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Melting Pot or Civil War?: A Son of Immigrants Makes the Case Against Open Borders by Reihan Salam
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bonfire of the Vanities, charter city, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ghettoisation, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, obamacare, open borders, race to the bottom, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, two tier labour market, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor
Still, these special economic zones wouldn’t be charter cities as Romer envisioned them. Getting there will take time and confidence on the part of host countries that their sovereignty won’t be unduly compromised and that their own citizens will benefit. It’s time for Americans to roll up their sleeves and help. Eventually, charter cities could achieve the same size and scale of a city like Shenzhen, which has grown from a population of 30,000 in 1980 to more than ten million today. If English settlers could lay the foundations for great cities with new, more responsive systems of government centuries ago, why wouldn’t we expect that today’s migrants could do much the same if given the chance? The Virtue of Virtual Immigration Even if we assume that charter cities take off, and that many older Americans prove willing to retire abroad, there will still be demand for low-cost services in the United States.
According to The Economist, the Indian government estimates that as many as twenty million Bangladeshi nationals are living on Indian soil, and independent observers peg the number at fifteen million.26 In recent years, the Bangladeshi influx has sparked intense political resistance, partly because of the fear that Bangladeshi Muslims will change India’s ethnoreligious mix. And there are countless other examples of similarly fraught conflicts, particularly in Africa. Charter cities could offer an invaluable alternative. So how might charter cities emerge? For one, necessity is sure to play a role. In 2015, the Syrian migrant crisis led Alexander Betts and Paul Collier to devise an unorthodox solution. In a Foreign Affairs article,27 they offered a plan that would resettle Syrian refugees close to home.28 While hundreds of thousands of Syrians sought refuge in Europe, millions instead made their way to Lebanon, Jordan, and Turkey.
Growing an existing city has its advantages, and many of the world’s most ambitious new cities have been failures, especially when they’ve been built to glorify a country’s rulers rather than to exploit new economic opportunities. There is, however, one very big advantage to building new cities: their founders can learn from past experiences and adopt new institutions and technologies with relatively little blowback from incumbent interests. For years, the economist Paul Romer has championed the idea of “charter cities,” that is, new cities that are established with rules and institutions carefully designed to foster economic growth and upward mobility for the world’s poor.23 As an example, he points to the experience of Shenzhen, a teeming metropolis of more than ten million that as recently as 1980 was little more than a fishing village. To capture some of the dynamism of neighboring Hong Kong, the Chinese government established a special economic zone (SEZ) in Shenzhen that, over time, became a hub of labor-intensive manufacturing, and that has since evolved into a font of entrepreneurial growth.
Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford
Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game
But is his extreme version of the charter city idea necessary? Romer thinks so: he argues that foreign ownership could be a way for shaky governments to import credibility, in much the same way that democratically elected politicians sometimes hand control of interest rates to technocrats at the central bank, or cede some sovereignty to international institutions. But perhaps that puts too much emphasis on the problem of credibility. After all, Lübeck – Sebastian Mallaby’s example of the original charter city – was an entirely domestic affair: Henry the Lion didn’t need to sign a treaty with the Pope or Henry II of England or anyone else. He just made a promise to prospective citizens, and that seemed to be enough. Charter cities have an entirely different appeal, which Henry the Lion captured perfectly with Lübeck: they allow both variation and selection on a grand scale.
As the journalist Sebastian Mallaby points out, Henry’s project for Lübeck was ‘a bit like trying to build a new Chicago in modern Congo or Iraq’ – and that is pretty much what the economist Paul Romer now wants to do. Romer is the founder of the ‘charter cities’ movement, and he argues that the world needs entirely new cities with their own infrastructure and, in particular, their own rules on democracy, taxes and corporate governance. These cities, like Lübeck, would be governed by a set of rules designed to attract ambitious people. According to Mallaby, Lübeck represented ‘a formula for creating order out of chaos and prosperity amid backwardness’ in the Middle Ages. It is just such a formula that Paul Romer is now promoting. There is plenty of evidence that charter cities could work in today’s world. There’s Singapore, long a successful independent city state off the coast of Malaysia; Hong Kong, for many years a British enclave on the South China Sea; more recently, Shenzhen, thirty years ago a fishing village not far from Hong Kong, now a city to rival Hong Kong itself after being designated China’s first ‘special economic zone’.
But Romer has pushed the charter city concept to its limit by suggesting that the cities could be run by foreign countries. In one of his more fanciful examples, Cuba, the USA and Canada agree to transfer Guantanamo Bay to the Canadians, who establish a Hong Kong in the Caribbean: the Cubans gain a gateway to twenty-first-century capitalism; the Americans rid themselves of a public-relations problem; the Canadians gain influence and wealth. Economically this is plausible. Politically it is almost inconceivable. Romer is not short of self-confidence: a brilliant and influential scholar of economic growth, he walked away from research to make a small fortune as an internet entrepreneur, before turning down the job of Chief Economist of the World Bank to evangelise for the idea of charter cities. But is his extreme version of the charter city idea necessary?
Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game
Romer posits that rules and laws, which are hard to change and require concessions to be approved, are not optimized for spurring innovation and creating economic growth. Charter cities, on the other hand, are experimental reform zones engineered entirely to create jobs and growth. Citizens could opt in or not. Some will be ready and some won’t. His illustration is Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Hong Kong, located in China but ruled for generations by Great Britain, was free of antimarket Communist rule and became an economic engine, attracting and training workers. Deng Xiaoping, grasping that China needed to become more open in order to grow, created a de facto charter city in nearby Shenzhen, which could take advantage of its neighbor’s talent pool and infrastructure. Unlike the rest of China, Shenzhen’s rules would be attractive to foreign investment and international trade.
Unpublished manuscript, December 2015. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4159/521bb401c139b440264049ce0af522033b5c.pdf?_ga=1.27764476.1700601381.1481243681. Lemann, Nicholas. “The Network Man: Reid Hoffman’s Big Idea.” The New Yorker, October 12, 2015. http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/10/12/the-network-man. Romer, Paul. “Interview on Urbanization, Charter Cities and Growth Theory.” Paul Romer (blog), April 29, 2015. https://paulromer.net/tag/charter-cities/. Calmes, Jackie. “Who Hates Free Trade Treaties? Surprisingly, Not Voters.” New York Times, September 21, 2016. http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/22/us/politics/who-hates-trade-treaties-surprisingly-not-voters.html. “Trans-Pacific Partnership.” International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Accessed December 9, 2016. http://www.trade.gov/fta/tpp/index.asp.
See also United Kingdom British Raj, 16, 186–87 broadband infrastructure, 225 Buddha, Gautama, 9 Burgum, Doug, 47–48 cable TV, 30 Cairo, 214, 218 cameras, 150 Canada, 230 cancer, 142, 159, 214 Candidate, The (film), 75 capabilities, 122–23, 141 capitalism, 237–38 late-stage, 221 Capossela, Chris, 3, 71, 81–82 Carnegie Mellon, 3 Carney, Susan L., 177 Carroll, Pete, 4 Case, Anne, 236 Cavium Networks, 20 CD-ROM, 28 CEO as curator of culture, 100, 241 “disease,” 92 panoramic view of, 118 cerebral palsy, 8–10 Chang, Emily, 129 charter city, 229 Cheng, Lili, 197 chess, 198–99 Chik, Joy, 58 child exploitation, 190 Chile, 223, 230 China, 86, 195, 220, 222, 229, 232, 236 chip design, 25 CIA, 169 Cisco, 174 civil liberties, 172–73 civil rights, 24 civil society, 179 Civil War, 188 clarity, 119 Clayton, Steve, 155 client/server era, 45 climate change, 142, 214 Clinton, Hillary, 230 cloud, 13, 41–47, 49, 51–62, 68, 70, 73, 81, 88, 110, 125, 129, 131, 137, 140, 150, 164, 166, 172, 180–81, 186, 189–92, 216, 219, 223–25, 228 cloud-first mission and, 57–58, 70, 76, 79, 83 public, 42–43, 57 Cloud for Global Good, 240–41 Codapalooza, 104 cognition, 89, 150, 152–53 Cohen, Leonard, 10 collaboration, 88, 102–3, 106–8, 126, 135, 163–64, 166, 200 collaborative robots (co-bots), 204 collective IQ, 142, 143 Colombia, 78 Columbia University, 165 Comin, Diego, 216–17, 226 commitment, shared, 77, 119 Common (hip hop artist), 71 Common Objects in Context challenge, 151 communication, 76–77 Compaq, 29 comparative advantage, 222, 228 competition, internal, 52 competitive zeal, 38–39, 70–71, 102 competitors, 39 partnerships and, 78, 125–38 complexity, 25, 224 computers early, 21–22, 24–26 future platforms, 110–11 programs by, 153–54 computing power, massive, 150–51 Conard, Edward, 220 concepts, 122–23, 141 consistency, 77–78, 182 Constitution Today, The (Amar), 186–87 constraints, 119 construction companies, 153 consumers, 49–50, 222 context, shared, 56–57 Continental Congress, 185 Continuum, 73 Convent of Jesus and Mary (India), 19 Cook, Tim, 177 cook stoves, 43 coolness, 75–76 core business, 142 Cortana, 125, 152, 156–58, 195, 201 Couchbase company, 58 counterintuitive strategy, 56–57 Coupland, Douglas, 74 Courtois, Jean-Philippe, 82 courts, 184–85 Covington and Burling lawyers, 3 Cranium games, 7 creativity, 58, 101, 119, 201, 207, 242 credit rating, 43, 204–5 Creed (film), 44–45 cricket, 18–22, 31, 35–40, 115 Cross-country Historical Adoption of Technology (CHAT), 217 culture bias and, 205 “live site first,” 61 three Cs and, 122–23, 141 transforming, 2, 11, 16, 40, 76–78, 81–82, 84, 90–92, 98–103, 105, 108–10, 113–18, 120, 122–23, 241–42 Culture (Eagleton), 91 Curiosity (Mars rover), 144 customer needs, 42, 59, 73, 80, 83, 88, 99, 101–2, 108, 126, 138 customization, 151 cybersecurity, 171, 190 cyberworld, rules for, 184 data, 60, 151 data analytics, 50 databases, 26 Data General company, 68 data management, 54 data platform, 59 data security, 175–76, 188–89 Deaton, Angus, 236 Deep Blue, 198–99 deep neural networks, 153 Delbene, Kurt, 3, 81–82 Delhi, India, 19, 31, 37 Dell, 63, 87, 127, 129–30 Dell, Michael, 129 democracy, 180 democratization, 4, 13, 69, 127, 148, 151–52 Deng Xiaoping, 229 Depardieu, Gerard, 33 design, 50, 69, 141, 239 desktop software, 27 Detroit, 15, 225, 233 developed economies, 99–100 share of world income, 236 developing economies, 99–100, 217, 225 device management solutions, 58 digital assistants, 142, 156–58, 195–98, 201 digital cable, 28 digital evidence, 191–92 Digital Geneva Convention, 171–72 digital ink, 142 digital literacy, 226–27 digital publishing laws, 185 digital transformation, 70, 126–27, 132, 235 dignity, 205 disabilities, 103, 200 disaster relief, 44 Disney, 150 disruption, 13 distributed systems, 49 diversity, 101–2, 108, 111–17, 205–6, 238, 241 Donne, John, 57 drones, 209, 226 Drucker, Peter, 90 dual users, 79 Dubai, 214, 228 Duke University, 3 Dupzyk, Kevin, 147 D-Wave, 160 Dweck, Carol, 92 dynamic learning, 100 Dynamics, 121 Dynamics 365, 152 dyslexia, 44, 103–4 Eagleton, Terry, 91 earthquakes, 44 EA Sports, 127 economic growth, 211–34 economic inequality, 12, 207–8, 214, 219–21, 225, 227, 236–41 Edge browser, 104 education, 42–44, 78, 97, 104, 106–7, 142, 145, 206–7, 224, 226–28, 234, 236–38 Egypt, 218–19, 223, 225 E-health companies, 222–23 8080 microprocessor, 21 elasticity, 49 electrical engineering (EE), 21–22 elevator and escalator business, 60 Elop, Stephen, 64, 72 email, 27, 169–73, 176 EMC, 129 emotion, 89, 197, 201 emotional intelligence (EQ), 158, 198 empathy, 6–12, 16, 40, 42–43, 93, 101, 133–34, 149, 157, 182, 197, 201, 204, 206, 226, 239, 241 employee resource groups (ERGs), 116–17 employees, 66–68, 75, 138 diversity and, 101, 111–17 empowerment and, 79–80, 126 global summit of, 86–87 hackathon, 10–11 talent development and, 117–18 empowerment, 87–88, 98–99, 106, 108–10, 126 encryption, 161–62, 175, 192–93 energy, generating across company, 119 energy costs, 237 Engelbart, Doug, 142 Engelbart’s Law, 142–43 engineers, 108–9 Enlightiks, 222–23 Enterprise Business, 81 entertainment industry, 126 ethics, 195-210, 239 Europe, 193 Excel, 121 experimental physicists, 162–64 eye-gaze tracking, 10 Facebook, 15, 44, 51, 125, 144, 174, 200, 222 failures, overcoming, 92, 111 Fairfax Financial Holdings, 20 fairness, 236 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 170, 177–78, 189 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 28 fear of unknown, 110–11 feedback loop, 53 fertilizer, 164 Feynman, Richard, 160 fiefdoms, 52 field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), 161 Fields Medal, 162 firefighters, 43, 56 First Amendment, 185, 190 Flash, 136 focus, 135–36, 138 Foley, Mary Jo, 52 Ford Motor Company, 64 foreign direct investment, 219, 225, 229 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), 173 Fourth Amendment, 185–88, 190, 193 France, 223, 236 Franco, James, 169 Franklin, Benjamin, 186 Freedman, Michael, 162, 166 free speech, 170–72, 175, 179, 185, 190, 238 Fukushima nuclear plant, 44 G20 nations, 219 Galaxy Explorer, 148 game theory, 123–24 Gandhi, Mohandas Mahatma, 16 Gartner Inc., 145 Gates, Bill, 4, 12, 21, 28, 64, 46, 67–69, 73–75, 87, 91, 127, 146, 183, 203 Gavasker, Sunil, 36 GE, 3, 126–27, 237 Gelernter, David, 143, 183 Geneva Convention, Fourth (1949), 171 Georgia Pacific, 29 Germany, 220, 223, 227–36 Gervais, Michael, 4–5 Gini, Corrado, 219 Gini coefficient, 219–21 GLEAM, 117 Gleason, Steve, 10–11 global competitiveness, 78–79, 100–102, 215 global information, policy and, 191 globalization, 222, 227, 235–37 global maxima, 221–22 goals, 90, 136 Goethe, J.W. von, 155 Go (game), 199 Goldman Sachs, 3 Google, 26, 45, 70–72, 76, 127, 160, 173–74, 200 partnership with, 125, 130–32 Google DeepMind, 199 Google Glass, 145 Gordon, Robert, 234 Gosling, James, 26 government, 138, 160 cybersecurity and, 171–79 economic growth and, 12, 223–24, 226–28 policy and, 189–92, 223–28 surveillance and, 173–76, 181 Grace Hopper, 111–14 graph coloring, 25 graphical user interfaces (GUI), 26–27 graphics-processing unit (GPU), 161 Great Convergence, the (Baldwin), 236 Great Recession (2008), 46, 212 Greece, 43 Green Card (film), 33 Guardians of Peace, 169 Gutenberg Bible, 152 Guthrie, Scott, 3, 58, 60, 82, 171 H1B visa, 32–33 habeas corpus, 188 Haber, Fritz, 165 Haber process, 165 hackathon, 103–5 hackers, 169–70, 177, 189, 193 Hacknado, 104 Halo, 156 Hamaker, Jon, 157 haptics, 148 Harvard Business Review, 118 Harvard College, 3 Harvey Mudd College, 112 Hawking, Stephen, 13 Hazelwood, Charles, 180 head-mounted computers, 144–45 healthcare, 41–42, 44, 142, 155–56, 159, 164, 198, 218, 223, 225, 237 Healthcare.gov website, 3, 81, 238 Heckerman, David, 158 Hewlett Packard, 63, 87, 127, 129 hierarchy, 101 Himalayas, 19 Hindus, 19 HIV/AIDS, 159, 164 Hobijn, Bart, 217 Hoffman, Reid, 232, 233 Hogan, Kathleen, 3, 80–82, 84 Holder, Eric, 173–74 Hollywood, 159 HoloLens, 69, 89, 125, 144–49, 236 home improvement, 149 Hong Kong, 229 Hood, Amy (CFO), 3, 5, 82, 90 Horvitz, Eric, 154, 208 hospitals, 42, 78, 145, 153, 223 Hosseini, Professor, 23 Huang, Xuedong, 151 human capital, 223, 226 humanistic approach, 204 human language recognition, 150–51, 154–55 human performance, augmented by technology, 142–43, 201 human rights, 186 Hussain, Mumtaz, 36, 37 hybrid computing, 89 Hyderabad, 19, 36–37, 92 Hyderabad Public School (HPS), 19–20, 22, 37–38, 136 hyper-scale, cloud-first services, 50 hypertext, 142 IBM, 1, 160, 174, 198 IBM Watson, 199–200 ideas, 16, 42 Illustrator, 136 image processing, 24 images, moving, 109 Imagine Cup competition, 149 Immelt, Jeff, 237 Immigration and Naturalization Act (1965), 24, 32–33 import taxes, 216 inclusiveness, 101–2, 108, 111, 113–17, 202, 206, 238 independent software vendor (ISV), 26 India, 6, 12, 17–22, 35–37, 170, 186–87, 222–23, 236 immigration from, 22–26, 32–33, 114–15 independence and, 16–17, 24 Indian Administrative Service (IAS), 16–17, 31 Indian Constitution, 187 Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), 21, 24 Indian Premier League, 36 IndiaStack, 222–23 indigenous peoples, 78 Indonesia, 223, 225 industrial policy, 222 Industrial Revolution, 215 Fourth or future, 12, 239 information platforms, 206 information technology, 191 Infosys, 222 infrastructure, 88–89, 152–53, 213 innovation, 1–2, 40, 56, 58, 68, 76, 102, 111, 120, 123, 142, 212, 214, 220, 224, 234 innovator’s dilemma, 141–42 insurance industry, 60 Intel, 21, 45, 160, 161 intellectual property, 230 intelligence, 13, 88–89, 126, 150, 154–55, 160, 169, 173, 239 intelligence communities, 173 intensity of use, 217, 219, 221, 224–26 International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, 162 Internet, 28, 30, 48, 79, 97–98, 222 access and, 225–26, 240 security and privacy and, 172–73 Internet Explorer, 127 Internet of Things (IoT), 79, 134, 142, 228 Internet Tidal Wave, 203 Intersé, 3 Interview, The (film), 169–71 intimidation, 38 investment strategy, 90, 142 iOS devices, 59, 72, 123, 132 iPad, 70, 141 iPad Pro, 123–25 iPhone, 70, 72, 85, 121–22, 125, 177–79 Irish data center, 176, 184 Islamic State (ISIS), 177 Istanbul, 214 Jaisimha, M.L., 18, 36–37 Japan, 44, 223, 230 Japanese-American internment, 188 JAVA, 26 Jeopardy (TV show), 199 Jha, Rajesh, 82 jobs, 214, 231, 239–40.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
William Arrowsmith (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1962). 4. See Benjamin H. Bratton, “Interview by Metahaven,” October 2011, http://www.bratton.info/projects/texts/interview-by-metahaven/, and “The Cloud, the State, and the Stack: Metahaven in Conversation with Benjamin Bratton,” December 16, 2012, http://mthvn.tumblr.com/post/38098461078/thecloudthestateandthestack. 5. See http://urbanizationproject.org/blog/charter-cities. Charter Cities represents a plan to introduce new legal frameworks for new or existing cities, turning them into a parallel to Special Economic Zones, here Special Political Zones. New York University economist Paul Romer is a leading advocate for the vision. 6. See this discussion of Gelernter's influence on the conceptual development of the Cloud: David Gelernter, John Markoff, and Clay Shirky, “Lord of the Cloud,” Edge, April 29, 2009, http://edge.org/conversation/lord-of-the-cloud.
China has several important urban jurisdictional anomalies, such the special status of Hong Kong, Macau, and the Shanghai foreign concessions, and more recently, its urbanization has been steered somewhat by a strict distinction between urban and rural systems and populations, most clearly symbolized by the houkou license system, which also generated a huge population of internal “illegal aliens.” The growth of new cities, almost from scratch, but mostly on top of where old ones stood a few years ago, drew on the fungibility of enforcing this credentialization of infrastructural access. Elsewhere, a new kind of tabula rasa urbanism is seen in the charter city movement, as evangelized by New York University economist Paul Romer. The city remains a crucial site for challenges to traditional spatial models of sovereignty and innovation in what might augment or displace them, and Romer has advised plans for a “charter city” in Trujillo, Honduras, one administered by the courts of Mauritius and, in principal, open to qualified persons who may choose to reside there. Here individual sovereignty is derived from the access to and use of a common urban infrastructure network more than autochthonous genealogy.
See mobile devices Center for Bits and Atoms (MIT), 226 Central Bureau of the Map of the World, 413n5 centralized cybernetic economic planning systems, 58–61, 328–329 Central Nervous System of the Earth (CeNSE) (HP), 192 Cerf, Vint, 42, 62–63 chains of interfaciality, 231, 233–234, 338–339 change, commitment to, 303–304 charter city movement, 310–311 Chicago Boys, 385n25 Chile, 58, 328 China boundary enforcement, 310 carbon emissions, 259 conflict with Google, 9, 112–115, 143–144, 245, 361 factory cities in, 179, 189 internal illegal aliens, 310, 409n39 Internet in, 113 jurisdictional anomalies, 310 mobile operating systems popular in, 398n21 rain, control of, 398n21 social media in, 126 software espionage, 398n21 state services apparatus, 316 Universal Postal Union, 194 weather data, claim over, 97 Christianity, 239 Chrysler Building, 183 Church-Turing thesis, 78 Cisco Systems, 88, 179 cities. See also entries beginning with urban agricultural, 307–308 ambient interface, 296 borders within, 311–312 building codes and zoning, 162 charter city movement, 310–311 citizens, 153, 159, 175 of control, 157–160 function of, 168 future of, 308–312, 315–316, 414n10 futuristic, 162–163 green, 181–182 Internet compared, 445n37 jurisdiction in, 153, 296 mobile device interface, 168–169, 237 noncitizens, 159, 175, 310, 409n39 population, 303–304 poverty in, 443n13 redrawing by the Cloud through the App, 238 right to passage through, 174 self-governing, 310–311 standardization in, 46 violence defining, 311, 322–323, 325 without architecture, 151 citizens.
Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier
Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game
Given the spatial concentration of immigrants, a continued trend toward political separatism would presumably produce cities ruled by immigrant-dominant political parties. This would approximate to the transfer of institutions, at the city level, from poor societies to rich. Somewhat ironically, precisely the opposite proposal is being made by the eminent economist of the growth process, Paul Romer. He shares the analysis that institutions are fundamental to the difference between poverty and prosperity, but adds a simple-sounding solution: charter cities.32 A charter city would be created on territory that the government of a poor country would cede on a long-term lease to be governed under the laws of some developed country. Bangladesh might cede a patch of land to be ruled under the jurisdiction of Singapore, or for that matter of Britain. With the rule of law so secured, Romer predicts that both investors and people would flood in. An irony of Romer-in-reverse—the transfer of institutions from the societies of origin to the host societies—is that, if Romer is correct, what migrants are escaping from, though they may not realize it, is the dysfunctional institutions that as settlers they appear to want to bring with them.
See under countries of origin British Medical Association, 126 British Nationalist Party, 241 Brown, Dan, 214 Brown, Gordon, 21, 130, 244 California (United States), 85–86 Cameron, David, 138 Canada East Asian migrants in, 120–121 migration policy in, 12, 100, 157–158, 248–249, 264 national identity in, 17–18, 236–237 population density, 92, 137 Cape Verde, 184–185, 193 capital mobility, 23, 28–29, 36, 51, 121, 129–130, 265 carbon emissions, 257–258 Caribbean migration to Great Britain, 47–48 Catalonia, 235 categorical imperative, 260 charter cities, 103 Chauvet, Lisa, 185–187 Chekhov, Anton, 222 China brain gain versus brain drain in, 218, 220, 252 demography in, 123 economic growth in, 39–40, 201–202 economic productivity in, 149 education emigration and, 201 education investment in, 200 governance in, 183–184 national identity and, 17 remittances to, 207 return migration and, 201–202 Russia and, 249 Clemens, Michael, 58 climate change, 257–258 Clinton, Bill, 31, 200 Collier, Charles, 3, 273 community, concept of, 232–233 Condé, Alpha, 191 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 184 Conservative Party (Great Britain), 15, 103 cooperation experimental games measuring, 63–64, 66–67, 74, 80, 254 foundations of, 31–32 free-rider problem and, 63–64, 66 Kenya study of, 76, 239–240 mutual regard and, 62–63, 67, 83, 87 punishing transgression and, 63–64, 74, 79 trust and, 32, 64, 66–67, 73–74 Corden, Max, 118 Côte d’Ivoire, 191 countries of origin.
Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems by Abhijit V. Banerjee, Esther Duflo
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, charter city, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, fear of failure, financial innovation, George Akerlof, high net worth, immigration reform, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, land reform, loss aversion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart meter, social graph, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K
Moretti estimates the two effects might actually net out, with the result that national growth will be more or less unaffected.45 Moretti concludes from his reading of this entire literature that regional development is unlikely to be the lever that will help us avoid the end of growth.46 It is possible his assessment is slightly too pessimistic, but the note of warning is certainly valid. While it may make sense for an individual city to try to lure jobs away from another, this is unlikely to be a large win for a country as a whole, unless it is a very small country (the city state of Singapore, for example) that can grow at the expense of others. CHARTER CITIES It is worth emphasizing, however, that this evidence mainly comes from the United States or Europe. It could be that the developing world is quite different in this respect. Certainly, high-quality urban infrastructure is much more concentrated in a few cities in most of these countries, and a case could be made both for building more “high quality” cities and for making the few existing big cities more livable in order to promote economic growth.
He wants these countries to build cities where creative people would want to come together and new ideas would be born out of the cross-pollination. Cities that would be business friendly but also genuinely livable—Shenzhen without the pollution and the traffic. Unusually for a successful academic, he believed and cared enough in his message to set up a nonprofit think tank to help in the creation of what he called “charter cities.” These would be giant protected enclaves (Romer wants hundreds of them around the world, each of them hosting eventually at least a million people) that live by Romerian rules within nations that do not. There would be a contract by which the national government agreed that a third-party government, from a developed country, would enforce those rules. So far, there has been just one taker, the government of Honduras, which had plans to set up as many as twenty zones for employment and economic development (ZEDEs).
They deviated from the project from the get-go when they decided not to use the oversight of a third-party government. It eventually turned out that the Honduran government was more interested in Romer’s name and fame than his counsel, and when it signed a deal with an American entrepreneur with a strong taste for totally unregulated capitalism to develop the ZEDEs, Romer walked out. This story suggests charter cities are unlikely to hold the key to sustained growth in developing countries for the very good reason that the internal political compulsions the charter is intended to hold at bay often have a way of biting back. CREATIVE DESTRUCTION To summarize the previous sections, regional spillovers seem real, but based on the limited evidence we have, probably not powerful enough for the task of keeping growth going at the national level.
Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo
Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Cass Sunstein, charter city, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, experimental subject, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, land tenure, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, microcredit, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, urban planning
., Peter Thomas Bauer, Dissent on Development (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1972). 2 Ritva Reinikka and Jakob Svensson, “The Power of Information: Evidence from a Newspaper Campaign to Reduce Capture,” working paper, IIES, Stockholm University (2004). 3 See, for example, Easterly’s post on randomized control trials, available at http://aidwatchers.com/2009/07/development-experiments-ethical-feasible-useful/. 4 See, for example, Jeffrey Sachs, “Who Beats Corruption,” available at http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/sachs106/English. 5 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005). 6 Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail (forthcoming, Crown, 2012). 7 See, for example,Tim Besley and Torsten Persson, “Fragile States and Development Policy” (manuscript, November 2010), which argues that fragile states are a key symptom of underdevelopment in the world and that such states are incapable of delivering basic services to their citizens. 8 Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson, “The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation,” American Economic Review 91 (5) (2001): 1369—1401. 9 Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, “History, Institutions, and Economic Performance: The Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India,” American Economic Review 95 (4) (2005): 1190—1213. 10 Dwyer Gunn, “Can ‘Charter Cities’ Change the World? A Q&A with Paul Romer,” New York Times, September 29, 2009; and see “Charter Cities,” available at http://www.chartercities.org. 11 Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007); and Paul Collier, Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places (New York: HarperCollins, 2009). 12 William Easterly, “The Burden of Proof Should Be on Interventionists—Doubt Is a Superb Reason for Inaction,” Boston Review (July–August 2009). 13 See Rajiv Chandrasekaram, Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq’s Green Zone (New York: Knopf, 2006), as well as Easterly’s insightful critique of the army operation manual, available at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/william-easterly/will-us-armys-development_b_217488.html. 14 William Easterly, “Institutions: Top Down or Botton Up,” American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 98 (2) (2008): 95–99. 15 See The White Man’s Burden, p. 133. 16 Ibid., p. 72. 17 William Easterly, “Trust the Development Experts—All 7 Billion,” Financial Times, May 28, 2008. 18 The White Man’s Burden, p. 73. 19 Marianne Bertrand, Simeon Djankov, Rema Hanna, and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Obtaining a Driving License in India: An Experimental Approach to Studying Corruption,” Quarterly Journal of Economics (November 2007): 1639–1676. 20 See his presentation on the subject, available at http://dri.fas.nyu.edu/object/withoutknowinghow.html. 21 Rohini Pande and Christopher Udry, “Institutions and Development: A View from Below,” Yale Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper 928 (2005). 22 Monica Martinez-Bravo, Gerard Padro-i-Miquel, Nancy Qian, and Yang Yao, “Accountability in an Authoritarian Regime: The Impact of Local Electoral Reforms in Rural China,” Yale University (2010), manuscript. 23 Benjamin Olken, “Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia,” Journal of Political Economy 115 (2) (April 2007): 200–249. 24 Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, Daniel Keniston, and Nina Singh, “Making Police Reform Real: The Rajasthan Experiment,” draft paper, MIT (2010). 25 Thomas Fujiwara, “Voting Technology, Political Responsiveness, and Infant Health: Evidence from Brazil,” University of British Columbia, mimeo (2010). 26 World Bank, World Development Report 2004: Making Services Work for Poor People (2003). 27 Raghabendra Chattopadhyay and Esther Duflo, “Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India,” Econometrica 72 (5) (2004): 1409–1443. 28 Leonard Wantchekon, “Clientelism and Voting Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Benin,” World Politics 55 (3) (2003): 399–422. 29 Abhijit Banerjee and Rohini Pande, “Ethnic Preferences and Politician Corruption,” KSG Working Paper RWP07-031 (2007). 30 Nicholas Van de Walle, “Presidentialism and Clientelism in Africa’s Emerging Party Systems,” Journal of Modern African Studies 41 (2) (June 2003): 297–321. 31 Abhijit Banerjee, Donald Green, Jennifer Green, and Rohini Pande, “Can Voters Be Primed to Choose Better Legislators?
Paul Romer, known for his pioneering work on economic growth a couple of decades ago, came up with what seems like a brilliant solution: If you cannot run your country, subcontract it to someone who can.10 Still, running an entire country may be difficult. So he proposes starting with cities, small enough to be manageable but large enough to make a difference. Inspired by the example of Hong Kong, developed with great success by the British and then handed back to China, he developed the concept of “charter cities.” Countries would hand over an empty strip of territory to a foreign power, who would then take the responsibility for developing a new city with good institutions. Starting from scratch, it is possible to establish a set of good ground rules (his examples range from traffic congestion charges to marginal cost pricing for electricity, and of course include legal protection of property rights).
What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
., p. 71. 182 The Triad of Biological Evolution: Inspired by Stephen Jay Gould. (2002) The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 1052; designed by the author. 183 The Triad of Technological Evolution: Designed by the author. 184 North Korea at Night: Paul Romer. (2009) “Rules Change: North vs. South Korea.” Charter Cities (January 28, 2010). http://chartercities.org/blog/37/rules-change-north-vs-south-korea. 185 that is sparse and minimal: Paul Romer. (2009) “Paul Romer’s Radical Idea: Charter Cities.” TEDGlobal, Oxford. 185 a matter of what it is designed for: Robert Wright. (2000) Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny. New York: Pantheon. 187 technology is our “second self”: Sherry Turkle. (1985) The Second Self. New York: Simon & Schuster. 188 “but we hope in technology”: W. Brian Arthur. (2009) The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves.
Cooperation, not new, was hard to scale into the millions. Sharing, as old as humans, is difficult to maintain among strangers. The extension of increasing mutualism from biology into the technium points to yet more sociality and mutualism to come. Right now we are using technology to collaboratively build encyclopedias, news agencies, video archives, and software in groups that span continents. Can we build bridges, universities, and charter cities the same way? Every day over the past century someone asked, What can’t free markets do? We took a long list of problems that seemed to require rational planning or paternal government and instead applied the astoundingly powerful invention of marketplace logic. In most cases, the market solution worked significantly better. Much of the prosperity in recent decades was gained by unleashing market forces into the technium.
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley
"Robert Solow", 23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
The key policies for Africa are to abolish Europe’s and America’s farm subsidies, quotas and import tariffs, formalise and simplify the laws that govern business, undermine tyrants and above all encourage the growth of free-trading cities. In 1978 China was about as poor and despotic as Africa is now. It changed because it deliberately allowed free-trading zones to develop in emulation of Hong Kong. So, says the economist Paul Romer, why not repeat the formula? Use Western aid to create a new ‘charter city’ in Africa on uninhabited land, free to trade with the rest of the world, and allow it to draw in people from the surrounding nations. It worked for Tyre 3,000 years ago, for Amsterdam 300 years ago and for Hong Kong thirty years ago. It can work for Africa today. If, that is, the climate does not lurch into chaos. Climate In the mid-1970s it was briefly fashionable for journalists to write scare stories about the recent cooling of the globe, which was presented as undiluted bad news.
p. 327 ‘a study of the sardine fishermen of Kerala in southern India’. Jensen, Robert T. 2007. The digital provide: information (technology), market performance and welfare in the South Indian fisheries sector. Quarterly Journal of Economics 122: 879–924. p. 328 ‘demographic dividend’. Bloom, D.E. et al. 2007. Realising the Demographic Dividend: Is Africa Any Different? PGDA Working Paper no. 23, Harvard University. p. 328 ‘charter city in Africa’. www.chartercities.com. p. 329 ‘The weather is always capricious’. Newsweek, 22 January 1996. On the web at http://www.newsweek.com/id/101296/page/1. p. 329 ‘Meteorologists disagree about the cause and extent’. Newsweek, 28 April 1975. On the web at http://www.denisdutton.com/cooling_world.htm. p. 329 ‘that the last three decades of relatively slow average temperature changes are more compatible with a low-sensitivity than a highsensitivity model of greenhouse warming’.
How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna
Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize
Special economic zones are popping up from North Africa to Southeast Asia, promoting their ironclad public-private synergy. The rival ports of Chabahar in Iran and Gwadar in Pakistan jockey to be called the “gateway to central Asia,” while Tangier and Tunis contend to be North Africa’s primary port of passage to Europe. Countries that want to catch up might have to set aside new physical spaces for high-productivity “charter cities” to be built from scratch, combining foreign capital and domestic labor. All of these experiments only reinforce our postmodern medievalism. But most countries on the lower rungs of the global economy won’t become the next Dubai anytime soon. What they should instead aspire to be is the next best thing. What is the most attainable or proximate model for them to emulate in the coming five to ten years?
Uncanny Valley: A Memoir by Anna Wiener
autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Extropian, future of work, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, means of production, medical residency, new economy, New Urbanism, passive income, pull request, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, union organizing, universal basic income, unpaid internship, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional
The brochures collected on top of the mailboxes like a come- on and a taunt—reminders of our luck, and our impermanence. * * * There was a lot of discussion that year, particularly among the entrepreneurial class, about city-building. Everyone was reading The Power Broker—or, at least, reading summaries. Everyone was reading Season of the Witch. Armchair urbanists blogged about Jane Jacobs and discovered Haussmann, Le Corbusier. They fantasized about charter cities. They were beginning to notice something interesting—a potential opportunity, perhaps—taking place outside the windows of their ride-shares. They were beginning to catch on to the value of civic life. At a party, I met a man who leaned in and told me, with warm breath, that he was trying to get involved with an exciting new urbanism project. His T-shirt was creased geometrically, as if he’d had it same-day delivered and only unfolded it an hour ago: artful dishevelment in the age of on-demand.
The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K
Like most such texts, it is longer on critique than on prescription, but Deneen ends with a vision for a new postliberal politics that might be described as local revolution, in which the oligarchic sclerosis of developed-world institutions is escaped by a refounding of virtuous communities on a more human and organic scale. These communities would not fit a simple ideological pattern. They might encompass everything from new versions of the utopian communes of the 1960s and the nineteenth century, to libertarian experiments such as charter cities, to attempts to re-create the monastic communities that arose under Rome’s imperial decay, to simple revivals of town-meeting democracy and other vanishing Tocquevillian forms. Describing the trajectory of these “intentional communities,” Deneen suggests that at first they could coexist with the broader liberal order and benefit from its sustainably decadent protection. But over the long run, they might supply a full alternative to our own era’s sense of lost possibility: [Initially,] they will be regarded as options within the liberal frame, and while suspect in the broader culture, largely permitted to exist so long as they are nonthreatening to the liberal order’s main business.
1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown
Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, charter city, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Peace of Westphalia, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, UNCLOS
Believing his empire too vast and unruly to be properly governed by one ruler, he divided it between his brother, Ferdinand, and his son, Philip II. While Ferdinand I retained rule over the old Holy Roman Empire, Philip II became king of Spain and of the newly declared United Netherlands. It was Philip who marshalled the riches of Mexico and South America to fund dynastic wars and the Counter-Reformation in Europe. The wealthy and thriving chartered cities of the United Netherlands were nearly as vital to the prosperity of the Spanish crown as the gold and silver bullion from the New World. While English and French privateers, denied the opportunity to trade and travel west of the Tordesillas line of demarcation, preyed on Spanish shipping in the Caribbean, in Europe the religious wars became ever more brutal and dogmatic. On February 16, 1568, the Inquisition declared that the people of the United Provinces, who had strongly embraced Calvinism—all three million of them— were heretics and were therefore condemned to death.
Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System by Alexander Betts, Paul Collier
Alvin Roth, anti-communist, centre right, charter city, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, global supply chain, informal economy, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rising living standards, risk/return, school choice, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, urban planning, zero-sum game
While each particular influx may be temporary, the need for a viable haven is more enduring. It would therefore be a wise investment for the global community to support ‘incubator cities’ in the haven countries that could serve each influx of refugees as need arose. An incubator city would need both good physical infrastructure and conducive regulations. As a regulatory haven it is related to an idea of Paul Romer’s, now Chief Economist of the World Bank, that he terms ‘charter cities’. Evidently, such places would have to be advantageous to the people and governments of the host countries as well as serving the needs of refugees. Incubator cities would serve a triple purpose. They would be advantageous for the host country, serve the needs of refugees, and prepare the recovery of the post-conflict economy of the country of origin. The way we treat refugees in exile shapes their capacity to contribute to their countries of origin.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
Reprinted from The Fortnightly Review, Feburary 1, 1891, accessed through Internet Archive, http://archive.org/details/soulmanundersoc00wildgoog. 2Helen Meller, Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner (New York: Routledge, 1990), 143. 3From “voices to voices, lip to lip.” Copyright 1926, 1954, © 1991 by the Trustees for the E. E. Cummings Trust. Copyright © 1985 by George James Firmage, from Complete Poems: 1904–1962 by E. E. Cummings, edited by George J. Firmage. Used by permission of Liveright Publishing Corporation. 4Brandon Fuller and Paul Romer, “Success and the City: How Charter Cities Could Transform the Developing World,” (Ottawa, Ontario: The MacDonald-Laurier Institute, April 2012), 3. 5William J. Mitchell, E-Topia: Urban Life, Jim, But Not As We Know It (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), 12. 6Jon Leibowitz, “Municipal Broadband: Should Cities Have a Voice?” National Association of Telecommunications Officers and Advisors (NATOA) 25th Annual Conference, Washington, DC, September 22, 2005, http://www.ftc.gov/speeches/leibowitz/050922municipalbroadband.pdf. 7Christopher Mitchell, Broadband at the Speed of Light: How Three Communities Build Next-Generation Networks (Washington, DC: Institute for Local Self-Reliance, April 2012, http://www.ilsr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/muni-bb-speed-light.pdf. 8Dave Flessner, “Chattanooga area’s economic outlook brightens,” Chattanooga Times Free Press, last modified December 29th, 2011, http://www.timesfreepress.com/news/2011/dec/29/economic-outlook-brightens. 9Fiber-to-the-Home Council of North America, “Municipal Fiber to the Home Deployments: Next Generation Broadband as a Municipal Utility,” October 2009, http://www.baller.com/pdfs/MuniFiberNetsOct09.pdf. 10Claudia Sarrocco and Dimitri Ypsilanti, “Convergence and Next Generation Networks: Ministerial Background Report,” Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, June 17, 2008, http://www.oecd.org/internet/interneteconomy/40761101.pdf. 11Christopher Mitchell, “Oregon Town To Build Open Access Fiber Network Complement to Wireless Network,” Community Broadband Networks, last modified July 25, 2011, http://www.muninetworks.org/content/oregon-town-build-open-access-fiber-network-complement-wireless-network. 12Thierry Martens, remarks, Ideas Economy: Intelligent Infrastructure, The Economist, New York City, February 16, 2011. 13Andrew Comer and Kerwin Datu, “Can you have a private city?
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
This has made it a hub for Chinese trading companies, Thai businessmen, and other investors who are working with the locally elected mayor—who is pushing hard for SEZ status—to make the creaking city an efficient business transit center. SEZs are also attractive to countries that want to preserve what functionality they have left and avoid becoming failed states. The NYU economist Paul Romer, a champion of adapting the Hong Kong or Singapore model to the third world, has promoted “Charter Cities” in Latin America and Africa in an attempt to leapfrog their governance and economic planning. Honduras, the most violent country in the Western Hemisphere, has recruited foreign engineers, lawyers, urban planners, and investors to run numerous politically autonomous Zones for Economic Development and Employment, each with an industry-specific master plan. They are designed to get the legal, economic, administrative, and political structure right on the first try.
Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen
activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
Bedford, New York Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Corporation (BSRC) Bellamy, Carol Belluschi, Pietro Bhavnani, Ashok Biaggi, Mario Big Dig Blackett, Denis Black Power Blake, Peter Blakeslee, C. W. blight blockbusting block grants Bonan, Seon Pierre Bond, Max bonding strategy, UDC Boston; Academy Homes; allies in redevelopment plan; Allston; Ames Building; architects; architecture; Back Bay; B-BURG program; Beacon Hill; Bunker Hill; business allies; cars; Catholic Church and; Center Plaza; Charles River Park apartments; Charlestown; charter; City Hall; “City of Ideas”; clubs; common renewal patterns; community activism; Copley Square; Cornhill Street; deterioration of; downtown renewal; Elevated Railway; Faneuil Hall; federal funding for redevelopment; Fenway; Government Center; highways; historic preservation; human renewal; Hynes’s downtown strategy; immigrants; industry and factories; John F. Kennedy Federal Building; Logue’s mayoral campaign in; Madison Park; map of; modernism; National Commission on Urban Problems hearings; neighborhood renewal; New England Merchants National Bank Building; New Haven vs.; New York Streets project; of 1940s–50s; North End; North Harvard; Old Howard Theater; Old State House; Operation Revival; parking; police; politics; population decline; private funding for urban renewal; Prudential Center; public housing; Quincy Market; race relations; real estate developers; relocation efforts; Roxbury; schools; Scollay Square; Sears Crescent; shopping districts; South End; State Service Center; State Street Bank Building; suburbs; taxes; Tent City Apartments; urban renewal; Vault; Villa Victoria; Warren Gardens; Washington Park; waterfront project; West End; Yankee elite; see also specific neighborhoods, buildings, and projects Boston City Council Boston College Boston Globe, The Boston Herald Boston Herald Traveler Boston Housing Authority (BHA) Boston Municipal Research Bureau (MRB) Boston Observer Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA); ABCD and; allies in redevelopment plan; approval of Logue appointment; board structure; business allies; Catholic Church and; CCBD and; Charlestown plan; common renewal patterns; creation of; design operation; historic preservation and; Hynes’s downtown strategy; Logue’s beginnings at; Madison Park plan; neighborhood renewal; “$90 Million Development Program for Boston”; North Harvard project failure; Parcel 8 battle; press and; private funding and; relocation efforts; South End plan; staff of; Washington Park plan Boston School Committee Boston Society of Architects Boston University Bowler, Janet Bowles, Ches Bowles, Chester; as ambassador to India; Logue and Bowles, Sally Branford, Connecticut Bray, Peter Brazil Brenner, Neil Breuer, Marcel Bridgeport Herald Bridges, Harry Brilliant, Eleanor British Investors Ltd.
Europe: A History by Norman Davies
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl
Antwerp (Aen de Werpen or ‘Anchorage’) had grown up round the seventh-century church of St Amand on the banks of the Scheldt. There were a few isolated settlements on the sand-dunes, such as the abbey of Middleburg on Walcheren dating from 1120, or the hunting-lodge recently built at s’Gravenhaage or ‘Count’s Hedge’ in 1242. A number of fishing villages had found a precarious foothold in the lee of the dunes. Several of these had reached the status of a formal chartered city—Dordrecht (1220), Haarlem (1245), Delft (1246), and Alkmaar (1254). But none of them contained a fraction of the teeming population of the great textile cities of neighbouring Flanders. For centuries, the bishop of Utrecht exercised the main religious and secular authority. The delta ports had long served as staging posts on the costal trade. Land reclamation was an ancient and improving art.