Seville. A fishing village of some 10,000 people during the 1970s, it was anointed a Special Economic Zone in 1979 and reached 2.5 million inhabitants over the next decade. After the Southern Tour, growth leapt into a new gear: by the year 2000, Shenzhen’s population topped 8 million and by 2015, 10 million (or 15 million, counting migrant laborers).49 The story was repeated in dozens of other places, so that today over half of China’s population—nearly 800 million people—lives in its cities.50 In one generation, almost half a billion people—equal to the present population of the European Union—relocated.
It is not a question of if, but when, a pandemic will strike a major political, financial or industrial center and force its complete (albeit temporary) isolation from all physical flows in the global system—with hard-to-predict consequences for infrastructure services like energy and IT. But how can any large business avoid locating critical units in places like London, New York or China’s Pearl River Delta? The near-universal use of antibiotics and antimicrobials across the emerging global middle class, in everything from hospitals to cattle herds, is hastening nature’s development of resistant superbugs. And our growing connectedness is spreading them worldwide. One superbug, MRSA, has already become a persistent nuisance (and occasionally, a serious threat) in hospitals and nursing homes everywhere.
China into Africa: trade, aid, and influence by Robert I. Rotberg
barriers to entry, BRICs, colonial rule, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global supply chain, global value chain, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, megacity, microcredit, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
A fifth zone in Hainan Province was created in 1988, after the passage of a resolution to establish Hainan Province and Hainan SEZ. The Hainan SEZ was the largest of the zones, including 6 cities and 13 counties with a total population of 7.4 million.1 Several other areas were targeted to attract foreign investment and joint ventures. In 1984, fourteen coastal cities were opened to outside investment, and in 1985 the same was done for coastal areas extending the economic zones of the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and South Fujian Triangle Delta. The designated SEZs had previously contributed less than 1 percent of China’s GDP, with a labor force engaged primarily in the agricultural sector. 07-7561-4 ch7.qxd 9/16/08 4:17 PM Page 139 Special Economic Zones 139 In 1980, Shenzhen’s GDP was RMB 270 million; Xiamen’s, RMB 375 million; and Shantou’s, RMB 889 million. In 1987, the GDP in Xiamen was RMB 640 million, and it was RMB 5.6 billion in Hainan.2 However, these areas played a limited role in the country’s economic development: the provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and Hainan covered 0.35 percent of the country’s land and had a population of 9.79 million—just 0.8 percent of the country’s population.3 Above all, the zones were located along China’s east coast, taking advantage of potential links between Shenzhen and its neighbor Hong Kong, Zhuhai and nearby Macao, Xiamen, and Taiwan, while also providing easier access to foreign markets.
.- Niger Delta, 168; insurgency in, 277, China collaboration and, 308–09 281, 291, 308; Movement for the Noninterference doctrine, 7, 36, 55, 80, Emanicpation of, 178 130, 307; as Chinese foreign policy Nigeria, 6, 54, 272–93; apparel and, 107; philosophy, 56; Chinese support of, attacks against Chinese in, 178–79; 298; as CPC-ID principle, 232–33; balance of power and, 289–90; human rights abuses and, 264; polit- Cameroon conflict and, 175; as case ical outreach and, 236; in Sudan, study, 272–73; China model and, 305; in Zimbabwe, 37 287–89; China relationship and, North America, 102 274–78; Chinese goods in, 11; Chi- North China Sea Fleet, 180 nese immigrants in, 272, 280–82, North Korea, 17, 260; foreign aid and, 286–87, 292–93; Chinese technology 198 in, 35–36; Confucius Institutes in, North-South War (Sudan), 257–59, 304 29; corruption and, 301; debt relief Norwegian Initiative on Small Arms and, 302; FDI and, 106; geographic Transfers, 163 concentration and, 100–01; human Nyerere, Julius, 83, 146, 158, 273 rights and, 13, 290–93; light crude oil and, 115; market survey data, Obasanjo, Olusegun, 274–75, 290, 376; 282–86; military assistance and, 161, textile industry and, 280 167–68, 183; multinational invest- Obiorah, Ndubisi, 11, 272 ment and, 117; national security and, Official development assistance (ODA), 155; ODA and, 213; oil and, 4–5, 208–09; Chinese concessional loans 115, 118, 250; resentment of Chinese and, 222–23, 225–26, 227; estimating in, 279–81; SEZs and, 140, 147–48, amounts of, 210; West and, 213 151 Offshore exploration, 113 Nigerian Association of Chambers of Ogaden National Liberation Front, 179 Commerce, Industry, Mines, and Ogun State, Nigeria, 148 Agriculture, 275 Ohio University, 281 Nigerian Communications Commis- Oil, 88–89, 109–13, 110, 278; elites and, sion, 275 292; FDI and, 103–04; geographic Nigerian National Petroleum Company, concentration of trade and, 100; gov- 116 ernment management of, 114–18; Nigerian Telephony Project, 275 government-to-government assis- Nigeria Textile Manufacturers Associa- tance and, 109; human rights and, tion, 279 251, 254, 256; naval strategy and, Nnamani, Ken, 289 182; Nigeria and, 272, 275, 277–78, 16-7561-4 index.qxd 9/16/08 4:25 PM Page 333 Index 333 279, 281, 289; product distribution Peacekeeping operations, 176–78, 306; and, 99; refineries for, 250, 277–78; China and, 308; Sudan and, 257, 266 Sudan and, 256–57, 264; US-China Pearl River Delta, 138 relations and, 304–05; Zimbabwe People’s Daily (newspaper), 220, 225 and, 262 People’s Liberation Army (PLA), 162, Olympics, Beijing (2008), 2, 13, 68, 130, 165–67; naval strategy and, 184; 266; Darfur and, 12–13 South Africa and, 169; Zambia and, ONCC Videsh, 120 173; Zimbabwe and, 174–75 One-China policy, 211; Zambia and, Persian Gulf, 181, 184 143 Petrobras, 122 One-party states, 238–39, 242, 287 Petrodar, 257 Operation Gukurahundi, 260 Petronas, 256 Operation Murambatsvina, 260–61, 263 Political outreach, 230–43; cadre train- Opposition parties, 233, 235, 239–41, ing as, 237–38; under the CPC-ID, 242; CPC-ID strategy and, 238; in 232–35; as foreign policy, 230, Zimbabwe, 260–61 242–43; hospitality as, 235–37; infor- Organization for Economic Coopera- mation management as, 238; tion and Development (OECD), 208, National People’s Congress and, 302, 308; amount of Chinese foreign 241–42; to opposition parties, aid and, 210–11; ODA and, 213; soft 239–41; revolutionary ideology and, power and, 212 230–32 Organization for Petroleum Exporting Political parties, 230–43, 273; begin- Countries (OPEC), 118, 198 nings of outreach between, 230–32; Organization of African Unity, 156 opposition parties, 239–41; outreach Organization of European Cooperation in modern era, 232–35; outreach and Development, 9 methods and, 235–38; overview of Oshodi market, 281 outreach to, 242–43; visits by leaders, Ottawa Landmine Convention, 178 235–37 Poly Technology, 167 Pakistan, 165; foreign aid and, 199; Popular Movement for the Liberation of naval strategy and, 181–82; SEZs Angola (MPLA), 117–18, 157, 231, and, 140 238; military assistance and, 159 Pan-Africanist Congress, 156, 231 Port Harcourt, Nigeria, 179, 281 Paramilitaries, 254–55 Port Sudan, Sudan, 171 Pariah states, 263, 265 Portugal, 67, 116–17, 213 Paris Club debt, 277 Postcolonialism, 81–83, 298 Parliamentary exchanges, 241–42 Poverty, 288, 300, 307; China model Partido Frelimo, 23 and, 292, 298; conditional assistance Party of the Revolution (Chama Cha and, 288; elites and, 292; United Mapinduzi) (Tanzania), 237 States and, 304; in Zimbabwe, 260 Patel, Dipak, 72 Preferential loans.
A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook
Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, starchitect, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
“I set no value on objects strange or ingenious and have no use for your country’s manufactures. Our ways bear no resemblance to yours.” The only product the British could find a market for in China was opium, a narcotic produced in their Indian empire that physically addicts its users, eroding their powers of free will. In the early nineteenth century, the limited trade the Chinese emperor permitted with the West was done through Canton (now Guangzhou), on the Pearl River Delta nearly one thousand miles south of Shanghai. Canton had historically been China’s international gateway. In the Middle Ages, Arab traders plowed its waters. With the rise of the West, first the Portuguese and later the Dutch, British, French, and Americans began trading with China through Canton. Opium in, tea out. Western traders in Canton lived under the emperor’s tight restrictions. Since the Chinese considered themselves the only civilized people on earth, the imperial authorities mandated that all barbarians be closely watched to prevent their contaminating the indigenous population with their inferior ways.
Sometimes called “white boys,” these office assistants were usually mixed-race Eurasians from Macau—part Portuguese and part Chinese. Aiding the Western traders were compradors. Literally “buyer” in Portuguese, compradors were the Chinese fixers who helped negotiate the imperial bureaucracy and communicate with local contractors and customers. Compradors were typically Cantonese whose families had migrated to Shanghai as the new treaty port displaced China’s historic East-West exchange hub in the Pearl River Delta. There were clear racial hierarchies in the foreign city, a continuum with whites on top and Chinese on the bottom. Even after residential segregation broke down, with Chinese living in the foreign concessions, public places remained segregated by a system similar to America’s Jim Crow laws. When the British built a “public garden” on the Bund riverfront near their consulate, it was, despite its name, closed to the Chinese who constituted most of the public.
Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna
"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce
The fifty-five million overseas Chinese, mostly settled in the Asian periphery, are the demographic equivalent of climate change: imperceptibly advancing, knowing no boundaries, and affecting everyone.5 Organic Chinese links are rekindling across political borders, fueling a demographic blending no less significant than that of the Americas or across the Mediterranean. Historical ties between China’s northeast and South Korea and Japan, the Pearl River delta region and Hong Kong, the Yangzi River delta and Taiwan, and the southeast and the greater Mekong subregion all form natural economic territories that transcend peace and conflict.6 China’s massive gender imbalance (stemming from the one-child policy and pronounced boy bias) has led it to import women from Vietnam and North Korea, further diluting diverse bloods into a Chinese-based mongrel race.
In 1997, when the “last British colony surrendered to the last Communist tyranny,” in the words of the island’s final British governor, Chris Patten, China was gifted this global financial capital where now less than one in ten people work in manufacturing despite an annual export value greater than India’s or Russia’s. Land reclamation on both Hong Kong island and mainland Kowloon have narrowed the grand Victoria Harbor between them—a symbol for the closing gap between Hong Kong and the upper Pearl River delta cities of Shenzhen and Guangzhou (Canton), which together form the wealthiest Chinese region.45 The delta was Britain’s entrepôt on the maritime Silk Road, and now it is the channel on which ancient Yueh cities have reclaimed modern glory as export-processing zones. In nearby Macao (China’s own Las Vegas) and Hainan Island, Chinese mega-infrastructure projects are paving the way for Taiwanese, Korean, and Hong Kong investors to build hugely profitable hotels and resorts; buy up real estate; and launch low-cost airlines to ferry Chinese there from all over the mainland, while Beihai offers an ideal location for the coastal trade with Vietnam.
The Default Line: The Inside Story of People, Banks and Entire Nations on the Edge by Faisal Islam
Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, capital controls, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, dark matter, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, energy security, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, forward guidance, full employment, G4S, ghettoisation, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Just-in-time delivery, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, negative equity, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, paradox of thrift, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, reshoring, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two tier labour market, unorthodox policies, uranium enrichment, urban planning, value at risk, WikiLeaks, working-age population, zero-sum game
It is more than 1,500 kilometres from the lush hills of Zhugao County in Sichuan Province to the factories on China’s coast. It’s a long journey repeatedly taken by Deng Zhi, a 24-year-old migrant worker. Since the age of 17, he has been regularly making this twenty-six-hour journey from farm to factory. Typically that has meant working twelve-hour days, six days a week, at an electronics factory in Dong Guan, on the Pearl River Delta. Deng Zhi is paid the equivalent of £100 a month. ‘How much can you earn from farming?’ he asks himself. ‘Working in the cities, you make at least 1,000 renminbi [£100] a month. How many kilos of rice can you buy with this money? It just doesn’t pay to farm.’ Of his £100 factory wages, Deng Zhi sends back about £30 to his family to pay for health, education and pensions, none of which are adequately provided by the state.
Emperor Daoguang objected, and ordered raids on the opium dealers, carried out by the celebrated Chinese administrator and scholar Lin Zexu. In a letter to Queen Victoria in 1839, Lin Zexu wrote: ‘The wealth of China is used to profit the barbarians… By what right do they then in return use the poisonous drug to injure the Chinese people?’ The British remained deaf to his appeals, and in June 1840 an expeditionary force of barracks ships, gunboats and smaller vessels carrying 4,000 sailors and marines arrived in the Pearl River Delta, so launching the First Opium War. The Chinese have not forgotten this humiliation. The original pits where British opium was seized and burnt are still maintained in Dong Guan, itself now a symbol of Chinese global trade, alongside a statue of Lin Zexu. In 2010, the Chinese government even objected to David Cameron wearing the unrelated Remembrance poppy on his lapel during a trade visit to China.
China's Future by David Shambaugh
Berlin Wall, capital controls, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, market bubble, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent-seeking, secular stagnation, short selling, South China Sea, special drawing rights, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional
The three main drivers of urbanization in the future, according to Premier Li Keqiang, will be to give urban residency (hukou) to 100 million migrants who currently live in cities (an amnesty, in effect); rebuilding dilapidated parts of existing urban areas, where an additional 100 million currently live; and urbanizing an additional 100 million in the central and western regions of the country.32 This “300 million initiative” will account for the additional 16 percent due to become urban dwellers between now and 2030. The sheer magnitude of China’s cities is hard to grasp. Today there are five cities with a population over 10 million; fourteen cities over 5 million; and 41 cities of 2 million or more.33 By 2025, McKinsey & Company estimates, 46 of the world’s 200 largest cities will be in China.34 There are plans to turn the greater Pearl River Delta—including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai—into one enormous megacity () of 42 million people,35 and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei triangle (known as Jing-Jin-Ji) into an even larger one covering 82,000 square miles and a total population of 130 million people.36 The new strategy to create megalopolises is a shift from just a few years ago when the government’s priority was to develop small and medium-sized cities.37 Creating “ecocities” and “green urbanization” are another part of the government’s plan—an appropriate goal given the environmental catastrophe that besets many Chinese cities.
Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War
The direct proximity of Hong Kong, whose population included many Cantonese-speaking refugees from Guangdong, meant that the province still had access to an extensive web of contacts with the outside world, including the huge network of overseas Chinese. All this meant that a certain amount of illegal trade had continued even during the darkest days of Maoism. (Indeed, considering the huge and intricate possibilities for smuggling offered by the Pearl River delta, the gateway to Guangdong, it could have hardly been otherwise.) Many Guangdong residents received remittances from their relatives in Hong Kong or places more distant, and these funds were a major source of revenue for a region that had otherwise been severed from its natural trading hinterland after 1949. Guangdong party officials knew all of this very well, and they were eager to seize upon the new talk in Beijing of opening up the country to investment.
The border guard hands you your passport, and you step across onto the mainland—or, to be more precise, the city of Shenzhen, which introduces itself as a warren of neon-lit shops offering everything from knock-off designer goods to toy helicopters to Mont Blanc fountain pens, all of it on sale right there in the same sprawling immigration building. Much of what you see was made here. Today, by one estimate, Shenzhen and the surrounding Pearl River delta boast a larger manufacturing workforce than the entire United States. Its factories churn out everything from exercise equipment to iPods; by 2005 Shenzhen boasted the world’s fourth-busiest port and one of its biggest stock exchanges. As you roam the city, you will marvel at the traffic jams, the infectious energy of the bustling crowds, the immense shopping centers selling the latest cell phones and computers.
Independent Diplomat: Dispatches From an Unaccountable Elite by Carne Ross
barriers to entry, cuban missile crisis, Doha Development Round, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, iterative process, meta analysis, meta-analysis, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, stakhanovite, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game
Perhaps even our emotions are not immune, given the omnipresent and insidious effects of our economic, cultural and physical environment. Globalisation has done for the notion of locality what the internet has done for the paper letter. All politics is international. The spread of global markets and global production has made us familiar with how jobs in south Wales or Pennsylvania are affected by wage levels in the Pearl River Delta. But how is it that a subsidy for cows can affect immigration? (The answer is that agricultural subsidies in Europe and the US reduce export earnings in developing countries, and thus income and employment levels, thereby increasing pressures for migration, legal or, more often, illegal.) Plans for your retirement can be affected by your employer’s need to reduce pensions in order to keep costs as low as its Chinese or Korean competitors (as General Motors has discovered).1 In the European Union food standards require your morning boiled egg to be of particular colour and shape.
White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Sharon Rotbard
British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, continuation of politics by other means, European colonialism, global village, housing crisis, illegal immigration, megastructure, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal
Other red lines can be thrown down – what does it mean to build in the Occupied Territories, or for the army, or for corporations, or within the framework of problematic projects such as ‘evacuation & construction’? It is important to note that these questions are relevant not only in Israel. The wild urbanism taking place in China, for example, as described by Rem Koolhaas in his study of the new cities being created in the Pearl River Delta, asks difficult ethical questions given that these projects demand the transfer of hundreds of thousands, maybe even millions, of inhabitants from their homes.236 This is just one of an endless index of examples to choose from. Clearly simplistic divisions into black and white are not always useful in this context and establishing the dichotomy between innocent and guilty does not help tackle the issues at hand.
The Water Will Come: Rising Seas, Sinking Cities, and the Remaking of the Civilized World by Jeff Goodell
Airbnb, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, creative destruction, desegregation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, fixed income, Frank Gehry, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
“It might keep water out of Manhattan, but it could make the problem worse for people in Brooklyn, not better.” There is also the question of complacency. Walls, dikes, and levees make people feel safe, even when they are not. When Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans, many people didn’t evacuate because they assumed the levees would not fail; that assumption cost some people their lives. In 2008, when a typhoon hit China’s Pearl River Delta, one third of the granite seawalls in Zhuhai crumbled, letting water flood into the city. “Walls often make people stupid,” said Richard Jorissen. “They allow you to ignore the risk of living in dangerous place—if something goes wrong, it can be a catastrophe.” There were other, less brutal ideas for how to protect Lower Manhattan. Even before Sandy hit, a team headed by New York landscape architect and urban designer Susannah Drake proposed elevating the edge of Lower Manhattan about six feet, waterproofing utilities in vaults under the sidewalks, and raising and redesigning streets to allow them to hold water during floods.
The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021 by Greg Clark
Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, congestion charging, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global value chain, haute cuisine, housing crisis, industrial cluster, intangible asset, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rent control, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
Investment from Europe, North America and the Middle East still flows heavily into these two cities, not least because of their proximity to a rapidly expanding Asian middle class. Singapore is now a world-class research hub, and the only world city consistently positively evaluated for its commuting experience, health and security outcomes. Hong Kong’s access to the manufacturing hinterland of the Pearl River Delta and to the wider Chinese economy makes it a uniquely attractive professional and producer services gateway. The success of Singapore and Hong Kong has not yet, however, come at the expense of the historic ‘big four’ – London, New York, Paris and Tokyo. Established global centres have cemented their position within national and regional urban hierarchies during the economic slowdown; their diverse concentrations of skilled labour have been disproportionately attractive to risk-averse private sector organisations.
Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges
1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Liaoning has “declined into a wasteland of bankruptcy and a hotbed of working-class protest by its many unemployed workers and pensioners. Unpaid pensions and wages, defaults on medical subsidies, and inadequate collective consumption are the main grievances triggering labor unrest in Liaoning.”5 In the southern province of Guangdong, China’s export-oriented industry is booming. The province in 2000 accounted for forty-two percent of all China’s exports, 90 percent of which came from eight cities in the Pearl River Delta. The area attracts many of China’s eighty to one hundred million migrant workers. But here Lee found “satanic mills” that run “at such a nerve-racking pace that workers’ physical limits and bodily strength are put to the test on a daily basis.”6 Workers can put in fourteen- to sixteen-hour days with no rest day during the month until payday. In these factories it is “normal” to work four hundred hours or more a month, especially for those in the garment industry.
Norman Foster: A Life in Architecture by Deyan Sudjic
Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, low cost airline, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, Murano, Venice glass, Norman Mailer, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, young professional
In 2008, flying into the completed airport in Beijing from Heathrow’s half-derelict Terminal Four meant confronting a whole series of preconceptions. The journey revealed the sometimes counterintuitive contrasts between the nature of public life in an advanced capitalist society and what, despite a massive economic transformation since the death of Mao, still declares itself to be a Marxist state guided by a socialist ideology. For all the neon glitter of the new cities on the Pearl River Delta, China is still fractured between extremes of poverty and absurd over-indulgence. Yet it was not Beijing’s Capital International Airport that felt on the edge of chaos but Terminal Four in London, one of the world’s richest cities. Terminal Four has become a place where flight disruptions regularly leave thousands of delayed passengers camping outside the departure gates. Security checks organised like cattle pens turn catching a flight there into an ordeal, and maintenance teams fail to keep up with chewing gum-stained carpets.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
40 This argument is made as if we in the West are mere spectators to this reckless and dirty model of economic growth. As if it was not our governments and our multinationals that pushed a model of export-led development that made all of this possible. It is said as if it were not our own corporations who, with single-minded determination (and with full participation from China’s autocratic rulers), turned the Pearl River Delta into their carbon-spewing special economic zone, with the goods going straight onto container ships headed to our superstores. All in the name of feeding the god of economic growth (via the altar of hyper-consumption) in every country in the world. The victims in all this are regular people: the workers who lose their factory jobs in Juárez and Windsor; the workers who get the factory jobs in Shenzhen and Dhaka, jobs that are by this point so degraded that some employers install nets along the perimeters of roofs to catch employees when they jump, or where safety codes are so lax that workers are killed in the hundreds when buildings collapse.
., 322–23, 389, 397 Our Hamburg—Our Grid coalition, 96–97 oysters, 431–32, 434 ozone depletion, 16 Pacala, Stephen, 113 Pacific Northwest: ecological values of, 319–20 proposed coal export terminals in, 320, 322, 346, 349, 370, 374 Pacific Ocean, acidification of, 434 Paine, Tom, 314 Palin, Sarah, 1 palm oil plantations, 222 Papanikolaou, Marilyn, 361 Papua New Guinea, 200, 220 Paradise Built in Hell (Solnit), 62–63 Paraná, Brazil, 221, 222 Parenti, Christian, 49, 186 Parfitt, Ben, 129 Paris, public transit in, 109 Parkin, Scott, 296 Parr, Michael, 227 particulate pollution, 176 Passamaquoddy First Nation, 371–72 Patel, Raj, 136 Patles, Suzanne, 381 Paulson, Henry, 49 Peabody Energy, 391 Pearl River Delta, 82 Pelosi, Nancy, 35 Pendleton, Oreg., 319 Peninsula Hospital Center, 104 Penn State Earth System Science Center, 55 Pennsylvania: fracking in, 357n Homeland Security Office of, 362 water pollution in, 328–29 Pensacola, Fla., 431 permafrost, 176 Peru, 78, 220–21 pest outbreaks, 14 Petrobras, 130 PetroChina, 130 Pew Center on Global Climate Change, 226 Pew Research Center for People & the Press, 35 Philippines, 107, 109 Phillips, Wendell, 463 phosphate of lime, 163–64, 166 photovoltaic manufacturing, 66 Pickens, T.
The Undercover Economist: Exposing Why the Rich Are Rich, the Poor Are Poor, and Why You Can Never Buy a Decent Used Car by Tim Harford
Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, collective bargaining, congestion charging, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, invention of movable type, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, new economy, Pearl River Delta, price discrimination, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Shenzhen was a fishing village, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Vickrey auction
After years of paying low wages—because the supply of migrant labor from China seemed unlimited—factories on the Gold Coast are starting to run out of willing workers. Foreign-owned factories pay a bit more and enjoy easier recruitment and lower turnover. But wages will have to rise and conditions will have to improve, because inland China is catching up. In 2003, Yang Li did what many Chinese workers have done: she left home to work in a sweatshop in the Pearl River delta. A month later, after working thirteen-hour shifts, she decided to go home and start her own business—a hair salon. “Every day at the factory was just work, work,” she says. “My life here is comfortable.” Yang Li’s parents had to survive the Cultural Revolution; her grandparents, the Great Leap Forward. Yang Li has real choices, and she lives in a country where those choices mean something for her quality of life.
Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, G4S, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional
The following companies (all with counters at HKIA Terminal 2) have buses going to points in southern China (Foshan HK$230, Guangzhou HK$250, and Shenzhen airport HK$130): CTS Express Coach Eternal East Cross Border Coach ( GOOGLE MAP ; %3760 0888, 3412 6677; 4-6 Hankow Rd, 13th fl, Kai Seng Commercial Centre; h7am-8pm) Trans-Island Limousine Service FERRY You can also head straight from the airport to other Pearl River delta cities by ferry: Skypier (%2215 3232) A fast ferry service that links HKIA with Macau and six Pearl River delta destinations. Travellers can board ferries without clearing Hong Kong customs and immigration. Book a ticket prior to boarding from ticketing desks located in the transfer area at Arrivals (Level 5, near to immigration counters). Chu Kong Passenger Transportation Co Has ferries from HKIA to Shenzhen airport (HK$220, 40 minutes, eight daily, 10.15am to 6.30pm) and to Macau, Shekou, Dongguan, Zhuhai and Zhongshan.
Hong Kong AirlinesAIRPORT (HX; %3151 1888; www.hongkongairlines.com) Cheaper airline that specialises in regional routes, including 17 cities in mainland China. Boat Regular ferries link the China Ferry Terminal ( GOOGLE MAP ; China Hong Kong City, 33 Canton Rd, Tsim Sha Tsui) in Kowloon and the Hong Kong–Macau Ferry Terminal ( GOOGLE MAP ; Shun Tak Centre, 200 Connaught Rd, Sheung Wan) on Hong Kong Island with towns and cities on the Pearl River delta – but not central Guangzhou or Shenzhen. You’ll find left-luggage lockers (HK$20 to HK$30 per hour) in both terminals. Chu Kong Passenger Transportation Co (%2858 3876; www.cksp.com.hk) provides regularly scheduled ferries to Zhuhai (HK$200, 70 minutes), Zhongshan (HK$230, 1½ hours), Shunde (HK$240, two hours), Zhaoqing (HK$220, four hours) and Shekou (HK$140, one hour). Bus You can reach virtually any major destination in Guangdong province by bus (HK$100 to HK$220): CTS Express CoachBUS ( GOOGLE MAP ; %2764 9803; http://ctsbus.hkcts.com) Trans-Island Limousine ServiceBUS (%3193 9333; www.trans-island.com.hk) Mainland destinations from Hong Kong include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Kaiping, Shenzhen’s Baoan airport and Zhongshan.
In the blue pine forests of Nanling, the music of waterfalls and windswept trees boomerangs in your direction. If it’s Unesco-crowned heritage you’re after, Kaiping’s flamboyant watchtowers and the stylised poses of Cantonese opera will leave you riveted. What's all the fuss about Hakka and Chiuchow cultures? Well, find out in Meizhou and Chaozhou. Historically Guangdong was the starting point of the Maritime Silk Road and the birthplace of revolution. On the scenic byways of the Pearl River delta, you’ll uncover the glory of China’s revolutionary past. While on the surf-beaten beaches of Hailing Island, an ancient shipwreck and its treasures await. When to Go AApr–Jun Verdant paddy fields against the built wonders of Kaiping and Meizhou. AJul–Sep Blue pines and stained-glass windows offer respite from summer. AOct–Dec The typhoons and heat are gone; this is the best time to visit.
Freedom by Daniel Suarez
augmented reality, big-box store, British Empire, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, corporate personhood, digital map, game design, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Naomi Klein, new economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RFID, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the scientific method, young professional
The project was made feasible through the recent discovery of comprehensive biometric data for the late Roy Merritt in the Building Twenty-Nine security database. The data includes body and facial geometry, textures, voice, gait, and other info. Contributors need a five-star reputation score and at least fifteen levels of proficiency in their primary class. XiLAN_oO*****/ 2,930 23rd-level Programmer Situated just across the Pearl River Delta from Hong Kong, Shenzhen was a city of migrants. Declared a Special Economic Zone by the Chinese government in 1980, it was an experiment in limited capitalism--and had grown with astonishing speed. Fueled by cheap labor, Shenzhen's population exploded from three hundred thousand to over twelve million people in less than three decades. State-of-the-art factory complexes producing goods for Western companies covered mile after mile in the northern reaches of the city, away from the tourism- and trade-centered southern districts.
Arrival City by Doug Saunders
agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population
Shu’s life here consists of exactly 29 possessions, including four chopsticks and a mobile phone; they have never seen the great city of Chongqing beyond Liu Gong Li’s streets. Each month, they keep $45 for food and $30 to cover expenses and send all the rest back to their village to support their daughter’s secondary-school education and to feed their parents, who raise their daughter. For 11 years, beginning in 1993, the two of them lived in more modern and somewhat less cryptlike worker dormitories in Shenzhen, the all-industrial city in the Pearl River Delta, 1,500 kilometers south. The garment factories there, which made goods for Western companies, had better working conditions and paid more. But they discovered a serious flaw: in Shenzhen, there was no prospect of arrival. No matter how much the couple saved, they could never afford an apartment, and the city offered them no option of purchasing a piece of shantytown housing, of the sort that dominates Liu Gong Li, because none exists in the planned city of Shenzhen.
The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith
Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K
As Schwarzenegger mobilized California, the southeastern United States, which is usually moist, was also in historic drought, triggering a wave of outdoor-watering bans, withered crops, and unheard-of water battles between states like Georgia, Tennessee, and the Carolinas.189 Mexico had been in severe drought, with only limited relief, for fifteen years.190 Exceptional droughts were under way in Brazil, Argentina, western Africa, Australia, the Middle East, Turkey, and Ukraine.191 Drought emergencies were triggering food aid in Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Mauritania, and Moldova.192 By February 2009, precipitation was 70%-90% below normal in northern and western China, threatening 10% of the country’s entire cereal production. 193 That same month, extreme dryness primed “Black Saturday,” when six hundred blazes killed two hundred people in the worst Australian wildfires in history. By April, crop failures in Chattisgarh state drove fifteen hundred Indian farmers—unable to repay their debts without water—to commit suicide.194 Within days of the Iowa floods, heavy rains also struck eastern India and China, killing sixty-five people and displacing five hundred thousand in India. In China, floods in Guangdong and Guangxi Zhuang, Sansui City, and the Pearl River delta killed 176 and displaced 1.6 million. While America’s eyes were fixed on Sarah Palin, hydrologist Bob Brakenridge at Dartmouth was watching floods from space, using satellites to track them all over the world.195 In the ten months between Barack Obama’s winning the Iowa caucuses on January 3, and the general election on November 4, Brakenridge documented 145 major floods carving destruction around the planet.
Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production by Vaclav Smil
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Haber-Bosch Process, invention of gunpowder, Louis Pasteur, Pearl River Delta, precision agriculture, recommendation engine, The Design of Experiments
Such a farm could feed no more than 3–4 people/ha, albeit on diets relatively rich in dairy products and meat. Perhaps the highest nitrogen inputs in traditional agriculture were reached during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in parts of South China where yearround cropping is possible, particularly in Sichuan’s Red Basin and in the lowlands of the southern provinces, especially in Guangdong’s Zhujiang (Pearl River) delta. 34 Chapter 2 There the combination of nitrogen inputs—intensively recycled human and animal wastes, regular cultivation of green manures and food and feed legumes, and biofixation by cyanobacteria in paddy fields—provided annually well in excess of 100 kg N/ha of arable land. My detailed reconstructions of nitrogen flows on small Sichuanese and Hunanese farms show that their highest managed inputs amounted typically to between 120 and 150 kg N/ha.57 Yet another traditional Chinese agroecosystem managed even higher nitrogen inputs, but as it involved a major component of aquaculture, its performance is not directly comparable with crop-based schemes.
Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce
additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
All this was technologically primitive, but evidence of a well-developed industry for sorting, handling and ultimately recycling a wide range of materials that in Europe would be unlikely to find a home other than a landfill. And it flourished wherever there was waste – in Chinese cities, or where containerloads docked from Europe. Wong said imports of waste plastic didn’t reach him, because they were snapped up by people nearer the port in Xiamen. But elsewhere I heard of vast amounts of plastic waste being imported from Britain to Hong Kong and shipped on barges up the Pearl River delta to recyclers around the industrial cities of Dongguan and Shenzhen. There, whole villages specialize in specific types of plastic waste, like PET bottles or plastic bags made of LDPE (low-density polyethylene). We in Britain occasionally get press reports of Tesco’s bags billowing through the back streets of southern China. I am sure it happens, and it may not be an edifying spectacle. But it is a fact that most of the plastic sent to China does get recycled, often at the very factories that made the stuff in the first place.
The Billionaire Raj: A Journey Through India's New Gilded Age by James Crabtree
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, business climate, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism, young professional
In 2002, Adani Enterprises, his main holding company, was worth barely $70 million.2 A decade later he claimed to have built assets worth $20 billion, while the value of his companies had jumped more than one hundredfold.3 By the time of India’s most recent election in 2014, Forbes listed his fortune at $7 billion.4 Above all, Adani’s controversial reputation rested on a final factor: his friendly ties to Narendra Modi, the man who would go on to become India’s prime minister. Adani’s businesses began taking off in the years following Modi’s arrival as Gujarat’s chief minister back in 2001. Under Modi the state grew into a vibrant industrial hub, with a particular strength in export-focused manufacturing, even drawing comparisons with the Pearl River Delta, the region around Hong Kong that powered China’s transformation into a global trading giant. The two men enjoyed symbiotic careers. Modi’s pro-business policies helped Adani expand. Adani’s own companies, meanwhile, built many of the grand projects that came to symbolize Modi’s “Gujarat model,” with its emphasis on infrastructure investment, attracting foreign capital, and export industries.
The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
Along with big improvements in shipping logistics, this allowed the company to optimize its just-in-time inventory management, which drastically cut its costs. Walmart parlayed those cost savings into the cheapest prices anywhere in the United States, which turned it into the iconic and, to some, infamous behemoth that now dominates American suburbia. Just as important, its high-tech network had a feedback effect on suppliers, contributing to the concentration of manufacturing in hubs such as China’s Pearl River Delta. As Walmart became an increasingly powerful but relentless hunter of the cheapest manufacturing sources, and as other Western buyers caught on to its high-tech lead, factories paying low wages in the developing world would congregate in locales where it was most efficient to tap into Walmart’s network. Byrne now sees similar opportunities for firms like his to build influence by leveraging bitcoin in its international payment relationships and thus creating a tipping point from which change starts rippling over the world economy.
Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
But now the spice race had brought the barbarians to the gates of the Middle Kingdom itself. And it must be remembered that, though the Portuguese had precious few goods the Chinese wanted, they did bring silver, for which Ming China had an immense demand as coins took the place of paper money and labour service as the principal means of payment. In 1557 the Portuguese reached Macau, a peninsula on the Pearl River delta. Among the first things they did was to erect a gate – the Porta do Cerco – bearing the inscription: ‘Dread our greatness and respect our virtue.’ By 1586 Macau was an important enough trading outpost to be recognized by the Portuguese Crown as a city: Cidade de Nome de Deus (City of the Name of God). It was the first of many such European commercial enclaves in China. Luís da Camões, author of The Lusiads, the epic poem of Portuguese maritime expansion, lived in Macau for a time, after being exiled from Lisbon for assault.
McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny
anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile
Most megalopolises such as São Paulo, Mexico City, Istanbul, and Cairo have a history stretching back hundreds if not thousands of years. Twenty years ago, Shenzhen had a population of several thousand and was no more than a few scattered villages. From the gentle agricultural pastures of northern Hong Kong, you can now cross into a 12 million–strong giant of hypermalls, factories, tower blocks, and work, work, work. Shenzhen on the Pearl River Delta is the gateway to the new China, having formed a profoundly dynamic symbiotic relationship with Hong Kong. One of the original special economic zones, not only has Shenzhen become the blazing vanguard of China’s future, but it has even rescued the former British colony from decline by throwing it a lifeline of economic opportunity. If there is a market niche, the entrepreneurs of Shenzhen will sniff it out and fill it.
Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism by Quinn Slobodian
Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mercator projection, Mont Pelerin Society, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Pearl River Delta, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, quantitative easing, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, statistical model, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game
At the time, mainland China as a whole exported no more than the tiny colony of Hong Kong. Deng Xiaoping’s reforms started a process toward China’s own form of nonmajoritarian capitalism, slowly introducing market freedoms without expanding political representation. The price mechanism was permitted without the mechanism of popular sovereignty—t he multiparty election. In 1979, China opened the country’s first export processing zones in the Pearl River Delta, a region of exception outside of the national tax structure that would become a defining form of neoliberal-style development by the 1990s.100 This future was distant in the 1970s, however, and in the decade of the NIEO, the situation still looked dire to neoliberals. The Hong Kong address presented by MPS president George Stigler was titled “Why Have the Socialists Been Winning?” The main problem he saw was the same conundrum of democracy that German neoliberals had been diagnosing since the 1930s and American public choice theorists since the A W o r l d of S ig n als 237 1960s: the “political process is strongly biased t oward collectivism.”101 Given the possibility that the neoliberal position had become a “minority view,” Stigler asked: “If in fact we seek what many do not wish, will we not be more successful if we take this into account and seek political institutions and policies that allow us to pursue our own goals?”
If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
Typical is Africa’s Lagos-Ibadan-Cotonou region, where Lagos alone is projected to reach twenty-five million by 2025, making it the world’s third-largest city after Mumbai and Tokyo, in a Nigeria that has six cities over a million and another dozen with 500,000 to a million—all of them growing rapidly.18 Then there is Kinshasa-Brazzaville, two interconnected cities separated by a river in rival “Congo” states. Other megacities have appeared in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, in China’s Pearl River Delta, as well as in the Northeast Corridor in the United States, Japan’s Taiheiyo Belt, Europe’s Golden Banana (sunbelt) along the western Mediterranean, and the Greater São Paulo metro region in Brazil. China’s cities are growing so fast that it is nearly impossible to keep up. A McKinsey study estimates that in the next ten to fifteen years, 136 new cities will join the world’s 600 cities with the largest GDPs, all of them from the developing world.
The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria, and Hubris by Mark Honigsbaum
Asian financial crisis, biofilm, Black Swan, clean water, coronavirus, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, indoor plumbing, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, Pearl River Delta, Ronald Reagan, Skype, the built environment, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl
Since the market liberalization measures introduced by China’s Maoist leadership in the late 1970s, Shenzhen and the provincial capital, Guangzhou, have witnessed astonishing rates of economic growth. Spurred by the production of sports trainers, cheap toys, and electronics, between 1978 and 2002 Guangdong’s GDP grew by an average of 13.4 percent per annum, while the urban population of the Pearl River Delta region, which encompasses Guangzhou, expanded to the point where it now accounts for 70 percent of the province’s total population. This manufacturing boom has had two major ecological effects. First, to feed the vast labor force in its factories, Guangdong raises millions of chickens on industrial-scale poultry farms (in 1997, the province was home to an estimated 700 million chickens and by 2008 was producing one billion “high quality” broiler chickens a year).
Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? by Alan Weisman
air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, David Attenborough, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, El Camino Real, epigenetics, Filipino sailors, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute couture, housing crisis, ice-free Arctic, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, liberation theology, load shedding, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
As had I, the second of two children in my own family and the grateful beneficiary of an older sister’s love and guidance. In China, I raised the same question at Guangzhou University. At 13 million, Guangzhou, two hours north of Hong Kong, is now China’s third biggest city—if taken just by itself. It is actually part of the world’s largest metropolitan industrial complex: 40 million people in the Pearl River Delta, where five other now-contiguous cities top 3 million. Their astonishing growth is due to immigration from poorer parts of China for the promise of work in factories. I was speaking to four hundred college students who, relieved of shackles that restricted an entire prior generation during the Cultural Revolution, were bursting with opportunities to learn and get interesting jobs and make money.
Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor
Although the Museum liked to pretend that its readers were “plain, honest, well-meaning farmers,” it also offered them papers on the production of chemicals for dyeing and bleaching, on experiments with making artificial fertilizer, on the construction of a hydrometer, and on the design of rails for “cast-iron railroads” in order to transport heavy loads of coal or iron ore. Many disparate elements had to crystallize to produce the Industrial Revolution. It is easy to find most floating in solution in other economies. China especially had a market economy on the Yangtze and Pearl River deltas, a tradition of inventiveness, an efficient transport system using canals and rivers, and abundant energy in the form of waterwheels, windmills, and, above all, human labor. Since water remained more important than coal as a source of nonhuman energy in British industry until the 1820s, the inaccessibility of China’s inland coalfields is not relevant to its failure to industrialize. But two obstacles did make an industrial revolution there impossible.
Slow Boats to China by Gavin Young
* Mist and rain. August to April: the contrast could hardly have been greater. Seven months before, I had bathed in the sun and warmth of the Mediterranean at Piraeus, the blue of the sea and sky and the white of whitecaps and white ships. The colours of the Greek flag, I had thought then; now I was immersed in an all-pervading greyness of sea, sky, island and mainland, the pearl greyness of the Pearl river delta. I was the only non-Chinese on a hydrofoil manufactured, according to the metal plaque, by Hovermarine Transport, Southampton. We sat as if in a small theatre in ten rows, seven seats to a row, arranged two, three and two, with two aisles. From time to time the people nearest the windows rubbed them with their sleeves in a vain affort to de-mist them or clear them of the rain and spray that almost totally obscured our view of the river, passing ships and the shore.
Chinese Spies: From Chairman Mao to Xi Jinping by Roger Faligot
active measures, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business intelligence, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, housing crisis, illegal immigration, index card, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, union organizing, young professional, éminence grise
Zeng Zhaoke, who taught at the police academy in Hong Kong, was expelled for spying. Based in Canton, for the next twenty years he continued his surveillance work and advised Deng Xiaoping. To complicate matters further, all over Hong Kong, conflicts were breaking out between different communist factions in the region, which thousands of Chinese people fleeing the Cultural Revolution had reached by swimming across the Pearl River Delta. These refugees were an important source of intelligence for the CIA, for Australian China-watchers, for the extraordinary Jesuits who produced the newsletter China News Analysis (CNA), founded by Hungarian priest Father László Ladány, and for British China experts, including Professor Ride, who was married to the cousin of Alexandre de Marenches, head of the French secret services, the SDECE.
When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques
Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game
‘The Dragon and the Eagle Survey’, The Economist, 2 October 2004, p. 11. 25 . Maddison, Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run, p. 69. 26 . Yu Yongding, ‘China’s Structural Adjustment’, p. 1 27 . Interview with Yu Yongding, Singapore, 3 March 2006. 28 . Andy Xie, Asia/Pacific Economics, report for Morgan Stanley, November 2002. 29 . ‘Guangdong Factories Drop Cheap for Chic’, South China Morning Post, 17 March 2008; ‘End of an Era for Pearl River Delta’, South China Morning Post, 9 February 2008. 30 . Yu Yongding, ‘China’s Rise, Twin Surplus and the Change of China’s Development Strategy’, unpublished paper, Namura Tokyo Club Conference, Kyoto, 21 November 2005, p. 12. 31 . Ibid., p. 11. 32 . Maddison, Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run, pp. 94-6. 33 . Interview with Yu Yongding, Beijing, 6 December 2005: Wang Gungwu, ‘Ration alizing China’s Place in Asia’, in Reid and Zheng, Negotiating Asymmetry, p. 5. 34 .
Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities by Vaclav Smil
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, complexity theory, coronavirus, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, endogenous growth, energy transition, epigenetics, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Law of Accelerating Returns, longitudinal study, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, megastructure, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, optical character recognition, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Republic of Letters, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, technoutopianism, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, yield curve
China added to these confusing delineations by elevating Sichuan’s Chongqing to one of the country’s four directly controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai) and creating, de jure, the world’s largest city with an area of more than 82,000 km2, slightly larger than the Czech Republic and just a bit smaller than Austria (Chongqing Municipal Government 2017). But most of this area in eastern Sichuan is rural, comprised of 25 districts, 13 counties, and more than 1,200 towns and townships. The municipality’s population has surpassed 30 million, but the city itself covers less than 500 km2 and contains fewer than 9 million people. But China has a better claim to having the world’s largest urban conglomeration in Guangdong’s Pearl River Delta, just north of Hong Kong, where some 65 million people lived in 2015 spread across an area of about 56,000 km2 (HKTDC 2017). Before the rise of megacities, most of the world’s largest cities during the preindustrial era were in Asia: eight out of ten in 1500 and still six out of ten in 1825, but then the Western urbanization shifted the order and by 1900 nine out of the ten largest cities were in Europe and the US (Jedwab and Vollrath 2014).