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pages: 340 words: 91,387

Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth

accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Pepto Bismol, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, yellow journalism

It didn’t matter that some of the instructions and copyright information were written in Cyrillic, as long as I could figure out how to use it. But once I got a new computer, and the pirated software was no longer compatible with the new operating system, I didn’t go out and buy Quark. Instead, I made do without it. Many computer users work like this. The genuine programs are simply too expensive to be a reasonable option. This means that that figure of $53 billion lost to piracy is unreliable at best. Finally, buried in the fine print of the group’s statistics, there’s this: “Businesses, schools, and government entities tend to use more pirated software on new computers than ordinary consumers do.” This is an extraordinary statement—because it means that the biggest consumers of pirated programs on new computers have nothing to do with System D.

This is an extraordinary statement—because it means that the biggest consumers of pirated programs on new computers have nothing to do with System D. Instead, they are legal companies, doing legal work. Indeed, as the report suggests, the government—the same entity that the industry is calling upon to police piracy—is actually one of the largest patrons of pirated software. I had a small run-in with this kind of semiofficial piracy in one of my early jobs in journalism. The publication where I worked—a formal, incorporated, taxpaying entity—composed its pages using what was then a popular text layout program. But the owners had ordered the IT staff to save money by purchasing just a single licensed copy of the program. Even so, it was installed on as many as fifty different workstations. After a few weeks of heavy use, the program crashed and the publisher had to bring in some techies from the manufacturer to fix the problem.

., street market in, 8.1–8.2 children, 2.1, 8.1, 12.1–12.2, 12.3 China African smuggling from, 4.1, 10.1–10.2 African trade with, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3–4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 5.1, 10.1–10.2, 12.1–12.2 child labor in, 12.1 consumerism in, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1 corporate crime in, 12.1 dominant business model in, 5.1–5.2 economic policy in, 5.1, 5.2 employment in, 2.1 factory work in, 4.1 high-end brand production in, 5.1 language in, 6.1 mobile phone exports from, 5.1 Nigerian trade with, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1–4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6–4.7, 4.8, 5.1–5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 10.1–10.2 piracy in, 5.1, 5.2–5.3, 5.4–5.5, 5.6, 5.7, 5.8 public health system in, 4.1 recycling industry in, 12.1 Rua 25 de Março merchants from, 1.1–1.2 smuggling from, 6.1–6.2 smuggling into, 6.1–6.2 System D’s role in, 2.1 tax paying in, 4.1, 4.2–4.3, 4.4, 5.1 technology retailing in, 6.1, 6.2 toxic dumping in, 12.1 2008/2009 financial crisis effects in, 5.1, 5.2 U.S. trade with, 4.1 see also specific cities China Plaza, 5.1, 5.2 China Southern Airlines, 4.1 Chinee Water, 3.1 Chinese University of Hong Kong, 6.1 Chintan, 12.1 cigarettes, smuggling of, 6.1 Ciudad del Este, Paraguay, 6.1–6.2, 6.3–6.4 business formalization in, 11.1, 11.2–11.3, 11.4 computer and electronic trade in, 6.1, 11.1–11.2, 11.3–11.4, 12.1 crime in, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3 currency trading in, 6.1–6.2 economic activity in, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3–6.4, 11.1, 12.1 Lebanese community in, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4 money transfers in, 12.1 policing in, 6.1–6.2, 6.3 street market in, 6.1 System D in, 2.1 taxation in, 6.1, 11.1–11.2 terrorism allegations against, 12.1–12.2 Clinton, Hillary, 12.1 Computer and Allied Products Dealers Association of Nigeria, 3.1 computer industry Chinese trade in, 6.1–6.2 falling prices in, 6.1, 11.1 illegal dumping in, 12.1–12.2 Nigerian trade in, 3.1–3.2, 10.1 Paraguayan trade in, 6.1–6.2, 11.1–11.2, 11.3–11.4 poor workmanship in, 4.1 smuggling in, 6.1–6.2, 6.3, 6.4–6.5, 11.1–11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5 see also Ikeja Computer Village computer software, piracy of, 5.1–5.2 conflict resolution, 12.1–12.2 Connecticut Courant, 12.1 construction industry, 8.1 cooperative development, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3–12.4 limits of, 12.1 criticism of, 9.1 Cooper-Glicério, 12.1–12.2 copyrights, 8.1 Correct Technologies, 3.1, 3.2 Cotonou, Republic of Benin, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1 courts, as an institution in street markets, 12.1–12.2 crime, 2.1, 2.2, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8–12.9 Cross, John, 9.1–9.2 Crusades, 4.1 currency, see exchange rate Dairo, Ogun, 3.1–3.2 danfo, see bus system, Lagos Dattora, Édison Ramos, 1.1–1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 7.1 Davidson, Basil, 3.1–3.2 débrouillards, 2.1 Deleuze, Gilles, 11.1 de Soto, Hernando, 11.1–11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6 Deutsche Bank, 2.1 developed world economic inequality in, 9.1 economic model in, 3.1, 7.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 11.1–11.2 developing world business model in, 7.1–7.2, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1 economic growth of, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 11.1, 12.1–12.2 infrastructure in, 9.1, 12.1 System D growth in, 2.1, 2.2 water shortage in, 7.1 wealth gap in, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 12.1 see also Africa; Asia; Latin America; specific countries Devil’s Dictionary, The (Bierce), 5.1–5.2 Diamond Bank, 7.1 Dias, Sonia Maria, 12.1 Diggers, 9.1 Digital Millennium Copyright Act, 8.1 dollar, as global currency, 4.1–4.2 Domestic Workers’ Bill of Rights, 12.1–12.2 Donizetti, Gaetano, 12.1 Downy, 7.1–7.2 Drake, Francis, 5.1, 5.2 drugs discount, 6.1–6.2 illegal, 12.1 DVDs, pirated, 1.1–1.2, 1.3–1.4, 1.5, 6.1 eBay, 8.1 Ebeyenoku, John, 12.1, 12.2 economic development, 2.1, 2.2 as a human right, 12.1 redefinition of, 9.1–9.2 economics Aristotle’s definition of, 5.1 efficiency in, 9.1, 9.2 80/20 conundrum in, 5.1 modern definition of, 2.1 wealth gap in, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 12.1 see also business; free market system Economic Times, 12.1 economists, System D’s assessment by, 1.1, 2.1–2.2, 3.1, 7.1, 9.1, 9.2, 10.1, 11.1, 12.1 education, 10.1, 12.1, 12.2 “Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, The” (Marx), 9.1 Eleazars, Ugochukwu, 3.1 electricity, 4.1, 4.2, 12.1–12.2 electronics industry gray-market, 8.1 Nigerian trade in, 3.1–3.2, 3.3–3.4 smuggling in, 6.1, 11.1–11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 12.1 see also computer industry; mobile phone industry Eleshin, Omotola, 3.1–3.2, 7.1 Emirates, 4.1 employment business tax breaks and, 10.1 System D’s provision of, 2.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 12.1–12.2, 12.3 21st century, 2.1 Encore Technical Sales, 11.1 Encyclopedia Britannica, 5.1 entrepreneurialism, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 12.1 environmental issues, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 12.1, 12.2–12.3 Enzensberger, Hans Magnus, 5.1 Ethiopian Airlines, 4.1 Europe literacy growth in, 5.1 Nigerian trade with, 3.1 post–World War II economic development in, 11.1–11.2 16th-century economic transition in, 8.1, 8.2–8.3 smuggling into, 6.1 System D in, 2.1, 3.1, 8.1–8.2 2008/2009 financial crisis effects in, 2.1–2.2 see also specific cities and countries EVGA, 11.1 e-waste, 12.1–12.2 exchange rate importance to System D trade, 4.1–4.2, 12.1 Eze, Sunday, 3.1 Ezeagu, Charles, 2.1 Ezeifeoma, James, 4.1, 4.2, 7.1, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 12.1 Fable of the Bees, The (Mandeville), 5.1, 5.2 Fanon, Frantz, 9.1 fashion industry, 4.1–4.2, 4.3–4.4 labor issues in, 7.1, 12.1–12.2 piracy in, 5.1, 5.2–5.3, 7.1–7.2 Fashola, Babatunde, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7 Feiyang, 5.1–5.2 Festac Town, Lagos, Nigeria, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 Festac United Okada Riders, 3.1 feudalism, 8.1 financial crisis of 2008/2009 in China, 5.1, 5.2 System D resilience to, 2.1–2.2 in United States, 8.1, 8.2 Financial Mail, 12.1 flea market, 8.1, 12.1 Fontaine, Laurence, 6.1 food industry formalization in, 8.1, 8.2–8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 12.1 street peddling in, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 8.1–8.2, 8.3–8.4, 12.1 System D producers in, 8.1–8.2, 8.3–8.4 formal businesses, relationship with informal firms, 1.1–1.2, 7.1–7.2, 7.3–7.4 formalization bureaucracy in, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 11.1 in computer industry, 11.1, 11.2–11.3 costs and benefits of, 11.1–11.2, 11.3, 11.4, 11.5 degrees of, 12.1–12.2, 12.3 effects of, 11.1–11.2 in food industry, 8.1, 8.2–8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 12.1 obstacles to, 11.1, 11.2 419 Advance Fee Fraud, 3.1, 10.1 Fox, Paul, 7.1 Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 12.1 France, System D in, 8.1 “Fraternity of Vagabonds, The” (Awdeley), 8.1 free market system, 2.1–2.2, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 12.1, 12.2 Gafunk Nigeria Limited, 3.1 Gala sausage roll, 7.1 Galatzer, Natalie, 8.1 Galeria Pagé (Ciudad del Este), 12.1–12.2 Galeria Pagé (São Paulo), 1.1, 1.2, 10.1 garage sales, 8.1 garbage recycling, in Brazil, 12.1–12.2 in China, 9.1–9.2 in Nigeria, 3.1, 3.2–3.3 gasoline, smuggling of, 6.1 Gates, Bill, 5.1, 9.1 General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, The (Keynes), 9.1 generators, 4.1 George II, King of England, 9.1 Germany, System D in, 8.1 Gesell, Silvio, 9.1 Glissant, Edouard, 9.1 globalization, 4.1–4.2, 12.1 peddlers as agents of, 4.1–4.2 see also System D, global trade in Gomorrah (Saviano), 5.1 Gonçalves, Reginaldo, 1.1 Goodluck, Akinwale, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 Gould, Jay, 9.1 government economic regulation by, 2.1 privatization in, 2.1 System D interaction with, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.1–4.2, 4.3–4.4, 5.1–5.2, 6.1, 6.2, 10.1–10.2, 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9–12.10, 12.11–12.12, 12.13–12.14 use of pirated software in, 5.1 Gramsci, Antonio, 2.1 Granta, 5.1 gray market, 2.1 Great Britain historical conflict resolution in, 12.1–12.2 historical wealth gap in, 9.1–9.2 System D criticism in, 8.1–8.2 see also London, England Great Transformation, The (Polanyi), 2.1–2.2 Greece, ancient, conflict resolution in, 12.1 Grimmelshausen, Hans Jakob Christoffel von, 5.1–5.2 growth, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 9.1–9.2, 10.1–10.2 Grumbling Hive, The (Mandeville), 5.1, 5.2 Guangzhou, China, 2.1 African traders in, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3–4.4, 4.5–4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 5.1–5.2, 5.3, 12.1–12.2 business regulations in, 4.1, 4.2 international population in, 4.1 policing of, 5.1, 9.1, 12.1, 12.2 recycling in, 9.1–9.2 smuggled computers in, 6.1 Guangzhou Dashatou Second Hand Trade Center, 5.1, 5.2–5.3 Guarda Municipal, 1.1, 1.2 guarda-roupas, 6.1–6.2 Guattari, Félix, 11.1 Gudeman, Stephen, 9.1–9.2 gun running, 2.1 Guys and Dolls, 8.1 Gypsies, 8.1 Hammoud family, 12.1, 12.2 Hancock, John, 12.1 Harare, Zimbabwe, 12.1 Harlem, N.Y.


pages: 252 words: 75,349

Spam Nation: The Inside Story of Organized Cybercrime-From Global Epidemic to Your Front Door by Brian Krebs

barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, cashless society, defense in depth, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, John Markoff, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pirate software, placebo effect, ransomware, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, the payments system, transaction costs, web application

And one network above all paved the way for the rise of McColo, the Pharma Wars, and many of the junk email and cybercrime practices that threaten us and our online security today. By the middle of 2007, the Russian Business Network (RBN)—a shadowy web hosting conglomerate based in St. Petersburg, Russia—had cemented its reputation among security experts as the epicenter of cybercriminal activity on the Internet. In case after case, when computer crime investigators followed the trail of money and evidence from sites selling child pornography or pirated software, web properties at RBN were somehow always involved. When cyber sleuths sought to shutter sites that were pumping out colonies of computer viruses and “phishing” scams that use email to impersonate banks and lure people into entering account passwords at fake bank sites, more often than not, the offending site was a customer of RBN. RBN epitomized the early bulletproof hosting providers, virtual safe houses where web hosting customers could display and offer practically any online content—no matter how illegal or offensive—as long as they kept paying exorbitant hosting fees that were prone to increase without notice.

Also, the new documents explicitly call out examples of illegal transactions including “unlawful sale of prescription drugs” and “sale of counterfeit or trademark-infringing products or services,” among others. Finally, these changes include more aggressive fine schedules for noncompliance. Some of the best evidence of the success of the test-buy strategy comes directly from the folks operating the affiliate programs that reward spammers and miscreants for promoting fake antivirus and pirated software and dodgy pill sites. In June 2012, a leader of one popular pharmacy affiliate program posted a lengthy message to gofuckbiz.com, a Russian language forum that caters to a variety of such affiliate programs. In that discussion thread, which is now more than 250 pages in length, the affiliate program manager explains to a number of mystified forum members why the pharmacy programs have had so much trouble maintaining reliable credit card processing.

“Much like the Inuit Eskimos made sure to use every piece of the whale, we’re seeing an evolution now where botmasters are carefully mining infected systems and monetizing the data they can find,” Savage said. “The mantra these days seems to be, ‘Why leave any unused resources on the table’?” While some are using ransomware and data harvesting, Savage said, many other former affiliates and managers of failed scareware, pharma, and pirated software partnerkas are casting about for the next big thing. “It’s a period of innovation, and people clearly are looking around for another sweet spot that’s as good as pharma, which made more money more reliably than anything else out there,” he said. “A few affiliate programs are trying to peddle pirated e-books and movies; others are getting into [advertising] payday loans. There are now tons of programs that will write term papers for students.


pages: 302 words: 85,877

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

A girl who went by “Lady Carolin,” actually named Carolin (Carrie) Campbell, got to know Warlord from his board and then joined cDc at age fifteen, making the group one of the small minority with female representation. Obscure Images, the handle of artistic Chicagoland teen Paul Leonard, regularly graced Matt’s board, Pure Nihilism, before becoming another mainstay of cDc. “I’m the pretty much standard-issue, sort-of nerd, moody loner outcast kid,” Paul said later. Paul had hung around boards that emphasized trading pirated software, and he was friendly with one of the leading lights of the scene, before the young man became the first person to be tried and convicted under the 1986 hacking law, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. After that, Paul was looking for something more fun and more legal. “The cDc people were, at least for the most part, up until the later 1990s, more interested in writing, music, art, and that sort of thing,” Paul said.

Computing was still arcane but getting more and more usable, bringing knowledge closer to people everywhere. Texas had what might seem like a surprisingly strong crop of young hackers. In addition to the arts wing of the hacking community, represented by the earliest members of the Cult of the Dead Cow, there were plenty of others who operated mild-mannered bulletin boards for commentary, community, and, in some cases, conspiracy. On the darker end of the spectrum, some specialized in pirated software and credit cards as well as tips for breaking into big machines at phone companies, corporations, and government agencies. But Texas is a big place, and hackers there had a harder time getting together than their cohorts in New York, Boston, or San Francisco. That kept them from hanging out as much as their peers elsewhere, which meant less fun, less trust, and less deep collaboration and progress.

Sometimes, the administrator would bark at him to leave. Other times, employees would ask him to avoid a certain area. But most often, no one complained. Given Mudge’s attitude, his skills, and the LoD and MoD members he hung around with, many of his friends believe Mudge did other things that would be harder to defend in the light of day. Officially, he denies having broken the law, even by uploading pirated software to the trading sites he visited. He admits only that he got unwanted attention from the authorities due to his explorations. Others who might know differently could have a tough time proving it was really Mudge they were dealing with. When it came time to fill out forms to apply for a US government security clearance, Mudge’s list of aliases ran for ten pages. Obviously Mudge had been up to something—so much so, he joked, that when the Chinese stole his and millions of other people’s SF-86 security-clearance applications in 2015, they must have thought they were being trolled: no one with his history could have gotten a clearance.


pages: 315 words: 93,522

How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy by Stephen Witt

4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, moral panic, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day

Probably it was late in 1996, or maybe early in 1997, when Glover first heard the good news: not only was there a brisk trade in pirated software, but there existed a growing channel for pirated music as well. This perplexed Glover, who knew from memory that a compact disc held more than 700 megabytes of data. Doing the mental arithmetic, he figured that it would take nearly an hour to download a CD, and the resulting file would take up more than 70 percent of his computer’s storage. Trading pirated music was a technical possibility, he supposed, but an impractical one. But Glover was directed to a new IRC channel: #mp3. There, among thousands upon thousands of users, engaged in complex technical chatter and trading profane, often racially charged insults, he found CD music files that had somehow been shrunk to one-twelfth of their original size. Those warez guys, it turned out, didn’t just pirate software. Music, games, magazines, pictures, pornography, fonts—they pirated anything that could be compressed.

Getting a disk in the mail—or, less commonly, in a hand-to-hand transfer—was like Christmas morning, with royalty-free versions of Duke Nukem and Wing Commander under the tree. Now, on IRC, every day was Christmas, with a preprogrammed script known as a “bot” playing the role of automated Santa, instantly filling your wish list of cracked files on demand. With satellite download, you could fill your 1-gigabyte hard drive with pirated software in a matter of hours. The cracked files were known as “warez,” an ironic derivation of “software.” Warez was a singular term; it was also a plural one, and a subculture, and a lifestyle. Soon Glover was spending a lot of time in IRC’s #warez channel—too much time, as he later would admit. Before it became a widespread phenomenon, Glover was addicted to the Internet. In addition to the street bikes and the pit bulls and the Quad Squad, there were now the continuing online adventures of ADEG.


pages: 345 words: 105,722

The Hacker Crackdown by Bruce Sterling

Apple II, back-to-the-land, game design, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Silicon Valley, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

The first police sting-boards were established in 1985: "Underground Tunnel" in Austin, Texas, whose sysop Sgt. Robert Ansley called himself "Pluto"—"The Phone Company" in Phoenix, Arizona, run by Ken MacLeod of the Maricopa County Sheriff's office—and Sgt. Dan Pasquale's board in Fremont, California. Sysops posed as hackers, and swiftly garnered coteries of ardent users, who posted codes and loaded pirate software with abandon, and came to a sticky end. Sting boards, like other boards, are cheap to operate, very cheap by the standards of undercover police operations. Once accepted by the local underground, sysops will likely be invited into other pirate boards, where they can compile more dossiers. And when the sting is announced and the worst offenders arrested, the publicity is generally gratifying.

But anti-hacker police point out that magazines and newspapers (more traditional forms of free expression) never publish stolen telephone codes (even though this might well raise their circulation). Stolen credit card numbers, being riskier and more valuable, were less often publicly posted on boards—but there is no question that some underground boards carried "carding" traffic, generally exchanged through private mail. Underground boards also carried handy programs for "scanning" telephone codes and raiding credit card companies, as well as the usual obnoxious galaxy of pirated software, cracked passwords, blue-box schematics, intrusion manuals, anarchy files, porn files, and so forth. But besides their nuisance potential for the spread of illicit knowledge, bulletin boards have another vitally interesting aspect for the professional investigator. Bulletin boards are cram-full of EVIDENCE. All that busy trading of electronic mail, all those hacker boasts, brags and struts, even the stolen codes and cards, can be neat, electronic, real-time recordings of criminal activity.

Now, at last, we were getting to the real nitty-gritty here, real political horse-trading. The audience listened with close attention, angry mutters rising occasionally: "He's trying to teach us our jobs!" "We've been thinking about this for years! We think about these issues every day!" "If I didn't seize the works, I'd be sued by the guy's victims!" "I'm violating the law if I leave ten thousand disks full of illegal PIRATED SOFTWARE and STOLEN CODES!" "It's our job to make sure people don't trash the Constitution—we're the DEFENDERS of the Constitution!" "We seize stuff when we know it will be forfeited anyway as restitution for the victim!" "If it's forfeitable, then don't get a search warrant, get a forfeiture warrant," Godwin suggested coolly. He further remarked that most suspects in computer crime don't WANT to see their computers vanish out the door, headed God knew where, for who knows how long.


pages: 500 words: 146,240

Gamers at Work: Stories Behind the Games People Play by Morgan Ramsay, Peter Molyneux

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bob Noyce, collective bargaining, game design, index card, Mark Zuckerberg, oil shock, pirate software, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Von Neumann architecture

When EA and Trip decided to reverse engineer the Sega Master System, and started doing sports games for the system, EA really took off. He asked MicroProse to join him in that effort, and I decided it was not the right thing to do. I missed a real opportunity there to combine with EA. Ramsay: He didn’t mention that in his interview. Stealey: No, he wouldn’t. I tell you, the first few games on the Apple by EA were not giant sellers. There were some real classics, but Apple users were notorious for pirating software rather than buying. The Sega deal was their big breakout effort. Ramsay: You were trying to set up an office for MicroProse in Europe. Weren’t you racing against EA to do that? Stealey: You should have seen us. Trip and I were sitting at a trade show in 1988, trying to convince each other to close down each other’s European operations. We beat EA to Europe. We were already in Europe selling products in 1986.

Index 1st Playable Productions, Tobi Saulnier, 261–280 3D gameplay, 302 3D Home Architect, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127, 129 3DO Company, 1, 10–12 989 Studios, 169–170 1830 board game, Avalon Hill, 50 2600 console, 17, 33–34 A Able, Robert, 243 acquisitions of Sierra On-Line, 201–206 by SOE, 191 Activision, 6, 100, 103 Adam, Phil, 96 addiction, to EverQuest game, 177–178 Adventure International, Doug and Gary Carlston, 122–123 advertising, Darkwatch game, 253–254 advisors external, 28, 111 Tobi Saulnier, 266 Age of Empires, Tony Goodman, 67–68, 70–73, 76–77 Air Force Academy, Wild Bill Stealey, 37 Air Warrior, Don Daglow, 157 alarm clock, in EverQuest game, 177 Albanian American Development Foundation, 132 Albanian American Enterprise Fund, 132 algorithms, 40 Alpha Protocol, 87 Altman, Robert, 281, 291 Ampex Corporation, 18, 21 Ancient Art of War, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 Anderson, Jason, 94–97, 100, 104 Andretti Racing, Don Daglow, 160 anti-indulgence system, 178 Antic Magazine, 41 AOL, Don Daglow, 144, 150 Apple, 258–259 Trip Hawkins' time at, 2, 7–8 users, pirating software, 47 apps, game, 257–259 Appy Entertainment, Chris Ulm, 251–260 arcade games, 13 Arcanum, Tim Cain, 96–100 Archon game, 5 artists, software, 4–5 assets, reusing, 88–89 Atari, 7, 197 acquisition by Warner Communications, 32–35 Bushnell's leaving, 34–35 buying out of Dabney, 32 competition, 31 culture at, 31 Doug and Gary Carlston, 126 growth of, 24–27, 29–30 licensing with Nutting Associates, 22–23 location of, 23 Nolan Bushnell, 17–36 online game business, 31–32 overview, 17 Pong, 27–28 role in market crash, 33 startup of, 18–22 Tim Cain, 100–101 AtariTel, 31–32 Avalon Hill, 50–51 Avellone, Chris, 80, 85, 96 B Baer, Ralph, 28 Bally Manufacturing, 24, 26, 30 Balsam, David, 128 Bank Street Writer, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127, 129 BannerMania, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 Barnett, Mike, 287 Bayne, Gresham, 316 Becker, Alan, 308 benefits, employee 1st Playable, 264, 280 Naughty Dog, 311 Bennette, David, 154 Bethesda Softworks, 89, 281–295 Bigham, Dane, 129 Billings, Joel, 144 BioWare, 85–86 Black Isle Studios, closure of, 79 Blackley, Seamus, 112 Blair, Gerry, 50 Boog-Scott, John, 61–62, 67 books, written by Ken Williams, 206 The Bourne Conspiracy game, 256 Boyarsky, Leonard, 94–97, 100, 104 brand extension, focus on at Sierra On-Line, 200 Brathwaite, Brenda, 149 Braun, Jeff, 237 Bricklin, Dan, 39 Bröderbund, 6 Don Daglow, 133, 135–137, 144 Doug and Gary Carlston, 122, 132 Brubaker, Lars, 82 Buchignani, Mark, 141 Budge, Bill, 5 budgets, for Sierra On-Line projects, 203–204 building engines, 87 Bunnett, David, 141 Bunten, Dan, 5–6 Burr, Egan, Deleage ' Co, Doug and Gary Carlston, 131 Busch, Kurt, 234 Bushnell, Nolan, 241 business aspects, Verant Interactive, 173–174 business is war philosophy, 196 business planning Atari, 20 Oddworld Inhabitants, 223–225 Verant Interactive, 172 Wild Bill Stealey, 44–45 ByVideo, 17 C CAA (Creative Artists Agency), 109–110 Cabbage Patch Kids, 268–269 Cain, Tim, cofounder of Troika Games, 93–105 Calhoun, John, 62 Call Doctor service, 316 Cameron, James, 216–217, 238 capability, 1st Playable, 277 Capcom, 254 capitalism, Lorne Lanning comments on, 221–222 Carbine Studios, Tim Cain, 105 career path Christopher Weaver, 282–283 Lorne Lanning, 209–218 Ted Price, 316–317 Tobi Saulnier, 261–263 Carlston, Cathy, 125, 130, 133 Carlston, Doug, 132–133, 135–136 Carlston Family Foundation, 132 Carlston, Gary, 132–133 Carmack, John, 149 Carmen Sandiego Don Daglow, 134 Doug and Gary Carlston, 127–128 Case, Steve, 144 cash flow, Don Daglow, 151–153 Catalyst Technologies, 17 CBS Software, 42 Cerny, Mark, 303–304, 306–307, 318–319 Chaimowitz, Ron, 233 Chapman, Thad, 62 The Chicago Coin Speedway, 24 Chicago, manufacturing in, 23 Chopper Rescue, Sid Meier, 42 Christian, Brian, 269 Chuck E.

See also EverQuest game Mattel Don Daglow, 136 Doug and Gary Carlston, 132 Maxis, Don Daglow, 134 Maxwell, Robert, 55 McDonagh, Bill, 125 McKenna, Sherry, 209, 220 career, 219 recruitment of, 210 McKinsey ' Company, 38 McNamara, Andy, 308 Media Technology, 282 medical insurance, 82 Meier, Sid, 39 Chopper Rescue, 42 Civilization, 51 cofounder of MicroProse Software, 37 F-15 Strike Eagle, 43 famous software star, 49 financial investments, 45 Floyd of the Jungle, 42 M1 Tank Platoon, 48 one-on-one selling, 43 Railroad Tycoon, 50 Silent Service, 48 Solo Flight, 43 mentoring, Don Daglow, 141–142 mentorship program, 1st Playable, 277 mergers and acquisitions, Doug and Gary Carlston, 130 MicroProse history of company name, 41 self-publishing, 47 Wild Bill Stealey, 37–57 Microsoft Flight Simulator, 44 Tony Goodman, 68–77 microtransactions, at SOE, 183–184, 191 middleware, licensing, 87 military duty, of Wild Bill Stealey, 38 Min, Art, 111 mission statement, Juntion Point Studios, 117 mobile devices, games for, 257–259 mobile games Digital Chocolate, 12–15 overview, 190 Molder, Stuart, 70, 73 Molyneux, Peter, 219 Monahan, Darren, 81 Morby, Jacqui, 197 MoveOn.org, 132 MPS Software, 41 M.U.L.E. game, 5–6 multilevel pinball machine, 27 multiplayer games, Digital Chocolate, 12–13 multiproject studios, 81 Myst, 129, 135 Mystery House game, 193, 195–196 N Nakazawa, Minoru, 123–124, 234 name recognition, Don Daglow, 153–155 Namuonglo, Thonny, 67 NanoStar platform, 13 Napster, 211 NASCAR, Don Daglow, 158–162 Naughty Dog, cofounder Jason Rubin, 297–313 Needham, John, 174 Neverwinter Nights, 144, 151, 154, 157 Neverwinter Nights 2, 87 NGE (New Game Enhancements), Star Wars Galaxies, 181–182 Nintendo, 8, 11 Nolan Bushnell, 17–36 NOVA, 132 Noyce, Bob, 28 Nutting Associates, 20, 22, 24, 30 O Obsidian Entertainment early challenges, 82–83 expansion, 81 Feargus Urquhart, 79–91 funding, 81 future of, 90 hands-on leadership, 83–84 overview, 79 owners of, 80–81 Star Wars, Knights of the Old Republic II, 84 start up of, 80 technology challenges, 86–87 Obsidian, Tim Cain, 105 Oddmob, 249 Oddworld Inhabitants, Lorne Lanning, 209, 250 Ohmert, Steve, 129 Old Time Baseball, Don Daglow, 156 Olds, Steve, 230 On Balance, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 On-Line Systems, 193–195 One on One game, 5 one-on-one selling, 43 Origin Systems, 50 Orr, Bobby, 287 Outpost game, 200–201 Overstrike, 324 Ozark Softscape, 5 P Paradox, Tony Goodman, 61–62 parents, and violent games, 182 Park Place Productions, 170 Parker, Chris, 80 payrolls, 81 PC Globe, 131 Perry, Dave, 246 personnel, hiring and management Don Daglow, 158 Doug and Gary Carlston, 125–126, 129 Tim Cain, 98–100 Tony Goodman, 64 Peters, Tom, 137 Phantasmagoria game series, 201–203 Piehl, Hudson, 141 Pillow Pets, 273 Pinball Construction Set game, 5 pinball machines, multilevel, 27 Pinkalicious, 273 Pirates!, Sid Meier, 37, 48 pirating software, Apple users, 47 Planescape, Torment, 86 PlanetSide game, 172, 184 platform development, 10–12 Platform Publishing label, 184 platforms, working with different, 186–188 PlayStation, 186–188, 319 playtesters, 50 Ploughshares Fund, 132 Pong, 25, 27–28, 30, 122 Presage, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 price of 3DO hardware, 11 Price, Ted, founder of Insomniac Games, 315–328 Print Master, 131 Print Shop, 127–128, 131, 133 Program Store, Doug and Gary Carlston, 123 projects selection of at SOE, 179–180 selection of at Verant Interactive, 175 walking away from, 90 public company, Electronic Arts as, 8–9 publisher-developer industry, 24 publishers, Darkwatch game, 253–254 publishing games, Don Daglow, 134–136 publishing process, at Electronic Arts, 4–5, 9 Q quality of life 1st Playable, 278 Bethesda Softworks, 294 Quantum Computer Services, Don Daglow, 144 R Railroad Tycoon, 37, 50 Ratchet ' Clank, Going Commando, 322–323 rating system, 182–183 Raymo, Rick, 234 recruiting development talent Christopher Weaver, 293 Oddworld Inhabitants, 230–231 Tobi Saulnier, 265–266 Red Baron game, 39 Rein, Mark, 248 Reiner, Andy, 308 reinforcement, variable-ratio, 14 Renaissance, Tony Goodman, 63 research, at Verant Interactive, 176 Resistance, Fall of Man, 323–324 rest system, 178 retail distribution of online games, 188 retail experience, Apple, 259 reusable code, Tony Goodman, 61 reusing technology, 88–89 reviews of games, 89, 115 Rhythm and Hues, 210–211 Rings of Power, 299 Rise of Rome, 70 risk, reducing from publishers perspective, 91 Roberts, Chris, 246 Roberts, Ty, 154 Robot Entertainment, Tony Goodman, 77–78 Rolie Polie Olie, 269 Romero, John, 149 royalties Doug and Gary Carlston, 126–129 Tony Goodman, 72 Rubin, Jason, 297–313 S sale, of Sierra On-Line, 197–199 Salzburg Seminar, 132 Sammy Studios, 251–252 SCEA (Sony Computer Entertainment America), 169 Schilling, Curt, 51 Schlichting, Mark, 128 Schmidt, Fred, 50 Schram, Scott, 129 security of game business, 111 Sega, 9–11, 47 self-publishing MicroProse, 47 Tony Goodman, 62–63, 68 Shanks, Russell, 170, 173–174 Shannon, Lorelei, 201 sharing technology, 86 Shelley, Bruce, 67, 71 shopping experience, Apple, 259 Sierra On-Line, 126, 193–207 Sierra, Tim Cain, 98, 100 Silent Service, 37, 48 SimCity, 134, 248 Sirius Software, 126 Ski Stud, 298 skin in the game, 284 Lorne Lanning, 223–224 Tobi Saulnier, 271 Skyrim, 281 Smedley, John, cofounder of Verant Interactive, 169–191 Smith, Jay, 5 Smith, Rob, 177 Smuggers group, 39 social games, 12–14, 189–190, 257 SOE (Sony Online Entertainment), 169–175, 178–191 SoftKey (The Learning Company), Doug and Gary Carlston, 131–132 SoftSel, 7 software artists, at Electronic Arts, 4–5 cost of, 217 legitimate, 81 Software Development Corporation, 2 Software Publishers Association, 49, 53 Solo Flight, 43–44 Meier, Sid, 43 Sony, 11 Sony Computer Entertainment America (SCEA), 169 Sony Imagesoft, 170 Sony Online Entertainment (SOE), 169–175, 178–191 Sony PlayStation, 302, 319 Sovereign game, 172 Spector, Caroline, 110 Spectrum Holobyte, 37, 54 Spinnaker company, 197–199 sports games, 170 SportsDashboards, 132 Spyro, 320–321 Squad Leader, Avalon Hill, 51 Square, 188 SSI, Don Daglow, 144, 149–150 St.


pages: 106 words: 22,332

Cancel Cable: How Internet Pirates Get Free Stuff by Chris Fehily

Firefox, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, WikiLeaks

Chapter 15 – Applications and Games A sampling of software that you can download: Business and home — accounting, communication, database, flowcharting, networking, personal finance, presentation, project management, reports and forms, schedule and contact management, spreadsheet, tax prep, training, travel, word processing Children — activities, art, early learning, games, interactive books, literature, math, nature, reading, reference, science, socialization, parental controls, problem solving, virtual pets Creative — 3D, animation, clip art, cooking, fashion, hobbies, illustration, music and audio, photo and video editing, publishing Education and reference — arts, culture, dictionaries, encyclopedias, foreign languages, geography, history, literature, mapping, religion, science, script and screen writing, secondary education, sound libraries, test prep, typing, writing Games — all operating systems, mobile devices, and consoles Operating systems and servers Professional — 3D modeling, architecture, drafting/CAD, forensics, IDEs and compilers, engineering, legal, mapping/GIS, mathematics, medical, statistics, virtualization, web development Utility — antimalware, archivers, backup, disk authoring, drive partitioning, file conversion, firewalls, image mounting, privacy, screen capture, security, text editors, voice recognition Pirating software is dicier than pirating media (movies, music, and so on) because the former must be installed and poses a greater threat of malware (Chapter 4). When browsing for software torrents, look for popular releases by reputable piracy groups. Some installations are easy, but you’re usually at the mercy of the torrent’s installation instructions. These instructions come in a separate .txt, .nfo, .rtf, or .html file and range from lucidly comprehensive to cryptically terse.


pages: 307 words: 88,180

AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order by Kai-Fu Lee

AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, ImageNet competition, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, new economy, pattern recognition, pirate software, profit maximization, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Y Combinator

All of these habits came in handy when Guo decided to turn his slice of Beijing into the Silicon Valley of China, a hotbed for indigenous Chinese innovation. The year was 2010, and Guo was responsible for the influential Zhongguancun (“jong-gwan-soon”) technology zone in northwest Beijing, an area that had long branded itself as China’s answer to Silicon Valley but had not really lived up to the title. Zhongguancun was chock-full of electronics markets selling low-end smartphones and pirated software but offered few innovative startups. Guo wanted to change that. To kick-start that process, he came to see me at the offices of my newly founded company, Sinovation Ventures. After spending a decade representing the most powerful American technology companies in China, in the fall of 2009 I left Google China to establish Sinovation, an early-stage incubator and angel investment fund for Chinese startups.

At the time, China was in the throes of export-driven growth and urbanization, two projects that required engineering expertise that the country lacked. So officials turned the walking street into a “Book City” packed with stores carrying modern science and engineering textbooks for students at nearby Tsinghua and Peking University to pore over. By the year 2010, the rise of the Chinese internet had driven many of the bookstores out of business, replacing them with small storefronts hawking cheap electronics and pirated software—the raw ingredients of China’s copycat era. But Guo wanted to turbocharge an upgrade to a new era of indigenous innovation. His original small-scale experiment in attracting Sinovation Ventures via rent subsidies had succeeded, and so Guo planned to refurbish an entire street for high-tech tenants. He and the local district government used a combination of cash subsidies and offers of space elsewhere to move out almost all the traditional businesses on the street.


pages: 363 words: 105,039

Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers by Andy Greenberg

air freight, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, clean water, data acquisition, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global supply chain, hive mind, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, pirate software, pre–internet, profit motive, ransomware, RFID, speech recognition, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

The Obama administration had objected to the release until the last minute. Even then, through that spring, Lee says he found himself combating misinformed or Pollyannaish government officials who had told energy utilities the Ukrainian attacks couldn’t have occurred in the United States. Representatives from the Department of Energy and NERC had comforted grid operators that the Ukrainians had used pirated software, had left their networks unsecured, and hadn’t even run antivirus software. None of that was true, according to Lee and Assante. But above all, Lee argued that the U.S. government had made an even greater, irreparable mistake: not simply being slow to warn the public and potential targets about Sandworm, or downplaying its dangers, but failing to send a message to Sandworm itself—or anyone else who might follow its path.

With the news that a security patch was available, a new question arose: How many people had actually installed that patch? Updating software protections around the world has never been a simple fix so much as a complex epidemiological problem. Systems administrators neglect patches, or don’t account for all their computers, or skip patches for fear they’ll break features of software they need, or run pirated software that doesn’t receive patches at all. All of that means getting a security update out to vulnerable machines is often as involved and imperfect a process as getting humans around the world vaccinated, long after a vaccine is discovered. Over the next days, hints of the population of machines still unpatched against EternalBlue began to emerge. Security researchers had no way to determine the number of EternalBlue attacks directly, but they could scan the internet for another complementary piece of NSA malware called DoublePulsar, a backdoor program that had also been released by the Shadow Brokers and that was designed to be installed by EternalBlue on target machines.


Practical Packet Analysis: Using Wireshark to Solve Real-World Network Problems by Chris Sanders

Debian, peer-to-peer, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment

Looking at the port number is a good way to identify the type of traffic. A quick search for this port number at http://www.iana.org will list the services associated with this port. Summary The Gnutella network is commonly used for the downloading and distribution of various file types. This idea may sound great at first, but unfortunately, it has resulted in a large peer-to-peer network of pornography as well as pirated software, movies, and music. In this scenario, it seems that Tina, or someone using Tina's computer, has installed some form of Gnutella client in order to download pornographic material. Final Thoughts If you look at way each of these scenarios was resolved, you will notice that most of the problems were not actually network related. This is pretty common when it comes to complaints about a slow network.


pages: 190 words: 53,970

Eastern standard tribe by Cory Doctorow

airport security, call centre, forensic accounting, high net worth, moral panic, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, pirate software, Silicon Valley, the payments system

I refrain from mentioning Alphie's propensity for lapses in judgment. "Wow," Alphie said. "That's a bummer. We should do something, you know, Audie?" "Not really my area of expertise," Audie said in clipped tones. "I would if I could, you know that, right Art? We're family, after all." "Oh, sure," I say magnanimously. But now that I'm looking at them, my cousins who got into a thousand times more trouble than I ever did, driving drunk, pirating software, growing naughty smokables in the backyard, and got away from it unscathed, I feel a stirring of desperate hope. "Only..." "Only what?" Alphie said. "Only, maybe, Audie, do you think you could, that is, if you've got the time, do you think you could have a little look around and see if any of your contacts could maybe set me up with a decent lawyer who might be able to get my case reheard?


pages: 172 words: 54,066

The End of Loser Liberalism: Making Markets Progressive by Dean Baker

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, financial innovation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, medical residency, patent troll, pets.com, pirate software, price stability, quantitative easing, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, transaction costs

[97] The “say on pay” provision of the Dodd-Frank financial reform bill requires companies to have nonbinding shareholder votes on executive compensation packages. This is a step forward that will at least call greater attention to outlandish pay packages, but by itself is likely to have little effect on CEO pay. [98] This figure is derived from the industry’s claim that the value that it assigns to “pirated” software was $59 billion in 2010 and that this was equal to 42 percent of total software shipments; see Business Software Alliance (2011). [99] Milliot (2010). [100] Newzoo (2011). [101] There is a whole industry of “patent trolls,” individuals or firms that buy up patents with the hope of finding a major innovation that is arguably derivative of the patent in question. The profit comes from filing a patent infringement suit.


pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost

Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

Besides acting as a swap shop for computer components and programming tips, it provided a forum for the computer-hobbyist and computer-liberation cultures to meld. During the first quarter of 1975, MITS received over $1 million in orders for the Altair 8800 and launched its first “worldwide” conference. Speakers at the conference included Ed Roberts, Gates and Allen as the developers of Altair BASIC, and the computer-liberation guru Ted Nelson. At the meeting Gates launched a personal diatribe against hobbyists who pirated software. This was a dramatic position: he was advocating a shift in culture from the friendly sharing of free software among hobbyists to that of an embryonic branch of the software-products industry. Gates encountered immense hostility—his speech was, after all, the very antithesis of computer liberation. But his position was eventually accepted by producers and consumers, and over the next two years it was instrumental in transforming the personal computer from a utopian ideal into an economic artifact.

It was around this time that he teamed up with Steve Jobs, five years his junior, and together they went into business making “blue boxes”—gadgets that mimicked dial tones, enabling telephone calls to be made for free. While blue boxes were not illegal to make and sell, using them was illegal, as it defrauded the phone companies of revenues; but many of these hobbyists regarded it as a victimless crime—and in the moral climate of the West Coast computer hobbyist, it was pretty much on a par with pirating software. This in itself is revealing of how far cultural attitudes would shift as the personal computer made the transition from hobby to industry. Despite his lack of formal qualifications, Wozniak’s engineering talent was recognized and he found employment in the calculator division of Hewlett-Packard (HP) in 1973; were it not for what amounted to a late-twentieth-century form of patronage that prevailed in the California electronics industry, Wozniak might have found his career confined to that of a low-grade technician or repairman.


pages: 285 words: 58,517

The Network Imperative: How to Survive and Grow in the Age of Digital Business Models by Barry Libert, Megan Beck

active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversification, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Oculus Rift, pirate software, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Wall-E, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Property, plant, and equipment (PPE) Payroll for employees who provide services to customers Research and development for software, patents, and other IP Building and evangelizing a network or platform What does top talent usually do at your firm? Plant, production, and operations Client or customer services Research and development Digital development (cloud, big data analytics, social, and mobile) What risks are of greatest concern to your organization? Damage to PPE, loss of inventory Loss of key employees Inability to protect your IP (pirated software, generic drugs, etc.) Loss or declining loyalty of customers Which of the following activities is most important for the competitive success of your organization? Efficient manufacturing, distribution, and operations Hiring the right talent and keeping utilization up Protecting IP and developing new technologies Creating customer interactions and tapping in to the crowd What KPIs are the most important for leaders to track in your firm?


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

While a number of reporters framed Freedom’s appeal in terms of consumer protection, others focused on the potential for cybercriminals to hide their nefarious deeds behind a pseudonymous veil. In December 1999, David E. Kalish of the Associated Press described Zero-Knowledge Systems as “a peddler of cyberspace disguises,” and said, “While the service is intended to give Internet users greater privacy to communicate ideas or shop online, critics worry it could also allow the unscrupulous to fearlessly send abusive e-mail and exchange illegal goods such as child pornography and pirated software.”18 While Hill admits that some Freedom users abused the system—threats against the president of the United States were depressingly common—he says, “We saw thousands of more positive uses of our technology than ever negative.” In fact, Freedom was designed from the ground up to discourage abuse, from the monetary cost of the service to its implementation of pseudonymous, not anonymous, identities.


pages: 1,136 words: 73,489

Working in Public: The Making and Maintenance of Open Source Software by Nadia Eghbal

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, death of newspapers, Debian, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, Induced demand, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, node package manager, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, pull request, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, urban planning, web application, wikimedia commons, Zimmermann PGP

Music purchased on iTunes had limits on the number of times it could be shared with others, a constraint embedded directly into the song file. The bundling strategy still works in some instances. Apple still commoditizes software by keeping it tightly coupled with its hardware. Big game companies, like Microsoft Xbox, PlayStation, and Nintendo, also combine game software with a hardware platform lock-in. But it was always possible to pirate software, or to photocopy a book containing code. And as our lives moved increasingly online, code and physical form began to slide apart even further. Code by itself is not, and has never been, worth anything, and consumers already know this intuitively when they refuse to directly pay for it. These lessons were memorably encapsulated by Bill Gates’s attempts to sell BASIC in the 1970s. BASIC was the software used to run Altair, a personal computer made by a company called Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS).


pages: 264 words: 79,589

Kingpin: How One Hacker Took Over the Billion-Dollar Cybercrime Underground by Kevin Poulsen

Apple II, Brian Krebs, Burning Man, corporate governance, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, index card, Kickstarter, McMansion, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, packet switching, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, traffic fines, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zipcar

BSU professor Alexander Feldman discussed Max’s computer ban in an interview and said Max had probed other computers. 6 The sheriff called BSU’s network administrator at two in the morning: Interview with Greg Jahn, a former BSU system administrator responsible for locking down Max’s account and preserving his files. Chapter 3: The Hungry Programmers 1 Idaho’s Supreme Court ruled: State v. Townsend, 124 Idaho 881, 865 P.2d 972 (1993). 2 Max found an unprotected FTP file server: Cinco Network, Inc. v. Max Butler, 2:96-cv-1146, U.S. District Court, Western District of Washington. Max confirms this account but says he was primarily interested in distributing music files, not pirated software. 3 Chris Beeson, a young agent: The details of Max’s assistance to the FBI come from court filings by the defense attorney in his subsequent criminal case, USA v. Max Ray Butler, 5:00-cr-20096, U.S. District Court, Northern District of California. Details of his recruitment and his relationship with the agents come from interviews with Max and Max’s Internet writings immediately following his guilty plea.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Some of its more famous members included the Apple founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak.14 Gates drew the ire of the Homebrew Computer Club by selling something that had previously been given away free—a terrible development for hobbyists. Microsoft’s first software product, Altair BASIC, was sold at a time that software was generally bundled with a hardware purchase. Homebrew members famously started to circulate illegal copies of the software at the group’s meetings—arguably the first instance of pirating software. The Homebrew members were annoyed by a young Gates trying to sell software—it should be free! An angry Gates published an “Open Letter to Hobbyists” in the Homebrew Computer Club’s newsletter, writing, “As the majority of Hobbyists must be aware, most of you steal your software.”15 Jobs and Wozniak, born of the Homebrew Computer Club, took a different approach. The ads that appeared in 1976 for their first Apple computer announced that “our philosophy is to provide software for our machines free or at minimal cost” and “yes folks, Apple BASIC is Free.”16 1984 During the decade after Computer Lib, as personal computers became fixtures in American homes and as computer companies became established organizations in their own right, the notion that personal computers represented a naked challenge to the centralized power of both computing and larger institutions persisted.


pages: 256 words: 83,469

Surprisingly Down to Earth, and Very Funny: My Autobiography by Limmy

impulse control, pirate software, placebo effect

I went to the course. It was in this wee business-centre place, and there were about a dozen people doing it. Some of them were only doing it for that extra bit of money on their giro, just spending their time on chatrooms. But I really wanted a job, I really wanted that placement. I listened to what these tutor folk were saying, I took it all in, I read up on stuff myself, I went up the Barras and got all the pirate software, and got tuned right into it. I was fucking gasping to get out of my situation. Near the end of my course, which was eight weeks or something, I’d put together a wee portfolio of odds and ends that I’d made. I’d made some basic websites, I did some Photoshop stuff, general all-rounder things. It was enough for me to get a placement at a company called Black, these bigshots, maybe the best in Scotland.


pages: 274 words: 85,557

DarkMarket: Cyberthieves, Cybercops and You by Misha Glenny

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, BRICs, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, James Watt: steam engine, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pirate software, Potemkin village, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stuxnet, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, zero day

His break with the game did not mean an end to his fascination with computers in general. He had loved them ever since he had first played with one as a nine-year-old in Sri Lanka. Lack of money had ensured he never had regular access, but he overcame that problem in his early twenties by accepting a place to study computer science at London’s Westminster University. Soon afterwards Renu had discovered warez, pirated software programs whose security systems had been cracked and distributed among devotees known collectively as The Scene. It was a world where he could be with friends and alone, at one and the same time. 10 GAME THEORY Eislingen, Baden-Württemberg, 2001 Just as Renu was exploring The Scene for the first time, 500 miles away in southern Germany another young computer user had stumbled across the same mysterious community.


pages: 362 words: 86,195

Fatal System Error: The Hunt for the New Crime Lords Who Are Bringing Down the Internet by Joseph Menn

Brian Krebs, dumpster diving, fault tolerance, Firefox, John Markoff, Menlo Park, offshore financial centre, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular electronics, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, zero day

He found 555 addresses that tried to infect visitors’ Web browsers, 47 containing child porn, 15 with conventional porn, 8 providing command-and-control functions that managed botnets, 5 selling scareware (the fake anti-spyware programs that trick users into thinking a download will scan and secure their computers), 4 used in financial fraud, 3 offering to pay outsiders to install malicious programs on PCs, 2 holding masses of pirated software, and 1 recruiting mules to move money around the planet. Until 2007, when the RBN got too much attention and dropped its public website, it had an official responsible for handling abuse complaints. The official generally demanded a Russian court order before cutting anyone off. But that’s not to say the company didn’t take note of such complaints—according to Zenz, it warned customers that if there was too much heat from what they were doing, it would have to charge them more.


pages: 338 words: 92,385

NeoAddix by Jon Courtenay Grimwood

8-hour work day, double helix, Kickstarter, pirate software, Silicon Valley, stealth mode startup, stem cell

Hastily ripping a Velcro strap from her hip, the young black refugee dropped a small, burningly hot oblong box onto her untidy bed. Which was where her Walkwear usually lived. One windowless room at the top of a London towerblock didn’t really give her space enough put things in neat piles. As well as the bed with its clutter of dirty clothes, tattered sheets of yesterday’s fax and scattered cards of pirate software, the room had a small carbonfibre and veneer table covered with half-eaten Jamaican take-away and a plastic chair with a cracked back, which was too uncomfortable to use. There was also a shower cubicle, tucked away in a corner, but most of the time the water didn’t work. It was years since the roads outside had been repaired, and the weight of passing trucks had long since fractured the old clay pipes.


pages: 369 words: 90,630

Mindwise: Why We Misunderstand What Others Think, Believe, Feel, and Want by Nicholas Epley

affirmative action, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, friendly fire, invisible hand, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, payday loans, Peter Singer: altruism, pirate software, Richard Thaler, school choice, social intelligence, the scientific method, theory of mind

You cover meals for friends while traveling and submit the receipts for reimbursement YES – 86% 72% NO – 14% 60% You pace your work to avoid getting new tasks YES – 23% 55% NO – 77% 68% You call in sick to get a day off YES – 71% 66% NO – 29% 64% You bluff about the money you currently make in a negotiation with a potential employer YES – 53% 61% NO – 47% 71% You agree to perform a task you have no real intention of performing YES – 73% 68% NO – 27% 69% You take office supplies from your office for personal use YES – 66% 62% NO – 43% 65% You pirate software from work and install it on your home computer YES – 94% 72% NO – 6% 56% You withhold information from colleagues who are competing for the same promotion YES – 25% 69% NO – 75% 52% You download copyrighted materials (songs, videos) without paying for them while working YES – 70% 69% NO – 30% 66% I asked my MBA students whether they considered various business practices to be unethical.


pages: 297 words: 90,806

Blood, Sweat, and Pixels: The Triumphant, Turbulent Stories Behind How Video Games Are Made by Jason Schreier

cloud computing, crowdsourcing, game design, Google Hangouts, gravity well, index card, inventory management, iterative process, Kickstarter, pirate software, side project, spice trade, trade route

With light blue eyes and a face that seemed to be in a constant state of stubble, Iwiński was one of many teenagers in Warsaw, Poland, who wished he could just play the same games as everyone else in the world. Until 1989, Poland was a Communist country, and even in the early 1990s, as the newly democratic Third Polish Republic began embracing the free market, there was nowhere in Warsaw to buy games legally. There were, however, “computer markets,” open-air bazaars where the city’s geeks would unite to buy, sell, and trade pirated software. Polish copyright laws were essentially nonexistent, so there was nothing illegal about ripping a foreign computer game to a floppy disk, then selling it for cheap at the market. Marcin Iwiński and his high school friend Michał Kiciński would spend all their spare time at the markets, bringing home whatever they could find to play on their old ZX Spectrum computers. In 1994, when he was twenty, Iwiński started envisioning a business that would import and distribute computer games throughout the country.


pages: 342 words: 95,013

The Zenith Angle by Bruce Sterling

airport security, Burning Man, cuban missile crisis, digital map, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Iridium satellite, market bubble, new economy, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, Y2K

Fawn was a practiced eBay hand. Fawn bought most of her clothes there, from tiny New Age retailers who made anti-allergenic clothing. Now Fawn bought herself a set of fake eBay IDs for “security reasons.” Soon she was elbow-deep in a web of electronic transactions that Van had no time or energy to oversee. The 350 used PCs showed up very quickly. Most of their hard disks were crammed with pirate software, viruses, and pornography, but that posed no problems. Van stuck the 350 PC motherboards into hand-welded frames. He installed a completely new operating system that turned them all into small components of a monster system. Grendel was installed in a spare Internet rack in the bowels of the Vault, directly connected to all-powerful servers in the NSA’s Fort Meade. Days later, Van’s office furniture arrived.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

Radical Hindu fundamentalism, which has contributed to the rapes and deaths of thousands of Muslim Indians in the past two decades, has been aided greatly by the rise of global Internet communities devoted to developing a “pure” and portable sense of Hindu identity and thus eroding the eclectic and tolerant traditions of India. The Internet has thus fomented political and religious hatred and violence. Millions of poor people have been able to access Internet services in recent years, thanks to the proliferation of cafes and hot spots in urban India, and they have generated what Liang calls significant “illegal information cities” by using pirated software, discarded or hacked hardware, and stolen electricity. But the marginal improvements to their lives have been trivial compared with the environmental and civic costs they THE GOOGL IZAT I ON OF T HE WORL D 141 have incurred and the outlandish benefits rendered to the elites. The major effects of the Internet on India thus far have been incivility and inequality, not the makings of a global civil society.62 Linguistic differences are, or course, another barrier to the creation of a genuinely global civil society.


pages: 346 words: 101,763

Confessions of a Microfinance Heretic by Hugh Sinclair

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Bernie Madoff, colonial exploitation, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, inventory management, microcredit, Northern Rock, peer-to-peer lending, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, profit motive

After the pleasantries Weng had a look through the databases and began: “How many branch you have, please?” “Now LAPO has sixty-three branches.” Weng seemed puzzled. “Sixty-three branches? All using M2 software?” “It is as you say.” “But you only bought twenty-eight licenses.” “Oh, sorry. LAPO has twenty-eight branches.” Weng had a sniff through the databases, and saw sixty-three separate files, one per branch as would be expected. This was mainly pirate software. Weng had perhaps sold only 200 or 300 licenses of his software ever, worldwide, and LAPO had apparently stolen 35 already, and according to their aggressive expansion plan were intending to steal one more license a fortnight. Weng was clearly annoyed, but I pleaded with him to continue working on the condition that I would confront the CEOs of LAPO, Grameen Foundation USA, and Triple Jump to ensure that he would be fully reimbursed for all licenses (which did in fact happen some months later), and Weng reluctantly agreed to continue.


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

activist lawyer, Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

When a little older, perhaps during adolescence, he may have sequestered himself in his bedroom, where he read every computer manual he could get his hands on and—if he was lucky enough to own a modem—connected to a bulletin board system (BBS). Thanks to the holy trinity of a computer, modem, and phone line, he began to dabble in a wider networked world where there was a real strange brew of information and software to ingest. He could not resist. He began to drink himself silly with information on UFOs, bomb building, conspiracies, and other oddities, downloading different categories of software, shareware, sometimes warez (pirated software), and eventually free software.2 Initially he spent so much time chatting he would “pass out on his keyboard, multiple times.” The parents, confusing locked doors and nocturnal living with preteen angst and isolation, wondered whether they should send their son to a psychologist. Once he met like-minded peers in high school, college, or online, the boy’s intellectual curiosity ballooned. He initiated a quest to master all the ins and outs of a technical architecture like the Linux OS, one or two computer languages, and the topographical terrain and protocols of a really cool new virtual place called the Internet.


pages: 335 words: 107,779

Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson

airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize

Whenever it ran low, he was compelled by certain murkily described safety regulations to leave me a block away from the fuel pumps while he filled it up, which imparted an air of drama to the procedure. One day, on the outskirts of Shanghai, I stumbled across a brand-new computer store with several large floral arrangements set up in front. A brass plaque identified it, imposingly enough, as the Shanghai Fanxin Computer System Application Technology Research Institute. Walking in, I saw the usual rack full of badly printed manuals for pirated software and a cardboard box brimming with long red skeins of firecrackers. The place was otherwise indistinguishable from any cut-rate consumer electronics outlet in the States, with the usual exception that it was smaller and more tightly packed together. There were a couple of dozen people there, but they weren’t acting like salespeople and customers; they were milling around talking. It turned out that they had just opened their doors something like an hour before I arrived.


pages: 302 words: 82,233

Beautiful security by Andy Oram, John Viega

Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, defense in depth, Donald Davies, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Nick Leeson, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, pirate software, Robert Bork, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, security theater, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, statistical model, Steven Levy, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, web application, web of trust, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

The company system administrative team was questioned and the unpleasant truth came out: the FTP server had a world-writable directory for customers to upload the logfiles used for troubleshooting. Unrestricted anonymous uploads were possible, as on many classic FTP servers, to a directory named incoming, and it was set up in the most insecure manner possible: anonymous users were able to read any of the files uploaded by other people. Among other things, this presents a risk of an FTP server being used by anonymous outside parties to store and exchanges pirated software. Bringing Data Back from the Dead After network log analysis, it was time for some forensics on the hard drive. We decided to look for fragments of logfiles (originally in /var/log) to confirm the nature of the attack as well as to learn other details. The investigation brought up the following log fragments from the system messages log, the network access log, and the FTP transfer log (fortunately, the FTP server was verbosely logging all transfers): Oct 1 00:08:25 ftp ftpd[27651]: ANONYMOUS FTP LOGIN FROM 10.10.7.196 [10.10.7.196], mozilla@ Oct 1 00:17:19 ftp ftpd[27649]: lost connection to 10.10.7.196 [10.10.7.196] Oct 1 00:17:19 ftp ftpd[27649]: FTP session closed Oct 1 02:21:57 ftp ftpd[27703]: ANONYMOUS FTP LOGIN FROM 10.10.7.196 [10.10.7.196], mozilla@ Oct 1 02:29:45 ftp ftpd[27731]: ANONYMOUS FTP LOGIN FROM 10.10.7.196 [192.168.2.3], x@ Oct 1 02:30:04 ftp ftpd[27731]: Can't connect to a mailserver.


pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, do-ocracy, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, low cost airline, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

When I interview hackers who were active in the 1990s about their trolling activities, the conversation inevitably turns toward a discussion of the most feared hacker troll of the era: “u4ea” (pronounced “euphoria” and eerily similar to “lulz” in its figuration). So terrifying was this troll’s reign that every time I utter or type u4ea to one of his contemporaries, their demeanor blackens and proceedings assume an unmatched seriousness. u4ea is Canadian. More notoriously, this troll was “founder, president, and dictator for life” of hacker group BRoTHeRHooD oF WaReZ. (“BoW” for short. Warez is pirated software. “BoW” is meant to poke fun at Bulletin Board System warez groups.) According to a former member who I chatted with online, the “paramilitary wing” of BoW, called “Hagis” (short for “Hackers Against Geeks in Snowsuits”), went on cruel hacking and pranking campaigns against targets ranging from corporations, “white hat” hackers, infosecurity gurus, and basically anyone else who got in their line of fire.


pages: 312 words: 93,504

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Jemielniak, 2012), that the 5 6    F o r m a l R o l e s a n d H i e rarch y number of edits becomes the single most important value indicator independent from holding democratically elected seats is likely detrimental to Wikipedia in the long term, since it deters people who would prefer to specialize in a few high-quality, major contributions. However, such a process is one of the typical symptoms of organizational bureaucratization (Blau & Scott, 1962), which I address in Chapter 4. The obsession with number of edits may be related with yet another phenomenon. For Alf Rehn (2004) warez (software pirate) communities depend on the gift-economy principle. Uploading pirated software is a symbolic gesture emphasizing participation in the community and influencing the giver’s status. Other researchers point out that open-source communities in general rely on the principle of gift giving to organize the social relations within the community (Raymond, 1999/2004; Bergquist & Ljungberg, 2001; Kelty, 2006). They are a specific “marriage of altruism and self-interest” (Rheingold, 1994, p. 58) and form a gift economy, a postcapitalist form of society (Barbrook, 1998).7 Similarly, on Wikipedia the number of contributions has a strong symbolic value used in determining an editor’s position in the group.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Given that historical memory—especially of the Stalin period—is a sensitive issue in Russia, finding fault with Memorial, which happens to be a staunch critic of the Kremlin, wouldn’t be so hard. Russian police are notorious for finding fault with the most innocuous of documents or, worse, software and operating systems. (Quite a few Russian NGOs use illegal software in their offices, often without even realizing it until it is too late; on more than one occasion, the war on pirated software, which the West expects Moscow to fight with all its vigor, has been a good excuse to exert more pressure on dissenting NGOs.) Fortunately, the courts concluded that the search had been conducted in violation of legal due process, and Memorial’s hard drives were returned in May 2009. Nevertheless, the fact that authorities had simply walked in and confiscated twenty years of work posed a lot of questions about how activists might make digital data more secure.


pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business cycle, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Y2K

Too bad we do not have time to write an entire encyclopedia of competitive innovations. We could tell of similar wonders in the American automobile industry, the Swiss and German chemical industries, the worldwide oxygen steelmaking industries, the Italian textile and fashion industries, the Swiss watch industry, the wine farms of Europe and California, the Czech and Venetian glass industries, and so on and so forth.8 “Pirating” Software The idea that a software producer – say, Microsoft – could earn a profit without copyright protection always puzzles people. Without copyright protection, wouldn’t “pirates” step in and sell cheaper imitations, putting Microsoft out of business? Although this is an interesting theory of how markets work, it is not one supported by the facts. Again, we turn to open-source software and the Linux computer operating system.


pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, animal electricity, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

“That’s where I learned how to make a computer do pretty much whatever I wanted it to do,” he says. A friend convinced him to start a company writing software for the Commodore Amiga, an early PC. “We wrote a program called Marauder, which was a program to make archival backups of copy-protected disks.” He laughs. “That’s kind of the diplomatic way of describing the program.” Basically, they created a tool that allowed users to pirate software. “So we had a little bit of a recurring revenue stream,” he says slyly. In 1985, Steve Jobs’s post-Apple company, NeXT, was still a small operation, and hungry for good engineers. There, Williamson met with two NeXT officers and one Steve Jobs. He showed them the work that he’d done on the Amiga, and they hired him on the spot. The young programmer would go on to spend the next quarter of a century in Jobs’s—and the NeXT team’s—orbit, working on the software that would become integral to the iPhone.


pages: 454 words: 139,350

Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy by Benjamin Barber

airport security, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, computer age, Corn Laws, Corrections Corporation of America, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, global village, invisible hand, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, pirate software, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, young professional, zero-sum game

Many of the transnational forces eroding national civil societies are not susceptible to interdiction at all. What just a few years ago Robert Reich called “the coming irrelevance of corporate nationality,” is not coming any more.23 It is here. Thomas Jefferson’s warning that merchants have no country has become a literal truth for the multinational corporations of McWorld. And the markets they ply nowadays are more anonymous still. How are nations to control the market in pirated software or smuggled plutonium? Who can police the world currency exchange? Has it even got an address? In order to confront Jihad, to whom does one write? And in what tone? “Dear nuclear terrorist, perhaps-covertly-supported-by-Iran, perhaps-trained-in-Ireland (or is it Libya?), probably-buying-in-Russia-or-Ukraine, possibly-associated-with-Hamas, but then again maybe not …? Please cease and desist or we will …” Then there remains the embarrassing question of what exactly it is we can or will do.


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

It looked like Barr might actually point the finger at some innocent people. In the meantime, Tflow had downloaded Barr’s e-mails onto his server, then waited about fifteen hours for them to compile into a torrent, a tiny file that linked to a larger file on a host computer somewhere else, in this case HBGary’s. It was a process that millions of people across the world used every day to download pirated software, music, or movies, and Tflow planned to put his torrent file on the most popular torrenting site around: The Pirate Bay. This meant that soon, anyone could download and read more than forty thousand of Aaron Barr’s e-mails. That morning, with about thirty hours until kickoff, Barr ran some checks on HBGaryFederal.com and, just as he had expected, saw it was getting more traffic than usual.


pages: 205 words: 18,208

The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? by David Brin

affirmative action, airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, data acquisition, death of newspapers, Extropian, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, informal economy, information asymmetry, Iridium satellite, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, open economy, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, placebo effect, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telepresence, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

While some champion the advantages of anonymity, others cite its downside. Professor Trotter Hardy, at the College of William and Mary, says, “Anonymity is power and I think it will be abused on the Net.” The White House computer network has received anonymous death threats against the president. Electronic “mail bombs” (Trojan horse programs and viruses) can now be sent anonymously, and individuals can pirate software without being traced. There is concern that digital cash, a form of electronic money that allows for untraceable financial transactions, will usher in new forms of racketeering and money laundering. An Internet site called Fakemail let people write mail from an imaginary e-mailbox, using an alias. Commonly used names included Bill Gates, Bill Clinton, Elvis, and God. The service shut down when numerous people traced harassing mail back to its source, but others have taken its place.


pages: 470 words: 144,455

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

These numbers were inflated, since they make the mendacious assumption that everyone who pirates a copy of (for example) Autodesk’s 3D Studio MAX would have otherwise paid $2,995—or $3,495 if you use the retail price rather than the street price—for it. The prevalence of software piracy greatly depends on the country: It is thought that 95 percent of the software in the People’s Republic of China is pirated, while only 50 percent of the software in Canada is pirated. (Vietnam wins, with 98 percent pirated software.) Software companies, rightfully so, are miffed at these losses. Piracy happens on different scales. There are disks shared between friends, downloads from the Internet (search under warez to find out more about this particular activity), and large-scale counterfeiting operations (usually run in the Far East). Piracy also happens to data. Whether it’s pirated CDs of copyrighted music hawked on the backstreets of Bangkok or MP3 files of copyrighted music peddled on the Web, digital intellectual property is being stolen all the time.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Suttmeier, “Assessing China’s Technology Potential,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Summer–Fall 2004, 97–105. 28. See “Red, Inc.,” Harper’s, February 2006. 29. But Western firms can profit when Chinese companies enter the marketplace rather than merely dumping products on it. For example, Lenovo’s purchase of an IBM division required it to legally install Windows operating software, transforming Microsoft from victim to winner in China in spite of all the pirated software circulating in the country. 30. This notion is both implied and supported by the doctrine of “small state, big society.” 31. According to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS), China has twelve distinct social strata, not the usual three, which is appropriate for a country of its size. 32. Most of China’s poverty eradication happened in the 1980s, when FDI was much lower, as a result of nascent private-sector lending and rural investment, which gave a boost to high-employment sectors like food processing.


pages: 547 words: 160,071

Underground by Suelette Dreyfus

airport security, invisible hand, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, zero day

Anyone could wander in, plop down at the bar and start up a conversation with a group of locals. Just ring up the system with your modem and type in your details – real name, your chosen handle, phone number and other basic information. Many BBS users gave false information in order to hide their true identities, and many operators didn’t really care. Bowen, however, did. Running a hacker’s board carried some risk, even before the federal computer crime laws came into force. Pirated software was illegal. Storing data copied from hacking adventures in foreign computers might also be considered illegal. In an effort to exclude police and media spies, Bowen tried to verify the personal details of every user on PI by ringing them at home or work. Often he was successful. Sometimes he wasn’t. The public section of PI housed discussion groups on the major PC brands – IBM, Commodore, Amiga, Apple and Atari – next to the popular Lonely Hearts group.


pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Some used the backbone of the Internet; others were more jury-rigged. In February 1978 two members of the Chicago Area Computer Hobbyists’ Exchange, Ward Christensen and Randy Suess, found themselves snowed in by a huge blizzard. They spent the time developing the first computer Bulletin Board System, which allowed hackers and hobbyists and self-appointed “sysops” (system operators) to set up their own online forums and offer files, pirated software, information, and message posting. Anyone who had a way to get online could join in. The following year, students at Duke University and the University of North Carolina, which were not yet connected to the Internet, developed another system, hosted on personal computers, which featured threaded message-and-reply discussion forums. It became known as “Usenet,” and the categories of postings on it were called “newsgroups.”


pages: 636 words: 202,284

Piracy : The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates by Adrian Johns

active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, commoditize, Corn Laws, demand response, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Marshall McLuhan, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, software patent, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, traveling salesman, Whole Earth Catalog

In other words, an Internet invasion might be a “manifesto” of public empowerment. This provoked the disintegration of the colloquy. Clifford Stoll, the exposer of the espionage ring, asked drily whether there had once been a “vandal’s ethic.” His point was that electronic neighborhoods were “built on trust,” as real ones were. Hackers eroded that foundation. No community could survive their “spreading viruses, pirating software, and destroying people’s work.” A contributor calling himself Homeboy went further still. “Are crackers really working for the free flow of information,” he asked, or were they in effect “unpaid tools of the establishment?” At this point, eight days into the conference, John Barlow (author of the Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace) suddenly denied pointblank that a system’s flaws could justify hacking into it.


pages: 772 words: 203,182

What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

“We lost a product cycle—no doubt about that,” acknowledged Jon Rubinstein, former Palm CEO and an HP vice president.33 Here is how reporter Quentin Hardy of the New York Times described the final outcome of Hurd’s tactics, commonplace across the American economy: “At one time, HP also had a vaunted reputation for advanced research at its HP Labs division, which underwent such drastic cuts under Mr. Hurd that, according to one insider, scientists were relying on pirated software to run their computers.”34 Hurd’s choices and that of HP’s board resemble too many firms across the nation. Here is how the situation is described by economists and financial advisors Yves Smith and Rob Parenteau in mid-2010: “… public companies have become obsessed with quarterly earnings. To show short-term profits, they avoid investing in future economic growth. To develop new products, buy new equipment, or expand geographically, an enterprise has to spend money….


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

But now that he and Allen were devoting every waking moment to building a software business, his outrage grew about those who thought they could get code for nothing. Only a few months into Gates and Allen’s MITS adventure, a spool of their Altair BASIC tape got into the hands of a Homebrewer, who, in classic hacker fashion, made fifty copies of it to distribute to other members. Those folks made copies for their friends, and on and on. It became, observed Gates biographers Stephen Manes and Paul Andrews, “the world’s first and most pirated software.”24 The young entrepreneur was furious, and fired off the angry note that would go down in tech history as “The Gates Letter.” In it, Gates drew enduring battle lines in the tech world. On the one side, there were the people who believed information—software—should be proprietary data, protected and paid for. On the other side were those who believed in a software universe like Homebrew: where people shared and swapped, iterated and improved, and didn’t charge a cent.


pages: 889 words: 433,897

The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey by Emmanuel Goldstein

affirmative action, Apple II, call centre, don't be evil, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, information retrieval, John Markoff, late fees, license plate recognition, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, optical character recognition, packet switching, pirate software, place-making, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RFID, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, undersea cable, Y2K

PayPal does not implement the hard parts of such a system, which require a trusted intermediary (not one who profits from every type of transaction, including illegitimate ones, as PayPal does), and strong cryptographic methods of ensuring identity while maintaining anonymity. PayPal is ubiquitous, but has flaws. Let the buyer, and the seller, beware. Hacking Answers by Gateway (Summer, 2007) By Franz Kafka I used to work as a technical support representative for Answers by Gateway and would serve as a corporate guardian to ensure that people calling in about pirated software or to help crack passwords were not helped. I have parted ways because my colleagues 729 94192c17.qxd 6/4/08 3:47 AM Page 730 730 Chapter 17 have a different mentality about hacking than I do. Most people who work as technicians (with some exceptions) can’t program in any language, not even in Visual Basic. But there are some ways the people who call in to Answers by Gateway can get help.