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Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
Thus, cultural differences in urban planning largely are expressed in group facilities and services. This observation brings up the question of how ethno-racial equity is incorporated in urban planning programs and policies. This question calls for examining both the theories and practice of planning. Multicultural Practice and Planning Theory There are two distinct views of how urban planning responds to the demands of diversity and equality. Planning theory, by and large, views urban planning as relatively unresponsive to people’s rights to differences, and the recognition of their cultural needs thereby overlooks their entitlement to equality.8 Planning practice points, as proof of its responsiveness, to the vibrant multiculturalism of North American cities, a Urban Planning for Cultural Diversity 219 thriving ethno-racial diversity in both public and private spheres, and accommodations of socio-cultural differences in policies and programs.
Domenic Vitiello observes that “planners and community development practitioners have incrementally addressed many problems immigrants face.”22 It might be also noted that in the roster of immigrants’ and minorities’ discontents with “the system,” planning policies seldom appear, except in terms of neighbourhood issues or disagreement about the use of a site. What has been happening in practice in multicultural cities to incorporate diversity is the test of the responsiveness of urban planning. The Planning System and Multiculturalism Contemporary urban planning, particularly in the United States, has been influenced by the long struggle of American Blacks for fair housing, community control, equitable services, and citizen participation in decision making. Paul Davidoff’s seminal article “Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning” transformed the conception of urban planning.23 Appearing in the midst of the civil rights movement, it presented a Urban Planning for Cultural Diversity 221 planning model that acknowledged the diversity of community interests. It put forth two ideas: (1) multiple (pluralistic) plans, each prepared from the perspective of a particular group or interest, and (2) public advocacy of plural plans and negotiations among competing interests on the bases of their plans to forge a balanced proposal.
The responsiveness of urban planning to diversity has to be assessed within the scope of this institutional framework. One cannot assess urban planning on the basis of objectives that are not part of its institutional mandate, such as being an “insurgent planner.” My focus here is on the institutionalized but comprehensive practice of area-wide planning. Yet there is community planning outside the institutionalized activity of urban planning. It occurs in neighbourhood associations, community agencies, and other non-governmental organizations for particular functions (such as neighbourhood improvement, business development, or protecting tenants’ rights) and the advocacy of community goals. I will refer to this level of planning practice later. For now, the focus of discussion is on how urban planning accommodates diversity.
Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud
autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
The economists are paralyzed; they see but do not act. The main objective of this book is to improve operational urban planning, as practiced in municipal planning departments, by applying urban economists’ knowledge (and models) to the design and planning of regulations and infrastructure. Urban economists understand the functioning of markets, while planners are often baffled by them. Unfortunately, the very valuable knowledge that has accumulated in urban economics literature has not had much impact on operational urban planning. My aim is not to develop a new urban theory but to introduce already existing urban economics knowledge into urban planning practices. Urban Planning versus Urban Economics Urban planning is a craft learned through practice. Planners must make rapid decisions that have an immediate impact on the ground.
A Personal Journey of Discovery This book is largely based on my personal experience as a practicing urban planner and on what I learned from urban economists on the job. Urban planning is a craft learned mostly in the field. I worked in many cities and many countries during a professional career of about 55 years. Every new project and every new city contributed to my experience and knowledge. I have been a resident urban planner for seven cities and consulted for more than fifty cities. I’m now working at New York University, where I teach planners and urban economists from around the world. I try to reflect this experience throughout this book. Some readers might deplore the fact that I do not devote much space to a critical review of urban planning theory. Indeed, in this book I do not refer often to academic debates about the nature of urban planning, or to the urban planning literature. By contrast, I often quote academic urban economists, precisely because this discipline appears to me more relevant to understanding the problem at hand.
Tracing streets in Yemeni cities in advance of urban development. From 1970 to 1973, I was an urban planner in Sana’a, Yemen. It is there that I experienced firsthand the urgency of developing a street network in advance of urbanization. I had been sent by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), to work for the Government of Yemen as an “urban planning adviser.” There had never been an urban planning department in the history of Yemen before my arrival. My direct bosses were the minister of Public Works and his deputy. To form the embryo of an Urban Planning Department in the ministry, I was asked to hire a staff among high school graduates. The civil war that gave rise to the Yemen Arab Republic had ended just 2 years before my arrival. During those 2 years, the country had begun to open to the outside world for the first time in its history, triggering a massive urbanization process.
One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
The heart of the city should be served chiefly by rapid transit, buses, taxis and above all the human foot. The choice is clear and urgent: Does the city exist for people, or for motorcars?31 Jane Jacobs brought a similar set of questions to bear on the issue of transportation, but unlike Mumford, she did not see cars as the primary impediment to sound urban planning or a more orderly public sphere. rather, she posed the problem in terms of the urban planning paradigm itself, specifically the assumption that cities could, or should, be designed in accordance with a grand plan or master narrative: automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and futilities of city planning. But the destructive effects of automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom of our incompetence at city building.
For better or worse, the aT movement directed attention to issues of scale, specifically the correlation between the size of technological systems and their effects on societies, which Schumacher describes as inversely proportional, hence smaller being beautiful. This line of inquiry is significant because it closely paralleled critiques of urban planning and transportation in the same general period. Jane Jacobs was among those who challenged not only the size and scale implicit to orthodox urban planning but also the spatial tensions between the needs of pedestrians and those required of automobiles. ivan illich similarly bemoaned modern transportation, though his critique dealt less with the size and scale of auto-mobility than its high energy demands and its speed: “a true choice among practical policies and of desirable social relations is possible only where speed is restrained. participatory democracy demands low-energy technology, and free people must travel the road to productive social relations at the speed of a bicycle.”97 Schumacher, Jacobs, and illich formed something of a holy trinity for bicycle advocates who used their theories to create a more philosophically informed analysis of cycling in the 1970s. illich’s ideas understandably took on a prominent role because he mapped an entire politics of technology around the bicycle itself, writing in Energy and Equity: Bicycles let people move with greater speed without taking up significant amounts of scarce space, energy, or time.
While it is debatable whether the construction of an expansive cycling infrastructure would have necessarily encouraged more people in the United States to ride bikes (though studies point to this correlation), vC proponents helped to ensure the suppression of this possibility for more than two decades.116 Forester’s hands-off approach to transportation planning and government intervention broke with the model of advocacy pioneered on the East and West coasts in the early 1970s, and the ensuing controversy over bicycle infrastructure largely divided advocates into two main camps: (1) those who conceptualized everyday cycling within the framework of environmentalism, urban planning, and the energy crisis—all of which required a revaluation of automobility and/or the establishment of a dedicated cycling infrastructure— and (2) those who supported John Forester’s paradigm and saw proper training and education (rather than infrastructure, political activism, or impediments to automobility) as the sole ingredients for promoting bicycle transportation. not surprisingly, Forester’s ilk held sway throughout much of the late 1970s and 1980s because city officials found in vC advocates the cheapest and easiest course of action to pursue. Given the choice between spending money on urban planning projects or not spending it, an official’s decision is somewhat easy to predict, particularly when infrastructure budgets began to decline in 1970, following a twenty-year growth trend.
Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
With most of the population already whining about bicycles on streets, sticking them up in the air, out of the way, is hardly going to help us to return bicycles to the urban fabric of the city. Now more than ever before, when urban planning is heading back to the future—back to when cities were life-sized places with rational and practical solutions for moving people around—ideas like SkyCycle stand out like a sore thumb. As Canadian author Chris Turner, whose book The Geography of Hope is a must-read, responded on Twitter when I criticized the idea: “You say that as if Foster and the starchitect league have ever attempted to understand how streets work in general.” Indeed. We’ll get into that later. Foster grew up in Manchester, back in an age when that city had around 30 percent modal share for bicycles. Instead of realizing that modern urban planning is seeking to return our cities to their pre-car state, he insists on dishing up city-killing Blade Runner fantasies.
The bicycle must be integrated at every step of people’s daily lives if a city is to be truly bicycle-friendly. Thinking bicycle-first in urban planning and intermodality ensures prioritizing the bicycle as transport. Mock train compartment with heaters for cyclists to pass through, promoting DSB’s new policy of making bikes free on their S-Train network. Campaign by Merseyside Rail’s Bike & Go bike share system in Liverpool. Copenhagenize Design Company poster for the European Union BiTiBi project. A typical bicycle compartment on an S-Train in Greater Copenhagen. CHAPTER 14 THE ART OF GATHERING DATA You can have data without information, but you cannot have information without data. Daniel Keys Moran Cycling with friends in Helsinki. From my professional point of view as the CEO of an urban-planning company, living in a city that is unrivaled in the world regarding the amount of data it gathers is both a blessing and a curse.
Or so we’ve been told for many, many years. Buildings have to be taller, shinier. Reaching for the sky. Breaking world records. Monuments to engineering and, quite possibly, phallic symbols for the male-dominated industries that design and build them. Roads and motorways have to be longer, wider, go farther. More capacity, improved flow, reduced congestion. It’s one of the saddest ironies of urban planning that the only thing we have learned from a hundred years of traffic engineering is this: if you make more space for cars, more cars come. It’s sad if you think about all the kabillions of dollars we’ve thrown at this for the past century. Lulu-Sophia in Copenhagen in 2011. Megaprojects are all the rage. Never finished on time, always obscenely over budget, and yet they make up 8 percent of the global GDP.
Building the Cycling City: The Dutch Blueprint for Urban Vitality by Melissa Bruntlett, Chris Bruntlett
active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, car-free, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, intermodal, Jones Act, Loma Prieta earthquake, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, the High Line, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
Groningen’s profile was raised when filmmaker Clarence Eckerson Jr. of Streetfilms visited in the summer of 2013 and then released a short documentary declaring Groningen to be “The World’s Cycling City.” The 15-minute film has since been viewed almost half a million times, including once by Tel Aviv native Lior Steinberg, who, at the time, was completing his master’s degree in urban planning at Stockholm University. On the strength of Eckerson’s inspiring images, Steinberg chose to complete his four-month work term in Groningen, eventually settling there after graduation. He cofounded the Velotropolis and LVBLcity blogs—a pair of websites and social media accounts dedicated to sharing Groningen’s success story with the world—as well as his own urban-planning firm Street Makers, which, among other projects, was instrumental in designing the “Creative Crosswalk” on Rotterdam’s Westblaak. In addition to its historically Calvinist and socialist values—which inspire many wealthy and successful people to choose the humble bicycle over a Mercedes—Steinberg credits Groningen’s tremendous number of cyclists to their two-pronged approach to street design, depending on proximity to the inner city.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2018934803 All Island Press books are printed on environmentally responsible materials. Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Keywords: Amsterdam, Atlanta, Austin, bakfiets, bicycle, bicycle lane, bicycle parking, bicycle superhighway, Boston, cargo bicycle, Eindhoven, Groningen, Green Lane Project, New York City, Philadelphia, Portland, Rotterdam, safety bicycle, San Francisco, Seattle, transit, urban design, urban planning, Utrecht, Vancouver, Vision Zero TO CORALIE AND ETIENNE the best adventurers any parents could ask for. You are our constant inspiration, and the reason we keep riding along on this crazy journey! CONTENTS Preface Introduction: A Nation of Fietsers 01 Streets Aren’t Set in Stone 02 Not Sport. Transport. 03 Fortune Favors the Brave 04 One Size Won’t Fit All 05 Demand More 06 Think Outside the Van 07 Build at a Human Scale 08 Use Bikes to Feed Transit 09 Put Your City on the Map 10 Learn to Ride Like the Dutch Conclusion: A World of Fietsers About the Authors Acknowledgments Bibliography PREFACE In the summer of 2010, our family of four made a decision that would transform our lives for the better, although not in ways that we ever could have anticipated.
They believed that the bike as a mode of transport—extremely common in this working-class city—would meet its necessary and inevitable demise. Rather than share the road with cars, Rotterdammers would trade in their pedals for shiny new motor vehicles. “The story in Rotterdam is, only a few days after the bombing, the planners had the first renewal plan ready, as if they were waiting for the moment to turn it in a very modern city,” claims Jeroen Laven, partner at the Rotterdam-based urban planning firm STIPO. “They were saying, ‘Now we have the opportunity to prepare for this modern age with more cars, and solve a lot of the problems of the old city.’” As in New York, and countless other places enthralled with Robert Moses’ unsympathetic vision of the future, the old streets and canals were paved over with wide, multi-lane boulevards and long blocks. High-rise buildings with huge parking garages were prescribed and built, and a strict zoning code separated the city’s core components: work, commerce, and living.
Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed by James C. Scott
agricultural Revolution, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, commoditize, deskilling, facts on the ground, germ theory of disease, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, new economy, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit maximization, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, stochastic process, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
If we persist in the present methods by which the two functions [arrangement and furnishing versus construction; circulation versus structure] are mingled and interdependent, then we will remain petrified in the same immobility"" Outside the apartment block, the city itself was an exercise in planned functional segregation-an exercise that became standard urban-planning doctrine until the late 1960s. There would be separate zones for workplaces, residences, shopping and entertainment centers, and monuments and government buildings. Where possible, work zones were to be further subdivided into office buildings and factories. Le Corbusier's insistence on an urban plan in which each district had one and only one function was evident in his first act after taking over the planning of Chandigarh, his only built city. He replaced the housing that had been planned for the city center with an "acropolis of monuments" on a 220-acre site at a great distance from the nearest residences.20 In his Plan Voisin for Paris, he separated what he called la ville, which was for dwelling, and the business center, which was for working.
As in Brasilia, the upshot was another unplanned city at the periphery and the margins, one that contradicted the austere order at the center. The Case Against High-Modernist Urbanism: Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs's book The Death and Life of Great American Cities was written in 1961 against a high tide of modernist, functional urban planning. Hers was by no means the first criticism of high-modernist urbanism, but it was, I believe, the most carefully observed and intellectually grounded critique.76 As the most comprehensive challenge to contemporary doctrines of urban planning, it sparked a debate, the reverberations of which are still being felt. The result, some three decades later, has been that many of Jacobs's views have been incorporated into the working assumptions of today's urban planners. Although what she called her "attack on current city planning and rebuilding" was concerned primarily with American cities, she located Le Corbusier's doctrines, as applied abroad and at home, at the center of her field of fire.
Standing the planning logic on its head, she explains how a reasonably strong neighborhood can, in a democratic setting, fight to create and maintain good schools, useful parks, vital urban services, and decent housing. Jane Jacobs was writing against the major figures still dominating the urban planning landscape of her day: Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier. To some of her critics she has seemed a rather conservative figure, extolling the virtues of community in poor neighborhoods that many were anxious to leave and ignoring the degree to which the city was already being "planned," not by popular initiative or by the state but by developers and financiers with political connections. There is some justice to these points of view. For our purposes, however, there is little doubt that she has put her finger on the central flaws of hubris in high-modernist urban planning. The first flaw is the presumption that planners can safely make most of the predictions about the future that their schemes require.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
Flood puts the tally of persons displaced by the fires at more than a half-million.66 By the mid-1970s, in every domain of urban planning and management to which computer modeling had been applied—generic system models like Forester’s, land use and transportation models like Pittsburgh’s, and even relatively narrowly focused operational models like the one built by RAND for the New York City Fire Department—serious doubts about its effectiveness had been raised. By the mid-1970s, planning scholars moved swiftly away from their earlier embrace of such all-encompassing, predictive city simulators. In 1973 Douglass Lee’s “Requiem for Large-Scale Urban Models” sounded their death knell in the pages of the Journal of the American Institute of Planners. Then a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Berkeley (today he still works on models for the US Department of Transportation’s Volpe National Transportation Systems Center), Lee had studied the Pittsburgh model up close while working there.67 The article was a scathing indictment, calling out “seven sins” of large-scale models—hypercomprehensiveness, grossness, hungriness, wrongheadedness, complicatedness, mechanicalness, and expensiveness.
Shirky’s essay echoes Jane Jacobs’s observations on great cities. “Situated software isn’t a technological strategy,” he writes, “so much as an attitude about closeness of fit between software and its group of users, and a refusal to embrace scale, generality or completeness as unqualified virtues.” The grassroots revolution that transformed urban planning in Jacobs’s era took on similar assumptions when it came to city design. It was a response to the excesses of urban planning’s own “Web School,” the large-scale reshaping of the city practiced by power brokers like Robert Moses with little regard for the street life of the city. But for all his enthusiasm, Shirky was deeply skeptical of situated software’s ability to scale beyond small social groups like his students. “By relying on existing social fabric”—the casual face-to-face encounters with fellow users—“situated software is guaranteed not to work at the scale Web School apps do.”
Huang, “Jana, Formerly Txteagle, Unveils Strategy for ‘Giving 2 Billion People a Raise’—A Talk with CEO Nathan Eagle,” Xconomy, blog, last modified October 11, 2011, http://www.xconomy.com/boston/2011/10/11/jana-formerly-txteagle-unveils-strategy-for-giving-2-billion-people-a-raise-a-talk-with-ceo-nathan-eagle/. 33“Global Snapshot of Well-Being—Mobile Survey,” UN Global Pulse project website, n.d., http://www.unglobalpulse.org/projects/global-snapshot-wellbeing-mobile-survey. 34Megan Lane, “As Asbo in 14th Century Britain,” BBC News Magazine, April 5, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-12847529. 35Martin Daunton, “London’s ‘Great Stink’ and Victorian Urban Planning,” BBC History, November 4, 2004, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/social_conditions/ victorian_urban_planning_04.shtml. 36C. Creighton, A History of Epidemics in Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1894), 858. 37While the official 2009 Kenya census tallied Kibera’s population at 170,070, two other estimates put the figure closer to 250,000. One extrapolated from a door-to-door survey in one of the slum’s districts, the other used satellite imagery to count structures.
How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz
affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Cities seem to gobble up Florida’s ideas not only because they’re delivered with the excitement and verve of a Baptist preacher but also because they promise a relatively easy and business-friendly solution for postindustrial American cities. No taxes need to be raised, no new roads need to be built, no new laws have to be passed—just a few tax cuts here, a few incentives there, a sprinkle of advertising and branding, and bam, your city’s a boomtown. That’s part of the reason Florida’s book has become required reading in many urban planning and economic development departments. The original edition sold 300,000 copies, an unheard-of number for an urban planning book. And while there are no official surveys to back this up, I’d bet that every single head of every economic development team in nearly every midsize city in America is familiar with the book. Downtown and Midtown Detroit are the crown jewels of Florida-led new-age urban revitalization models. There are new restaurants and galleries and lofts on every block.
I hope this book is a counterweight to hopelessness about the future of urban America that enables readers to see cities are shaped by powerful interests, and that if we identify those interests, we can begin to reshape cities in our own design. Part 1 New Orleans 1 Hanging On The first thing you need to know about New Orleans is that neighborhoods in New Orleans do not work like neighborhoods everywhere else. In other cities, the rich and poor live in completely different parts of town—highways, train tracks, and other vestiges of racist urban planning ensure that the rich and poor sections of cities hardly ever mix. Here, water from the Mississippi is a constant threat, so the rich live where the land is highest, and the poor live in the valleys. That has given New Orleans a chaotic topography of inequality. For decades, the high blocks with grand houses—St. Charles, Magazine, Esplanade—hid behind them a lowland filled with dilapidated shotguns that housed New Orleans’s working class.
If not even many gentrifiers think gentrification is good, why does it keep happening? Pres Kabacoff is one of the city’s biggest developers—he’s the one who turned the St. Thomas housing projects into for-profit mixed-use housing. And he’s intimately tied in with city decision making. He chairs the city’s Housing Task Force Committee and is a member of the Urban Land Institute, a powerful national urban planning group. When Kabacoff talks, city officials listen. Kabacoff is a genial guy with some surprising views for a multimillionaire who makes money off private development. For example, he believes the federal government should spend way more on housing poor people, and he thinks the United States spends too much on war and not enough on things such as education. But when it comes to gentrification, Kabacoff has some troubling views for someone who wields so much power in a majority-poor, majority-black city.
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
The bridge, known as the Bridge of the People, was designed to carry trains for Portland’s light rail MAX system, streetcars, buses, bikes, pedestrians, ambulances, and fire trucks, but no private cars. In other American cities, by contrast, urban planning is often absent from agendas. Houston, Texas, is renowned for having no long-term plan or even a unified zoning code that spells out what kinds of buildings can be built where. The result, predictably, is that Houston’s population of 2.2 million is sprawled over more than 625 square miles, or about one tenth of the people in Mexico City spread throughout a slightly smaller area. Comprehensive urban planning is a productive exercise in itself. PlaNYC reframed the idea of the city and repudiated the idea that cities (not just New York) are environmental, social, and economic lost causes. “We went from cities being a problem to density being the solution,” said Rit Aggarwala, the sustainability guru Doctoroff brought in to manage the development of the report.
., 4. 6,300 miles of streets . . . 22 million: “About DOT,” New York City Department of Transportation, accessed August 4, 2015, www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/about.shtml. 25 percent of the city’s landmass: New York City Department of Transportation, Street Design Manual (New York, 2009), 21.5 around 4,500 employees: “About DOT.” “to implement, divine”: Jerold S. Kayden, “What’s the Mission of Harvard’s Urban Planning Program?,” Harvard Design Magazine 22 (2005), accessed August 5, 2015, www.gsd.harvard.edu/images/content/5/3/538187/Kayden-Mission-Urban-Planning.pdf. INTRODUCTION: A NEW STREET CODE 1.24 million traffic deaths: World Health Organization, Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action (Geneva, Switzerland, 2013), v. 22 million miles of road worldwide: Central Intelligence Agency, “Country Comparison: Roadways,” World Factbook, accessed August 5, 2015, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2085rank.html.
As our cities grow, leaders and the people they serve cannot accept dysfunctional streets; they must fight to change them. The fight for these changes—well, that’s just part of the job. More than policy or ideas themselves, the most valuable lessons for any city involve the on-the-ground, practical experience of connecting vision to plans and then executing projects that produce positive change. Pinned above my desk during my six and a half years as commissioner was an adage from Harvard urban planning and design professor Jerold Kayden: “To plan is human, to implement, divine.” Based on real-world practice, not ivory-tower idealism, this book deconstructs, reassembles, and reinvents the street. We invite you to view something you experience every day in ways that you might never have imagined. We hope it inspires city officials, planners, and all other city residents to initiate changes in their cities around the world.
White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Sharon Rotbard
British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, continuation of politics by other means, European colonialism, global village, housing crisis, illegal immigration, megastructure, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal
See the story of Ghassan Kanafani on the escape from Jaffa to Lebanon through Rosh Hanikra. Ghassan Kanafani, ‘Jaffa, Land of Oranges’, in Al Ahram: 1948–1998: Special Pages commemorating 50 Years of Arab Dispossession since the Creation of the State of Israel, at: www.palestineremembered.com/Jaffa/Jaffa/Story202.html 150. On the link between urban planning and urban warfare (and Jaffa in particular), see Eyal Weizman, ‘Military Operations as Urban Planning: A Conversation with Philipp Misselwitz’, Territories (Berlin: KW, 2003), pp. 272–286. For a more detailed, military analysis of the assault on Jaffa in 1948, see Benjamin Runkle, ‘Jaffa, 1948: Urban Combat in the Israeli War of Independence’, in Col. John Antal and Maj. Bradley Gericke (eds), City fights: Selected Histories of Urban Combat from World War II to Vietnam (New York: Ballantine Books, 2003), pp. 289–313. 151.
The distribution of the workload is simple; the municipality approves and promotes the projects through its different committees and the contractor is responsible for the planning and the evacuation itself. The contractor’s designs are almost always at odds with the already existing urban plans in place, as set by customary standards, and the sole parameter of the project is something loosely defined as ‘density promoting’. The Ministry of Housing remunerates the projects according to the speed in which the procedure is completed. Since 2001, all budgets allocated to neighbourhood restoration schemes have been handed to private contractors by their respective municipalities. This has proved a form of privatization of public and urban planning for low-income populations, without the populations themselves notified or involved in the decision-making process. Given that the evacuation itself is a privatized action, those residents targeted for eviction are exposed to large pressures – both from contractors and their agents (sometimes lawyers, sometimes more questionable personalities) and by their families and neighbours. 193.
., ref1 Shmuel Hagar fights the dunes, ref1 Shohat, Ella, ref1n23 Shva, Shlomo, ref1 Sitting on the Fence, ref1 Six Day War, ref1 Small City with Few People in It, A, ref1, ref2n107 Smilansky, Moshe, ref1 Smithson, Robert, ref1 Sochovolsky, Ziva, ref1 Solel Boneh, ref1 Sorkin, Michael, ref1n224 Soskin, Avraham, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n67 spatial contradiction, ref1 Species of Spaces, ref1 Speer, Albert, ref1, ref2, ref3n56, ref4n185 Stern, Avraham (‘Yair’), ref1n134 Sur les quatre routes, ref1 surrealists, ref1n219 ‘Swimming competition’, ref1 Szmuk, Nitza, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 exhibitions curated, ref1 publications, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, Talmi, Menachem, ref1, ref2 Tamuz, Binyamin, ref1 Tartakover, David ref1 taxation, local, ref1 Tel-Amal kibbutz, ref1, ref2n76, ref3n137 Tel Aviv Abu Kabir village/district, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n118 (cemetery, ref8, ref9; massacre at, ref10) accolades and titles, ref1 (see also World Heritage Site below) Afeka neighbourhood, ref1 Ahuzat Bayit neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 (plots lottery, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15) Ajami neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Al Hamra Cinema/Alhambra Theatre, ref1, ref2n147 Allenby Street, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Andromeda Hill, ref1, ref2n164 architectural history of, ref1, ref2, ref3 Atarim Piazza, ref1 Ayalon City, ref1, ref2 Ayalon Highway, ref1, ref2 Azor neighbourhood, ref1 Bat Yam district, ref1, ref2 Bayara, ref1n119 beach, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Beit Gidi/Etzel museum, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n182 Ben Gurion Airport, ref1 Bialik Square, ref1 the ‘Black City’, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Bloomfield football stadium, ref1 Botrus district, ref1 boundaries and conceptions, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n70 Brenner House, ref1 British urban planning in, ref1 Chlenov neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Commercial Centre (street), ref1 Commercial and Grocery Center (neighbourhood), ref1 comparative neglect of areas formerly in/near Jaffa, ref1, ref2, ref3 conservation/urban plans, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Dizengoff Center, ref1 Dolphinarium, ref1 Eisenberg Hospital, ref1, ref2, ref3n192 Engel House, ref1 ‘ethnic purification’ (2002–04), ref1, ref2 expensiveness of property, ref1 Ezra neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3 Fedja village/district, ref1 Florentine neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 founding of, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Frug Street, ref1 Gan Hapisga (Garden of the Peak), ref1, ref2 German Vineyard, ref1 Geula neighbourhood, ref1 Givat Aliyah neighbourhood, ref1 Givat Herzl neighbourhood, ref1 Givat Moshe A and B neighbourhoods, ref1 as ‘global city’, ref1 Gush Dan, ref1 HaArgazim neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 HaCongress, ref1 Hassan Bek mosque, ref1 Hatikva neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Herzl Street, ref1, ref2 Herzliya district, ref1 Herzliya Gymnasium, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n110 (al-)Hiriya district, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 historical centre, ref1 (see also Jaffa) Holon district, ref1, ref2 hospitals, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 housing in see under housing Ibn Gvirol Street, ref1 infrastructure, ref1, ref2 internal north–south division, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Jabaliya neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 Jaffa see Jaffa Jaffa D neighbourhood, ref1 Jaffa–Tel Aviv Road, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Jammasin neighbourhood, ref1 Jerusalem Beach, ref1 Jerusalem (Har-Zion) Boulevard, ref1, ref2 Jerusalem Boulevard/Jamal Facha Boulevard/King George Boulevard, ref1 Jewish settlements on site, ref1 Kerem Hateimanim neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 (see also Mahane Israel) Kfar Shalem neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 Kibbutz Galuyot Road, ref1n118 Kiryat Shalom neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 Kolchinsky neighbourhood, ref1 lack of natural centre, ref1n113 Levinsky Park, ref1 Little Orchard neighbourhood, ref1 ‘Little Tel Aviv’, ref1 Mahane Israel neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3 (see also Kerem Hateimanim) Mahane Yehuda neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3 Mahane Yosef neighbourhood, ref1 major projects of 1980s, ref1 Manshieh neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 (battle of, see under Jaffa; bypass road, ref9; cleared from map, ref10, ref11; destruction and rebuilding, ref12, ref13, ref14n165; Feingold houses, ref15, ref16; police station, ref17) maps of, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 (see also under Jaffa) markets, ref1 Marmorek neighbourhood, ref1 Mas’udiyya neighbourhood, ref1 Max Fine Technical School, ref1 Megido Street, ref1 Merkaz Baalei Melacha neighbourhood, ref1 Montefiore neighbourhood, ref1 Mount Zion Boulevard, ref1 as a multicultural city, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 municipal government, ref1, ref2, ref3 Museum of Art, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n135 name of, ref1, ref2 Nathan Gutman Museum, ref1n108 Neve Sha’anan neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n200 (borders, ref11; bus station in, ref12, ref13; design, ref14; establishment, ref15) Neve Shalom neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n104 Neve Tzedek neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n104 Neve Tzedek Tower, ref1 New Central Bus Station, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n113 new developments in, ref1 Nordia neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 official history of, ref1 (Old) Central Station, ref1 ‘Orange Route’, ref1 parking zones, ref1 paths/roads to the sea, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Petach Tikva Road, ref1, ref2, ref3 photos of early city, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 police subdivisions, ref1 politico-social significance, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 population, ref1 port, ref1, ref2n143 Raanana district, ref1 Ramat Aviv neighbourhood, ref1 Ramat Chen neighbourhood, ref1 Ramat Gan (suburb), ref1 Ramat Hasharon district, ref1, ref2 Ramat Hashikma/Salame Gimel neighbourhood, ref1 ‘Red City’, ref1 Regional Court building, ref1 Rishon LeZion Hill/district, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Rothschild Boulevard, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n68 Saad Orchard neighbourhood, ref1 Salame neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Salame Road (later Shlomo Road), ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Shabazi neighbourhood, ref1 Shafir-Klein neighbourhood, ref1 ShalomTower, ref1 Shapira neighbourhood, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9n132 Sheikh Munis village/district, ref1, ref2 Sheinkin Street, ref1, ref2n8 Shivat Tzion neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 Sir Charles Clore Park, ref1, ref2 Summayl neighbourhood, ref1 supplies to, ref1 Tel-A-Reesh village/district, ref1, ref2, ref3 Tel Giburim neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 Tel Hashomer, ref1 Tel Nordau neighbourhood, ref1 topography of, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 transportation in, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4; see also New Central Bus Station treatment of former Jaffa Hebrew neighbourhoods, ref1 Trumpeldor neighbourhood, ref1 urban style, ref1 war with Jaffa, ref1, ref2 as ‘White City’, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17 (actually grey, ref18; annual celebrations, ref19, ref20n205; built from white sand, ref21, ref22n68; definition of boundaries, ref23, ref24; fundamental flaws of concept, ref25) White Square installation, ref1 Wolfson Hospital, ref1 Wolfson Street, ref1 as World Heritage site, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Yarkon peninsula, ref1 Yazur village/district, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Yefe Nof (Bella Vista), neighbourhood, ref1, ref2 Yehuda district, ref1 Yitzhak Ben Zvi Road, ref1 Zion insurance office building, ref1 Tel Aviv (book by Herzl), ref1 Tel Aviv (booklet), ref1 Tel Aviv (magazine), ref1 Tel Aviv (novel by Pichmann), ref1, ref2 Tel Aviv in Photographs, ref1, ref2, ref3 Tel Aviv in the Tracks of the Bauhaus (exhibition), ref1 terrorism 9/11, ref1n228 in the 1940s, ref1 contemporary, ref1 tactics in attack on Jaffa, 1947, ref1, ref2n147, ref3n148 ‘Third Aliya’, ref1 ‘This is Jaffa’ (song), ref1 Tiberias, ref1 ‘Timunot Yafoyiot’, ref1 Tischler, David, ref1 Tolkovsky, Shmuel, ref1, ref2 tourism, ref1 plans for Old Jaffa, ref1 in Tel Aviv, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Toward An Architecture, ref1 Tropical House, ref1 Tschumi, Bernard, ref1n156 Tul Karem, ref1n243 Tumarkin, Yigal, ref1 Turkey prisoners massacred by Napoleon, ref1 soldiers in Palestine, ref1 ‘Two Seas Canal’, ref1n97 Tzur, Muki, ref1n126 urban planning claimed legitimacy of mass destruction in, ref1n165, ref2n193 as an extension of guerrilla tactics, ref1n156, ref2n229 and gentrification, ref1n164 Haussmann’s in Paris, ref1n152, ref2n229 and Hebraization of old Arab cities, ref1, ref2 Israeli, and hill/mountain tops, ref1n171 Le Corbusier and, ref1, ref2 in Tel Aviv see under Tel Aviv United Committee of Hebrew Neighbourhoods, ref1 United Nations Division Plan, ref1, ref2, ref3 Educational Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), political aspects of Tel Aviv listing, ref1, ref2; World Heritage List, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Ussishkin, Menachem, ref1n143 Villa Savoye, ref1 Virilio, Paul, ref1, ref2n246 ‘Wall and Tower’ settlements, ref1, ref2, ref3, ,141, ref4, ref5n137 War Cycle, ref1 War in the City (film), ref1 We and Our Neighbours, ref1 Weinraub-Gitai, Munio, ref1, ref2, ref3 Weiss, Akiva, ref1 Weizman, Eyal, ref1, ref2n156 welfare, dependency on, ref1n173 Westernization, ref1 and the West–East border in Israel, ref1 white created from a rainbow of colours, ref1 culture and governance, ref1, ref2 (see also colonialism) implications of, ref1, ref2, ref3 sand, ref1 section of the Israeli Jewish population, ref1, ref2, ref3 symbolism of, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n214 ‘will to be white’, ref1, ref2 see also architecture, white White Box, ref1 White City across Africa and Middle East, ref1 Algiers as, ref1, ref2, ref3 Tel Aviv as, see under Tel Aviv White City (exhibition), ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 catalogue, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 ‘White City’ (song), ref1, ref2 ‘White City: A Past in Renewal’ (conference), ref1 ‘White Night’, ref1 Wieseltier, Meir, ref1 Wigley, Mark, ref1n214 Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany, ref1n79 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, ref1 Wittkower, Werner Joseph, ref1 World War II, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9n88 reparations after, ref1n168 World War I, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n88 worm-hole tactics, ref1 Wretched of the Earth, The (Les damnés de la terre), ref1 Yaar, Ora, ref1, ref2 Yaar, Yaacov, ref1 Yadin, Yigael, ref1 Yarkon River, ref1n70, ref2n143 Yasky, Avraham, ref1n192 Yatzkar, Yehuda and Avraham, ref1, ref2 Yatzkar-Shatz, Rivka, ref1n126 Yellin-Mor, Nathan, ref1n134 Yemenites, ref1, ref2 YESHA Council, ref1, ref2n71 Yonatan, Nathan, ref1n53 Yossef, Dov, ref1 Zandberg, Esther, ref1 Zeevi, Rehavam, ref1, ref2 Zelkind, Nahum, ref1 Zevi, Bruno, ref1 Ziffer, Benny, ref1n211 Zionism agenda and architecture, ref1 attitudes to land of Israel, ref1n97 influence of Russian migrants on, ref1 and the ‘ingathering of Exiles’, ref1, ref2 and Israeli culture, ref1 and the Jewish identity, ref1 main goals of, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n50 myths of, ref1 political and non–political, ref1 post–Zionism, ref1 and socialism, ref1, ref2n122 use of radicalism and counter– culture, ref1 Zohar, Uri, ref1, ref2, ref3n43
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
Thus, the leaflet continued, modernist reconstruction could now be delivered to sustain ‘the swift flow of modern traffic; for the play of light and air’.39 Illustrations from John Mansbridge’s 1943 British pamphlet Here Comes Tomorrow celebrating both the modernism of aircraft and the ‘new chance’ that bombing offered British cities to rebuild along modernist lines The aerial annihilation of total war – an unprecedented act of planned urban devastation in its own right – thus served as a massive accelerator of comprehensive urban planning, architecture and urbanism along vertically stratified, modernist lines. The tabula rasa that every devoted modernist craved suddenly became the norm rather than the exception, particularly in the city centres of postwar Europe and Japan. As a result, in a very real sense, ‘the ghosts of the architects of urban bombing – Douhet, Mitchell, Trenchard, Lindemann – and the praxis of airmen like Harris and LeMay, still stalk the streets of our cities’.40 Perhaps urban planning and history teaching should focus on these luminaries of twentieth-century bombing theory as much as their more usual cast of iconic architects and planners. 3.
(See the 1928 example from New York planner Harvey Wiley Corbett on p. viii.) The Great Depression prevented the widespread realisation of such imaginaries. It was not until the 1960s that vertically segregated circulation became a dominant theme of post-war urban planning. Influenced by architectural radicalism such as the ‘plug-in’ city from the Archigram group,5 the huge raised megastructures proposed for Tokyo by a group of Japanese architectural futurists known as the Metabolists,6 and the one-square-kilometre ‘artificial platform city’ imagined by the Obayashi Corporation in the same city,7 vertically segregated circulation became an obsession in urbanism and urban planning.8 ‘It is only logical to conceive of multi-level cities’, the Archigram group argued. ‘The organisation of, say, New York, which tolerates multi-level components, connected by only two horizontal levels (street and subway) and both of those at the base, is archaic.’9 The widespread destruction of cities through strategic bombing in World War II created opportunities for planners to realise such dreams in practice.
Military GPS systems, used to drop lethal ordnance on any point on Earth, have been opened up to civilian uses. They now organise the global measurement of time as well as the navigation of children to school, yachts to harbours, cars into supermarkets, farmers around fields, runners and cyclists along paths and roads and hikers up to mountaintops. Widened access to powerful imaging satellites, similarly, has allowed high-resolution images to transform urban planning, agriculture, forestry, environmental management and efforts to NGOs to track human rights abuses.6 Digital photography from many of the prosthetic eyes above the Earth, meanwhile, offers resolutions that Cold War military strategists could only dream of – delivered via the satellite and optic fibre channels of the Internet to anyone with a laptop or smartphone. A cornucopia of distant TV stations are also now accessible through the most basic aerial or broadband TV or Internet connection.
Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg
Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize
The smart city creates an urban reality that is greater than the sum of its intellectual parts. One of the primary tasks of making urban life possible has concerned the delivery and maintenance of utilities, which in the last century meant power, water, and heat. The new utility is the network that weaves all other utilities, as well as information and data from dozens of other sources, into a single architecture. That network represents a quantum jump in the complexity of urban planning, and it will define the difference between city services that are merely responsive and those endowed with an actual, measurable intelligence. This intelligence will be the key to creating work and living environments that respond to the great challenges of rapidly increasing population, resource conservation, climate change, and the lack of sufficient bricks and mortar to house and provide for urban denizens in accordance with modern standards.
John Chambers, executive chairman of Cisco, summarizes it as “cheap and ubiquitous sensors, tied together by widespread high-speed wireless networks, generating data stored in the cloud, crunched by increasingly valuable analytics, and accessible via simple apps by billions of smartphones and tablets.”3 The key words in this description are ubiquitous and billions—neither is an overstatement. IoE technology will be the underpinning feature of urban planning, but the sheer reach of its technology and the level of complexity are difficult to imagine—and the engineering challenge of keeping up with the potential demand for connectivity is formidable. Coupled with the worldwide urbanization trend, it is one reason why the triumph of IoE technology cannot be assumed. People and things are literally flooding many cities at a pace that sometimes cannot be matched with available know-how, human hours, funding, and political will.
Additionally, it left visitors underwhelmed by its productivity, convenience, and aesthetics. In the case of New Cairo and 6th October City, they were designed to relieve some of the pressure from Cairo’s runaway population growth but thus far had perpetuated its striking income disparity. Rather than solving a need for stronger economic drivers, many found these developments to be suburban retreats for the wealthy and impractical for the working poor. The entire concept of urban planning on the brand-new, citywide scale too easily invoked dystopian images of grey, lifeless structures containing none of the vitality and relevance the world now expects of city life. Meanwhile, established cities such as London and Chicago were fighting hard to retain their positions as transportation hubs; was it not presumptuous to believe that a brand-new city could divert enough air traffic to sustain economic promise?
A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook
Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, starchitect, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
One of the recruits was a recent university graduate from the Philippines named Jun Palafox. While eager to put his urban planning education to use, Palafox had never heard of the city-state that was recruiting him. Before his job interview, he pulled out a reasonably up-to-date reference book with basic information on every country in the world and saw that its listing for Dubai included the statistic “Kilometers of Paved Road: 0.” What does a city planner do in a city with no paved roads? he wondered. Is it even a city? Perhaps in an effort to find out, Palafox moved to Dubai in the 1970s. The sheikhdom was small enough that Palafox met the sheikh himself, who personally explained the urban planning office’s mandate. “The marching orders,” Palafox recalled, were “bring Dubai from the third world—or fourth world—into the first world in fifteen years.
Derived from the Chinese words li (neighborhoods) and long (lanes), each development was a block, walled off from the main city streets, composed of lines of identical row houses extending along pedestrian alleyways. Lilongs were made of stone, like Western buildings, rather than wood, in the Chinese manner, and used an English row-house structure rather than a Chinese courtyard plan. But their urban planning, with the housing colony built behind walls and closed to through-traffic, was characteristically Chinese, reminiscent of the hutong neighborhoods of Beijing and other historic Chinese cities. By 1860, the British and American Settlements contained 8,740 lilongs compared with just 269 Western-style houses. As the homes and the gardens that once dominated the foreign settlements were razed to build dense lilong compounds, the concessions lost the feel of a gracious colonial town.
But even as craftsmen poured their souls into the buildings and residents kept their traditions alive in the courtyards, the structures’ overcrowding smothered their nods to humanity. Often compared to an army barracks, the chawl was closer to a human beehive, with single men literally packed on top of each other. Five to ten people shared each room with just a small basin for washing clothes and cooking utensils, and often nothing but wooden planks for sleeping. Common toilets were provided at a rate of one per story at best. As a Scottish urban planning professor at Bombay University aptly put it, chawls were not “housing, but warehousing people!” Some fared even worse. For those who could not afford even a bed slat in a chawl, there were the streets. As American writer Mark Twain recorded on his 1896 visit to Bombay, “Everywhere on the ground lay sleeping natives—hundreds and hundreds. They lay stretched at full length and tightly wrapped in blankets, heads and all.
City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar
Strength in numbers All of these models — alongside many others such as co-working spaces and shared nannies — at the end of the day are about efficiency, even if they also speak to altruism. Ownership, by definition, implies idleness. Whatever you own that you’re not using right this second may be going to waste. Or worse, you’re wasting scarce money on it. Viewed through that lens, the sharing economy has the potential to address some of the biggest problems of cities. It’s not just a survival strategy for low-wage workers living in a costly metropolis. It’s a strategy for urban planning. “It changes everything,” says Janelle Orsi, executive director of the Sustainable Economies Law Center and a sharing economy lawyer. Bike and car sharing will influence municipal policies for improving transportation flow. Getaround will contribute to reducing carbon emissions (studies suggest that one shared car can take 13 or 14 others off the road). Airbnb will help provide housing flexibility in cities that now have a severe mismatch in supply (of outdated, oversized housing) and demand.
Eight lanes of Interstate 95, elevated like a viaduct, sat beside six lanes of a heavily trafficked boulevard and collectively blocked Philadelphia’s vibrant downtown from the Delaware. More than just an eyesore, the highway served as a physical and mental barrier, preventing most Philadelphians from ever experiencing the river. Straddling nearly 100 acres of prime real estate in downtown Philadelphia that presented an enormous opportunity cost to the city’s tax base, I-95 was a symbol of misbegotten 20th-century urban planning that lingered into the present. When I mentioned what a shame the highway was, Harris told me offhandedly that all 51 miles of I-95 in Pennsylvania were undergoing phased replacement. The last portion of I-95 to be replaced would be the three-mile stretch along Philadelphia’s waterfront. Even though the construction wasn’t slated to begin for another 20 years, the state’s Department of Transportation was already planning the replacement highway.
But it was carefully planned: Community activists recognized the spot as a critical piece of a walking path that could direct thousands of tourists from a renowned museum to the struggling storefronts on the city’s Main Street. Rather than hire a design firm to spend thousands of dollars on site plans, they quickly and cheaply tested one way to liven up downtown. And, as writer Mike Lydon reported on the urban planning website Planetizen, it worked: Owners of a nearby bar quickly saw the potential to draw in new customers, so they planned to organize similar activities in the future. It’s too early to tell, but that one-night sit-down could well prove to be the tipping point in revitalizing an underpass, then a block, and eventually a local economy. This gathering is just one example of a movement happening all over the country: tactical urbanism.
World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen
active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
Alongside this economic divergence of world cities and nation states, commentators in this period also identified a resurgent political tension between leading cities and their national governments. An early example of this friction was visible in New York – mayoral candidate Norman Mailer proposed to secede in 1969, and President Gerald R. Ford later refused to bail out the City in the midst of its fiscal crisis in 1975. This was followed by the failure of President Jimmy Carter’s urban plan in 1978 (Smith, 2002). London also witnessed its fair share of political friction in the 1980s and central government eventually abolished the Greater London Council. Later, the OECD (2005: 124) highlighted many other cases where the efforts of city governments to seek opportunities at the global level and to acquire more fiscal and legislative flexibility led to conflict with higher‐tier governments who were unconvinced of the “positive‐sum gains in de‐centralisation.”
The protracted debate and modest initial outcome led one commentator to describe the process as “a mountain giving birth to a mouse.” (Gilli, quoted in Delourme, 2015). An assembly of 209 councillors has jurisdiction on environmental and economic policy over the urbanised area of 7 million people. The new arrangement divides the outer suburbs into 12 territories that will replace the inter‐communal system. The métropole is set to acquire powers over housing and urban planning, as well as presidential leadership and a physical headquarters, but the terms of political integration are a long way from being finalised. Over the next 15 years, the organisation is likely to absorb taxation powers incrementally from the municipalities. Its success as a metropolitan body depends critically on the goodwill of future French national leaders in supporting and activating these incremental additions of power and capacity.
Economic governance in Paris has been largely shaped by government intervention and is rather corporatist and territorial. A number of bodies and agencies collectively debate policy, consult experts and advise national government. Most prominent is IAU‐îdF, the planning agency for the Paris Region and an internationally recognised organisation which provides analysis and strategies Paris 67 for the region and other players. Others also play a role. These include APUR, the influential Paris Urban Planning Agency that convenes geographers, architects and planners and, to a lesser extent, AERF, an association of elected councillors which actively supports territorial reform. Until recently, there had been no clear representation of the major private players in Paris, unlike in London or New York. The public and private sectors have often disagreed publicly on their vision for the future of the Île‐de‐France, and whether the focus should be social equality, environmental protection or economic development (Lefevre, 2012).
Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright
1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog
See also Camera Obscura; Outlook Tower (Edinburgh) classification and taxonomy interests of, 112–114, 113, 200 Comte’s influence on, 114 Index Museum of, 114–115, 121 legacy of, 302 museum exhibits and, 16, 119–122, 193 Otlet and, 116, 122, 173, 189, 193–194 parallel interests to Otlet and La Fontaine, 116 parallel views to Geddes, 255 Short’s Observatory bought by, 108 “Thinking Machines” of, 115, 115 urban planning for Edinburgh by, 109, 112 Gelernter, David, 291 Geneva as location for League of Nations, 164, 180 Germany. See also World War I; World War II African empire of, 51, 151–152 Gessner, Conrad, 20, 21, 26, 30, 42, 49, 71, 78, 80, 226, 283 Ghent, exhibit of urban planning in, 137 Globalization, 149, 303–304 Global Organizational Plan for the League of Nations (Otlet), 155 Godet, Marcel, 175–176, 177, 178 Goldberg, Emanuel, 16, 208–210, 218, 254 Goldschmidt, Robert, 101, 274 Google advertising on, 298 corporate determination of acceptable sites, 281 cultural sponsorships of, 297 EU relationship with, 297, 299–300 partnership with Mundaneum, 295–297 popularity of, 280 purchase of Freebase, 278 Gore, Al, 248 Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXieme siècle (Larousse), 50 Great Chain of Being, 29 The Great Solution: Magnissima Carta (La Fontaine), 149 Gutenberg, Johannes, 20, 24, 205 Hall, Wendy, 270 Harding, Warren, 137 Hébrard, Ernest, 129–130, 131, 133, 301 Hendrik Andersen Museum (Rome), 301–302 Heylighen, Francis, 286–287 Hillis, Danny, 276, 278, 293 Hitler, 4, 68 Hochschild, Adam, 54 Hohe Schule, 4 Holinshed, Ralph, 27 Hollerith, Herman, 42, 209, 234 Hollweg, Bethmann, 145 House, Colonel, 162, 163 Human rights, 150–152 Hymans, Paul, 163, 164, 165 Hyper-documentation, 241, 263 Hyper-G project (Austria), 270 Hyper-intelligence, 241 Hyperlinks, 287, 290, 305 341 INDEX Hypertext, 263–264, 270, 289 HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), 271 IBM (International Business Machines), 42, 209 Ideas.
The Nazis specifically targeted Zamenhof ’s family for extermination.11 Paradoxically, the rise of utopian internationalism, which found such powerful expression at the Paris Expo, coincided with a surge of nationalist fervor—one that would ultimately drive the continent’s population into two cataclysmic wars. One might well look at the idealism of the Expo through the lens of Jane Jacobs’s famous critique of modernist urban planning: as “a dishonest mask of pretended order.”12 Certainly the imagined world on display there presented a relentlessly rosy picture of progress, papering over the dark sides of innovation and “progress”—like industrial militarization, and the economic exploitation of less developed countries—that would soon come into focus during World War I. Nonetheless, the Expo offers a window onto a moment when optimism about the possibilities of international cooperation seemed triumphant.
Though originally trained as a biologist, he 108 T he I nde x M u se u m had taken a keen interest in the emerging field of sociology, where he applied the principles of the scientific method to the study of human societies, promoting the importance of careful observation in exploring the interplay between people, their work, and the places in which they lived. Eventually he would make important contributions to the field of urban planning, advocating a human-centered approach to building that stood in stark contrast to the centralized urban grid planning that had gained so much traction in cities like New York. In 1892, he was still developing his ideas, while conducting minutely detailed surveys of his native Edinburgh. Geddes had developed a keen interest in the problem of Edinburgh’s slums, which were rapidly expanding as the city population grew.
Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg
active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl
In the remainder of this book I will attempt to demonstrate that mobility is a chaotic concept already in a state of collapse as a result of internal contradictions. The elevation of mobility to a central position in political, economic, architectural and planning discourse represents a significant error in those areas and social science discourse in general. The time is now right to correct that error. Mobility as a goal or a central organising principle is irrelevant and should be deleted from the transport and urban planning lexicon. Other things matter much more including time budgets, fiscal prudence, equality, accessibility, and health and all these dimensions of everyday life can be enriched within a low mobility framework and will remain unobtainable if we continue to pursue high mobility goals. 1. How mobile are we and how did we get here? The mobility growth paradigm Mobility is most commonly measured, if at all, as total distance travelled per annum per capita in kilometres and/or total distance travelled per day per capita.
The document is an undiluted manifesto accepting and promoting the growth of mobility and advocating the importance of this growth for the success of wider economic policy objectives, asserting the unquestioned importance of endless economic growth and ignoring the voluminous literature on the impossibility of endless economic growth and of ecological and resource limits to growth (Douthwaite, 1992, Schneidewind, 2014). The European Commission document contains no recognition whatsoever of the well-developed sustainable transport discourse with its emphasis on traffic reduction, demand management, urban planning in favour of the “city of short distances” and modal shift from the car to walking, cycling and public transport or from the aircraft to electronic substitution e.g. videoconferencing. Similarly it airbrushes out of the picture the need to de-carbonise transport and link something called “mobility for growth” to the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. There is no suggestion that spatial planning has a role to play.
The language and rhetoric of road safety plays a significant part in promoting motorised mobility. It downplays the progressive withdrawal of people from public space and it airbrushes out of the picture the social class discrimination that produces disproportionately larger numbers of deaths amongst the poor and disadvantaged. It is an important agent of legitimation and collaboration with a policing, judicial and urban planning system that blames victims and shapes the built environment in favour of the car and to the detriment of the pedestrian, cyclist and public transport user. The Swedish Vision Zero policy is not without faults but it sets out a clear ambition that is so much better than the lack of a clear vision. Reducing deaths and serious injuries to zero is possible and leads inexorably to a fundamental re-engineering of the mobility paradigm.
You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard
A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl
Nico Oved’s description of his photographic exposition of housing in les banlieues is described at his website, www.nicooved.com. 2. Although Le Corbusier’s urban planning principles caused much damage both overseas and at home (largely because of his failure to understand the psychology of space), he is still widely respected as an artist and architect. A sympathetic and interesting book is W. Boesiger and H. Girsberger’s Le Corbusier 1910-65 (Birkhäuser: Basel, 1999), which contains photographs of his works along with captions in three languages explaining his intentions. 3. Jane Jacobs condemns Le Corbusier’s mathematics, and some other aspects of his urban-planning principles, in the introductory chapter of her opus The Death and Life of Great American Cities, revised edition (Vintage: New York, 1992). 4.
But it isn’t just the construction of our minds that has enabled us to slip off the mantle of the geometry of space. Our soaring ability to harness energy and technology has allowed us to construct our physical environment in almost any way we please. Hand in glove with our spatial mind, we have used our abilities as toolmakers to design environments that support and extend our mental penchant to transcend physical space. Everything from architectural design through urban planning to modern light-speed communication technologies has been designed to reflect, support, and extend our mastery of physical space. PART II MAKING YOUR WAY IN THE WORLD TODAY HOW OUR MIND SHAPES THE PLACES WHERE WE WORK, LIVE, AND PLAY CHAPTER 7 HOUSE SPACE HOW OUR MENTAL MAPS INFLUENCE OUR BEHAVIOR INSIDE OUR HOMES When the peaks of our sky come together, my house will have a roof.
The Space Syntax Laboratory, a part of the Bartlett School of Planning at University College, London, has had marked success in predicting how people move through spaces on the basis of the graphical tools I have been describing.3 Because most of the work of this group is concerned with the influence of spatial configuration in larger urban settings, we will deal with it more extensively in the next chapter, on city space, but many of the principles used to steer urban planning apply equally well to interior spaces. For example, an analysis of intervisibility and shortest path length values for the Tate Gallery in London has been used successfully to predict where visitors will congregate in the gallery. The Space Syntax Laboratory has used these kinds of analyses to advise the gallery on the effective placement of exhibits to encourage the flow of people and avoid pedestrian gridlock.
Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Despite the fact that the poor would benefit enormously from more open streets, I suspect the city would lack the political will to fine drivers who violate the rules. Mumbai’s traffic problems reflect not just poor transportation policy, but a deeper and more fundamental failure of urban planning. In 1964, Mumbai fixed a maximum floor area ratio of 1.33 in most of the city. In those years, India was enthusiastic about all sorts of regulation, and limiting building heights seemed to offer a way to limit urban growth that was in keeping with fashionable ideas of English urban planning. But Mumbai’s height restrictions meant that, in one of the most densely populated places on earth, buildings could have an average height of only one-and-a-third stories. People still came; Mumbai’s economic energy drew them even when living conditions were awful.
Bangalore is simply the latest venue for that age-old dance. In the sixth century B.C., Athens was hardly the intellectual center of the world. The most exciting Greek thinkers lived on the edges of the Greek diaspora in Asia Minor, where they learned from the older civilizations of the Near East. Miletus, a wool-making port in western Turkey, produced the first philosopher, Thales, and the father of European urban planning, Hippodamus, whose gridlike plans provided a model for the Romans and countless cities since then. Athens grew by trading wine, olive oil, spices, and papyrus. The city cemented its power by leading the Greek resistance to the Persian invasions that had already ravaged places like Miletus. Just as rich, ebullient post-World War II New York attracted writers and painters from battle-scarred Europe, fifth-century-B.C.
She married an architect, Robert Jacobs, and chose to raise a family on Hudson Street in the West Village. Her remarkable intellect, which still sparkled well into her eighties, and her New York City experiences led her to many profound and prescient insights. In the 1950s, she saw clearly the folly of those efforts of urban renewal, which replaced well-functioning neighborhoods with immense towers that were isolated from the streets that surrounded them. She opposed the accepted wisdom of urban planning, with its penchant for single-use neighborhoods; she advocated diversity. In the 1960s, she grasped the role that cities play in spreading knowledge and ideas and creating economic growth. In the 1970s, she understood that cities were actually better for the environment than leafy suburbs. Her insights came from her enormous gifts as an observer living and working in New York. Her knowledge came from walking around with her eyes open, which is still the best way to learn how a city works.
Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West
Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor
But some of it must have unsuspectingly remained buried deep in my unconscious waiting to emerge forty years later when I began to speculate that networks form the fundamental scaffolding for understanding how our bodies, our cities, and our companies work. 4. INTERMEDIATE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION My aim in this brief and somewhat personal digression is not to give a comprehensive critique or balanced overview of urban planning and design but rather to highlight some of its specific characteristics relevant for setting the scene and providing a natural segue into the possibility of developing a science of cities. I am not an expert, nor do I have credentials in urban planning, design, or architecture, so my observations are necessarily incomplete. One important insight that resulted from these observations was that most urban development and renewal—and in particular almost all newly created planned cities such as Washington, D.C., Canberra, Brasilia, and Islamabad—has not been very successful.
An example of this is the number of patents produced in a city shown in Figure 3. Thus, on a per capita basis, all of these quantities systematically increase to the same degree as city size increases and, at the same time, there are equivalent savings from economies of scale in all infrastructural quantities. Despite their amazing diversity and complexity across the globe, and despite localized urban planning, cities manifest a surprising coarse-grained simplicity, regularity, and predictability.15 To put it in simple terms, scaling implies that if a city is twice the size of another city in the same country (whether 40,000 vs. 20,000 or 4 million vs. 2 million), then its wages, wealth, number of patents, AIDS cases, violent crime, and educational institutions all increase by approximately the same degree (by about 15 percent above mere doubling), with similar savings in all of its infrastructure.
Many of us blithely use phrases like the “metabolism of a city,” the “ecology of the marketplace,” the “DNA of a company,” and so on, as if cities and companies were biological. Even as far back as Aristotle we find him continually referring to the city (the polis) as a “natural” organic autonomous entity. In more recent times an influential movement in architecture has arisen called Metabolism, which was explicitly inspired by analogy with the idea of biological regeneration driven by metabolic processes. This views architecture as an integral component of urban planning and development and as a continually evolving process, implying that buildings should be designed ab initio with change in mind. One of its original proponents was the well-known Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, the 1987 winner of the Pritzker Prize, considered to be the Nobel Prize of architecture. I find his designs, however, to be surprisingly inorganic, dominated by right angles and concrete and somewhat soulless, rather than having the curvaceous, softer qualities of an organism.
Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
A 2007 study revealed that public-toilet closure in the US has been a trend for over half a century.31 In the UK, 50% of public toilets were closed between 1995 and 2013 – or, as in the public toilet closest to where I live in London, converted into the proverbial hipster bar.32 Urban planning that fails to account for women’s risk of being sexually assaulted is a clear violation of women’s equal right to public spaces – and inadequate sanitary provision is only one of the many ways planners exclude women with this kind of gender-insensitive design. Women are often scared in public spaces. In fact, they are around twice as likely to be scared as men. And, rather unusually, we have the data to prove it. ‘Crime surveys and empirical studies from different parts of the world show that a majority of women are fearful of the potential violence against them when in public spaces,’ explains urban-planning professor Anastasia Loukaitou-Sideris. Analyses of crime data from the US and Sweden both show that women and men respond to similar environmental conditions differently, with women tending to be ‘more sensitive than men to signs of danger and social disorder, graffiti, and unkempt and abandoned buildings’.
With a niche identity and a subjective point of view. In such a framing, women are set up to be forgettable. Ignorable. Dispensable – from culture, from history, from data. And so, women become invisible. Invisible Women is the story of what happens when we forget to account for half of humanity. It is an exposè of how the gender data gap harms women when life proceeds, more or less as normal. In urban planning, politics, the workplace. It is also about what happens to women living in a world built on male data when things go wrong. When they get sick. When they lose their home in a flood. When they have to flee that home because of war. But there is hope in this story too, because it’s when women are able to step out from the shadows with their voices and their bodies that things start to shift.
Like many of the examples in this book, it came about as a result of a gender data gap – in this instance, a gap in perspective. The men (and it would have been men) who originally devised the schedule knew how they travelled and they designed around their needs. They didn’t deliberately set out to exclude women. They just didn’t think about them. They didn’t think to consider if women’s needs might be different. And so this data gap was a result of not involving women in planning. Inés Sánchez de Madariaga, an urban-planning professor at Madrid’s Technical University, tells me that this is a problem in transport planning more generally. Transport as a profession is ‘highly male-dominated’, she explains. In Spain, ‘the Ministry of Transportation has the fewest women of all the ministries both in political and technical positions. And so they have a bias from their personal experience.’ On the whole, engineers focus mostly on ‘mobility related to employment’.
Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis
Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
From the grid layout of Augustine Rome regulated by the Caesars, Medici Florence, Baron Haussman’s elegant boulevards that tore through the dilapidated streets of nineteenth-century Paris, to the re-imagining of Shanghai as the capital of the twenty-first century, architecture and political control have gone hand in hand. But just as the judicious planning of urban space can enforce compliance and order, can architecture also liberate and nurture? Can a well-planned neighbourhood encourage a sense of community? The narrative of modern urban planning is the story of turning philosophy to stone. The twentieth-century planner was nothing if not ambitious: confident that he (for he is almost exclusively male) had found the technological panacea for the ills of society, convinced that building the city afresh would offer mankind a new start, accelerating people into the sublime realms of modernity: free from want, pain or unnecessary emotion.
Ruskin sourced his ideas from history, but this was not the only well of inspiration for urban thinkers. In the coming decades evolutionary theory, fantastical fiction, the desire to shock, the latest findings from newly forged sciences – psychology, sociology, psychoanalysis – would all be legitimate seedbeds for germinating ideas of the new city. However, as can be seen in the lives of three of the founding fathers of modern urban planning – Patrick Geddes, Ebeneezer Howard and Le Corbusier – the street was too often forgotten. Just below the castle at the end of the Royal Mile in Edinburgh stands the Outlook Tower. Originally home to Short’s Observatory, Museum of Science and Art, the tower was purchased in 1892 by the then professor of botany at University College, Dundee, Patrick Geddes. Often considered the father of modern town planning, Geddes began life as a zoologist and as a young man was influenced by Darwin’s radical ideas of evolution, later lecturing on the life sciences at Edinburgh University.
As a leading member of the Regional Planning Association of America (RPAA), Mumford transformed and popularised Geddes’s theories: allowing cities to grow unchecked was intolerable; people, industry and land were an integrated network that needed to be planned. Following the Great Depression, the RPAA was perfectly placed to give shape to the urban projects of Roosevelt’s New Deal, combining practical directives of urban planning and a positive social agenda that drove forward the rebuilding of America out of adversity. Many of the New Deal towns, constructed by schemes such as the Tennessee Valley Authority, saw whole communities emerging according to regional planning. In turn, Mumford’s synthesis of Geddes’s regional planning found fertile ground back in Britain in the work of Sir Patrick Abercrombie, the man who campaigned in the 1930s for a greenbelt around London to halt the spread of the city.
China's Future by David Shambaugh
Berlin Wall, capital controls, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, market bubble, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent-seeking, secular stagnation, short selling, South China Sea, special drawing rights, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional
Urbanization Another significant future challenge for China is increasing urbanization (), which is a very high priority of the government and particularly of Premier Li Keqiang during his tenure in office (which ends in 2022). In March 2014 Li unveiled the “National New-Type Urbanization Plan,” the nation’s first-ever official urbanization blueprint.29 Probably no government in history has devised such a comprehensive orchestrated urbanization scheme on such a grand scale—involving issues of land and buildings, public and private transportation, communications, public services, finances, ecology, food, labor, governance, and other facets of urban planning.30 China spends up to $400 billion a year on buildings, putting up 28 billion square feet of new residential property annually. It is forecast to account for 40 percent of global construction in the next ten years.31 The government’s goal is to have 60 percent of the population living in urban areas by 2020—requiring the relocation of 260 million rural inhabitants, creating 110 million new jobs, permanently absorbing 150 million migrants already living in metropolitan areas and providing them with legitimate rights for dwelling, education, healthcare, and other basic social services.
See Edward Wong, “Chinese Leaders Approve Sweeping National Security Law, Bolstering Communist Rule,” New York Times, July 1, 2015; Chun Han Wong, “China Imposes Sweeping National Security Law,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2015; N.A., “National Security: Everything Xi Wants,” The Economist, July 4, 2015. 29. See Jon R. Taylor, “The China Dream Is an Urban Dream: Assessing the CPC’s National New-Type Urbanization Plan,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 20 (2015), pp. 107–20. The Plan was jointly issued by the CCP Central Committee and State Council. 30. The Chinese government has had the benefit of working closely with The World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and other international organizations in preparing its urbanization plan. See, for example, The World Bank and Development Research Center of the State Council, Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization (Washington, DC: The World Bank Group, 2014). 31. Jonathan Fenby, Tiger Head, Snake Tails: China Today, How It Got There and Where It Is Heading (New York: The Overlook Press, 2012), p. 50. 32.
Another growing concern is the relative decline in foreign inbound investment, which is related to the increased costs and difficulties of operation for foreign multinationals in China. What other time bombs lurk waiting to burst in China’s opaque economy? Socially, there are multiple variables to monitor. The facilitation or repression of civil society (by the government) is one. The government’s urbanization plans are another, as the scheme will involve the largest population movement in human history. Rising unrest in Tibet, Xinjiang, and across China is a major challenge. Reform or abolition of the household registration (hukou) system is critical to managing China’s massive internal migration problem. Meeting the ever-expanding aspirations of China’s burgeoning middle class will also be a central challenge, as the nation’s currently estimated 300 million citizens in this category will at least double and possibly triple by .
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
In 2002 a report: Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall, and Don Chen, Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth America, 2002. “There is no ‘there’ there”: Gold and Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl.” The historian Lewis Mumford: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, pp. 237, 244; Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (Mariner Books, 1970). Her influential 1961 book: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961). The definitive critique of twentieth-century urban planning. It’s hard to overstate Jacobs’s role in urban planning, and her own artful explanation of the “sidewalk ballet” is worth citing in full here. She wrote that under the seeming disorder of cities, there was a “marvelous order for maintaining the safety of the streets and the freedom of the city.” This order, she wrote, is “composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance—not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole.
Department of Agriculture financed at below-market rates over a forty-year time period. Marohn was hailed a hero. “Everybody was super thrilled with me because I got this project approved out of nowhere,” he says. And since the project would connect more homes, it would allow the town to promote the fact that it was creating capacity for the city to grow. But over the next several years, as Marohn went back to Remer to do additional work—he had by then gotten a degree in urban planning—and saw that the town was in the process of doing a similar project with their water system, he realized he had created an unsustainable financial situation. Thanks to the leaky pipe he fixed, the town now had to bear the maintenance costs of a system that was double the size of the one it had before. “I bought them time,” he says, “but I gave them a giant unfunded liability.” Marohn started questioning the rationale of this kind of system.
“There is a connection . . . between the fact that the urban sprawl we live with daily makes no room for sidewalks or bike paths and the fact that we are an overweight, heart disease-ridden society,” wrote the report’s author, Richard Jackson, MD, a pediatrician, chair of Environmental and Health Sciences at UCLA, and former director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health. Jackson has been tracking the impact of environment on health for his entire career, in recent years focusing specifically on the influence of urban planning, including sprawl, on our overall well-being. Jackson has become a fierce advocate for the design of what he calls “healthier” communities—those that have safer places to walk, designated bike lanes, green spaces, better air quality, and the like—elements that draw people out into the environment and get them walking and exercising naturally. “We have built America,” he says, “in a way that is fundamentally unhealthy.”
Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
See also automobiles anti-jaywalking rules commute time congestion, environmental benefit of congestion pricing engineering for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) programs idling cars induced traffic parking ramp metering real-time traffic signals traffic-calming devices trucks Traffic (Vanderbilt) transit. See public transit trees absorption of atmospheric carbon in dense urban areas reforestation Trillin, Calvin Udall, Randy United States oil consumption oil reserves and production population increase urban planning failures withdrawal from Kyoto Protocol urban areas. See also New York City; specific cities; specific issues drawbacks and vulnerabilities as ecological disasters heat-island effect outdoor activity planning failures quality-of-life concerns as role models self-sufficiency of aging residents urban planning for economic efficiency failures recreational areas Washington.C. zoning regulations urbanization trend Urbina, Ian U.S. Bureau of Mines U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Green Building Council .
Many more acres of upstate pastoral paradise were destroyed by the steady spread of towns like hers than by the creation of the water supply system that makes it possible for New York City to exist. Building the city didn’t fill the Hudson Valley with parking lots; fleeing the city did. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF POPULATION DENSITY WAS ELUCIDATED brilliantly in 1961 in a landmark book called The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs.35 Jacobs upended many widely held ideas about how cities ought to be put together, and she has been celebrated ever since as an urban-planning iconoclast and visionary, but she could be viewed just as easily as a pioneering environmentalist. Indeed, Jacobs’s book may be most valuable today as a guide to reducing the ecological damage caused by human beings, even though it scarcely mentions the environment, other than by making a couple of passing references to smog. The central idea of Jacobs’s book is that density and diversity are the engines that make human communities work.
Spread people too thinly and sort them too finely, and they cease to interact; move them and their daily activities closer together, and the benefits cascade: their neighborhoods grow safer, they become more attuned to one another’s needs, they have more restaurants and movie theaters and museums to choose from, and their lives, generally, become more varied and engaging. Jacobs’s focus was on the vibrancy of city life, but the same urban qualities that she identified as enhancing human interaction also dramatically reduce energy consumption and waste. Placing people and their daily activities close together doesn’t just make the people more interesting; it also makes them greener. Unfortunately, her catalogue of the failures of modern urban planning also still applies, almost fifty years later, with little modification, all across America: “Low-income projects that become worse centers of delinquency, vandalism and general social hopelessness than the slums they were supposed to replace. Middle-income housing projects which are truly marvels of dullness and regimentation, sealed against any buoyancy or vitality of city life. Luxury housing projects that mitigate their inanity, or try to, with a vapid vulgarity.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism
Ch apter Seven TH E EVI L E M P I R E A merkan, have been living orr-rentered liv,," for ", long that the collective memory of what used to make a landscape or a townscape or even a suburb humanly rewarding has nearly been erased. The culture of good place-making, like the culture of farming, or agriculture, is a body of knowledge and acquired skills. It is not bred in the bone, and if it is not transmitted from one generation to the next, it is lost. Does the modern profession called urban planning have anything to do with making good places anymore ? Planners no longer employ the vocabulary of civic art, nor do they find the opportunity to practice it-the term civic art itself has nearly vanished in common usage. In some universities, urban-planning departments have been booted out of the architecture schools and into the schools of public administration. Not surprisingly, planners are now chiefly preoccupied with adminis trative procedure: issuing permits, filling out forms, and shuffling pa pers-in short, bureaucracy.
Despite Sullivan, the idea of civic art really did catch on briefly in America at the turn of the twentieth century. A remarkable series of expositions followed the Chicago fair-the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo in 1901 (where President McKinley was shot), the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1904, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle in 1910, and the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco in 1915, among others. They served as demonstration projects for a manner of heroic urban planning that would evolve into the City Beautiful movement in America, a concerted effort to bring focus and unity where chaos, visual squalor, or monotony had reigned, and to do it on a scale not seen since the Baroque period. The City Beautiful movement might be viewed as just another architectural fad. And given its rather short life span of two decades, it probably was, though it left us with some of our most beautiful and enduring public monuments. lVorld Wall. effectively swept it away.
And so my argument throughout this book has been that the city in some form, and at some scale, is necessary. In this chapter I have selected three cities that are strikingly different from one another, and yet all, I believe, represent a type. I have picked Detroit because it is the worst case of an old industrial metropolis gone to hell. Portland, Oregon, in contrast, embodies the most hopeful and progressive trends in American city life and especially in urban plan ning. Los Angeles, the quintessential city of the twentieth century, wholeheartedly dedicated to cars, is the most problematic place to in terpret. The form it has assumed may not allow it to function in the century to come, and so this most modern of places has, paradoxically, the most dubious future. T H E G E O G R A P H Y O F N O W H E R E Detroit ... The city that spawned the auto age is the place where everything that could go wrong with a city, did go wrong, in large part because of the car.
Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional
Ultimately, each of the thirty-three identical buildings featured an open first floor for community activity; a corridor with common rooms, laundry facilities, and a garbage room on several “anchor floors”; and elevators and stairwells shared by all of the roughly one hundred families residing in the tower. Families rushed into the new apartments, which were in great demand. In 1957, more than 90 percent of all units were occupied. A few architecture critics initially praised the high modernist project for its spatial efficiency and abundance of green space. But major problems soon emerged. In the 1960s, Oscar Newman, a young professor of architecture and urban planning from Washington University in St. Louis, initiated a study to determine what was wrong. Newman had read about the conditions at Pruitt-Igoe, but that hadn’t prepared him for what he saw in person. Vandals had destroyed the laundry and garbage facilities. Graffiti covered the common areas wherever he went. There was garbage all over the public areas, both inside and outside the buildings, and the sidewalks were coated with broken glass.
They sponsor and, through signage, call attention to active surveillance by security guards and cameras. They often encourage the kind of informal social interaction among residents that allows for eyes on the street. They maintain all public areas, which sends a clear signal that residents monitor and care about the physical environment. Wherever possible, they reduce opportunities for crime. In City of Walls, the Berkeley anthropologist and urban planning scholar Teresa Caldeira documents the fortification of urban space in São Paulo during the 1980s and 1990s. “In the last two decades, in cities as distinct as São Paulo, Los Angeles, Johannesburg, Buenos Aires, Budapest, Mexico City, and Miami, different social groups, especially from the upper classes, have used the fear of violence and crime to justify new techniques of exclusion and their withdrawal from traditional quarters of the cities,” she writes.
But, as the story of São Paulo’s successful dry laws illustrates, some commercial outlets are more likely to foster crime than to inhibit it. Bars and liquor stores are obvious examples; banks, currency exchanges, and automatic teller machines can have similarly deleterious effects on vulnerable neighborhoods, for the simple reason that they create new targets for robbery and assault. In the 1960s, the urban planning scholar Shlomo Angel examined patterns of illicit behavior in Oakland, which, like many cities at the time, was experiencing a worrisome spike in street crime. Angel found that retail corridors were hot spots, particularly after hours, when most consumers were at home and informal surveillance was weak. Although he shared Jane Jacobs’s enthusiasm for the protective value of eyes on the street, Angel warned that commercial outlets were the wrong way to attract them, and urged cities to restrict their development.
Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan
3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Just as a thought exercise, if this space could be repurposed, covering this area with solar panels could generate 11 billion KWH of electricity per day - enough to power 11 million households or 10% of the households in the US, with zero emissions. Because of the focus on cars and co-located parking (where the car is stored close to its owner) as a solution in urban planning in recent decades, the distance between people and their destinations is typically greater than before, so they spend more time in traffic or on the bus; parking is baked into the price of most housing, goods, and services, so we pay more for all of them (hundreds of dollars per month, at least); and since we've built our city around the assumption that most people will drive, most people do—because all the incentives point in that direction. Parking & Congestion According to Donald Shoup, Professor of Urban Planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, a surprising amount of traffic congestion isn’t caused by people who are on their way somewhere.
Outline Evaluating the potential impact of driverless cars is not as simple a topic as it might first seem where you can quickly take a binary position on their benefits or otherwise. Though many initial simplistic responses may be along the lines of “it’ll never work”, “it’ll save lives” or “I don’t want a robot driving me”, it actually is a much more complex proposition and crosses disciplinary divides including economics, geography, urban planning, technology and even philosophy. As such though, it is a fascinating journey that raises questions fundamental to the very evolution of our society. It’s hard to find any area of daily life that escapes the scope of this seemingly innocuous new arrival. To enable an accessible and comprehensive look at the topic, I’ve chosen to structure this book as follows: In Chapter 2, I’ll begin our journey into the world of driverless cars by taking a step back and looking at how the car has come to dominate so much of modern society and how significant any change to that position would prove.
If the ownership models discussed above favour on-demand access to driverless cars rather than ownership and therefore car sales fall, auto dealers will be adversely impacted - and as a sector, they own or lease about $130 billion of real estate in the U.S. There are some other less-obvious victims too. Might public storage facilities feel the bite as their largest competitor will become the 40 billion square feet of free garage space opening up over the next couple decades? Urban Planning “Imagine a city where the street system permits vehicles to move without obstructions, traffic lights or officers with automatic regulation of speed and capacity; where pedestrians can walk continuously through the whole city areas—no matter whether this be in the outskirts or in the center—without any fear and danger of vehicular traffic. Such a city ideal we can make come true.” Fritz Malcher, The steadyflow traffic system, Harvard University Press, 1936 Despite ambitions dating back over 80 years to address the urban impact of cars, the problem has gotten steadily worse.
Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen
activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
On the LRCC, see Lower Roxbury Community Corporation Records, 1968–1978, Northeastern University Archives and Special Collections (hereafter LRCC), particularly the history in “Urban Renewal in Madison Park,” c. 1970, Washington Park Urban Renewal Area Bulletin, Box 1, Folder 8; LRCC, The Future of Lower Roxbury Depends on You, printed pamphlet, n.d. but c. 1968; Bailey, Lower Roxbury, 19–26, 29, 32–47, 57–63; Gordon Fellman, interview by Lizabeth Cohen, December 18, 2010, Cambridge, MA. 58. On Urban Planning Aid and its involvement in Madison Park, see UPA Records, 1966–82, particularly its mission statement in “Attachments to Form 1023,” n.d. but c. 1966, Box 1, Folder 7; Gordon Brumm, “Urban Renewal in Washington Park and Madison Park,” Dialogues Boston 1, no. 2 (March 1968), Box 12, Folder 1. Also, “Roxbury Leaders Blast Renewal Plan,” BSB, May 28, 1966, for how Goodman presented UPA; Robert Goodman, interview by Lizabeth Cohen, April 24, 2010, Amherst, MA; Fellman, interview. 59. “Contract Between Urban Planning Aid and the Lower Roxbury Community Committee on Urban Renewal,” July 25, 1966; and Dr. Forrest L. Knapp, Massachusetts Council of Churches, to Professor Robert Goodman, November 30, 1966, UPA, Box 1, Folder 7. 60.
For Logue’s communication with the developers, see Logue, Memorandum to the file, September 21, 1961, EJL, Series 6, Box 148, Folder 376; “North Harvard Project” (materials prepared for Yale Law School class, November 1965), EJL, Series 6, Box 151, Folder 464, which states that backing down would be a “dangerous precedent.” Also, Chester Hartman, Between Eminence and Notoriety: Four Decades of Radical Urban Planning (New Brunswick, NJ: Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers University Press, 2002), 18–19; “An Open Letter to Mayor John Collins and the Boston Redevelopment Authority,” 1965, Loeb Library Ephemera Collection, HGSD; Douglas Mathews, “Politics and Public Relations—or, How to Relocate the BRA,” Crimson, January 7, 1966; “Urban Planning Aid: A Proposal to Provide Planning Assistance to Low-Income Communities,” Dirt and Flowers 2 (July 30, 1966): 5, UPA, Box 12, Folder 1; Goodman, interview; “What to Do ’Til the Wrecker Comes, Plot by Boston Renewal Authority, Editing by Brainerd Taylor,” Connection: Visual Arts at Harvard, Spring 1966, Loeb Special Collections, HGSD; “SDS Will Assist in Fight Against Urban Renewal,” Crimson, March 4, 1965; “The Mess in Brighton—and a Suggestion,” editorial, BG, August 11, 1965; “Boston’s Powerful Model for Rebuilders,” BW, November 26, 1966; Jim Botticelli, Dirty Old Boston: Four Decades of a City in Transition (Boston: Union Park Press, 2014), 78. 91.
Logue stood his ground, however, insisting, “Too much of you and too much of me has gone into this program, and too much more hard work lies ahead for both you or me[,] for either of us, or our wives, to be content with anything less than the best people or the best method.”43 THE NEW ADMINISTRATIVE EXPERT Lee may have had periodic frustrations with his partner Logue, but he knew that New Haven’s—and his own—success in urban renewal rested on Logue’s assuming a new kind of administrative responsibility called for in the post–New Deal environment of expanding federal power. Success as this kind of expert depended not on mastery of a narrowly defined body of technical information, as had often been the case earlier in the twentieth century during the Progressive Era. Instead, it required broad skills to negotiate for the resources available to cities from Washington and to oversee a wide range of initiatives on the ground. That expansive portfolio included urban planning, real estate, design, construction, management, legal matters, public relations, community organizing, and lobbying. A lawyer like Logue, who emerged from legal training at Yale schooled in public interest law (long before the term became popular in the 1970s) with a focus on labor and legislation, was particularly well suited to engage with the growing government bureaucracy of postwar America.
Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
After a final defiance — the bulldozing of Colonia Santa Ursula in Ajusco in 29 Young and Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, p. 98; Deborah Posel, "Curbing African Urbanization in the 1950s and 1960s," in Mark Swilling, Richard Humphries, and Khehla Shubane (eds), Apartheid City in Transition, Cape Town 1991, pp. 29-30. 30 Carole Rakodi, "Global Forces, Urban Change, and Urban Management in Africa," in Rakodi, The Urban Challenge in Africa, pp. 32-39. 31 Urban Planning Studio, Columbia University, Disaster-Resistant Caracas, New York 2001, p. 25. September 1966 - he was deposed by President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, a politician notorious f or his many ties to foreign capital and land speculators. A fast-growth agenda that included tolerance for pirate urbanization on the periphery in return for urban renewal in the center became the PRI policy in La Capital.32 A generation after the removal of barriers to influx and informal urbanization elsewhere, China began to relax its controls on urban growth in the early 1980s.
"Indeed some residents are required to climb up the equivalent of 25 stories to reach their rancho houses and the average barrio dweller needs almost 30 minutes on foot to reach public transportation."84 In Bogota the southward expansion of the zone of poverty has preserved high density despite increasing household size toward the periphery.85 Lagos's greatest slum, Ajegunle, exemplifies the worst of worlds: overcrowding coupled with extreme peripherality. In 1972, Ajegunle contained 90,000 people on 8 square kilometers of swampy land; today 1.5 million people reside on an only slightly larger surface area, and 81 Sharma, Rediscovering Dbaravi, pp. xx, xxvii, 18. 82 James Drummond, "Providing Collateral for a Better Future," Financial Times, 18 October 2001. 83 Suzana Taschner, "Squatter Settlements and Slums in Brazil," pp. 196, 219. 84 Urban Planning Studio, Disaster Resistant Caracas, p. 27. 85 Mohan, Understandingthe DevelopingMetropolis, p. 55. they spend a hellish average of three hours each day commuting to their workplaces.86 Likewise in supercrowded Kibera in Nairobi, where more than 800,000 people struggle for dignity amidst mud and sewage, slum-dwellers are caught in the vise of soaring rents (for chicken-cooplike shacks) and rising transport costs.
neighborhoods for fantasy-themed walled subdivisions on the periphery. Certainly the old gold coasts remain — like Zamalek in Cairo, Riviera in Abidjan, Victoria Island in Lagos, and so on — but the novel global trend since the early 1990s has been the explosive growth of exclusive, closed suburbs on the peripheries of Third World cities. Even (or especially) in China, the gated community has been called the "most significant development in recent urban planning and design.'"58 These "off worlds" — to use the terminology of Blade Runner — are often imagineered as replica Southern Californias. Thus, "Beverly Hills" does not exist only in the 90210 zip code; it is also, with Utopia and Dreamland, a suburb of Cairo, an affluent private city "whose inhabitants can keep their distance from the sight and severity of poverty and the violence and political Islam which is seemingly permeating the localities.'"59 Likewise, "Orange County" is a gated estate of sprawling million-dollar California-style homes, designed by a Newport Beach architect and with Martha Stewart decor, on the northern outskirts of Beijing.
City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
The novel made a powerful impression on Ebenezer Howard, who sought to cure the problems of the city by bringing town and country together: ‘out of this joyous union will spring a new hope, a new life, a new civilisation’.50 In Garden Cities of To-morrow, Howard envisaged a network of new cities spread across the countryside (similar to Thomas More’s island of Utopia, with fifty cities all within walking distance), each with its own light industrial base and having no more than thirty thousand inhabitants, with individual homes provided for every family. These were clean, green cities, built on a human scale, in stark contrast to the sooty, stinking megalopolis that was London in the nineteenth century. Howard’s decentralised vision was immensely influential on twentieth-century urban planning. The garden cities of Letchworth (1903) and Welwyn (1920) were the direct result in Britain but his idea inspired new towns across Europe and America in the 1930s.51 In the post-war era, too, many new towns were built, such as Milton Keynes in Britain and Brasília in Brazil. But it has been in the suburbs that people have tried to realise the garden city dream for themselves. Thanks largely to the motor car, in the twentieth century suburban sprawl spread out like an oil slick from the edges of cities across the world, creating conurbations that are the very antithesis of Howard’s decentralised vision.
Measuring just 200 by 100 metres, the Walled City rose up abruptly out of residential Hong Kong, its ramshackle buildings as high as fourteen storeys. Some 35,000 people lived there, most of them refugees from the People’s Republic of China. The Walled City was an anomaly, its existence due solely to a legal and diplomatic loophole. It was built on the site of the oldest inhabited part of Hong Kong. Originally it was a walled garrison town designed according to the principles of traditional Chinese urban planning, facing southwards and with its back to the great Lion Rock to the north. According to the 1898 convention by which Britain gained control of Hong Kong for ninety-nine years, the Walled City remained Chinese territory. When the Japanese captured Hong Kong during the Second World War, they demolished its granite walls. After the war, refugees from China’s civil war flooded into the area. As the Walled City lay outside the jurisdiction of the British colony, they could live there without paying taxes.
To prevent this, the first urbanists made their cities into homes for their gods. Mesopotamians believed that Babylon was the place where the gods had come to earth and it was known as Babi-ilani, or ‘the Gate of the Gods’. Such foundation myths gave people divine authority to build: it was as if the gods themselves had granted a lease on the land to mortals. Other city builders sought cosmic authority in the symbolism of their urban plans. Beijing’s four-square design reflected what they believed was the shape of the universe, a plan repeated in other Chinese imperial cities. Like a sun, the divine emperor sat on his throne in the Hall of Supreme Harmony (the Taihedian), in a city within a city, his divine aura radiating out across this city of walls. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, the Taihedian was the tallest building in China, because no one was allowed to build higher than the emperor.
In the City of Bikes: The Story of the Amsterdam Cyclist by Pete Jordan
A COUPLE OF days after having discovered the 1950s Amsterdam cycling photo, I walked into my university’s Study Abroad office. Applying to study urban planning—in English—at the University of Amsterdam turned out to be far easier than I’d expected. I was duly accepted into the program. The plan was set: Amy Joy and I would marry in June 2002. I’d leave for Amsterdam in July. She’d follow me seven weeks later. I’d study Dutch urban planning through the fall semester and learn all I could about how to help make American cities more accommodating and less perilous for cyclists. Then, in December, we’d return to San Francisco. At least, that had been the plan when I’d left the States. ONCE I WAS in Amsterdam, all the papers I wrote in my urban planning courses focused on some aspect of Amsterdam cycling. I quickly learned that the level of cycling was much lower than it had been when the 1950s photo was snapped.
Yet no matter where in the nation I happened to be, I joyfully cycled, regardless of the place’s bikeability. AFTER MORE THAN a decade of incessant rambling, trying to see and experience as much of America as possible, I began studying urban planning at San Francisco State University in the fall of 2001. My interest focused on learning how cities could best be organized in ways that limited car usage, increased mass transit ridership and added facilities for pedestrians and cyclists. At school, inspired by what I was learning, I’d leave class feeling extremely motivated. But then, just after stepping outside and unlocking my bike, I’d face an urban-planning nightmare: 19th Avenue, San Francisco’s busiest—and one of its most dangerous—streets. On just about an annual basis, pedestrians had been killed at the four-way intersection in front of the campus.
I was vaguely familiar with her tragic story of hiding from the Nazis and her subsequent death, but if someone had told me she’d hidden in Brussels or Copenhagen, I’d have nodded in agreement, oblivious to the truth. I had just spent the previous decade absorbed with exploring America and gave scant thought to what lay beyond its borders. About Holland, mostly I’d just heard that the Dutch loved bikes. So, as an older, returning college student, I’d come to Amsterdam to study Dutch urban planning for five months at the University of Amsterdam. That first night, I settled into the university-provided studio apartment on Spaarndammerstraat. On my second morning in Europe, I began my intensive, monthlong, five-morning-a-week Dutch language course. When not in class, I explored the city by bike, day and night. Though I was a newlywed, I was falling for a new sweetheart. I was fully enraptured with Amsterdam, but even more powerful was the prospect of sharing Amsterdam with Amy Joy.
The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
She went to jail twice for defending her neighborhood, and was able to work with a large group of people who questioned why cars and commuters were more important than parks, communities, and pedestrians. The woman decided to write down the record of her experiences and thoughts about cities and urban planning, and the ﬁeld of urban planning was changed forever. She was Jane Jacobs, the year was 1961, and her book was The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs was our preeminent urban anthropologist—a person who could look at a city block, and through building up the details, show exactly how it worked. An associate editor of Architectural Forum in the 1950s, she became more and more concerned with the deadening effects of urban planning on cities. She went over the whole sad history of those inﬂuential thinkers who saw 84 WEB n.0 cities as horrid, dirty, overcrowded places ﬁlled with the dregs of humanity who needed planners to come in and rationalize, de-densify, and order their spaces for them.
., 39 Simulation, xvi, 2, 11 affordances and, 16–17 bespoke futures and, 98, 121, 124, 126–127 buttons/knobs and, 16 communication devices and, 15–16 culture machine and, 143–144, 147– 152, 156–160, 166–168, 175–178 downloading and, 143, 168 emulation and, 183n3 213 INDEX Social issues (continued) ﬁgure/ground and, xvi, 42–43, 46, 102 folksonomies and, 80–81 hackers and, 22–23, 54, 67, 69, 162, 170–173 Holocaust and, 107 Hosts and, xv, 144, 167, 175 hypercontexts and, xvi, 7, 48, 76–77 information overload and, 22, 149 MaSAI and, xvi, 112, 120–123, 127, 193nn32 meaningfulness and, xvi, 14, 17, 20, 23–29, 42, 67, 77, 79, 119, 123, 128–129, 133, 173 narrative and, xv, 2, 7–8, 58–59, 67, 71, 76, 108, 110, 130–132, 143– 145, 174, 178, 180n4, 188n25, 193n34 personal grounding and, xiv–xv play and, xvi, 13, 15, 32–34, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77, 85, 88, 110–111, 130–131, 143, 153, 160–163, 185n22, 188n25 Plutocrats and, xv, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 plutopian meliorism and, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 power and, xvi, 8, 13, 17, 22 (see also Power) relationship with data and, 32 religion and, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 R-PR (Really Public Relations) and, xvi, 123–127 Searchers and, xv–xvi, 144, 167, 174–178 suburbs and, 3, 8 television and, xii (see also Television) terrorism and, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 unﬁnish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 urban planning and, 84–86 utopia and, 36, 73, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 wants vs. needs and, 13, 37, 57 wicked problems and, 158 World War I era and, 21, 107, 123, 146, 190n1 World War II era and, xi, 18, 25, 32, 47, 73, 107–108, 144–150, 157, 170 Socialists, 102–105 Software platforms, 15, 164, 170 Sontag, Susan, 135 Sopranos, The (TV show), 7 Soundscapes, 53–55 Soviet Union, 31, 85, 88, 146 Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 fall of, 104 gulags of, 107 samizdat and, 59 unimodernism and, 49–52, 73 Space Invaders, 71 Spacewar!
, 71 Spielraum (play space), 75 Spin, 124 Stallman, Richard, 170–171 Stanford, 144, 149, 158–159, 162, 175 Stardust@home, 122–123 Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC), 193n33 Sterling, Bruce, 101–102 Stewart, Jimmy, 44 Stickiness deﬁning, 28, 184n15 downloading and, 13–17, 20–23, 27–29, 184n15 duration and, 28 fan culture and, 28–32, 48, 49, 87 gaming and, 70–74 214 INDEX Systems theory, 151 Stickiness (continued) information and, 22–23, 32–35 markets and, 13, 16, 24, 30–33, 37 modernism and, 36 networks and, 16–17, 22, 24, 29–36 obsessiveness and, 28 play and, 32–34, 70–74 power and, 32–34 simulation and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 Teﬂon objects and, 28–32, 49, 87 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unﬁnish and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 70–74 uploading and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Web n.0 and, 79, 87 Stock options, 98 Stone, Linda, 34 Storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 Strachey, Christopher, 18–19 Strachey, Lytton, 19 Strange attractors, xvi, 117–120, 192n27 Sturges, Preston, 88 Stutzman, Fred, 22 Stewart, Martha, 49 Suburbs, 3, 8 Suicide bombers, 100–101 Sullivan’s Travels (Sturges), 88 Sun Microsystems, 172, 176 Superﬂat art, xi, 49 Supersizing, 3–4 Suprematism, 117 Surﬁng, 20, 80, 180n2 Surrealism, 31 Sutherland, Ivan, 160–161 Swiss Army Knife theory, 17 Symbiosis, 151–152 Synthetism, 117 Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (Jacobs), 85–86 Take-home consumption, 3 Tarantino, Quentin, 49 Taxonomies, 80–83 Technology analog, 18, 53, 150 anticipated, 108–110 bespoke futures and, 98–104, 107–113, 116, 119, 125–127, 131– 133, 136–139 broadband, 9, 57 cell phones, xiii, xvii, 17, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 commercial networks and, 4–5 compact discs (CDs), 2, 48, 53 computer mouse, 158–159 culture machine and, 143–163, 173–174 cyberpunk maxim on, 87 determinism and, 131–132 difference engine, 149 digital video discs (DVDs), 2, 7–8, 15, 58 dot-com bubble and, 79, 174 Dynabook, 161–162, 196n17 Ethernet, 161 Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 ﬁlm cameras, 15 Gutenberg press, 11, 137–138 hierarchical structures and, 123, 155, 175–176, 189n8 historical perspective on computer, 143–178 hypertext and, 158 information overload and, 22, 149 Jacquard loom, 11 mechanical calculator, 149 Metcalfe’s corollary and, 86–87 microﬁlm, 149–150 215 INDEX Technology (continued) Moore’s law and, 156, 195n13 New Economy and, 97, 99, 104, 131, 138, 144–145, 190n3 personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Photoshop, 131 progress and, 132 RFID, 65 secular culture and, 133–139 storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 technofabulism and, 99–100 teleconferencing, 158–159 3–D tracking, 39 tweaking and, 32–35, 185nn22,23 videocassette recorders (VCRs), 15, 23 wants vs. needs and, 4 woven books, 10–11 Teﬂon objects, 28–32, 49, 87 Teleconferencing, 158–159 Television as deﬁning Western culture, 2 aversion to, xii bespoke futures and, 101, 108, 124, 127–129, 133–137 delivery methods for, 2 dominance of, xii, 2–10 downloading and, 2 as drug, xii, 7–9 general audiences and, 8–9 habits of mind and, 9–10 Internet, 9 junk culture and, 5–10 Kennedy and, xi macro, 56–60 marketing fear and, xvii overusage of, 7–9 as pedagogical boon, 14 quality shows and, 7 rejuveniles and, 67 Slow Food and, 6–7 spin-offs and, 48 as time ﬁller, 67 U.S. ownership data on, 180n2 Telnet, 169 “Ten Tips for Successful Scenarios” (Schwartz and Ogilvy), 113 Terrorism, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 Textiles, 11 Text-messaging, 82 3COM, 86 3–D tracking, 39 Tiananmen Square, 104 Timecode (Figgis), 58 Time magazine, xii, 145 Time Warner, 63, 91 Tin Pan Alley, 28, 63 Tintin, 90 Toggling, xvi, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 Tools for Thought (Rheingold), 145 Torvalds, Linus, 144, 167–173 Tracy, Dick, 108 Traitorous Eight, 156 Trilling, Lionel, 79 Turing, Alan, 17–20, 52, 148 Turing Award, 17, 156 Tweaking, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 20,000 Leagues beneath the Sea (Verne), 108 Twins paradox, 49–50 Twitter, 34, 180n2 2001 (ﬁlm), 107 Ubiquity, xiii bespoke futures and, 125, 128 culture machine and, 144, 166, 177–178 folksonomies and, 80–81 Freedom software and, 22–23 hotspots and, xiv information overload and, 22, 149 isotypes and, 125 stickiness and, 22–23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 57–59, 62, 74 216 INDEX simulation and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 soundscape and, 53–55 stickiness and, 70–74 twins paradox and, 49–50 unconscious and, 43–44 unﬁnish and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 unimedia and, 39–40 uploading and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67 WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) and, 55–56, 64–65 United States Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi September 11, 2001 and, 99–101, 130 television’s dominance and, 2, 180n2 Universal Resource Locator (URL), 168–169 Universal Turing Machine, 18–19 University of Pennsylvania, 148 University of Utah, 160 UNIX, 170–171 “Untitled (After Walker Evans)” (Levine), 41 Uploading, xiii–xiv, 180nn1,2 activity levels and, 5 animal kingdom and, 1 bespoke futures and, 97, 120–123, 128–129, 132 commercial networks and, 4–5 communication devices and, 15–16 conversation and, 13 cultural hierarchy of, 1–2 culture machine and, 143, 168, 173, 175 disproportionate amount of to downloading, 13 humans and, 1–2 information and, 1, 4, 11 meaningfulness and, xvi, 29 stickiness and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Ubiquity (continued) Web n.0 and, 79–95 Ublopia, 101 Ulysses (Joyce), 94–95 Uncertainty principle, 37 Unﬁnish, xvi bespoke futures and, 127–129, 136 continuous partical attention and, 34 perpetual beta and, 36 stickiness and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 Web n.0 and, 79, 92 Unimedia, 39–40 Unimodernism Burroughs and, 40–42 common sense and, 44–45 DIY movements and, 67–70 downloading and, 41–42, 49, 54–57, 66–67, 76–77 ﬁgure/ground and, 42–43, 46 gaming and, 70–74 hypertextuality and, 51–53 images and, 55–56 information and, 45–49, 55, 60, 65–66, 74 Krikalev and, 50–51 macrotelevision and, 56–60 markets and, 45, 48, 58–59, 71, 75 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 microcinema and, 56–60 modders and, 69–70 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 narrative and, 58–59, 67, 71, 76 networks and, 39, 47–48, 54–57, 60, 64–65, 68–69, 73–74 participation and, 54, 66–67, 74–77 perception pops and, 43–49 play and, 67–77 postmodernism and, 39–41, 74 remixing and, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70 running room and, 74–77 217 INDEX Uploading (continued) unimodernism and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 Web n.0 and, 79–83, 86–87, 91 Urban planning, 84–86 U.S. Congress, 90 U.S. Department of Defense, 152 Utopia bespoke futures and, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 stickiness and, 36 unimodernism and, 73 Valéry, Paul, 136 Velvet Revolution, 104 Verne, Jules, 108 Vertigo (ﬁlm), 44 Vertov, Dziga, 31, 44 Victorian aesthetics, 14, 19, 44, 46 Videocassette recorders (VCRs), 15, 23 Video games, 188n25 arcades and, 15, 71 ﬁrst, 71 stickiness and, 15, 23, 33–34, 70–74 unimodernism and, 57, 67, 70–74 Wii system and, 72 Vinyl records, 2 Viral distribution, 30, 56, 169 Vodaphone, 116 Von Neumann, John, 148 Wachowski Brothers, 39 Wack, Pierre, 112 Walt Disney Company, 65, 88–89 “Want It!”
Emergence by Steven Johnson
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush
For five hundred years, Manchester had technically been considered a “manor,” which meant, in the eyes of the law, it was run like a feudal estate, with no local government to speak of—no city planners, police, or public health authorities. Manchester didn’t even send representatives to Parliament until 1832, and it wasn’t incorporated for another six years. By the early 1840s, the newly formed borough council finally began to institute public health reforms and urban planning, but the British government didn’t officially recognize Manchester as a city until 1853. This constitutes one of the great ironies of the industrial revolution, and it captures just how dramatic the rate of change really was: the city that most defined the future of urban life for the first half of the nineteenth century didn’t legally become a city until the great explosion had run its course.
The sidewalk carnivalesque that had so vividly been captured by Wordsworth and Baudelaire in the previous century seemed headed the way of the horse and buggy, and in each case, the culprit turned out to be the same: the automobile, which necessitated all the injuries of sprawl—mixed-use zoning, gated communities, deserted or nonexistent sidewalks. At the core of this lamentable transformation was the street itself, and the interactions between strangers that once took place on it. The brilliance of Death and Life was that Jacobs understood—before the sciences had even developed a vocabulary to describe it—that those interactions enabled cities to create emergent systems. She fought so passionately against urban planning that got people “off the streets” because she recognized that both the order and the vitality of working cities came from the loose, improvised assemblages of individuals who inhabited those streets. Cities, Jacobs understood, were created not by central planning commissions, but by the low-level actions of borderline strangers going about their business in public life. Metropolitan space may habitually be pictured in the form of skylines, but the real magic of city living comes from below.
But the book she eventually wrote attacked Mumford’s much-beloved Ebenezer Howard and his “garden cities,” and so Mumford struck back at his onetime protégé with full fury. At over ten thousand words, Mumford’s critique was extensive and wide-ranging, but the central message came down to the potential of metropolitan centers to self-regulate. Jacobs had argued that large cities can achieve a kind of homeostasis through the interactions generated by lively sidewalks; urban planning that attempted to keep people off the streets was effectively destroying the lifeblood of the urban system. Without the open, feedback-heavy connections of street culture, cities quickly became dangerous and anarchic places. Building a city without sidewalks, Jacobs argued, was like building a brain without axons or dendrites. A city without connections was no city at all, at least in the traditional sense of organic city life.
Arrival City by Doug Saunders
agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population
The African American ghettos of the United States in the twentieth century began as classic arrival cities, as the U.S. post-slavery exodus known as the Great Migration sent hundreds of thousands of southern rural ex-slaves in an optimistic search for the center of American society. But their arrival cities failed—because property ownership was unattainable in urban districts owned by indifferent or intolerant outsiders, because arrival-city residents were excluded from the economic and political mainstream by racism and bad urban planning, and because of the absence of government support and institutions. They turned into something else, places of failed arrival—a threat that hangs over many arrival cities today. Nor do all rural-urban migrations create arrival cities. Emergency migrations, caused by war or famine, lack careful investment and planning among villagers and the tightly woven networks of support and linkage that characterize normal village-arrival patterns.
“The migrants from the villages come with very high expectations, often higher than those of the native-born city dwellers,” says Patricia Mota Guedes, a Brazilian scholar who studies schools and social conditions in favelas. “They always have the choice to move out and go back to the village, and more than half of them do. Those who stay are the toughest and smartest ones, and they can take a lot of change.” Or, as one Kenyan urban-planning administrator concluded, “slum dwellers are generally more robust than the rest of the urban population.”8 THE BIRTH PANGS: AN ARRIVAL CITY TAKES SHAPE Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh First come the men with saws and machetes, clearing the swampy, low-lying land on the edge of town. Then come the families, carting piles of bricks and wood down mud pathways, staking out rudimentary foundations on the small plots they have purchased.
This leads to an odd paradox: The downward trend for the place is the opposite indicator of the upward trend enjoyed by the residents themselves.”5 This paradox has created a sense among outsiders that the city’s immigrant districts are poorer or more desperate than they really are, which leads to a misunderstanding of the forms of government investment they really need—a serious policy problem in many migrant-based cities around the world. Rather than getting the tools of ownership, education, security, business creation, and connection to the wider economy, they are too often treated as destitute places that need non-solutions, such as social workers, public-housing blocks, and urban-planned redevelopments. Yet, it is clear to anyone who visits them that these neighborhoods are not on a downward spiral, but rather are becoming platforms for personal, family, and village transformation. The amount of investment in these urban tracts is formidable. In the 1990s, home ownership levels among Latino immigrants in the city reached 45.3 percent, a particularly amazing figure given the comparatively high prices of L.A. property and the very low neighborhood incomes.
City Squares: Eighteen Writers on the Spirit and Significance of Squares Around the World by Catie Marron
Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, deindustrialization, do-ocracy, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, urban planning
“It’s the only real home we have,” Antonacci told me. Aquila, Piazza del Duomo I grew up in Greenwich Village, Jane Jacobs’s old neighborhood, where Washington Square Park was my version of Antonacci’s Duomo square, the place where I met friends, cooled off in the fountain, played catch with my dad, and people-watched. It was the heart of what was then a scruffier but more venturesome neighborhood than today’s Village. The city’s urban planning czar Robert Moses had wanted to drive a highway straight through the middle of Washington Square. That the Village has become one of the most desirable and expensive places in the world is in no small measure due to Moses’s failure and the park’s survival. The good life, wrote the other great New York urban writer of Jacobs’s era, Lewis Mumford, involves more than shared prosperity; it entails what Mumford described as an almost religious refashioning of values based on an ecological view of the city.
In classical theory, revived in the quattrocento, the human figure was the source of architectural proportion; the circle and square were seen as ideal geometric forms, represented by the spread-eagled figure of a human being whose extremities describe circumference and perimeter (seen in Leonardo da Vinci’s famous drawing of Vitruvian Man). In The City Shaped, the architectural historian Spiro Kostof wrote: “Italian Renaissance theory began to see radial design, or at least centrally planned schemes, as the diagram of humanist perfection, and went further, in urban-political terms, to equate perfect social order with the humanist prince.” The city square was once again a focus of urban planning, but the republican version didn’t survive the classical era: In the age of Machiavelli, power was confined to the palace. The ideal city of the Renaissance depended on the benevolence of a tyrant. The city squares of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were designed to display the wealth and power of Europe’s upper classes. Baroque planning—broad, symmetrical radial avenues that converge on grand rectangles or ovals, surrounding monumental figures and fountains—reflected the centralization of power in absolute monarchs and the new riches of mercantile capitalism.
In 2000 it was Republic Square in Belgrade; in 2003 Freedom (formerly Lenin) Square in Tbilisi; in 2004 and again in 2014 it was Independence Square (later Euromaidan) in Kiev; in 2011 it was Tahrir Square in Cairo. In Tehran, the capital of modern Iran, the closest thing to an iconic assembly place is Azadi—or Freedom—Square. It’s a large traffic circle fed by expressways, surrounding a fifty-meter concrete tower-arch in a style that could be called Persian-modernist. Azadi was built according to a master urban plan that was drafted in 1968. It’s somewhat smaller than the Maidan-e Naqsh-e Jahan in Isfahan, and unlike the Safavid imperial center, it’s miles from the hub of the capital, the Grand Bazaar. Half deserted and barely integrated into the life of the city, Tehran’s modern squares were built by the shah to glorify the state and himself. They were never intended to become instruments of genuine popular will, but twice in the country’s recent history, Iranians filled the empty spaces of their squares with mass rallies that were not called by the country’s rulers: in 1979, when revolution brought an end to the rule of the shahs; and in 2009, when a stolen presidential election triggered days of peaceful protest, known as the Green Revolution, which was violently put down by the Islamic regime.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
If all the energy and goodwill of the environmental movement can now be applied within the urban boundary, the results will be dramatic. 9 THE INNER CITY THINKING OF THE CITY IN TERMS OF ITS SUBURBAN COMPETITION; CATEGORIES IN WHICH THE SUBURBS TYPICALLY OUTPERFORM THE CITY: THE AMENITY PACKAGE, CIVIC DECORUM, PHYSICAL HEALTH, RETAIL MANAGEMENT, MARKETING, INVESTMENT SECURITY, AND THE PERMITTING PROCESS Anybody who travels back and forth across the Atlantic has to be impressed with the differences between European cities and ours, which make it appear as if World War Two actually took place in Detroit and Washington rather than Berlin and Rotterdam. —JAMES HOWARD KUNSTLER, HOME FROM NOWHERE (1996) In turning from the region to the city, it is important to remember that America’s inner cities did not wither all at once, or by chance. For much of the twentieth century, they have suffered from the unanticipated consequences of government policy and urban planning. The availability of the massive interstate system for daily commuting made it easy to abandon the city for houses on the periphery. The widespread construction of parking lots downtown further eased the automotive commute while turning the city into a paved no-man’s-land. Racism, redlining, and the concentration of subsidized housing projects destabilized and isolated the poor, while federal home-loan programs, targeting new construction exclusively, encouraged the deterioration and abandonment of urban housing.
This discipline is especially important in areas of mixed use, as it is a consistent streetscape that makes different uses compatible. Such a code is not difficult to write, but it requires an approach to city planning that has fallen out of use in recent years. Rather than specifying what it doesn’t want, this code specifies what it does want, which implies a degree of proactive physical vision that is currently rare among urban planning and zoning boards.cq One such urban code is the Traditional Neighborhood Development Ordinance, described later, which is currently being used and imitated by municipalities nationwide. In certain instances, it makes sense to complement the urban code with a second document, an architectural code. Cities and neighborhoods hoping to achieve a high degree of harmony in building style—either to protect and enhance their historic character or to develop a new character of their own—can benefit from a code that addresses building materials, proportions, colors, and other surface design issues.
In contrast, the structure of the traditional neighborhood offers the possibility of a transit experience that is both comfortable and civilized. When the transit stop is located at the neighborhood center, next to the corner store or the café, the commuter has the opportunity to wait for the bus or trolley indoors with a cup of coffee and a newspaper, with some measure of comfort and dignity. For this condition to occur with regularity, transit routes and urban plans must be developed in concert. Ideally, transit authorities should also work directly with shop owners, who typically welcome the extra business that a transit stop can generate. THE STREETS We have already discussed pavement width, but we must be more specific. On well-traveled streets within a neighborhood, there is no justification for travel lanes wider than ten feet and parking lanes wider than seven feet.
Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
He tried to relate her plight to his own work as an epidemiologist: If that poor woman had collapsed from heat stroke, we docs would have written the cause of death as heat stroke and not lack of trees and public transportation, poor urban form, and heat-island effects. If she had been killed by a truck going by, the cause of death would have been “motor-vehicle trauma,” and not lack of sidewalks and transit, poor urban planning, and failed political leadership. That was the “aha!” moment for me. Here I was focusing on remote disease risks when the biggest risks that people faced were coming from the built environment.3 Jackson, who has more recently served as California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s state public health adviser, spent the next five years quantifying how so much of what ails us can be attributed directly to the demise of walkability in the auto age.
STEP 3: GET THE PARKING RIGHT What parking costs and what it costs us; Induced demand redux; Addiction made law; The cost of required parking; Some smarter places; The problem with cheap curbside parking; The right price; A tale of two cities; What should we do with all this money?; A bargain at $1.2 billion This chapter exists because of one man. He is in his mid-seventies, green-eyed, gray-bearded, and often pictured riding a bicycle. He holds four degrees from Yale in engineering and economics, and teaches at UCLA, where he was chair of the Department of Urban Planning and ran the Institute of Transportation Studies. His name is Donald Shoup and, inside an admittedly small circle, he is a rock star. He is alternately hailed as the “Jane Jacobs of parking policy” and the “prophet of parking.” There is even a Facebook group called “The Shoupistas.”1 Shoup has earned his exalted status by being perhaps the first person to really think about how parking works in cities.
District Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. “Capital Bikeshare Expansion Planned in the New Year,” December 23, 2010. Doherty, Patrick C., and Christopher B. Leinberger. “The Next Real Estate Boom.” The Washington Monthly, November/December 2010. Doig, Will. “Are Freeways Doomed?” salon.com, December 1, 2011. Donovan, Geoffrey, and David Butry. “Trees in the City: Valuing Trees in Portland, Oregon.” Landscape and Urban Planning 94 (2010): 77–83. Dorner, Josh. “NBC Confirms That ‘Clean Coal’ Is an Oxymoron.” Huffington Post, November 18, 2008. Duhigg, Charles. “Saving US Water and Sewer Systems Would Be Costly.” The New York Times, March 14, 2010. Dumbaugh, Eric. “Safe Streets, Livable Streets.” Journal of the American Planning Association 71, no. 3 (2005): 283–300. Duranton, Gilles, and Matthew Turner. “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from U.S.
Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin
1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Critics of urban renewal, though, added what we would now call positive goals of affordability and diversity to James’s hostility to overbuilding. In Boston the sociologist and urban planning researcher Herbert Gans wrote a stunning indictment of how local elites needlessly destroyed the Italian working-class district of the West End, coining the term “urban village” to depict the close-knit, family-based, ethnic community that was displaced in the name of slum clearance. Even more famously, in New York the journalist and community activist Jane Jacobs published a call to arms against the fatal machinery of modern urban planning, which brought in the bulldozers and “cataclysmic money” of urban renewal projects to destroy old, but still vibrant, neighborhoods. By the early 1960s, with urban renewal moving forcefully ahead, its opponents developed a modest, street-level defense of urban authenticity to confront the arrogance of both modernization and state power, which threatened to sweep away people as well as buildings.12 The men and women who spoke up for authenticity in the 1960s were a mixed group socially, culturally, and politically, and they argued for somewhat different visions of the city.
A few years later, faced with similar grassroots opposition to his plan to build an expressway across Broome Street, which would have destroyed a large number of nineteenth-century loft buildings across a wide swath of the neighborhood that soon became known as SoHo, Moses suffered another big defeat at the hands of artists, historic preservationists, and the same Greenwich Village residents, including Jacobs, who had fought him on Washington Square Park. In the third battle, a plan to tear down old houses and warehouses near Jacobs’s home in order to build high-rise, low-income public housing, Moses lost again.16 Robert Moses enraged people not just because of his arrogant manner or the architectural designs he chose; his use of Modernist urban planning principles struck deep into the heart of a traumatized liberal community. The Allies’ bombing of Dresden, Berlin, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki and the German air attacks on London during World War II had shown how easy it was to destroy the historic heart of cities. Though postwar governments in the United States did not try to murder thousands of urban dwellers, they did aim to annihilate the material landscape of the past, and the same gut feeling of terror caused by the threat of the atomic bomb could be aroused by the rubble of districts razed for urban renewal.
Like Harlem and Williamsburg, our neighborhood was reimagined. Its reputation for authenticity still reflected local character, but the meaning of “local” had changed. The East Village still enjoys the image of an oasis of authenticity in a Wal-Mart wasteland, which tends to make living here even more expensive. Almost everywhere, lofts and walk-up flats have been transformed into luxury housing. “Blight,” which urban planning officials in the 1950s sneeringly said was the problem with old neighborhoods like ours, has yielded to chic.9 Redevelopment began in the 1950s, to the south of Washington Square Park, when Robert Moses used federal government funds for urban renewal to demolish manufacturing lofts and replace them with faculty housing for NYU. Since then NYU has expanded northward and eastward block by block.
The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021 by Greg Clark
Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, congestion charging, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global value chain, haute cuisine, housing crisis, industrial cluster, intangible asset, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rent control, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor
The area’s development was planned and developed in the 1980s by the London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC), established by then Secretary of State for the Environment, Michael Heseltine (now Lord Heseltine). The LDDC was the most assertive response yet to the crisis of de-industrialisation. Its project responded to a shift in the mobility and scale of global capital and marked the first major initiative in London prior to 1991: The back story 17 post-industrialised planning for London. It set the tone for much of the rationale for urban planning in the 1990s and 2000s, in that it showed the potential transferability of substantial parts of London’s economic core after hundreds of years of relative stasis. The LDDC’s initial conflict with local Labour-controlled boroughs and local activists, which was particularly fierce until 1986, ultimately was resolved to forge a less antagonistic political culture by the end of the 1980s (Smith, 1991).
First Mayor Ken Livingstone and then his successor Boris Johnson, in tandem with representatives at the GLA and DCLG, adopted a more integrated spatial vision of London as a world city. This considers the functionality of the whole city rather than focusing solely on isolated redevelopment districts. The stakeholder consensus has been that, because London’s prosperity depends on the attraction of international investment and people, diversity and fairness must be embraced and actively incorporated into urban planning. The draft London Plan explained that London’s ‘urban renaissance’ would consist of “making the city a place where people want to live, rather than a place from which they want to escape” (Mayor of London, 2002a). 72 The evolution of London, 1991 to 2015 Such a consensus around urban development would have appeared almost unthinkable during the political antagonism of the late 1980s. Sir Terry Farrell, a prominent architect in London’s new ‘urban renaissance’, has indicated that: “The biggest change of the last 20 years is the move from an era of confrontation over the status of industry and white collar employment, to a phase where by 2010 white collar industries are seen as the saviour of industrial areas.”
One example of London leveraging its links is in its devising of a new offer of expert technical advice and financial support for urban masterplanning, transport systems and structural engineering in rapidly developing cities. Since 2013 these connections have been solidifying. The Future Cities Catapult is one London in the next decade: Implications of the rise of other world cities 143 of several new London-based organisations proposing to make the city a centre of excellence for designing global solutions to climate change, resource scarcity and urban planning (Crabtree, 2013). The combination of engineering expertise and access to finance means London is well placed to become a pioneer in private sector financing for urban development worldwide. Culture, diversity and destination London is, along with Toronto and New York, one of the most successfully diverse city societies in the world. In addition to the statistical depth and lived tranquillity of ethnic co-existence, figures from the Eurobarometer survey suggest that tolerance for foreign presence is fairly high.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
Smith eventually resigned in June 2009. 2 Mark Mills and Peter Huber, ‘How Technology Will Defeat Terrorism,’ City Journal, Winter 2002. 3 Mills and Huber, ‘How Technology Will Defeat Terrorism’. 4 See Tim Blackmore, War X: Human Extensions in Battlespace, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005. 5 See www.northcom.mil/. 6 Lorenzo Veracini, ‘Colonialism Brought Home: On the Colonization of the Metropolitan Space,’ Borderlands, 4:1, 2005, available at www.borderlands.net.au. 7 See Derek Gregory, The Colonial Present, Oxford: Blackwell, 2004; David Harvey, The New Imperialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 8 Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–6, London: Allen Lane, 2003, 103. On the panopticon, see Tim Mitchell, ‘The stage of modernity’, in Tim Mitchell (ed), Questions of Modernity, Minneapolis; University of Minnesota Press, 2000, 1–34. On Hausmannian planning, see Eyal Weizman, interview with Phil Misselwitz, ‘Military Operations as Urban Planning’, Mute Magazine, August 2003 at www.metamute.org. And, on fingerprinting, see Chan dak Sengoopta, Imprint of the Raj: How Fingerprinting Was Born in Colonial India, London: Pan Books, 2003. 9 Foucault, Society Must Be Defended, ibid. 10 See Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster: New York, 1998. 11 See Sally Howell and Andrew Shryock, ‘Cracking Down on Diaspora: Arab Detroit and America’s “War on Terror’’ ’, Anthropological Quarterly 76, 443–62. 12 Stefan Kipfer and with Kanishka Goonewardena, ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism: On the Meaning of Urbicide Today’, Theory and Event 10: 2, 2007, 1–39. 13 Kristin Ross, Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. 12. 14 Mustafa Dikeç, Badlands of the Republic: Space, Politics and Urban Policy, Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.
If historical siege warfare ended when the envelope of the city was broken and entered, urban warfare started at the point of entering the city.44 Such colonial urban wars and boomerang effects provide contemporary reminders about the perils of attempting to placate guerilla resistance in occupied cities through superior military power, acts of brutal, urbicidal violence, or aggressive physical restructuring. Spatial experiments in the laboratory of the colonial city have often set the stage for the replanning of the colonial metropole. In the 1840s, for instance, after Marshall Thomas Robert Bugeaud45 succeeded in quelling the insurrection in Algiers through the combination of atrocities and the destruction of entire neighbourhoods to make way for modern roads, his techniques of ‘urban planning skipped over the Mediterranean, from the Algerian countryside, where they were experimented with, to the streets and alleyways of Paris.’46 To undermine the revolutionary ferment of the poor of Paris, Bugeaud devised a plan for the violent reorganization of the city through the construction of wide military highways – a plan later implemented by his avid reader Baron Haussmann.47 By the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, industrial cities in the global North had grown in synchrony with the killing power of technology.
Right up to the start of the twenty-first century, the capture of strategic and politically important cities has remained ‘the ultimate symbol of conquest and national survival’.52 Moreover, ever since the demise of obvious systems of urban fortifications, the design, planning and organization of cities has been shaped by strategic and geopolitical concerns – a topic neglected in mainstream urban studies.53 In addition to providing the famous ‘machine for living’ and bringing light and air to the urban masses, modernist planners and architects envisaged the situating of housing towers within parks as a means of reducing the vulnerability of cities to aerial bombing. Such towers were also designed to raise urbanites above the killer gas then expected to lie within the bombs.54 Along with the ‘white flight’ to the suburbs, early Cold War urban planning in the US sought to see US cities ‘through the bombardier’s eye’,55 and actively tried to stimulate decentralization and sprawl as means of reducing the nation’s vulnerability to a pre-emptive Soviet nuclear attack.56 And it is often forgotten that the massive US interstate highway system was initially labelled a ‘defense highway’ system and was partly designed to sustain military mobilization and evacuation in the event of global nuclear war.
Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler
Airbnb, Airbus A320, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar
They aren’t just interested in the technology, but always emphasise the social and economic aspects as well. We thank all of them for taking the time to share their knowledge and convictions with us. Excerpts from those discussions are presented throughout the book. Jan Becker, Dr. Senior Director, Faraday Future, Los Angeles, California, USA Ofer Ben-Noon Co-founder and Chief Executive Ofﬁcer, Argus Cyber Security, Tel Aviv, Israel Jose Castillo Design Critic in Urban Planning and Design, Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, and architect in Mexico City, Mexico Joseph Curtatone Mayor of the City of Somerville, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Volkmar Denner, Dr. Chairman of the Board of Management of Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany Claus Doll, Dr. Head of Mobility Research, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany Joachim Drees Chief Executive Ofﬁcer of MAN SE and MAN Truck & Bus, Munich, Germany ix Acknowledgements x Nicholas Epley, Dr.
Access to mobility also reduces the risk of becoming unemployed and the resulting social impact. Whoever is mobile can change jobs, move to better paid work and utilise career opportunities. In this way, the provision of mobility is an important task for the whole of society. PRECONDITIONS The potential offered by autonomous driving in terms of improved trafﬁc ﬂows, pollution, ﬁnancial savings and urban planning can only be utilised when society as a whole wants to make this quantum leap in mobility. On the one hand, this means that car manufacturers, suppliers and technology companies will have to develop their mobility concepts around the ideas of the various interest groups in society. At the very least, they will have to take their concerns and fears into consideration and should not dismiss them as living in the past.
Autonomous vehicles could lead to family members going their own ways (because they will then travel in cars alone) with negative effects on social interaction. K e y T a ke a w a y s Despite all the justiﬁed reservations, concerns and fears that are often expressed, autonomous driving will help to save lives, as well as time, space, energy and money. The enormous potential of autonomous driving in terms of trafﬁc ﬂow, the environment, the economy and urban planning can only be realised when society as a whole wants to take this quantum leap in mobility. It is necessary to have an open and honest approach to the risks of selfdriving vehicles. Every technology is subject to risks, which have to be identiﬁed, assessed and accepted. Self-driving cars and driverless buses will allow children as well as elderly, ill and disabled people to be mobile. It is necessary to discuss whether the pleasure of driving a car can be changed into the pleasure of being driven in a car.
Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett
Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
More positively, a knock-on effect of removing shit and urine from the street was that it made the outdoors more usable as social space; the huge outdoor café fronting a boulevard was the sanitary engineer’s gift to urban civilization.3 The engineering of healthy cities had been foreshadowed by a fundamental discovery about the human body made three centuries before the urbanist engineers set to work. In 1628, William Harvey’s De motu cordis explained how the human heart causes blood to circulate mechanically through arteries and veins, whereas earlier medicine had thought blood circulated as it heated up. A century later, Harvey’s discovery about the circulatory system became a model for urban planning; the French urbanist Christian Patte used the imagery of arteries and veins to invent the system of one-way streets we know today. Enlightenment planners imagined that if motion through the city became blocked at any major point, the collective body would be prone to a crisis of circulation like that an individual body suffers during a heart attack. The one-way streets prompted by the circulatory model could be realized fairly easily in small cities with relatively light traffic; in big cities like Paris, whose people and traffic swelled relentlessly through the nineteenth century, free-flowing traffic became more challenging to plan, requiring more systemic interventions in the city fabric than simply posting one-way signs.
Though he had little sympathy for the wild, Dionysian revels celebrated by Nietzsche, Weber feared that the real hallmark of modernity was life imprisoned in bureaucratic routine – a fear of too much orderliness which put him far from Engels’ and Marx’s image of the modern as ‘all that is solid melts into air’. His emphasis on self-rule is not a desire for fixed procedure; he admires in Siena the continual rewriting of its laws, the ever-changing pricing of bread and bricks as the needs of the commune altered. Self-governance is for him a work in progress, rather than a fixed set of regulations. Perhaps this attitude also explains why this mental omnivore had no taste for the urban plans going on all around him – plans which declared the solidity, the fixity, the bureaucratic permanence of the German state, but more widely asserted the plan for, the form of a modern city. We cannot ask him to spell out this critique, since he wrote only of the distant past; we can observe that his list of the elements which give a city-state life are open-ended in a way which has vanished. The implicit Weberian critique of the modern city is that its conditions do not favour the city as a self-revising, self-governing place, but favour bureaucratic over democratic processes.
In the face of this reality Costa clung to the generic ideals of the Charter: ‘there exists, already perfectly developed in its fundamental elements … an entire new constructive know-how, paradoxically still waiting for the society to which, logically, it should belong.’ That latter phrase is pure Plan Voisin; it asserts that the modern cité has not caught up with the modernizing ville.12 From the time of the ancient urban planner Hippodamus, admired by Aristotle, a certain kind of urban planning ignored natural terrain, mapping the city as though no hills, rivers or forest knolls stood in the way. In the making of Chicago, for instance, its original planners treated the icy winds blowing off Lake Michigan as irrelevant to laying out its geometrical grid plan, whereas a less implacable plan would have curved and twisted streets so that they acted as shields against the cold. So too for CIAM: they were in search of generic plans for the functional city.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
The aerotropolis offers a new transportation paradigm powerful and compelling enough to assert itself as the bustling center of commerce within a city whose hinterlands lie a continent away. “Look for yesterday’s busiest train terminals and you will find today’s great urban centers. Look for today’s busiest airports and you will find the great urban centers of tomorrow. This is the union of urban planning, airport planning, and business strategy,” Kasarda told me. “And the whole will be something altogether different than the sum of its parts.” But what if the center cannot hold? What if globalism falls apart? There is a growing Greek chorus warning us the age of air travel is over, undone by the twin calamities of peak oil and climate change. They point to oil prices tripling over the last decade, while noting that a flight from New York to London releases more greenhouse gases into the upper reaches of the stratosphere than the thirstiest Hummer when driven for a year.
Webber’s point about such communities is that they are more vivid, more intense—more authentically who we are—than the ones composed of neighbors we’ve never met. In this sense, wholesalers, mall developers, Vegas visitors, and nerds all compose their own communities too, and it wasn’t until the jet brought them together that they could function as one. In light of this, Webber wanted to throw out the old models of urban planning and start over. A city’s space-time continuum was relative, he asserted, but planners acted as if it were absolute. He meant to correct them with his notion of the “elastic mile,” a more pliable way of thinking about space. Where you are matters less than how far you move; location is trumped by access, as the latter expands the scope and opportunities of daily life. The first step to addressing inequality, therefore, was increasing mobility, preferably in the form of cars and wide-open freeways.
The answer will determine whether the hub deserves a say in its own aerotropolis. Having enriched the surrounding region, is it entitled to build on its own success? As the airport’s CEO, Jeff Fegan, phrased it, “It’s a public-policy concern. Should an airport be allowed to pursue tenants who could exist outside it?” In other words, is it in the aviation business, the real estate business, or the urban planning business? The answer is all three. Ben Carpenter and Trammel Crow weren’t alone in grasping the implications of DFW. The announcement of its location in 1965 touched off a frenzy of speculation in the pastureland of Southlake, Euless, Grapevine, Irving, and half a dozen other farm towns. Today these communities have a population of a million. The remaining acreage at Las Colinas has been sold; the Metroplex has run out of room.
Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani
addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
One Indian observer remarked on the British parts, and their “spaciousness, wealth of color, peace, restfulness and beauty . . . none of this belonged to us.”3 Many of the buildings in these areas were in fact faithful imitations of what the British had left behind—English-style homes were built with large verandas and windows, which had to then be shuttered and draped with thick curtains to keep the heat and insects out.4 The government buildings were similarly meant to remind the officers of those back home.5bn Britain’s urban planning had little role in the cities beyond distancing the rulers from their festering colony. Indian cities were segregated to the point of having separate railway stations, such as in Bangalore, where a vast patch of grass set apart the “native” City and the “European” Cantonment stations.6 Nehru made an attempt to phase out these urban divides during his tumultuous stint as chairman of the Allahabad Municipality between 1921 and 1923.
And in tandem with Bhilai, the industrial centers of Durgapur, Barauni and Sindri were also being built.15 But India’s dismal reality—of a poor, struggling, rural economy—would soon render this vision threadbare. By the early 1960s, driven to the trenches and addressing basic food and security concerns, we saw our plan of building a modern, urban India fade. But one wonders how much of the dream would have been realized, even without the crises. For the Indian state was busy committing a laundry list of missteps in the name of urban planning. The cities in independent India were still essentially symbols, as they were for the British—Chandigarh was the sparkling spire on the hill for Indian socialism, “a city of government rather than of industry, meant for politicians, bureaucrats, administrators.” The industrial cities too were weighted with symbolism.16 The Indian government had missed the essential relevance of the city in the context of the market—failing to see them as vibrant, living systems that sustained economies by becoming centers of large-scale, efficient production, and that, as people coalesced in large numbers, also became spaces for innovation.
The disconnect was well captured in the 1951 census report, which stated that India’s towns and cities were “accidents of history and geography.”17 Swati Ramanathan—who with her husband, Ramesh, forms the passionate, reformist team that heads Janaagraha, an NGO emerging as a think-tank on urban policy—tells me, “Our first Town and Country Planning Act was based on Britain’s Town and Country Planning Act of 1909. But while they have revised their act and urban planning laws over eight times, we have held on to ours as if they have been carved in stone.” But while the concerns of urban India may have held little interest for Indian legislators, the city lights were beacons of hope and promise for the masses of India’s rural poor, the dispossessed and the unemployed. As agriculture stagnated, people left the countryside in droves. It was migration as escape—for many people, it meant leaving behind lives that entailed “three months of work per year and then hunger, terrible hunger . . . it was like a heavy hand on my heart.”18 The surging crowds were soon choking the cities and towns, wearing their resources thin.
The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd
The application of asbestos during the building's construction had in fact been carried out according to procedures imported from the West, and experts put forward by the building's supporters argued that the contamination was no worse than in West Berlin's convention center, another 1970s building whose architecture was not widely admiredbut a building that remained in use. Other proponents of rebuilding the royal palace employed the language of urban planning and architecture to present their interpretation of Berlin's history and identity. For them, the Palace of the Republic had to go because its mediocre architecture was unworthy of its prominent site. This crucial point in the German capital, where Unter den Linden and the grid of Friedrichstadt are melded into old Berlin-Cölln and points east, held the key to the city's very identity. A city's identity is something that develops through history, and the importance of this site was stamped by the city's rulers and reinforced by its greatest architects and planners.
Plans for the new capital in the 1990s again foresee a centralization of rail lines along a north-south corridor. A north-south rail tunnel under the Tiergarten, first proposed by Speer, will finally be built. In short, much of the planning for Nazi Berlin shared the technocratic rationality of all modern urban societies. The Third Reich differed from its predecessorsand perhaps its successorsin having the power to impose its plans on a large and complicated city. All urban planning contains an authoritarian element; planning and architecture are always linked closely to power. The opportunity for the ruthless exercise of power made the Third Reich a dream come true for an ambitious architect like Speer as well as a megalomaniac dreamer like Hitler. Few students of Speer's architecture have failed to reflect on the affinities between it and the new job Speer took on in 1942, when his organizational skill was put in charge of wartime industrial production.
Critical Reconstruction The Berlin government had insisted that the guidelines for the "Spree Arc" competition require a "city-compatible" mixture of functions. In other words, government was not to be isolated from commerce, culture, and residence, as it was in Bonna demand that Schultes's plan fulfilled at both ends of his east-west band and also along the banks of the Spree arc to the north. The goal was diversity, which became the watchword of Berlin urban planning in the 1990s. The roots of this policy lay in the 1980s, when the International Building Exhibition (IBA) had changed official policy toward inner-city districts near the Wall. IBA was a multiyear project of urban redevelopment, lavishly funded in the days when West Berlin was still the subsidized showcase of the West. It brought prominent architects to Berlin to design new apartment buildings that complemented their nineteenth-century neighborhoods.
A History of British Motorways by G. Charlesworth
In short, the development of the motorway network in the 1960s was bringing about a major change in transport in the country, the economic and social effects of which were only just beginning to be perceived at the end of the decade. References 1. MINISTER OF TRANSPORT. Roads in England and Wales 1959-60. HMSO, London, 1961. 2. MINISTER OF TRANSPORT. Roads in England and Wales 1969-70. HMSO, London, 1970. 3. MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT. Roads for the future: a new inter-urban plan. HMSO, London, 1969. 4. MINISTRY OF TRANSPORT. Roads for the future: the new inter-urban plan for England. HMSO, London, 1970. 5. SELECT COMMITTEE OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. Sixth report session 1968-69. Motorways and trunk roads. HMSO, London, 1969. 6. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING. Efficiency in road construction. HMSO, London, 1966, 1967. 7. BRITISH ROAD FEDERATION. Symposium on road administration and finance. British Road Federation, London, 1966. 8.
The Automobile Association considered it to be a time-consuming procedure which could lead to a gap between the completion of the 1,000 miles of motorway and the Green Paper programme; the Society of 70 1960-1970: A DECADE OF GROWTH Motor Manufacturers and Traders said it gave no indication of standards to which routes would be developed, apart from them being dual carriageways, nor of priorities; the British Road Federation were disappointed by the level of expenditure proposed. In May 1970 the Government followed up the Green Paper with a White Paper Roads for the future: the new inter-urban plan for England 4 (proposals for roads in Scotland and in Wales were published earlier). It was claimed that the concept of the comprehensive development plan put forward in the Green Paper "was widely welcomed". Existing programmes would provide 1,000 miles of motorway and about the same mileage of all-purpose dual carriageway by the end of 1972. The Government concluded that if the expanded network could be completed in the next 15 to 20 years together with a programme of work on other trunk roads "real congestion on the inter-urban trunk road system as a whole could be virtually eliminated. " The problems of traffic in towns were coming increasingly to the forefront and transport planning surveys were being carried out in the major conurbations.
They also remarked that "The general road system in London is, and will remain, a national scandal" and indicated that they expected to examine the problems of transportation in London during the "lifetime of the present Parliament". The role of urban motorways The preceding brief review of some of the complexities of the urban transport problem has shown that improvements to transport have to be considered within the wider context of urban planning and renewal and that various options such as better public transport systems, traffic restraint and new and improved roads have to be taken into account. It is now of interest to consider to what extent motorways can contribute to better transport conditions in urban areas. There seems to be some uncertainty about what is meant by an urban motorway. The Buchanan Report 3 defined it as "a motorway in an urban area".
Insane Mode: How Elon Musk's Tesla Sparked an Electric Revolution to End the Age of Oil by Hamish McKenzie
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, connected car, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, South China Sea, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Zipcar
Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have estimated that electric robotaxis could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 90 percent compared to personal gasoline cars. A 2015 study by scholars at the University of Texas found that one self-driving car could replace nine regular vehicles. Cars that don’t have to “cruise” for parking spots also release fewer emissions. In one study from 2007, an urban-planning professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that cars looking for parking in one Los Angeles business area generated 730 tons of carbon dioxide a year. Columbia University’s Earth Institute has found that shared autonomous cars would cost about fifteen cents per mile to operate, compared to sixty cents a mile for personal gasoline cars. Savings would come from improved driving efficiency, reduced wear and tear, and cheaper fuel (electricity).
Except for those among us who are especially twisted, we’ll enjoy never again having to parallel park, or having to find parking at all, because our cars, or the ones we’ve paid to ride in, will drive themselves to parking spots or simply move on to pick up someone else. We’ll be able to convert our garages into bedrooms or home offices, or places to store disused KitchenAid mixers, bread makers, and Abdominizers. We’ll pay lower auto insurance premiums. The autonomous age also promises a do-over for urban planning, and it might not be all to the good. People may forsake public transport and instead pour onto the roads, clogging them up even worse than today. Or, knowing that it’s cheaper for their cars to simply drive themselves around the city than to pay for parking, car owners could let their empty vehicles roam while not in use, creating a nightmarish scenario of what Robin Chase calls “zombie cars” crowding the streets uselessly.
See also autonomous vehicles; electric automobiles; specific manufacturers California’s favorable conditions for, 103–105 dealer model for sales, 45–50, 73 difficulty of start-ups in, 71–74 electric car history, 27–32, 37 gasoline cars vs. electric cars, 14–17, 170–172 history of, 193–194 internal combustion engines and, 3–4, 9, 30 resistance to electric automobiles, 176–177, 260 technology industry culture clash with, 246 Tesla’s influence on, 159–162 Tesla’s innovations in, 4–9 Tucker and, 35 autonomous vehicles, 257–275 Apple’s plans for, 112–113 Autopilot (Tesla), 183, 205–213, 265 buses, 198, 267 Chinese market for, 110–111, 235–246, 257–264 climate change and, 272–273 electric vehicle development and, 265–267 ethical issues of, 269–270 innovation in Silicon Valley and China, 110–111 levels of autonomy for, 264–269 quality of life issues and, 274–275 regulation for, 263, 267–269, 272–273 ride-sharing with, 198–199, 260–263, 267, 269, 271–273 robotaxis, 261, 266, 272 Singulato Motor’s plans for, 146–147 Tesla’s plans for, 267–268 trucks, 270–272 urban planning for, 273–274 Autopilot, 183, 205–213, 265 Baglino, Drew, 67 BAIC (Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation), 95, 114–115, 135 Baidu, 103, 110–111, 142–143, 260, 262–263 Bamford, Robert, 156 Barra, Mary, 162 batteries. See also Gigafactory cost of, 172–176, 217 Edison and, 30 safety of, 39–44 Tesla business model and, 8–9, 13, 64, 66 BBC, 34 Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC), 95, 114–115, 135 Beijing Electric Vehicle Company, 114–115 Beijing Guangmo Investment Company, 116 Beijing Jieweisen Technology, 94–95 Beim Maple Properties, 242 Berkshire Hathaway, 130, 209 Beta China (McKenzie), 140, 142 Bezos, Jeff, 271 Bigelow Aerospace, 84–85 Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM), 85 bin Salman, Mohammed (prince, Saudi Arabia), 221 Bitauto, 100 Blastar (video game), 18 Blitz Technology Hong Kong, 115–116 Bloch, M.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Aside from creating a huge burden for the building’s tenant, the Los Angeles Philharmonic (which is contractually bound to put on an astounding 128 concerts each winter season in order to pay the debt service on the garage), the structure has utterly failed to revive area streets. This is because people who drive to the Disney Hall never actually leave the building, noted Donald Shoup, a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the world’s foremost expert on the effects of parking. “The full experience of an iconic Los Angeles building begins and ends in its parking garage, not in the city itself,” Shoup and his graduate student Michael Manville wrote in a damning analysis. The typical concertgoer now parks underground, rides a series of cascading escalators up into the Disney Hall foyer, and leaves the same way.
He had codesigned a swimming pool to sit in the inner harbor so that citizens could do laps in the clean waters. And he had tried to sate Copenhageners’ desire to bike absolutely everywhere by creating an apartment building whose figure-eight shape allowed residents to cycle a gentle promenade all the way up to their tenth-floor apartments. Much of Ingels’s previous work had broken down the separation of uses that so often characterizes architecture and urban planning. The power plant would take this theme further. As per the brief, the facility would create heat and electricity by burning the city’s garbage. But rather than letting the new waste-to-energy facility stand alone, Ingels proposed wrapping the giant structure in an exoskeleton whose winding roof would serve as an artificial ski slope the size of seven football fields (333,700 square feet). Suddenly the city’s industrial district would be transformed into a shining fun zone, and Copenhageners would not have to travel to Sweden to have a mountain adventure.
“There’s no center—no place for people to gather and have all the sorts of things that communities are supposed to have,” she said. She didn’t want anything radical. Just a village where she could park her car, walk around and do a few errands, and feel as though she were someplace. Meyer could see the outlines of that place as she squinted out across the collage of asphalt and lawn. The two architects who stood with us could see it too. “The town square could be right here,” offered Galina Tachieva, a partner at the urban planning firm Duany Plater-Zyberk (DPZ). She pulled off her bug-eye sunglasses and swept a hand across the scene. “And there could be a row of shops or live-work studios lining it. And this disastrous road needs to be slowed down so that old people and children can actually walk across it. We might add parking along the curbs, or split the road in half, like a zipper.” That was a beginning. But why stop there?
Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (And What It Says About Us) by Tom Vanderbilt
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, call centre, cellular automata, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, congestion charging, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, DARPA: Urban Challenge, endowment effect, extreme commuting, fundamental attribution error, Google Earth, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, Induced demand, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, megacity, Milgram experiment, Nash equilibrium, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, statistical model, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, traffic fines, ultimatum game, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor
There seems to be some innate human limit for travel—which makes sense, after all, if one sleeps eight hours, works eight hours, spends a few hours eating (and not in the car), and crams in a hobby or a child’s tap-dance recital. Not much time is left. Studies have shown that satisfaction with one’s commute begins to drop off at around thirty minutes each way. The enduring persistence of the one-hour rule was shown in a paper by urban planning researchers David Levinson and Ajay Kumar. Looking at the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area over a number of years from the 1950s to the 1980s, they found that average travel times—around thirty-two minutes each way—had hardly budged across the decades. What had changed were two other factors: distance and average travel speed. Both had gone up. They suggested that people were acting as “rational locators.”
The statistic doesn’t assign fault or suggest that women working is a bad thing; it does provide a fascinating example of how traffic patterns are not just anonymous flows in the models of engineers, but moving, breathing time lines of social change. Many of us can remember or envision a time when the typical commute involved Dad driving to the office while Mom took care of the kids and ran errands around town. Or, because many American families had only one car, Dad was driven to the morning train and picked up again just in time for cocktail hour and Cronkite. This is a blinkered view, argues Sandra Rosenbloom, an urban planning professor at Arizona State University whose specialty is women’s travel behavior. “That was just a middle-class model,” she says. “Lower-class women always worked. Either alongside husbands in stores, or at home doing piecework. Women always worked.” Still, the Leave It to Beaver commute was not a total fiction, given that in 1950 women made up 28 percent of the workforce. Today, that figure is 48 percent.
This is the murky, human side of traffic. Engineers can look at a section of highway and measure its capacity, or model how many cars will pass in an hour. That traffic flow, while it may mathematically seem like a discrete entity, is made up of people who all have their own reasons for going where they are going, for enduring that traffic. Some may have no choice; some may choose. Moreover, Brian Taylor, a professor of urban planning at UCLA, observes that when we travel to work by car, there may be any number of parts to that journey. We may walk to our car, drive down our residential block, briefly cruise a larger arterial, then pop onto the highway for a spell before exiting onto another arterial, continue on to a smaller street, then drive up a parking-garage ramp, walk to the elevator, and finally walk to our desk.
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff
addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game
Many of these academics, like James Burnham, professed the benefits of an industry-led “American Empire,” which, like the Roman Empire that conquered Greece, would “be, if not literally worldwide in formal boundaries, capable of exercising decisive world control.” Freshly graduated psychologists, now willingly in the service of marketers, conducted the first “focus groups” to determine how and why people buy things. Slowly but surely a new definition of self as “consumer” penetrated the mass psyche. The scores of economic, management, urban-planning, and marketing theories to emerge from this effort were almost invariably geared toward making one part or another of the industrial machine work more efficiently: motivate production, stimulate consumption, assimilate impediments. No matter how humanistic in their wording, or how focused on giving people what they really wanted or needed, these techniques were only “creative” in their ability to tweak the great engine of commerce.
Neighborhoods were uprooted, divided, and demolished. Local governments that attempted to resist were quickly and decisively neutralized by the courts. The resulting highways displaced hundreds of thousands of people and further drove down property values in the cities. According to Senator Gaylord Nelson, 75 percent of federal transportation spending has gone toward highways, while 1 percent has been spent on mass transit. Urban-planning masters such as Robert Moses developed highway schemes intended to keep undesirable people from traveling into desirable neighborhoods. In just one of many examples, Moses built highway overpasses with only nine feet of clearance in order to prevent buses from getting through. This was intended to keep poor black people from traveling from the city to the new suburbs, while also making the purchase of a car a prerequisite for residence.
I launched the blog with four goals in mind: First, I aimed to create a new journalistic beat covering a range of stories from the intense neighborhood-level battles over new bike lanes and parking spaces to the big questions around how New York City planned to address the challenge of peak oil and climate change. Second, I wanted Streetsblog to serve as a watchdog for the New York City Department of Transportation, an agency that no one was holding to account. Third, Streetsblog would educate New York City’s policy makers, press, and regular citizens about urban planning and transportation best practices that were emerging in other cities. Finally, the blog would function as a gathering place and discussion forum for livable-streets advocates. If it succeeded, I figured, Streetsblog would, at best, help get New York City moving slowly in the right direction. Streetsblog succeeded beyond my wildest expectations. It quickly emerged as a daily must-read among advocates, the press, policy wonks, and City Hall insiders.
How Cycling Can Save the World by Peter Walker
active transport: walking or cycling, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, car-free, correlation does not imply causation, Enrique Peñalosa, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, New Urbanism, post-work, publication bias, the built environment, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, urban planning
Too many cars are very much bad for business. Everything You Know About Parking Is Wrong “My father never paid for parking, my mother, my brother, nobody,” says George Costanza in one episode of the New York City–based sitcom Seinfeld. “It’s like going to a prostitute. Why should I pay when, if I apply myself, maybe I could get it for free?” This quote is used in a New York Times article13 by Donald Shoup, a professor of urban planning at UCLA. Shoup has devoted much of his career to a single subject, penning two dozen papers on it as well as an eight-hundred-page book, described by its publisher as a “no-holds-barred treatise.” The subject? Yes, parking. Parking, especially free, on-street parking, is one of those areas that many people seem somehow to take both entirely for granted and very, very personally. People in New York seem to “treat every parking space like it was their firstborn child,” says Janette Sadik-Khan, recalling the battles she endured over it.
CHAPTER 5 Build It, and They Will Come Where Have All Those Cyclists Come From? José Garcia Cebrián’s moment of success came earlier than expected. The network of protected bike lanes for which he had battled to build for so many years in his home city were still under construction when cyclists started hopping over builders’ barriers to use them. “Sections had been laid, but they were far from done,” says the man who, as Seville’s head of urban planning, oversaw the installation of fifty miles of fully segregated cycleways in the southern Spanish city in 2006. “Some people were so keen they lifted their bikes over the fences and rode anyway. It was all okay, apart from a couple of people who did this at night and crashed into barriers where a section finished.” All this paled in comparison to the scene when the network was officially opened, recalls Cebrián, sipping a coffee at a café inside Seville’s medieval city: “As soon as the work was finishing and the fences were removed the cyclists just came.
It all began in 2003, when the fringe United Left political alliance won sufficient city council seats to jointly govern with the Socialists. The city’s traffic was in chaos at the time—because of the local habit of the afternoon siesta, it has four daily rush hours rather than two—and the United Left, traditionally supportive of cycling, managed to get a deal to build the bike lanes onto a coalition agreement. But even then it could easily have come to nothing. By good fortune, Seville’s head of urban planning was José Garcia Cebrián, a keen cyclist who, like the United Left, had been awaiting such an opportunity. Even then, he cheerfully admits, the main reason the bike lane plan succeeded was because almost no one believed it would ever happen and so very few people bothered to try and stop it. “In Spain there’s been a lot of planning about cycling, but then the plans get put into a drawer,” Cebrián says.
Grand Central: How a Train Station Transformed America by Sam Roberts
accounting loophole / creative accounting, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, New Urbanism, the High Line, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, Y2K
Even with the recent renovations, Grand Central Station, which was already outmoded the day it opened a generation earlier, would have to be razed. The rails would have to be electrified. The goat pastures and shanties that still dotted mid-Manhattan would be replaced by a colossal Grand Central Terminal. It would be a majestic gateway to the nation’s greatest city, the catalyst for a new Midtown flanking a breathtakingly luxuriant boulevard, and a prototype for innovative transportation and urban planning imperatives across the country. In short, the new Grand Central Terminal was built, in a way, by accident. TERMINAL CONNOTES AN ENDING. For a century, Grand Central has been anything but. This book is Grand Central’s biography. Nobody who has been there, no one who has witnessed the intricate choreography on the Main Concourse or eavesdropped on the crowd’s collective voice, could doubt that a building, a supposedly quiescent pile of marble and stone, could embody a living organism.
Perhaps more than any other public space, the terminal not only evolved into a household name, but also exercised a profound influence on American culture. Grand Central inspired song lyrics, a popular radio program, memorable movie scenes, literary works, television and theatrical performances, the civil rights movement, new visions of architecture for transportation, including airline terminals, the City Beautiful school of urban planning, the enormously profitable monetization of the empty space above private property, and the sometimes conflicting principle of historic preservation. All while whisking hundreds of thousands of people daily to and from their destinations. GRAND CENTRAL, its predecessors on 42nd Street and its famous trains, emerged early on as a cultural touchstone emblematic of New York’s magnetic glamour.
In addition to installing uniform signage and removing litter, the Grand Central Partnership raised more than $1.5 million to floodlight the terminal’s south and west façades. Since 1991, the terminal has been bathed in 136,000 watts of floodlight from buildings across the street. The blue and magenta tints were designed by Sylvan R. Shemitz, a lighting engineer whose goal, he said, was to make New York “a lively, friendly and joyful place.” IN ITS FIRST CENTURY, Grand Central has played a prodigious role in the annals of urban planning, beginning with William Wilgus’s ingenious monetization of air rights (the ability to transfer those rights between adjacent properties was also introduced in New York in 1916 in the nation’s first zoning ordinance). The skyrocketing value of those rights nearly doomed Grand Central until the U.S. Supreme Court delivered another victory to the terminal by upholding its landmark status and a municipality’s right to confer it.
Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders
barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
Prior to taking up this position he was Director of Policy Research in the Commonwealth Department of Industrial Relations. He was a member of the team that undertook the first Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey between 1989 and 1991. His primary research interests are the employer determinants of labour productivity and the role of the state in nurturing new forms of multi-employer co-ordination. RUTH FINCHER is Professor of Urban Planning at the University of Melbourne. An urban and social geographer by training, she holds a PhD from Clark University (USA). She taught in Canada for six years, at McGill, and then McMaster Universities. Since returning to Australia from North America in 1986, she has been Reader in Geography and Director of the Australian Centre at the University of Melbourne, and a Research Manager in the federal government’s Bureau of Immigration Research.
Many contributors to Australian Poverty: Then and Now (Fincher and Nieuwenhuysen 1998) expressed despair at the loss of government services, like adequate legal aid provisions and dental care, that are cruelly affecting the lives of the disadvantaged. On the other hand, government is proceeding in other ways most actively, and is spending much time defending its decisions about new forms of regulation (called deregulation) in the courts. This is evident in industrial relations matters, at the State and federal levels, and in policies like urban planning at the State level. Neoliberal governments are also pursuing public–private partnerships—for example in secondary and tertiary education, in 23 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 23 CREATING UNEQUAL FUTURES? infrastructure provision for cities—and altering taxation systems for individuals and firms to the greater benefit of business investors and the wealthy.
Of course, the underpinning by governments of commercial law continues to provide advantages like limited liability to corporations and businesses which have never been available to wage earners and other citizens. What is being developed in Australia is a change in style and substance of governance. The adoption in government of neoliberal economic philosophies directs our national and sub-national involvement in globalisation to take particular forms. Gleeson and Low (2000), in their account of urban planning in Australia—an activity at the local level that is defined and regulated by State governments—describe this as replacing the social democratic aims of the manageralism of the 1980s and before, by what they term ‘corporate liberalism’ in the 1990s. Though their presentation is about State governments in Australia, the defining features they list of corporate liberalism in those governments characterise other governments as well.
The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin
autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional
“Regionalism: Obama’s Quiet Anti-Suburban Revolution,” National Review, http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/354734/regionalism-obamas-quiet-anti-suburban-revolution-stanley-kurtz. KURTZLEBEN, Danielle. (2011, October 21). “Cities Where Women Are Having the Most Babies,” US News and World Report, http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2011/10/21/cities-where-women-are-having-the-most-babies. KUSHNER, James A. (2006). “Urban Planning and the American Family,” Stetson Law Review, vol. 36, no. 67, http://www.stetson.edu/law/lawreview/media/urban-planning-and-the-american-family.pdf. KWANG, Han Fook. (2013, June 18). “When wages fail to grow along with economy,” asiaone, http://www.askmelah.com/when-wages-fail-to-grow-along-with-economy/. LACHMAN, M. Leanne and BRETT, Deborah L. (2015). “Gen Y and Housing: What they want and where they want it,” Urban Land Institute, http://uli.org/wp-content/uploads/ULI-Documents/Gen-Y-and-Housing.pdf.
“Older, Suburban and Struggling, ‘Near Poor’ Startle the Census,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/19/us/census-measures-those-not-quite-in-poverty-but-struggling.html. DESAI, Rajiv. (2009, November 16). “Incredible India Indeed,” Times of India, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/opinion/edit-page/Incredible-India-Indeed/articleshow/5232986.cms. DESOUZA, Kevin C. (2014, February 18). “Our Fragile Emerging Megacities: A Focus on Resilience,” Planetizen: The Urban Planning, Design, and Development Network, http://www.planetizen.com/node/67338. DEWAN, Shaila. (2013, December 4). “Home Buyers Are Scarce, So Renters Take Their Place,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/business/first-time-buyers-are-scarce-so-in-some-cities-renters-move-in.html. DILLON, Sam. (2009, April 22). “Large Urban-Suburban Gap Seen in Graduation Rates,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/22/education/22dropout.html.
Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010, New York: Crown Forum. ——— (2012, January 21). “The New American Divide,” Wall Street Journal, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204301404577170733817181646. MUSTAFI, H., et al. (2012). “Main Air Pollutants and Myocardial Infarction,” Journal of American Medical Association, no. 307, doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.126. MYERS, J.C. (2008, March 20). “Traces of Utopia: Socialist Values and Soviet Urban Planning.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association, San Diego, California. MYRSKLA, Mikko, GOLDSTEIN, Joshua R., and CHENG, Yen-Hsin Alice. (2013, April). “New Cohort Fertility Forecasts for the Developed World,” MPIDR Working Paper WP 2012–2014, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, http://www.demogr.mpg.de/papers/working/wp-2012-014.pdf.
This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler
Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration
Throughout American history, political leaders and groups have used Washington, as both city and capital, to fulfill national goals, set an example, provide a prototype.7 Americans have marched in Washington seeking women’s suffrage, veterans’ bonuses, and to stop the Vietnam War.8 Southern members of Congress correctly recognized that intense efforts to abolish slavery in the District signified a national struggle, prompting them to redouble efforts to protect slavery in the border states.9 During Reconstruction, Congress used the District as a “proving ground” for national legislation.10 After World War II, the District’s racial segregation tarnished America’s democratic ideals, and Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both regarded desegregation of the District as a Cold War necessity.11 Washington has also served as a model and laboratory for urban planning and practices. After the Civil War, the city’s business elite tapped Congressional interest in creating a world-class capital to modernize the city’s infrastructure.12 In 1902, Washington became a showcase for the City Beautiful movement through the McMillan Plan, which sought to create “the capital of a new kind of America—clean, efficient, orderly and, above all, powerful.” In 1926, Congress created the National Capital Park and Planning Commission.
Highways, utilities, and commercial districts would follow as dispersal of Washington’s key industry, government, gained momentum. Washington’s dispersal would then lay down a stepping stone for national dispersal. If the future could happen in the nation’s city, then the government would wield the moral authority to promote or even force dispersal elsewhere. No one was more qualified to plan Washington’s dispersal than Augur. In 1949, the Federal Works Agency hired him as an Urban Planning Officer, and, acting under the authority of the NSRB, instructed him to find dispersed sites for wartime essential government offices.11 Planning to Plan Augur didn’t have to begin from scratch. On October 27, 1948, Arthur Hill had submitted his panel’s report on Washington to the President. “Security for the Nation’s Capital” began by explaining, without a trace of whimsy, why Washington had to remain the national capital.
In a note thanking Holland for his efforts, Truman remarked, “[h]ow anybody could oppose a national defense project as important as that [dispersal] to the capital of the United States I can’t understand.”18 In January 1952, the President once more asked for dispersal in his budget message. In a bid to win over suburban residents and Rep. Smith, Truman promised that only government-owned land would be used.19 It wasn’t enough to change Congressional minds, however, and Truman didn’t press the issue. By this date, Tracy Augur had quit his job as Urban Planning Officer. Few had worked as hard as Augur to disperse the capital, making the ignominious outcome not just a professional blow, but a personal one, too. The Mysterious Mountain Throughout 1951, Blue Ridge Summit, a small Pennsylvania town close to the Maryland border, was enjoying an economic boom as workers for the P.J. Healy Co. filled the town’s restaurants and businesses during their off-hours.
The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
Our team was made up of twenty-five high-level experts from some of the leading Third Industrial Revolution companies in the world—IBM, Philips, Schneider, GE, CH2M Hill, Siemens, Q-Cells, Hydrogenics, KEMA, and others. Our global policy team included Alan Lloyd, the former secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and current president of the International Council on Clean Transportation; Byron McCormick, former executive director for hydrogen car development at GM; and world-renowned green architects and urban planning companies, such as Boeri Studio of Italy, Acciona, and Cloud9 of Spain. Seated on the other side of the table was an equally esteemed group of experts: engineers, department heads of city agencies, representatives from the mayor’s office, and the management team of CPS energy. Our Third Industrial Revolution Global CEO Business Roundtable had found its mission. In the next twelve months, our policy team would create master plans for Prince Albert II and the principality of Monaco, Mayor Gianni Alemanno and the city of Rome, and Vice Governor Wouter de Jong and the Province of Utrecht in the Netherlands.
How does a jurisdiction decide which buildings to retrofit first? Weatherizing single homes is a great idea and can have a significant impact on energy use, but retrofitting the Willis Tower in Chicago, for example, will save enough electricity to power 2,500 homes. It became clear that the province of Utrecht would need a plan that is inclusive and makes sense financially. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, an urban planning firm out of Chicago and a member of our global development team, proposed a software solution for Utrecht that would involve the entire community in reaching its zero-emissions goal. The plan involves building a virtual 3-D model of the city. The first step would be to work with students and professors at the local university to conduct comprehensive energy audits of all buildings in Utrecht.
Yet in these climax ecosystems that have developed over millions of years, the consumption of energy and matter does not significantly exceed the ecosystems’ ability to absorb and recycle the waste and replenish the stock. The synergies, symbiotic relationships, and feedback loops are finely calibrated to ensure the system’s ability to maintain a continuous balance of supply and demand. I note that biomimicry—the idea of studying how nature operates and borrowing best practices—is becoming an increasingly fashionable pursuit in product research and development, economic modeling, and urban planning. We’d be well-served by studying how climax ecosystems balance their budgets, and applying the lessons to balancing our own budgets within society and between society and nature. All of this is painfully obvious, which makes one wonder whether economists might be better served by being trained in thermodynamics before they take up their discipline. Frederick Soddy, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Herman Daly, and I previously emphasized the role that thermodynamic efficiencies play in determining productivity and managing sustainability in our own books on the subject, backing it up with anecdotal evidence from across the supply chain throughout history.
Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra
Jane Jacobs was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1916, the daughter of a doctor and a teacher. After high school she went to work as a reporter for the Scranton Tribune. She lasted a year, then ventured to New York and worked in a series of jobs as a stenographer and freelance writer before landing a junior editorial position at Architectural Forum. In 1956 she gave a talk at Harvard expressing her skepticism about the High Modernist urban-planning philosophy that was sweeping away entire neighborhoods and replacing them with rows and rows of symmetrical apartment buildings, each surrounded by a windswept and usually deserted park. William H. Whyte invited her to turn her lecture into an article for Fortune, which, after some internal nervousness from the executives at Time Inc., was published as the essay “Downtown Is for People.” Jacobs then extended her argument in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities.
Jacobs utterly rejects the utopianism and extremism that were an integral part of romanticism. She rejects the notion of the intellectual who is removed from the everyday world and lives instead in a world of ideas. As a result, she is relaxed and conversational. She is looking at things with an eye for down-to-earth details (it may be no accident that it was a woman who could exemplify this way of observing reality). The urban planning of the epoch may make Jacobs indignant, but she does not rain thunderbolts down upon her enemies. She suggests the answer is not to theorize or to rebel, but simply to sit quietly and be sensitive to our surroundings. The bourgeois epistemology often appealed to reason. The bohemian epistemology to imagination. Jacobs asks us to appreciate a mode of perception that requires both sense and sensibility.
The entire second section of the book is called “The Conditions for City Diversity.” It is complexity she admires, the small unplanned niches where specialized activities can thrive. These are places whose use is not determined from above but grows up from small particularized needs. In the years since The Death and Life of Great American Cities was published, Jacobs’s way of seeing has been vindicated again and again. The urban plans she criticized are now universally reviled. The disastrous failure of social-engineering projects across the developing world have exposed the hubris of technocrats who thought they could reshape reality. The failure of the Communist planned economies has taught us that the world is too complicated to be organized and centrally directed. We are, with Jane Jacobs, more modest about what we can know, more skeptical of planners and bureaucrats.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
Others will be in neighborhoods on the fringe of downtown, in close-in suburbs on the city border, or even in more distant suburbs trying to create an urban ambience of some sort. But the crucial component will be the desire for an atmosphere of urbanism, with the opportunity to walk between living space and commercial and recreational opportunities. Christopher Leinberger, the real estate developer and urban planning scholar, believes that a dramatic increase in middle-class central-city population will in fact take place throughout America, and today’s tract homes in the far suburbs will deteriorate into the slums of 2030. I don’t think this will happen, at least not in such extreme form; there simply are not enough lofts and townhouses to double or triple the number of people living in the center of most large American cities.
The question is: Why do some inner suburbs make it over the hump while others struggle and some fail utterly? Nobody in local government predicted Clarendon’s comeback as a restaurant, nightclub, and condominium district. That would have seemed ludicrous as late as the mid-1990s. But even had someone on the county planning staff conceived such an idea, it’s difficult to see what they could have done to bring it about. The recent history of urban planning is dotted with examples of places that have created formal “entertainment districts,” and sometimes backed that decision up with generous subsidies to entrepreneurs. The number of proven long-term successes remains small. Clarendon, on the other hand, didn’t declare itself to be anything in particular. It became an entertainment district without really trying, and certainly without spending a fortune in public money to become one.
Nelson, “The New Urbanity: The Rise of a New America,” Annals, American Academy of Political and Social Science, November 2009. 8 If you were part of the servant class: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 9 “an endless succession of factory-town main streets”: A. J. Liebling, Chicago: The Second City (New York: Knopf, 1952), reprinted in Liebling at Home (New York: Wideview Books, 1982), p. 166. 10 Christopher Leinberger, the real estate developer and urban planning scholar: Christopher Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2008). CHAPTER ONE: A BACKWARD GLANCE 1 “If we are to achieve an urban renaissance”: Donald J. Olsen, The City as a Work of Art: London, Paris, Vienna (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986), p. x. 2 “the nineteenth century invented modernity”: Jean-Christophe Bailly, Preface to François Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century: Architecture and Urbanism (New York: Abbeville Press, 1988), p. 10. 3 “Apartment houses destroy private life”: Sharon Marcus, Apartment Stories: City and Home in Nineteenth-Century Paris and London (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), p. 57. 4 “as soon as it awakes”: Alfred Delvau, Les Dessous de Paris, 1860, quoted ibid., p. 149. 5 “we find it tiresome”: Alfred Delvau, Histoire anecdotique des cafés et cabarets de Paris, 1862, quoted ibid., p. 148. 6 “the interior is going to die”: Comments by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, 1861, quoted ibid., p. 139. 7 “Gray does not have a good name”: Bailly, Preface to Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century, p. 9. 8 “It is not an illumination but a fire”: Edmondo de Amicis, Studies of Paris, 1882, quoted in Norma Evenson, Paris: A Century of Change, 1878–1978 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981), p. 6. 9 “Everything is neat and fresh”: Ibid., p. 2. 10 “The sidewalks provided”: Evenson, Paris, p. 20. 11 “nothing can more thoroughly demoralize”: Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, quoted in Marcus, Apartment Stories, p. 160. 12 “Montmartre was to become the dynamo”: Nigel Gosling, quoted in Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (New York: Pantheon, 1998), p. 230. 13 “The young artists”: Hall, Cities in Civilization, p. 237. 14 “the smells from the kitchen”: Fernande Olivier, Picasso and His Friends (New York: Appleton Century, 1965), quoted ibid., p. 227. 15 “the great ordering system”: James Howard Kunstler, The City in Mind: Meditations on the Urban Condition (New York: Free Press, 2002), p. 3. 16 “Second Empire Paris became”: Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century, p. 232. 17 “For hours I could stand”: Carl Schorske, Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York: Vintage, 1981), p. 46. 18 “the Minister-President or the richest magnate”: Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964), p. 15. 19 “The first glance”: Ibid., p. 14. 20 “It is a sort of democratic club”: Ibid., p. 39. 21 “dismal tenement landscape”: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 22 “If the British empire was the most powerful”: Jonathan Schneer, London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p.19. 23 “a true Londoner”: Ford Madox Ford, quoted in Peter Ackroyd, London: The Biography (New York: Nan A.
The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
But this ignores the tendency, as the Beards noted over eighty years ago, for science to become “a kind of dogmatic religion itself whose votaries often behaved in the manner of theologians, pretending to possess the one true key to the riddle of the universe.”49 In recent times this has been particularly notable in the area of climate change, where serious debate would seem prudent not only on the root causes and effects but also on what may present the best solutions.50 Similarly, orthodoxies can be seen in issues such as gender, sexual preference, and urban planning. Issues of great import, for example, generally are deemed “settled,” and those who do not agree are simply ignored or pilloried.51 Indeed, this closing of debate is so strong that a 2010 survey of 24,000 college students found that barely a third thought it “safe to hold unpopular views on campus.”52 Various studies of the political orientation of academics have found that liberals outnumber conservatives by between eight and fourteen to one.
The total population increase in counties with under 500 people per square mile was more than 30 times that of the increase in counties with densities of 10,000 and greater.105 Much of the current justification for density lies with the notion that packing people together makes for a more productive and “creative” economy, as well as a better environment for upward mobility.106 A 2013 Harvard study widely cited as supportive of this notion, actually found the highest rates of upward mobility not in the largest metropolitan areas, like New York or Los Angeles, but in lower-density areas such as Salt Lake City and the small cities of the Great Plains, such as Bismarck, Yankton, SD, and Pecos.107 Rather than an ode to bigness, notes demographer Wendell Cox, the study found that commuting zones (similar to metropolitan areas) with average populations of less than 100,000 have the highest average upward income mobility.108 This reinforces the findings of the University of Washington’s Richard Morrill, who found the least inequality in highly dispersed, largely smaller communities in the Intermountain West, the northern Great Lakes, and parts of rural New England.109 And we shouldn’t forget the success story of the oil town Bakersfield, CA, a metropolitan area with high levels of upward mobility in the Harvard study. Columbia University urban planning professor David King wryly labeled California city “a poster child for sprawl.”110 These findings contrast with the common assertion that density leads to innovation and upward mobility. Urban boosters like Bruce Katz at Brookings, for example, contend that technological innovation will now be focused in the urban core—say, San Francisco—as opposed to the largely suburban Silicon Valley that gave birth to the computer and Internet age.
It would also build on the progress made over the last century in improving living space and homeownership for ever expanding parts of the population, something once seen as a progressive value but increasingly opposed by large sections of the Clerisy.74 In the attempts to rein in suburbs and single-family houses, the Clerisy is battling the long-held interests of the Yeomanry. For the most part the middle orders can be expected to resist the mania for “cramming” or “pack and stack” housing that has become the supreme principle of urban planning and which is widely favored among architects, who frequently define the urban future as one dominated by an ever denser, high-rise-oriented future. “Building high density,” notes Brookings scholar Robert Lang, is the “most important” tactic in the drive to “compact development” and “slow sprawl.”75 But this attempt at ordering American life likely will be resisted. Notwithstanding every effort to produce a contrary result, most people continue to move to both smaller cities and suburbs.
Cities: The First 6,000 Years by Monica L. Smith
clean water, diversified portfolio, failed state, financial innovation, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, South China Sea, telemarketer, the built environment, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
As for the act of mapmaking and the sculptor’s personal thoughts about the matter, there was probably a bit of editorializing there, too. Carving the streets would have been accompanied by thoughts about the activities that took place there but couldn’t be fully represented in mere physical form, no doubt prompting the sculptor’s apprentice to let out a longing sigh or shake his head. Undaunted by the specter of incompleteness and the realities of instant obsolescence, we are still attached to physical urban plans today. London, Houston, and Manhattan, among other cities, have sprouted new, attractive maps set up in public places that serve as signposts throughout the towns and provide a tangible “you are here” moment. It’s interesting to watch visitors approach one of these maps as they compare the posted version with the paper map that they have in one hand and the smartphone map app that they have in another.
That’s not surprising given that water is one of the most undervalued commodities in the world today; at least in developed countries, we rarely have to worry about whether there is enough water or whether it is of good quality and safe to drink. And in parts of the world where water infrastructure is weak, there are enough work-arounds, like private delivery services, to address the slow slide of water from a freely available entity to one whose access is conditioned by wealth and class. Yet insights from our colleagues in urban planning help to address the many ways in which people get water in cities, enabling us to evaluate the ways that basic human needs came with a cost and were often loaded with social meaning, in ancient cities much as now. In the watery equivalent of the expansion of walls in Roman cities, the leaders of ancient Chinese cities grew networks of canals that reached across the countryside and led into the heart of urban settlements.
The first settlement in Rome: Malcolm Todd, The Walls of Rome (London: Paul Elek, 1978), 13–14. Under Aurelian, the walls were completed: Ibid., Chapter 2. the walls themselves are visible: Graham Connah, “Contained Communities in Tropical Africa,” in City Walls: The Urban Enceinte in Global Perspective, ed. James D. Tracy (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 19–45; Jesse Casana and Jason T. Herrmann, “Settlement History and Urban Planning at Zincirli Höyük, Southern Turkey,” Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 23, no. 1 (2010): 55–80. Ishtar Gate of Babylon: Koldewey, Excavations at Babylon, 26–49. For the reconstruction, see Mirjam Brusius, “The Field in the Museum: Puzzling Out Babylon in Berlin.” Osiris (Journal of the History of Science Society, University of Chicago) 32(1) (2017), 264–85. Brusius (p. 279) points out that the 30,000 bricks were actually only one quarter of the amount that the excavator initially proposed to bring back.
Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cycling by Carlton Reid
1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bike sharing scheme, California gold rush, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Yom Kippur War
“And for a full credit, too,” one newspaper stated, adding that this was “just another example of America’s love affair with the bicycle… ” Students could even dress the part, for “special bikewear for both sexes is found in the smart shops of every college town.” At the University of Iowa at Ames, the “three most popular subjects on campus were social change, bicycling, and sex, in that order.” These university courses—and there were others at the Universities of Texas, Utah, and Oregon—studied the creation of bikeway masterplans, including “how to get bikeway legislation passed” and “how to integrate bikeway systems into urban planning.” The term bikeology wasn’t coined in the 1970s—it dates to the 1940s as a school subject and was used even earlier than that by itinerant singer-songwriters—but the counter-cultural ecological awakening in the 1960s and 1970s gave currency to the word with its fortuitous mix of bike and ecology. It was used by city planner and landscape architect Ken Kolsbun, who said he wanted “massive funding for bikeways, traffic control, and cycle-storage facilities.”
THIRTY MILES north of London and the first of England’s postwar New Towns, Stevenage was widely proclaimed in the 1960s as a shining example of how the provision of high-quality, joined-up cycle infrastructure would encourage many to cycle, not just keen cyclists. As Rouse would have seen on his visit, Stevenage had wide, smooth cycleways adjacent to the main roads, but separated from cars and pedestrians. There were well-lit, airy underpasses beneath roundabouts. Schools, workplaces, and shops were all linked by protected cycleways. Rouse’s tour would have been a well-trodden one: Stevenage attracted urban planning specialists from around the world, including high-level ones from the Netherlands. Throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s, Stevenage was held up as proof that the UK could build a Dutch-style cycle network. An article in New Scientist magazine in 1973 claimed that “Stevenage cycleways and cycle underpasses [are] premiere exhibits … [in a] traffic revolution.” In the first edition of Richard’s Bicycle Book, Richard Ballantine enthused that “Stevenage … is a transportation dreamworld, a kind of magical Walt Disney fantasy in which everything flows with perfect smoothness and problems evaporate.”
American author Pete Jordan moved to the Netherlands to be part of a cycling culture that, because bicycling is so normal, doesn’t even know that it’s a cycling culture (similarly, the Netherlands doesn’t have any spatula magazines or vacuum-cleaner festivals). When he’s asked by Dutch people why he moved to Amsterdam, Jordan explains how he once counted “927 cyclists in just 20 minutes.” This usually draws blank stares. “Is that a lot or something?” is a standard response. At a University of Amsterdam summer school for international urban-planning students—all mad-keen cyclists, myself included—Jordan cheered us with this story: I found myself riding behind a slow-moving pair of cyclists. Looking ahead, I saw a long line of dawdling cyclists in front of me. I was stuck. It was past midnight. What the hell were all these people doing out on their bikes? That’s when it struck me: It’s the middle of winter; it’s past midnight—and I’m stuck in a bicycle traffic jam.
SuperFreakonomics by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner
agricultural Revolution, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, call centre, clean water, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Did the Death of Australian Inheritance Taxes Affect Deaths, disintermediation, endowment effect, experimental economics, food miles, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Nash: game theory, Joseph Schumpeter, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, market design, microcredit, Milgram experiment, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, presumed consent, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, selection bias, South China Sea, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, urban planning, William Langewiesche, women in the workforce, young professional
Rats and other vermin swarmed the mountains of manure to pick out undigested oats and other horse feed—crops that were becoming more costly for human consumption thanks to higher horse demand. No one at the time was worried about global warming, but if they had been, the horse would have been Public Enemy No. 1, for its manure emits methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. In 1898, New York hosted the first international urban planning conference. The agenda was dominated by horse manure, because cities around the world were experiencing the same crisis. But no solution could be found. “Stumped by the crisis,” writes Eric Morris, “the urban planning conference declared its work fruitless and broke up in three days instead of the scheduled ten.” The world had seemingly reached the point where its largest cities could not survive without the horse but couldn’t survive with it, either. And then the problem vanished. It was neither government fiat nor divine intervention that did the trick.
., 16 Teller, Edward, 181 terrorism aftereffects of, 66 and banks, 89–95 bio-, 74 costs of, 65–66, 87 definitions of, 63–64 effectiveness of, 65 prevention of, 87–92 purpose of, 64 terrorists biographical background of, 62–63 goals of, 63–64 identification of possible, 90–95 and life insurance, 94 methods used by, 88 and profiles of, 90–95 revolutionaries as different from, 63–64 See also September 11, 2001 Thirty-Eight Witnesses (Rosenthal), 126 Thomas, Frank, 116 Time magazine, shark story in, 14 Title IX, 22 “To Err Is Human” (Institute of Medicine report), 204 “too big to fail,” 143 traffic deaths, 65–66, 87 trash-pickup fees, 139 trees, and climate, 186 trimmers, price of, 35 trophy wives, 52–53 Trotsky, Leon, 63 trust and altruism, 116,117 and baseball card experiment, 116,117 typical behavior, 13–14,15–16 Uganda, babies in, 57–58 Ultimatum (game), 108–9, 110, 113 unintended consequences, law of, 6–8, 12, 138–41 United Kingdom banks in, 89–95 climate change in, 166 University of Chicago List appointment at, 118 MBA study of graduates of, 45–46 urban planning conference, and horse problem, 10 users versus sellers, 25–26 Variable X, 95 Vaux, Calvert, 42 Venkatesh, Sudhir, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32–37, 38, 40–42, 70–71 Vice Commission, Chicago, 23–24, 26 Vienna General Hospital (Austria), 137–38, 203–4 Vietnam War, 146 violence and prostitutes, 38 visas, 66 volcanic eruptions, 176–77, 188–90, 192 volunteers, in experiments, 121 Vonnegut, Bernard, 191 Vonnegut, Kurt, 191 wages and gender issues, 21–22, 44, 45–47 as incentives, 46–47 and sex-change operations, 47–48 teachers and, 44 walking, drunk, 2–3, 12, 14, 96 “war on drugs,” 25 warm-glow altruism, 124 washing hands, 203–8, 209 Washington, D.C., shootings in, 64, 66 Washington Hospital Center emergency medicine at, 66–73, 75, 81 and September 11, 66–67, 68 Weber, Christopher, 167 Weitzman, Martin, 11, 12, 169 welfare program, data about, 27–28 whaling, 142–43 white slavery, 23 wind farms, 187 wind-powered fiberglass boats, 202 Wiswall, Matthew, 48 women as CEOs, 44–45 difficulties of, 20–22 discrimination against, 21–22, 45 as doctors, 80–81 as dominant in prostitution, 23–26, 40 and feminist revolution, 43–44 in India, 3–8, 14 men compared with, 20–21 as prostitutes, 54–55 shift in role of, 43–44 in sports, 22 as teachers, 43, 44 wages for, 21–22, 44, 45–46 Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), 22 Wood, Lowell, 181,182,184–85,186, 192,194,197,198–99 World Health Organization (WHO), 5 World Trade Center, 15 World War II, use of data in, 147 Yale-New Haven Hospital, monkey experiment at, 212–16 Zelizer, Viviana, 200 Zimbardo, Philip, 123 Zyzmor, Albert, 59 About the Authors STEVEN D.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
Zurich is what it is because it decided, not so very long ago, to end its dependence on, and addiction to, the automobile. Or, more accurately, addiction to parking. Though parking is a lot less flashy than automated electric trains, or interactive signs that help in finding routes, it’s hard to overstate its importance in building a successful multimodal transportation system or, for that matter, turning streets back into livable places. Back in 1997, Donald Shoup, then at the Department of Urban Planning at UCLA, wrote one of the most cited papers in the entire transportation literature, “The High Cost of Free Parking,” which demonstrated the flaws in setting minimum parking requirements for every land use—for every house, or store, or office building—based on peak demand. The problem with such minimal requirements is that the users of (almost) all such parking got all that parking at either zero cost or at well below the price they were willing to pay for it.
The Wasatch Front can’t really sprawl. Basin-and-range geography made building a world-class regional transit system possible in Utah. It didn’t require it, though. That’s something Salt Lake City chose for itself. In 1997, after the city was picked to host the 2002 Winter Olympics, politicians, business leaders, and farmers’ associations from the four-county area surrounding Salt Lake recruited environmental and urban planning experts to host a series of public meetings that they named “Envision Utah.” The idea was to accommodate both the surge associated with the Olympics and the predicted long-term growth of the region, to do so in a way that preserved the natural environment that made it so attractive in the first place, and to keep Salt Lake City attractive to the next generation of transit-happy Millennials.
“Driving in Circles: The Autonomous Google Car May Never Actually Happen.” Slate, October 14, 2014. Grabar, Henry. “Mass-Transit Magic: How America’s Fourth-Largest City Can Abandon Its Addiction to Cars.” Salon, May 25, 2014. Gray, Edward. American Experience: The World That Moses Built. Directed by Edward Gray. 1989. Green, Christine Godward, and Elizabeth G. Klein. “Promoting Active Transportation as a Partnership Between Urban Planning and Public Health: The Columbus Healthy Places Program.” Public Health Reports (Association of Schools of Public Health) 126, no. Supp 1 (2011): 41–49. Guevara, Carlos. “Bajar tasa de homicidios en Bogotá a un dígito es viable: expertos.” El Tiempo, January 8, 2013. Guevara-Stone, Laurie. “How Bogota Creates Social Equality Through Sustainable Transit.” GreenBiz.com, July 21, 2014. Haidt, Jonathan.
The New Gold Rush: The Riches of Space Beckon! by Joseph N. Pelton
3D printing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, Carrington event, Colonization of Mars, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, global pandemic, Google Earth, gravity well, Iridium satellite, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, life extension, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, megastructure, new economy, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-industrial society, private space industry, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, Tim Cook: Apple, Tunguska event, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, X Prize
Our survival within the next 100 years may depend on the creation of a new space-based economy that involves the mining of the Moon and asteroids, creating solar storm shields in space, and perhaps even embarking on other grand enterprises such as the colonization of the Solar System . These new space enterprises will likely involve the bringing of minerals and waters trapped in asteroids and other celestial bodies back to Earth as well as building a new global economy, largely based on renewable resources and entirely new concepts in urban planning and ecological engineering. It will also involve harnessing corporate enterprise and innovative thinking among the New Space entrepreneurs to allow all this innovation to occur rapidly and in a fair and equitable way so that the entire human race can feel they are a part of this post-industrial, New Space economy . The Key Elements of the Post-Industrial New Space Economy There are lots of things that we can expect to happen in the New Space economy that, if not today then within the next two decades.
These sustainability rules are actually fairly simple: (1) Develop systems to sustain zero population growth at a level that sustains prosperity, regeneration of natural resource supply and potable water, clean energy supply, and genetic diversity. (2) Create living, working, recreation and culture standards in dense urban environments that achieves economic, energy, and transportation efficiency, and proximate food supply. This means avoiding super density where there is loss of community spirit and involvement. Such super density also creates major problems of response to natural or human-made disasters or terrorist attack. (3) Finally re-focus on new approaches to urban planning devoted to research to achieve more effective use of artificial intelligence and automation so as to create full employment. This new thrust would be toward achieving universal education, health care and employment systems geared to a sustainable world and coping with the global strife associated with cultural, racial, linguistic or social conflicts. 6. Space and Ground-based Infrastructure for Education and Health Care.
Our biggest problem is realizing that these challenges, opportunities and dangers are all wrapped together in a crucible of change, innovation, and transition to a totally new world—a world different than we have ever faced before. The question is whether we are up to the challenge. Can we bend our economic, political, social and cultural wills to find a better way forward? We will have to work together as never before to put survival of the human species ahead of personal wealth. We will have to let smart machines help us find new solutions in education, health care, manufacturing, urban planning and even birth control to get us through the next five decades of incredible change. The absolute turmoil of these decisions is reflected in the stresses and strains that are showing up in the European Union, the presidential election in the United States and the economic upheavals being seen in China. Truly humanity is at the turning point. Let’s hope we can make the right choices in governance and make the transitional changes necessary to face the brave new world.
Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep
battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal
Los Angeles made almost anything that was wanted for a comfortable life in suburban cold war America: “furnaces, sliding doors, mechanical saws, shoes, bathing suits, underwear, china, furniture, cameras, hand tools, hospital equipment, scientific instruments, engineering services and hundreds of other things.” The city expanded as entrepreneurs produced all the things that were needed for a growing Los Angeles. Growth fed upon itself; a city grew because it grew. This was also an era of grand urban plans around the world. Whole sections of New York and Chicago were flattened to make room for towering redbrick housing projects. In Brazil, engineers and construction crews were in the midst of building a new national capital where no such city had existed before. Brasília would be inaugurated on April 21, 1960. Some plans worked, and some didn’t. Many of the new public housing projects in America destroyed intricate communities to make room for buildings designed on an inhuman scale.
In Tokyo, which was flattened during World War II, planners saw a chance to erase the ancient and convoluted street grid and build what one scholar called “an entirely new urban form,” with a series of dense downtowns “nestled against a background of green space, green corridors and broad tree-lined boulevards.” It didn’t happen. American bombs destroyed buildings, but didn’t destroy the claims of property owners, who resisted giving up their land. It was quicker and easier to build along the old streets. A glance at history might have shown this would happen; the world’s most famous example of urban planning, Sir Christopher Wren’s redesign of central London after a great fire in 1666, was never put in place. Landowners rebuilt on the same properties as before. So it was with Tokyo: partly planned but also partly organic, it was swiftly growing into the largest city on earth. This was the historic moment in which Pakistan’s new ruler Mohammad Ayub Khan plunged his ceremonial shovel into the earth in December 1958.
At the ribbon-cutting for a renovated community center, he sat down for a slideshow presentation by a center official, but quickly lost patience. “I would just like to interrupt. I know who you are,” he said, begging the man to skip the introductory slides. “Please. I know everything. Show us the place where you’re sitting right now, and how is it going to be tomorrow.” As I rode with him from stop to stop, I was aware that the mayor’s construction projects drew criticism from urban planning professionals. His flyovers, they said, were merely doing what new roads have done the world over: they encouraged more traffic, and shifted tie-ups to new locations instead of addressing the fundamental problems of a city that was growing overly dependent on cars. (By 2007 the city’s auto fleet was increasing by an average of 545 cars per day, about two hundred thousand additional cars in a single year.)
The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé
Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War
Apart from Jerusalem, where such control meant de jure annexation, in all other areas it was done through Judaization, primarily in the form of settling Jews, as soldiers or civilians, on Palestinian land. Jerusalem First In the typical Israeli way, the dramatic transformation of the urban and rural landscape of Jerusalem and its environs was depicted as urban planning. However, what began in 1967 and continues to this day is an ethnic cleansing operation based on land expropriation. Back in 1967 and 1968, this so-called urban planning was a military operation par excellence. It was therefore entrusted to the Chief of the Central Command, General Rehavam Ze’evi (who replaced Uzi Narkiss in the summer of 1968). This veteran of 1948 was nicknamed Gandhi, not for his peaceful policies – in every respect his philosophy was the exact opposite of the Mahatma’s – but due to his dark complexion.
This expansion soon covered the ancient hills of North and East Jerusalem with a new urban sprawl of modern housing dressed up here and there with orientalist façades that resembled the very houses demolished to build these new ‘neighbourhoods’. As Eyal Weizman elucidated so clearly in his book Hollow Land, the 1968 master plan for Jerusalem was committed to both a colonial and oriental heritage dating back to the British urban planning of 1917 – with two huge differences. The British redesign and beautification of the city was not done through the demolition of old houses and the eviction of the indigenous population, and did not involve covering Greater Jerusalem with the concrete monstrosities that characterize the new Jewish ‘neighbourhoods’.8 By 2005, 200,000 Jewish settlers lived in this area. Many more are expected to join them in the present century.9 I will now describe the way the greater Jerusalem wedge developed.
Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson
Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work
Even the most adamant libertarian still thinks we need some form of centralized government, of course. But the bureaucracies and Hayekian bottlenecks of the central planners are tolerated as a kind of necessary evil. Even the political Left works within the assumption that the private sector drives change and progress; the public sector, at best, creates safety nets. Yet within a few months of Jacobs’s launching her first volley against the titans of urban planning, a young researcher across the country was sketching a diagram that would ultimately find a way around Hayek’s bottleneck. — In the mid-1950s, a Polish-born engineer named Paul Baran took a job at Hughes Aircraft while working on his graduate degree in engineering through night classes at UCLA. His work at Hughes gave him intimate access to the nascent technology of nuclear war—specifically the control systems that allowed the military to both detect inbound missiles and launch first strikes or retaliations.
The population of decision makers shifts from a small core at the center of a Legrand Star to a much wider network that is itself composed of smaller networks. The sports fans would cluster together, as would the anti-traffic constituency. Local business owners would petition their patrons to transfer their votes to them. If you followed the debate closely, you’d be free to vote directly on the stadium. But if you were busy with other priorities, you could pass your vote along to your friend who is obsessed with urban-planning issues. In fact, your friend might have a standing proxy from you for all urban-development votes—while another friend might represent you on any education initiatives, and another on fiscal reform. The interesting thing about liquid democracies is that we already use this proxy strategy in our more casual lifestyle decisions. When you’re trying to decide where to have dinner, you call up your foodie friend for advice, but there’s another friend whose taste in music has never failed you, and yet another who is always coming up with great new novels to read.
Better Buses, Better Cities by Steven Higashide
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, business process, congestion charging, decarbonisation, Elon Musk, Hyperloop, income inequality, intermodal, jitney, Lyft, mass incarceration, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, place-making, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart cities, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
The Avenue (Brookings Institute), March 26, 2018. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2018/03/26/us-population-disperses-to-suburbs-exurbs-rural-areas-and-middle-of-the-country-metros/ 11. Lara Fishbane, Joseph Kane, and Adie Tomer, “Stop Trying to Solve Traffic and Start Building Great Places.” Brookings Institution, March 20, 2019. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2019/03/20/stop-trying-to-solve-traffic-and-start-building-great-places/ 12. Reid Ewing et al., “Does Urban Sprawl Hold Down Upward Mobility?” Landscape and Urban Planning 148 (April 2016): 80–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.11.012 13. Marlon Boarnet et al., “First/Last Mile Transit Access as an Equity Planning Issue.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 103 (September 2017): 296–310. 14. Kelcie Ralph and Evan Iacobucci, “Driven to Participate (Literally): Transportation Barriers to Teen Activity Participation.” Presentation at the 97th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 2018. 15.
Chicago Tribune, June 14, 2015. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/columnists/ct-cta-president-getting-around-met0615-20150614-column.html 2. David Crowley and Brandon Hemily, “Profiling Transit Ridership.” Strategic Transit Research Program Synthesis, Canadian Urban Transit Association, November 2000. 3. Edward A. Beimborn, Michael J. Greenwald, and Jia Xia, “Transit Accessibility and Connectivity Impacts on Transit Choice and Captivity.” Center for Urban Transportation Studies and Department of Urban Planning, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Transportation Research Board, 2003. 4. Gregory Thompson, Jeffrey Brown, Torsha Bhattacharya, and Michal Jaroszynski, “Understanding Transit Ridership Demand for a Multi-Destination, Multimodal Transit Network in an American Metropolitan Area, Research Report 11-06.” Mineta Transportation Institute Publications, 2012. 5. Katherine Gregor, “10 Reasons to Love a Streetcar.”
Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city
Combining soft and city may sound as an oxymoron. It was in conversation with Professor Toshio Kitahara, the translator of Jan Gehl’s books to Japanese, that the term soft city was identified. Professor Kitahara remarked on my frequent combination of these seemingly contradictory words. Soft city is about moving closer getting together, connecting people to one another and to all of the aspects of life around them. For decades, so much of urban planning has been focused on devising ways to reorganize human activity into distinct silos, to separate people and things and, by so doing, reduce the risk of conflict. I would like, instead, to focus on how potentially conflicting aspects of everyday existence can be brought together and connected to deliver better quality of life. Perhaps soft city can be considered a counterpoint or even a complement to “smart” city.
Rather than finding ways of affording and accommodating more things into our lives, we might instead consider solutions to give us better ways of spending our precious time, lightening our load in life rather than burdening it, and helping change the daily stresses and conflicts of working, raising children, staying fit, shopping, running a home, and dealing with neighbors into everyday pleasures. Perhaps the biggest challenge to living well is the physical separation of the different components of everyday life. Urban planning in the second half of the twentieth century hasn’t helped this, separating and spreading different activities. It is hard to live locally when so many of the things we need and want are so spread out. The detached suburban house, the industrial estate, the out-of-town shopping center, the office park, the educational campus are all in different places. The dream of a peaceful suburban life, with the promise of a quiet, green, and safe environment, has the Achilles heel of requiring a car, which is both expensive to buy and to run.
The Rough Guide to New York City by Martin Dunford
Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, buttonwood tree, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Thorp, Exxon Valdez, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, market bubble, Norman Mailer, paper trading, post-work, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, Yogi Berra, young professional
Halloween Parade Page 421 • One of the more inventive and outrageous of New York’s many annual parades. 03 | AC TIVITIE S | CONSUM E | E V E NTS | NATURE | S I GHTS | 12 Grand Central Terminal Page 133 • Take a free Wednesday lunchtime tour of this magniﬁcent building to learn the history of the station’s majestic concourse. 02 Central Park Page 152 • The world’s most iconic swathe of green: take a boat ride, watch Shakespeare in the Park, or enjoy a Conservatory Garden picnic after a morning spent in a museum. 04 Statue of Liberty Page 44 • There’s no greater symbol of the American dream than the magniﬁcent statue that graces New York Harbor. 05 Brooklyn Bridge Page 69 • Take the less-than-a-mile walk across the bridge to see beautiful views of the downtown skyline and the Harbor Islands. Rockefeller Center Page 128 • If anywhere can truly claim to be the center of New York, this elegant piece of twentieth-century urban planning is it. 07 Live music Page 352 • New York’s music scene is legendary, and it’s undergoing a renaissance: catch anything from garage punk and electro to Afrobeat and jazz. 08 | AC TIVITIE S | CONSUM E | E V E NTS | NATURE | S I GHTS | 06 13 Staten Island Ferry Page 58 • Savor Manhattan’s skyline and the Statue of Liberty from a boat’s-eye view–absolutely free. 09 | AC TIVITIE S | CONSUM E | E V E NTS | NATURE | S I GHTS | 10 14 Metropolitan Museum of Art Page 161 • You could easily spend a whole day at the Met, exploring everything from Egyptian artifacts to modern masters.
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The glory years Architects began to experiment in the 1920s, and the artistic liveliness of the Jazz Age permeates many buildings from this period. Ironically, two of the most impressive structures in the city – the Chrysler Building (1930) and the Empire State Building (1931) – went up just after the 1929 Wall Street Crash. The Rockefeller Center complex, which was worked on throughout the 1930s, is perhaps the apogee of this selfcontained urban planning. Looming over the center, the GE Tower marks the zenith of Art Deco style in New York. The 1950s and 1960s saw the Modernist style further refined with the arrival of European architectural movements like Bauhaus and Le Corbusier, whose mantra of form following function influenced the glass-curtain-wall buildings of Mies van der Rohe: the United Nations Complex (1950), Lever House (1952), and the Seagram Building (1958), all in Midtown East.
Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn
affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional
FIGURE 6.4 The players at Ground Zero, April 12, 2002: Joseph Seymour, executive director, Port Authority; Peter Kalikow, chairman, Metropolitan Transportation Authority; Marilyn Jordan Taylor and David Childs, architects, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; John Whitehead, chairman, Lower Manhattan Development Corporation; Monica Iken, founder, September’s Mission; Madelyn Wils, chair, Community Board 1; Larry Silverstein, developer; Robert Yaro, president, Regional Plan Association. Martin Schoeller/August In appointing Burden to chair the City Planning Commission, Mayor Bloomberg chose a top urban planning professional, an established New Yorker known for her meticulous attention to detail and design and careful threading of planning politics. She had been a member of the Planning Commission for more than a decade. She held a graduate degree in urban planning from Columbia University and had managed planning and design for the Battery Park City Authority, where she oversaw the development and implementation of design guidelines for the ninety-two-acre site, as well as the design of all open spaces and parks. When decisions at Ground Zero touched any element of open space or street-facing retail space, she would play a very strong role.
The problem was configuration: Westfield did not like the new arrangement with three or four levels of stacked retail—“It eliminates the ability for consumers to just walk by your store. That’s a very big issue,” said Westfield’s vice chairman.11 That configuration, however, was what the city and community groups had been advocating from the very beginning of the planning process as a means to enliven the street scene around the site. Consistent with his graduate education in urban planning, Seymour personally believed in the street-level retail concept. Street-facing retail was part and parcel of the plan to reinsert the street grid into the superblock, which Westfield also disfavored because, in its view, that too was not in the best interests of retail profitability. The high-grossing retail spaces underground at the original World Trade Center had generated average annual sales of $900 a square foot at the time of the attack, and Westfield was not confident that the current proposal for retail space would meet that benchmark.
The LMDC’s trusted and respected lawyer, Ira Millstein, had told the LMDC board that its mandate, at least on paper, was total planning control over the Trade Center site. Roland Betts, head of the site planning committee, asked himself how the LMDC could actually exercise this control given the fact that the Port Authority owned the site. When on its own the development corporation put out a request for proposals (RFP) for urban planning and transportation consulting services for the site and surrounding areas in April 2002, he found out: Port Authority officials “went crazy,” according to a source for the New York Observer; they were livid. “It’s our site,” PA executive director Seymour told the press; issuing the RFP was “premature.” His chairman, Jack G. Sinagra, said: “We can’t lose sight of the fact that it’s the Port Authority’s property and the Port Authority’s responsibility for what is eventually recreated on the site.’”
Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel
Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar
All sorts of municipal plans, records and urban modeling are being moved from locked vaults into the open cloud, where citizens can access far more than ever before and they can do it on mobile apps. Compare that with the traditional way of finding public information. Formerly, a citizen had to spend an afternoon entombed in the Hall of Records poring over blueprints, thick manila folders and microfilm. Now, new developments are built in 3D models, where anyone can see an urban plan as it will stand on the ground—and below it. Citizens can see how a new development will impact surrounding areas. They can understand how lowering an elevated stretch of highway into a tunnel will provide new open spaces and let formerly isolated neighborhoods connect and interact. Of course, physical models will still be put on display, but it’s much more convenient to view the renderings online whenever you want.
They make it easy to forecast what will happen if a city is hit by a catastrophic storm, earthquake or flood. These predictive capabilities help first responders plan rescue operations. Educators can see where young families are moving and forecast when and where new schools will be needed. Retailers and healthcare professionals can see where new shops and offices are likely to flourish. These first-ever omnibus views of urban plans provide a path to better communications, collaboration and trust among government officials, contractors and constituents. History shows that relationships between these disparate groups have a great deal of room for improvement. We do not argue that 3D modeling is a panacea, but we do say that it creates a better platform and a more positive starting point. Modeling Cities As New Urbanists increase in number and influence and become civic forces to be reckoned with, the cities they inhabit will continue to face daunting and messy issues worsened by years of neglect.
Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold
A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game
Professor Rafael sees the SMS-linked crowd that assembled in Manila as the manifestation of a phenomenon that was enabled by a technical infrastructure but that is best understood as a social instrument: The power of the crowd thus comes across in its capacity to overwhelm the physical constraints of urban planning in the same way that it tends to blur social distinctions by provoking a sense of estrangement. Its authority rests on its ability to promote restlessness and movement, thereby undermining the pressure from state technocrats, church authorities and corporate interests to regulate and contain such movements. In this sense, the crowd is a sort of medium if by that word one means the means for gathering and transforming elements, objects, people and things. As a medium, the crowd is also the site for the generation of expectations and the circulation of messages. It is in this sense that we might also think of the crowd not merely as an effect of technological devices, but as a kind of technology itself. . . . Centralized urban planning and technologies of policing seek to routinize the sense of contingency generated in crowding.
One school of community design suggests looking for ways to enable people to use resources at hand to create different pathways, instead of trying to predesign their paths through the community.41 Virtual villages, in this view, create themselves. In Chapter 4 I look more closely at “digital cities” pervaded by sensors, beacons, computers, and communicators. Arena 2000 and HVV might be the earliest representatives of two opposite schools of virtual urban planning: the “grassroots, open system, emergent use” school and the “centrally planned, proprietary system, planned use” school. Finnish innovators have made significant contributions to Internet technology. Internet Relay Chat, the online social channel connecting countless real-time tribes, was invented in 1988 by Jarkko Oikarinen, a computer science student. The open source software movement’s Linus Torvalds started Linux, the community-developed software operating system that is challenging Microsoft, on a server at the University of Helsinki.42 Finland’s Nokia Oy started as a paper mill on the Nokia River in 1865. 43 By 1999, with $15.7 billion in sales, Nokia had become the world’s leading vendor of mobile telephone handsets and infrastructure.44 Nokia’s CEO bet on what was still a distant future technology in 1987, when European technocrats agreed on a mobile telephony technical standard known as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM).
City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco by Chester W. Hartman, Sarah Carnochan
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, business climate, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, John Markoff, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, young professional
The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution to this book provided by the General Endowment Fund of the Associates of the University of California Press. City for Sale OTHER BOOKS BY CHESTER HARTMAN Between Eminence and Notoriety: Four Decades of Radical Urban Planning Housing: Foundation of a New Social Agenda (with Rachel Bratt and Michael Stone) Challenges to Equality: Poverty and Race in America Double Exposure: Poverty and Race in America Paradigms Lost: The Post Cold War Era (with Pedro Vilanova) Housing Issues of the 1990s (with Sara Rosenberry) Winning America: Ideals and Leadership for the 1990s (with Marcus Raskin) Critical Perspectives on Housing (with Rachel Bratt and Ann Meyerson) The Transformation of San Francisco America’s Housing Crisis: What Is to Be Done?
In a Minneapolis study, for example, 70 to 80 percent of the displacees moved within a one-mile radius, and in a New Jersey study 74 percent of the displacees moved within six blocks. See Chester W. Hartman, “The Housing of Relocated Families,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners (November 1964), 266 – 86, reprinted in Chester Hartman, Between Eminence and Notoriety: Four Decades of Radical Urban Planning (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Center for Urban Policy Research, 2002), 74– 104. The Assault on South of Market / 55 The concern expressed at the public hearings about proper relocation was handled with similar pamphleteering. Several weeks before the January 1966 Planning Commission hearings on the YBC plan, the agency distributed to area residents a brochure headed, “Of course Urban Renewal wants you out, but into safe, decent, comfortable housing you can afford.”
Eric Brazil, “3-Way Compromise on Track to Retain Doggie Diner Head,” San Francisco Examiner, 25 January 2000. 10. Evelyn Nieves, “For Patrons of Prostitutes, Remedial Instruction,” New York Times, 18 March 1999. 11. “Pained by Quotas, Body Piercers Organize,” Washington Post, 17 January 1998. 12. R. B. Cohen, “The New International Division of Labor, Multinational Corporations and Urban Hierarchy,” in Urbanization and Urban Planning in 403 404 / Notes to Pages 3–7 Capitalist Society, ed. Michael Dear and Allen J. Scott (New York: Methuen, 1981), 303. 13. State of California, Employment Development Department, Labor Market Information Division, “Projections—June 1998,” “Occupational Employment Projections, 1995 –2002, San Francisco County,” table 6. 14. Susan S. Fainstein, Norman I. Fainstein, Richard Child Hill, Dennis R.
The End of Cheap China: Economic and Cultural Trends That Will Disrupt the World by Shaun Rein
business climate, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, income per capita, indoor plumbing, job-hopping, Maui Hawaii, price stability, quantitative easing, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional, zero-sum game
Brands that create a comfortable ambiance move to high-priced malls or recently developed zones. Once urban planning gets more settled, Chinese brands will spend more on nicer shopping environments. In the meantime, smart ones save their money. For instance, right now most Chinese buyers of luxury products like to do their shopping abroad. Recent initiatives to make Hainan Island a duty-free zone and to reduce tariffs on imported goods could change the luxury retail landscape overnight. Key Action Item Company executives need to keep abreast of potential new regulations that could severely impact their businesses. If they do not, they could suddenly find that they have invested in the wrong sectors and locations. Real Estate Is Intentionally Ramshackle Many Westerners say Chinese real estate companies exhibit poor urban planning. A common complaint by visiting Westerners is that malls are not built attractively, or that parking lots are constructed in prime building locations, like on a riverside, while shopping complexes and restaurant zones are built across the street without good river views.
Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup by Andrew Zimbalist
airline deregulation, business cycle, carbon footprint, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, longitudinal study, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, selection bias, urban planning, young professional
The commitment of billions of dollars to infrastructure for the World Cup and Olympics was an opportunity to address the glaring deficiencies in public transportation; instead, there was investment in the BRT bus system and airport expansion promoting the use of fossil fuels.21 Equally troubling is Brazil's plan to build a golf course in a low-lying, environmentally fragile area of Barra da Tijuca. Golf is returning to the 2016 Olympics for the first time since 1900. In Brazil, golf is exclusively the domain of the wealthy. Of Rio's two golf courses, neither is open to the public. Rather than preserving the natural beauty of the coastal land, the Olympics will yield a legacy of a third golf course for the city's elite. Christopher Gaffney, a mega-event and urban planning expert at Rio's Federal Fluminense University, concludes: “One of the few remaining areas of environmental protection in the Barra da Tijuca region has been appropriated by the government, opened up for toxic land use patterns and handed over to a private development firm for recreational and real-estate purposes.”22 In September 2014 a court in Rio de Janeiro ordered the local organizing body to make changes in their plans for the golf course.
A more pessimistic and critical view is articulated by Christopher Gaffney: Since the announcement of the 2016 host city in October 2009, the Rio de Janeiro city government has pushed through a revised master plan that was adopted to include the multiple Olympic projects…. The improvised revision of the city's master plan has been accompanied by an extensive list of executive decrees that have “flexibilized” urban space in order for Olympic related projects to occur. These measures have undermined Rio's fledgling democratic institutions and reduced public participation in urban planning processes.62 More growth or less? More equity or less? More democracy or less? Time will tell. London The 2012 London Olympic Games distinguished themselves in several ways. Most significant, the legacy planning was more detailed and more ambitious than in any previous Olympics. The central legacy goal was to rejuvenate five depressed boroughs in East London—Newham, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, and Greenwich.
Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps by Gabe Zichermann, Christopher Cunningham
Since then, thousands of educational software companies have attempted and failed to create another sensation. Figure 1-2. “Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?” is among the best-selling educational games of all time, and was popular among teachers, parents, and students alike. So, where in the world is the next big hit? Games aligning entertainment and education like Civilization and SimCity have taught millions of people history lessons and the basics of urban planning. These are not pedagogical games. They weren’t designed to be educational. But they use history and real city schema as a backdrop to explain ideas; thus, education becomes a byproduct of fun. This is precisely the opposite of what has happened to educational software. In fact, once teachers and parents got involved, they systematically extracted the fun from the game. Kids could smell that shift from fun to work a mile away.
Surprise and Unexpected Delight United Airlines, frequent-flyer program, Beating the Boss Level university levels, Enduring leveling systems update_attribute method, user object, Extending the User Model to Scores and Levels update_info URL endpoint (Badgeville), Step 4: Register and Track Players update_score_and_level method, user object, Extending the User Model to Scores and Levels urban planning game (SimCity), Fun Is Job #1 user activity, displaying, Step 8: Displaying Rewards User model, Adding Scores and Levels to the User Model, Awarding bonus points for replying to posts, Awarding a login bonus, Awarding a login bonus, Awarding a login bonus, Badges, Awarding the First Badge, Optimizing Leaderboard Output, Optimizing Leaderboard Output, Listing the Badges That a Player Has Not Yet Earned adding scores and levels to, Adding Scores and Levels to the User Model after_create award_signup_bonus private method, Awarding bonus points for replying to posts awarding first badge, Awarding the First Badge award_badge model, Badges award_login_bonus method, Awarding a login bonus Controller#index method, Optimizing Leaderboard Output last_login_bonus_awarded_at attribute, Awarding a login bonus named scope on, Optimizing Leaderboard Output seen!
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
Recasting all complex social situations either as neatly defined problems with definite, computable solutions or as transparent and self-evident processes that can be easily optimized—if only the right algorithms are in place!—this quest is likely to have unexpected consequences that could eventually cause more damage than the problems they seek to address. I call the ideology that legitimizes and sanctions such aspirations “solutionism.” I borrow this unabashedly pejorative term from the world of architecture and urban planning, where it has come to refer to an unhealthy preoccupation with sexy, monumental, and narrow-minded solutions—the kind of stuff that wows audiences at TED Conferences—to problems that are extremely complex, fluid, and contentious. These are the kinds of problems that, on careful examination, do not have to be defined in the singular and all-encompassing ways that “solutionists” have defined them; what’s contentious, then, is not their proposed solution but their very definition of the problem itself.
The paradox is that, while technocracy itself is an ideology, most technocrats try their best to distance themselves from any insinuation that they might be driven by anything other than pragmatism and the pursuit of efficiency. Unfortunately, Crick’s attack on technological thinking has received less attention than several other similar attacks by his contemporaries: Jane Jacobs’s attack on unimaginative urban planning, Isaiah Berlin’s attack on “procrusteanism,” Friedrich Hayek’s attack on central planning, Karl Popper’s attack on historicism, and Michael Oakeshott’s attack on rationalism come to mind. Most of these important critiques of the arrogance and self-conceit of the planner and the reformer are united by a common theme: something about the experience of living in the polis with other human beings is essentially irreducible to formulaic expression and optimization techniques.
Second, a driver would have no way to overstay the posted time limit by paying several times: the sensors would identify each car and, once the permitted time was up, tell the meter not to accept further payments. Many would welcome even these two changes. Why not block those who want to trick the system and overstay the limit? After all, free parking is anything but free. As Donald Shoup, professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, shows in his The High Cost of Free Parking, if people paid the fair market price for parking, they might drive less, and the perpetually cash-deprived cities might raise more money too. Seems like a win-win. But ought we to consider other aspects of the Santa Monica initiative? To return to Albert Hirschman’s futility-perversity-jeopardy triad, the first of those concerns doesn’t seem to be a problem.
The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.
affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
Over a two- year period, the nonprofit group that prepared the report held community meetings, conducted interviews with city residents, set up a hotline, and appeared at community markets and neighborhood events to get suggestions. The Detroit Future Cityreport reflected city planners’ emphasis on the need for density and infrastructure development. Still, its emphasis on quality of life issues, including improving housing, creating jobs, and improving city services, suggest a starting point for urban planning from the neighborhoods in, rather than from the downtown out. The Kresge Foundation, one of the region’s largest, pledged $150 million to help implement the report’s recommendations. Forthe first stages, the goals seem modest: shoring up neighborhoods that still have some density, demolishing buildings that detract from those neighborhoods, and planning improvements to city’s transportation infrastructure, including a light rail line along Woodward Avenue.
Dalfiume, “The ‘Forgotten’ Years of the Negro Revolution,” Journal of American History 55 (1968): 90–106. On federal policy and race, see Jill Quadagno, The Color of Welfare (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995); on urban policy, see Kenneth T. Jackson, “Race, Ethnicity, and Real Estate Appraisal: The Home Owners Loan Corporation and the Federal Housing Administration,” Journal of Urban History 6 (1980): 419–52; John Bauman, Public Housing, Race, and Renewal: Urban Planning in Philadelphia, 1920–1974 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987); Arnold R. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940–1960 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 212–75; for an overview, see Raymond A. Mohl, “Shifting Patterns of American Urban Policy Since 1900,” in Hirsch and Mohl, Urban Policy in Twentieth-Century America, 1–45. 19. On the centrality of the 1940s for the coalescence of the New Deal order, and on the future of American social policy, see Fraser and Gerstle, The Rise and Fall of the New Deal Order.
Feagin, Anthony M. Orum, and Gideon Sjoberg, The Case for the Case Study (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). 22. Hirsch, Making the Second Ghetto, and “Massive Resistance in the Urban North: Chicago’s Trumbull Park, 1953–1966,” Journal of American History 82 (1995): 522–50; Cumbler, A Social History of Economic Decline, 153; John F. Bauman, Public Housing, Race, and Renewal: Urban Planning in Philadelphia, 1920–1974 (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987); Charles E Casey-Leininger, “Making the Second Ghetto in Cincinnati: Avondale, 1925–1970,” in Race and the City: Work, Community, and Protest in Cincinnati, 1820–1970, ed. Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993), 239–40, 247–48. 23. Nelson Lichtenstein, “Introduction: The American Automobile Industry and Its Workers,” in On the Line: Essays in the History of Auto Work, ed.
The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square by James Traub
Anton Chekhov, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, intangible asset, Jane Jacobs, jitney, light touch regulation, megastructure, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
In 1807, the city appealed to the state to settle the issue, and the state agreed to appoint a commission that would have “exclusive power to lay out streets, roads and public squares,” and to “shut up” streets already built by private parties. Whatever the original intention, the commissioners chose to interpret their charge as a mandate to utterly transform the map of the city. In 1811, they published one of the most audacious documents in the history of urban planning. It was a work that bore the stamp of the new republic —though it was Benjamin Franklin’s rationalism and unsentimental materialism, rather than Thomas Jefferson’s sense of romance and grandeur, that infused this extraordinary design. In remarks accompanying the plan, the commissioners noted that they had wondered “whether they should confine themselves to rectilinear and rectangular streets, or whether they should adopt some of those supposed improvements, by circles, ovals and stars, which certainly embellish a plan, whatever may be their effects as to convenience and utility.”
The banks and white-shoe law firms that Klein had carefully cultivated as anchor tenants had long since given up, and the entire project went into the deep freeze. Litigation offered a force majeure of its own. The aesthetic and intellectual critique of the project had hit home, but produced only modest changes, whereas the lawsuits had been shaky, even frivolous; yet the suits had succeeded where criticism had failed. 11. SAVING BILLBOARD HELL THE REDEVELOPMENT OF 42nd STREET, whatever its flaws, was an act of urban planning, a conscious re-creation of a bounded urban space almost from the ground up; but the rest of Times Square, seedy but not pathological, was for many years permitted to develop, or not, according to the fluctuations of the marketplace. No large structure had gone up along the great spillways of Broadway and Seventh Avenue since the 1930s. But the real estate boom of the sixties, which had filled the East Side of midtown Manhattan with big buildings, had made the West Side, with its traditionally low scale, look increasingly appealing as a development site.
New Yorkers have decided, in effect, that they would rather risk getting nothing built at all than to have a vision of the city simply imposed on them. And the process does not inevitably lead either to paralysis or to mediocrity: it was another city-state entity that chose the acclaimed architect Daniel Libeskind to design a new complex on the site of the World Trade Center in 2003. The competition over the rebuilding of the World Trade Center offers a model for urban planning that does not submit to the whim either of the developer or of the government functionary, and that allows the public will to express itself without descending into chaos. Of course, the city-state body overseeing the development process at the World Trade Center site agreed to stage a worldwide architectural competition only after an impassioned public rejected the unimaginative choices that were initially offered.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Nationally, there were 233 million people living in metropolitan areas, which would mean that there is a need for about 800 regional-serving walkable places in the 361 metropolitan areas as of 2005.28 There are probably far less than half that number today, and most of those existing today are far from their build-out potential in population or jobs. Another means of tilting the playing field is to provide government assistance in developing the overlay zoning for a walkable urban area. The state or federal government could provide planning incentive grant money to local governments to do the required research, seek community input, and hire the urban planning consultants to create these walkable urban places. This work needs to be done before the private development and finance industry will be attracted to these districts. Very few developers are interested in spending their money and time planning a district, and it is the responsibility of the local government to determine their future land use. Another way of favoring walkable urbanism would be to subsidize its infrastructure, making the assumption that there are societal benefits to more compact development.
Concentrated poverty, discussed in chapter 4, is generally considered the primary culprit in the failure of high rise public housing built following Le Corbusier. The public housing schemes that replaced these troubled high-rise projects in the 1990s are almost all mixed-use, mixed-income walkable urbanism. This approach was pioneered during the Clinton administration under the direction of Henry Cisneros, secretary of housing and urban development. Following the New Urbanism planning approach, many of these Hope VI housing projects were built with sixty percent market-rate housing and forty percent affordable housing in a 192 | NOTES 5. 6. 7. 8. low-rise but high-density plan. As of 2006, these projects have proven to be quite successful in reducing crime and integrating families with different incomes, although management is the key to this experiment, so only time will tell if this is a long-term solution.
The Nation City: Why Mayors Are Now Running the World by Rahm Emanuel
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, blockchain, carbon footprint, clean water, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Filter Bubble, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Lyft, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor
When we were looking to fund this idea, we noticed a line item within the Chicago Housing Authority budget regulations that was called “community investments.” We researched it and discovered that libraries qualify. The New York Times has cited these co-located libraries as “striking new civic architecture,” an advertisement for the city, and a source of community pride. Co-location was also just plain good urban planning. In fact, we convinced President Obama to locate a neighborhood library inside his new presidential library in Hyde Park. These libraries function as resource centers and quiet spaces where kids can study. And within those new libraries and all of the other seventy-nine in the city, we’ve provided free tutoring in every subject for three hours after every school day. The libraries also offer free online tutoring in any subject, in both English and Spanish, the only system to provide such a service.
Infrastructure and mass transit systems and other critical city services (like public education and policing) were some of the casualties. Our major cities had lower life expectancy rates than the country as a whole. It didn’t help that city planners from decades earlier had been misguided in some of their approaches. Jane Jacobs, in her 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, wrote about one of the biggest problems cities faced: Most urban planning had been focused on business districts and not on building and strengthening the neighborhoods and communities that form the glue that holds cities together. It also didn’t help that some of the mayors of that period were not up to the task. New York City mayor John Lindsay, who served from 1966 to 1973, never could rein in the city’s costs. He also was unable to work out deals with the city’s transit and sanitation workers and teachers and endured four devastating strikes in his first term.
Working by Robert A. Caro
I loved being a reporter, but you’re always running from one story to another: There’s always a new story. It wasn’t until I became a Nieman Journalism Fellow at Harvard that I finally had the time to think. I was already twenty-nine years old. The Nieman fellowship is for mid-career journalists who want to spend a year at Harvard learning more about the areas they cover, and I was taking courses on urban planning. One of my courses was taught by two professors who had written a well-regarded textbook on highways, including an analysis, in great detail, of highway location: why highways get built where they’re built. They were doing this by means of a mathematical equation. There were factors such as population density, traffic patterns, elevation of grades—that sort of thing. And at each class they would write the equation on the board, and then they would add new factors to it.
I would raise a subject, and Moses would thereupon embark on a discourse about it that might take an hour or more, and if I attempted to interrupt to clarify a point, the interruption might or might not be acknowledged. But, at least at first, who wanted to interrupt? I had thought I understood something—had thought I understood quite a bit, in fact—about the inner processes of political decision-making, and about urban planning and government in general. From the moment Robert Moses started talking, I never thought that again. He seemed to remember every vote—even votes from forty years before—and why it had been cast. “On the Jones Beach appropriation, it was eight to seven against us in Ways and Means,” he would say. “But the key was this little upstate guy [and he named some long-forgotten state assemblyman], and he had a mortgage coming due on his farm, and the mortgage was held by a bank up there, and the key to the bank was Hewitt [Charles J.
Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl
Another report, “Climate Safety,” from the Public Interest Research Centre, shows that the Arctic’s late-summer ice is melting much faster than scientists previously predicted and may soon disappear. The cascading consequences of such an event could be catastrophic. Just think what we could do with $4.1 trillion! Instead of giving companies these huge sums of money so that they can continue business as usual, buying and selling, merging, and paying their executives obscene salaries and bonuses, we could put it toward renewable energy, sustainable urban planning, and research into ways to lessen the impact of climate change—things that really would stimulate economies. But the focus continues to remain on the false dichotomy of economy versus environment. Eminent economist Lord Stern said that meeting the challenge of climate change could cost about 1 per cent of annual GDP, but doing nothing could destroy the global economy. It seems there’s only one thing we can do, and it won’t cost $4.1 trillion.
Politicians need to support local agriculture by implementing policies and laws that protect farmland, ensure that farmers receive a fair price for the food they grow, and remove regulatory barriers that hinder farm-gate sales. The protection of rich agricultural soil from urban sprawl, roads, industrial development, and other land use must be central to any government local food strategy. Study after study has shown that valuable agricultural land around the world is being chewed up and paved over because of poor urban-planning decisions that value parking lots, new highways, and larger strip malls over keeping our precious bank of fertile soil for current and future generations of farmers to steward—for our benefit. A report by the David Suzuki Foundation, “Ontario’s Wealth, Canada’s Future,” found that an alarming 16 per cent of farmland in the Greater Toronto Area was lost to urban encroachment between 1996 and 2001.
Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida
active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional
The classical economists Adam Smith and David Ricardo both argued that nation-states are the geographic engines behind economic growth. As Ricardo famously theorized, discretely defined countries have incentive to specialize in different kinds of industries, which would allow them to gain and maintain “comparative advantage” over others.1 The first person to see this was the great urbanist Jane Jacobs, who is best known for her scathing critique of urban planning, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and two other very important books, The Economy of Cities and Cities and the Wealth of Nations.2 In The Economy of Cities (1969) Jacobs refutes the long-standing theory that cities emerged only after agriculture had become sufficiently productive to create a surplus beyond what was needed to survive. In fact, the earliest cities, according to Jacobs, formed around rudimentary trade in wild animals and grains, which led their inhabitants to discover agriculture and the economic benefits of product exportation.
personality categories of regions in University College London University of Arizona University of California-Berkeley University of California-Davis University of California-San Diego University of California-San Francisco University of Chicago University of Maryland University of Michigan University of Pennsylvania University of Texas University of Tokyo University of Toronto University of Waterloo Urban areas clustering in education in families and megaregions and rural settings v. Urban independents Urban metabolism Urban mosaic Urban planning Urban tribes Urbanism messy U.S. Census Bureau U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Utica, New York Utrecht Valparaiso Values in Action (VIA) Van Lear Rose (album) Vancouver, British Columbia (fig.)(fig.) Venice, Clara Venture capital Veolia Urban Observatory Verhagen, Evert VIA. See Values in Action Victory Optical VideoEgg Vienna(fig.)
The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida
banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
But much of that remaining population is stuck—unable to relocate for financial reasons. Greater Detroit has seen a streaming outmigration of its young, talented, and ambitious people. Many of those who remain either lack the skills and resources to move or are trapped by houses that are so far underwater, they’re unable to get out. “If you no longer can sell your property, how can you move elsewhere?” asked Robin Boyle, an urban planning professor at Wayne State University. But then he answered his own question: “Some people just switch out the lights and leave—property values have gone so low, walking away is no longer such a difficult option.”12 As difficult as it is to even imagine, other Rust Belt cities have fared even worse than the Motor City: the greatest pain has been felt in the smaller, second- and third-tier communities in this industrial belt.
“Many say they can’t refinance their mortgages or sell, and they have no equity to leverage for repairs.” Could this be just the tip of the iceberg? Could the once-desirable suburban and exurban communities—with their endless cul-de-sacs and gated McMansions—be on their way to becoming the blighted and abandoned communities of tomorrow? “The future is not likely to wear well on suburban housing,” wrote the urban planning expert Christopher Leinberger in an attention-getting essay in the Atlantic, “The Next Slum?”16 Many of the inner-city neighborhoods that began their decline in the 1960s consisted of sturdily built, turn-of-the-century row houses, tough enough to withstand being broken up into apartments and requiring relatively little upkeep. “By comparison, modern suburban houses, even high-end McMansions, are cheaply built,” he writes.
Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution by David Harvey
Bretton Woods, business cycle, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, David Graeber, deindustrialization, financial innovation, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, precariat, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, special economic zone, the built environment, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, urban planning, We are the 99%, William Langewiesche, Works Progress Administration
B ut what is so interesting about the concept of the urban commons is that it poses all of the p olitical contradictions of the commons in highly concentrated form. Consider, for example, the question of scale within which we move from the question of local neighb orhoods and politi cal organ ization to the m etrop olitan region as a whole. Traditionally, questions of the commons at the metropolitan level have been handled through mechanisms of state regional and urban planning, in recognition of the fact that the common resources required for urban populations to function effectively, such as water provision, transportation, sewage disposal, and open space for recreation , have to be provided at a met ropolitan, regional scale. But when it comes to bundling together issues of this kind, left-analysis typically becomes vague, gesturing hopefully towards some magical concordance of local actions that will be effec tive at a regional or glob al level, or simply noting this as an important T H E C R EATI O N OF TH E U R BAN C O M M O N S 81 problem before moving back to that scale- usually the micro and the local-at wh ich th ey feel most comfortable.
Richard Bookstaber, A Demon of Our Own Design: Markets, Hedge Funds, and the Perils of Financial Innovation, New York: Wiley, 2007; Frank Partnoy, Infectious Greed: How Deceit and Risk Corrupted Financial Markets, New York: Henry Holt, 2003. Harvey, A Brief History ofNeoliberalism; Thomas Edsall, The New Politics of Inequality, New York: Norton, 1 985. Jim Yardley and Vikas Bajaj, "Billionaires' Ascent Helps India, and Vice Versa;' New York Times, July 27, 20 1 1 . Marcello Balbo, "Urban Planning and the Fragm ented City of Developing Countries:' Third World Planning Review 1 5: 1 ( 1 993}: 23-5. Friedrich Engels, The Housing Question, New York: International Publishers ( 1 935}: 74-7. Marshall Berman, A ll That Is Solid Melts Into A ir, London: Penguin, 1 988. Friedrich Engels, The Housing Question: 23. Usha Ramanathan "I llegality and the Urban Poor:' Economic a n d Political Weekly, July 22, 2006; Rakesh Shukla, "Rights of the Poor: An Overview of Supreme Court;' Economic and Political Weekly, September 2, 2006.
Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus
It’s true that architects and urban planners feature prominently, but if anything the story is more about politics, and the power that a community possesses to effect radical change when it engages in the political process. In the mid 1990s, long before Fajardo appeared on the scene, there was a keen sense among Medellín’s citizenry that an intensive programme of reforms had to be put in place. ‘The whole of society was talking about this, and we built a social project together,’ says Jorge Pérez, who was head of urban planning for the metropolitan area under Mayor Fajardo. Pérez is at pains to make clear that, while architecture was the most visible tool in this process, what really mattered was the commitment of a network of politicians and entrepreneurs to building – and paying for – a new future for Medellín. This process, as much as the result, has come to be known as ‘social urbanism’. At that time there were already state initiatives being implemented that would help set the agenda over the coming decade.
‘Bogotá was important because the leaders opened a space,’ says Echeverri. ‘From the technical point of view, three processes were important: the Bogotá process, the Rio de Janeiro process – especially the Favela-Bairro programme – and the reality here in Medellín.’ When Fajardo was elected, he made Echeverri head of the EDU and heaped special powers on him to make the EDU independent of the city’s urban planning department, which was both inefficient and corrupt. In effect, the mayor treated the EDU as strategically as Mockus did his Urban Observatory – it was the crucible of his most significant policies. ‘When he won the election we decided we had to move very fast,’ says Echeverri, ‘and to do that we had to have some autonomy, because if we went into the old planning structure it was very difficult to change things.’
Explore Everything by Bradley Garrett
airport security, Burning Man, call centre, creative destruction, deindustrialization, double helix, dumpster diving, failed state, Google Earth, Hacker Ethic, Jane Jacobs, Julian Assange, late capitalism, megacity, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, shareholder value, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight, WikiLeaks
In the language of the ‘new’ promise of freedom from suffering, in the efficient language of architects like Le Corbusier, ‘the perfect house became individual, clear, pure, functional and safe for the inhabitant, protected from the anomie and the antinomies of the outside and the underneath, the urban’.39 Rouge, Marc and I walked through Paris in helmets and fishing waders, past highway overpasses and old railroad tracks, into a dark alley frequented by graffiti artists and underage kids drinking cheap wine, into a hole in the wall with a four-foot drop behind it, and voilà; we had crossed the liminal zone of the ‘known’ city into a realm of illicit encounter, raw experience, playful exuberance and corporeal terror. We crawled on all fours through the mud into the darkness. In the Paris catacombs, we found ourselves in a spatial gap, perhaps even a negative space, where stone had been quarried to build the city and then the city had been built over it. In architecture and urban planning, this is sometimes referred to as space left over after planning – SLOAP.40 In work like Iain Borden’s research on skateboarding,41 we find that these negative spaces are used for various urban subversions, but we rarely imagine SLOAP being as vast as the underground in Paris. Entrance to the catacombs has been forbidden since 1955. Before that, they were used for growing mushrooms, storing alcohol and fighting wars.
Fainstein and Scott Cambell, eds, Readings in Planning Theory, 3rd edn (London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2003), p. 403. 29 Cresswell, In Place/Out of Place, p. 22. 30 Hollingshead, Underground London, p. 60. 31 Rapp, ‘Esoteric City’, p. 45. 32 Julia Solis, New York Underground: The Anatomy of a City (New York: Routledge, 2005), p. 3. 33 Charles Baudelaire, ‘Le Cygne’, Fleurs du mal / ‘Flowers of Evil’, at fleursdumal.org/poem/220. 34 Matthew Gandy, ‘The Paris Sewers and the Rationalization of Urban Space Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 24: 1 (1999). 35 Rapp, ‘Esoteric City’, p. 34. 36 Guy Debord, ‘Report on the Construction of Situations and on the International Situationist Tendency’s Conditions of Organization and Action’ (1957), transl. Ken Knabb, in Ken Knabb, ed., Situationist International Anthology (Berkeley, CA: Bureau of Public Secrets, 1981), p. 25. 37 Gandy, ‘Paris Sewers’. 38 Hollingshead, Underground London. 38 Kaika and Swyngedouw, ‘Fetishizing the Modern City’, p. 134. 40 Tseira Maruani and Irit Amit-Cohen, ‘Open Space Planning Models: A Review of Approaches and Methods’, Landscape and Urban Planning 81: 1–2 (2007). 41 Borden, Skateboarding, Space and the City. 42 Neil Shea (2011), ‘Under Paris’, National Geographic, February 2011. 43 Kathleen Stewart, ‘Atmospheric Attunements’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 29: 3 (2011). 44 Edensor, ‘Ghosts of Industrial Ruins’, pp. 23, 6. 45 ‘That Parisien Loop’, at thewinch.net/?p=2856. 46 Garrett, ‘Cracking the Paris Carrières’. 47 ‘Demolition of the Paris Metro’, at sleepycity.net/posts/252/Demolition_of_the_Paris_Metro. 48 ‘Into the Belly of the Beast’, atn adventuretwo.net/stories/into-the-belly-of-the-beast. 49 Gibas, ‘Uncanny Underground’, p. 3. 50 J.E.
Working in Public: The Making and Maintenance of Open Source Software by Nadia Eghbal
Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, death of newspapers, Debian, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, Induced demand, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, node package manager, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, pull request, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, urban planning, web application, wikimedia commons, Zimmermann PGP
Yet I’m asked to speak about it, and the work I’m actually *paid* to do no one really wants to hear about. ”240 Even as software’s purchase value is being driven dramatically down, its social value seems to be going dramatically up. We can’t live without software anymore, but we also don’t want to pay for it. How is this the case? The author Jane Jacobs explores these conflicting views in her 1961 book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in which she tries to explain why urban planning policy failed cities. Jacobs’s major critique of urban planning in the 1950s is that the planners treated cities—the layout of their buildings, parks, and roads—as static objects, which were only developed at the outset, rather than continuously revised according to how people used them. To make her case, Jacobs cites Dr. Warren Weaver’s 1958 Annual Report of the Rockefeller Foundation, which explores three “stages of development in the history of scientific thought”: problems of simplicity, disorganized complexity, and organized complexity.
The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic
Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen
The axes would not have been single straight lines, but were to be made up of a series of episodes, hinged around gigantic spaces and vast monumental buildings. Speer and Hitler selected the crossing point between the two axes to position the prodigious new Chancellery, which would have occupied the most privileged site in the whole city. Whether the plan was genuinely an attempt to design a real city, rather than create a parade ground realized on the scale of a city, is open to question. Certainly Speer had no obvious expertise or experience of urban planning before he began the project. The axis would have spanned the Spree, curving around the dome and the old Reichstag with a new bridge. Beyond that was a vast rectangular artificial lake, three-quarters of a mile long, which would have formed a reflecting pool for the dome and the setting for another group of public buildings: the city hall on one side of the water, designed by German Bestelmeyer from Munich in a manner derived from Stockholm’s town hall, the admiralty on the other.
This is ostensibly because it is what the multinationals want to stop them moving to Frankfurt, or New York, but the reality owes more to the unsubtle symbolism of being the biggest or the tallest, and so the most important. The timing of the attacks on the twin towers certainly made it seem as if the terrorists had been listening to the debate and had got the message about the symbolic significance of high-rise architecture. One of the hijackers who led the 11 September attacks, Mohammed Atta, was himself a graduate of Cairo’s school of architecture, and a postgraduate urban planning student in Hamburg. If he had been a lawyer or an engineer, or a software designer, it would simply have suggested that this was another disaffected middle-class radical. But the architectural connection seemed to suggest something else. It was as if he had recognized that the opposite side of the will to build is the attempt to delete. Mohammed Atta was born in 1968 into a middle-class Egyptian family.
The idea of asking a single firm of architects to produce no fewer than six different ways of rebuilding the World Trade Center, then whittling them down to three preferred options, and finally incorporating their least unpopular features into a single master plan, could have come straight from the White House staff’s modus operandi for explaining plans to effect a regime change in Baghdad to a president with a short attention span. As a strategy, it’s bad enough applied to global realpolitik. As an instrument of urban planning for one of the most highly charged sites in the world, it was nothing short of a disaster. Things started badly enough when the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation held a competition to find an architect for the job – not on the basis of their ideas, but on a credentials pitch. They picked Beyer Blinder Belle, a firm best known for its restoration of such nineteenth-century New York landmarks as Grand Central Station but without much of a track record in new thinking.
Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
Frank Gehry’s soaring, silver-skinned Disney Hall is considered a world-class contribution to the urbanity of Los Angeles, but a concertgoer can drop her car off at one of the six levels of parking, ride interlinked escalators to the show, and leave without ever setting foot on a sidewalk. Downtown Los Angeles requires, at minimum, fifty times more parking than downtown San Francisco allows at maximum. Which means that while most San Franciscans ride transit to get to work, in Los Angeles land is gobbled up for the needs of the car, creating pedestrian-repelling dead zones. “What sets downtown L.A. apart from other cities is not its sprawl,” writes UCLA urban planning professor Donald Shoup, “or its human density, but its high human density combined with its high parking density.” The math is simple: an office worker requires, on average, 250 square feet of space, whereas his car requires 400 square feet. A downtown where most people commute by automobile needs to set aside one and a half times as much land for cars as for people. If all the parking spaces in downtown Los Angeles were spread out in a single surface lot, they would cover 81 percent of the central business district’s land area (versus 31 percent in San Francisco)—the highest parking coverage ratio on earth.
In Japan, unlike North America, the burgeoning of the suburbs wasn’t accompanied by the withering of “downtown”: the exurbs attracted residents, but the jobs remained within the Yamanote line. Even Yokohama, 16 miles from Shibuya and a separate city whose population rivals Los Angeles’s, is now largely a bedtown of Tokyo. “One thing about a rail-based system in terms of urban form is that it reinforces the center,” urban planning historian André Sorensen told me. “Tokyo is hugely monocentric for its size, and that’s only possible because of the rail system. Tokyo’s network reinforces centrality because, like all rail systems, it’s radial: all the lines feed into the central Yamanote line.” Major government agencies have always clustered around the Imperial Palace, and corporations still build their headquarters as close to these centers of influence as possible.
And, thanks to Mayor Michael Nutter, an extensive network of bike paths means that on any given day in Philadelphia, more people get to work by bicycle than in any other city in the United States. Philadelphia, it turns out, is a city ideally suited for a transit-led revival. Its bones aren’t just good: they’re great. The First City owes its structure to one of the New World’s most influential urban plans. In 1682, the wealthy English Quaker William Penn platted out a “green country towne,” divided into quadrants by two broad avenues, on the flatlands between the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. His plan was a reproach to such crowded Old World cities as London, which had recently been razed by fire: the generous gridwork of streets included four substantial squares and a major park; each detached home was to sit in the center of its plot, surrounded by ample gardens and orchards.* Penn’s grid, which would be replicated in countless towns in the upper South and Midwest, was soon overwhelmed by mass immigration.
The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih
Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K
In August 2006 the number of active editors in English Wikipedia had reached a new high of 44,193,33 with 10 percent of these having the distinction of being “very active”34 core editors, who made 96_The_Wikipedia_Revolution more than 100 edits each per month. Serving as “janitors” were roughly 1,000 active administrators, tending to the duties of deleting, blocking, and protecting resources. Urban Jungle The plight of Wikipedia growing from small community to larger digital metropolis is something both Joseph Reagle in his Ph.D. work on Wikipedia and Steven Johnson in Emergence note as being similar to problems of urban planning. There is no better historical example than that explored in Jane Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, her critique of the modernist planning policies of the 1950s and 1960s, an era when New York City developer Robert Moses was razing entire swaths of neighborhoods for planned housing projects and communities. Jacobs argued for preserving her small neighborhood on Hudson Street and resisting massive urban renewal, because the intimate sidewalks served an important social function.
., 43, 85, 172–73, 175 Nupedia-L, 63 Reagle, Joseph, 82, 96, 112 Nupedia Open Content License, 35, 72 Rec.food.chocolate, 84–85 RickK, 120, 185–88 rings, Web site, 23, 31 objectivism, 32, 36–37 robots, software, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, OCR (optical character recognition), 35 177, 179 Open Directory Project (ODP), 30–31, Rosenfeld, Jeremy, 45 33, 35 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 15 Ota, Takashi, 146 Russell, Bertrand, 13, 81 Oxford English Dictionary (OED), 70–72 Russian language, 152 peer production, 108–9 Sandbox, 97, 115 Pellegrini, Mark (Raul654), 180–81 Sanger, Larry, 6–7, 32–34, 36–38, Perl, 56, 67, 101, 140 40–41, 43–45, 61–65, 67, 88, 89, Peul language, 158 115, 184, 202, 210–11 phantom authority, 175–76 boldness directive and, 91, 113 Philological Society, 70 Citizendium project of, 190, 211–12 PHP, 74, 101 Essjay and, 197 Pike, Rob, 144 memoir of, 174, 190, 225 piranha effect, 83, 106, 109, 113, 120 resignation from Wikipedia, 174–75, Plautus Satire, 181 210 Pliny the Elder, 15 on rules, 76, 112 Poe, Marshall, 171 Spanish Wikipedia and, 9, 136–38 Polish Wikipedia, 146, 147 trolls and, 170–75, 189–90 Popular Science, 126 Wikipedia license and, 72 Portland Pattern Repository, 59 Y2K bug and, 32–33 Portuguese language, 136 San Jose Mercury News, 126 PostScript, 52 Schechter, Danny, 8–9 “Potato chip” article, 136 Schiff, Stacy, 196 Professor and the Madman, The Schlossberg, Edwin, 46 (Winchester), 70, 71 schools, 177–78 Project Gutenberg, 35 Scott, Jason, 131, 189 public domain content, 26, 111 search engines, 11, 22, 34 Pupek, Dan, 58 Google, see Google Seigenthaler, John, 9–10, 191–94, 200, 220 Quickpolls, 126–27 Senegal, 158 Quiz Show, 13 Serbian Wikipedia, 155–56 Index_243 servers, 77–79, 191 Tagalog language, 160 Sethilys (Seth Anthony), 106–11 Taiwan, 150, 151, 154 Shah, Sunir, 59–60, 64 “Talossan language” article, 120 Shaw, George Bernard, 135 Tamil language, 160 Shell, Tim, 21–22, 32, 36, 66, 174, Tawker, 177, 179, 186 184 Tektronix, 46, 47, 50, 55, 56 sidewalks, 96–97 termites, 82 Sieradski, Daniel, 204 Thompson, Ken, 143–44 Signpost, 200 Time, 9, 13 Silsor, 186 Torvalds, Linus, 28–29, 30, 173, 175 Sinitic languages, 159 Tower of Babel, 133–34 see also China tragedy of the commons, 223 Skrenta, Rich, 23, 30 Trench, Chenevix, 70 Slashdot, 67–69, 73, 76, 88, 205, trolls, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, 189–90 207, 216 Truel, Bob, 23, 30 Sanger’s memoir for, 174, 190, 225 2channel, 145 Sneakernet, 50 Snow, Michael, 206–7 Socialtext, 207 “U,” article on, 64 sock puppets, 128, 178–79 Unicode, 142, 144 software, open-source, 5, 23–28, 30, 35, UTF-8, 144–45 62, 67, 79, 216 UTF-32, 142, 143 design patterns and, 55, 59 UNIX, 27, 30–31, 54, 56, 143 Linux, 28–30, 56, 108, 140, 143, 173, Unregistered Words Committee, 70 216, 228 urban planning, 96–97 software robots, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), 53, 54 177, 179 USA Today, 9, 191, 220 Souren, Kasper, 158 UseModWiki, 61–63, 66, 73–74, 140–41 South Africa, 157–58 Usenet, 35, 83–88, 114, 170, 190, 223 spam, 11, 87, 220 Usenet Moderation Project (Usemod), 62 Spanish Wikipedia, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, USWeb, 211 215, 226 squid servers, 77–79 Stallman, Richard, 23–32, 74, 86, 217 vandalism: GNU Free Documentation License of, on LA Times Wikitorial, 207–8 72–73, 211–12 on Wikipedia, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, GNU General Public License of, 27, 72 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, GNU Manifesto of, 26 202, 220, 227 GNUpedia of, 79 Van Doren, Charles, 13–14 Steele, Guy, 86 verein, 147 Stevertigo, 184 VeryVerily, 128 stigmergy, 82, 89, 92, 109 Vibber, Brion, 76 Sun Microsystems, 23, 27, 29–30, 56 Viola, 54 Sun Tzu, 169 ViolaWWW, 54–55 Swedish language, 140, 152 Voltaire, 15 244_Index WAIS, 34, 53 Wik, 123–25, 170, 180 Wales, Christine, 20–21, 22, 139 Wikia, 196, 197 Wales, Doris, 18, 19 Wiki Base, 62 Wales, Jimmy, 1, 8, 9, 18–22, 44, 76, Wikibooks, 216 88, 115, 131, 184, 196, 213, 215, Wikimania, 1–3, 8, 146, 147–48 220 WikiMarkup, 90 administrators and, 94, 185 Wikimedia Commons, 216 background of, 18–19 Wikimedia Foundation, 146, 157, 183–84, at Chicago Options Associates, 20, 196, 199, 213–15, 225–26, 227 21, 22 Wikipedia: Cunctator essay and, 172 administrators of, 67, 93–96, 119, 121, and deletion of articles, 120 125, 127, 148, 178, 185–86, dispute resolution and, 179–80, 181, 195–96, 224–25 223 advertising and, 9, 11, 136–38, 215, Essjay and, 197, 199 226 languages and, 139, 140, 157–58 amateurs and professionals in, 225 neutrality policy and, 6, 7, 113 Arbitration Committee of, 180–81, 184, objectivism and, 32, 36–37 197, 223 Nupedia and, 32–35, 41, 43–45, “assume good faith” policy in, 114, 187, 61–63 195, 200 on piranha effect, 83 blocking of people from, 93 role of, in Wikipedia community, 174–76, boldness directive in, 8, 91, 102, 179–80, 223 113–14, 115, 122, 221 Seigenthaler incident and, 192, 194 categories in, 97–98, 221 Spanish Wikipedia and, 137, 175 “checkuser” privilege in, 179, 196, 199 Stallman and, 30–32 database for, 73–74, 77, 78, 94 three revert rule and, 127–28 discussions in, 7–8, 65–66, 75–76, 89, Wikimania and, 146 121–22 Wikipedia license and, 72 DMOZ as inspiration for, 23 Wikitorials and, 206–7 five pillars of, 113, 216 Wales, Jimmy, Sr., 18 future of, 213–17, 219–29 Wall Street Journal, 126 growth of, 4, 9, 10, 77, 88–89, 95–97, “War and Consequences” Wikitorial, 99–100, 126, 184, 215, 219, 220 206–7 how it works, 90–96 wasps, 82 influence of, 201–212 Weatherly, Keith, 106 launch of, 64, 69, 139, 171 Web browsers, 51–55 legal issues and, 94, 111, 186, 191–92, Weblogs Inc., 215 227; see also copyright; libel WebShare, 209 linking in, 66–67, 73 Webster, Noah, 70, 133 mailing list for, 89, 95 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 main community namespace in, 76 Wei, Pei-Yan, 54–55 main page of, 95 Weinstock, Steven, 202–3 MeatballWiki and, 60, 114, 119, 187–88 “Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its mediation of disputes in, 180, 181, 195 Anti-Elitism” (Sanger), 189–90 meta pages in, 91 Index_245 name of, 45 “diff” function and, 74, 75, 93, 99 namespaces in, 75–76 edit histories of, 64–65, 71, 82, 91–93 number of editors in, 95–96 editing of, 3–4, 6, 38, 64–66, 69, 73, Nupedia and, 64–65, 88, 136, 171, 172 88, 114–15, 131, 194 openness of, 5–6, 9 edit wars and, 95, 122–31, 136, 146 origins of, 43–60 eventualism and, 120–21, 129, 159 policies and rules of, 76, 112–14, first written, 64 127–28, 170, 171, 192, 221, flagged revisions of, 148–49, 215–16, 224–25 227 popularity of, 4 inclusion of, 115–21 Quickpolls in, 126–27 inverted pyramid formula for, 90 Recent Changes page in, 64–65, 82, license covering content of, 72–73, 98, 104, 109, 176–77 211–12 schools and, 177–78 locking of, 95 servers for, 77–79, 191 maps in, 107, 109–11 Slashdot and, 69, 73, 76, 88 neutral point of view in, 6–7, 82, 89, 111, sock puppets and, 128, 178–79 112–13, 117, 140, 174, 203–4, 217, SOFIXIT directive in, 114–15, 122, 221 228 software robots and, 88, 99–106, 145, news and, 7 147, 177, 179 original research and, 112–13, 117, 174 spam and self-promotion on, 11, 220 protection and semi-protection of, 194, talk pages in, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 216 templates in, 97–98, 113, 221 reverts and, 125, 127–28 trolls and, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, single versions of, 6 189–90 spelling mistakes in, 104–5 user pages in, 76, 89 stability of, 227–28 vandalism and, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, stub, 92, 97, 101, 104, 148 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, talk pages for, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 202, 220, 227 test edits of, 176 watchlists in, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 “undo” function and, 93 wiki markup language for, 221–22 uneven development of, 220 wiki software for, 64–67, 73, 77, 90, 93, unusual, 92, 117–18 140–41, 216 verifiability and, 112–13, 117 Wikipedia articles: watchlists for, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 accuracy of, 10, 72, 188–89, 194, 208 Wikipedia community, 7–8, 81–132, 174, attempts to influence, 11–12 175, 183–200, 215–17, 222–23 biographies of living persons, 192, Essjay controversy and, 194–200 220–21 Missing Wikipedians page and, 184–85, census data in, 100–104, 106 188 citations in, 113 partitioning of, 223 consensus and, 7, 94, 95, 119–20, 122, Seigenthaler incident and, 9–10, 222–23 191–94, 220 consistency among, 213 stress in, 184 creation of, 90–93, 130–31, 188–89 trolls and, 170 deletion of, 93–94, 96, 119–21, 174 Wales’s role in, 174–76, 179–80, 223 246_Index Wikipedia international editions, 12, 77, Wikitorials, 205–8 100, 131–32, 133–67 Wikiversity, 216 African, 157–58 WikiWikiWeb, 44–45, 58–60, 61, 62 Chinese, 10, 141–44, 146, 150–55 Willy on Wheels (WoW), 178–79 encoding languages for, 140–45 Winchester, Simon, 70, 71 French, 83, 139, 146, 147 Wizards of OS conference, 211 German, 11, 139, 140, 147–49, 215, Wolof language, 158 220, 227 Wool, Danny, 3, 158, 199 Japanese, 139, 140, 141–42, 144, World Book, 16–19 145–47 World Is Flat, The (Friedman), 11 Kazakh, 155–57 World Wide Web, 34, 35, 47, 51–55 links to, 134–35, 140 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 list of languages by size, 160–67 WYSIWYG, 222 Serbian, 155–56 Spanish, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, 215, 226 Yahoo, 4, 22, 23, 30, 191, 214 Wikipedia Watch, 192 “Year zero” article, 117 Wikipedia Weekly, 225 Yeats, William Butler, 183 wikis, 44, 51 Yongle encyclopedia, 15 Cunningham’s creation of, 2, 4, 56–60, “You have two cows” article, 118 62, 65–66, 90 YouTube, 58 MeatballWiki, 59–60, 114, 119, 175, Y2K bug, 32–33 187–88 Nupedia and, 61–65 Wikisource, 216 ZhengZhu, 152–57 About the Author Andrew Lih was an academic for ten years at Columbia University and Hong Kong University in new media and journalism.
Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind China's Production Game by Paul Midler
barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, full employment, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, new economy, out of africa, price discrimination, unpaid internship, urban planning
They guessed that China was uniformly populous, without stepping away from these coastal, dense urban centers. They did not understand how the interior of China was unlivable, that mountainous regions and other geographic barriers did not lend themselves to agricultural or even residential development. They also failed to take into account cultural differences in urban planning. Chinese do not have the same desire for elbowroom but instead had a preference for renao—the hustle and bustle associated with urban living. American urban planning was characterized by suburban sprawl. One neighborhood blended into another. In China, where they built with density in mind, you could drive from downtown Shanghai and, within half an hour, find yourself amid open fields with few signs of actual life. Even in the Chinese countryside, villagers preferred to live in relatively tight quarters, with one residence jammed up against the other.
Frequently Asked Questions in Quantitative Finance by Paul Wilmott
Albert Einstein, asset allocation, beat the dealer, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delta neutral, discrete time, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, fudge factor, implied volatility, incomplete markets, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, iterative process, lateral thinking, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, martingale, Myron Scholes, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, risk/return, Sharpe ratio, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, transaction costs, urban planning, value at risk, volatility arbitrage, volatility smile, Wiener process, yield curve, zero-coupon bond
For each throw, if 1 appears you win $1, if 2 appears you win $2, etc. but if 6 appears you lose all your money and the game ends. When is the optimal stopping time and what are your expected winnings? (Thanks to ckc226.) 100 kg of berries You have 100 kg of berries. Ninety-nine percent of the weight of berries is water. Time passes and some amount of water evaporates, so our berries are now 98% water. What is the weight of berries now? Do this one in your head. (Thanks to NoDoubts.) Urban planning There are four towns positioned on the corners of a square. The towns are to be joined by a system of roads such that the total road length is minimized. What is the shape of the road? (Thanks to quantie.) Closer to the edge or the centre? You have a square and a random variable that picks a random point on the square with a uniform distribution. What is the probability that a randomly selected point is closer to the center than to the edge?
Time passes and some amount of water evaporates, so our berries are now 98% water. What is the weight of berries now? Do this one in your head. (Thanks to NoDoubts.) Solution The unexpected, yet correct, answer is 50 kg. It seems like a tiny amount of water has evaporated so how can the weight have changed that much? There is clearly 1 kg of solid matter in the berries. If that makes up two percent (100 less 98%) then the total weight must be 50 kg. Urban planning There are four towns positioned on the corners of a square. The towns are to be joined by a system of roads such that the total road length is minimized. What is the shape of the road? (Thanks to quantie.) Solution One is tempted to join the towns with a simple crossroad shape but this is not optimal. Pythagoras and some basic calculus will show you that the arrangement shown in the figure is better, with the symmetrically placed crosspiece in the middle of the ‘H’ shape having length Obviously there are two such solutions.
Skin in the Game: Hidden Asymmetries in Daily Life by Nassim Nicholas Taleb
availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Brownian motion, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, David Graeber, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Edward Thorp, equity premium, financial independence, information asymmetry, invisible hand, knowledge economy, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, mental accounting, microbiome, moral hazard, Murray Gell-Mann, offshore financial centre, p-value, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, Ralph Nader, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, survivorship bias, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, urban planning, Yogi Berra
The designer (who either doesn’t ride trains or rides trains but doesn’t drink coffee while reading), thinking it is an aesthetic improvement, made the ledge slightly tilted, so it is impossible to put the cup on it. This explains the more severe problems of landscaping and architecture: architects today build to impress other architects, and we end up with strange—irreversible—structures that do not satisfy the well-being of their residents; it takes time and a lot of progressive tinkering for that. Or some specialist sitting in the ministry of urban planning who doesn’t live in the community will produce the equivalent of the tilted ledge—as an improvement, except at a much larger scale. Specialization, as I will keep insisting, comes with side effects, one of which is separating labor from the fruits of labor. Simplicity Now skin in the game brings simplicity—the disarming simplicity of things properly done. People who see complicated solutions do not have an incentive to implement simplified ones.
The IYI has a copy of the first hardback edition of The Black Swan on his shelf, but mistakes absence of evidence for evidence of absence. He believes that GMOs are “science,” that their “technology” is in the same risk class as conventional breeding. Typically, the IYI get first-order logic right, but not second-order (or higher) effects, making him totally incompetent in complex domains. The IYI has been wrong, historically, about Stalinism, Maoism, GMOs, Iraq, Libya, Syria, lobotomies, urban planning, low carbohydrate diets, gym machines, behaviorism, trans-fats, Freudianism, portfolio theory, linear regression, HFCS (High-Fructose Corn Syrup), Gaussianism, Salafism, dynamic stochastic equilibrium modeling, housing projects, marathon running, selfish genes, election-forecasting models, Bernie Madoff (pre-blowup), and p-values. But he is still convinced that his current position is right.fn1 NEVER GOTTEN DRUNK WITH RUSSIANS The IYI joins a club to get travel privileges; if he is a social scientist, he uses statistics without knowing how they are derived (like Steven Pinker and psycholophasters in general); when in the United Kingdom, he goes to literary festivals and eats cucumber sandwiches, taking small bites at a time; he drinks red wine with steak (never white); he used to believe that dietary fat was harmful and has now completely reversed himself (information in both cases is derived from the same source); he takes statins because his doctor told him to do so; he fails to understand ergodicity, and, when explained to him, he forgets about it soon after; he doesn’t use Yiddish words even when talking business; he studies grammar before speaking a language; he has a cousin who worked with someone who knows the Queen; he has never read Frédéric Dard, Libanius Antiochus, Michael Oakeshott, John Gray, Ammianus Marcellinus, Ibn Battuta, Saadia Gaon, or Joseph de Maistre; he has never gotten drunk with Russians; he never drinks to the point where he starts breaking glasses (or, preferably, chairs); he doesn’t even know the difference between Hecate and Hecuba (which in Brooklynese is “can’t tell sh**t from shinola”); he doesn’t know that there is no difference between “pseudointellectual” and “intellectual” in the absence of skin in the game; he has mentioned quantum mechanics at least twice in the past five years in conversations that had nothing to do with physics.
Barcelona by Damien Simonis
Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, haute couture, haute cuisine, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, land reform, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, sustainable-tourism, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl
Return to beginning of chapter BACKGROUND * * * HISTORY SIGNS FROM THE DISTANT PAST ROMANS, VISIGOTHS & ISLAM A HAIRY BEGINNING THE COMTES DE BARCELONA MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE? MEDITERRANEAN EMPIRE THE RISE OF PARLIAMENT DECLINE & CASTILIAN DOMINATION WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION A NEW BOOM BARCELONA REBORN MAYHEM THE CIVIL WAR FROM FRANCO TO PUJOL A LEFTWARD LURCH & TUNNEL VISION ARTS ARCHITECTURE PAINTING & SCULPTURE LITERATURE MUSIC CINEMA THEATRE DANCE ENVIRONMENT & PLANNING THE LAND GREEN BARCELONA URBAN PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENT & POLITICS MEDIA FASHION LANGUAGE TIMELINNE * * * Return to beginning of chapter HISTORY SIGNS FROM THE DISTANT PAST The area around present-day Barcelona was certainly inhabited prior to the arrival of the Romans in Catalonia in 218 BC. By whom, and whether or not there was an urban nucleus, is open to debate. Pre-Roman coins found in the area suggest the Iberian Laietani tribe may have settled here.
In 2008 the town hall announced plans to limit further construction and, in some cases, to tear down existing, illegal residences. That said, the same town hall enthusiastically backed the construction of a giant roller coaster in the Parc d’Atraccions, to the consternation of some neighbours. About 35% of the trees that line Barcelona’s streets and parks are plane trees. Others include acacias and nettle trees. Return to beginning of chapter URBAN PLANNING & DEVELOPMENT The eminent British architect and town planner, Lord Richard Rogers, declared in 2000 that Barcelona was ‘perhaps the most successful city in the world in terms of urban regeneration’. That process, which got under way in earnest with the 1992 Olympic Games, thunders ahead. No sooner is one area given a new look, than another becomes the subject of modernisation. Development continues at the mini-Manhattan that is the Diagonal Mar project on the northeast stretch of coast.
Long shunned as a place to live, its warehouse lofts and big apartments have increasingly attracted homebuyers’ attention since the late 1990s. Crowds flock to the nearby beaches that stretch northeast of Port Olímpic. The strands peter out in El Fòrum, a residential, business and pleasure district where skyscrapers sprouted out of nothing in the first years of the 21st century. The last time Barcelona went on such an urban-planning drive was towards the end of the 19th century, with the creation of L’Eixample. Its Modernista treasures, from La Pedrera to La Sagrada Família, attract hordes of visitors to its gridded streets, which also hide countless gems for foodies, drinkers and shoppers. L’Eixample filled the gap between Barcelona, Gràcia and Park Güell. Originally a separate town, with its sinuous, narrow lanes and web of lively squares, Gràcia retains an atmosphere utterly its own, with Park Güell a Gaudí fantasy to its north.
Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton
clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal
Copper, “The Economic Life of the City in Relation to Street Traffic,” AERA 14 (Sept. 1925), 193–200. Copper was director of research for the Los Angeles Railway and takes the street railways’ point of view. 52. Munn v. Illinois (1877); Chief Justice Morrison Waite was quoting Lord Chief Justice Hale, De Portibus Maris (c. 1670, first published 1776). 53. See Keith Revell, “Beyond Efficiency: Experts, Urban Planning, and Civic Culture in New York City, 1898–1933” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, Jan. 1994), chapter 6 (300–377). For a convenient abridgment, see Revell, Building Gotham: Civic Culture and Public Policy in New York City, 1898–1938 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), chapter 5 (185–226). 54. See especially Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (Hill and Wang, 1967); Alfred D.
It is distinct from planning, which shapes ends as well as means. By “negative regulation” I mean regulation that checks individual abuses but leaves social goals and the means of reaching them to “natural law,” leaving the state in the role of umpire. 57. See Robert M. Fogelson, Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880–1950 (Yale University Press, 2001), esp. chapter 3 (112–182); Keith Revell, “Beyond Efficiency: Experts, Urban Planning, and Civic Culture in New York City, 1898–1933” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, Jan. 1994), chapter 6 (300–377). Notes to Chapter 4 311 58. Lord Chief Justice Hale introduced the idea of the “public interest” in De Portibus Maris (c. 1670, first published 1776). See also Ford P. Hall, The Concept of a Business Affected with a Public Interest (Principia, 1940), Walton H. Hamilton, “Affectation with a Public Interest,” Yale Law Journal 39 (June 1930), 1089–1112, and Breck P.
See Foster, From Streetcar to Superhighway: American City Planners and Urban Transportation, 1900–1940 (Temple University Press, 1981); Fairfield, The Mysteries of the Great City: The Politics of Urban Design, 1877–1937 (Ohio State University Press, 1993), chapter 4 (119–157); Fairfield, “The Scientific Management of Urban Space: Professional City Planning and the Legacy of Progressive Reform,” Journal of Urban History 20 (Feb. 1994), 179–204. 17. See esp. Fairfield, Mysteries of the Great City, chapter 4 (119–157); Keith Revell, “Beyond Efficiency: Experts, Urban Planning, and Civic Culture in New York City, 1898–1933” (dissertation, University of Virginia, 1994), chapter 5 (235–299); and Revell, Building Gotham: Civic Culture and Public Policy in New York City, 1898–1938 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 185–226. 18. Charles B. Ball, Chicago City Club Bulletin; reprinted as “Why Zoning Pays” in American City 26 (March 1922), 279. 320 Notes to Chapter 5 19.
Capitalism Without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy by Jonathan Haskel, Stian Westlake
"Robert Solow", 23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, future of work, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mother of all demos, Network effects, new economy, open economy, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, place-making, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, quantitative hedge fund, rent-seeking, revision control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Vanguard fund, walkable city, X Prize, zero-sum game
Good public policy should be just as assiduous about creating the conditions for knowledge to spread, mingle, and fructify as it is about creating property rights for those who invest in intangibles. Despite frequent predictions that the Internet will lead to the death of distance, for the time being the spillovers between intangibles happen in specific places where people congregate, especially in cities. This makes good urban planning and land-use policies extremely important. There is of course a vast literature on what constitutes good policy for cities, but in the context of intangibles, there are two important principles. On the one hand, city rules should not make it hard to build new workplaces and housing. Cities should have freedom to grow to make the most of the ever-increasing synergies arising from intangibles.
Firms using intangibles become more authoritarian; those generating intangibles will need more leadership; financial investors will have to find information well beyond the current financial statements that purport to describe current businesses. 6. The shift also changes the public policy agenda. Policymakers will need to focus on facilitating knowledge infrastructure—such as education, Internet and communications technology, urban planning, and public science spending—and on clarifying IP regulation but not necessarily strengthening it. It is worth reviewing in what respect these points are controversial—and where the balance of proof lies. The first point, that there has been a shift from tangible to intangible spending, is relatively widely accepted. The most controversy surrounds how to measure investment in business processes, which is intrinsically very hard, but even if we entirely disregard these types of intangibles, the increasing relative importance of intangible investment still holds.
The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida
affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional
(“There’s Basically No Way Not to Be a Gentrifier,” is how one 2014 article put it.4) Longtime residents have a strong sense of attachment to the places in which they live; even if they’re not forced to leave, they are understandably upset when newcomers who are very different and much more well-to-do change their neighborhood in ways that make it feel unfamiliar. We all care deeply about where we live and want others to respect our right to be there. When they do not, anger and anxiety mount, and tensions flare. Yet a number of experts who have researched the subject see the standard complaints about gentrification as overblown and inaccurate. Lance Freeman, an urban planning professor at Columbia University who has studied the gentrification of Harlem and other New York neighborhoods extensively, thinks that the concern over the direct displacement of poor residents by wealthy gentrifiers is based more on myth than reality. Douglas Massey, a sociologist at Princeton University and a leading expert on racial and economic segregation, argues that gentrification is a proverbial “drop in the bucket” compared to the broader movement of people into and out of cities.
Data on Ferguson are from Elizabeth Kneebone, “Ferguson, MO, Emblematic of Growing Suburban Poverty,” Brookings Institution, August 15, 2014, www.brookings.edu/blogs/the-avenue/posts/2014/08/15-ferguson-suburban-poverty; James Russell, “Ferguson and Failing Suburbs,” Jamessrussell.net, August 17, 2015, http://jamessrussell.net/ferguson-and-failing-suburbs; Stephen Bronars, “Half of Ferguson’s Young African-American Men Are Missing,” Forbes, March 18, 2015, www.forbes.com/sites/modeledbehavior/2015/03/18/half-of-fergusons-young-african-american-men-are-missing. 13. On the connection between commuting time and economic mobility, see Reid Ewing, Shima Hamidi, James B. Grace, and Yehua Dennis Wei, “Does Urban Sprawl Hold Down Upward Mobility?” Landscape and Urban Planning 148 (April 2016): 80–88. 14. On the delivery of local services to the suburbs, see Arthur Nelson as cited in Leigh Gallagher, The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving (New York: Portfolio Penguin, 2013). For the UCLA study, by the California Center for Sustainable Communities, see Laura Bliss, “L.A.’s New ‘Energy Atlas’ Maps: Who Sucks the Most Off the Grid,” CityLab, October 6, 2015, www.citylab.com/housing/2015/10/las-new-energy-atlas-maps-who-sucks-the-most-off-the-grid/409135.
There Is No Planet B: A Handbook for the Make or Break Years by Mike Berners-Lee
air freight, autonomous vehicles, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, food miles, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Hans Rosling, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, neoliberal agenda, off grid, performance metric, profit motive, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban planning
32, 147–48, 227 big picture perspective 186, 191, 195–97 biodiversity 44, 53–54, 101–3, 102–3, 103–4, 214 big picture perspective 195–96 pressure on land 78–79, 91 Bioregional, One Planet Living 160–62, 162 boats/shipping 114–16, 235–36 Brazil 69–70, 70 278 Brexit 214 Buddhism 193, 208 bullshit 179, 214; see also fake news; truth Burning Question (Berners-Lee and Clark) 4, 92, 215 business as usual 8, 128, 204 businesses 158, 215 environmental strategies 163–64 fossil fuel companies 223 perspectives/vision 159 role in wealth distribution 138–39 science-based targets 164–66 systems approaches 159–62, 161–62 technological changes 166–68 useful/beneﬁcial organisations 158–59 values 159, 174 see also food retailers call centres, negative effect of performance metrics 125–26 caloriﬁc needs 12, 242–43 carbohydrates, carbon footprint 23–25, 25 carbon budgets 51–52, 88, 146, 169–70, 201–2, 204–5 carbon capture and storage (CCS) 91–92, 141, 211, 215 carbon dioxide emissions, exponential growth 202–4, 203, 220; see also greenhouse gas emissions carbon footprints agriculture 22–25, 23, 29–30 carbohydrates 25 local food/food miles 30–32 population growth 149 protein 24 sea travel 114–16 vegetarianism/veganism 27 INDEX carbon pricing 145–47, 209–10 carbon scrubbing 211, 216 carbon taxes 142–43 CCS see carbon capture and storage celebrities 182 change, embracing see openmindedness chicken farms 25–26 Chilean seabass (Patagonian toothﬁsh) 33–34 China 216 global distribution of fossil fuel reserves 89–90 sunlight/radiant energy 69–70, 70 choice//being in control 266 cities, urban planning and transport 104–6 citizen’s wages 136–39, 153–54 Clark, Duncan: Burning Question (with Berners-Lee) 4, 92, 215 climate change 3–4, 51, 55, 216 big picture perspective 195 biodiversity impacts 53–54 evidence against using fossil fuels 64–66 ocean acidiﬁcation 54–55 plastics production/pollution 55–58, 56–57 rebound effects 52, 128, 165–66, 206–7, 206 science-based targets 164–66 scientiﬁc facts 51–53, 200–11, 203, 206 systems approaches 159–62, 161 values 169–70 coal 216; see also fossil fuels comfort breaks, performance metrics 125–27 Common Cause report (Crompton) 129 community service 174 Index commuting 217; see also travel and transport companies see businesses competence 266 complexity 189, 191, 221; see also simplistic thinking consumption/consumerism 217 ethical 147–48, 168 personal actions 174–75 risks of further growth 121 values 173 corporate responsibility 219; see also businesses critical realism 176 critical thinking skills 188–89, 191 Crompton, Tom (Common Cause report) 129 cruises 115–16 cultural norms big picture perspective 197 values 171–72 cultures of truth 177–79 cumulative carbon budgets 51, 201–2 cycling 4–5, 99–102, 116, 217 dairy industry 230–31; see also animal sources of food democracy 141, 218, 240–41; see also voting denial 198, 227 Denmark, wealth distribution 130–35 Desai, Pooran 161–62 desalination plants, energy use 94 determinism 95, 218 developed countries 218–19 energy use 93 food waste 13, 39–40, 241 diesel vehicles 107–9, 109 diet, sustainable 219; see also vegetarianism/veganism 279 digital information storage, and energy efﬁciency 84–85 direct air capture, carbon dioxide 211, 216 distance, units of 243 double-sided photocopying metaphor 219 driverless cars 109–10 e-transport e-bikes 101–2, 116 e-boats 115 e-cars 101–2, 106, 220 e-planes 111 investment 141 economic growth 119, 219 big picture perspective 196–97 carbon pricing 145–47 carbon taxes 142–43 consumer power through spending practices 147–48 GDP as inadequate metric 123–24, 126–27 investment 140–42 market forces 127–30 need for new metric of healthy growth 124–27 risks and beneﬁts of growth 120–23, 121 trickledown of wealth 130–31, 130 wealth distribution 130–35, 131–40, 132, 134 education 173–74, 219 efﬁciency 219–20 digital information storage 84–85 energy use 82–85 investment 141 limitations of electricity 73–86, 85–87 meat eating/animal feed 212–13 rebound effects 84, 207 280 electric vehicles see e-transport electricity, limitations of use 73–86, 85–87; see also renewable energy sources empathy 172, 186–87, 191 employment see work/employment enablement, businesses 163–64 energy in a gas analogy of wealth distribution 136–39 energy use 59, 87, 95–96 current usage 59–60 efﬁciency 82–85 fracking 79–81, 81 growth rates over time see below inequality 60, 90–91, 131 interstellar travel 117–18 limitations of electricity 73–86, 85–87 limits to growth 67–69, 68, 94–95, 208 nuclear ﬁssion 75–77 nuclear fusion 77 personal actions and effects 97 risks of further growth 120–21 sources 63–64 supplied by food 12 UK energy by end use 62, 62 units of 242–43 values 169–70 see also fossil fuels; renewable energy sources energy use growth 1–2, 60–62, 61, 220 and energy efﬁciency 84 future estimates 93–94 limits to growth 67–69, 68, 94–95 and renewables 81–82 enhanced rock weathering 92 enoughness 221; see also limits to growth environmental strategies, businesses 163–64 science-based targets 164–66 INDEX ethical consumerism 147–48, 168 ethics see values evolutionary rebalancing 6, 221 expert opinion 221 exponential growth 120, 121, 149, 202–4, 220–21 extrinsic motivation and values 143–44, 170–73 facts 222 climate change 51–53, 200–11, 203, 206 meaning of 175–76 media roles in promoting 179–80 see also misinformation; truth fake news 170, 175, 222; see also misinformation farming see food and agriculture fast food 238 feedback mechanisms 272; see also rebound effects ﬁsh farming 33 ﬁshing industry 32–36, 222–23 ﬂat lining blip, carbon dioxide emissions 203–4, 220 ﬂexibility see open-mindedness ﬂying see air travel food and agriculture 11, 50, 222–23 animal farming 16–21, 29 biofuels 44 carbon footprints 22–25, 23–25, 27 chicken farming 25–26 employment in agriculture 44–45, 222 feeding growing populations 46–47 ﬁsh 32–36 global surplus in comparison to needs 12, 13 human caloriﬁc needs 12 investment in sustainability 48–50, 141 Index malnutrition and inequalities of distribution 15–16 overeating/obesity 16 personal actions 30, 34–35, 40, 43, 50 research needs 49 rice farming 29–30 soya bean farming 21, 22 supply chains 48 technology in agriculture 45–46 vegetarianism/veganism 26–29 see also waste food food imports, and population growth 150 food markets 130–31 food miles 30–32, 230 food retailers ﬁsh 35–36 food wastage 40–42 rice 30 vegetarianism/veganism 28 fossil fuel companies 223 fossil fuels 63–64, 216, 223 carbon pricing 145–47, 209–10 carbon taxes 142–43 evidence against using 64–66 global deals 87–91, 161, 205–6, 208–9 global distribution of reserves 89, 89–90 limitations of using electricity instead 73–86, 85–87 need to leave in the ground 87–91, 161, 205–6, 208–9, 223 sea travel 115 using renewables instead of or as well as 81–82 fracking 79–81, 81, 224 free markets 127–30, 172, 228 free will 95, 167 frog in a pan of water analogy 236, 241 fun 224 281 fundamentalism 176, 192 future scenarios aims and visions 8–9 climate change lag times 204–5 energy use 93–94 planning ahead 204–5 thinking/caring about 187, 191, 229 travel and transport 100–1, 109–10 gambling industry 139–40, 152, 265 gas analogy of wealth distribution 136–39 gas (natural gas) 224; see also fracking; methane GDP big picture perspective 196–97 as inappropriate metric of healthy growth 123–24, 126–27 risks of further growth 121–22 genetic modiﬁcation 45–46 genuineness 172 geo engineering solutions 224–25 Germany, tax system 145 Gini coefﬁcient of income inequality 144 global cultural norms 171–72, 197 global deals 163 fossil fuels 87–91, 208–10 inequity 210 global distribution, fossil fuels 89–91, 89 global distribution, solar energy 69–71, 70, 89 global distribution, wind energy 74, 74 global food surplus 12, 13 global governance 127–30, 141, 225 global solutions, big picture perspective 196 global systems 5–6, 186, 225 global temperature increases 200–1 282 global thinking skills 186 global travel, by mode of transport 100 global wealth distribution 130–35, 132, 132, 134, 144, 145 governmental roles big picture perspective 196 climate change policies 51–53, 200–11 energy use policies 59, 97 ﬁshing industry 36 promoting culture of truth 178–80 sustainable farming 29, 45 technological changes 168 wealth distribution 138 see also global governance greed 225–26; see also individualism greenhouse gas emissions 209 exponential growth curves 202–4, 203, 220 food and agriculture 23 market forces 128 measurement 127 mitigation of food waste 42, 43, 43 risks of further growth 120 scientiﬁc facts 51–53 units 243 see also carbon dioxide; carbon footprints; methane; nitrogen dioxide greenwash 215, 226 growth 226; see also economic growth; energy use growth; exponential growth hair shirts 212, 224, 226–27 Handy, Charles 236 Happy Planet Index 126 Hardy, Lew 143 Hawking , Stephen 2, 166–67 Hong Kong, population growth 149–50 INDEX How Bad Are Bananas?
(Berners-Lee) 32, 147–48, 227 hydrocarbons/hydrogen 72 hydroelectric power 75 hydro storage 72 ice 228 ICT (information and communication technology), impacts 84–85, 113–14 imperial units 242–44 income tax see tax system India, global distribution of fossil fuel reserves 89–90 individual actions see personal actions and effects individualism 119, 225–26, 228 indoor farming 45–46, 67–68 inequality 228 and citizen’s wage 154 energy use 60, 90–91, 131 food distribution 15–16 global deals 210 population growth 150–51 prisons/prisoners 156 tax system 142–45, 144 trickledown of wealth 130–31, 130 and values 169–71 wealth distribution 130–35, 131–40, 132, 134 insecurity 172–73 interdependencies, global/societal 189–90 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 229 interstellar travel, impracticality of 117–18, 195, 237 interventionist economies 127–30 intrinsic motivation and values 143–44, 170–73 investment 140–42, 228–29 renewable energy sources 73, 87 sustainable farming 48–50 Index iodine, malnutrition 15 IPCC see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Iraq, global distribution of fossil fuel reserves 89–90 Ireland, tax system 145 iron animal sources of food 19–20 malnutrition and inequalities of distribution 15 irrigation technology 45–46 Italy, wealth distribution 130–35, 133 Japan nuclear energy 76 sunlight/radiant energy 70, 70–71 Jevons paradox, energy efﬁciency 82–83 jobs see work/employment joined up perspectives 189–92, 221 journalists see media roles Kennedy, Bobby: speech on GNP 124 Keys to Performance (O’Connor) 180 kids 6–8, 187, 191, 229 kilocalories 12, 242–43 kinetic energy in a gas analogy 136–39 laboratory grown meat 45–46, 67–68 lag times, climate change 204–5 land requirements, sustainable travel 101–3, 102–3, 103–4 leadership 229–30 life expectancy, beneﬁts of growth 123 life-minutes per person lost, diesel vehicles 109 lifestyles 4–5; see also personal actions and effects 283 limits to growth 221 big picture perspective 195 energy use 67–69, 68, 94–95, 208 21st century thinking skills 187–88 and values 170 local activities, appreciation of 123, 187–88, 191 local food, pros and cons 30–32, 230 luxury cruises 115–16 Maldives 210, 230 malnutrition 15–16 Marine Stewardship Council 33 market economies 127–30 materialistic values 174; see also consumption/consumerism maturity, need for 93, 121 Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution 136–38, 230, 265 measurement see metrics meat eating see animal sources of food media roles 231 promoting culture of truth 179–80 trust 182 messages, societal 172–74; see also values methane 79–81, 208–9, 231 metric units 242–44 metrics healthy economic growth 124–27 prisons/prisoners 156 and values 174 work/employment 151 micro-nutrients animal sources of food 19–20 malnutrition 15 Microsoft, carbon pricing scheme 147 mindfulness 174–75, 191, 193 284 misinformation 222 and trust 182, 184 and truth 175 and values 170 mitigation strategies, businesses 163–64 models, climate change 200–1, 204–5 molecular analogy of wealth distribution 136–39 Monbiot, George 236 motivation extrinsic/intrinsic 143–44, 172–73 and trust 181, 184 Musk, Elon 167 natural gas 224; see also fracking; methane neoliberalism 45, 129, 131, 172, 228, 232; see also free market Netherlands 70, 70–71, 149–50 neuroscience 232 nitrogen dioxide 108, 208–9 Norway 130–35, 138, 155–56 nuclear fusion 77, 232 nuclear power (fusion) 75–77, 231–32 obesity 16 ocean acidiﬁcation 54–55, 232 O’Connor, Tim: Keys to Performance 180 oil 233; see also fossil fuels One Planet principles 160–62, 162 open-mindedness neuroscience 232 respect for 180 spirituality/belief systems 192 and trust 181–82, 184 optimism bias 233 over-simpliﬁcation 182; see also complexity overeating 16 INDEX parental responsibility 233 Paris climate agreement 165–66 particulate air pollution 107–9 Patagonian Toothﬁsh 33–34 pay rates 173; see also wealth distribution personal actions and effects 198–99, 233–34 air travel 112–13 antibiotics resistance 21 climate change 55 energy 97 feelings of insigniﬁcance in global systems 5–6 food/agricultural issues 30, 34–35, 40, 43, 50 population growth 150–51 promoting culture of truth 178–79 technological changes 168 values 174–75 wealth distribution 139 work/employment 153 ‘personal truths’ 176–77 perspectives big picture 186, 191, 195–97 businesses 159 joined up 189–92, 221 photocopying metaphor 219 photovoltaic technology 63–64, 66–67; see also solar energy physical growth mind-set 120 Planet B, lack of 117–18, 195, 237 planned economies 127–30 planning ahead, future scenarios 204–5 planning, urban 104 plastics 55–58, 56–57, 234 politicians see governmental roles; voting pollution, chicken farming 25–26; see also air pollution Index population growth 149–50, 234 feeding growing populations 46–47 investment in control measures 141, 150–51 personal actions and effects 150–51 risks of further growth 122 positive feedback mechanisms, climate change 200–1, 239 power, units of 242–43 prisons/prisoners 154–57, 157, 174, 234 problem-solving methods 5 proﬁt-motive 159, 174 protein animal sources 17–18, 18 carbon footprints 23–25, 24 psychology 227–28 public service 174 questions and answers, reader contributions 194 reader contributions 9–10, 194 ready meals 238 rebalancing, evolutionary 6, 221 rebound effects 213, 235, 272 business strategies 163 climate change 52, 128, 165–66, 206–7, 206 energy efﬁciency 84, 207 virtual meetings 113–14 reductionism 189–90, 193 refugees 234–35 relatedness/belonging 266 religion 192–93 renewable energy sources 64, 208, 235 hydroelectric power 75 investment 141 limitations relative to fossil fuels 73–86, 85–87 285 using instead of/as well as fossil fuels 81–82 wind energy 73–74 see also biofuels; carbon capture and storage; solar energy respect 171, 180, 197 responsibility corporate 219 parents 233 super-rich 134–35 restaurants role food wastage 40 vegetarianism/veganism 28 retailing, food see food retailers revenge, prisoners 155–56 rice farming 29–30, 45–46, 235 rock weathering, carbon capture and storage 92 Rogers, Carl 172 Russia 210, 235 global distribution of fossil fuel reserves 89–90 sunlight/radiant energy 69–70, 70 Rwanda 70, 70–71, 172 salaries 173; see also wealth distribution Science Based Targets Initiative (SBTi) 164–66 scientiﬁc facts see facts scientiﬁc fundamentalism 176 scientiﬁc reductionism 189–90, 193 seabass, rebadging Patagonian toothﬁsh as 33–34 sea travel 114–16, 235–36 self-awareness of simple/small/local 123, 187–88, 191 and trust 181, 184 self-reﬂection, 21st century thinking skills 188 286 sentient animals, treating decently 11, 17 shared-use vehicles 105–6 shareholder proﬁts 159, 174 sharing 146 shifting baseline syndrome 236 shipping 114–16, 235–36 shock 236 simple things, appreciation of 123, 187–88, 191 simplistic thinking 182; see also complexity slavery and citizen’s wage 154 and employment 151 ﬁshing industry 32, 34–35 slowing down 187–88, 196 small scale, appreciation of 123, 187–88, 191 Smith, Adam: The Wealth of Nations 129 social support structures, and values 173–74 solar energy 236 amount falling on earth 66 coping with intermittent sunlight 71–73 countries with highest radiant energy 69–71 countries with least radiant energy 70–71 relative to fossil fuel reserves 89 global distribution of radiant energy 69–71, 70 harnessing 66–67 South Korea, sunlight/radiant energy 70, 70–71 soya beans 21, 22, 236–37 space tourism 94, 100 spaceﬂight, impracticality of interstellar travel 117–18, 195, 237 INDEX Spain, wealth distribution 130–35, 133 spending practices, ethical consumerism 147–48, 168 spirituality/belief systems 192–93, 237 status symbols 173 sticking plasters (band aids) 237–38 storage of renewable energy 71–73 sunlight see solar energy supermarkets see food retailers super-rich responsibilities 134–35 taxation 145 wealth distribution 137 supply chains ethical consumerism 147–48 food and agriculture 48 science-based targets 165–66 systems approaches big picture perspective 196 businesses 159–62, 161 One Planet Living principles 160–62, 162 Taiwan, tax system 145 takeaways 238 tax system 238 carbon taxes 142–43 wealth distribution 138, 142–45 technological changes 239 agricultural 45–46 big picture perspective 195–96 business strategies 166–68 and economic growth 122–23 thinking skills big picture perspective 197 twenty-ﬁrst century 185–92, 190–91 tipping points see trigger points town planning 104 transmission of renewable energy 73 Index travel and transport 99 air travel 110–14 autonomous cars 109–10 commuting 217 current rates 99–100, 100 cycling 116 diesel vehicles 107–9, 109 e-cars 106 food miles 30–32 future demands 100–1, 109–10 land needed for sustainable 101–3, 102–3, 103–4 sea travel 114–16 shared-use vehicles 105–6 spaceﬂight 117–18 urban 104–6 trickledown of wealth 130–31, 130, 239 trigger points, step changes in climate 2, 200–2 trust 180–84 truth 175–76, 239 big picture perspective 197 importance of seeking 177 media roles 179–80 ‘personal truths’ 176–77 promoting culture of 177–79 respect for 171 and trust 180–84 tsunami, December 2004 2 twenty-ﬁrst century thinking skills 185–92, 190–91, 197 2-degree ‘safe limit’ for temperature rise 52, 200–1, 204–5, 239 unconditional positive regard 172 United Kingdom energy by end use 62, 62 gambling industry 139–40 nuclear energy 76 population growth 149–50 prisons/prisoners 155 287 sunlight/radiant energy 70, 70–71 wealth distribution 136–37 United States global distribution of fossil fuel reserves 89–90 prisons/prisoners 155–56 sunlight/radiant energy 69–70, 70 tax system 145 wealth distribution 130–35, 132–35 units, metric/imperial 242–44 urban planning 104 urban transport 104–6 value of human life 240 values 6–8, 169 big picture perspective 197 businesses 159, 174 changing for the better 172–75 and economics 119 evidence base for values choices 169–71 extrinsic/intrinsic 170–73 global cultural norms 171–72, 197 prisons/prisoners 156 technological changes 168 wealth distribution 132–33 work/employment 152–53 see also ethical consumerism vegetarianism/veganism 26–29 Venezuela, global distribution of fossil fuels 89–90 violent deaths 240 virtual travel 113–14 visions of future 8–9 businesses 159 vitamin A 15, 19–20, 247 voting, power of 240–41 climate change policies 51–53, 200–11 288 voting, power of (cont.) energy policies 59, 97 promoting culture of truth 178–80 see also democracy waking up 241 Wallis, Stewart 145 waste food 36–43, 241 mitigation 42–44, 43, 43 as proportion of food grown 12–15, 14 by region/type/processing stage 37, 38–39, 39 water use technology, in agriculture 45–46 watts 12, 242–43 wealth distribution economics 130–35, 131–40, 132, 134 tax system 138, 142–45, 144 see also inequality The Wealth of Nations (Smith) 129 INDEX weapons industry 152 weight, units of 244 wellbeing 241 beneﬁts of growth 123 businesses, role of 158–59 and citizen’s wage 154 metrics of healthy growth 126 work/employment 151–52 Wellbeing Economy 267 wind energy 73–74 wisdom, need for 93, 121 work/employment 229 agricultural work 44–45, 222 and citizen’s wage 153–54 investment in sustainability 49–50 personal actions and effects 153 useful/beneﬁcial 151–52 values 152–53 zinc 15, 19–20
Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson
Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, starchitect, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning
The Letters of Gertrude Bell, vol. 2 (1927). http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks04/0400461h.html 22 Bernhardsson, 105. 23 Ibid. 108. 24 Jean-Claude Maurice, Si vous le répétez, je démentirai: Chirac, Sarkozy, Vilepin (Paris, 2009). 25 Daniel Brook, ‘The Architect of 9/11’, Slate, September 10 2009. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2009/the_architect_of_911/what_can_we_learn_about_mohamed_atta_from_his_work_as_a_student_of_urban_planning.html Chapter 2: The Golden House 1 Wolfgang Kayser, The Grotesque in Art and Literature (Bloomington, IN, 1963) 20. 2 Suetonius, vol. 2, trans. J.C. Rolfe (Cambridge, MA, 1914). http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Nero*.html 3 Tacitus, The Annals, trans. Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb (New York, 1942). http://classics.mit.edu/Tacitus/annals.mb.txt 4 Ibid.# 5 Gustave Flaubert, La danse des morts (1838), 171. 6 The existence of these objects is disputed by mainstream historians. 7 Nikolaus Pevsner, Outline of European Architecture (London, 1962), 411. 8 Edward Champlin, Nero (Cambridge, MA, 2003), 200. 9 Epistle XC.
Michael Jennings, Howard Eiland and Gary Smith (Cambridge, MA, 2004–6) Berman, Marshall, All That is Solid Melts Into Air (New York, 1987) Bernhardsson, Magnus, Reclaiming a Plundered Past: Archaeology and Nation Building in Modern Iraq (Austin, TX, 2005) Bevan, Robert, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War (London, 2006) Brook, Daniel, ‘The Architect of 9/11’, Slate, September 10 2009, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2009/the_architect_of_911/what_can_we_learn_about_mohamed_atta_from_his_work_as_a_student_of_urban_planning.html Bucci, Federico, Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford (Princeton, 1993) Burgess, Rod, ‘Self-Help Housing Advocacy: A Curious Form of Radicalism’, in Self-Help Housing: A Critique, ed. Peter Ward (London, 1982) Carlson, Marvin, Places of Performance: The Semiotics of Theatre Architecture (Ithaca, NY, 1989) Carlyle, Thomas, The French Revolution (London, 1966 edition) Céline, Louis-Ferdinand, Voyage au bout de la nuit (Paris, 1962 edition) Champlin, Edward, Nero (Cambridge, MA, 2003) Chi, Xiao, The Chinese Garden as Lyric Enclave (Ann Arbor, MI, 2001) Clunas, Craig, Fruitful Sites: Garden Culture in Ming Dynasty China (London, 1996) Colomina, Beatriz, Privacy and Publicity (Cambridge, MA, 1994) Conrad, Joseph, Heart of Darkness (London, 1994 edition) Dacos, Nicole, The Loggia of Raphael: A Vatican Art Treasure (New York, 2008) Darling, Elizabeth, Re-Forming Britain: Narratives of Modernity Before Reconstruction (London, 2007) Davis, Mike, Planet of Slums (London, 2006) de La Grange, Henry-Louis, Gustav Mahler (Oxford, 1995–2008) Forty, Adrian, Words and Buildings (London, 2000) Foucault, Michel, Language, Counter-Memory, Practice, trans.
Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard
augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen
Perhaps for U.S. visitors the appearance of these streets conjures a vision of a simpler and happier time in the United States than in more recent years. But in addition to the historical associations that might be set into play by the sight of Main Street, there is an appealing order, scale, and structure to the street.6 Just as Koolhaas argues that Coney Island technology of the fantastic had an influence on serious urban planning in Manhattan, the design of Disney’s Main Street can also be said to have had an influence on town planning in the United States. This influence was made explicit in the Disney-designed town of Celebration in Florida, which employs similar principles to those perfected on the Main Street of the nearby theme park DisneyWorld. But unlike a theme park, which must always represent an escape from real life, Celebration was intended to function as an actual town.
There are also some perfectly sensible contextual and individual variables that can influence our feelings of personal risk. We are much more likely to be circumspect at night than we are during the daytime. Women and the elderly have lower thresholds for anxiety or avoidance, and this is perfectly in keeping with their greater vulnerability to threat. The gender difference in both perception of and vulnerability to risk is difficult to overemphasize and should be a key element of successful urban planning. In 1991, A Viennese survey found that the daily routes of men and women through the city was markedly disparate: men tended to drive or take public transit twice a day, once on the way to work and once on the way home again, whereas women took varied routes related to childcare, household shopping, and a variety of other activities. In response, Vienna instituted a policy of “gender mainstreaming” designed to promote equal access and opportunity for both men and women in urban environments.16 Some elements of this policy—improvements in lighting and the design of walkways—were explicitly designed to address gender differences in both fear of crime and victimization.
The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
It was difficult, perhaps impossible, to see from afar, but in the daily interactions of neighborhood life—shopkeepers holding a spare key for the tenants upstairs, mothers keeping an eye on the gaggle of children playing in the alley—a web of social interactions grew organically. And beyond any seeming messiness, the familiarity that arose out of those interactions was the most effective salve for social isolation. Jacobs wasn’t arguing that any mass of people would develop a sense of community naturally; that, she contended, was the problem with bad urban planning. Certain structural elements were necessary, if not sufficient, to cultivate gemeinshaft. At the core, she argued, well-functioning cities needed to be divided organically into internally diverse districts of between eighty thousand and two hundred thousand people. “The chief function of a successful district,” she wrote, “is to mediate between the indispensable, but inherently politically powerless, street neighborhoods, and the inherently powerful city as a whole.”21 The success of each district hinged in turn on its capacity to embrace several axioms of vibrant urban life.
Jamaica, 180–81 shifts in, xii–xx, 75, 129, 134–35, 143–44, 146, 151, 194, 211, 212–13, 217, 247n social brain hypothesis, 91–92 social capital, 98–112, 114, 170, 173 Putnam’s use of term, 115 removed from middle rings, 113–26, 129, 138–39, 143, 145, 148, 189–90, 208, 213, 239 social character, 4–8, 12 social diversity, 79, 81, 86, 232 Chinatown Bus effect and, 38–41, 43–44, 46–48 social ethic, 5 social gaming, 121–22 social mobility, 21–24, 26 social networking, 18, 37–38, 115, 125, 209 Chinatown Bus effect and, 38, 45 social networks, 48, 109–10, 144, 195, 237 brain size and, 91–92 social safety net, xviii, xix, 198, 200–205, 209–10, 227, 234 Social Security, xv, 198, 230 social structure, 11, 92–98 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 109 Soviet Union, 6, 51, 52, 233 Spanish-American War, 188 special interests, 183, 186, 187, 229 spirituality, 71–72, 74 sports, 8–12, 108 Srivastava, Sameer, 119–20 Stand by Me (film), 123–24, 126 statistics, 7–11, 119 globalization and, 17–18 on organizations, 44–45 Stevenson, Adlai, 190 Stewart, Jon, 232 Stiglitz, Joseph, 22, 23 strangers, x, 11, 107, 134, 135, 142, 150, 188–89, 240 Strauss, Levi, 162–63 subcultural theory of urbanism, 87 suburbs, xiii, 3–5, 17, 39–40, 48, 50, 56, 83, 84, 129, 145, 147, 153 business in, 175–76 flight to, 56, 138 mobility and, 25, 104 success, 215–18, 224, 230 support clique, 96 Survivor (TV show), 64 Swinton, Ernest, 162 sympathy group, 96 teamwork (team chemistry), 9, 164, 165.11–12 Tea Party, 109–10, 182, 228, 230 technology, xi, xv, 8, 10, 25, 173–74, 195, 237 Chinatown Bus effect and, 35–38 First Wave and, 16 gerrymandering and, 183–84 information, see information technology merging of, 160, 162 mobile, 104, 260n Second Wave and, 16 Third Wave and, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21 telephone calls, xi, 7–8, 104, 123 television, 34–37, 54, 60, 148, 152 reality, 63–64 terrorism, 55–56, 227 That Used to Be Us (Friedman), 240 theory, decline of, 6–8 Thiel, Peter, 174 Thinking Fast and Slow (Kahneman), 13 Third Wave society, 16–32, 75, 89, 101, 105, 126, 171 Chinatown Bus effect and, 34–35, 40, 43, 44–45, 48 home life and, 17, 26–31 mobility and, 17, 21–26 This American Life (radio show), 180 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 66, 80, 81, 115, 139, 151, 187, 228, 234, 239, 258n township and, xiii, 80, 88, 127, 142, 176–77, 191, 247n To Dwell Among Friends (Fischer), 128–29 Toffler, Alvin, 14–17, 31–32, 88, 89 Toffler, Heidi, 14–17, 31–32, 88, 89 Tough, Paul, 216, 222 township, xiii, xviii, xix, 79–82, 88–89, 126, 142–49, 174, 176, 194, 195, 213, 217, 232–37, 239, 247n decline of, 127–32, 134–39, 153 durability of, 138, 144, 151, 152, 153 health care and, 201–2, 208, 209, 210 politics of, 189–90, 191 prejudice and, 146, 148 tribes, 93, 95, 96, 97 Truman, Harry, 65 trust, 165 community, 150–51 social, 98–99, 134–35, 173, 193 Turkle, Sherry, 111 Twitter, 45, 108, 110, 114, 143 Unwinding, The (Packer), 235 urbanism, xiii, 4–5, 16, 56, 83–88, 127–29, 222 depravity associated with, 83, 84, 87, 127–28 subcultural theory of, 87 urban planning, bad vs. good, 86 Uzzi, Brian, 165 vaccination, 51, 59, 157–59, 174, 265n “valuable inefficiency,” 168 variolation, 157, 158 video games, 120–22 villages, 92–95, 116, 127, 135, 144, 153, 213, 236 global, 16, 142–43 violence, 55–56, 61, 134 voluntary organizations, 80, 116–18, 130–31, 187, 201, 228, 239 Wachtel, Eleanor, 57 Wade, Dwyane, 8–9 wages, 11, 22, 55, 180 Warren, Rick, 72 Washington, D.C., 3, 19, 113, 188–89 Chinatown in, 33–35 lack of diversity in, 46 see also government, U.S.
Ecovillages: Lessons for Sustainable Community by Karen T. Litfin
active transport: walking or cycling, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative consumption, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, corporate social responsibility, glass ceiling, global village, hydraulic fracturing, megacity, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, publish or perish, Silicon Valley, the built environment, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, urban planning, Zipcar
Several members expressed a longing for a stronger sense of collective spirituality, but secularism prevailed – perhaps because it served as a lowest common denominator. I met Lara Morrison, an ecologist, a Christian and a self-described “mystic by nature,” in the LAEV permaculture courtyard. Lara graduated in the mid-seventies from the University of Washington, where I teach. Back then, UW had no environmental studies major so she designed her own by combining forestry, biology, geology, and urban planning. Definitely a woman ahead of her time. Today, environmental studies is UW’s fastest growing major. I asked Lara if there is a connection between her scientific training and her mysticism. She said yes. “For me, the universe is self-revealing. It’s a matter of listening to reality and attending to both our internal and external experience. Throughout history, people have done things like communicating with plants.
(Dr Ari) 28, 170 Arkin, Lois 30, 114–15, 143 art 8, 13, 58, 88, 119, 122, 138, 141, 183–4 Asia 12, 13, 15, 45, 71, 195 atheism 10, 150, 159, 162 atmosphere (Earth’s) 45, 113, 155, 169, 189 attunement 22, 128–9, 156 Auroville 10, 19, 27, 30–1, 38, 45–6, 63, 71, 88, 104, 114, 133, 137–40, 142, 150, 155, 177, 180–4 Auroville Village Action Group 181 Aurum earth-brick machine 46 Australia 13, 15, 26–7, 46, 53, 73, 181 Ba, Djibril (Jiby) 59, 72, 91 back-to-the-land 11, 22, 56 backyard 73, 97, 127, 189, 190, 205 backyard farm 97, 205 bacteria 29, 51, 60–1 Balde, Djibril 59 Bangladesh 107, 201 Barrel Cluster (Findhorn) 40 Bayer Corporation 199 beauty 25, 39, 47, 75, 78, 82, 89, 101, 108, 147, 163, 174–5, 205 bees 54, 74 belonging (sense of) 14, 30, 31, 136, 144, 146–8, 150, 152, 185 culture of 146–8, 152, 192 story of 185 Berlin 23, 64, 84, 86, 88, 177 Berry, Thomas 154–5 Berry, Wendell 170 Bible (New Testament) 163, 173 bicycle 1, 8, 27, 43, 63–7, 127, 192–4 Big Bang 154–5 bike trains 189 biodiversity 27, 71 see also wildlife biogeochemical cycles 201 biology 4, 25, 36, 51, 53, 57, 72, 135, 154, 159, 162, 163 birds 34, 73, 152, 155 Block, Peter 192 blocking (in consensus decision-making) 8, 41, 64–5, 117–19 Bokaer, Joan 54 Bott, Gabi 166 Brazil 13, 195 Brooks, Joss 181–3 Buddhism 28, 85, 149, 150, 151, 159, 162, 164, 165, 171, 177 building codes 40, 44, 53, 194 bus stop 24, 63, 131, 191 Business Alliance for Local Living Economies 89, 199 Caddy, Peter and Eileen 128, 156 Calera Creek Water Recycling Plant 194 California 6, 29, 43, 69, 74, 111–12, 166, 169, 194 car culture 27, 46, 62, 65–6, 145, 193 Camara, Lamin 90–1 Canada 197 capitalism 79, 88, 106, carbon dioxide 45, 71, 161 Caron, Paul 175–6 Carruba, Capra 16, 125 Catholicism 189 cell phones 70 cement 45, 116 charcoal 33, 72–3 Chennai 181–2 child-rearing practices 11, 17, 18, 24, 94, 111–12, 114, 116, 119, 133–8, 168, 191 children 8, 17, 21–2, 24, 30, 46, 66, 69, 85, 88, 94, 111, 114, 116, 119, 124–5, 127, 131–8, 140–1, 143–4, 147, 153, 163, 168, 180, 189, 193 absence of 30, 137 education of 23, 66, 88, 132, 140, 153, 163, 189 participation of in ecovillage culture 13, 134, 137, 143–5, 147 raised in ecovillages returning 116, 135–7 wellbeing of 24, 30, 46, 111–12, 116, 119, 127, 131, 147, 153 China 36, 59, 62–3, 193 choir 98, 138, 141, 145 Christian, Diana Leafe 113, 119, 206 Christianity (Christian) 149, 150, 151, 159, 162, 168, 185 circle of life 33–4, 74–7, 79, 109–11, 146, 148–9, 188, 202 circus 64, 88–9, 124 Cities for Climate Protection 194 citizenship 35, 49, 75, 92, 100, 122, 124, 136, 189, 202 City Repair 191 climate change 1, 5, 16, 34, 49, 50, 70, 75, 111, 130, 155, 161, 169, 172, 188, 190, 194, 195, 201, 204–5, 211 Club 99 (Sieben Linden) 43, 56–7, 70, 171 cogeneration 40, 49 co-housing 11, 21, 46–7, 93, 127, 207 Cold War 23, 88 collaborative consumption 34, 68–70, 92, 146 collective intelligence 175–9, 185 Colufifa 25–6, 31, 58–60, 66, 90–1, 105, 114, 120, 125, 150, 167–9, 196, 199 common house 17, 27, 43, 46, 50, 69, 70, 92–3, 97, 113, 127, 139, 143, 171 common property 69–70, 80, 92–4, 97, 191, 197, 199 Commoner, Barry 75 commons 191, 197, 199 see also common property commune 95–7, 127, 163 communication 18, 25, 78, 112, 119, 121–3, 125–8, 139, 147, 166, 174–5, 192, 201 communism 95, 106 community meals 70, 83, 162, 195 Community Sustainability Assessment 10, 132 Compassionate Listening 147, 192 complementary currency 99–103, 110 compost 5, 8–9, 32, 34, 54, 59, 128, 129, 137, 146–7, 207 composting toilet 15, 20, 41, 53, 61, 133, 147, 207 compressed-earth building 27–8, 46 conflict 11, 18, 106, 112, 114, 117–23, 137–8, 147, 150, 176, 205 conflict resolution 18, 106, 114, 137–8, 205 connection (sense of) 25, 69, 115, 123–4, 152, 155, 162–3, 166, 171 connectivity 185–6, 202–3 consensus 2, 6, 18, 20, 116–20, 125, 177, 180 consumerism 80, 97, 176 see also consumer society; overconsumption consumer society 15, 80, 92, 102 see also consumerism; overconsumption contraction and convergence 105 cooperative(s) 93, 100–2, 106, 191, 199 Copenhagen 133, 194 corporate lobbying 197–8 cottage industries 27, 87–8, 181–2 Council of Sustainable Settlements of the Americas (CASA) 200–1 courtyard 29, 46, 73, 84, 162 credito 100–3 crisis 3–4, 9, 11, 16, 18, 26, 36, 59, 108, 116, 120, 150, 153, 172, 176, 191, 203 ecological 1–5, 9, 11, 16, 150, 153, 172, 176 extinction 203 of meaning (existential) 150, 153 within ecovillages 18, 26, 108, 116–20 cult 115–16 currency (monetary) 12, 79–80, 98–103 da Silva, Arjuna 48 dairy 56, 83–4, 87 Damanhur 16, 18, 25, 30, 36–40, 42, 46, 57, 63, 87, 100–3, 115, 120, 122–5, 130, 133, 135–6, 150, 155, 157–60, 163, 171, 174, 177, 180, 183 Damanhur Crea 101 Dawson, Jonathan 11, 14, 68, 82, 124, 129, 130, 132 decision-making 17–18, 94, 116–17, 120, 135, 147, 177, 199 Dee, Bhavana 180–1 degrowth 196–7 democracy 66, 94, 106, 116, 117, 120, 177, 185, 188–9, 191, 193 Denmark 12, 22, 49, 92, 95, 97, 134, 197 dinosaurs 153, 155, 203–4 do-it-yourself politics 190 Dongtan (China) 193 downsizing 63, 105, 107, 197 drought-resistant plants 53 Duhm, Dieter 115–16 E2C2 30–5, 76, 80, 110, 151, 188, 191, 193, 195, 199, 203, 207 Earth community 76, 202 Earth System Governance 201 Earthaven 17. 20, 36, 38, 40, 43, 47–9, 53, 57–8, 77–8, 93, 100, 105, 108, 113–21, 129, 141, 150, 160, 165–6 Ecker, Achim 115 eco-home 42, 77, 108 ecological economics 196–7 ecological footprint 7, 21, 24, 26, 34–5, 43, 57, 68, 70, 73, 171, 183 ecology (defined) 34–5 eco-neighborhood 201 see also neighborhoods, sustainability practices in ecosystem 27, 34, 71, 74, 89, 109, 158. 182 ecovillage (defined) 3, 12 Ecovillage at Ithaca (EVI) 17, 21, 36, 41, 46, 50, 54, 63, 69, 83, 86, 93, 107–8, 111–14, 127, 138–9, 152, 194, 198 Ecovillage Design Education (EDE) 38, 132, 195 Ecovillage Network of the Americas 12 EcoYoff (Senegal) 179 Edinburgh 195 education 11, 12, 13, 19, 20, 23, 25, 67, 78, 89, 94, 119, 131–2, 135, 179, 181–2, 198 Effective Micro-organisms 29, 60, 182 efficiency 34, 36, 39–42, 64, 66, 81, 108, 121, 147 ego-village 42, 176 electric cars 36, 81 embodied energy 36, 42 energy 3, 20, 25, 27, 30, 34, 36, 38, 39, 40–5, 47, 48–9, 50–3, 58, 62, 63, 66, 69, 70, 74–5, 78, 82–3, 86, 88, 92, 99, 101, 111, 115, 122, 127, 130, 154–5, 156, 164, 176, 182, 183, 188, 189, 190, 193, 195, 197, 202, 205 cogeneration 40, 49 descent 70, 83, 92, 130, 189–90, 195, 202 fossil fuel 34, 42, 49, 51, 58, 62–3, 74, 92, 161, 167, 171, 192, 197, 200 micro-hydro 48 natural gas 48–9, 63 nonrenewable 5, 15, 49, 83 renewable 3, 38, 40, 48, 49, 63, 78, 82, 83, 88, 135, 156, 190, 197, 205 solar 9, 15, 25, 27, 28, 36, 40–5, 48–9, 63, 81–6, 101, 108, 111, 113, 133, 147, 183, 191, 193, 198, 205 wind 27, 48–51, 63, 73, 133 wood 33–4, 40–2, 48–9, 72, 141, 161 energy return on energy investment (EROEI) 62–3 engineer 43, 69, 84, 111 enlightenment (spiritual) 164, 183 entropy 155, 159 Estonia Ecovillage Network 179 Ethiopia 60 ethnic diversity 115, 155 Europe 4, 5, 12, 13, 15, 19, 26, 44, 49, 50, 55, 56, 58–60, 65–6, 105, 117, 122, 132, 163, 167–8, 178–9, 194, 197 European Union 5, 55–6, 189, 195, 198 evolution 3–4, 146, 148, 149, 152, 154–5, 157, 159–60, 162–3, 166, 175, 178, 185, 203–4 biological 3, 146, 154, 159, 161, 162, 166, 185, 203–4 cosmological 154–5, 159, 163 cultural 4, 148–9, 160, 166, 175, 188, 203–4 evolutionary intelligence 151, 154, 157, 163, 203 exponential growth 92, 102, 186 Falco (Oberto Airaudi) 25, 122, 158 Farmer, Chris 47–8, 58, 118, 141, 160 fermentation 141, 192 Field of Dreams (Findhorn) 42 Findhorn 12–13, 21–2, 30–1, 40, 42, 49, 51–2, 63, 68, 82, 89, 100, 115, 124, 128–9, 133, 138, 142, 150, 155–7, 177–8, 180, 194–5 Findhorn Consultancy Service 98 Findhorn Foundation 98 fish 58, 77–8, 90, 99,106, 188, 198 focalizer 22, 128, 156 forest (include forestry) 20, 33–4, 37, 55, 58, 71–2, 77, 90, 92, 116, 119, 125, 134, 162, 181, 183, 198 Forum (ZEGG practice) 24, 121–2, 132, 147, 192 fossil fuels 34, 42, 49, 51, 58, 62–3, 74, 92, 161, 167, 171, 192, 197, 200 freedom 6, 86, 95, 97, 121, 131, 178 friendship 6, 9, 42, 81, 108, 129, 134, 164, 185 frugality 51, 105 full-cost accounting 80–2, 189, 197–9 funeral 24, 144–5 Furuhashi, Michiyo 95, 176 Gaia 5, 31, 155–6, 163, 201 Gaia Education 10, 31, 132, 155, 190, 195, 198 Gaia Trust 12 Galle (Sri Lanka) 170–1 Gambia 35, 59, 90, 140, 167–8 Game of Life (at Damanhur) 124–5 Gandhi, Mahatma 81, 106 garbage 5, 9, 88–9, 194 Gateway Farm 57–8, 77, 108, 118, 160–1 GEN-Africa 200–1 gender relations 27, 72, 120, 126, 168 GEN-Europe/Africa 12 GEN-Oceania/Asia 12 genetically modified food 16, 25, 36, 54, 57 Germany 23–4, 33, 40, 44, 48–9, 56, 105, 115–16, 129, 143, 166, 177, 193, 197 gift economy 103–4, 147, 191–2, 199 Gilman, Robert and Diane 12 Gilmore, Jeff 69, 111–13, 138 global civilization 189, 200–2 global economy 12, 16, 34, 62, 79, 80, 82, 107, 109 Global Ecovillage Network (GEN) 10–12, 26, 38, 132–3, 179, 200–1 global governance 200–2 global inequality 35, 105, 167–9 global injustice 35, 169 globalization 12, 60, 63, 75, 107, 133, 139, 170, 186, 200–2 goat(s) 60–1, 207 God 61, 102, 136, 149–50, 164, 168–9, 173, 176, 182 Goura (Damanhurian) 57, 171 governance 18, 20, 28, 114, 116–17, 119, 120–1, 125, 134, 188, 190, 198, 200–1 government 72, 73, 83, 92, 94, 102, 106, 183, 190–1, 195–200 see also subsidies Great Depression 102 Great Reskilling 192 Great Unfoldment 152–61, 162–5, 172–4, 177, 178, 185, 186 green building 13, 36, 39–44, 45–8, 75, 175, 182 greenhouse gas emissions 45, 48, 62, 67–8, 71, 167, 169, 184, 193 see also carbon dioxide Greer, John 103 Groundswell Training Center 198 guesthouse 27, 117 guests in ecovillages 20–1, 23, 28, 40, 65, 68, 71, 87, 100, 117, 128, 132, 140, 144 see also visitors Gunambil (Sri Lanka) 106 Guneskoy Village (Turkey) 179 Halbach, Dieter 164 Hall of Metals (Damanhur) 158–60 Harris, Martha 93, 108 Hanover (Germany) 193 Hawken, Paul 200 Higa, Teruro 60 high school 8, 11, 77, 136 high-density building 46, 194 high-tech approaches in ecovillages 16, 25, 36, 40, 47, 113 Hinduism (Hindu) 149, 150, 151, 159 holistic approach 36–9, 126, 155, 166, 170 see also systemic thinking Hollywood 29, 65–7, 193 homeowners’ association 93, 191 Honduras 65 Høngsmark, Kirsten 96–7 horses 36, 56, 134, 143, 145 Hubble Telescope 188 Hübl, Thomas 177–9, 189 human excrement 8, 34, 182 human manure 33–4, 53 see also human waste; urine human subjects review 11 human waste 33–4 , 53, 182 hunger 10, 25–6, 31, 58–60, 69, 84–5, 97, 130, 141, 185, 196 hybrid cars 36 hyper-individualism 29, 185, 192, 193, 203 idealism 6, 17, 47–8, 86, 89, 99, 118, 120, 136 income (ecovillagers’) 16, 20, 22, 88, 95–6, 98, 101, 164; see also salary India 19, 27, 35–6, 57, 59, 62, 81, 140, 165, 169, 180–3 individualism 29, 46, 116, 176, 178, 185, 192, 193, 203 Indus Valley Restaurant 104 industrialized agriculture 105 infrastructure 35, 48, 51, 62, 63, 69, 86, 186, 194, 202 insulation 41–3 integrity 9, 80, 86, 149, 181, 201 intention (in ecovillages) 114–16, 123, 164, 207 see also purpose (sense of) intentional community 12, 93, 123, 164, 207 interdependence 4–5, 9, 17, 27, 28, 46, 49, 75, 79, 108, 117, 152, 184, 185–6, 199–202 ecological 4–5, 9, 36, 75, 108, 117, 184, 185–6 global (planetary) 4–5, 9, 27, 46, 75, 79, 117, 184, 185–6, 199–202 social 4–5, 9, 17, 36, 49, 117, 152, 184, 185–6 interest (monetary) 12, 17, 23, 35, 54, 76, 79, 80, 83, 100, 102–3, 112, 129 internal economy 64, 100 internalizing costs 197 see also full-cost accounting International Consortium of Local Environmental Initiatives 190 international institutions 189, 200 international law 3, 189, 194, 200 International Training Center for Local Authorities (CIFAL) 195 internet 12, 36, 64, 70, 99, 189, 191, 199, 201 interreligious sensitivity 149–50, 168 Isadon (Furuta Isami) 29, 61, 121, 172–3 Islam (Muslim) 26, 149, 150, 151, 159, 162, 168 Italy 16, 18, 25, 49, 100–2, 136, 157 Jackson, Ross 12 Japan 28–9, 60–1, 92, 94, 123, 172 jobs 79, 85–8, 96, 100, 111, 117, 166, 197 joining fee 93, 95 Judaism (Jew) 149, 159, 162 kibbutz 12, 13 Kibbutz Lotan (Israel) 179 Kidokoro, Yuki 84, 123, 143 Kitao, Koichi 60–1, 74 Kloster, Jørgen 55–6 Konohana 28–9, 60–1, 74, 92, 94–5, 121, 150, 155, 172–3, 176–7, 180 laboratory (ecovillage as) 13, 18, 27, 79, 86, 131, 149, 151, 164, 175, 180, 185–6, 205 LA County Bicycle Coalition 65 Læssø, Bø 55–6 Lagoswatte 28 laundry 46, 47, 50, 69 laws 25, 27–8, 93, 97, 106, 155, 170, 191, 197–9 learning author’s 2, 5–9, 13–16, 20, 39, 45, 67, 94. 102, 110, 141, 143, 153, 165, 168, 174–5, 179, 181, 205–7 from ecovillages 11, 14, 18–19, 60–1, 121, 131–4, 141–2, 147, 150, 187–204 in ecovillages 11, 14, 18–19, 28, 47, 51, 53, 60–1, 88, 108, 111, 113, 121, 131–4, 136–8, 147, 164, 177 legal and financial structure 92–7 lessons (from ecovillages) 9, 13, 15, 32, 69, 81, 110, 151, 187–204 libertarianism 190 Lietaer, Bernard 99–100 Lindegger, Max 26, 28, 84 linear model (economic) 33–4, 53, 75, 203 literacy 25, 106, 168, 181 Living Building Challenge 194 Living Machine 51–2, 194 living system 5, 53, 166, 173 Lizama, Jimmy 65–6, 193 localization 16, 54–5, 73–80, 84, 87–9, 97, 99, 110–11, 130, 141, 189–96, 198–9, 201–2 Los Angeles 13, 15, 29–30, 65, 67, 84, 93, 114, 150, 162, 193–4 riots in 30, 114–15 Los Angeles Eco-Village (LAEV) 29–30, 65, 67, 84, 93, 114–15, 123, 127, 137, 142, 150, 162, 193 Love, Brian 58, 77–8, 108 Lovelock, James 155 low-income housing 108 low-tech approaches in ecovillages 16, 36, 40, 47, 70 MacLean, Dorothy 156 Macy, Joanna 154, 165–6 magic 25, 124, 127, 159, 160–1, 163 malaria 25, 181 Marland, Angus 156–7 mass extinction 1, 75, 155, 172, 203 mass transit 23, 63–4, 66, 92, 127, 167, 206 Matrimandir (Auroville) 183–4 Mbackombel (Senegal) 198 meat 22, 25, 55–8, 83 medicine 59–60, 136 meditation 7, 25, 122, 128, 136, 151–2, 156–64, 165, 171, 177 Sarvodaya’s peace 151–2, 165 meetings 7, 17, 27, 46, 92, 95, 98, 105, 107, 112, 115, 117, 119, 120–1, 126, 132, 134, 138–40, 164, 172, 176–7, 179 membership process 22, 93–4, 96 microfinance 25, 59, 106–7, 168, 181, 185, 199 Middle America 21, 108, 194 Middle East 59, 197 Ministry of Ecovillages (Senegal) 198 misanthropic temptation 153 molecular biology lab 25, 36, 57 monasteries 11, 171 Monbiot, George 67–8 money 6, 8, 11, 13, 16, 49, 55, 77–80, 86–7, 98–103, 109–20, 140–1, 161, 168, 169, 180, 192, 198 see also currency (monetary); complementary currency monogamy 24, 115 Morrison, Lara 162 Mount Fuji 28, 172, 174 multinational corporation 112, 161, 200 music 8, 23, 86, 139, 142, 174–5, 185 see also song(s) Music of the Plants (Damanhur) 174–5 mysticism 115, 156, 162, 177, 183, 185 nation-state 117, 200 Nature-Spirit Community 126 Ndao, Babacar 198 neighborhood skills map 64, 70, 87, 192 neighborhoods 6, 21, 29, 32, 43, 54, 46, 50, 52, 56, 64, 67, 70, 87, 97, 108, 109, 110, 114, 138, 141, 146, 167, 171, 187, 188, 190, 191–6, 201, 205 sustainability practices in 80, 87, 97, 109–10, 114, 138, 141, 146, 188, 191–2, 205 New Age 21, 88, 162 New Rural Reconstruction Movement (China) 196 New York City 193 Nonviolent Communication (NVC) 112, 119, 123, 125, 147, 192 Nygren, Kristen 111–13, 138 Obama, Michelle, 199 oikos 74–5, 79 oneness 162, 186 organic food 2, 6, 9, 21, 29, 54–60, 73, 75, 81, 84, 87, 97, 128–9, 133, 191 overconsumption 4–5, 35, 36, 105, 107, 112, 167, 202 see also consumerism; consumer society Owen, David 193 ownership 11, 18, 64, 70, 80, 101–2, 92, 94, 97–8, 146, 199 Pacific Northwest 187 park (public) 73, 92. 97, 189 participatory development 10, 12 particle consciousness 178, 189 passive solar design 40–5, 48, 82, 108, 113 patriarchy 26, 115, 117, 120 Peace Contract with Animals (Sieben Linden) 24, 56 Peace Corps 198 peace movement 164 peak oil 5, 50, 62–3, 130 Pepe, Lucertola 174–5 permaculture 20, 26, 34, 36–9, 54, 58, 73, 75, 117, 162, 188, 195, 200, 205 personal growth 89, 113, 120, 148, 149, 175, 206 pets 73, 127 pioneer species 19 planetary citizen 189, 202 planetary interdependence 9, 27, 46, 186, 189 plants, communication with 162, 174–5 pocket neighborhood 194 policy making 189 polis 74–6, political activism 6, 11, 16, 23, 89, 133, 157, 164, 166 political science 35, 50, 85, 99, 116 politics 1–6, 35, 66, 88–9, 102–4, 113, 117, 129–30, 133, 141, 151, 157, 164–7, 189–90, 196 polyamory 23, 115 Portland (Oregon) 191, 193 postmodern 117, 125, 171 poultry 55, 58–61, 77, 84, 134, 168, 192, 207 Pour Tous Distribution Service (Auroville) 104 poverty 30–1, 43, 60, 81, 95, 151, 181 power of yes 190, 194, 199 power tools 69–70 preschool 107 private property 79–80, 92–4 product stewardship laws 197 prosperity 13, 101, 103, 105, 110 purpose (sense of) core human 188–9, 191, 196, 200, 202, 207 in ecovillages 12, 14, 18, 20, 23, 61, 78, 85, 109, 114–16, 118–19, 124, 132, 135, 138, 172, 182, 188 see also intention (in ecovillages) race 27, 168 rainwater 9, 26–9, 31, 44, 51–3, 71, 82, 113, 192, 205 real estate 54, 79, 92–4, 114 real wealth 97, 107, 109 recycling 3, 6, 188, 194 relational living 150, 165, 167, 192 religion 10, 149–50, 152, 154, 159, 162, 164, 165, 168–9, 172, 186 renters 79, 94 retirement 18, 81, 93–4, 108, 127, 207 retrofitting 41, 81, 114 right livelihood 80, 85–90, 99, 199 risk perception 82 n1 Rio+20 Earth Summit 200 Rosenberg, Marshall 123 rural ecovillages 17, 54, 71, 83, 84 Rylander, Kimchi 118–20 salary 1, 9, 11, 16, 20, 22, 72, 83–4, 88–9, 92 n6, 95–6, 98–9, 101, 105, 107–8, 113, 164, 167, 194, 198 Sarvodaya 13, 28, 31, 104, 106–7, 114, 120, 125–6, 129, 133, 149–52, 155, 165, 170, 187, 196 sauna 69, 93 science 51, 75, 135, 154–5, 162, 164–5, 185–6 Seattle 7, 30, 67, 138, 156, 191, 205–6 secularism 13, 31, 149, 150, 154, 159, 162–4, 168, 177, 185 Sekem (Egypt) 200 self-awareness 137, 170 Senadeera, Bandula 125–6 Senegal 25–6, 59, 66, 72, 167–9, 179, 198–9 Seneviratne, Mahama 151–2 sewage 27, 51, 132 sex 109, 115 Shapiro, Elan 107–8 shared-wall construction 45, 47, 69 sharing 16, 18, 22, 26, 32, 47, 54, 63–4, 69, 70, 81, 87, 92–3, 96–7, 106, 110, 114, 127, 132, 142, 146, 164–5, 172, 189, 191–4, 199, 201, 207 sheep 58, 77 Shelton, Julie 84 shramadana 104, 106, 129 Sieben Linden 24, 33–4, 36, 41, 43–4, 47, 49, 53, 56–7, 70–1, 105, 114, 127, 129, 143–6, 150, 164, 166, 171, 177–9 silence (inner) 128, 143, 157, 159, 169, 171, 178 simplicity 8, 39, 81, 171–4, 180 skills 8, 16, 32, 43, 64, 65, 78, 87, 88, 108–9, 110, 111, 114, 122, 127, 131, 134, 138, 139, 147, 189, 192, 207 SkyRoot 206–7 slavery 167, 185 Slow Cities 192 Slow Food movement 192 see also Slow Money; Slow Cities Slow Money 192 slums 115, 132, 182, 195, 196 socialism 88 sociocracy 120 soil 8, 17, 19, 24, 31, 33, 46, 53, 55, 56, 58–60, 71, 74–5, 84, 89, 103, 131, 145, 147, 156, 161, 196, 207 solar energy 9, 15, 25, 27–8, 36, 40, 48–9, 63, 81, 83, 86, 101, 108, 111, 113, 133, 147, 183, 191, 193,198, 205 solidarity 84–5, 100, 103, 109–10, 133, 169, 192, 200, 205, 207 song(s) 7, 28, 34, 73, 138, 143, 145, 147, 152, 179 see also music sorcerer’s apprentices 160–1 Spain 90, 168 spell 124, 160–1 see also magic spirituality 24, 30–1, 149, 150, 155–7, 162–5, 166, 170, 171–3, 180–5 Sri Aurobindo 180–2 Sri Lanka 13, 28, 106–7, 125–6, 142, 151, 155, 165, 170 steady-state economy 197 story of separation 4, 11, 165, 179, 195–6 straw-bale construction 18, 43–4, 47–8, 171 structural insulated panels (SIPS) 36 subsidiarity 189, 193, 198, 201 subsidies governmental 3, 15, 82–3, 197–8 within ecovillages 83, 96, 197 suburb 21, 41, 69, 97, 127, 193–4 survivalism 112 sustainable development 28, 88, 133 Sustainable Tompkins County 107 Svanholm 22–3, 31, 49, 55–6, 64, 92, 94–7, 114, 127, 134–5, 163–4 Swimme, Brian 154 symbiosis 4–5, 54, 103, 108–9, 120, 147 biological 53, 103, 148 intergenerational 108, 110 social 4, 54, 103, 108–9, 147–8 synchronic lines 158 systemic thinking 51, 188–90, 193, 208 see also holistic approach Tamerice, Macaco 100–2, 122, 158–9 Tamera 115, 122 Tamil Nadu 19, 27, 45, 88, 140, 181 tar sands 62 taxes 83, 93–6, 101, 189, 197 Technakarto (at Damanhur) 122, 125 technological solutions 36–8, 63, 133, 201–2 teenagers 15, 69, 136 Temples of Humankind 25, 157, 160, 183 Tompkins County (New York) 194 toilet 7, 15, 20, 33–4, 41, 51, 53, 61, 106, 131, 133, 147, 179, 207 toilet assumption 53 Tolle, Eckhart 157 tool library 191 tractor 125 traditional villages 10, 46, 105, 125, 196 transformation 28, 41, 70, 129–30, 145, 150, 155, 165, 168, 179, 183, 185, 192, 205 material 31, 140, 183 of consciousness 177–9, 183–5, 189, 192 personal 28, 145, 169, 173, 179, 192, 205 social 129–30, 168, 179, 185, 192 spiritual 150, 155, 183–4 Transition Town 130, 192, 195, 200–1 transparency 22, 24, 96, 164 transportation 8, 34, 39, 58, 60, 62–8, 75, 92, 189, 193, 194, 205 trees 17, 24, 27, 29, 33, 48, 58, 59, 71–3, 90, 97, 119, 140, 155 triple bottom line 199 trust 14, 17, 22, 64, 85, 96–97, 100, 102, 109, 112, 116, 119–23, 130, 146–7, 154, 164, 167, 174–5, 189, 191–2, 200–1, 207 tsunami 28, 88, 133, 170, 170 two-class society 79, 94, 108 UfaFabrik 23, 64–5, 84, 86, 88, 99, 124, 138–9, 150 unconventional hydrocarbons 62, 197 United Nations 21, 107, 132–3, 195 United States of America (US) 5, 8, 12, 15, 20–1, 29, 35, 48–50, 52, 57–8, 60, 62–3, 73, 82–3, 92–3, 105, 122, 126, 140–1, 177, 191, 197–8 universe story 154, 172 urban ecovillages 16, 23, 34, 64, 84 urban farming 54, 97, 205 urban planning 162, 189, 191 urine 53 utopia 18, 193 Van Dam, René 163 veganism 24, 56–7, 171 vehicle sharing 63–4, 92, 146 village model 78–9, 84, 117, 196 visitors (to ecovillages) 21, 23, 65, 68, 71, 87, 100, 117, 132, 140, 144 Wackernagel, Mathis 35 Walker, Liz 152–3, 194 war 5, 6, 17, 23, 80, 123, 133, 138, 151 wastewater 18, 46, 51, 52, 78, 194 see also sewage water conservation 51–3, 74 Way of Monks (Damanhur) 171, wealth 4, 8, 13, 16, 83, 97, 100, 103–4, 107–9, 112, 192, 197, 201 wellbeing 28, 36, 40, 46, 47, 78, 80, 85, 89, 105–6, 197 wells 17, 20, 51, 106, 117–18 West Africa 31, 59, 67, 167 wetland 52, 194 Whidbey Island 205–7 Wiartalla, Werner 86, 99 wildlife 26, 33–4, 38, 63, 70–4, 182, 194, 206 wind energy 27, 48–9, 51, 63, 73, 133 windows 36, 40–4, 43, 81, 127, 137, 143, 174 double-paned 36, 41, 43, 81 triple-paned 30 windows into sustainability 30, 188 Wolf, Stefan 179 women 26, 31, 39, 59, 72, 88, 90, 106, 107, 125–9, 139, 151, 158, 168, 185 empowerment of 26, 31, 88, 106 literacy 96 oppression of 151, 185 Women Empowerment through Local Livelihood (WELL) 88 World Café 192 worldview 10, 31, 149–50, 155, 159, 160, 164, 172, 178 Worldwide Opportunities on Organic Farms (WWOOF) 11, 83 yurt 39, 206, 207 ZEGG 23–4, 41, 49, 63, 115–6, 121–2, 132–3, 137–8, 150, 177 Zeher, Ozzie 63, 190 ZipCar 64, 70, 199
Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson
4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning
Data Ownership At AT&T Labs in Florham Park, New Jersey, big data is being used to analyze the traffic and movement patterns of people through data generated by their mobile phones, to help improve policymaking and urban and traffic planning. The research team realized they could understand deep patterns of how people moved through urban environments by analyzing the flow of mobile devices from cell tower to cell tower. And they wanted to use those insights to help improve traffic flow and to inform better urban planning, not to improve their marketing. But, of course, AT&T, along with Verizon, Google, TomTom, NAVTEQ, and several companies who help retail malls track the traffic patterns of shoppers, want very much to use that information to generate new streams of revenue. The question of privacy is top of mind (especially as the distinction between anonymized and personally identifying information becomes more difficult to maintain), but the question of ownership is equally compelling.
The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century by Steve Coll
American ideology, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, forensic accounting, global village, haute couture, intangible asset, Iridium satellite, Khyber Pass, low earth orbit, margin call, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, urban planning, Yogi Berra
In addition to his half-brother Mahrouz, two of his sisters, Sheikha and Rafah, became particularly devout in this period; they started a religious school in Jeddah for young family members. A number of his other brothers studied Islam formally and circulated in religious circles in the Hejaz. Among other things, religious credibility remained an imperative of the family business—Islamic scholars on urban planning committees in the two holy cities influenced contracting and real estate development decisions, as they had in Mohamed’s time. Osama did not appear in the famous Swedish family portrait, but he certainly knew Europe. According to Batarfi, he visited London at age twelve, with his mother, to receive medical treatment for an eye condition; he stayed for at least a month and did some sightseeing.
(Left to their own devices, for example, Saudi Arabia’s ardently sectarian Sunni scholars would probably ban Shia from attending altogether, but the royal family, wishing to avoid a global confrontation, managed a compromise, under which Shia could come if they accepted certain quotas and constraints.) King Fahd shaped the Hajj’s physical environment. The architectural ambition of the two renovated holy cities—bigger, better, shinier, ringed by condominium towers and shopping malls, and under surveillance by security cameras—reflected the same spirit Fahd had brought during the early 1980s to the refurbishment of his Boeing 747. Among other things, his ideas about urban planning seemed to express a “deliberate desire to erase the past,” as Hammoudi put it. This was partly another bow to his religious establishment, who tended to view all of the schools of Islamic art and architecture between the Prophet’s death and their arrival in the Hejaz in the 1920s as illegitimate. There was also a more general disinterest among the Saudi royal family about historical preservation and archaeology.
He adhered to Sufism, a school of Islam that emphasized diversity and individual spiritual experience. He had been born in Mecca to a traditional family of mutawwafs, or “pilgrimage guides,” an ancient vocation in decline in the age of Hajj package air-hotel tours and Saudi nationalization (by the 1990s, a federal ministry administered most aspects of the pilgrimage). At the University of Texas, Angawi studied architecture and urban planning; he wrote a master’s thesis about a possible renovation of Mecca that would emphasize historical preservation, pedestrian zones, and environmental conservation. In 1975 he returned to Saudi Arabia to form and supervise a Hajj Research Center at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. Its goal, approved by the Saudi government, was “to preserve the natural environment as created by God and the Islamic environment of the two holy cities.”
Berlin by Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, indoor plumbing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
Its coffered, rib-steel roof seems to defy gravity with the help of eight steel pillars and a floor-to-ceiling glass front. Parallel Developments Alexanderplatz and the Kulturforum may have been celebrated prestige projects, but both Berlins also had to deal with more pragmatic issues, such as the need for inexpensive, modern housing to accommodate growing populations. This led to several urban planning mistakes on both sides of the Wall in the 1970s and ’80s, most notably in the birth of soulless, monotonous satellite cities for tens of thousands of people. In West Berlin, Walter Gropius drew up the plans for the Grosssiedlung Berlin-Buckow in southern Neukölln (renamed Gropiusstadt after his death). The Märkisches Viertel in Reinickendorf, northwest Berlin, is another such development. On the other side of the Wall, Marzahn, Hohenschönhausen and Hellersdorf became three new city districts consisting almost entirely of high-rise Plattenbauten made from precast concrete slabs.
These include Keith Haring’s The Boxers on Eichhornstrasse, Jeff Koons’ Balloon Flower on Marlene-Dietrich-Platz, Mark Di Suvero’s Galileo within the pond, Auke de Vries’s Gelandet (Landed) on Schellingstrasse and Robert Rauschenberg’s The Riding Bikes on Fontaneplatz. LEIPZIGER PLATZ Potsdamer Platz Just like Potsdamer Platz, this historical square has risen from the death strip. The octagonal Leipziger Platz was first laid out in 1734 and later became one of Berlin’s most beautiful squares courtesy of the urban planning ‘dream team’ of Schinkel and Lenné. The hulking building just east of here houses the Bundesrat (Federal Council; Map), the body of the German legislative branch of government that represents the interests of the Länder, or federal states. Hidden behind the new buildings stands a rare remaining GDR watchtower – the GDR border watchtower Erna-Berger-Strasse (Map). To see it, follow Erna-Berger-Strasse (off Stresemannstrasse) to the end.
SIEGESSÄULE Map 391 2961; www.monument-tales.de; Grosser Stern; adult/concession €2.20/1.50; 9.30am-6.30pm Mon-Fri, to 7pm Sat & Sun Apr-Oct, 10am-5pm Mon-Fri, to 5.30pm Sat & Sun Nov-Mar; 100 Like arms of a starfish, five roads merge into the roundabout called Grosser Stern at the heart of the Tiergarten. At its centre is the landmark Victory Column, built to celebrate 19th-century Prussian military triumphs over Denmark, Austria and France and now a symbol of Berlin’s gay community. It stood in front of the Reichstag until the Nazis moved it here in 1938 to make room for their utopian Germania urban planning project (see the boxed text,). The pedestal was added at the time, so that today the column stands 67m high. The gilded lady on top represents the goddess of Victory, but locals irreverently call her Gold-Else. Film buffs might remember her from a key scene in Wim Wenders’ 1985 flick Wings of Desire. The so-so views from below her skirt mostly take in Tiergarten. Several other monuments were also moved here in the late 1930s, including Reinhold Begas’ imposing depiction of Otto von Bismarck; it’s in the park northeast of the column.
Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts
active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, business cycle, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
People have been fascinated with what sociologists call the small-world problem for nearly a century, since the Hungarian poet Frigyes Karinthy published a short story called “Chains” in which his protagonist boasts that he can connect himself to any other person in the world, whether a Nobel Prize winner or a worker in a Ford Motor factory, through a chain of no more than five acquaintances. Four decades later, in her polemic on urban planning The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the journalist Jane Jacobs described a similar game, called messages, that she used to play with her sister when they first moved to New York: The idea was to pick two wildly dissimilar individuals—say a headhunter in the Solomon Islands and a cobbler in Rock Island, Illinois—and assume that one had to get a message to the other by word of mouth; then we would each silently figure out a plausible, or at least possible, chain of persons through whom the message could go.
For a more hopeful alternative viewpoint see Sachs (2006). 19. See Jacobs (1961, p. 4) 20. See Venkatesh (2002). 21. See Ravitch (2010) for a discussion of how popular, commonsense policies such as increased testing and school choice actually undermined public education. See Cohn (2007) and Reid (2009) for analysis of the cost of health care and possible alternative models. See O’Toole (2007) for a detailed discussion on forestry management, urban planning, and other failures of government planning and regulation. See Howard (1997) for a discussion and numerous anecdotes of the unintended consequences of government regulations. See Easterly (2006) again for some interesting remarks on nation-building and political interference, and Tuchman (1985) for a scathing and detailed account of US involvement in Vietnam. See Gelb (2009) for an alternate view of American foreign policy. 22.
Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor
PD grew out of democratic workers’ movements in Scandinavia, where the high degree Popular Technology 107 of unionization and legislation that requires worker discussion of technological change in the workplace has laid the foundation for the considerable support participatory practices have enjoyed there (Greenbaum 1993, 35).9 Like popular education and PAR, PD places a premium on the active involvement of people who most directly confront problems (Levinger 1998). It draws on a broad understanding of technological and organizational systems as networks of practices, people, and objects embedded in particular contexts. Though PD tends to focus narrowly on information system design, there are many ways that a PD methodology can be used to strengthen community-building efforts and critical citizenship projects. For example, the feminist literature on urban planning, which combines the methodological focus of the ﬁeld with feminist critical analysis of the gendered structuring of social space,10 broadens the domain of PD to provide a rich source for practicing participatory design outside the workplace. Feminist writers describe strategies that engage stakeholders in technological development, broadly construed: neighborhood revitalization, economic development, and dweller-controlled public housing.
., 169 Tubman, Harriet, 50, 145 2-1-1, 119 Stoeker, Randy, 33 Strauss, Anselm L., 178 Strong objectivity, 146 SUNY, Albany, 83 Surrogate pregnancy, 29 Surveillance technologies, 82 Survival, 140 Systemic inequality, 42 Underground Railroad Conference, 145 Unemployment, 55, 58–61 inequality, 69–70 women, 58, 61, 69–70 Unions, 157–158 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 160 United Way, 119 University of California-Santa Cruz, 83 Urban planning, 107 Use and disclosure statement, 92–93 Technological artifacts, 83–85 Technological Opportunities Program, 166 Technological pessimism, 37 Technology. See also Information technology (IT); Popular technology access to, 4–5, 36, 165–166 deﬁnitions of, 25 as dynamic process, 21 existing models of, 154 as legislation, 84 and poverty, 8 real-world, 31 and social change, 31–32, 36, 42, 45 and social justice, 84–85 and women, 6, 9–10, 24, 27–29, 32 Tech Valley, 51–52, 71, 156–157, 159 “Through Harriet’s Eyes,” 145 Tracking behavior, 90 Transparency, 91–92 Troy, NY, 49–53 educational attainment in, 57–58 housing in, 52 inequality in, 57, 67–70 job creation in, 64–66 poverty in, 61–64 public policy in, 52–53 Tech Valley, 51–52, 71, 156–157, 159 unemployment in, 58–61, 69 women in, 71 Troy Female Seminary, 50 Visvanathan, Shiv, 132, 151–152 Volatile continuity, 56–57, 61 Wages, 65–66, 162–163 Welfare, 10–13, 29, 82–83, 86–89.
Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl
3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar
He mentioned George’s scheme so often that a colleague who was eulogizing him quipped, “I imagine by now he has mentioned it to God, too.”1 Also aloof, arrogant, and private, Vickrey often failed to publish academic articles that contained his best ideas. The inspirations of Vickrey’s research closely resembled ours. He focused during most of his career on the organization of cities and the tremendous waste of resources in most urban forms. He was particularly fascinated by cities in Latin America, where he advised governments on urban planning and taxation. It was while he was designing a fiscal system for Venezuela that he produced the paper that finally undermined his best efforts at ensuring his obscurity. That paper was published in 1961. Its title, “Counterspeculation, Auctions, and Competitive Sealed Tenders,” seemed to ensure it would soon be forgotten. But it was rediscovered a decade later. Vickrey’s paper was the first to study the power of auctions to solve major social problems, helped found a field of economics called “mechanism design,” and earned him the Nobel Prize in 1996.
Vickrey (1914–1996), Nobel Laureate in Economics, father of mechanism design, and quiet hero of our drama. Photo by Jon Levy, permission granted by Getty Images. Vickrey’s ideas have transformed economic theory and had an impact on policy. Governments around the world use auctions based on Vickrey’s ideas to sell licenses to use radio spectrum. Facebook, Google, and Bing use a system derived from Vickrey’s auction to allocate advertising space on their web pages. Vickrey’s insights about urban planning and congestion pricing are slowly changing the face of cities, and they play an important role in the pricing policies of ride-hailing apps like Uber and Lyft.2 However, none of these applications reflects the ambition that sparked Vickrey’s work. When Vickrey won the Nobel Prize, he reportedly hoped to use the award as a “bully pulpit” to bring George’s transformative ideas and the radical potential of mechanism design to a broader audience.3 Yet Vickrey died of a heart attack three days after learning of his prize.
Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application
(eds) (2014) Decoding the City: Urbanism in the Age of Big Data. Basel: Birkhauser. Part I Data-driven cities 2 A city is not a galaxy Understanding the city through urban data Martijn de Waal Introduction In a 2013 report to the UK Economic and Social Research Council, Michael Batty, the director of the Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA), looks back at the time when computers were first being used in urban planning: Fifty years ago if you had asked the question ‘what can we do with computers with respect to cities?’ the answer would have been we can build computer models of cities – abstractions – that can then be used to pose conditional questions such as ‘What If . . .’ (Batty 2013a: 22) Half a century later, Batty argues this vision has been turned inside out. Computers are no longer seen as mere tools to analyse the city, rather they have become part of the city, embedded into its very fabric.
ISO 37120 bolsters its legitimacy by citing the Millennium Development Goals. The fact that the UN IGME also publishes numbers for neo-natal and infant mortality rates is not mentioned. The ISO 37120 indicators are bound together in two ways. They are grouped into 17 themes intended to capture the principle responsibilities of a city’s administration. These include areas such as education, finance, health, solid waste, transport, urban planning and wastewater. They are also separated into core indicators, which every city is expected to be able to report on, and supplementary indicators, which they may not presently be able to. ‘Under age five mortality per 1,000 live births’ is one of four core health indicators. The other three measure a city’s ‘Average life expectancy’, its ‘Number of inpatient hospital beds per 100,000 population’ and its ‘Number of physicians per 100,000 population’.
Reimagining Capitalism in a World on Fire by Rebecca Henderson
Airbnb, asset allocation, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, dark matter, decarbonisation, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, fixed income, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, greed is good, Hans Rosling, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, stocks for the long run, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, uber lyft, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Zipcar
International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food), “Breaking Away from Industrial Food and Farming Systems: Seven Case Studies of Agroecological Transition” (Oct. 2018); “Unlocking the Inclusive Growth Story of the 21st Century: Accelerating Climate Action in Urgent Times” (Washington, DC: New Climate Economy, 2018), https://newclimateeconomy.report/2018/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2018/09/NCE_2018_FULL-REPORT.pdf.; Technoserve, Eyes in the Sky for African Agriculture, Water Resources, and Urban Planning, Apr. 2018, www.technoserve.org/files/downloads/case-study_eyes-in-the-sky-for-african-agriculture-water-resources-and-urban-planning.pdf. 18. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), The 10 Elements of Agroecology: Guiding the Transition to Sustainable Food and Agricultural Systems, www.fao.org/3/i9037en/I9037EN.pdf; New Climate Economy, Unlocking the Inclusive Growth Story (2018). 19. For more on how to make a difference in your own life, and to connect with other readers of this book, please check out ReimaginingCapitalism.org. 20.
The Shipwrecked Mind: On Political Reaction by Mark Lilla
Berlin Wall, coherent worldview, creative destruction, George Santayana, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, liberation theology, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, urban planning, women in the workforce
This was conceived less as a survey than as a rational reconstruction of the process by which the symbolization of human experience had become increasingly articulate up until the birth of Christianity, and then had declined owing to modern gnosticism. These early volumes offer a brilliant if eccentric ride through ancient history, beginning with Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Israel, then taking up the Greek story, from the Cretans and Achaeans down to classical Athens. They are not embarrassments. Voegelin was an earnest amateur historian who seemed to have read everything and could make connections among myths, inscriptions, urban planning, zodiacs, prophecies, epic poetry, biblical stories, Greek tragedies, and Platonic dialogues. His first three volumes quickly established the human ascent up to Christianity, and his cold war American readers looked forward to reading about their own civilizational decline. Then something happened: Mr. Casaubon changed his mind. • It was seventeen years before another volume of Order and History appeared, during which time Voegelin spent a decade building his German research institute.
Rush Hour: How 500 Million Commuters Survive the Daily Journey to Work by Iain Gately
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, corporate raider, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, global pandemic, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, lateral thinking, low skilled workers, Marchetti’s constant, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise
Instead of being imprisoned on a train and subject to the whims of its operators, each was now the captain of their own little ship and could, in theory, escape from routine whenever they wished by turning off at the next junction. Auto-commuting was encouraged in its early years by America’s cities, which hoped that cars would displace the horse-drawn transport that still formed the majority of their internal traffic and had become a significant sanitary problem. At an international urban planning conference held in New York in 1898, horse pollution was top of the agenda. It was estimated that the host city’s horses deposited ‘2.5 million pounds of manure and 60,000 gallons of urine’ on its streets every day. The problem was especially acute in summer when farmers were occupied with the harvest and couldn’t spare the time to collect the dung for fertilizer, which was piled up in vacant lots and sometimes reached sixty feet in height.
As well as establishing automobiles as the principal form of personal transport, it had committed the country, for better or worse, to a way of life ‘organized predominantly on the basis of the universal availability of motor transportation’. *1 Lloyd Wright thought that the United States of America should be renamed Usonia, to reflect the fact that Canada and Mexico were also ‘American’. He designed cities and suburban houses to suit his vision of a distinctive American style of urban planning. The name survives in Esperanto as Usono. *2 The Levittown team won the Little League World Series in 1960. *3 A second model of Levittown house introduced in 1949. *4 George Romney’s opposition to oversized gas guzzlers didn’t rub off on his son Mitt, the Republican presidential candidate in 2012, who has fought measures to raise the standards for fuel economy in American autos on the grounds that this would ‘limit the choice available to American families’ by forcing them to buy expensive, if more efficient, foreign cars
Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder by Nassim Nicholas Taleb
Air France Flight 447, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business cycle, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discrete time, double entry bookkeeping, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, financial independence, Flash crash, Gary Taubes, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, informal economy, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, money market fund, moral hazard, mouse model, Myron Scholes, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, selection bias, Silicon Valley, six sigma, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, Zipf's Law
Since no intervention implies no iatrogenics, the source of harm lies in the denial of antifragility, and to the impression that we humans are so necessary to making things function. Enforcing consciousness of generalized iatrogenics is a tall order. The very notion of iatrogenics is quite absent from the discourse outside medicine (which, to repeat, has been a rather slow learner). But just as with the color blue, having a word for something helps spread awareness of it. We will push the idea of iatrogenics into political science, economics, urban planning, education, and more domains. Not one of the consultants and academics in these fields with whom I tried discussing it knew what I was talking about—or thought that they could possibly be the source of any damage. In fact, when you approach the players with such skepticism, they tend to say that you are “against scientific progress.” But the concept can be found in some religious texts. The Koran mentions “those who are wrongful while thinking of themselves that they are righteous.”
But alas, some things we wish were a bit more fragile—which brings us to architecture. ARCHITECTURE AND THE IRREVERSIBLE NEOMANIA There is some evolutionary warfare between architects producing a compounded form of neomania. The problem with modernistic—and functional—architecture is that it is not fragile enough to break physically, so these buildings stick out just to torture our consciousness—you cannot exercise your prophetic powers by leaning on their fragility. Urban planning, incidentally, demonstrates the central property of the so-called top-down effect: top-down is usually irreversible, so mistakes tend to stick, whereas bottom-up is gradual and incremental, with creation and destruction along the way, though presumably with a positive slope. Further, things that grow in a natural way, whether cities or individual houses, have a fractal quality to them. Like everything alive, all organisms, like lungs, or trees, grow in some form of self-guided but tame randomness.
In France, some blame the modernistic architecture of housing projects for the immigrant riots. As the journalist Christopher Caldwell wrote about the unnatural living conditions: “Le Corbusier called houses ‘machines for living.’ France’s housing projects, as we now know, became machines for alienation.” Jane Jacobs, the New York urban activist, took a heroic stance as a political-style resistant against neomania in architecture and urban planning, as the modernistic dream was carried by Robert Moses, who wanted to improve New York by razing tenements and installing large roads and highways, committing a greater crime against natural order than Haussmann, who, as we saw in Chapter 7, removed during the nineteenth century entire neighborhoods of Paris to make room for the “Grand Boulevards.” Jacobs stood against tall buildings as they deform the experience of urban living, which is conducted at street level.
Kitten Clone: Inside Alcatel-Lucent by Douglas Coupland
British Empire, cable laying ship, Claude Shannon: information theory, cosmic microwave background, Downton Abbey, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, hiring and firing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Marshall McLuhan, oil shale / tar sands, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Turing machine, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Wall-E
The now fading notion that our lives should be stories is a psychological inevitability imbued in readers by the logic of the book and fiction as a medium: focus; sequencing; emotional through-lines; morals; structure; climax; dénouement. One can look back on the print era and witness true poignancy: readers the world over were determined to see their lives as stories, when, in fact, books are a specific invention that creates a specific mindset. Most people can’t find the larger story in their lives. Born, grew up, had kids, maybe, and died … what kind of story is that? There’s a maxim in the world of urban planning that if you let your city be planned by bakers, you will end up with a city of bakeries. If you have a culture whose brains are “planned” by books, you’ll have a citizenry who want their lives to be book-like. If you have a culture whose brains are “planned” by digital culture and Internet browsing, you’ll have a citizenry who want their lives to be simultaneous, fluid, ready to jump from link to link—a society that assumes that knowledge is there for the asking when you need it.
Polaroids From the Dead by Douglas Coupland
The only other road access to the North Shore is five miles down the harbor to the utilitarian and unfortunately rather charmless Second Narrows Bridge: a six-lane people-mover about which little more can be said without taxing the limits of charity. Lions Gate Bridge is by no means a practical bridge—it looks to be spun from liquid sugar, and, unfortunately, it now seems to be dissolving like sugar. By urban planning and engineering standards it borders on being a disaster, but then isn’t it true of life in general that nothing is more seductive than the dying starlet? The lost cowboy? The self-destructive jazz musician? The bridge has three harrowingly narrow lanes. Depending on the time of day, commuters on the Lions Gate may have either one or two of these lanes apportioned to them. The rule of thumb is, tormentingly, the more traffic moving in your direction, the higher the probability of having only one lane.
The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot
active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, twin studies, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor
In Britain, the nation was diverted for a while by an altercation between a rather posh Conservative government minister with a bicycle, and the police guarding No. 10 Downing Street. The image of a toff on a bicycle is not far from what the evidence shows: the higher the social position, the more likely are people to have used a bicycle in the previous week. People at the top make more trips of all types than those at the bottom and more by walking and cycling.40 Happily, some in urban planning are putting their talents to designing cities with a view to walkability and active transport. I want to highlight two issues. First is the safe journey to school – taking steps to encourage children to walk or cycle to school. To achieve this will take concentration on the second issue: making cycling and walking safe. In Copenhagen, 36 per cent of the journeys to work or education are by bicycle.41 Cycle travel is relatively safe because of the separation of cars, pedestrians and cycles.
., here tuberculosis, here, here, here, here Tunisia, here Turandot, here, here Turkey, here, here Uganda, here, here unemployment, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and mental health, here and suicide, here, here youth unemployment, here, here, here, here UNICEF, here, here United Kingdom alcohol consumption, here capital:income ratio, here and child well-being, here cost of childcare, here and economic recovery, here, here education system, here, here disability-free life expectancy, here founding of welfare state, here health-care system, here income inequalities, here, here literacy levels, here male adult mortality, here PISA score, here politics and economics, here and poverty in work, here, here poverty levels, here, here prison population, here social attitudes, here and social interventions, here social mobility, here ‘strivers and scroungers’ rhetoric, here, here and taxation, here unemployment, here use of tables for meals, here United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), here, here, here, here United States of America air pollution, here, here alcohol consumption, here capital:income ratio, here child poverty, here and child well-being, here cotton subsidies, here and economic recovery, here education system, here, here, here female life expectancy, here and gang violence, here health-care system, here, here income inequalities, here, here, here, here international comparisons, here, here, here lack of paid maternity leave, here life expectancy and education, here male adult mortality, here, here, here maternal mortality, here, here obesity levels, here, here, here, here PISA score, here politics and economics, here and poverty in work, here poverty levels, here prison population, here race and disadvantage, here, here, here, here, here social disadvantage and health, here social mobility, here suicide rate, here and taxation, here US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, here US Department of Justice, here US Federal Reserve Bank, here US National Academy of Science (NAS), here, here, here, here University of Sydney, here urban planning, here Uruguay, here, here, here, here utilitarianism, here, here, here Vågerö, Denny, here valuation of life, here Victoria Longitudinal Study, here Vietnam, here, here violence, here domestic (intimate partner), here, here, here Virchow, Rudolf, here vulture funds, here, here Wales, youth unemployment in, here walking speed, here Washington Consensus, here, here, here welfare spending, here West Arnhem College, here Westminster, life expectancy in, here Whitehall Studies, here, here, here, here, here, here, here wife-beating, here Wilde, Oscar, here, here Wilkinson, Richard, here willingness-to-pay methodology, here, here Wolfe, Tom, here, here women and alcohol use, here and cash-transfer schemes, here A Note on the Author Born in England and educated in Australia, Sir Michael Marmot is Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at UCL.
Mbs: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman by Ben Hubbard
Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Donald Trump, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War
He called for competitive education that involved parents and recalled a teacher saying she did not believe in dinosaurs because they were not mentioned in the Quran. He asked for better health care, asking why, if proper care was provided by the state, citizens scrambled to get their relatives into private hospitals. He asked the municipal authorities for “a sidewalk to walk on,” arguing that the absence of them in Saudi cities was emblematic of poor urban planning. He called for more parking, better zoning between residential and commercial properties, more soccer fields, more parks, and more trees. His suggestions were charming in their modesty, simple steps the government could take to improve life. Only a few had a whiff of politics. He called for citizens to have a role in local decision-making and for free access to information. These were necessary, he said, for the leadership to achieve its goals.
emphasized in the Vision: “2030 ru’iyat al-muwaaTin as-sa‘udi” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. create more work for Saudis: “2030 ru’iyat al muwaaTin: al-waTHeefa” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. mentioned in the Quran: “2030 ru’iyat al-muwaaTin: ta‘leem jayid wa munaafis” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. relatives into private hospitals: “2030 ru’iyat al-muwaaTin: al-amaan aS-SaHHi” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. poor urban planning: “2030 ru’iyat al muwaaTin: raSeef namshi ‘alehi” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. more parking: “2030 ru’iyat al-muwaaTin: al-baHath ‘an mawqaf as-sayaara” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. commercial properties: “2030 ru’iyat al-muwaaTin as-sa‘udi: al-faSl bayn as-sakani wa at-tijaari” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016. more soccer fields: “2030 ru’iyat al muwaaTin: 500 mal‘ab qurat al-qadam” (Ar.), Al Hayat, Oct. 29, 2016.
The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize
Most of the time, if the vehicle is clean and neat, consumers won’t even notice what brand the car is—similar to how most of us feel about Uber or Lyft today. So, if a half-a-dozen different vehicles are all it takes to please the customer, then a wave of car company extinction is going to follow our wave of car company consolidation. Big auto won’t be the only industry impacted. America has almost half-a-million parking spaces. In a recent survey, MIT professor of urban planning Eran Ben-Joseph reported that, in many major US cities, “parking lots cover more than a third of the land area,” while the nation as a whole has set aside an area larger than Delaware and Rhode Island combined for our vehicles. But if car-as-service replaces car-as-thing-you-have-to-park, then we’re going to be looking at a huge commercial real estate boom as all those lots get repurposed. Then again, a lot of them could become skyports.
there were a hundred plus automotive brands: You can find an aggregated list of car brands, both in service and retired, at this Wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_car_brands. the average car owner: Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking (Routledge, 2011), p. 624. America has almost half-a-million parking spaces: Richard Florida, “Parking Has Eaten American Cities,” CityLab, July 24, 2018. MIT professor of urban planning: Eran Ben-Joseph, ReThinking a Lot (MIT Press, 2012), pp. xi–xix. Hyperloop is the brainchild: For the original whitepaper: https://www.spacex.com/sites/spacex/files/hyperloop_alpha.pdf. Robert Goddard: Malcolm Browne, “New Funds Fuel Magnet Power for Trains,” New York Times, March 3, 1992. RAND corporation: Robert Salter, “The Very High Speed Transit,” Rand Corporation, 1972. See: https://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P4874.html.
Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford
1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration
Neighborhoods that were once “marvels of close-grained intricacy and compact mutual support” are “casually disemboweled.” The rise of the automobile is closely connected to the transformation of American cities in ways that Jacobs and many others (including myself) regret; this complaint is prominent in the “new urbanism.” But on Jacobs’s account, this connection isn’t entirely a causal one; “we blame automobiles for too much.” She finds a prior cause of the degradation of American cities in urban planning, the kind that seeks to optimize the city according to a plan hatched from on high, without a street-level understanding of what makes a place thrive. She offers a thought experiment in which the automobile had never been invented, but the modernist project is left otherwise undisturbed (think windswept plazas and high-rises, or model suburbs of socially detached, nuclear families). In that case, the automobile would have to be invented.
The idea is that our movements through the city, the infrastructure we depend on, the police protections, trash collection, parking, deliveries and all the other services that make a city work, will be orchestrated by an “urban operating system.” As part of the smart city vision, driverless cars are thus one element in a striking intellectual movement. It is striking not least for its revival of a long-standing modernist ambition, that of transformative urban planning. The goals of such planning are usually public health, efficiency, beauty, and, something more elusive, order. Some cities that have gotten the full treatment over the last two centuries are wonderful places to visit despite their controversial remakings; see Paris (much of it demolished and rebuilt by Haussmann under Louis Napoleon). Others, like Brasilia and Chandigarh (both designed from the ground up by Le Corbusier), quickly became ghost towns, full of high-modernist buildings and plazas of impressive conceptual ambition through which the wind whistled, eventually to be repurposed by squatters or stripped of building materials for use in the surrounding shanty towns where urban life carries on in defiance of the master plan.
Lonely Planet Pocket Berlin by Lonely Planet, Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, G4S, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
Few original sites remain, but memorials and museums keep the horror a focus. Cold War Chills After WWII, Germany fell into the crosshairs of the Cold War, a country divided along ideological lines by the victorious powers, its internal border marked by fences and a wall. Just how differently the two countries developed is still very palpable in Berlin, expressed not only through Berlin Wall remnants such as the East Side Gallery but also through vastly different urban planning and architectural styles. Best of Prussian Glory Brandenburg Gate Royal city gate is Germany’s most iconic national symbol. (Click here) Reichstag Stand in awe of history at the palatial home of the German parliament. (Click here) Schloss Charlottenburg Palace provides a glimpse into the lifestyles of the rich and royal. (Click here) Siegessäule A giant gilded goddess crowns the top of the soaring Victory Column.
Tel Aviv 2015: The Retro Travel Guide by Claudia Stein
The Sarona plots were especially difficult to cultivate and many were sick. The Templers decided to import eucalyptus trees to drain the swamps. The layout of Sarona was planned strategically: the purchased plots were divided into lots, the new owners determined by lottery. Everybody had enough space to build a home with a little garden. The construction was subject to previously determined rules. Interestingly enough, this was not the last “creative urban planning”; the founders of Tel Aviv would do exactly the same in April 1909: subdivide the plots, establish rules for construction and determine the owners by lottery. The founders of Tel Aviv had studied the Templers very closely, especially their buildings were considered all-time modern. Everywhere in the country where the Templers were active, the general living conditions improved in a short time for everybody living in that area.
New Localism and Regeneration Management by Jon Coaffee
Stewart, M. (1994), “Between Whitehall and town hall: the realignment of urban regeneration policy in England”, Policy and Politics, Vol. 22 No. 2, pp. 133-45. Sullivan, H., Smith, M., Root, A. and Moran, D. (2001), Area Committees and Neighbourhood Management: Increasing Democratic Participation and Social Inclusion, Local Government Information Unit, London. Taylor, F. and Gaster, L. (2001), In the Neighbourhood: Area Decentralisation and New Political Structures, Local Government Association, London. Thornley, A. (1993), Urban Planning under Thatcherism: The Challenge of the Market, 2nd ed., Routledge, London. Walker, D. (2003), “The road to the north”, The Guardian Unlimited, available at: SocietyGuardian.co.uk/futureforpublicservices/story/0,8150,1077345,00.html (accessed 6 November). Wilson, D. and Game, C. (2002), Local Government in the United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Palgrave/Macmillan, Ebbw Vale. Young, P. (2001), Understanding NLP: Metaphors and Patterns of Change, Crown House Publishing, Carmarthen.
The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, Kickstarter, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
The answer: Interregional Highways had made it "perfectly clear" in 1944 "that the Interstate Highway System would penetrate the cities," and the wording of subsequent acts left no doubt that Congress had known what it was approving. Maybe so, Bragdon responded, but the system OK'ed in 1944 had been enlarged by Public Roads; surely Congress never intended urban interstates in the numbers and sizes now contemplated. He convinced commerce secretary Frederick H. Mueller to suspend work on any planned city interstates until the bureau devised a way to incorporate them into formal urban planning efforts. Tallamy and the bureau were deeply unhappy at this. Bragdon was acting in opposition to the will of Congress. Every study on which the program was based had been explicit: the country's highway needs were sharpest in the cities. Congress had read those studies. Congress had seen the Yellow Book's maps. Congress wanted urban routes. The general was just hitting stride. In October 1959, he suggested a few of his own guidelines for urban routes.
In the program's early days, those hearings were often as not used to assuage towns up in arms over not getting an interstate. The 1956 act had intended that officials use what they heard to ensure that they "considered the economic effects of such a location." The 1968 act swapped out that language for "economic and social effects of such a location, its impact on the environment, and its consistency with the goals and objectives of such urban planning as has been promulgated by the community." Instead of addressing people who worried the interstates would bypass them, the new hearings would solicit comments from those who worried they weren't far enough away. This shift in orientation became public in October 1968, when the Federal Highway Administration published the regulations it planned to use to comply with the new act. They called for two public hearings, not one, on every Federal Aid project: the first a corridor hearing at which taxpayers could speak their minds on a highway's location, and the second a design hearing, at which they would have the chance to influence the project's size and style—whether it would be elevated, depressed, or built at street level, how it would be landscaped, that sort of thing.
Building Habitats on the Moon: Engineering Approaches to Lunar Settlements by Haym Benaroya
3D printing, biofilm, Black Swan, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, carbon-based life, centre right, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, gravity well, inventory management, Johannes Kepler, low earth orbit, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, performance metric, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, telepresence, telerobotics, the scientific method, urban planning, X Prize, zero-sum game
Marc earned a D.Arch from the University of Michigan, on the NASA Full Time Graduate Fellowship and the Saarinen-Swanson Essay Prize. At UM, his dissertation was Problem Definition in a Participatory Design Process about the creation of the Human Exploration Demonstration Project at Ames. Marc earned a M.Arch from Columbia University in the City of New York, with a Kinne Summer Travelling Fellowship, where his thesis was Greenpoint Waterfront. Marc earned an AB cum laude in Architecture and Urban Planning from Princeton University, where his thesis was Village Square Community Center. Our interview Before we start, I would like to follow up on a prediction I made in our last interview that appears in your book, Turning Dust to Gold. I said, “In human spaceflight, I expect that we will see a blossoming of private launch and flight vehicles. … It is therefore with deep regret that I submit that one or more of these small space startups will kill a crew.”
Constance and Georgi Petrov in Synthesis-International have proposed an adaptation of the TransHab to lunar and planetary surfaces with their Surface Endoskeletal Inflatable Module (SEIM). ( 17 ) Meanwhile, Bigelow Aerospace licensed the NASA TransHab patent, as the basis for their proposed BA330 module that we adopted for the Water Walls module implementation concept. As a space architect, do you take insights from the biological world as you consider extraplanetary structures? Your question is much broader than just Space Architecture . Biological analogy has been one of the organizing principles for Architecture and Urban Planning for millennia. The most common example of biological analogy is bilateral symmetry. All vertebrate bodies are bilaterally symmetrical. Just think about how many buildings you know that are bilaterally symmetrical. Typical examples include ancient Egyptian cities and temple sites such as the Great Temple of Ptah in Luxor, (18th Dynasty, circa 1550–1290 BCE); the Beit HaMikdash, Solomon’s Temple on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem (circa 1000–997 BCE); Angkor Wat’s Baphuon Temple, Siem Reap, Cambodia (circa 1100–1200 CE).
Lost Connections: Uncovering the Real Causes of Depression – and the Unexpected Solutions by Johann Hari
basic income, Berlin Wall, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Donald Trump, gig economy, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, open borders, placebo effect, precariat, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Rat Park, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, The Spirit Level, twin studies, universal basic income, urban planning, zero-sum game
., “Exposure to Neighborhood Green Space and Mental Health: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin,” Int J Environ Res Public Health 11, no. 3 (March 2014): 3452–3472. See also Richard Louv, The Nature Principle (New York: Algonquin Books, 2013), 29, 33–4; Richard Louv, Last Child in The Woods (New York: Atlantic Books, 2010), 50. But it turned out there was less stress and despair in the greener neighborhood. Catherine Ward Thompson et al., “More green space is linked to less stress in deprived communities,” Landscape and Urban Planning 105, no 3 (April 2012): 221–229. Their improvement was five times greater Marc Berman et al., “Interacting with Nature Improves Cognition and Affect for Individuals with Depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders 140, no. 3 (Nov. 2012): 300–305. It’s hard for a hungry animal moving Louv, Last Child, 32. exercise significantly reduces depression and anxiety Andreas Ströhle, “Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Neural Transmission 116 (June 2009): 777.
Gonzalez, “Therapeutic Horticulture in Clinical Depression: A Prospective Study,” Res Theory Nurs Pract 23, no. 4 (2009): 312–28; Joe Sempik and Jo Aldridge, “Health, well-being and social inclusion: therapeutic horticulture in the UK,” https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/2922; V. Reynolds, “Well-being Comes Naturally: an Evaluation of the BTCV Green Gym at Portslade, East Sussex,” Report no. 17, Oxford: Oxford Brookes University; Caroline Brown and Marcus Grant, “Biodiversity and Human Health: What Role for Nature in Healthy Urban Planning?”Built Environment (1978-) 31, no. 4, Planning Healthy Towns and Cities (2005): 326–338. There’s also a treasure trove of interesting research on this in the Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, which you can access at http://www.ahta.org/the-journal-of-therapeutic-horticulture-ql, as accessed September 10, 2016. See also William Davies, The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being (New York: Verso, 2016), 246.
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
We should know by now that there are and can be no Pareto-optimal solutions for any system as complex as a city.39 That such a solution, if it even existed, could be arrived at algorithmically is also subject to the starkest doubt. Assume, for the sake of argument, that there did exist a master formula capable of resolving all resource allocation conflicts and balancing the needs of all of a city’s competing constituencies. It certainly would be convenient if this golden mean could be determined automatically and consistently, via the application of a set procedure—in a word, algorithmically. In urban planning, the idea that certain kinds of challenges are susceptible to algorithmic resolution has a long pedigree. It’s present in the Corbusian doctrine that the ideal and correct ratio of spatial provisioning in a city can be calculated from nothing more than an enumeration of the population, it underpins the complex composite indices Jay Forrester devised in his groundbreaking 1969 Urban Dynamics, and it lay at the heart of the RAND Corporation’s (eventually disastrous) intervention in the management of 1970s New York City.40 No doubt part of the idea’s appeal to smart-city advocates, too, is the familial resemblance such an algorithm would bear to the formulae by which commercial real-estate developers calculate air rights, the land area that must be reserved for parking in a community of a given size, and so on.
Should it at all undercut the business model on which retail depends, a good deal of the street frontage our cities now consecrate to that purpose would be freed up to serve other ends. Whether these new uses would attract the continuous, daylong flux of diverse visitors that urban vitality depends on, we can’t yet know.8 But straightforwardly, making things close to where they’re needed opens up the possibility of a denser, more compact and efficient way of living in cities. And with clean, city-center workshops sited cheek-by-jowl with living quarters, even urban planning’s basic distinction between industrial, commercial and residential zones comes into question. Furthermore, the bounding constraints on the human condition would shift, for all of us, in ways we’ve never before even thought to reckon with. Whether or not our experience of everyday life ever scales the heights foreseen by the most ardent prophets of luxury communism, the ability to produce things locally meaningfully concretizes the “right to an adequate standard of living” enunciated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.9 Put simply, an established practice of distributed fabrication is freedom from want.
The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus
Communism’s fortunes were buoyed by the stock market crash of 1929, by the rise of fascism and by the appeal Stalin’s manically industrializing Soviet Union had for many Europeans. Apart from communism’s promise of a classless society and of eventual peace and good will among all, the Bolsheviks’ passion for Western civilization made them familiar and accessible to Europe’s Left. The Bolsheviks had inherited their appreciation for Western literature, philosophy, music and architecture from Marx himself. A 1940 Soviet manual on urban planning characterized socialist-realist art as “Rembrandt, Rubens and Repin in the service of the working class and socialism.” (Rembrandt happened to be among Hitler’s favorite painters.) The culture hero of the communist West was Leon Trotsky, a fluently European intellectual and a real-life radical. Trotsky had a sparkling prose style and literary gift that neither Lenin nor Stalin could match. He was the most civilized of the early Bolsheviks and his was self-evidently the civilization of the West.
Benito Mussolini, “Rome must,” quoted in Slezkine, House of Government, 587. 6. Hanns Johst and Gottfried Benn, “Statement,” quoted in Benjamin G. Martin, The Nazi-Fascist New Order for European Culture (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016), 15. Joseph Goebbels, “decisive hour,” quoted in Martin, Nazi-Fascist New Order, 181; Frankfurter Zeitung, “cultural union,” quoted in Martin, Nazi-Fascist New Order, 113. 7. Soviet manual on urban planning, quoted in Slezkine, House of Government, 592. Leon Trotsky, Literature and Revolution (New York: Russell & Russell, 1957), 30. 8. Boris Iofan, “monumental decoration,” quoted in Slezkine, House of Government, 590–591. 9. Thomas Jefferson, “our Saxon ancestors,” quoted in Nell Painter, The History of White People (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), 111. Painter, History of White People, 176. 10.
Pauline Frommer's London: Spend Less, See More by Jason Cochran
Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, David Attenborough, Etonian, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Nelson Mandela, Skype, urban planning
The Design Museum (Shad Thames, SE1; % 020/7403-6933; www.design museum.org; £8.50 adults, free for children under 12, £6.50 seniors, £5 students; daily 10am–5:45pm, until 6:45pm in July and Aug, last admission 5:15pm; Tube: London Bridge or Tower Hill), just east of the Tower Bridge on the southern bank of the Thames, is strictly for contemporary top-drawer talent—the cool kids of style. To me, that makes it more of a gallery than a museum. The steep fee also means it’s best for devotees of high design, not for average sightseers. Shows are puffed-up explorations of random topics (race cars, urban planning), but if they’re sometimes ostentatious, at least they’re thought-provoking. Each spring, the museum hosts its prestigious Designs of the Year competition, and mounts mini-shows by each nominee. The gift shop (www.designmuseumshop.com) stocks some wild, strange oddities such as artist-conceived housewares, dolls, and office supplies—how about a cup that makes your hard-boiled egg look like it’s wearing pants?
Built in 1964 with heavy government concessions, it was kept empty for years by its unscrupulous owner, partly to hold out for astronomical rents and partly because doing so would get him off the tax hook, even as the city struggled through a homeless crisis. The charity Centrepoint, which started in the basement of St. Anne’s church in Soho and grew into a powerful force in housing issues, derisively took its name from the waste. Critics have assailed Centre Point as an eyesore, and as an emblem of poor urban planning—its inadequate sidewalk has 12_308691-ch08.qxp 12/23/08 9:18 PM Page 261 Shopping, Soho & Gimme Shelter a way of pushing pedestrians in front of buses. Still, it’s indisputably one of the landmarks of the London skyline, identifiable from miles away. You may end the tour here, at the Tube station, which contains some tile mosaics by the great artist Eduardo Paolozzi. Or, if you like, turn right to explore the bookstores on Charing Cross Road.
When you check out its website (tickets are cheaper online), don’t neglect the “Education” section, which lists family events (like sing-alongs) and talks by famous directors, social critics, and (ironically, I think) architects. There are often free exhibitions in the Concourse Gallery, as well as in the foyer galleries. To reach the main entrance from the Barbican Tube stop, head east on Beech Street, then turn right on Whitecross. Have a wander around this drab concrete carbuncle for a lesson in the dangers of hyperactive urban planning. On the grounds are the Guildhall School of Music and Drama (famous graduates: Ewan McGregor, Joseph Fiennes, and Orlando Bloom), a lake that buffers the noise from the Circle Line running underneath, the or Elaine Stritch singing as you are Sandra Bernhard ranting or Michael Feinstein crooning. Expect prices from £30 to £60. During the holiday season, it’s one of the most central places to catch a panto (see p. 215). 14_308691-ch10.qxp 12/23/08 9:19 PM Page 291 Going to the Theater 291 superlative Museum of London, and by the roundabout at London Wall, ruins from old Roman fortifications.
The Architecture of Happiness by Alain de Botton
As a result, although I was alone in Paris, and went for days hardly speaking to anyone, I felt none of the alienation with which I was familiar in other cities – in Los Angeles, for example, where I had once lived for a few weeks in a block between freeways. That summer, like many people before and since, I imagined no greater happiness than to be able to live in Paris for ever, pursuing a routine of going to the library, ambling the streets and watching the world from a corner table at Chez Antoine. 2. I was therefore surprised to find out, some years later, while looking through an illustrated book on urban planning, that the very area in which I had stayed, including my hotel, the café, the local laundry, the newspaper shop, even the National Library, had all fallen within a zone which one of the most intelligent and influential ar