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Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies by Jared M. Diamond

affirmative action, Atahualpa, British Empire, California gold rush, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, invention of movable type, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, James Watt: steam engine, Maui Hawaii, QWERTY keyboard, the scientific method, trade route

Our Lord permitted that your pride should be brought low and that no Indian should be able to offend a Christian.' ” L E T US NOW trace the chain of causation in this extraordinary confron- tation, beginning with the immediate events. When Pizarro and Atahuallpa met at Cajamarca, why did Pizarro capture Atahuallpa and kill so many of his followers, instead of Atahuallpa's vastly more numerous forces cap- turing and killing Pizarro? After all, Pizarro had only 62 soldiers mounted on horses, along with 106 foot soldiers, while Atahuallpa commanded an army of about 80,000. As for the antecedents of those events, how did Atahuallpa come to be at Cajamarca at all? How did Pizarro come to be there to capture him, instead of Atahuallpa's coming to Spain to capture King Charles I? Why did Atahuallpa walk into what seems to us, with the gift of hindsight, to have been such a transparent trap? Did the factors acting in the encounter of Atahuallpa and Pizarro also play a broader role in encounters between Old World and New World peoples and between other peoples?

"Governor Pizarro now sent Friar Vicente de Valverde to go speak to Atahuallpa, and to require Atahuallpa in the name of God and of the King of Spain that Atahuallpa subject himself to the law of our Lord Jesus Christ and to the service of His Majesty the King of Spain. Advancing with a cross in one hand and the Bible in the other hand, and going among the Indian troops up to the place where Atahuallpa was, the Friar thus addressed him: 'I am a Priest of God, and I teach Christians the things of God, and in like manner I come to teach you. What I teach is that which God says to us in this Book. Therefore, on the part of God and of the Christians, I beseech you to be their friend, for such is God's will, and it will be for your good.' "Atahuallpa asked for the Book, that he might look at it, and the Friar gave it to him closed. Atahuallpa did not know how to open the Book, and the Friar was extending his arm to do so, when Atahuallpa, in great anger, gave him a blow on the arm, not wishing that it should be opened.

"The Governor himself took his sword and dagger, entered the thick of the Indians with the Spaniards who were with him, and with great bravery reached Atahuallpa's litter. He fearlessly grabbed Atahuallpa's left arm and shouted 'Santiago!,' but he could not pull Atahuallpa out of his litter because it was held up high. Although we killed the Indians who held the litter, others at once took their places and held it aloft, and in this manner we spent a long time in overcoming and killing Indians. Finally seven or eight Spaniards on horseback spurred on their horses, rushed upon the litter from one side, and with great effort they heaved it over on its side. In that way Atahuallpa was captured, and the Governor took Atahuallpa to his lodging. The Indians carrying the litter, and those escorting Ata huallpa, never abandoned him: all died around him.

pages: 225 words: 54,010

A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl

“Europeans did not find a wilderness here,” the American historian Francis Jennings has written, “they made one.”17 For the Spanish, disease was a better weapon than a neutron bomb because just enough Amerindians survived to work the mines.18 The Aztec and Inca treasures were only a down payment on all the gold and silver that would flow across the Atlantic for centuries.19 Karl Marx was among the first economists to see that, financially, the Industrial Revolution begins with Atahuallpa’s gold. “An indispensable condition for the establishment of manufacturing industry,” he said in 1847, “was the accumulation of capital facilitated by the discovery of America and the importation of its precious metals.”20 The Genoese and German bankers who underwrote Spain’s empire were awash in bullion looking for something to do. Much found its way to northern Europe, financing shipbuilding, gun foundries, and other imperial ventures.

Australia was populated much earlier than the Americas, and the food crunch — the extinction of big game — may have happened at a time when world climatic instability made agricultural experiments impossible. 28. For example, Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997), which is informative on germs but should not be relied on for archaeological and historical data or interpretation. In particular, the dating and description of New World agriculture is flawed, and his portrayal of Atahuallpa’s overthrow and the other Spanish conquests omits important data and strikes me as tendentious. 29. Quinoa is a non-cereal grain of the Chenopodium, or goosefoot, family. New findings from Mexico report domesticated maize by 6,250 years ago (see Science, November 14, 2003). High-productivity maize with big cobs was developed about 2,000 years later, when its importance in the diet grew rapidly, and it spread from Mesoamerica to South America.

It is also known that pre-Inca Peruvian seafarers reached the Galapagos on several occasions, leaving behind distinctive pottery. It is just possible that pre-Inca Peruvians reached the Marquesas, which may have been the migration “hub” for Easter Island, Hawaii, and other island groups. I think it equally possible that Polynesian canoes occasionally reached the South American coast and returned to their home islands. Spanish chroniclers recorded accounts of a fifteenthcentury expedition by Tupa Inca Yupanqui (Atahuallpa’s grandfather) to inhabited islands two months’ sailing from Peru — see Thor Heyerdahl, Sea Routes to Polynesia (London: Allen and Unwin, 1968), chap. 4 and 5, for a review of this evidence and its influence on early Spanish explorations. It seems unlikely that an Inca ruler would personally sail away from his empire for a year, but he may have commissioned such an expedition. 10. 166 square kilometres. 11.

pages: 797 words: 227,399

Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map,, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

Army staff sergeant Scott Smith says that “without even having to fire the weapons . . . it’s total shock and awe.” FIRST CONTACT In 1532, Atahuallpa was emperor of the Tawantinsuyu, better known to us as the Incan empire. Located in what is now Peru, Atahuallpa’s domain was the largest and richest of the empires in lands not yet reached by European explorers. Life was just getting good for Atahuallpa. He had beaten his brother in a civil war for the throne and was on his way back to his capital. Only a quick detour was needed to check out a tiny band of strange visitors that had just entered his lands. A proud and cruel king (he had just forced his defeated brother to watch his children be hacked to death), and at the head of a battle-hardened army of eighty-thousand warriors, Atahuallpa believed he had little to fear. Atahuallpa and his army soon reached the encampment of the visitors, who invited the emperor to a peace ceremony.

They wielded strangely sharp, unbreakable metallic weapons that cut through flesh with ease, and, even more frightening, pointed sticks that spat lethal flames. Most terrifying, though, were the strange creatures that also charged out, which had four legs like a beast, but the upper body of a human warrior. There were only 168 of these new visitors, but as they charged at the emperor and his 4,000 men, the effect was paralyzing. Atahuallpa’s guard was quickly chased away or slaughtered. The highest nobility of his kingdom were killed at his feet. When none were left to hold up his litter, the emperor was captured. Seventy-six thousand of Atahuallpa’s warriors were waiting in the fields just outside the town, and milled about, wondering what to do when they heard the strange noises and then saw their noblemen running for their lives. Twenty-seven of the man-beasts then emerged from the square and put the entire army to flight. It wasn’t so much of a battle as a massacre; it ended only after the visitors gave up killing the fleeing Incan warriors when their arms grew too weary.

The captured emperor then offered the visitors a ransom to set him free, enough gold to fill a room twenty-two feet long, seventeen feet wide, and eight feet high. The visitors agreed. But after these strange, fearsome men had their gold, they reneged. They executed Atahuallpa and took over his empire. As the science fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke of 2001: A Space Odyssey fame once observed, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Nowhere is this more true than in war. Time and again, warring sides have used new technologies not only to kill more efficiently than their foe, but also to dazzle them into submission. The case of Atahuallpa, unlucky enough to become emperor just before the arrival of Francisco Pizarro and his tiny band of Spanish conquistadors, is a powerful example of just how shocking and powerful new weapons of war can be.

pages: 218 words: 44,364

The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations by Ori Brafman, Rod A. Beckstrom

Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Burning Man, creative destruction, disintermediation, experimental economics, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, jimmy wales, Kibera, Lao Tzu, Network effects, peer-to-peer, pez dispenser, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing

Within eighty days, 240,000 inhabitants of the city starved to death. By 1521, just two years after Cortes first laid eyes on Tenochtitlan, the entire Aztec empire—a civilization that traced its roots to centuries before the time of Christ—had collapsed. The Aztecs weren't alone. A similar fate befell the Incas. The Spanish army, led by Francisco Pizarro, captured the Inca leader Atahuallpa in 1532. A year later, with all the Inca gold in hand, the Spanish executed Atahuallpa and appointed a puppet ruler. Again, the annihilation of an entire society took only two years. These monumental events eventually gave the Spanish control of the continent. By the 1680s, the Spanish forces seemed unstoppable. With the winds of victory at their backs, they headed north and encountered the Apaches. This meeting—in the deserts of present-day New Mexico—is crucially linked with the music industry's fight against the P2P sites.

., 103-5 Apaches, 15-21, 23, 55 cattle as centralizing influence on, 151-52 circles of, 88, 89, 92 decisionmaking of, 20—21, 46 ideology of, 95, 96, 149 leadership by example among, 20,37,71,92 mutation of, 21, 40 Nant'ans as leaders of, 20, 21, 22,24,35,37,46,47,71,91, 92, 99, 15152, 205 Apache server software, 69— 72, 90, 91,92,94-95, 172, 194,205 Apple, 192-93 iTunesof, 193, 194-95 appreciative inquiry, concept of, 177-78 Atahuallpa, 17 AT&T, 61, 62, 63, 201 auction industry, online, 161—67 sweet spot of, 189-91 auto industry, 181-89, 191 Aztecs, 16-17, 18, 19, 22, 35, 152 B, 68 Behlendorf, Brian, 70, 92 Big Book, The (Alcoholics Anonymous), 152—53 bin Laden, Osama, 6, 140, 142 brain, distributed structure of, 3—5 Brennan, William, 11 Buckmaster, Jim, 64, 67 Burning Man festival, 77-81, 90, 154 creativity at, 78-79, 80-81 gift economy of, 79, 90, 204 selfpolicing of, 79-80 Bury the Chains (Hochschild), 85 catalysts, 40-41, 91-94, 97-101, 109-31, 135-37, 138, 140, 143, 144, 154, 170, 183-84, 205-6, 207 active listening by, 120, 124-25 in Afghanistan, 147 ambiguity tolerance of, 127—28, 129, 131 CEOs vs., 129-31 champions linked to, 98—101, 102-5, 119-20 charisma of, 99 creativity promoted by, 128, 131 desire to help in, 118, 123 emotional intelligence of, 125-26, 129 as genuinely interested in others, 120-21 hands-off approach of, 128 as inspiration to others, 126-27, 129, 206 mapping by, 116, 12223, 206 multiple casual relationships of, 115-18, 121-22 passion of, 118, 119, 124 productive situations for, 129-31 stepping aside by, 37, 41, 92, 93, 94,112, 114, 117, 128-29,206 traditional leaders vs., 93 trust in relationships of, 126, 129, 163 centralization, strategic, 151—54, 156 INDEX centralized (spider) organizations, 16-22,31-53,60,61,71-72, 141-42, 201 accountability of, 46 central funding of, 51—52 CEOs of, 46, 129-31 as coercive, 19, 21, 41 concentrated knowledge and power in, 49 consolidation of, 63, 68, 139-40, 142, 192 countable membership of, 50-51 division of roles in, 48 headquarters of, 19, 22, 38-39, 46-47 hierarchy of, 22, 46 increased centralization after attacks on, 139-40, 141-42 indirect communication in, 52-53 interdependent units of, 48—49 leadership of, 19, 22, 46, 47, 97 as poor platforms, 97 property rights in, 151—54 removal of head as fatal to, 47, 138, 142-43 rigidity of, 50 starfish as mistaken for, 31—36, 45-46 see also hybrid organizations champions, 90-101, 102-5, 119-20 Chinook diplomacy, 147—49 CIO Symposium, 115-16 Clarkson, Thomas, 98-99, 100-101, 102, 104 Concept of the Corporation (Drucker), 183 Constitution, U.S., 142 Cook, Scott, 91, 170-71 Cooperrider, David, 177—78 Cortes, Hernando, 16-17, 19, 32 craigslist, 64-69, 76, 94, 96, 98, 162, 190, 195, 202, 208 culture of trust on, 65—67, 68, 91 profits of, 64, 65, 69 "scraping" of, 68-69 as usercontrolled system, 65-67, 68, 92, 126 virtual circles of, 88-89 Creation of the Media, The (Starr), 199-200 decentralization, strategic, 155—58 see also hybrid organizations D decentralized (starfish) organizations: anonymity and, 194 autonomous units of, 48—49, 51 catalysts of, see catalysts circles of, 87, 88-91, 93-94, 97, 101, 114, 118, 127, 129, 131, 137, 138-39, 140-41, 143, 145, 157, 169, 186, 207 creativity of, 78-79, 80-81, 97, 128, 131, 191,203 culture of trust in, 65—67, 68, 90-91, 111, 113-14, 163, 165, 168, 190 direct communication in, 52-53, 65-66 diseconomies of scale in, 201-2 distributed knowledge and power of, 21,49-50, 97, 163-64 distributed policing of, 76-77, 80 distributed structure of, 20 division of roles lacked by, 48 easy mutation of, 21, 37, 40—41, 50 flexibility of, 21,22, 40, 50 and free information flow, 194 INDEX decentralized (starfish) organizations (cont.) headquarters lacked by, 19, 46-47 hierarchy lacked by, 19, 46 identifying questions to ask about, 45—53 ideology of, see ideology intelligence spread throughout system in, 39—40 knowledge at the edge in, 40, 177-78, 204 leadership in, 1920, 37, 39, 67, 71,91,94 managing, measuring, and monitoring of, 207 as mistaken for spiders, 31—36, 45-46 network effect in, 166-67, 202-3 as open systems, 20, 21, 37, 39-41, 67, 72,94-95 overall profits decreased in, 45, 94 people's desire to contribute to, 74-77, 79, 80, 91, 169, 170-72, 184, 204-5 power of chaos in, 203, 208 preexisting networks as platforms of, 96-98, 103, 105 principles of, 21, 24, 36, 39-40, 41,45,74, 139-40 rapid growth of, 41—44 response to attacks on, 21—27, 139, 143, 156, 205 selfenforced norms of, 20, 90 selffunding units of, 51—52 strategic responses to attacks by, 143-58, 206, 207-8 uncountable participants in, 50-51 variance created by, 191 Deep End of the Ocean, Tlie (Mitchard), 169-70 Diamond, Jared, 167—68 Dorman, David, 62-63 Draper, Tim, 176 Draper Fisher Jurvetson (DFJ), 176 Drucker, Peter, 18189, 191 E eBay, 162-67, 203, 208 accountability of, 165, 190, 195 culture of trust on, 163, 165, 190 headquarters of, 164 listing fees of, 166 network effect and, 166—67 PayPal of, 165, 195 reputation of, 164, 166 Skype purchased by, 63, 176 on sweet spot, 189—91 user ratings on, 163-64, 165, 166-67, 168, 170, 190, 195 eClass229, 161-62, 164, 165, 166 economies of scale, 192 diseconomies of scale vs., 201—2 Edison, Thomas, 42 eDonkey, 24-25, 26, 154 eMule, 25, 27, 40, 42, 44, 46, 47, 60,91,98, 154, 173, 192, 193, 194-95, 196, 202, 203, 205 catalyst of, 92-93 ideology of, 95-96 Fanning, Shawn, 5-6, 13—14, 43, 162 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 138, 139, 143 federal decentralization, 142, 183 Florida Keys, 1935 hurricane in, F 37-39, 49, 52, 155,204 France, 200 INDEX internal decentralization of, 174-78 of online auction industry, 161-67 of software industry, 170—74 see also sweet spot Hydra response, 205 Internet president demanded by investors of, 31-34, 35, 45, 46, 69, 142, 162, 201 Future Generations, 147, 206 G Garrison, Dave, 31-34, 69, 142, 162, 201 General Electric (GE), 175, 208 General Motors (GM), 18189 assembly lines of, 185, 186-89, 191, 201 as hybrid organization, 183—84, 188-89, 208 ideology of, 184 NUMMI plant of, 187-88 successful managerial structure of, 181-84 Toyota vs., 185-89, 191,201 Geronimo, 20 gift economy, 79, 90, 204 Goodwill Industries, 112, 114-15, 126, 130-31 Google, 17172, 174, 195-96 Gorog, Chris, 24 grandmother cell, theory of, 3-5 Grokster, 12-15, 22, 24, 26, 43 GungHo, 188 H N; Harvard University, 163—64, 166 Hemming, Nikki, 60 Hochschild, Adam, 85 Hoffman, Auren, 109-10, 115-18, 120-21, 122, 123, 129, 206 Hresko, Jamie, 188 hybrid organizations, 161-78, 181-96, 207-8 appreciative inquiry in, 177—78 customer experience decentralized by, 161-74 I IBM, 72, 171, 184 open-source software supported by, 172-74 ideology, 94-96, 102-5, 113, 114, 118, 124, 129,207 of AA, 95, 96, 152,206 of ALF, 139, 140.206 of al Qaeda, 140 of Apaches, 95, 96, 149 backlash against attempted influencing of, 149—51 of eMule, 95-96 of GM, 184 of P2P downloaders, 149-51 strategic alteration of, 144—51, 156, 206 Incas, 17, 18, 19 Internet: browsers for, 69—72 as decentralized platform, 97—98 estimated user numbers of, 12, 51 flexibility of, 50 French investors' demand for president of, 31-34, 35, 45, 46,69, 142, 162,201 survival ability of, 48-49 virtual circles on, 88-89, 91 Intuit, 91, 170-71, 174, 184, 204 iTunes, 193, 194-95 J Jacobi, Leor, 99-100 Jamii Bora Trust, 144-46, 149, 206 Japan, 184-89 Joachim, Joseph, 42-43, 44-45 Kashmir, relief efforts in, 148—49 Katrina, Hurricane, 39 Kazaa, 22-25, 26, 41, 60, 61, 154, 205 Kazaa Lite (K+), 24, 41 Kendall, David, 12 Kenya, 143 al Qaeda in, 140-41, 146, 155 Jamii Bora Trust in, 144-46, 149, 206 Labor Day hurricane of 1935, 37-39,49,52, 155,204 Lao-tzu, 114-15 Lettvin, Jerry, 5 Linckia, 35 Linux, 72, 172-73 Lockley, Walt, 75 McNealy, Scott, 173, 174 Martin, David, 119-20, 126, 206 Mary Poppins, 93 Mendelssohn, Felix, 42 MGM, 11-15, 16, 23, 24, 26, 27, 34, 45, 46, 201 Microsoft, 65, 71-72, 94, 172 Mitchard, Jacquelyn, 169-70 Montezuma II, 16-17, 20, 22, 23 Moody, Glyn, 70-71 movie industry, 149-51 Munro, Ingrid, 145 music industry, 41-45, 60 economies of scale in, 192 performing musicians in, 42—43, 44-45, 19192 progression of, 42—45 sweet spot in, 191-95 see also record industry music piracy, 5—6, 17, 22—27', 192-94 lawsuits against, 11—15, 22, 23-24,26,60, 194 revenues lost by, 13, 25, 26, 45, 192 see also P2P (peer-topeer) services Nant'ans, Apache, 20, 21, 22, 24,35,37,46,47,71, 91,92,99, 151-52, 205 Napster, 6, 13-14, 22, 24, 26, 41, 43,45, 154, 162, 192, 194, 205 Napster II, 24, 26 Nature, 74 Navajos, 151 NCSA Project, 69-72 Netcom, 31-34 Netscape, 69, 71-72, 162 network effect, 166-67, 202-3 Nevins, Tom, 15-21, 34, 35, 37, 110, 151,152 Newkirk, Ingrid, 138-39 Newmark, Craig, 6, 64-69, 92, 94, 202 newspaper industry, 68 New Times Corporation, 68 New United Motors Manufacturing, Inc.

pages: 497 words: 153,755

The Power of Gold: The History of an Obsession by Peter L. Bernstein

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, central bank independence, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, falling living standards, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, large denomination, liquidity trap, long peace, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, random walk, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route

23 The Inca's royal procession appeared a few hours later but halted about half a mile from Caxamalca and began to pitch their tents. Pizarro sent a messenger to ask Atahualpa to join the Spaniards as soon as possible, as both dinner and entertainment had been provided for him. Atahualpa swallowed the bait-whole. He arrived with only a few warriors, and without arms. Was Atahualpa so absolute in his own empire that he had no fear of entrapment? Or did he simply figure that a small troop of only two hundred men would never even contemplate such a brazen deed? Whichever it was, his lighthearted decision would seal his doom. Atahualpa may not have brought his army with him, but he did not spare the numbers of the rest of his retinue; five thousand or six thousand people filled the square in Caxamalca.

"In this respect," Prescott comments, "the most common soldier was attended by a retinue of menials that would have better suited the establishment of a noble."28 Shades of the fourteenthcentury Florentine chronicler in the previous chapter, who had complained "at the spectacle of the popolo minuto who ... dressed themselves in a manner unbefitting their station and insisted on the finest delicacies at their table."29 As the Spaniards settled down to await reinforcements from the Spanish base on the coast, Pizarro used the time to become better acquainted with his captive. Atahualpa, on his side, closely observed the Spaniards. He soon discovered that they had an appetite even more potent than their repeated efforts to convert him to Christianity: the love of gold. One day Atahualpa proposed a deal. If Pizarro would set him free, the Inca would arrange to have the room he occupied filled with gold as high as he could reach, all within two months; the gold would come from the royal palaces, temples, and public buildings. The area of the room was about 17 feet by 22 feet, with a height of nine feet. Pizarro eagerly accepted the proposition. As Atahualpa stood on tiptoe, a red line was drawn at the height he indicated, a notary recorded the details of the agreement, and Atahualpa dispatched couriers to execute the task. Pizarro also sent emissaries to the capital city of Cuzco, a difficult journey of over six hundred miles across the mountains, where they found the great temple of the Sun covered with plates of gold and royal mummies within, each seated on a gold throne.

If we convert the pesos d'oro into weight and express the result in tons, the Indians must have filled Atahualpa's chamber with nearly five tons of gold, which is more than the total annual output of gold within Europe at that time, or, even more impressive, the equivalent of twenty years of production by the Peruvian gold mines.34 In contrast, it is worth recalling that Justinian poured twice as much gold into Saint Sophia and that jean II's ransom, at three million crowns, was more than double the mass of gold in Atahualpa's chamber. No wonder Justinian believed that he had surpassed Solomon and the French people rose up in revolt at the burdens imposed on them! The account of the Inca has a hideous ending. Newly arrived Spanish troops saw little point in continuing to shelter Atahualpa and were strongly opposed to liberating him. Pizarro resisted the pressure at first but ultimately yielded.

pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

On his death, he left two sons, Huascar, a son by his first wife, and Atahualpa, a son by his second wife, a princess from a northern tribe conquered by the Inca. Huayna had apparently considered giving both of his sons a portion of the kingdom, with Atahualpa ruling the northern part and Huascar, the elder brother, the southern. On the old Emperor’s death, each of his sons, unwilling to compromise, wanted the entire inheritance for himself.17 There was launched a fierce civil war in which Atahualpa triumphed. It was the context of the civil war which allowed Pizarro and his small band to achieve their dramatic successes. The contest between Pizarro and Atahualpa, the encounter of two different cultures and mentalities, has fascinated historians and dramatists ever since. In The Royal Hunt of the Sun, the playwright Peter Shaffer portrays Atahualpa and Pizarro as representatives of two opposed civilizations.

In The Royal Hunt of the Sun, the playwright Peter Shaffer portrays Atahualpa and Pizarro as representatives of two opposed civilizations. In Act II of the play, Atahualpa tells Pizarro, ‘You want gold. I know. Speak,’ to which Pizarro simply responds with the direct question, ‘You have gold?’ Atahualpa replies: ‘It is the sweat of the sun. It belongs to me.’18 The process by which Atahualpa fell into Pizarro’s hands seems almost miraculous. The Spanish accomplished what they had done in Mexico, effectively seizing the head of the empire and taking control by this means. It was the ultimate ‘decapitation’ strategy. Cortés had done this successfully by imprisoning Montezuma; Pizarro did the same to Atahualpa. It is easy to portray the Spanish as cruel, pitiless warriors who showed no mercy or compassion to their Indian subjects, but one should remember the sanguinary nature of the Inca empire. Atahualpa himself made no attempt to conceal his intentions towards the Spanish.

Having invited him for talks at dinner in Cajamarca, a town situated in the Andes mountains at an altitude of 9,500 feet, they prepared an ambush in which 7,000 Incas were killed. Atahualpa himself was captured. It was at this point that the Inca leader offered his notorious ransom. Pizarro asked Atahualpa how much treasure he would give the Spanish to buy his liberty. Atahualpa, seemingly nonchalant, answered that he would give a room full of gold. The room measured 22 feet long by 17 feet wide and would be filled, according to the Inca leader, up to 8 feet high in various objects of gold – ‘jars, pots, tiles and other pieces’.20 Atahualpa also promised to give an even greater quantity of silver – the ‘tears of the moon’, as the Incas called it. All of this, he promised, would be delivered in two months. During their stay in Cajamarca, the Spanish observed that Atahualpa was about ‘thirty years of age, of good appearance and manner, although somewhat thick-set’.

pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

In 1532 he was invited into the Inca capital in Peru by Emperor Atahuallpa, who – protected by an army of 80,000 men – did not consider Pizarro and his soldiers to be a threat. Yet Pizarro, enabled by his weapons, managed to sack the city and capture Atahuallpa. To spare his life, the emperor offered to fill a large room with gold and then to fill it twice again with silver, within two months, for he knew how much the Spanish loved precious metals. As a Nahuatl text from the time put it: ‘They lifted up the gold as if they were monkeys, with expressions of joy, as if it put new life into them and lit their hearts.9 As if it were certainly something for which they yearn with great thirst. Their bodies fatten on it and they hunger violently for it. They crave gold like hungry swine.’ Pizarro agreed to the emperor’s offer and Atahuallpa proceeded to pile the precious metals high.

Pizarro agreed to the emperor’s offer and Atahuallpa proceeded to pile the precious metals high. But it was a trick. Having received the gold and silver, Pizarro executed Atahuallpa after sentencing him in a mock court for the ‘crime’ of resisting the Spanish invasion. A few decades later, Europeans discovered the immense network of silver mines centred on Potosi, in what is now Bolivia. Before long the metal came to account for 99 per cent of the mineral exports from the Spanish colonies.10 Between 1503 and 1660, 16 million kilograms of silver was shipped to Europe, amounting to three times the total European reserves of the metal. And that was on top of the 185,000 kilograms of gold that arrived in Spanish ports during the same period.11 By the early 1800s, a total of 100 million kilograms of silver had been drained from Latin America and pumped into the European economy – first into Spain, and then out to the rest of Europe as payment on Spain’s debts.12 To get a sense of the scale of this wealth, consider this thought experiment: if 100 million kilograms of silver was invested in 1800 at 5 per cent interest – the historical average – it would amount to $165 trillion today, more than double the world’s total GDP in 2015.

pages: 471 words: 124,585

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deglobalization, diversification, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, iterative process, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour mobility, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Parag Khanna, pension reform, price anchoring, price stability, principal–agent problem, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stocks for the long run, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, undersea cable, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Having returned to Spain to obtain royal approval for his plan ‘to extend the empire of Castile’d as ‘Governor of Peru’, Pizarro raised a force of three ships, twenty-seven horses and one hundred and eighty men, equipped with the latest European weaponry: guns and mechanical crossbows.5 This third expedition set sail from Panama on 27 December 1530. It took the would-be conquerors just under two years to achieve their objective: a confrontation with Atahuallpa, one of the two feuding sons of the recently deceased Incan emperor Huayna Capac. Having declined Friar Vincente Valverd’s proposal that he submit to Christian rule, contemptuously throwing his Bible to the ground, Atahuallpa could only watch as the Spaniards, relying mainly on the terror inspired by their horses (animals unknown to the Incas), annihilated his army. Given how outnumbered they were, it was a truly astonishing coup.6 Atahuallpa soon came to understand what Pizarro was after, and sought to buy his freedom by offering to fill the room where he was being held with gold (once) and silver (twice). In all, in the subsequent months the Incas collected 13,420 pounds of 22 carat gold and 26,000 pounds of pure silver.7 Pizarro nevertheless determined to execute his prisoner, who was publicly garrotted in August 1533.8 With the fall of the city of Cuzco, the Inca Empire was torn apart in an orgy of Spanish plundering.

advertising 196 Afghanistan 6 Africa: aid to 307 British investment in 293 China and 338-9 gold trade 25 slaves from 23 African-American people 249-50 ‘Africas within’ 13 age see pensions agriculture: East-West comparison 285 finance and 2 forward and future contracts 226 ‘improvements’ 235 and migration 110 rising and declining prices 53 and risk 184 Agtmael, Antoine van 288 Aguilera, Jaime Roldós 310-11 aid: conditions on 307 limited usefulness 307 and microfinance 279 to developing countries 274 Aldrich-Vreeland Act 301 Algeria 32 Allende, Salvador 212-13 Allison, Graham 223 All State insurance company 181-2 Al Qaeda 223 Alsace 144 Amboyna 130 American Civil War 91-7 American Dream Downpayment Act 267 American Home Mortgage 272 Americas, conquest of 285 Amsterdam 127 as financial centre 74-5 Amsterdam Exchange Bank (Wisselbank) 48-9 anarchists 17 Andersen (Arthur) 173 Andhra Pradesh 280 Angell, Norman 297 Angola 2 annuities 73-4 anthrax 223 anti-Darwinians 356 Antipodes 293 anti-Semitism 38 Antwerp 52 Applegarth, Adam 7 Arab: mathematics 32 oil 26 Arab-Israeli war 308 arbitrage 83 Argentina 98 British investment in 294 currencies 114 default crisis 110 Enron and 171 inflation 3 past prosperity 3 stock market 125 aristocracy 89 ARMs see mortgages, adjustable-rate arms/defence industry 298 . see also technological innovation art markets 6 Asia: aid and international investment 287 Asian crisis (1997-8) 10 and credit crunch 283 dependence on exports to US 10 dollar pegs 300 European trade 26 industrial growth and commodity prices 10 low-wage economies, production by 116 savings glut 336 sovereign wealth funds 9 asset-backed securities 6 and sub-prime mortgages 9 assets: asset markets 163 need for diversified portfolio 262 new types 353 asymmetric information 122 Atahuallpa 20 Australasia 52 Australia 233 Austria/Austro-Hungarian empire 90 bonds 86 currency collapses 107 and First World War 101 autarky 303 automobiles 160 Avignon 43 Babylonia see Mesopotamia Baer (Julius) bank 322 Bagehot, Walter 55 Baghdad 176 Bahamas see Lyford Cay Bailey, A. H. 198 Bailey, David 196n. balance sheets 44 Balducci, Timothy 181-2n. Balkan states 297-8 Balkan Wars 298 Ballantynes 196 Bangladesh 275 Bank of America 352 Bank Charter Act 54-5 Bank of England: banking and issue departments, separation of 54 clearing role 54 creation and development of 49 discount rate 54 lender of last resort 55 reserves 56 short-term rates 116 and South Sea Bubble 155-7 and war finance 49 and First World War 56 Bank for International Settlements 62 Bank of Japan 57 bank runs see banks banknotes see paper money bankruptcies 349 in American crisis 59-61 Chinese government 303 risk to shareholders 125 in United States 59-61 banks: and ‘American crisis’ 354 assets vs. deposits 355 bio-diversity in 352 boutique 353 capital adequacy 62 capital vs. assets 62 complacency 6 cooperative 352 as creators of credit 49-50 decentralization 45 direct (phone and internet) 353 failures: in credit crunch 272 ; Great Depression 162-3; panics of 1930s 354; protection from 349 guarantees to bail out 357 and hedge funds 331-2 history of 5; Australasia 52; Britain and Northern Europe 48-9 ; Italy 34 ; North America 52-3 and hyperinflation 106 banks - cont.

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Since the death of the Inca Huayna Capac, his sons Atahualpa and Huascar had been battling for the succession, while subject tribes scented a chance to throw off the Inca yoke. The Battle of Cajamarca (14 November 1532) was thus scarcely a battle at all. As Pizarro’s brother Hernando described it, Atahualpa walked into a trap when he accepted the Spaniards’ invitation to dinner: When Atahualpa had advanced to the centre of an open space, he stopped, and a Dominican friar, who was with the Governor [Pizarro], came forward to tell him, on the part of the Governor, that he waited for him in his lodging, and that he was sent to speak with him. The friar then told Atahualpa that he was a priest, and that he was sent there to teach the things of the faith if they should desire to be Christians. He showed Atahualpa a book which he carried in his hands [the Bible], and told him that that book contained the things of God.

He showed Atahualpa a book which he carried in his hands [the Bible], and told him that that book contained the things of God. Atahualpa asked for the book, and threw it on the ground, saying: ‘I will not leave this place until you have restored all that you have taken in my land. I know well who you are and what you have come for.’ Then he rose up in his litter and addressed his men, and there were murmurs among them and calls to those who were armed. The friar went to the Governor and reported what was being done and that no time was to be lost. The Governor sent to me; and I had arranged with the captain of the artillery that, when a sign was given, he should discharge his pieces, and that, on hearing the reports, all the troops should come forth at once. This was done, and as the Indians were unarmed they were defeated without danger to any Christian.6 In the words of the sixteenth-century Andean chronicler Waman Poma, the Spaniards killed the panic-stricken Indians ‘like ants’.7 Peru was not conquered in a single battle.

One strong possibility is that epidemic disease arrived there from Hispaniola (the island which is today divided between the Dominican Republic and Haiti) ahead of the conquistadors, killing the population and leaving Machu Picchu a ghost town. The pretext for the initial Spanish assault at Cajamarca was that the Incas refused to convert to Christianity. But it was not God but gold that really interested Pizarro. The captured Atahualpa’s vain attempt to secure his freedom by filling his cell once with gold and twice with silver merely aroused the conquistadors’ appetite for precious metal. The 13,420 pounds of 22-carat gold and 26,000 pounds of pure silver that were duly piled up made every man in the expedition rich at a stroke. But there was more – much more.10 The Spaniards had also found gold in Hispaniola and vast deposits of silver at Zacatecas in Central Mexico.

pages: 436 words: 140,256

The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee by Jared Diamond

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Columbian Exchange, correlation coefficient, double helix, Drosophila, European colonialism, invention of gunpowder, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, longitudinal study, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, the scientific method, trade route

That response was predictable, because human explorers who discovered technically less advanced humans also regularly responded by shooting them, decimating their populations with new diseases, and destroying or taking over their habitat. Any advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surely treat us in the same way. Think again of those astronomers who beamed radio signals into space from Arecibo, describing Earth's location and its inhabitants. In its suicidal folly that act rivalled the folly of the last Inca emperor, Atahuallpa, who described to his gold-crazy Spanish captors the wealth of his capital and provided them with guides for the journey. If there really are any radio civilizations within listening distance of us, then for heaven's sake let's turn off our own transmitters and try to escape detection, or we are doomed. Fortunately for us, the silence from outer space is deafening. Yes, out there are billions of galaxies with billions of stars.

A few dozen horses helped Cortes and Pizarro, leading only a few hundred Spaniards each, to overthrow the two most populous and advanced New World states, the Aztec and Inca empires. With futile Polish cavalry charges against Hitler's invading armies in September 1939, the military importance of this most universally prized of all domestic animals finally came to an end after 6,000 years. Ironically, relatives of the horses that Cortes and Pizarro rode had formerly been native to the New World. Had those horses survived, Montezuma and Atahuallpa might have shattered the conquistadores with cavalry charges of their own. But, in a cruel twist of fate, America's horses had become extinct long before that, along with eighty or ninety per cent of the other large animal species of the Americas and Australia. It happened around the time that the first human settlers—ancestors of modern Indians and native Australians—reached those continents.

Not until around 900 AD—thousands of years after corn had emerged in Mexico—did corn become a staple food in the Mississippi Valley, thereby triggering the belated rise of the mysterious mound-building civilization of the American Midwest. Thus, if the Old and New Worlds had each been rotated ninety degrees about their axes, the spread of crops and domestic animals would have been slower in the Old World, faster in the New World. The rates of rise of civilization would have been correspondingly different. Who knows whether that difference would have sufficed to let Montezuma or Atahuallpa invade Europe, despite their lack of horses? I have argued, then, that continental differences in the rates of rise of civilization were not an accident caused by a few individual geniuses. They were not produced by the biological differences determining the outcome of competition among animal populations—for example, some populations being able to run faster or digest food more efficiently than others.

pages: 547 words: 172,226

Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty by Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas,, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, working poor

Pizarro began on the coast near the Peruvian town of Tumbes and marched south. On November 15, 1532, he reached the mountain town of Cajamarca, where the Inca emperor Atahualpa was encamped with his army. The next day, Atahualpa, who had just vanquished his brother Huáscar in a contest over who would succeed their deceased father, Huayna Capac, came with his retinue to where the Spanish were camped. Atahualpa was irritated because news of atrocities that the Spanish had already committed, such as violating a temple of the Sun God Inti, had reached him. What transpired next is well known. The Spanish laid a trap and sprang it. They killed Atahualpa’s guards and retainers, possibly as many as two thousand people, and captured the king. To gain his freedom, Atahualpa had to promise to fill one room with gold and two more of the same size with silver. He did this, but the Spanish, reneging on their promises, strangled him in July 1533.

He did this, but the Spanish, reneging on their promises, strangled him in July 1533. That November, the Spanish captured the Inca capital of Cusco, where the Incan aristocracy received the same treatment as Atahualpa, being imprisoned until they produced gold and silver. When they did not satisfy Spanish demands, they were burned alive. The great artistic treasures of Cusco, such as the Temple of the Sun, had their gold stripped from them and melted down into ingots. At this point the Spanish focused on the people of the Inca Empire. As in Mexico, citizens were divided into encomiendas, with one going to each of the conquistadors who had accompanied Pizarro. The encomienda was the main institution used for the control and organization of labor in the early colonial period, but it soon faced a vigorous contender.

A Voyage Long and Strange: On the Trail of Vikings, Conquistadors, Lost Colonists, and Other Adventurers in Early America by Tony Horwitz

airport security, Atahualpa, back-to-the-land, Bartolomé de las Casas, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, dematerialisation, diversified portfolio, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, trade route, urban renewal

Contemporaries described him as dark, handsome, hotheaded (apasionado), “hard and dry of word,” and “very busy in hunting Indians.” He was also a shrewd businessman, amassing a diversified portfolio of plundered gold, grants of Indian labor, and stakes in mining and shipping. De Soto sealed his fortune by joining in the conquest of Peru, where Pizarro dispatched him as an emissary to Atahualpa. With characteristic bravura, De Soto rode straight into the Incan camp and reared his foaming steed before the emperor. When the Spanish later garroted Atahualpa and looted Peru’s gold and silver, De Soto’s cut came to more than $10 million in today’s dollars. The hidalgo who had left Spain as a teenager returned home in his mid-thirties as one of the country’s wealthiest men. He bought a palace in Seville, acquired pages, footmen, an equerry, and a majordomo, adorned himself in velvet and satin, and married into a distinguished noble family.

With a small but determined force, led by a hidalgo as bold and ruthless as Cortés, what fortunes remained to be found in lands the Spanish had not yet conquered? LIKE MOST AMERICANS, I’d learned a little about Cortés in grade school, along with his most famous successor, Francisco Pizarro, the illiterate pig farmer who became conqueror of Peru. As a teenager, I listened to Neil Young wail “Cortez the Killer” and watched my loinclothed brother play a guard to the Inca emperor Atahualpa in The Royal Hunt of the Sun. But “conquistador” was a term I associated with Mexico and Peru. It wasn’t until I began my reeducation campaign that I realized how much of North America the Spanish had invaded, too. Their first incursion was also very early, preceding Cortés to Mexico by six years and the Pilgrims to America by more than a century. In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, a veteran of Columbus’s second voyage, set off for a land rumored to lie north of the Caribbean isles already in Spanish hands.

De Soto’s men had reason to hope their commander might concur in their wish to stay. His contract with the Crown gave him the right to choose over five hundred miles of coastline as his personal domain, to colonize and govern “for all the days of your life,” with a generous annual salary. But at Cofitachequi it became clear that De Soto had his eyes on a much greater prize. “Since the governor’s purpose was to seek another treasure like that of Atahualpa, the lord of Peru,” wrote one of his men, “he had no wish to content himself with good land or with pearls.” And so, after a stay of eleven days, the army turned its back on the sea and marched toward yet another land rumored to have “a great lord.” De Soto took along his looted pearls—and also the lady of Cofitachequi. He held the ruler hostage to guarantee safe passage through her land, and to assure he could collect corn and porters from her subjects.

pages: 366 words: 123,151

The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover

airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal

Using the Inca roads leading to the mountains—these were several, and excellent—the Spaniards invaded Cuzco and later Cajamarca, where they captured the Incan emperor, Atahualpa. Instead of simply killing Atahualpa outright, they ransomed him, holding out the prospect of his eventual release as a means to summon gold and silver from all over the empire. The Incas used the metals not as currency but as decoration for shrines and public buildings. Except for a few decorative pieces to intrigue King Carlos V, Pizarro wanted it all in the form of bullion he could most efficiently export to Spain. So the same Inca craftsmen who had worked the metal into fine shapes were now compelled to melt it back down. The object, according to legend, was to fill a room in Cajamarca, where Atahualpa was being held hostage, up to the top, at which point his freedom would be won. The “ransom room” was finally filled but then the emperor, to the Spaniards’ everlasting infamy, was executed by garrote—strangling a person from behind with rope or wire.

In parts of the Andes some stone paths are nearly one hundred feet wide. These were apparently not for common passage; they crossed lands that had been conquered by the Inca tribe and were a symbol of the Incan state, their use apparently restricted to those on state business. Commonly, local people were forced to do road work as part of the mita system of forced communal labor. One sixteenth-century chronicler described how Emperor Atahualpa and his retinue entered the plaza of the city of Cajamarca: “There were in front of him many Indians who cleaned the road in spite of the fact that it was rather clean and there was nothing to pick up.” Modern Andean scholar John Hyslop has described how in some “Inka centers the entry and exit roads, and other major corridors, were planned divisions that separated groups of people with different status and function”—suggesting that in the Inca empire some must have lived, as we say, on the wrong side of the tracks.

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The Inca Empire stretched from Ecuador to northern Chile and encompassed as many as ten million inhabitants. The Spanish located their two viceroyalties in Mexico and Peru precisely because they found precious gold and silver there and because they could draw on dense populations as sources of servile labor. The Spaniards enriched themselves at first by simply plundering the wealth of their conquered kingdoms. (The Inca ruler Atahualpa was told to fill a large room with gold and silver to ransom his life, which he did, whereupon the Spanish killed him anyway.) When these sources were exhausted, they discovered new ones, the silver mines in Zacatecas, Mexico, the mercury mines in Huancavelica, and the silver mountain of Potosí high in the Andes (then part of Upper Peru, now in Bolivia). Legally, indigenous people were considered to be full subjects of the Crown, with their property protected by the same legal rights as that of Europeans.

In contrast to the nomadic tribal societies that existed in North America, or groups like the Mapuches who resisted white settlers in Argentina and Chile, the Aztecs and Incas were organized into complex, state-level societies and projected centralized authority over tremendous distances. And yet the speed and completeness with which their power collapsed—as told by authors from William Prescott to Jared Diamond—is astonishing.9 Francisco Pizarro defeated the Inca king Atahualpa, who commanded an army of perhaps 80,000 soldiers, with 168 Spanish troops of his own, and did not suffer a single casualty. Diamond attributes this success to a number of technological factors, such as the Spanish use of horses, muskets, and steel swords, none of which were possessed by the Incas, as well as a healthy dose of tactical surprise. The Spanish brought with them Old World diseases, as is well known, which devastated native populations and eventually killed as many as 90 percent of the local inhabitants.10 This account of the Aztec-Inca collapse is not, however, entirely convincing.

Both empires were maintained through repression—notably, with the Aztecs, involving the widespread use of human sacrifice of subject peoples. This made it easy for the conquering Spaniards to find local allies who would fight for liberation from their indigenous rulers. Cortés established alliances with the Tlaxcala and the Totonacs and was able to attack Tenochtitlán with tens of thousands of indigenous soldiers. The same was true of Pizarro in Peru, who arrived on the heels of a bloody conflict between two princes, Atahualpa and Huáscar, over succession to the throne of the Sapa Inca, or supreme chief. As in Mexico, the Spaniards were able to play on Inca divisions. Local allies proved critical in the final defeat of Túpac Amaru, the Inca prince who tried to rally the last organized resistance in the eighteenth century, and who is still a symbol of indigenous pride in contemporary Peru. While both the Aztec and Inca Empires are sometimes described as “bureaucratic,” the level of administrative development was nothing close to what China achieved by the middle of the Earlier Han Dynasty.

The Old Patagonian Express by Paul Theroux

anti-communist, Atahualpa, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Francisco Pizarro, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, transcontinental railway

Saint Teresa was canonized the same year the Compañia church was founded, 1622. I imagined that such a mural was most effective in persuading Indians to keep the faith. Indians, certainly, comprised the largest number of churchgoers in Quito, and there were Indian - that is, Inca - touches in the artistry of these churches. A quarter of the decoration in the Church of San Francisco was Inca. The church itself was built on the site of Atahuallpa's summer residence; the Inca motifs occur throughout the church - two sun gods carved on gold discs as soon as you enter the door are repeated on the walls of the interior, with fruit and flowers, the Inca harvest symbols decorating saints and crucifixion scenes. The Stations of the Cross are Spanish, the masks fixed to the walls above them are the large gold faces, some with headdresses that one sees in miniature on Inca jewellery - with exaggerated up-turned or down-turned mouths, like masks of comedy and tragedy.

They had no great culture, no literature, nothing. It did not impress the Spaniards, it does not impress me even now. I don't know what these people are talking about when they show these pots and masks. Can't they see how crude these things are? The Incas weren't warriors - they didn't fight the Spaniards. They were simply overpowered.' I said that the Spaniards had arrived at a period of civil war. Ata-huallpa had usurped the Inca throne from his brother. The people were fatalistic - they thought the Spaniards had been sent to punish them. It wasn't hard to conquer people who believed they were guilty already. They were a degenerate race,' said Mr Medina. The Incas had a system of social security that was a damn sight better than anything Ecuador has produced.' They were what y ou see - lazy people with a different mentality. ' 'Different from yours, you mean?'

Wealth and Poverty of Nations by David S. Landes

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, business cycle, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, computer age, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, Francisco Pizarro, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, land tenure, lateral thinking, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

They filled the square, the greatest nobles in the kingdom bear­ ing Inca Atahualpa on his royal litter. N o w a Spanish priest advanced to offer the Inca a holy bible. Atahualpa opened it, looked, and threw it on the ground. That did it. The friar ran back to Pizarro: " C o m e out! Come out, Christians! C o m e at these enemy dogs who reject the things of G o d . " The slaughter that followed left some seven thousand Indians dead on the spot, plus numerous wounded. Spanish horsemen 108 THE WEALTH AND POVERTY OF NATIONS pursued the rest, spearing them at will, targeting those with fancy clothes, presumably leaders. " I f night had not come on, few out of the more than 4 0 , 0 0 0 Indian troops would have been left alive." Atahualpa was taken prisoner, naked but unharmed. The Spanish de­ manded and obtained a ransom greater than any European monarch could have paid—enough gold to fill a good-sized room to the ceiling.

"I mean to strip them as naked as ever they were born," swore the valiant Sir Walter, "for Her Majesty has been robbed and that o f the most rare things." By the time Sir Walter took things in hand, a cargo estimated at half a million pounds—nearly half of all the monies in the Exchequer—had been reduced to £ 1 4 0 , 0 0 0 . Even so, it took ten freighters to carry the treasure around the coast and up the Thames to London. Next to the ransom of Atahualpa, it was perhaps the greatest haul in history. And like the ransom o f Atahualpa, it was an immensely potent appetizer. This whiff of wealth, this foretaste of the riches of the East, galvanized English interest in these distant lands and set the country (and the world) on a new course. * B e c a u s e o f the westerlies (winds are n a m e d for their s o u r c e ) a n d the easting G u l f S t r e a m , t h e A z o r e s w e r e in effect t h e g u l l e t f o r v e s s e l s r e t u r n i n g from t h e W e s t a n d E a s t I n d i e s alike.

But they immediately rearrested him on a charge o f trea­ son to the Spanish crown (sic!); and after bestowing the last rites (sal­ vation first), figuratively and literally decapitated the kingdom.* It is a bloody story, full o f cruelty and bad faith, condescension and sanctimony; but one must not judge these events in terms of the good, the bad, and the ugly. They all deserved one another. Before Pizarro arrived on the scene, Huayna Capac, emperor and father of Atahualpa, set the terms for defeat when he decapitated the members o f a rebel tribe and threw their bodies into a lake: " N o w you're just a bunch of litde boys!" We are told that the victims numbered twenty thousand, that this "was probably the bloodiest encounter in the history of the pre-Hispanic New World." The place is known to this day as the Lake of B l o o d . In a penetrating analysis, the biologist-historian Jared Diamond asks why the Incas behaved so naively—by our standards, stupidly.

pages: 295 words: 92,670

1494: How a Family Feud in Medieval Spain Divided the World in Half by Stephen R. Bown

Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, charter city, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, Peace of Westphalia, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, UNCLOS

Roving bands of privately funded adventurers scoured the Americas from Florida to Peru, searching for another source of easy treasure. The Mayan city-states in the Yucatán Peninsula and Guatemala were subjugated by Pedro de Alvarado in 1523, and Francisco Pizarro led his band of privateers south to Peru in 1531. By 1533, Pizarro had defeated the Inca Empire and conquered the city of Cuzco by treacherously capturing Emperor Atahualpa. In Florida, Hernando de Soto led an expedition in search of the Fountain of Youth and the Seven Cities of Cibola in 1539. In all these endeavours, the native peoples of the Americas—enslaved, starved, displaced and ravaged by disease—suffered horribly. Many were killed outright, others were compelled to labour, chained in work gangs or bent under the lash in silver mines in Peru and Mexico. To still their consciences and justify their actions, conquistadors read aloud the Requerimiento—a document first devised during Ferdinand’s reign to justify the conquest on religious grounds.

Aeterni Regis (bull), 78, 143, 149 Afonso V (king of Portugal): abdication of throne, 54; death, 55; invasion of Castile, 33 –35, 48 –53, 75,76; betrothal to Juana la Beltraneja, 48; plan to marry Isabella, 11–13, 35, 36, 42, 43; sponsor of Atlantic voyages, 48, 73, 74, 75 Albuquerque, Afonso de, 163 Alcazar of Madrid, 12 Alexander VI (pope). See Borgia, Rodrigo (Pope Alexander VI) Alfonso de Coca, friar, 14, 15, 36 Alfonso of Palencia, 47, 50, 53 Almeida, Francisco de, 132 Alonso de Aragon, 52 Alvarado, Pedro, 193 Anghiera, Pietro Martire d’, 129 Arana, Beatriz Enríquez de, 99, 104 Archimedes, 81 Aristotle, 80, 81 Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas, 193 Azores, 77, 78, 87, 96, 97, 98, 121, 122, 128, 148 Aztec Empire, 160, 192, 193, 194, 198 Badajoz Conference, 195–97 Balboa. See Nuñez de Balboa Barbosa, Beatriz, 164 Barbosa, Diego, 164, 173 Barros, João de, 96, 125, 169 Bermuda, 121 Bernáldez, Alonzo, 218 Bernáldez, Lorenzo, 216, 217 Bojador, Cape, 60, 66 –68, 73, 74 Borgia, Alonso, 134 Borgia, Cesare, 137, 138 Borgia, Lucrezia, 137, 146 Borgia, Rodrigo (Pope Alexander VI): appearance, 134, 136, 138; becomes pope, 140 –42; birth and childhood, 134, 135; children, 137, 146; corruption and immorality, 134 – 39; death, 150; early career, 135; personality, 134 –36; relations with Ferdinand and Isabella, 44, 45, 139, 140, 144 –47, 153, 160; support for Jews, 138, 267; Inter Caetera (divides the world), 145, 146, 148, 149, 154, 166, 202, 252, 253, 266, 267 Brazil, 4, 159, 167, 173, 174, 200, 216, 262, 266 Burchard, Johann, 137, Bynkershoek, Cornelius, 260 Cabot, John, 158, 199, 200 Cabot, Sebastian, 195, 199, 200 Cabral, Pedro Álvares, 159 Cadamosto, Alvise, 68 Calixtus III (pope), 74 Canary Islands, 75–78, 87, 97, 98, 103, 111, 114, 129, 145, 149, 154, 173, 217, 247 cannibals, 120, 217, 218 Cão, Diogo, 78, 91, 94 Cape of Good Hope, 62, 159, 241 Carillo de Acuña, Alfonso (archbishop of Toledo), 14, 15, 26, 27, 40, 42 Cartagena, Juan de, 174, 176 Casa de Contratacíon, 164, 171, 203, 204 Castile: civil war, 26 –29, 43; economy, geography and population, 16, 17; Portuguese invasion, 49 –53 Cathay (China), 85, 91 Ceuta, Morocco, 63, 66, 91 Charles I (king of Spain).

pages: 789 words: 207,744

The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book,, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons

Within two years, their empire was gone forever, and Cortés claimed their territory for Spain, renaming the capital Mexico City. Inspired by Cortés's achievement, Pizarro set out a few years later to emulate his conquest, targeting the Inca Empire of South America. With fewer than two hundred soldiers facing an army of eighty thousand Inca warriors, Pizarro also used the strategy of surprise and betrayal to meet the Inca leader Atahualpa face to face, then began slaughtering Atahualpa's troops while taking him hostage. Within a year, the capital, Cuzco, was conquered, and the Inca Empire was no more.37 In Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond cogently analyzes the clash of cultures that led to this one-sided conflict between the Spanish and the empires of the New World. He identifies some major factors for these routs, such as the industrial infrastructure that permitted the Spanish to sail to the New World in the first place; their use of horses, swords, and guns; and the devastating impact of the diseases they brought with them.

See also Islamic civilization and thought Aral Sea, 391 Aranyakas, 166 Arawak people, 306 Aristotle Chinese thought, contrast with, 209 empiricism of, 152 in “moonlight tradition,” 359–61 Plato, contrast with, 152–53, 159, 359–60 reason, veneration of, 159, 170 soul, view of, 359–60, 368, 525 systematic logic and, 152, 360 systems theory, relation to, 367–68 in Western tradition, 340–41, 347, 360–61, 525 Arthasastra, 305 artificial intelligence, 28, 36, 376, 401, 408 Singularity and, 421–26 Aryans, 133–36, 169 cosmology of, 162–65 invasion of Indian subcontinent, 133–36, 138, 162–65, 173, 483 racial supremacy perceived, 314–15 Ascent of Man, The (Bronowski), 13, 16, 17 ase, 113 Ash'arites, 320–23 Ashoka, King, 247–48, 304–305 Assyrian empire, 217–19, 297–98 astronomy in Chinese civilization, 324 in European thought, 344–49 in Greek civilization, 319–20, 336 in Islamic civilization, 319–20, 321 in Mesopotamian civilization, 128 Atahualpa, 307 Aten, 122–24, 239 Athens, Greece, 143, 337 Atiyah, Sir Michael, 353 atman, 203 Brahman, identity with, 165–66, 168–69, 171, 172–75 in chariot metaphor, 168–70, 190–91 as eternal self, 165–66, 167–69 existing in everything, 172, 176 intellect, distinct from, 170–72, 520 renunciation and, 167–68, 177 Augustine, Saint, 231–33, 236 human being, conception of, 232–33, 236 legacy of, 231–33, 237, 339–40 and Original Sin, 232 Platonism, relation to, 231–32 reason, view of, 245, 339–40 rejection of senses, 232–33 slavery, view of, 300 Avesta, 139 Axial Age, 144 Aztec civilization, 113, 115, 288, 307–308, 472 ba, 113–14 Babylon, 129, 140, 145 cosmology of, 336 in Old Testament, 140, 219–20, 222 Bacon, Francis, 280, 313, 315, 324 and CONQUERING NATURE metaphor, 277–78, 279, 281, 313 Bacon, Roger, 344 Baghdad, Iraq, 318–19 Bantu agricultural expansion, 109 Bateson, Gregory, 260 Baxter, Richard, 312 Bayt al-Hikma (House of Wisdom), 319 Bellarmine, Cardinal, 348–49 Bernays, Edward, 380, 400 Berry, Thomas, 377, 540 Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 364 Betanzos, Father Domingo de, 311 Bhagavad Gita, 167, 174, 489 Biard, Pierre, 91–92 Bible, 187, 231, 243, 287 interpretations of, 215–16, 341, 347 See also New Testament; Old Testament bidaa, 323 bin Laden, Osama, 247 Blake, William, 361 Blombos Cave, 69–70, 73 Boethius, 340, 342 Bohr, Niels, 258, 270 Book of Changes.

Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama

Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

The Jamestown colony, founded in 1607 by the Virginia Company, struggled to survive mostly because the early colonists took Pizarro’s conquest of Peru as their model. As they looked for gold, they tried to use the local indigenous population for forced labor and attempted to capture the local Algonquian chief, Powhatan, in the hope that, as with Pizarro’s capture of Atahualpa, the chief would deliver all of the natives and their wealth to the colonists. However, unlike Peru, in Virginia there was no large centralized tributary empire, but rather many competing and fragmented tribes. Moreover, unlike Atahualpa, Powhatan was highly suspicious of the strangers who had arrived on his shores and sensibly refused to go to Jamestown. Furthermore, there was no gold or silver, and the Native Americans, not accustomed to paying tribute or engaging in forced labor, would not work. Thus, the Jamestown settlers were doomed to starvation.36 In response to these early failures, the Virginia Company tried various incentive-based schemes, including a highly punitive, almost penal, regime in an effort to make money.

pages: 474 words: 136,787

The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Bonfire of the Vanities, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, feminist movement, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, phenotype, rent control, theory of mind, twin studies, University of East Anglia, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

It is quite possible, even likely, as the next few chapters will reveal, that some parts of the human body and psyche have been sexually selected. CHAPTER SIX Polygamy and the Nature of Men ‘If women didn’t exist, all the money in the world would have no meaning.’ Aristotle Onassis ‘Power is the ultimate aphrodisiac.’ Henry Kissinger In the ancient empire of the Inca, sex was a heavily regulated industry. The sun-king Atahualpa kept one thousand five hundred women in each of many ‘houses of virgins’ throughout his kingdom. They were selected for their beauty and rarely chosen after the age of eight – to ensure their virginity. But they did not all remain virgins for long: they were the emperor’s concubines. Beneath him, each rank of society afforded a harem of a particular, legal size. Great lords had harems of more than seven hundred women.

That left precious few for the average male Indian whose enforced near-celibacy must have driven him to desperate acts, a fact attested to by the severity of the penalties that would follow any cuckolding of his seniors. If a man violated one of the Inca’s women he, his wife, his children, his relatives, his servants, his fellow villagers and all his llamas would be put to death, the village would be destroyed and the site strewn with stones. As a result, Atahualpa and his nobles had, shall we say, a majority shareholding in the paternity of the next generation. They systematically dispossessed less privileged men of their genetic share of posterity. Inca people were, many of them, the children of powerful men. In the west African kingdom of Dahomey, all women were at the pleasure of the king. Thousands of them were kept in the royal harem for his use and the remainder he suffered to ‘marry’ the more favoured of his subjects.

pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock,, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

In both Siberia and America tiny bands of desperadoes fanned out, scattering stockades built at their own expense across mind-boggling expanses of unmapped territory and constantly writing home for more money and more European women. Where fur fever drove Russians, bullion fever drove Spaniards. Cortés set Spain on this path by sacking Tenochtitlán in 1521, and Francisco Pizarro speeded them further along it. In 1533 he kidnapped the Inca king Atahualpa and as ransom ordered his subjects to stuff a room twenty-two feet long, seventeen feet across, and nine feet high with treasure. Pizarro melted the accumulated artistic triumphs of Andean civilization into ingots—13,420 pounds of gold and 26,000 pounds of silver—and then strangled Atahualpa anyway. The relatively easy pickings ran out by 1535, but dreams of El Dorado, the Golden King of a realm where treasure lay all around, kept the cutthroats coming. “Every day they did nothing else but think about gold and silver and the riches of the Indies of Peru,” one chronicler lamented.

., 537, 539, 618 War College, 615 Around the World in Eighty Days (Verne), 507, 511 Arzawa, 198 Ashoka, 263 Ashur-dan II, King, 235–37 Ashurnasirpal II, King, 236–37 Asian Tigers, 543, 546 Asimov, Isaac, 92–93, 577, 580–81, 614 Assad, Lake (Syria), 90, 94, 96, 101 Assassins, 367 Assaye, battle of, 489 Assyria, 219, 239, 243, 249, 262, 276–79, 369, 445, 528, 610 collapse of, 220 Hittites and, 197–99 language of, 138, 214 revival as gangster state of, 235–37 Tigllath-Pileser III’s rule of, 245–48, 303, 316, 335, 567 Astounding Science Fiction (magazine), 93 Atahualpa, King, 460 Atapuerca (Spain), 54–56 Atenism, 261–62 Athens, 240, 241, 250, 256, 260, 268, 296, 524 atomic bomb, see nuclear weapons Attila, 315–16 Auel, Jean, 57, 69 Augustus, Emperor, 283–85, 313, 320 Austen, Jane, 572 Australia, 16, 68, 70, 75, 77, 159, 410, 519, 520, 602 Austria, 446, 448, 526, 528 Avars, 349 Avignon (France), 398, 401 Axial thought, 285, 322 first-wave, 254–56, 259–63, 329, 562, 569 Renaissance compared to, 420, 476 second-wave, 324, 325–27, 330, 351, 353, 463 social development and, 271 Aztecs, 139, 433, 515 Ba’ath Party, 90 Babylon, 138, 197–200, 214, 215, 219–21, 247–51, 278, 349 Back to the Future (film), 572 backwardness, advantages of, 34, 36, 179, 195, 196, 217, 241, 332, 404, 552, 564, 584, 619 for Arab migrants, 351 in China, 207, 264, 334, 562, 585, 587, 615 Habsburgs and, 466 in Japan, 584 for Mongols, 389 for Muslim world, 571 for Macedonians, 268 in Mesopotamia, 499, 561 for Romans, 264 in Soviet Union, 530 in United States, 510 Bacon, Francis, 468–69, 473 Bactria, 271, 292 Baghdad, 357–59, 362, 364, 366, 370, 391, 401 Bai Juyi, 355–56 Balkans, 310, 313–15, 348, 401, 431, 526, 605 “Ballad of East and West, The” (Kipling), 620–21 Baltic region, 112–14, 127–29, 310, 466 Bamboo Annals, 232 Bank of England, 530 Bao Si, 242–43, 355 Barbegal (France), 287 Barker, Graeme, 107 Basiliskos, 316, 317 Battle of the Red Cliffs, The (film), 304 Beijing, 201, 265n, 441, 432, 465, 478, 482, 483, 523, 588–90, 605 Boxer Rebellion in, 211 Britain and, 506, 515, 517, 518 culture in, 436 fall of, 453, 454 Forbidden City in, 205, 528 Gorbachev in, 549 Imperial Academy in, 210 Mongol burning of, 389 Nixon in, 546–47 population of, 152, 482n wages in, 438, 501, 502 Belgium, 160, 446, 510 Belgrade, bombing of Chinese embassy in, 605 Belisarius, 345, 346 Belize, 121 Bell, Alexander Graham, 567 Belloc, Hilaire, 12 Benedict XIII, Pope, 401 Bentley, Edmund, 29 Benz, Karl, 510 Berlin Wall, 550 Bible, 81n New Testament, 14, 255, 325 Old Testament, see Hebrew Bible Bierce, Ambrose, 26 Bin Wong, 18 Birmingham University, 22 Black Death, see bubonic plague Black Hand, 526, 605 Blombos Cave (Africa), 64 Blue Gene supercomputers, 596 Bodhisattvas, 322, 329 Bohemia, 368 Bolivia, 460 Bolsheviks, 528 Bombay–Calcutta railroad, 507 Bonesetter’s Daughter, The (Tan), 51 Boniface VIII, Pope, 398 Boniface IX, Pope, 401 Book of Changes, 479 Book of Lord Shang, 257 Book of Martyrs (Fox), 436 Borneo, 127 Boswell, James, 490–91, 495 Botox, 594 Boulton, Matthew, 491–93, 495–97, 502, 504, 567, 568, 573 Bourbons, 551 Boxer Rebellion, 211, 525 Boyne, battle of, 20 Brain Interface Project, 595 Brando, Marlon, 520n Brazil, 430, 520 Brezhnev, Leonid, 542 Britain, 33, 35, 39–40, 158, 347, 398, 404, 451, 466–70, 472, 521, 525, 534–37, 553, 608, 610, 611, 615 American colonies of, 463–64 China and, 7–15, 25, 40, 143, 145, 147–48, 211, 484, 506, 515–18, 520, 524, 572–73 Christianity in, 353 civil service of, 339n; Civil War in, 452–53 emigration to North America from, 509 Enlightenment thought in, 468–73 exploration and, 416 farming in, 290, 368–69 French wars against, 486–89, 500 Habsburgs and, 461 India and, 7, 273–75, 339n, 495 industrial revolution in, 13, 19–21, 25, 40, 379, 382, 494–98, 500, 501–507, 510–12, 572, 597, 620 Ireland and, 450, 451, 505 medieval, 194 plague in, 397 prehistoric, 80, 189 privateers from, 462–63 Renaissance in, 419 Roman, 274, 290, 307, 311, 314, 320 Royal Navy of, 148, 511, 517 social development of, 147–49, 157, 159–60, 163, 168 trade of, 466–67, 485 Victorian, 136, 506, 513 Vikings in, 371 and World Wars, 528–29 British Broadcasting Company (BBC), 475 British East India Company, 7, 484, 515 bronze, 208–10, 212–14, 221, 231–34, 410 for coins, 251, 377–78 for ritual vessels, 208, 210, 212, 221, 231–33, 243 for tools, 181, 234 for weapons, 128, 181, 191, 200, 208, 234, 396 Brunelleschi, Filippo, 438 bubonic plague (Black Death), 396–401, 420, 437, 505, 520, 574, 603 in Byzantium, 346–48 in China, 355, 397, 401, 405 in Europe, 397–99, 427, 438, 446, 447, 455, 466, 467, 506 in Islamic nations, 397, 398 Buddha, 255, 256, 262, 274, 322, 324, 375–76, 398, 404–405, 440 Buddhism, 255, 256, 263, 351, 357, 393, 395, 420, 437, 525, 563 in Bactria, 271 in China, 321–23, 326, 328–29, 334, 339–42, 375–76, 378, 419, 423–24, 478, 543, 546 Christianity compared with, 324–28 in Japan, 440 Mahayana, 322, 324, 325 Bulgaria, 313 Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 608 Bush, George W., 588 Business Week, 553 Byzantine Empire, 317, 343–49, 363, 373, 457, 566, 616 Arabs and, 352, 356–57 religious conflicts in, 352, 361–62 Turkic attacks on, 366, 372, 401, 403 Caboto, Giovanni (John Cabot), 416, 417, 430 Caesar, Julius, 228, 283, 419 Caffa (Crimea), 397 Cairo (Egypt), 359n, 364, 371, 392 Calicut (India), 429, 431 California, University of; Davis, 19 Irvine, 18, 20 Los Angeles, 18n California Institute of Technology, 18n “California School” of history, 19–20 Caligula, Emperor, 307 Calvinism, 448 Cambodia, 360 Cambridge University, 23, 107, 365, 475–76, 581 Cambyses, King, 249 Canada, 601 Candide (Voltaire), 280 Cann, Rebecca, 71 Cao Cao, 303–304 Cao Xueqin, 503 Carlson, Robert, 596n Carlson’s Curve, 596 Carlyle, Thomas, 472 Carpenter’s Gap (Australia), 77 Carthage, 242, 250, 268, 270, 315–17, 345 Casanova, Giovanni Giacomo, 540 Çatalhöyük (Turkey), 100, 102, 105, 123, 124 Catholicism, 20, 362, 372, 398–99, 401, 404, 448, 453, 477–78 Cavalli-Sforza, Luca, 110–12 Çayönü (Turkey), 102–103, 105, 125 Chang, Kwang-chih, 124, 125, 204, 205, 208 Chang’an (China), 153, 289, 293n, 298–99, 305, 306, 321, 337–38, 340, 342, 355, 359, 377 Chariots of the Gods?

pages: 661 words: 169,298

Coming of Age in the Milky Way by Timothy Ferris

Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Cepheid variable, Commentariolus, cosmic abundance, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, dark matter, delayed gratification, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, Gary Taubes, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Henri Poincaré, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Karl Jansky, Lao Tzu, Louis Pasteur, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, music of the spheres, planetary scale, retrograde motion, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Solar eclipse in 1919, source of truth, Stephen Hawking, Thales of Miletus, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Wilhelm Olbers

“Who has gold has a treasure with which he gets what he wants, imposes his will in the world, and even helps souls to paradise.”20 He died poor. Gold outweighed the stars in the balance sheets of the exploratory enterprise. Montezuma II, emperor of the Aztecs, sent Cortez a gold disk the size of a cartwheel representing the sun, and another of silver representing the moon; soon he was Cortez’s prisoner, and soon thereafter dead. Atahualpa of Peru sued for his freedom by filling his cell with gold higher than a man could reach, but Pizarra had him strangled nevertheless; he would have burned him had Atahualpa not agreed to accept baptism. The New World’s loss was the Old World’s gain. As the traders and explorers had hoped, Portugal and Spain—and, through Spain, Holland and Britain—prospered at the expense of Africa and America. The greatest profits, however, came not in coin but in knowledge, tools, and dreams; Toscanelli, in a skewed way, had been right.

pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

This was how Gaspar Espinosa, Pizarro’s main backer, had made his fortune and become the richest settler in Panama.19 Pizarro, like Cortés, enjoyed the advantage of surprise and had weaponry unknown to his American opponents. Both these factors played a key part in the ruthless coup by which, with almost one blow, the Spanish were able to throw the entire Inca system into political chaos. On 16 November 1532 Pizarro met the Inca ruler at Cajamarca in northern Peru. Atahualpa may have believed that such a small band of strangers could be easily captured by his vast retinue, or that they were mere mercenaries who could be bought off with treasure. He was quite unprepared for the scale of their ambitions. Within hours of his entering the square at Cajamarca, he was a captive of Pizarro, his closest political followers were dead or dying, and some thousands of his army had been cut down by Spanish cavalry.

Index Abadan 432, 461 Abbas Shah 80–81 ‘Abd al-Latif, historian 203 Abduh, Muhammad 334 Abyssinia, see Ethiopia Aden 38, 222, 256, 454 al-Afghani, Jamal al-Din 334–5 Afghanistan 153, 258, 292, 478 Afghans 148 Africa 52, 106, 261, 304–18, 310–11, 311–12, 317–18, 463–7 partition of 304–18 Agha Mohammed Shah 214 Agra 144 Ahmad Shah Durrani 151–3, 263 Akbar, Mughal emperor 56, 83–7, 144 Alamein 429 Albuquerque, Afonso 51, 53 Alexander I, tsar 184 Alexander II, tsar 233 Algeria 251, 467 Algiers 257 Alma Ata, Treaty of 479 America 22, 56–65, 97, 98, 106, 107, 163–4, 173, 209, 224, 240–49; see also United States Ankara, Battle of 4 Angola 464 Appalachians 107, 163, 172 Arab League 453 Arabi, Colonel 308–9 Arabs 36, 384–6, 387, 459 Aragon 57 Archinard, Louis 310–11 Argentina 251, 299 Armenians 204, 400 Asian–African Conference (1955) 444 Astrakhan 70, 128 Atahualpa, Inca emperor 61 Atatürk, Kemal (Mustafa Kemal) 386, 389 Atlantic economy 19, 21–2, 245 Aurangzeb, Mughal emperor 146 Australia 174, 224, 254, 255 Azerbaijan 214, 261 Azores 51, 57 Aztecs 57, 59–60 Babis 292 Babur, Timurid prince 82–3 Bacon, Nathaniel 113 Baghdad 74, 385 Bandung, conference 444 Barbados 108 Bayazet I, Ottoman Sultan 4 Beijing, see Peking Belgrade 39, 141 Bengal 148, 176–8, 193, 264 Bentham, Jeremy 210, 230 Bering Strait 106 Bismarck, Otto von 226, 236 Black Death 31, 39 Black Sea 115, 139, 141–2, 163, 175, 225, 292 Blyden, Edward Wilmot 349 Bombay 222, 332 Boxer Rebellion 352 Braddock, General Edward 114 Brazil 54 Britain 167–9, 170, 172, 185, 194–8, 251–2, 262, 323–6, 415–16, 431–2, 436 Bryce, James 303 Byzantine Empire 75–6 Byzantium 28–30 Burma 215, 258, 431, 434 Caesar, Julius 28 Cairo 16, 142, 204, 431, 453 Calcutta 149, 177, 248–9, 265 Calicut 17, 52 California 106, 255 Canary Islands 57 Canton 89, 161, 179, 270 Caribbean, 57–9, 107–8, 197, 320 Caspian Sea 152 Catherine the Great, empress of Russia 171, 180 Catholic Church 63–4, 68, 94, 120 Charlemagne 29 Charles V, Habsburg emperor (Charles I of Spain) 50, 94 Charles XII, King of Sweden 122 Cheng-ho, admiral 44, 88 Chiang Kai-shek 396, 407, 437–8 Ch’ien-lung emperor 128, 199, 201 China 40–45, 87–91, 92–3, 130–32, 193–4, 199–201, 270–76, 349–54, 383, 395–9, 406–8, 411, 419–21, 438–9, 445–7 Ch’ing dynasty, see Manchus Choshu 278–9 Chou En-lai 444, 446 Churchill, Winston 433, 435, 437 Clive, Robert 150, 177–80 coal 191, 195–6 cod fishery 96 Columbus, Christopher 56–7 Confucianism 43, 87, 89–90, 92, 131, 135, 199–201, 354 Congo 310, 312, 314, 316, 466–7 Constant, Benjamin 229–30 Constantinople 73, 142, 372 Cook, James 106, 161, 173–4, 208 Corteés, Hernando 50, 51, 57, 59 cotton 136, 193, 196, 224 Crimea 70, 163, 225 Cuba 57–8, 320, 196 Cultural Revolution 447 Cyprus 30, 285, 461 da Gama, Vasco 17, 52–3 Damascus 35, 39, 385 Danube 28, 39 decolonization 441–3, 464–8 Defoe, Daniel 197 Delhi 266–8 Deshima 92, 134, 278 Dien Bien Phu, Battle of 451 Dutch East India Company 111, 154 dynasticism 94, 113, 116 East India Company (British) 149–50, 177–8, 179–80 Edo 133, 135, 279 Egypt 16, 32, 74, 192, 214, 288–91, 305, 307–10, 345, 383–4, 453–4, 456–9 Elmina 52 Ethiopia 260 Europe: meaning 20–22 thought in 32, 93–4, 99, 117–18, 154, 161, 198–9, 206–10, 229–31, 339–43 Fath Ali Shah 214 Feisal, Arab statesman 384–5 France 112, 114, 166–7, 180–81, 328–9, 463 Frederick the Great, King of Prussia 116, 165, 169–70 Galdan, Kalmyk ruler 127–8 Gandhi, Mahatma 346–7, 391–4, 463 Genghis Khan 4, 36, 66 Genoa 31, 56, 96 Georgia 400 Germany 326–8, 372–3, 417–19 globalization 477–8, 480, 482, 485, 501–5 meaning 8–11 debate 7–8 gold 58–9, 108–9, 255–6 Golden Horde 4–5, 65 Gorbachev, Mikhail 478–9 Great Wall 44, 88 Gujarat 38, 193 Gulistan, Treaty of 222 Habsburg Empire 94, 369, 372 Haidar Ali 178 Haiti 183 Havana 170 Havas 239 Herat 152 Hideyoshi, Japanese ruler 90 Hispaniola 57 Hitler, Adolf 406, 417–19 Ho Chi Minh 451, 474 Hokkaido 216 Hong Kong 249, 444 Hormuz 38, 53 Humboldt, Alexander von 208, 245 Hume, David 207, 246 Ibn Khaldun, historian 4, 35–6, 38 Incas 60–61 India 82–3, 143–51, 163, 177–9, 186, 213, 262–9, 327, 391–4, 412–15, 449–50 Indochina 250, 256, 258, 450–52 Indonesia 138, 258, 434, 436, 450 Iran 79–82, 151–3, 192, 214, 222, 291–3, 361–2, 389–90, 461–3 Iraq 6, 385–6, 454–5 Isfahan 80 Islam 28, 33–9, 137, 138, 199–205, 334–6, 393–4 Ismail Shah 79–80 Israel 432, 459–60 Ivan III, tsar 67 Ivan IV, tsar 68 al-Jabarti, ‘Abd al-Rahman 205 Jamaica 107–8 janissaries 142, 205 Japan 89, 91, 132–5, 215–17, 270–83, 351, 354–9, 381, 396–7, 406–8, 411, 419–21, 447–9 Java 93, 202, 436 Jeddah 38 Jesuits 117, 131, 145, 201 Kabul 82–3 Macao 53, 54 Kandahar 151 K’ang-hsi, Ch’ing emperor 126–30, 131 Kant, Immanuel 210 kaozheng movement 200 Karim Khan Zand 214 Kazan 70–71 Kemal, Mustafa 386, 389 Kennan, George 434 Kenya 466 Kenyatta, Jomo 411 Khartoum 214 Khorasan 151 Khrushchev, Nikita 473–4 Kidd, Benjamin 303 Kiev 66 Kliuchevskii, Vassilii 118, 233 Korea 90, 136, 323, 351, 434, 446, 478 Koxinga (Cheng Ch’eng-kung), freebooter 126–7 Kuomintang (KMT) 395–9, 438–9, 446 Lancashire 244 League of Nations 402–4 Lebanon 285 Lenin, Vladimir Ilich 9, 399–402 Leopold II, king of Belgium 310 Leur, J.

pages: 339 words: 83,725

Fodor's Madrid and Side Trips by Fodor's

Atahualpa, call centre, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, Isaac Newton, low cost airline, Pepto Bismol, traffic fines, young professional

Emblematic of the oldest part of the city and intimately related to the origins of Madrid—it rests on the terrain where the Muslims built their defensive fortress in the 9th century—the Royal Palace awes visitors with its sheer size and monumental presence that unmistakably stands out against the city’s silhouetted background. The palace was commissioned in the early 18th century by the first of Spain’s Bourbon rulers, Felipe V. Outside, you can see the classical French architecture on the graceful Patio de Armas: Felipe was obviously inspired by his childhood days at Versailles with his grandfather Louis XIV. Look for the stone statues of Inca prince Atahualpa and Aztec king Montezuma, perhaps the only tributes in Spain to these pre-Columbian American rulers. Notice how the steep bluff drops west to the Manzanares River—on a clear day, this vantage point commands a view of the mountain passes leading into Madrid from Old Castile; it’s easy to see why the Moors picked this spot for a fortress. Inside, 2,800 rooms compete with each other for over-the-top opulence.

The Rough Guide to Chile by Melissa Graham, Andrew Benson

Atahualpa, California gold rush, call centre, centre right, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, Francisco Pizarro, Murano, Venice glass, sensible shoes, sustainable-tourism, trade route, union organizing, women in the workforce

People in protest the world over have joined in the Chilean street anthems El Pueblo Unido Jamás Sera Vencido (The People United Will Never Be Defeated) and Venceremos (We Will Win). Yupanqui and Violeta Parra CONTEXTS | Chilean music: Nueva Canción 520 The roots of the nueva canción movement lie in the work of two key figures, whose music bridged rural and urban life and culture in the 1940s and 50s: the Argentine Atahualpa Yupanqui (1908–92) and the Chilean Violeta Parra (1917–67). Each had a passionate interest in his or her nation’s rural musical traditions, which had both an Iberian and Amerindian sensibility. Their work was in some respects paralleled by the Cuban Carlos Puebla. Atahualpa Yupanqui spent much of his early life travelling around Argentina, collecting popular songs from itinerant payadores (improvising poets, Chile’s indigenous rappers) and folk singers in rural areas. He also wrote his own songs, and during a long career introduced a new integrity to Argentine folk music – and an assertive political outlook which ultimately forced him into exile in Paris.

pages: 447 words: 141,811

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Graeber, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, global village, greed is good, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, personalized medicine, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, zero-sum game

Ten years after Cortés landed in Mexico, Pizarro arrived on the shore of the Inca Empire. He had far fewer soldiers than Cortés – his expedition numbered just 168 men! Yet Pizarro benefited from all the knowledge and experience gained in previous invasions. The Inca, in contrast, knew nothing about the fate of the Aztecs. Pizarro plagiarised Cortés. He declared himself a peaceful emissary from the king of Spain, invited the Inca ruler, Atahualpa, to a diplomatic interview, and then kidnapped him. Pizarro proceeded to conquer the paralysed empire with the help of local allies. If the subject peoples of the Inca Empire had known the fate of the inhabitants of Mexico, they would not have thrown in their lot with the invaders. But they did not know. The native peoples of America were not the only ones to pay a heavy price for their parochial outlook.

pages: 490 words: 146,259

New World, Inc. by John Butman

Admiral Zheng, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, commoditize, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversified portfolio, Etonian, Francisco Pizarro, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, market design, Skype, spice trade, trade route, wikimedia commons

And yet, in the half century after Columbus’s first voyage, Spanish conquistadors had explored the West Indies for precious metals and found enough alluvial gold, first in Hispaniola and then in the surrounding islands, to persuade them to search the mainland. In 1518, Hernán Cortés, who first went to the West Indies in 1504, started to subjugate the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico, pillaging their stores of treasure. Francisco Pizarro pushed southward into the land of the Incas, largely with the goal of finding gold, and after garroting Atahualpa, the Incan emperor, in 1533, claimed sovereignty over that territory for Spain.29 To capitalize on the rich trove of precious metals they found in Mexico and South America, the Spanish established settlements and organized their newly claimed territory into three governmental regions, each ruled by a viceroy. New Spain lay to the north, basically what is now Mexico; New Granada comprised the northern area of South America; while Peru was delineated as the vast area embracing the Andean mountain range.30 By the 1540s, New World metals constituted an important source of revenue for Spain.

The Secret World: A History of Intelligence by Christopher Andrew

active measures, Admiral Zheng, airport security, anti-communist, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden,, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francisco Pizarro, Google Earth, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

Pizarro’s success owed much to the Incas’ complete lack of intelligence on Central America. Though Inca rulers sometimes sent spies to neighbouring territory they wished to add to their empire, they knew nothing about the Spanish defeat of the Aztecs. Pizarro was thus able to imitate Cortés’s winning strategy – claiming to be a peaceful emissary from the King of Spain and arranging a meeting with the Inca ruler, Atahualpa, at which he kidnapped him. Like Cortés, he then embarked on a war of conquest with local allies hostile to the Incas.67 The illiterate Pizarro, however, lacked Cortés’s flair for intelligence. He and his men, who were obsessed with the hunt for gold, provide extreme examples of the problems of telling truth to power. Not hesitating to use torture to force inhabitants of the Inca Empire to reveal where the gold was hidden, they failed to realize that, to try to avoid torture, those questioned were apt to exaggerate, sometimes enormously, the amount of Inca gold.

., 523 Arco, Antonio de, 200–201, 202–3 Argenson, comte d’, 280 Argentina, 750 Ariovistus (Germanic ruler), 47 Aristander of Telmessus, 35–6 Aristotle, 36–7 Arisue, Major-General Seizo, 664 Arlington, Earl of, Sir Henry Bennet, 234, 236, 237–8 Arlington Hall, Virginia, 643 Arminius (Cheruscan leader), 70–71 Armstrong, Karen, Muhammad: Prophet for Our Time, 3* Arnold, Benedict, 305–6 Arnold, John, 258 Arrian of Nicomedia, 35 Artagnan, Charles d’, 243–4 Arthashastra (Mauryan dynasty manual), 3, 54–5, 55*, 60–66 Arundel, Charles, 183–4 Al-Asbahani, 86† Ascham, Anthony, 221 Ashkenazi, Solomon Nathan, 124 Asim ibn Thabit, 91 Asma bint Marwan, 90 Aspin–Brown Commission (1995–6), 713–14, 716–17, 727 Asquith, Herbert, 6, 458, 474, 475, 477, 494, 499, 510–11, 532, 603, 760 Assange, Julian, 745, 746 assassination anarchist ‘propaganda of the deed’, 429–31, 432–3 in the Arthashastra, 62, 63, 85 of Bogolepov in Russia (1901), 437 of Buckingham, 195, 207 in Chinese tradition, 59, 85 CIA’s plans for Castro, 63, 85, 677, 680, 687, 688 of Concini in Paris (April 1617), 201–2 failures of protective security, 429–31, 433 of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, 444–8, 487 frumentarii in Roman world, 77 of Grand Duke Sergei (1905), 438 by handgun, 169–70 of Henry IV of France, 169, 195 of Sergei Kirov (1 December 1934), 594–5 MGB’s plans for Tito, 85, 681–2 and Muhammad, 89–90 and nineteenth-century police forces, 426–7 Operation FOXLEY (SOE plan to kill Hitler), 338†, 646 pre-First World War ‘golden age of’, 425, 427, 428–31, 432–3, 437–9, 442, 444–8, 487 pursuit of Charles I’s regicides, 219, 221, 230–32, 233–5 Roman plot against Attila, 83–4, 85 royalist plot on Napoleon (May 1803), 337–8 and Rushdie fatwa, 90, 90† in Serbia, 442–3 of Sir William Curzon Wyllie (1909), 619 and Stalin, 62–3, 85, 623–4 Talmud injunction to ‘rise and killfirst’, 732–4 and Tamil Tigers (LTTE), 721 of Trotsky, 62–3, 624 of Tsar Alexander II (March 1881), 154, 425, 427, 437 of Tsar Peter III, 291 as undeclared Israeli state policy, 732–4 of US presidents, 429, 435–6, 688 use of poison, 63 of William I, Prince of Orange (1584), 85, 169–70 Yamamoto’s plane shot down (April 1943), 638 Assaye, Battle of (1803), 345 Aston, Sir George, 13, 452 Astor, Vincent, 605–6 Atahualpa, Inca ruler, 136 Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 123 Atta, Mohamed, 724–5 Atterbury, Francis, Bishop of Rochester, 272–5, 279 Attila, Hun leader, 82–5 Attlee, Clement, 673, 678–9, 738 Atwan, Abdel Bari, 704 Augsburg, League of, 247 Augustus, Emperor, 70, 72, 75 Aurelius Victor, 77 Auschwitz II (Birkenau), 656 Australia, 670–71 Austria 1848 disturbances in, 384–5, 388 annexation of by Nazi Germany (1938), 613 ‘black chamber’ (Geheime Kabinets-Kanzlei), 277, 278, 279, 363–4, 365, 369–70, 489 confrontation with Serbia (summer 1914), 487–8, 490–91, 492, 493 and First World War, 486, 502, 523 French decrypts in mid-eighteenth century, 278 and French Revolutionary wars, 317 Galician uprising (1846), 369 intelligence during Congress of Vienna, 363–7 Kaunitz’s intelligence operations, 5, 278–9, 363 Metternich’s repression of students, 372–3 and Napoleonic Wars, 357 Prussian defeat of (1866), 398 Redl as Russian agent, 486 rule in the Balkans, 443, 444, 471 Russian decrypts of despatches, 485, 488, 491, 492 and Seven Years War (1756–63), 278, 287, 288 SIGINT agency in Vienna (pre-First World War), 489, 491 Austrian Succession, War of the, 278, 285–6 authoritarian regimes Aristotle on, 37 Committee of Public Safety in Revolutionary France, 321, 322–3, 325, 326 and conspiracy theories, 106, 326, 594, 598–602, 619–20, 625–6, 651, 680–82, 694–8 counter-subversion campaigns, 4, 26, 100–17, 130†, 574–5, 698–700, 751 crimes against humanity in North Korea, 751–2 as harder intelligence targets than democracies, 693 intelligence analysis as distorted in, 326, 344, 372, 375, 594, 603, 693–8 and media control/censorship, 108–10, 754 mindsets of autocrats, 26, 339, 344, 693, 743, 744, 745 and monopoly of truth, 100, 108–10, 115, 693 see also ‘telling truth to power’ and whistle-blowing, 750–51, 753–4 Ay (Tutankhamun’s vizier), 21 Azev, Evno, 437–9 Aztec Empire, Spanish conquest of, 132–6, 137 Babington, Anthony, 175–9, 188, 192, 200 Bacon, Anthony, 185–6, 188, 189* Baden, Prince Max of, 569 Baden-Powell, Robert, 449–50 Badoer, Angelo, 203 Badoglio, Marshal Pietro, 607 Badr, Battle of (624), 88–9, 91 Baghdad, 97, 98 ‘House of Wisdom’, 4, 98–9, 127, 128 Bagration, Princess Catherine, 366–7 Bahadur Shah (last Mughal ruler), 409–10 Bailly, Charles, 164–5 Baines, Richard, 171–2, 173, 186, 187 Bakatin, Vadim V., 704–5 Baker, James A., 705 Al-Baladhuri (historian), 95 Balaklava, Battle of (25 October 1854), 404 Balasy-Belvata, Jules de, 462–3, 464–5 Baldwin, Stanley, 580, 582, 583 Balfour, Arthur J., 523, 539, 543*, 548 Balkans region, 442–8, 471, 487, 489 Ball, Joseph, 581 balloonists, 411–12 Balta’ah, Hatib ibn Abi, 91 Bancroft, Edward, 296–8, 299–301 Bangya, János, 392–3 Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, 209, 219 BARBAROSSA, operation (22 June 1941), 326*, 627 Barbès, Armand, 383, 384 Barclay, Sir George, 260 Barclay de Tolly, Mikhail, 352–3, 354–5, 358, 359, 498 Barillon, Paul, marquis de Branges, 248, 249 Barkstead, John, 233 Barnes, Jonathan, 37 Barot, Dhiren, 758 Barr, Joel, 666 Barras, Admiral de, 307 Barrère, Camille, 488 Barry, Madame du, 292 Bastian, Madame Marie-Caudron (‘Auguste’), 459–60 Bates, David Homer, 411 Batiushin, General N.

pages: 807 words: 225,326

Werner Herzog - a Guide for the Perplexed: Conversations With Paul Cronin by Paul Cronin

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, Kickstarter, land reform, MITM: man-in-the-middle, out of africa

Rogers Premiere: June 1981, ARD (German television) 1982 Fitzcarraldo Fiction, 137 minutes, 35mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Screenplay: Werner Herzog Producers: Lucki Stipetić, Werner Herzog Camera: Thomas Mauch Editor: Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus Sound: Jaurez Dagoberto Costa, Zezé d’Alice Music: Florian Fricke (Popol Vuh), Verdi, Bellini Production Companies: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, Filmverlag der Autoren Locations: Iquitos, Río Camisea (Peru), Manaus and Iquito (Brazil) Cast: Klaus Kinski (Brian Sweeney Fitzgerald), Claudia Cardinale (Molly), José Lewgoy (Don Aquilino), Paul Hittscher (Captain), Huerequeque Enrique Bohórquez (Huerequeque) Premiere: March 1982, Munich 1984 Wo die grünen Ameisen träumen (Where the Green Ants Dream) Fiction, 100 minutes, 35mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Screenplay: Werner Herzog Producer: Lucki Stipetić Camera: Jörg Schmidt-Reitwein Editor: Beate Mainka-Jellinghaus Sound: Claus Langer Music: Fauré, Bloch, Wagner, Klaus-Jochen Wiese, Wandjuk Marika Production Companies: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, Filmverlag der Autoren Locations: Melbourne, Coober Pedy (Australia) Cast: Bruce Spence (Hackett), Wandjuk Marika (Miliritbi), Roy Marika (Dayipu), Ray Barrett (Cole), Norman Kaye (Ferguson), Colleen Clifford (Miss Strehlow) Premiere: May 1984, Cannes Film Festival 1984 Ballad of the Little Soldier (Ballade vom kleinen Soldaten) Non-fiction, 45 minutes, 16mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Producer: Lucki Stipetić Camera: Jorge Vignati Editor: Maximiliane Mainka Sound: Christine Ebenberger Music: Folk songs performed by Isidoro Reyes and Paladino Taylor Production Company: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion (for Süddeutscher Rundfunk) Locations: Nicaragua, Honduras Participants Miskito Indians of Nicaragua Premiere: October 1984, Hof International Film Festival 1984 Gasherbrum – Der leuchtende Berg (The Dark Glow of the Mountains) Non-fiction, 45 minutes, 16mm and Super 8, colour Director: Werner Herzog Producer: Lucki Stipetić Camera: Rainer Klausmann Editor: Maximiliane Mainka Sound: Christine Ebenberger Music: Florian Fricke (Popol Vuh), Renate Knaup, Daniel Fichelscher Production Company: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion (for Süddeutscher Rundfunk) Location: Karakorum, Pakistan Participants: Reinhold Messner, Hans Kammerlander Premiere: June 1985, ARD (German television) 1987 Cobra Verde Fiction, 110 minutes, 35mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Screenplay: Werner Herzog (from the novel The Viceroy of Ouidah by Bruce Chatwin) Producer: Lucki Stipetić Camera: Viktor Růžička Editor: Maximiliane Mainka, Rainer Standke Sound: Haymo Henry Heyder Music: Florian Fricke (Popol Vuh) Production Companies: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen Locations: Dahomey (Benin), Elmina, Tamale (Ghana), Cartagena, Cali and Guajira (Colombia), Juazeiro do Norte, Bahia (Brazil) Cast: Klaus Kinski (Francisco Manoel da Silva), King Ampaw (Taparica), José Lewgoy (Don Octavio Coutinho), Salvatore Basile (Captain Fraternidade), Peter Berling (Bernabé), Guillermo Coronel (Euclides), His Royal Highness King Nana Agyefi Kwame II of Nsein (Bossa Ahadee) Premiere: December 1987, Munich 1988 Les Français vus par … les Gauloises Non-fiction, 12 minutes, 16mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Camera: Jörg Schmidt-Reitwein Editor: Rainer Standke Sound: Bernard Aubouy Production Company: Erato Films Locations: Paris, Toulouse Participants: Claude Josse, Jean Clemente, the rugby team of Stade Toulousain and the Sporting Club of Graulheit 1989 Wodaabe, Die Hirten der Sonne (Wodaabe, Herdsmen of the Sun) Non-fiction, 52 minutes, 16mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Producer: Patrick Sandrin Camera: Jörg Schmidt-Reitwein Editor: Maximiliane Mainka Sound: Walter Saxer Music: Gounod, Mozart, Handel, Verdi Production Company: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion (for Süddeutscher Rundfunk) Location: Southern Sahara (Republic of Niger) Participants: Members of the Wodaabe Premiere: June 1989, Südwest 3 (German television) 1990 Echos aus einem düsteren Reich (Echoes from a Sombre Empire) Non-fiction, 93 minutes, 16mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Producer: Werner Herzog Camera: Jörg Schmidt-Reitwein Editor: Rainer Standke Sound: Harald Maury Music: Bartók, Prokofiev, Lutoslawski, Schubert, Shostakovich, Bach, Esther Lamandier Production Companies: Werner Herzog Filmproduktion, SERA Filmproduktion, Films sans Frontières Locations: Central African Republic, France, Venice Participants: Michael Goldsmith, François Gilbault, Augustine Assemat, Francis Szpiner, David Dacko, Marie-Reine Hassen Premiere: November 1990, Paris 1991 Cerro Torre: Schrei aus Stein (Scream of Stone) Fiction, 105 minutes, 35mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Screenplay: Hans-Ulrich Klenner, Walter Saxer, Robert Geoffrion (from an original idea by Reinhold Messner) Producers: Walter Saxer, Henry Lange, Richard Sadler Camera: Rainer Klausmann Editor: Suzanne Baron, Anne Wagner Sound: Christopher Price Music: Heinrich Schütz, Wagner, Ingram Marshall, Sarah Hopkins, Alan Lamb, Atahualpa Yupanqui Production Companies: Sera Filmproduktions GmbH, Molecule, Les Stock Films International, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, Canal+ Locations: Patagonia (Argentina), Munich, Australia, Grenoble (France) Cast: Vittorio Mezzogiorno (Roccia), Stefan Glowacz (Martin), Mathilda May (Katharina), Donald Sutherland (Ivan), Brad Dourif (Fingerless), Al Waxman (Stephen) Premiere: September 1991, Venice Film Festival 1991 Das exzentrische Privattheater des Maharadjah von Udaipur (The Eccentric Private Theatre of the Maharaja of Udaipur) Non-fiction, 85 minutes, 16mm, colour Director: Werner Herzog Producer: Werner Herzog Camera: Rainer Klausmann Editor: Michou Hutter, Ursula Darrer Sound: Herbert Giesser Production Company: Neue Studio Film GmbH (for Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen and Österreichischer Rundfunk) Location: Udaipur (India) Participants: André Heller, Manipuri Jagoi, Deb Des Baul, Pusekhan Hayatm, Huyel Lallong, Devi Bhakta, Pazur, Damodara Marar, M.

Spain by Lonely Planet Publications, Damien Simonis

Atahualpa, business process, call centre, centre right, Colonization of Mars, discovery of the americas, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, G4S, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, intermodal, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, large denomination, low cost airline, place-making, Skype, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent, young professional

* * * A large equestrian Pizarro statue by American Charles Rumsey looks down over Plaza Mayor. Apparently Rumsey originally sculpted it as a statue of Hernán Cortés to present to Mexico, but Mexico, which takes a dim view of Cortés, declined it, so it was given to Trujillo as Pizarro instead. On the plaza’s south side, carved images of Pizarro and his lover Inés Yupanqui (sister of the Inca emperor Atahualpa) decorate the corner of the 16th-century Palacio de la Conquista. To the right is their daughter Francisca Pizarro Yupanqui with her husband (and uncle), Hernando Pizarro. The mansion was built in the 1560s for Hernando and Francisca after Hernando – the only Pizarro brother not to die a bloody death in Peru – emerged from 20 years in jail for murder. Higher up, a bas relief carving shows the Pizarro family shield (two bears and a pine tree), the walls of Cuzco (in present-day Peru), Pizarro’s ships and a group of Indian chiefs.

Though initially named governor of all he had conquered, Cortés soon found royal officials arriving to usurp him. He returned to Spain and, before returning to Panama, visited Trujillo, where he received a hero’s welcome and collected his four half-brothers, as well as other relatives and friends. Their expedition set off from Panama in 1531, with just 180 men and 37 horses, and managed to capture the Inca emperor Atahualpa, despite the emperor having a 30,000-strong army. The Inca empire, with its capital in Cuzco and extending from Colombia to Chile, resisted until 1545, by which time Francisco had died (he is buried in the cathedral of Lima, Peru). About 600 people of Trujillo made their way to the Americas in the 16th century, so it’s no surprise that there are about seven Trujillos in North, Central and South America.