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The Perfect House: A Journey With Renaissance Master Andrea Palladio by Witold Rybczynski
See Lewis, Drawings, 187–88. 7. Camillo Semenzato, The Rotonda of Andrea Palladio, Corpus Palladium, vol. 1, trans. Ann Percy (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1968), 12–13, fn. 1. 8. Ibid., 21, fn. 11. 9. Martin Kubelik, “Palladio’s Villas in the Tradition of the Veneto Farm,” Assemblage, October 1986, 107. 10. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Italian Journey, trans. W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), 50. 11. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Flight to Italy: Diary and Selected Letters, trans. T. J. Reed (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 46. 12. Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, trans. Morris Hicky Morgan (New York: Dover Publications, 1960), 73. 13. Semenzato, Rotonda, 21, fn. 12. 14. William Kent, Designs of Inigo Jones, vol. 2 (Farnborough, U.K.: Gregg Press, 1967), plates 14, 16, 17, 18. 15.
SCRIBNER Cover design by John Fulbrook III Cover photograph by Witold Rybczynski Author photograph by Isak Tiner Visit us online at www.SimonandSchuster.com ALSO BY WITOLD RYBCZYNSKI Paper Heroes Taming the Tiger Home The Most Beautiful House in the World Waiting for the Weekend Looking Around A Place for Art City Life A Clearing in the Distance One Good Turn The Look of Architecture We hope you enjoyed reading this Scribner eBook. * * * Join our mailing list and get updates on new releases, deals, bonus content and other great books from Scribner and Simon & Schuster. CLICK HERE TO SIGN UP or visit us online to sign up at eBookNews.SimonandSchuster.com NOTES FOREWORD 1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Italian Journey, trans. W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), 47. 2. Reprinted in Witold Rybczynski, Looking Around: A Journey Through Architecture (New York: Viking, 1992), 209–19. 3. James S. Ackerman, Palladio (New York: Penguin Books, 1966), 185. 4. Andrea Palladio, The Four Books on Architecture, trans. Robert Tavernor and Richard Schofield (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997), 7. 5.
For currency conversion, see James S. Ackerman, Distance Points: Essays in Theory and Renaissance Art and Architecture (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991), 381, fn. 25. 12. Palladio, Four Books, 17. 13. Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors and Architects, trans. Gaston Du C. de Vere, vol. 3 (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1979), 2015. 14. Palladio, Four Books, 203. 15. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Italian Journey, trans. W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), 47. 16. Lionello Puppi, Andrea Palladio, trans. Pearl Sanders (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975), 269. 17. Paolo Gualdo, “Life of Palladio” (1616), in Lewis, Drawings, 3. 18. Georgina Masson, “Palladian Villas as Rural Centres,” Architectural Review, July 1955, 20. 19. Palladio, Four Books, 114. 20.
The Consolations of Philosophy by Alain de Botton
(Ill. 19.4) Schopenhauer’s mother complains of her son’s passion for ‘pondering on human misery’. 1809–1811 Schopenhauer studies at the university of Göttingen and decides to become a philosopher: ‘Life is a sorry business, I have resolved to spend it reflecting upon it.’ On an excursion to the countryside, a male friend suggests they should attempt to meet women. Schopenhauer quashes the plan, arguing that ‘life is so short, questionable and evanescent that it is not worth the trouble of major effort.’ Schopenhauer as a young man (Ill. 19.5) 1813 He visits his mother in Weimar. Johanna Schopenhauer has befriended the town’s most famous resident, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who visits her regularly (and likes talking with Sophie, Johanna’s housemaid, and Adele, Arthur’s younger sister). After an initial meeting, Schopenhauer describes Goethe as ‘serene, sociable, obliging, friendly: praised be his name for ever and ever!’ Goethe reports, ‘Young Schopenhauer appeared to me to be a strange and interesting young man.’ Arthur’s feelings for the writer are never wholly reciprocated.
They explain our condition to us, and thereby help us to be less lonely with, and confused by it. We may be obliged to continue burrowing underground, but through creative works, we can at least acquire moments of insight into our woes, which spare us feelings of alarm and isolation (even persecution) at being afflicted by them. In their different ways, art and philosophy help us, in Schopenhauer’s words, to turn pain into knowledge. The philosopher admired his mother’s friend Johann Wolfgang von Goethe because he had turned so many of the pains of love into knowledge, most famously in the novel he had published at the age of twenty-five, and which had made his name throughout Europe. The Sorrows of Young Werther described the unrequited love felt by a particular young man for a particular young woman (the charming Lotte, who shared Werther’s taste for The Vicar of Wakefield and wore white dresses with pink ribbons at the sleeves), but it simultaneously described the love affairs of thousands of its readers (Napoleon was said to have read the novel nine times).
Hitler greeting Elisabeth Nietzsche in Weimar, October 1935 (Ill. 22.3) But Nietzsche’s Übermenschen had little to do with either airborne aces or fascists. A better indication of their identity came in a passing remark in a letter to his mother and sister: Really, there is nobody living about whom I care much. The people I like have been dead for a long, long time – for example, the Abbé Galiani, or Henri Beyle, or Montaigne. He could have added another hero, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. These four men were perhaps the richest clues for what Nietzsche came in his maturity to understand by a fulfilled life. They had much in common. They were curious, artistically gifted, and sexually vigorous. Despite their dark sides, they laughed, and many of them danced, too; they were drawn to ‘gentle sunlight, bright and buoyant air, southerly vegetation, the breath of the sea [and] fleeting meals of flesh, fruit and eggs’.
Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence
These heraldic bearings came to be linked with rank and lineage, particularly for royal dynasties, and this is one of the reasons why European flags evolved from being associated with battlefield standards and maritime signals to becoming symbols of the nation state. Every nation is now represented by a flag, testament to Europe’s influence on the modern world as its empires expanded and ideas spread around the globe. As Johann Wolfgang von Goethe told the designer of the Venezuelan flag, Francisco de Miranda: ‘A country starts out from a name and a flag, and it then becomes them, just as a man fulfils his destiny.’ What does it mean to try to encapsulate a nation in a flag? It means trying to unite a population behind a homogeneous set of ideals, aims, history and beliefs – an almost impossible task. But when passions are aroused, when the banner of an enemy is flying high, that’s when people flock to their own symbol.
Tradition has it that the yellow at the top stands for the wealth of the country, the blue for the ocean now separating the Republic from Spain, and the red for the courage and blood of those who had fought to overthrow Spanish rule. It had been designed as early as 1806 by one of Bolívar’s fellow revolutionaries, Francisco de Miranda, who credited two things for his inspiration. He remembered a fresco he had seen in Italy in which Christopher Columbus was unfurling a yellow, blue and red flag as he came ashore at Venezuela; he also recalled a conversation he had had with the great German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe several decades earlier. De Miranda claimed that Goethe, upon hearing of his adventures in the Americas, had told him: ‘Your destiny is to create in your land a place where primary colours are not distorted.’ Goethe had thought long and hard about colour and de Miranda says he proved to him ‘[why] yellow is the most warm, noble and closest to light, why blue is that mix of excitement and serenity, a distance that evokes shadows; and why red is the exaltation of yellow and blue, the synthesis, the vanishing of light into shadow’.
., official correspondence, 1959 http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/5829/CIA-RDP80B01676R000900030089-5.pdf ‘Advantages of the Panamanian Registry’, Consulate General of Panama in London Website, http://www.panamaconsul.co.uk/?page_id=115 Carrasco, David and Sessions, Scott, Daily Life of the Aztecs: People of the Sun and Earth (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998) von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang, Goethe’s Theory of Colours: Translated From The German, With Notes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) Jensen, Anthony K., ‘Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832)’, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/goethe/ ‘Latin America Has Achieved Progress in Health, Education and Political Participation of Indigenous Peoples in the Last Decade’, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, Press Release, 22 October 2014 http://www.cepal.org/en/pressreleases/latin-america-has-achieved-progress-health-education-and-political-participation Macaulay, Neill, Dom Pedro: The Struggle for Liberty in Brazil and Portugal, 1798–1834 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1986) ‘Panama Canal Riots – 9–12 January 1964’, GlobalSecurity.org http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/panama-riots.htm The Good, the Bad and the Ugly Ship’s Log, British Navy Ship HMS Poole, July 1700.
Taming the To-Do List: How to Choose Your Best Work Every Day by Glynnis Whitwer
I don’t know what your quiet priorities are, but those that get pushed to the bottom of my list include time with my mother and sisters, exercise, studying the Bible, and having fun, to name just a few. The dreams of my heart speak in a whisper, not a roar. Especially when I press them down over and over. With my children, one quiet priority is time without an agenda, so our conversation can naturally flow. These priorities don’t shout at me; they just patiently wait for my attention. German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe said, “Things that matter most must never be at the mercy of things that matter least.” If you find yourself in a place of not knowing what is important, consider asking God. The Bible tells us God freely gives us wisdom, and that’s what we need most. In James 1:5–8, we find instructions on how to ask God for wisdom. We can’t just say “God, tell me what to do,” and stop there. This passage gives us a condition for receiving wisdom, and that’s to believe God will give it.
Tim Kreider, “The ‘Busy’ Trap,” New York Times, June 30, 2012, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/06/30/the-busy-trap/?_r=0. . Carol Brazo, No Ordinary Home: The Uncommon Art of Christ-centered Homemaking (Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 1995), 24. . “John D. Rockefeller,” New World Encyclopedia, accessed March 23, 2015, http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/John_D._Rockefeller. . “Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Quotes,” Goodreads.com, accessed March 23, 2015, http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/2326-things-which-matter-most-must-never-be-at-the-mercy. Chapter 8 Thinking with Focus and Clarity . “Starving for Sleep: America’s Hunger Games,” The Better Sleep Council, February 2014, http://bettersleep.org/better-sleep/the-science-of-sleep/sleep-statistics-research/starving-for-sleep-americas-hunger-games/
Germany by Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, computer age, credit crunch, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, place-making, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Skype, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence
OPEN LETTER FROM LUTHER ON TRANSLATION, NUREMBERG, 15 SEPTEMBER 1530. * * * In the 17th century, Christoph Martin Wieland (1733–1813) penned his Geschichte des Agathon (Agathon; 1766–67), a landmark in German literature because it was the first Bildungsroman (a novel showing the development of the hero); Wieland was also the first to translate Shakespeare into German. Shortly after Wieland was summoned to Weimar in 1772, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) rose to become Germany’s most powerful literary figure, later joining forces with Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805) in a celebrated period known as Weimarer Klassik (Weimar classicism; Click here). * * * Read Simplicissimus (Adventures of a Simpleton) by Hans Jacob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen as an appetiser to the early German novel. * * * Writing in Goethe’s lifetime, the lyricist and early Romantic poet, Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843), created delicate balance and rhythms.
Most plays are staged in multipurpose theatres (opera and music will often be performed there, too) and are subsidised by the state. The average theatre in the network of city, regional and national spaces will put on about 20 or more plays each year. Masters of the Enlightenment who frequently get a showing include Saxony’s Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729–81); Württemberg-born Friedrich Schiller, who features especially strongly in Weimar’s theatre landscape today; and, of course, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who tinkered with his two-part Faust for 60 years of his life and created one of Germany’s most powerful and enduring dramas about the human condition. Woyzeck by Georg Büchner (1813–37) is another popular piece and, having anticipated Theatre of the Absurd, lends itself to innovative staging. In 1894 the director of Berlin’s Deutsches Theater hired a young actor, Max Reinhardt (1873–1943), who became German theatre’s most influential expressionist director, working briefly with dramatist Bertolt Brecht.
And don’t forget the state capital, Erfurt, which wears its medieval splendour with pride. Once you’ve done cultural and historical Thuringia, however, it’s time to shake off all those civilising influences and explore the rich natural offerings of the Thuringian Forest. Its sleepy villages are the portals through which hikers, cyclists and anyone in need of stress relief can indulge their love for the outdoors. You can walk in the footsteps of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, feeling embraced by thick forest and liberated by vistas that send the spirit soaring. Although its roads and trails are well trodden and its cities were long ago etched onto the world cultural map, Thuringia brings many unexpected rewards for visitors who put aside frantic activity and immerse themselves in the gentle momentum of slow travel. * * * HIGHLIGHTS Culture Vulture Find out why Germany is known as the ‘land of poets and thinkers’ on a saunter around Weimar Going for Goethe Follow in the footsteps of Germany’s favourite genius by hiking the Goethewanderweg from Ilmenau to Stützerbach Castle Cravings Go behind the scenes of the Middle Ages at the Wartburg, Martin Luther’s one-time hiding place Glamour Grotto Go hunting for fairies in the underground world of the Feengrotten in Saalfeld Science, Seriously Peer through a microscope and into the starry skies in Jena’s Optical Museum and planetarium Click here Rennsteig Ramble Tackle a leg or two of the Rennsteig, Germany’s oldest trail, by foot or on your bike from Eisenach Wild Ride Rattle across meadows and through the trees aboard a nostalgic tram Click here running from Gotha to beautiful Friedrichroda and beyond POPULATION: 2.28 MILLION AREA: 16,172 SQ KM * * * Return to beginning of chapter Information For pretrip planning needs, the Thuringia Tourist Board (www.thuringia-tourism.com) has put together a nifty website.
Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, 1548-1929 by Markus Krajewski, Peter Krapp
business process, continuation of politics by other means, double entry bookkeeping, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, index card, Index librorum prohibitorum, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacques de Vaucanson, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, means of production, new economy, paper trading, Turing machine
Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. 188 References Gödel, Kurt. 1931. Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der “Principia Mathematica” und verwandter Systeme I. Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik 38:173– 198. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1801/1994. Tag- und Jahreshefte. In Autobiographische Schriften II. Vol. 10 of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Werke: Hamburger Ausgabe, 10, 429–528. Revised edition. Munich: C. H. Beck. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1831/1996. Faust: Der Tragödie Zweiter Teil. In fünf Akten. Vol. 3 of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Werke: Hamburger Ausgabe, 16, 46–364. Revised edition. Munich: C. H. Beck. Gosch, Josias Ludwig. 1789. Fragmente über den Ideenumlauf. Copenhagen: Proft. Graesel, Arnim. 1902. Handbuch der Bibliothekslehre: Zweite, voellig umgearbeitete Auﬂage der “Grundzüge der Bibliothekslehre, Neubearbeitung von Dr.
Double Entry: How the Merchants of Venice Shaped the Modern World - and How Their Invention Could Make or Break the Planet by Jane Gleeson-White
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, British Empire, business cycle, carbon footprint, corporate governance, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, source of truth, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile
Allen & Unwin Sydney, Melbourne, Auckland, London 83 Alexander Street Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia Phone: (61 2) 8425 0100 Fax: (61 2) 9906 2218 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.allenandunwin.com Cataloguing-in-Publication details are available from the National Library of Australia www.trove.nla.gov.au ISBN 978 1 74175 755 2 Index by Jo Rudd Text design by Peter Long Set in 11.5/16 pt Minion by Post Pre-press Group, Australia eBook production by Midland Typesetters, Australia Also by Jane Gleeson-White Classics Australian Classics For my father Michael Gleeson-White, who told me tales of art and finance And for Michael Hill, always What advantages does the merchant derive from Book-keeping by double-entry? It is amongst the finest inventions of the human mind. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1795 More than four hundred years ago, in the very first book published on the subject, bookkeeping was outlined in a form which still prevails around the entire world. A.C. Littleton, 1933 Historians often forget. Even the most mundane professions have their history, and those mundane professions increasingly run the capitalist world. Norman Davies, 1996 Preface: Bobby Kennedy and the wealth of nations and corporations 1 Accounting: our first communications technology 2 Merchants and mathematics 3 Luca Pacioli: from Sansepolcro to celebrity 4 Pacioli’s landmark bookkeeping treatise of 1494 5 Venetian double entry goes viral 6 Double entry morphs: the industrial revolution and the birth of a profession 7 Double entry and capitalism—chicken and egg?
p. 127 ‘Book-keeping by Double Entry . . .’ Yamey, Essays on the History of Accounting, op. cit., p. 141. p. 128 ‘very impartially . . .’ Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, Penguin, Ringwood, 1985, p. 83. p. 128 ‘tho’ the exactest book-keeping . . .’ Daniel Defoe, The Complete English Tradesman, 1725–27, www.online-literature.com/defoe/english-tradesman/20. p. 129 ‘At that time, you had no . . .’ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, Bell & Daldy, London, 1867, p. 27. Chapter 6 p. 134 The passions it inspired . . . Yamey, Essays on the History of Accounting, op. cit., p. 137. p. 134 ‘For every debit there must . . .’ Brown, op. cit., p. 160. p. 135 ‘the false prophet had . . .’ Yamey, Essays on the History of Accounting, op. cit., p. 321. p. 137 ‘the perpetual restless ambition . . .’
To Show and to Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction by Phillip Lopate
Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, desegregation, fear of failure, index card, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight
Nor is it necessary or advisable to restrict your reading to autobiographies, personal essays, and whatever passes for creative nonfiction: once you have grasped that there are wonderful prose writers in every field under the sun—articulate, expressive, cultivated practitioners—you can better figure out how to expand your focus from the personal to the world-embracing. Some Classic Autobiographies and Memoirs (Pre–Twentieth Century) Saint Augustine: Confessions Benvenuto Cellini: Autobiography Jacques Casanova: Memoirs Duc de Saint-Simon: Memoirs Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle: Memoirs, Life of the Duke Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Confessions Benjamin Franklin: Autobiography Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Autobiography (“Poetry and Truth”) François-René Chateaubriand: Mémoires d’outre tombe Stendhal: Memoirs of an Egotist and The Life of Henri Brulard John Stuart Mill: Autobiography Frederick Douglass: Autobiography Henry David Thoreau: Walden Harriet Jacobs: Incidents in the Life of a Slave-Girl Thomas De Quincey: Confessions of an English Opium-Eater John Ruskin: Praeterita Alexander Herzen: My Past and Thoughts Edmund Gosse: Father and Son Daniel Paul Schreber: Memoirs of My Nervous Illness Ulysses S.
Cioran: The Temptation to Exist Gaston Bachelard: The Poetics of Space, The Poetics of Reverie Theodor Adorno: Minima Moralia Diaries and Notebooks Sei Shonagon: The Pillow Book Kenko: Essays in Idleness Samuel Pepys: The Diary of Samuel Pepys James Boswell: Journals Ralph Waldo Emerson: The Notebooks Edmond and Jules de Goncourt: Journals George Templeton Strong: The Diaries Franz Kafka: Diaries Anne Frank: The Diary of Anne Frank Victor Klemperer: I Shall Bear Witness Cesare Pavese: The Burning Brand Witold Gombrowicz: Diary, vols. 1–3 André Gide: Journals Letters Mme. de Sévigné: Letters to Her Daughter Alexander Pushkin: Collected Letters Lord Byron: Byron’s Letters and Journals John Keats: Selected Letters Gustave Flaubert: Selected Letters Vincent van Gogh: Dear Theo Franz Kafka: Letters to Milena Aphorisms, Thought Catch-Alls, and Similar Curiosities La Rochefoucauld: Maxims La Bruyère: Characters Robert Burton: The Anatomy of Melancholy Thomas Browne: The Urn Burial, Religio Medici Giacomo Leopardi: Pensieri Cyril Connolly (Palinaurus): The Unquiet Grave Yang Ye (editor): Vignettes from the Late Ming History Thucydides: The Peloponnesian War Herodotus: The Histories Edward Gibbon: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Thomas Carlyle: The French Revolution Jules Michelet: Histories of France Washington Irving: A History of New York Jacob Burckhardt: The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy Henry Adams: History of the United States under Jefferson and Madison Francis Parkman: France and England in North America, The Oregon Trail Richard Hofstadter: The Age of Reform, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life Ferdinand Braudel: The Mediterranean Biographies Plutarch: Lives of the Greeks and Romans Giorgio Vasari: Lives of the Artists John Aubrey: Brief Lives Samuel Johnson: Lives of the English Poets James Boswell: Life of Samuel Johnson Elizabeth Gaskell: The Life of Charlotte Brontë Charles Sainte-Beuve: Portraits J. Anthony Froude: Thomas Carlyle Lytton Strachey: Eminent Victorians Gertrude Stein: The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas Geoffrey Scott: Portrait of Zélide Travel and Place Basho: Back Roads to Far Towns Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Italian Journey Frances Trollope: Domestic Manners of the Americans Astolfe de Custine: Letters from Russia Charles M. Doughty: Travels in Arabia Deserta Robert Louis Stevenson: Travels with a Donkey Mark Twain: Life on the Mississippi Richard F. Burton: First Footsteps in East Africa, Wanderings in West Africa Henry James: Collected Travel Writings Robert Byron: The Road to Oxiana Djuna Barnes: New York Osip Mandelstam: Journey to Armenia Theodore Dreiser: The Color of a Great City Paul Morand: New York Joseph Roth: What I Saw, Report from a Parisian Paradise Louis Aragon: Paris Peasant D.
Self-Reliance and Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson
All sorts of things occur to help one that would never otherwise have occurred. A whole stream of events issues from the decision, raising in one’s favor all manner of unforeseen incidents, meetings and material assistance which no man could have dreamed would have come his way. Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now. Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe ● ● ● Man is timid and apologetic; he is no longer upright; he dares not say ‘I think,’ ‘I am,’ but quotes some saint or sage. He is ashamed before the blade of grass or the blowing rose. These roses under my window make no reference to former roses or to better ones; they are for what they are; they exist with God today. There is no time to them. There is simply the rose; it is perfect in every moment of its existence.
The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hedonic treadmill, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, scientific worldview, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
But how does one go about verifying something as seemingly amorphous as the evolution of empathic expression? Fortunately, we have a record that chronicles both the development of empathic expression and the evolution of human consciousness. The evidence is embedded deep in the conversations that make up the stories we’ve told about ourselves across history. It’s in the narratives we’ve left behind. FIRST THERE WAS THE WORD The great German philosopher and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who dedicated a lifetime to unlocking the mysteries of light and color, tells a story about what is the most important single thing in life. The golden king asks the snake, “What is more glorious than gold?” “Light,” answers the snake. The king responds by asking, “What is more refreshing than light?” The snake replies, “Conversation.”1 To our knowledge, we are unique among the animal species in that we are the only ones who tell stories.
The figures were wooden caricatures made to fit an ideal image of God’s faithful servants on Earth. In the mid-eighteenth century, however, the autobiographical genre exploded. In his book The Value of the Individual: Self and Circumstance in Autobiography, historian and Columbia University professor Karl J. Weintraub shows in the autobiographies of Giambattista Vico, Edward Gibbon, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe the line of progression in self-awareness and empathic expression that characterized the period leading up to the American and French revolutions and the opening of the modern age at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Italian scholar Giambattista Vico, in his autobiography, which was published in 1728, shared with his readers his belief that human nature is not preordained by God or determined by fate but, rather, an ever-evolving process in which human beings create their own realities and pass the lessons learned on to the next generation, who build upon it to fashion their own lives and stories.
He wanted to achieve that ecstasy of unmediated, immediate, unobstructed communing with men, and above all with women, which he, at times, was privileged to have with nature. . . . At such times he felt himself to be whole, to be a harmonious part of a larger whole. At such moments he needed nothing, not even words. . . . A simple exclamation “Oh! Oh Nature! Oh Mother!” was the fully adequate expression of his overflowing heart.91 Fittingly, the great German philosopher and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s autobiography From My Life: Poetry and Truth, released in 1808 and continually updated until 1831, stands alone at the beginning of modernity as the best attempt to reconcile the mechanistic cosmology and rationalism of the Enlightenment extolled by Descartes and Newton in the seventeenth century and the early Romantic reaction of Rousseau and his ilk in the eighteenth century. If one were to have to choose a single individual who most embodied a cosmopolitan view of the world and a universal empathic sensibility, Goethe would be an easy pick.
Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman
23andMe, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
Ethische Methodenlehre, 1st Section, §50: “He is the midwife of his thoughts,” on the teacher-student relationship. 46. Luhmann, “Kommunikation mit Zettelkästen,” 57. 47. Walter Benjamin, Einbahnstraße, in Gesammelte Schriften, vol. 4 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1928/1981), 98–140, at 103. 48. Kleist, “Über die allmähliche Verfertigung der Gedanken beim Reden,” 323. 49. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Autobiography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, vol. 2, trans. John Oxenford (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 311f. 50. Kittler, Die Nacht der Substanz, 16. For a more strictly computer-archeological reading, see also Kittler “Memories Are Made of You,” in Schrift, Medien, Kognition. Über die Exteriorität des Geistes, vol. 19 of Probleme der Semiotik, ed. Peter Koch and Sybille Krämer (Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag, 1997), 187–203, at 195–197. 51.
Do Over: Rescue Monday, Reinvent Your Work, and Never Get Stuck by Jon Acuff
Jenny laughed that night about my desire to go see the butcher and the produce guy at Publix. Beware the temptation to isolate or hide during your Do Over. We need other people. We need friends. We need advocates. We need relationships as a critical part of our Career Savings Account. Investment 2: Skills Everybody wants to be somebody: Nobody wants to grow. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE If your best friend was a horrible mechanic, you wouldn’t ask him to fix your car a second time. If your closest confidant was a terrible accountant, you wouldn’t ask him to do your taxes. If your lifelong buddy was terrifically irresponsible, you wouldn’t ask him to watch your dog while you were out of town. Would you still love him? Of course, you’ve got a strong relationship, but without better skills you’d never hire him again.
Bose was an amazing company to work for. I hadn’t hit a ceiling; that company was full of new opportunities to explore. In my frustration I stayed stuck because I didn’t grab the right hammer. I hope you will. Every skill can be a hammer. Start banging. Career Ceilings were meant to be broken. Investment 3: Character A talent is formed in stillness, a character in the world’s torrent. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE If relationships are who you know and skills are what you do, character is who you are. Since religion, science and philosophy have been trying to get to the bottom of that question for thousands of years I thought I would go ahead and figure it out for us all in this next section. You’re welcome. Or, instead, I could tell you how character impacts your work and why you need it in your Career Savings Account.
The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan
"Robert Solow", Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, creative destruction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, helicopter parent, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy
That is, the auction rules change the bids that come in, and one of the points of a second-price auction is that it makes for higher bidding. Besides, it was concerns about overpayment that led to the crisis in the posting system in the first place: if the auction system breaks down completely, it isn’t good for anyone.7 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Amateur Auction Theorist It turned out that stamp collectors weren’t even the first to beat economists to the Vickrey auction. They were already anticipated, at least in spirit, by the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe forty years before the Penny Black appeared. Like many a temperamental and idealistic artist, Goethe had an uneasy relationship with money. He was on the one hand disdainful of the profit motive (he once wrote to a publisher, “I look odd to myself when I pronounce the word Profit”), while at the same time anxious that his worth be recognized.
The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels
Du Bois, 0-553-21336-9 THE COUNT OF MONTE CRISTO, Alexandre Dumas, 0-553-21350-4 THE THREE MUSKETEERS, Alexandre Dumas, 0-553-21337-7 MIDDLEMARCH, George Eliot, 0-553-21180-3 SILAS MARNER, George Eliot, 0-553-21229-X SELECTED ESSAYS, LECTURES, AND POEMS, Ralph Waldo Emerson, 0-553-21388-1 TEN PLAYS BY EURIPIDES, Euripides, 0-553-21363-6 APRIL MORNING, Howard Fast, 0-553-27322-1 MADAME BOVARY, Gustave Flaubert, 0-553-21341-5 HOWARDS END, E. M. Forster, 0-553-21208-7 A ROOM WITH A VIEW, E. M. Forster, 0-553-21323-7 THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL, Anne Frank, 0-553-57712-3 ANNE FRANK'S TALES FROM THE SECRET ANNEX, Anne Frank, 0-553-58638-6 THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND OTHER WRITINGS, Benjamin Franklin, 0-553-21075-0 THE YELLOW WALLPAPER AND OTHER WRITINGS, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 0-553-21375-X FAUST: FIRST PART, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 0-553-21348-2 THE WIND IN THE WILLOWS, Kenneth Grahame, 0-553-21368-7 THE COMPLETE FAIRY TALES OF THE BROTHERS GRIMM, The Brothers Grimm, 0-553-38216-0 ROOTS, Alex Haley, 0-440-17464-3 FAR FROM THE MADDING CROWD, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21331-8 JUDE THE OBSCURE, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21191-9 THE MAYOR OF CASTERBRIDGE, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21024-6 THE RETURN OF THE NATIVE, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21269-9 TESS OF THE D'URBERVILLES, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21168-4 THE HOUSE OF THE SEVEN GABLES, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 0-553-21270-2 THE SCARLET LETTER, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 0-553-21009-2 THE FAIRY TALES OF HERMANN HESSE, Hermann Hesse, 0-553-37776-0 SIDDHARTHA, Hermann Hesse, 0-553-20884-5 THE ODYSSEY OF HOMER, Homer, 0-553-21399-7 THE HUNCHBACK OF NOTRE DAME, Victor Hugo, 0-553-21370-9 FOUR GREAT PLAYS, Henrik Ibsen, 0-553-21280-X THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY, Henry James, 0-553-21127-7 THE TURN OF THE SCREW AND OTHER SHORT FICTION, Henry James, 0-553-21059-9 A COUNTRY DOCTOR, Sarah Orne Jewett, 0-553-21498-5 DUBLINERS, James Joyce, 0-553-21380-6 A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN, James Joyce, 0-553-21404-7 THE METAMORPHOSIS, Franz Kafka, 0-553-21369-5 THE STORY OF MY LIFE, Helen Keller, 0-553-21387-3 CAPTAINS COURAGEOUS, Rudyard Kipling, 0-553-21190-0 THE JUNGLE BOOKS, Rudyard Kipling, 0-553-21199-4 KIM, Rudyard Kipling, 0-553-21332-6 LADY CHATTERLEY'S LOVER, D.
Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain by David Eagleman
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, endowment effect, facts on the ground, impulse control, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, out of africa, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Saturday Night Live, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Steven Pinker, Thales of Miletus
On his deathbed, he coughed up a strange sort of confession, declaring that “something within him” discovered the famous equations, not he. He admitted he had no idea how ideas actually came to him—they simply came to him. William Blake related a similar experience, reporting of his long narrative poem Milton: “I have written this poem from immediate dictation twelve or sometimes twenty lines at a time without premeditation and even against my will.” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe claimed to have written his novella The Sorrows of Young Werther with practically no conscious input, as though he were holding a pen that moved on its own. And consider the British poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge. He began using opium in 1796, originally for relief from the pain of toothaches and facial neuralgia—but soon he was irreversibly hooked, swigging as much as two quarts of laudanum each week.
It is no surprise that these astonishing numbers implied a radically different story about our existence than had been previously suggested. For many, the fall of the Earth from the center of the universe caused profound unease. No longer could the Earth be considered the paragon of creation: it was now a planet like other planets. This challenge to authority required a change in man’s philosophical conception of the universe. Some two hundred years later, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe commemorated the immensity of Galileo’s discovery: Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit.… The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the center of the universe. Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind—for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke!
Keep It Real: Everything You Need to Know About Researching and Writing Creative Nonfiction by Lee Gutkind
“Never have personal narratives gushed so profusely from the American soil as in the closing decade of the 20th century. Everyone has a story to tell, and everyone is telling it.” Lorraine Adams, a columnist for the Washington Post, has dubbed this trend the rise of “the nobody memoir.” To trace the arc of memoir through the centuries, from St. Augustine to Mary Karr, would require a book-length manuscript. Memoirists have typically been heavy hitters: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Virginia Woolf, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, E. B. White, Gertrude Stein, Ulysses S. Grant, Mahatma Gandhi, Bill Clinton, Gore Vidal, George Orwell, Leon Trotsky, Benjamin Franklin, Mark Twain, Maya Angelou, Frederick Douglass, Black Elk, Helen Keller, Carl Jung, Jean-Paul Sartre, and on and on. But look beyond the list of notables, and you’ll find a genre that practically guarantees a populist platform.
The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age by Tim Wu
AltaVista, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, Donald Trump, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, open economy, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Chicago School
Adolph decided to take his chances in the Midwest at what was then the American frontier. He was not a particularly good farmer, but found greater success as a grain merchant in Kentucky, and grew to be a prosperous small-business owner. Brandeis’s mother Frederika, the daughter of a Polish court physician, was a devotee of eighteenth-century German authors like Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and a moralist who pushed her children to develop “a pure spirit and the highest ideals as to morals and love.” The town of Louisville would figure essentially in what Brandeis would come to stand for. Louisville was no world capital, nor the seat of any corporate empire, but nonetheless a flourishing regional center, in a United States far more economically decentralized than today’s.
Germany Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, double helix, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sensible shoes, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence
In 2012, the park adjacent to the euro symbol was the site of protests by Occupy Frankfurt, its motley tent city festooned with signs displaying punchy anti-capitalist slogans. Goethe-Haus HISTORIC BUILDING Offline map Google map (www.goethehaus-frankfurt.de; Grosser Hirschgraben 23-25; adult/student/family €7/3/11; 10am-6pm Mon-Sat, 10am-5.30pm Sun; Willy-Brandt-Platz) Completely rebuilt after the war (only the cellar survived Allied bombing), the birthplace of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832) is furnished in the haut-bourgeois style of Goethe’s time, based on an inventory taken when Goethe’s family sold the place. One of the few pieces that actually belonged to the great man is a puppet theatre given to him at age four. Laminated information cards provide background in a variety of languages. The Gemäldegalerie (in the same building as the ticket counter) displays 18th-century paintings.
Buddha Museum MUSEUM (www.buddha-museum.de; Bruno-Möhring-Platz 1, Trarbach; adult/student €15/8; 10am-6pm Tue-Sun) This museum has a gorgeous – and beautifully presented – collection of over 2000 wood, bronze and paper statues of the Buddha from all over Asia. Upstairs there’s a peaceful rooftop garden with river views. Mittelmosel-Museum MUSEUM (Casinostrasse 2, Trarbach; adult/youth €2.50/1; 10am-5pm Tue-Sun Easter-Oct) If you’d like to learn more about Traben-Trarbach and its castles, head to this homey local history museum, housed in a furnished baroque villa proud of having hosted Johann Wolfgang von Goethe for a few hours in 1792. Fahrradmuseum MUSEUM (Moselstrasse 2, Trarbach; 2-6pm Mon-Fri, 10am-3pm Sat, 10am-1pm Sun May-Oct, 10am-1pm Sat & Sun Apr) To check out a collection of historic bicycles, head up the stairs from the Wein-Kontor wine shop. Grevenburg RUINS The Grevenburg castle, built in the mid-1300s, sits high in the craggy hills above Trarbach. Because of its strategic importance, it changed hands 13 times, was besieged six times and was destroyed seven times.
Weimar Top Sights Fürstengruft A5 Goethe Nationalmuseum B3 Park an der Ilm C4 Schiller Haus B2 Sights 1 Bauhaus Museum A2 2 Goethe Haus B3 3 Goethes Gartenhaus D4 4 Goethe-Schiller Denkmal A2 5 Haus am Horn D4 6 Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek C2 7 Liszt-Haus B4 8 Römisches Haus D5 9 Schlossmuseum C1 10 Stadtkirche St Peter und Paul B1 11 Weimar Haus A2 12 Wittumspalais A2 Sleeping 13Casa dei ColoriB1 14Hotel AmalienhofA3 15 Hotel Anna Amalia A1 16 Hotel Elephant Weimar B2 17 Hotel zur Sonne A1 18 Labyrinth Hostel A1 Eating 19 ACC B2 Anna Amalia (see 16) 20 Anno 1900 A1 21EstragonB2 22 Gasthaus zum Weissen Schwan B3 23Jo HannsA1 24 Residenz-Café B2 25VersiliaB3 Entertainment 26 Deutsches Nationaltheater A2 27 Kasseturm A1 28 Studentenclub Schützengasse A2 Sights Goethe Nationalmuseum MUSEUM Offline map Google map (Frauenplan 1; combined ticket Goethe Haus & permanent museum exhibition adult/concession €10.50/8.50, permanent museum exhibition only adult/concession €6.50/5.50; 9am-6pm Tue-Fri & Sun, to 7pm Sat) No other individual is as closely associated with Weimar as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who lived in this town from 1775 until his death in 1832, the last 50 years in what is now the Goethe Haus Offline map Google map (545 401; Frauenplan 1; adult/concession €8.50/7; 9am-6pm Tue-Fri & Sun, to 7pm Sat Apr-Sep, 9am-6pm Tue-Sun Oct, to 4pm Tue-Sun Nov-Mar). This is where he worked, studied, researched and pennedFaust and other immortal works. If you’re a Goethe fan, you’ll get the chills when seeing his study and the bedroom where he died, both preserved in their original state.
The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class by Frederick Taylor
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, falling living standards, fiat currency, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, housing crisis, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, risk/return, strikebreaker, trade route, zero-sum game
The constitution-makers who met in early 1919 had been forced to evacuate themselves from Berlin to this attractive, modest-sized central German city (population at the end of the Second World War around 35,000), because the capital was still too violent and politically unstable for their safety to be guaranteed. They remained there until the situation in Berlin was somewhat restored. Weimar had become famous 120 years or so previously as the home of the great writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Germany’s Shakespeare - and more. In a long life, spanning the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Goethe had also gained renown as a statesman and scientist. A fitting environment for Germany’s new start, perhaps, despite the circumstances. From now on, though, to the wider world the first thing the name would bring to mind would no longer be the greatest achievements of the German enlightenment.
These, then, were the distinguished, patriotic and apparently reliable officials who unwittingly set Germany and its currency on the road to ruin. Both were lawyers by education and training rather than economists or financiers. Both were very much men of the pre-war era. Glasenapp, in particular, was a man of broad culture, with a deep interest in the works of Germany’s and perhaps Europe’s greatest polymath, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (for many years he served on the committee of the Weimar-based Goethe Society). In fact, Glasenapp did a bit of writing himself, reportedly setting his son’s translations of Indian poetry into polished German verse in his head while walking to work in the morning.1 Having played such a leading role in the growth of Germany’s indebtedness during the previous four or more years, the Reichsbank’s response to the armistice and the threat of a normalisation of the country’s economy was to demand austerity from the revolutionary government, while, paradoxically, at the same time the dubious underpinnings of the money supply, which implicitly encouraged the debauchment of the currency, remained in place.
The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman
Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, Donald Knuth, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, loose coupling, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra
Each line has its own identity and appeals to a different type of potential customer, even though the clothes may be manufactured using the same processes and the revenues end up in the coffers of the same company. SHARE THIS CONCEPT: http://book.personalmba.com/economic-values/ Relative Importance Testing Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things which matter least. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, NINETEENTH-CENTURY DRAMATIST, POET, AND POLYMATH The tricky thing about trying to figure out what people want is that people want everything. Here’s proof: bring together a group of potential customers for a focus group. Ask each participant to rate the importance of each of the nine Economic Values for your offering on a scale of 0 to 10. What will the results look like? Regardless of your product or service, the results will be the same: your customers want products that provide exceptional results instantly, every time, with absolutely no effort.
Even the most Remarkable object of attention gets boring over time. Human attention requires novelty to sustain itself. Continue to offer something new, and people will pay attention to what you have to offer. SHARE THIS CONCEPT: http://book.personalmba.com/novelty/ 8 WORKING WITH YOURSELF To think is easy. To act is difficult. To act as one thinks is the most difficult. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, POET, DRAMATIST, AND POLYMATH Your body and mind are the tools you use to get things done. Learning how to work effectively with yourself makes accomplishing what you set out to achieve easier and more enjoyable. In today’s busy business environment, it’s easy to get stressed about everything that needs to be done. Learning how to work effectively and efficiently can be the difference between a fulfilling career and a draining one.
Rome by Lonely Planet
Palazzo Valentini Archaeological Site Offline map Google map ( 06 32810; Via IV Novembre 119/A; adult/reduced €6/4, advance booking fee €1.50; 9.30am-5pm Wed-Mon, tours every 45 min; Spagna) Underneath a grand mansion that’s been the seat of the Province of Rome since 1873, the archaeological remains of several lavish ancient Roman houses have been uncovered, and the excavated fragments have been turned into a fascinating multi-media ‘experience’, which takes you on a virtual tour of the dwellings, complete with sound effects, projected frescoes and glimpses of ancient life as it might have been lived in the area around the buildings. Casa di Goethe Museum Offline map Google map ( 06 326 50 412; www.casadigoethe.it; Via del Corso 18; adult/reduced €4/3; 10am-6pm Tue-Sun; Flaminio) A gathering place for German intellectuals, the Via del Corso apartment where Johann Wolfgang von Goethe enjoyed a happy Italian sojourn from 1786 to 1788, but complained of the noisy neighbours, is now a lovingly maintained museum. Exhibits include documents and some fascinating drawings and etchings. With advance permission, ardent fans can use the library full of first editions. Villa Medici Palazzo Offline map Google map ( 06 6 76 11; www.villamedici.it, in French & Italian; Viale Trinità dei Monti 1; open for events; Spagna) This striking Renaissance palace has been home to the French Academy since the early 19th century.
Rome as Inspiration With its magical cityscape and historic atmosphere, Rome has provided inspiration for legions of foreign authors. Roman Reads Roman Tales (Alberto Moravia) That Awful Mess on Via Merulana (Carlo Emilio Gadda) The Secrets of Rome, Love & Death in the Eternal City (Corrado Augias) Romantic Visions In the 18th century the city was a hotbed of literary activity as historians and Grand Tourists poured in from northern Europe. The German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe captures the elation of discovering ancient Rome and the colours of the modern city in his celebrated travelogue Italian Journey (1817). Rome was also a magnet for the English Romantic poets. John Keats, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and other writers all spent time in the city. Byron, in a typically over-the-top outburst, described Rome as the city of his soul even though he visited only fleetingly.
Top 10 Venice by Gillian Price
Romeo and Juliet is set in Verona (see p124). Coryate $ Thomas The very ﬁrst English- language traveller to write a detailed description of Venice, this eccentric gentleman from Somerset, England (1577–1617) compiled Crudities, with Observations of Venice (1611): “Such is the rarenesse of the situation of Venice, that it doth even amaze and drive into admiration all strangers that upon their ﬁrst arrival behold the same.” % Johann Wolfgang von Goethe The story goes that this German literary giant (1749– 1832) had his ﬁrst ever view of the sea from Venice’s CampaJohann Wolfgang nile. Attracted by the von Goethe lands south of the Alps, his ﬁrst visit was an experience of personal renewal, the account published William Shakespeare as Italian Journey (1786–8). Although he never visited Italy, let alone Venice, the English Lord Byron Bard (1564–1616) used accounts Eccentricities such as a by contemporary travellers for menagerie of foxes and monthe plots of The Merchant of keys, not to mention swimming Venice and Othello, portraying a feats in the Grand Canal, made £ 50 ^ For more on Shakespeare’s Verona See p124 Ruskin & John The meticulous if opinionated labour of love of this British art critic (1819–1900), The Stones of Venice, John Ruskin was the ﬁrst work to focus the attention of visitors on the city’s unique architectural heritage and Gothic style, as opposed to the art.
The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug by Bennett Alan Weinberg, Bonnie K. Bealer
British Empire, clean water, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Haight Ashbury, Honoré de Balzac, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Lao Tzu, placebo effect, spice trade, trade route, traveling salesman
prologue The Discovery of Caffeine Although caffeine-bearing plants may have been used for their pharmacological effects from before recorded history, it was not until the flowering of interest in plant chemistry in Europe in the beginning of the nineteenth century that caffeine itself was first isolated and named. The discovery was made by Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, a young physician, in 1819 as a result of an encounter with the seventy-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, baron of the German empire, one of the greatest poets the world had seen, and the preeminent intellectual and cultural hero of the Europe of his day. Runge was born in Billwärder, a small town near Hamburg, Germany, on February 8, 1794, a pastor’s son and the third of what was to become a family of seven children. As a boy, Runge demonstrated the scientific curiosity and sharp powers of observation that presaged his creative career in analytical chemistry.
Comparisons of health effects are particularly problematic between members of these groups and people who do not use caffeine with respect to any health-related variable.8 An example of material confusion results from the fact that people who drink little or no coffee tend to use less tobacco and alcohol than those who are heavy coffee drinkers. This kind of insidious confounder can easily engender false claims of a causal connection between coffee or caffeine and health problems.9 notes OVERVIEW 1. Henry Watts, ed., Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. I, p. 707. 2. John Evelyn, Works, note, p. 11. 3. Sir Richard Steele, Tatler, April 12, 1709. PROLOGUE 1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären (Attempts to Illustrate the Metamorphosis of Plants). In this book Goethe takes his place as a pioneer in the theory of evolution. 2. As P.Walden, in his essay “Goethe and Chemistry,” states, “At Weimar the time had come for Goethe to reexamine his chemical knowledge and concepts, to transfer them into the realm of practice and reality, simultaneously, however, to give them a more solid theoretical foundation” (George Urdang, Goethe and Pharmacy, p. 15). 3.
100 Plus: How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family And by Sonia Arrison
23andMe, 8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, attribution theory, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, dark matter, disruptive innovation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, Googley, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, post scarcity, Ray Kurzweil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Singularitarianism, smart grid, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, X Prize
Faust, whose passion for youth lands him in hell for all eternity. There have been many iterations of the Faust theme by various writers, but the first version appeared in 1587 by an anonymous German author. The general story is that Dr. Faust makes a bargain with the devil: in exchange for wealth and power, Faust sells his soul to the devil. Although the story dates back to 1587, it wasn’t until Johann Wolfgang von Goethe took the legend up around 1770 that Dr. Faust joined the longevity literature. In Goethe’s version, Faust seeks youth in addition to money and power. According to historian Lucian Boia, “Here Faust swallows a witch’s potion designed to restore his youth and make him fall in love.”19 Goethe’s play was followed by a popular 1859 opera by Charles Gounod that shows the “miracle of rejuvenation” on stage, after which the newly young man falls in love.20 Risking eternity in hell for youth is a bad decision, but other stories warn that extended longevity could turn people into monsters, potentially creating hell on earth.
The 80/20 Principle: The Secret to Achieving More With Less by Richard Koch
Albert Einstein, always be closing, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, delayed gratification, fear of failure, income inequality, inventory management, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, profit maximization, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave
Before you start a revolution, realize that it will involve major risks and will lead you into uncharted territory. Those who want a time revolution need to link together their past, present, and future, as suggested above by Figure 35. Behind the issue of how we allocate time lurks the even more fundamental issue of what we want to get out of our lives. 11 YOU CAN ALWAYS GET WHAT YOU WANT Things that matter most Must never be at the mercy of things that matter least. JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE Work out what you want from life. In the 1980s phrase, aim to “have it all.” Everything you want should be yours: the type of work you want; the relationships you need; the social, mental, and aesthetic stimulation that will make you happy and fulfilled; the money you require for the lifestyle that is appropriate to you; and any requirement that you may (or may not) have for achievement or service to others.
Great Continental Railway Journeys by Michael Portillo
From here, academics seeking inspiration would set forth on what became known as the ‘Philosopher’s Way’, a scenic elevated route through woods where stunning views of the town could be glimpsed in a climate that’s been compared to Tuscany. Correspondingly, they found inspiration in nature, more exotic than the norm, the same key ingredient that would fuel the work of Romantics in literature, philosophy, art and music. The most famous figure known to have trodden that thought-provoking path is Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), considered the greatest German literary figure of the modern era. A poet, playwright, novelist, scientist and statesman, Goethe found more satisfaction in the unspoiled vistas of Heidelberg than he did in run-down Rome. But he was in good company. Joseph von Eichendorff (1788–1857) studied law at Heidelberg in 1808, before beginning to author his famously lyrical poems. And Friedrich Hölderlin (1770–1843), a tortured spirit whose poetry is deemed to have bridged classicism and Romanticism, is known to have wandered up that leafy route – although he did not find sufficient succour to prevent the madness with which he was later afflicted.
The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent
"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons
Wordsworth composed a memorable expression of reverence at the complex systems underlying the universe: And I have felt A presence that disturbs me with the joy Of elevated thoughts; a sense sublime Of something far more deeply interfused, Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, And the round ocean and the living air, And the blue sky, and in the mind of man; A motion and a spirit, that impels All thinking things, all objects of all thought, And rolls through all things.13 This Romantic backlash to the Age of Reason, however, reinforced the conceptual split between reason and emotion that has since become a hallmark of modern thought. Rational philosophy, complained poet John Keats, will “clip an Angel's wings, Conquer all mysteries by rule and line…Unweave a rainbow.” These attacks on science created intellectual battle lines that laid the groundwork for a counterattack by rationalists accusing the Romantics of indulging in sentimentality.14 On the Continent, poet and statesman Johann Wolfgang von Goethe refused to go along with this division being formed between science and beauty. Goethe, who founded the science of morphology—the study of forms—instead saw beauty, like Leonardo centuries earlier did, as “a manifestation of secret natural laws, which otherwise would have been hidden from us forever.” Rather than trying to conquer nature, Goethe believed a scientist should approach nature as a participant and that scientific insight arises through not detached observation but an intuitive sense of connection with nature's dynamic flux.
Kauffman, At Home in the Universe, 185–86. See “The Modern Relevance of Li” in chapter 14. 43. Ott, “Edward N. Lorenz”; John Dugdale, “Richard Dawkins Named World's Top Thinker in Poll,” Guardian, April 25, 2013. 44. Thomas S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 64. 45. Ibid., 85–86, 151–52. Chapter 20. Consuming the Earth in the Modern Era 1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “The Sorcerer's Apprentice,” trans. Brigitte Dubiel (1797). I am indebted to Steve Hagen for pointing out this work as a parable for the power of technology. See Steve Hagen, Buddhism Is Not What You Think: Finding Freedom beyond Beliefs (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2004), 28–29. 2. Ray Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near (New York: Penguin Books, 2005), 56–72; Bill McKibben, Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age (New York: Owl Books, 2003), 70. 3.
Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo by Sean B. Carroll
There is, especially in the United States, another obstacle besides content and teaching methods to evolutionary literacy; I will address that next. But even without the active opposition, we can do better, and we have to do better. Evo Devo and the Evolution/Creation Struggle If you are convinced of a matter, you must take sides or you don’t deserve to succeed. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Propylaea (1798) In the short time between the first and second edition of The Origin of Species , Darwin inserted three more words into that famous closing paragraph, adding “by the Creator” to rewrite the phrase as “having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one…” Darwin later expressed his regret for doing so in a letter to botanist J.
The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett
3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
Emaciated bodies began to appear unsurprising, and ordinary. And because thinspo, tricks and tips, suicide methods and diets are put forward by a seemingly caring community of people, it is easy to forget just how deadly the advice can be. It could be said that almost any action, no matter how misguided, can quickly become acceptable – even admirable – if you believe that others are doing it too. In 1774 the German novelist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, in which his thoughtful young protagonist takes his life after failing in his endeavours to be with the woman he loved. The book sparked a spate of copycat suicides across Europe by young men who had found themselves in a similar predicament. This strange phenomenon became known as the ‘Werther Effect’. The month after the August 1962 suicide of Marilyn Monroe, 197 suicides, mostly of young blonde women, appeared to have used the star’s death as a model for their own.
The Golden Ratio: The Story of Phi, the World's Most Astonishing Number by Mario Livio
Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, cosmological constant, Elliott wave, Eratosthenes, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, mandelbrot fractal, music of the spheres, Nash equilibrium, Ralph Nelson Elliott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method
First, there can be poems about the Golden Ratio or the Fibonacci numbers themselves (e.g., “Constantly Mean” by Paul Bruckman; presented in Chapter 4) or about geometrical shapes or phenomena that are closely related to the Golden Ratio. Second, there can be poems in which the Golden Ratio or Fibonacci numbers are somehow utilized in constructing the form, pattern, or rhythm. Examples of the first type are provided by a humorous poem by J. A. Lindon, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's dramatic poem “Faust,” and by Oliver Wendell Holmes s poem “The Chambered Nautilus.” Martin Gardner used Lindon's short poem to open the chapter on Fibonacci in his book Mathematical Circus. Referring to the recursive relation which defines the Fibonacci sequence, the poem reads: Each wife of Fibonacci, Eating nothing that wasn't starchy, Weighed as much as the two before her, His fifth was some signora!
QI: The Third Book of General Ignorance (Qi: Book of General Ignorance) by John Lloyd, John Mitchinson
Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, dark matter, double helix, epigenetics, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, music of the spheres, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route
You can even hear them doing this if you listen closely. The teeth on a limpet’s radula are the hardest known substance in biology. They are made of a type of iron called goethite, and limpets use them to cling to rocks with a vice-like grip and excavate them like a tiny JCB. Johann Georg Lenz (1748–1832) of the University of Jena discovered goethite in 1806. He named it after his friend, the writer and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832). Goethe had become obsessed with mineralogy in his twenties, as a result of his plan to re-open a medieval silver mine in the Harz mountains. By the time he died, he had amassed 17,800 samples – the largest private collection of rocks and minerals in Europe. Blue whales, by the way, don’t have any teeth at all. STEPHEN George Washington had hippopotamus tusk teeth. LINDA SMITH He must have had quite an overbite.
How to Be Champion: My Autobiography by Sarah Millican
I remember the teachers all started looking at each other and panicking. I didn’t want the kids who couldn’t afford to go to think that this would in any way stop them from having a great life. Sure, if you want to be a doctor or lawyer, there’s no way around it. But there are plenty of jobs where work experience and being keen and willing to learn can get you a foot in the door. A quote that always gives me fire in my belly is by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: ‘Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it.’ * It was in this job that I met my first husband. We had a lovely time for about seven years. To see how this turned out, skip to the chapter entitled ‘Divorce’. * By this time I was married and living in a rented flat which turned out to be incredibly damp. We thought it was weird that posters peeled off the walls every time we put them up.
Central Europe Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Defenestration of Prague, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Peter Eisenman, place-making, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, trade route, urban renewal, white picket fence, young professional
Information Tourist Information Magdeburg ( 194 33; www.magdeburg-tourist.de; Ernst-Reuter-Allee 12; 10am-6.30pm Mon-Fri, to 4pm Sat Apr-Oct, 10am-6pm Mon-Fri, to 3pm Sat Nov-Mar) Getting There & Away There are trains to/from Berlin (€24.70, one hour and 40 minutes, hourly), while regular IC and RE trains run to Leipzig (€20.30, 1¼ hours, around every two hours). BEWITCHING HARZ The Harz Mountains constitute a mini-Alpine region straddling Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony. Here, medieval castles overlook fairy-tale historic towns, while there are caves, mines and numerous hiking trails to explore. The region’s highest – and most famous – mountain is the Brocken, where one-time visitor Johann Wolfgang von Goethe set the ‘Walpurgisnacht’ chapter of his play Faust . His inspiration in turn came from folk tales depicting Walpurgisnacht, or Hexennacht (witches’ night), as an annual witches’ coven. Every 30 April to 1 May it’s celebrated enthusiastically across the Harz region. Goslar Goslar is a truly stunning 1000-year-old city with beautifully preserved half-timbered buildings and an impressive Markt .
East of Römerberg, behind the Historischer Garten (which has the remains of Roman and Carolingian foundations), is the Frankfurter Dom (Domplatz 14; museum adult/child €3/2; church 9am-noon & 2.30-8pm) , the coronation site of Holy Roman emperors from 1562 to 1792. It’s dominated by the elegant 15th-century Gothic tower – one of the few structures left standing after the 1944 raids (see the pictures inside). ‘Few people have the imagination for reality’ uttered the ever-pithy Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Read more quotes at the Goethe-Haus (www.goethehaus-frankfurt.de; Grosser Hirschgraben 23-25; adult/student €5/2.50; 10am-6pm Mon-Sat, 10am-5.30pm Sun) , where he was born in 1749. Museums MUSEUMS Frankfurt’s museum list is long and a mixed bag. To sample them all, buy a 48-hour Museumsufer ticket (€15) . North of the cathedral, the excellent Museum für Moderne Kunst (Museum of Modern Art; www.mmk-frankfurt.de; Domstrasse 10; adult/child €8/4; 10am-6pm Tue & Thu-Sun, to 8pm Wed) features works of modern art by Joseph Beuys, Claes Oldenburg and many others.
Arts Germany’s meticulously creative population has made major contributions to international culture, particularly during the 18th century when the Saxon courts at Weimar and Dresden attracted some of the greatest minds of Europe. With such rich traditions to fall back on, inspiration has seldom been in short supply for the new generations of German artists, despite the upheavals of the country’s recent history. Literature The undisputed colossus of the German arts was Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: poet, dramatist, painter, politician, scientist, philosopher, landscape gardener and perhaps the last European to achieve the Renaissance ideal of excellence in many fields. His greatest work, the drama Faust, is the definitive version of the legend, showing the archetypal human search for meaning and knowledge. Goethe’s close friend Friedrich Schiller was a poet, dramatist and novelist.
Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss
Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, post-work, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
This means he’s able to memorize and recite: A) a 1,000-digit number within an hour, B) a shuffled pack of cards within a few of minutes, and C) 10 packs of shuffled cards within an hour. Perhaps more impressive, he can quickly train others to do the same. In 2010, he was interviewed by a journalist named Joshua Foer. Under Ed’s Yoda-like tutelage, in 2011, Joshua became the very next American Memory Champion. It took less than a year for Ed to transform a novice into world-class. The result was Foer’s book Moonwalking with Einstein. On the Magic of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe “Goethe is really cool. . . . At the age of 25, he writes a novel, which is extraordinarily brilliant [The Sorrows of Young Werther], about the troubles of young Goethe. It’s this wonderful story of a young man who falls in love, and it doesn’t really work out so well. . . . Goethe wrote this book by locking himself in a hotel room for 3 months, imagining his five best friends on different chairs, and then discussing with his imaginary friends different possibilities of plot and so on and so forth.
Covey), The Denial of Death (Ernest Becker) Catmull, Ed: One Monster After Another (Mercer Mayer) Chin, Jimmy: Musashi: An Epic Novel of the Samurai Era (Eiji Yoshikawa and Charles Terry), A Guide to the I Ching (Carol K. Anthony), Missoula: Rape and the Justice System in a College Town (Jon Krakauer) Cho, Margaret: How to Be a Movie Star (William J. Mann) Cooke, Ed: The Age of Wonder (Richard Holmes), Touching the Rock (John M. Hull), In Praise of Idleness: And Other Essays (Bertrand Russell), The Sorrows of Young Werther; Theory of Colours; Maxims and Reflections (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), The Joyous Cosmology (Alan Watts) Cummings, Whitney: Super Sad True Love Story (Gary Shteyngart), The Drama of the Gifted Child (Alice Miller), The Fantasy Bond (Robert W. Firestone), The Continuum Concept (Jean Liedloff) D’Agostino, Dominic: Personal Power (Tony Robbins), Tripping Over the Truth (Travis Christofferson), The Language of God (Francis Collins), The Screwtape Letters (C.S.
Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen; Mark Ridley
Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, bioinformatics, cognitive bias, computer age, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Haight Ashbury, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, phenotype, profit maximization, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
In the biological realm, and everybody back then was quite explicit that analogy was being drawn with culture, progress meant that among organisms there is an order from simple to complex, from the least to the most, from (as was often said) the monad to the man. (Some put plants at the bottom, some put plants on a different scale.) Organic evolution came into being on the back of biological progress. The early evolutionists, Denis Diderot7 and then Jean Baptiste de Lamarck8 in France, Erasmus Darwin (1794-1796) in England, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Germany,9 were all ardent progressionists in culture and biology, and saw their evolutionism as part and parcel of this general picture. The story of evolution and progress continued through the nineteenth century from beginning to end. The notorious pre-(Charles) Darwinian work, The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation,10 published anonymously but later revealed to be the work of the Scottish publisher and author Robert Chambers, was explicit in its progressionism.
The Alps: A Human History From Hannibal to Heidi and Beyond by Stephen O'Shea
Mountains were grotesque; the people who lived in their midst were inbred imbeciles, les crétins des Alpes, as the French phrase has it. As such, they were suited to their awful habitat. “[T]hese distorted mindless beings,” wrote an English traveler in the Alps, “commonly excite one’s disgust by their hideous, loathsome, and uncouth appearance, by their obscene gestures, and by their senseless gabbling.” As for mountainous scenery, the tradition of excoriation is just as withering. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s appraisal of the Alps in the 1780s can stand in for dozens of similar denunciations. For Goethe, “These zig-zags and irritating silhouettes and shapeless piles of granite, making the fairest portion of the earth a polar region, cannot be liked by any kindly man.” As with so many present-day Germans careering southward at the wheel of a Mercedes, the great man wanted nothing more than to get the mountains behind him and luxuriate in the embrace of Italy.
Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
The learning curve is as steep and long or as short and gentle as you want it to be. In some cities, the politicians get it, but their ideas die on the doorstep of the engineering department. In others, the professionals get it, but they lack politicians with the chutzpah to make it happen. For every visionary, there is a whole pile of lazy. CHAPTER 8 THE ARROGANCE OF SPACE None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe that they are free. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Freedom is what you do with what’s been done to you. Jean-Paul Sartre Shibuya Crossing in Tokyo, Japan. The world’s busiest pedestrian crossing. When we describe cities, we have a tendency to give them human character traits. It’s a friendly city. A dynamic city. A boring city. Perhaps, then, a city can be arrogant. Arrogant, for example, with its distribution of space. If you’re afraid of heights, the rule of thumb is “don’t look down.”
Leaving Microsoft to Change the World: An Entrepreneur's Odyssey to Educate the World's Children by John Wood
airport security, British Empire, call centre, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, fear of failure, glass ceiling, high net worth, income per capita, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Marc Andreessen, microcredit, Own Your Own Home, random walk, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Ballmer
His wife is a well-trained nurse helping the rural poor, and their daughter, Thao, will benefit from having educated parents who believe that girls, as well as boys, should be in school. I try to imagine all the other students who are still in the early years of being helped by Room to Read. If Vu could make this much progress in eight years, what might become of the nearly 1 million other students now attending our schools and eagerly devouring books in our libraries? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe once wrote about Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, “If all the musicians in the world played this piece simultaneously, the planet would go off its axis.” That’s how I feel about education for the children of the developing world. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I’VE ALWAYS BELIEVED THAT AN ENTREPRENEUR WILL ONLY SUCCEED IF he surrounds himself with talented and passionate people. I was fortunate enough to meet Dinesh Shrestha and Erin Keown Ganju during the critical early years of Room to Read, and they both deserve full credit for their roles in building out the organization.
Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar
It is about crossing the threshold and stepping into a new territory, into a future that is different from the past. The Indo-European root of the English word leadership, leith, means “to go forth,” “to cross a threshold,” or “to die.”55 Letting go often feels like dying. This deep process of leadership, of letting go and letting the new and unknown come, of dying and being reborn, probably has not changed much over the course of human history. The German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe knew it well when he wrote, “And if you don’t know this dying and birth, you are merely a dreary guest on Earth.”56 But what has changed is the structure of the collective social body in which this process is enacted. As indicated in table 3, that social body has changed from a single-pyramid-type structure in which leadership is centralized and hierarchical (1.0), to a more decentralized multipyramid structure in which leadership happens through delegation and competition (2.0), and from there to a more participatory, relational, and networked structure in which multiple stakeholder and interest groups negotiate and engage in dialogue with one another (3.0).
Capitalism: Money, Morals and Markets by John Plender
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, diversification, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, money market fund, moral hazard, moveable type in China, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Veblen good, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game
There are thus too many potential claimants for too little income.200 If the democratic system ends up penalising the economically powerful youth, the young will impose an inflation tax on the elderly to secure what they believe to be their rightful share of the spoils of the capitalist system. CHAPTER TWELVE CAPITALISM, WARTS AND ALL Has there ever been a time when people really felt at ease with capitalism? That question was put to me by Richard Lambert, former director-general of the Confederation of British Industry and before that editor of the Financial Times, when I explained to him the theme of this book. An interesting light is cast on his question by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his great two-part drama Faust, written at the start of the nineteenth century when the industrial revolution in Europe was in its earliest stages. Faust, Part Two, among many other rich themes, incorporates what amounts to a parable of the costs and benefits of capitalist economic development. It is extraordinarily prescient in relation to current concerns. In the story, Faust serves as the embodiment of modern man, seeking through science and technology to pursue the materialist goal of domination over nature and to build a rich, earthly paradise.
The Age of Wonder by Richard Holmes
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, British Empire, Copley Medal, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Etonian, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Harrison: Longitude, music of the spheres, placebo effect, polynesian navigation, Richard Feynman, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unbiased observer, University of East Anglia, éminence grise
Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900, CUP, 1986 Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine, Romanticism and the Sciences, CUP, 1990 Erasmus Darwin, The Botanic Garden, A Philosophical Poem with Notes, 1791 Hermione de Almeida, Romantic Medicine and John Keats, OUP, 1991 Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine and Reform in Radical London, Chicago UP, 1989 Patricia Fara, Pandora’s Breeches: Women, Science and Power in the Age of Enlightenment, Pimlico, 2004 Penelope Fitzgerald, The Blue Flower (a novel), HarperCollins, 1995 Tim Fulford (editor), Romanticism and Science, 1773-1833, a 5-vol anthology, Pickering, 2002 Tim Fulford and Peter Kitson (editors), Romanticism and Colonialism: Writing and Empire, 1780-1830, CUP, 1998 Tim Fulford, Debbie Lee and Peter Kitson, Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era, CUP, 2004 John Gascoigne, Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment, CUP, 1994 James Gleick, Isaac Newton, Pantheon Books, 2003 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Scientific Studies (edited by Douglas Miller), Suhrkamp edition of Goethe’s Works, vol 12, New York, 1988 Jan Golinski, Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain 1760-1820, CUP, 1992 Richard Hamblyn, The Invention of Clouds, Picador, 2001 Peter Harman and Simon Mitron, Cambridge Scientific Minds, CUP, 2002 John Herschel, On the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1832 J.E.
., p21 11 Ibid. 12 Introduction to Humphry Davy on Geology: The 1805 Lectures, pxxix, British Library catalogue X421/22592 13 HD Archive Box 13 (f) pp41-50, Mss notebook dated 1795-97 14 HD Archive Box 13 (f) p61 15 The whole poem, no fewer than thirty-two stanzas, is given in JD Memoirs, pp23-7 16 HD Works 2, p6 17 Jan Golinski, Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain 1760-1820, CUP, 1992, pp133-42 18 Ibid., p109 19 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, ‘Maxims and Reflections’, from Goethe, Scientific Studies, edited by Douglas Miller, Suhrkamp edition of Goethe’s Works, vol 12, New York, 1988, p308 20 Reprinted in HD Works 9 21 See Madison Smartt Bell, Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution, Atlas Books, Norton, 2005. See also J.-L. David’s famous romantic portrait, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier et sa Femme (1788) 22 Preface to Traité Élémentaire, translated by Robert Kerr, 1790 23 Consolations, Dialogue V, in HD Works 9, pp361-2 24 JD Memoirs, p34 25 For the Watt family, see Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men: The Friends who Made the Future, 1730-1810, Faber, 2002 26 Treneer, p24 27 From Beddoes notes made 1793, quoted in Golinski, p171 28 HD Mss Truro, Beddoes letter in Davies Giddy Mss DG 42/1 29 Ibid. 30 Dorothy A.
Escape From Rome: The Failure of Empire and the Road to Prosperity by Walter Scheidel
agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, disruptive innovation, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, mandelbrot fractal, means of production, Network effects, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, secular stagnation, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, zero-sum game
If post-Roman polycentrism was the norm, the very existence of the Roman empire was anomalous; otherwise it would have been the other way around.23 In the end, outcomes appear to have been overdetermined: just as the “First Great Divergence” can be traced to multiple factors, so scholars have linked the “(Second) Great Divergence” to a variety of features that have only one thing in common, namely, that they are predicated upon productive competitive polycentrism—or, in other words, the fact that in Europe, Roman power had remained unique. In this respect, the story of modernity is also a story about Rome: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was right to exclaim in 1786 that “an diesen Ort knüpft sich die ganze Geschichte der Welt an”—“the whole history of the world attaches itself to this spot.” It does indeed, if only thanks to what Edward Gibbon two years later famously called the “the decline and fall of the Roman empire; the greatest, perhaps, and most awful scene, in the history of mankind.” Yet when viewed from a great distance, it was not that awful after all: quite the opposite, in fact, as it ushered in an age of open-ended experimentation.
See also Vries 2013: 22–27, for the breadth of the process but also the key role of industrialization. 23. As Wickham rightly observes regarding the survival of states (and not just large empires, but state structures as such), “It is survival that is the norm, failure that is the deviation” (1994: 74), and that this poses a challenge to scholars of post-Roman Western Europe. I hope to have reduced this challenge. 24. Quotes: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Italienische Reise (ch. 24, December 3, 1786, on the city of Rome); Gibbon 1788b: 645. 25. Paired by Campbell 2004: 167. The inscription appears as no. 138 in Sartre 1993, and Virgil’s quote is from the Aeneid 1.279. 26. “Getting to Denmark” is a metaphor for establishing political and economic institutions that are highly conducive to human welfare, a concept that goes back to Pritchett and Woolcock (2002: 4) and that has since been popularized especially by Fukuyama 2011: 14.
Berlin Now: The City After the Wall by Peter Schneider, Sophie Schlondorff
Berlin Wall, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, young professional
,” an interview by Louisa Hutton, Die Zeit, February 7, 2013. WEST BERLIN political leaders from dueling fraternities: Members of dueling fraternities traditionally engaged in fencing duels with rival fraternities. A “WESSI” ATTEMPTS TO FIND BERLIN’S SOUL the Gendarmenmarkt, which Karl Friedrich Schinkel enlivened: More than any other architect, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, a multitalented contemporary of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Wilhelm von Humboldt, shaped the neoclassic center of Berlin in the first half of the nineteenth century. BERLIN: EMERGENCE OF A NEW METROPOLIS “Four times as much space would hardly be”: James Hobrecht quoted in Ulrich Zawatka-Gerlach, “Magistralen und Mietskasernen,” Der Tagesspiegel, August 2, 2012. “In the center of the city”: Peter Schneider, The Wall Jumper, translated by Leigh Hafrey (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 4.
The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff
Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve
The evolution of modern money will also help us understand some important nuances about the role of government and technology that will prove useful in analyzing the scope for alternative currency systems in the future. The long legacy and storied history of paper money in our psyche and culture is a formidable artifice in itself, not to be taken lightly. For Westerners, the history begins with Marco Polo’s insightful account of paper currency in China, a revelation that stunned Europeans as some form of alchemy. This suspicion is echoed in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust, when the demon Mephistopheles tempts the emperor, who is in severe financial distress, to introduce paper money to increase spending and pay off state debt. The device works in the short run but ultimately leads to inflation and ruin. Goethe, writing early in the nineteenth century, was nothing if not prescient. Without paper money, there might have been no German hyperinflation, and perhaps no World War II.1 Failed paper money may be cursed, but successful paper money has long been a cornerstone of the world’s most successful economies.
Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing
It should be noted that what is presented herein deals essentially with violations of civil liberties and human rights, and does not include the numerous forms of corporate abuse which are economic in nature or which adversely affect people's health. Many of the violations reflect foreign policy considerations given a domestic twist to bring the "threat" home to US citizens and win support for those policies. None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe • In every state, the police or the National Guard and, at times, active-duty army troops, are conducting relentless helicopter drug-surveillance over people's homes and property, setting up roadblocks, interrogating, detaining, harassing and terrifying residents with displays of excessive power. • In hundreds of American cities, young people are being subjected to a nighttime curfew law; many have a daytime curfew as well • The CIA, FBI and other federal agencies are refusing to respond to subpoenas for documents issued by attorneys who need them for the defense of their clients in national security cases in state courts. • US residents are undergoing assorted harassments and penalties from the federal government for having traveled to, spent money in and/or shipped various goods to Cuba, Libya, Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Yugoslavia or other nations of that ilk.
The King of Oil by Daniel Ammann
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, business intelligence, buy low sell high, energy security, family office, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, Yom Kippur War
Gray added, “It is worth noting that these are not the traits most praised by conservative moralists.”2 “Yes,” a senior Marc Rich + Co. director with vast experience all over the world once confessed to me, “sometimes we had to make a Faustian bargain to clinch the deal.” The words resonated in my head for quite some time. A Faustian bargain. Nowadays this phrase is usually used to describe self-serving actions and moral sacrifices—a pact with the devil in order to gain power, wealth, or influence—but in Faust: A Tragedy, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s greatest work, the scholar Heinrich Faust is not simply a ruthless egoist. He represents men who strive for achievement and who want to test their own limitations. Faust stands for the scientist who breaks conventions in order to discover “what holds the world together in its innermost.” He is also misled—someone who would purchase short-term profit with long-term pain. We may see Marc Rich as a kind of modern Faust of the commodity age.
The 5 AM Club: Own Your Morning. Elevate Your Life. by Robin Sharma
Albert Einstein, dematerialisation, epigenetics, Grace Hopper, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, index card, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, white picket fence
It is a sort of splendid torch which I have got hold of for the moment, and I want to make it burn as brightly as possible before handing it on to future generations. The homeless man then fell to his knees. Kissed his holy beads. And continued to weep. Chapter 5 A Bizarre Adventure into Morning Mastery “Everyone holds his fortune in his own hands, like a sculptor the raw material he will fashion into a figure. . . . The skill to mold the material into what we want must be learned and attentively cultivated.” —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe “If you two are interested,” said the homeless man, “I’d be happy to spend a few mornings coaching you at my oceanside compound. I’ll show you my private morning routine and explain why dialing in the way you run your first hour to the highest degree is essential for personal mastery and exceptional business performance. Let me do this for you cats. Your lives will start to look glorious—within a fairly short time.
Fortune's Formula: The Untold Story of the Scientific Betting System That Beat the Casinos and Wall Street by William Poundstone
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, asset allocation, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, correlation coefficient, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, high net worth, index fund, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Myron Scholes, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, publish or perish, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, short selling, speech recognition, statistical arbitrage, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, value at risk, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game
HV6710.P68 2005 795'.01'5192—dc22 2005005725 www.fsgbooks.com To Emily, Alyssa, and Weston It’s getting so a businessman can’t expect no return from a fixed fight. Now, if you can’t trust a fix, what can you trust? —Joel Coen and Ethan Coen, Miller’s Crossing Mathematicians are like a certain type of Frenchmen: when you talk to them they translate it into their own language, and then it soon turns into something completely different. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe CONTENTS Prologue: The Wire Service PART ONE: ENTROPY Claude Shannon • Project X • Emmanuel Kimmel • Edward Thorp • Toy Room • Roulette • Gambler’s Ruin • Randomness, Disorder, Uncertainty • The Bandwagon • John Kelly, Jr. • Private Wire • Minus Sign PART TWO: BLACKJACK Pearl Necklace • Reno • Wheel of Fortune • More Trouble Than an $18 Whore • The Kelly Criterion, Under the Hood • Las Vegas • The First Sure Winner in History • Deuce-Dealing Dottie • Bicycle Built for Two PART THREE: ARBITRAGE Paul Samuelson • The Random Walk Cosa Nostra • This Is Not the Time to Buy Stocks • IPO • Bet Your Beliefs • Beat the Market • James Regan • Resorts International • Michael Milken • Robert C.
Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel
Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lifelogging, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Shai Danziger, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Davenport, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
So, too, a data scientist posts her model on the bulletin board near the company ping-pong table. The hunter hands over the kill to the cook, and the data scientist cooks up her model, translates it to a standard computer language, and e-mails it to an engineer for integration. A well-fed tribe shows the love; a psyched executive issues a bonus. The tribe munches and the scientist crunches. To Act Is to Decide Knowing is not enough; we must act. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Potatoes or rice? What to do with my life? I can’t decide. —From the song “I Suck at Deciding” by Muffin1 (1996) Once you develop a model, don’t pat yourself on the back just yet. Predictions don’t help unless you do something about them. They’re just thoughts, just ideas. They may be astute, brilliant gems that glimmer like the most polished of crystal balls, but hanging them on the wall gains you nothing and displays nerd narcissism—they just hang there and look smart.
A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberation theology, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey
You are bound to have your favourite theory. There is nothing wrong with using one or two more than others – we all do. But please don’t be a man (or a woman) with a hammer – still less someone unaware that there are other tools available. To extend the analogy, use a Swiss army knife instead, with different tools for different tasks. ‘Everything factual is already a theory’: facts, even numbers, are in the end not objective Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German writer (Faust) and scientist (Theory of Colours), once said that ‘everything factual is already a theory’.1 This is something to bear in mind when looking at economic ‘facts’. Many people would assume that numbers are straightforward and objective, but each of them is constructed on the basis of a theory. I might not go as far as Benjamin Disraeli, the former British prime minister, who quipped that ‘there are lies, damned lies, and statistics’, but numbers in economics are invariably the results of attempts to measure concepts whose definitions are often extremely contentious or at least debatable.2 This is not just an academic quibble.
How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World: A Handbook for Personal Liberty by Harry Browne
None of them has to affect your life if you hold to the realization that you're a unique individual, a "first" in the world, one who'll have to determine for himself what will bring him happiness. If that principle seems far removed from the problem that led you to this book, I hope to show you shortly that this is the foundation necessary to free yourself of any restriction. Until you discover and accept yourself fully, you won't have the conviction or the courage to be free. As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live. JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed. FRANCIS BACON 3 The Intellectual and Emotional Traps TO BECOME FREE requires a well-conceived plan of action. It can't be achieved by occasional spur-of-the-moment hunches. To be free, you must know what you're doing and why. Otherwise, slight setbacks can cause you to discard your plans and give up. The two traps covered in this chapter affect the what and why of your actions.
Roads to Berlin by Cees Nooteboom, Laura Watkinson
Berlin Wall, centre right, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, rent control
The Volkskammer has assembled to condemn the vandals and “counter-revolutionary” elements in China, as though their own possible fate, surrounded as they are by neighbors who are drifting away, is written on the wall, crisp and clear. Their fate, or the fate of the man who is being applauded? A world is coming undone, and on the screens it looks like a celebration, just like that other distant celebration, only a few weeks ago. July 15, 1989 1 As a bird of prey / Rests on heavy morning clouds / With wing so gentle / And seeks its quarry / Let my song hover. “Harzreise im Winter,” Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. 2 From Goethes Harzreisen by Rolf Denecke (Hildesheim: Verlag August Lax, 1980). 3 I neither wish to examine the unrest within me, nor to have it examined. When I am quite alone I recognize myself as I was in my first youth, when I was drifting through the world all on my own. People still seem the same to me, but today I made an observation: as long as I was subject to the stresses and strains of life, as long as there was nobody who understood what was going on inside me (rather, as it happens, people did not respect me at first, indeed they looked at me with suspicion because of some of the strange contradictions within me) I had with all the integrity of my heart a multitude of false and warped pretensions—it is not easy to say, I would have to go into details—I was eaten up by misery, oppressed, mutilated you might say.
Time of the Magicians: Wittgenstein, Benjamin, Cassirer, Heidegger, and the Decade That Reinvented Philosophy by Wolfram Eilenberger
Classification: LCC B3181 .E5513 2020 (print) | LCC B3181 (ebook) | DDC 193—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019050893 LC ebook record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2019050894 Cover design: Stephanie Ross Cover images: (clockwise from top) Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein, Moritz Nähr / IanDagnall Computing / Alamy Stock Photo; Ernst Cassirer, Transocean 1931 / ullstein bild / Getty Images; Martin Heidegger, Apic / Getty Images; Walter Benjamin, J. Ll. Banús / age fotostock / Alamy Stock Photo pid_prh_5.5.0_c0_r0 For Eva The best that we have from history is the enthusiasm that it stimulates. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Maxims and Reflections CONTENTS I. PROLOGUE: THE MAGICIANS The Arrival of God • High Fliers • Maintaining One’s Composure • The Davos Myth • Human Questions • Without Foundation • Two Visions • At a Crossroads • Where Is Benjamin? • Fail Better • Does My Life Need a Goal? • The One-Man Republic II. LEAPS: 1919 What to Do? • A Refuge • Critical Days • Romantic Theses • New Self-Awareness • Flights • The Transformation • Ethical Acts • A Sorrow Beyond Dreams • An Interesting Condition • Exposed Flanks • A World Without a View • The Primal Scientist • No Alibi • The New Realm • Fidelity to the Event • German Virtues • Unloved • Electrified III.
The Regency Revolution: Jane Austen, Napoleon, Lord Byron and the Making of the Modern World by Robert Morrison
British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, financial independence, full employment, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, New Urbanism, railway mania, stem cell, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, wage slave
For the Scottish memoirist Pryse Lockhart Gordon, Byron “looked the inspired poet,” for he possessed “a beautiful, mild, and intelligent eye, fringed with long and dark lashes” and “an expansive and noble forehead, over which hung in thick clusters his rich dark natural curls.” In America, the literary critic and novelist John Neal lauded Childe Harold as “full of deep philosophizing sadness.” In Canada, the essayist James Irving found in Byron’s poetry “a populous world of the human heart,” for “there would be many Giaours, and Corsairs, and Laras, were the opportunity given.” In Germany, the septuagenarian poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe praised Don Juan (1819–24) as “a work of boundless genius.” 76 Female interest in Byron was even more intense. Teenage girls and young women besieged him with fan letters asking for his autograph, a signed copy of one of his books, a lock of his hair, or a place in his thoughts. His most hysterical fan, Lady Caroline Lamb, famously described him as “mad, bad, and dangerous to know,” a phrase that enshrined his “bad boy” image and that succinctly captured his rakish appeal.
Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber
Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, different worldview, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh, zero-sum game
It’s a profoundly healing psychological as well as organizational experience. I feel more real, grounded, and incarnate. I feel inspired to focus and accomplish more than I ever have. I feel empowered to make decisions, and invited to get support around doing so. I feel totally lit up by the aim I am serving.134 Chapter 3.2 STARTING UP A TEAL ORGANIZATION Whatever you do or dream you can do—begin it. Boldness has genius and power and magic in it. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Perhaps as you read this book you are about to start a new business, nonprofit, school, hospital, or foundation, and you are wondering how to bake Teal yeast into the dough of the organization from the start. (If you run an existing organization and are wondering how to transform it along Teal lines, the next chapter addresses that question more specifically.) Starting a new organization can be exhilarating, but it’s also sheer hard work.
I You We Them by Dan Gretton
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Desert Island Discs, drone strike, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Honoré de Balzac, IBM and the Holocaust, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, place-making, pre–internet, Stanford prison experiment, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons
We pause by the Nationaltheater, where the Weimar National Assembly hosted the German Parliament briefly after the First World War, from February to August 1919, after the January 1919 election – the first time women had been able to vote in Germany, and also the first election carried out under a system of proportional representation. This was also the place where the Weimar Constitution fully established Germany as a parliamentary democracy. In front of the theatre there’s the famous double statue of friendship – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Johann Friedrich von Schiller, the two spiritual giants of this place. A young guy with a ponytail, a music student, is playing classical requests on a piano in the main square. How is it really possible to grasp the meaning of Weimar in German culture? It’s best known as the home of those twin pillars of German thought, Goethe and Schiller, the place where Goethe lived for most of his life – arriving in 1775 at the age of twenty-six, and staying here until his death nearly sixty years later in 1832.
But, in the absence of this possibility, I have tried to bring them together in the pages of this chapter. 1 Weimar was also the place where Bach began writing his sonatas and partitas for solo violin, including the astonishing Partita No. 2 in D minor, which Brahms said contained ‘a whole world of the deepest thoughts’ and Yehudi Menuhin believed was simply ‘the greatest structure for solo violin that exists’. 2 ‘In living nature nothing happens that is not in connection with the whole …’ ‘Der Versuch als Vermittler von Objekt und Subjekt’ (‘The Experiment as Mediator of Object and Subject’) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. 3 The ‘mortality among them was extraordinarily high’ quote about the Dora works is from Inside the Third Reich by Albert Speer. 4 Levi’s comment on wanting the sequel to The Drowned and the Saved to be an investigation into ‘the German industries (BASF, Siemens, Bayer) involved in the Nazi camps’ is from Ian Thomson’s biography Primo Levi (‘In London 1986’). The material on Levi’s post-war dealings with IG Farben companies comes from the same biography: ‘Levi went out of his way to ruffle sensitivities at Bayer …’ from the chapter ‘Journeys into Germany 1954–61’. 5 ‘civilisation itself produces anti-civilisation and increasingly reinforces it …’ from the opening of ‘Education After Auschwitz’ by Theodor Adorno.
Venice: A New History by Thomas F. Madden
big-box store, buy low sell high, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, Costa Concordia, double entry bookkeeping, facts on the ground, financial innovation, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Murano, Venice glass, spice trade, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning
The English divine Richard Pococke, who saw the spectacle in 1734, sent home a long description of the doge’s galley, the bucintoro, which was yet another new and more lavish model put into service only seven years earlier. It was, he believed, “the finest ship in the world. . . . The floor is wood laid in handsom figures, every thing else you see in side and out is finely carv’d and gilt all over in the most beautifull manner . . . at the helm is the Doges gilt throne the Nobles being rangd all down.” The German polymath, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, attended the Sensa in 1786, and wrote of the bucintoro: “The ship is itself an ornament; therefore one may not say that it is overloaded with ornaments, and only a mass of gilded carvings that are otherwise useless. In reality it is a monstrance, in order to show the people that their leaders are indeed wonderful.” The Sensa, a long-treasured civic ritual for Venetians, had become a giant spectacle for tourists.
Data Science for Business: What You Need to Know About Data Mining and Data-Analytic Thinking by Foster Provost, Tom Fawcett
Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Gini coefficient, information retrieval, intangible asset, iterative process, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, Netflix Prize, new economy, p-value, pattern recognition, placebo effect, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, WikiLeaks
The authors wish to thank the developers and contributors of: Python and Perl Scipy, Numpy, Matplotlib, and Scikit-Learn Weka The Machine Learning Repository at the University of California at Irvine (Bache & Lichman, 2013) Finally, we encourage readers to check our website for updates to this material, new chapters, errata, addenda, and accompanying slide sets. * * *  Of course, each author has the distinct impression that he did the majority of the work on the book. Chapter 1. Introduction: Data-Analytic Thinking Dream no small dreams for they have no power to move the hearts of men. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe The past fifteen years have seen extensive investments in business infrastructure, which have improved the ability to collect data throughout the enterprise. Virtually every aspect of business is now open to data collection and often even instrumented for data collection: operations, manufacturing, supply-chain management, customer behavior, marketing campaign performance, workflow procedures, and so on.
Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz
affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, longitudinal study, mandatory minimum, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route
I said earlier that this is not a self-help book, since (for reasons both practical and philosophical) my primary goal isn’t to help us avoid error. But when it comes to the opposite task—not avoiding error—we can use all the help we can get. The aim of the rest of this book, then, is to get closer to error: close enough to examine other people’s real-life experiences of it, and, in the end, close enough to live with our own. 10. How Wrong? Once you have missed the first buttonhole you’ll never manage to button up. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE On the morning of October 22, 1844, a group of people gathered to await the end of the world. They met in homes, in churches, and in outdoor revival meetings, primarily in New York and New England but also throughout the United States and Canada, and as far away as England, Australia, and South America. Nobody knows how numerous they were. Some scholars put the number at 25,000 and some put it at over a million, while most believe it was in the hundreds of thousands.
Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War by Paul Scharre
active measures, Air France Flight 447, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, brain emulation, Brian Krebs, cognitive bias, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, DevOps, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, Flash crash, Freestyle chess, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, ImageNet competition, Internet of things, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Loebner Prize, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, pattern recognition, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sensor fusion, South China Sea, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Turing test, universal basic income, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, William Langewiesche, Y2K, zero day
Anjali Singhvi and Karl Russell, “Inside the Self-Driving Tesla Fatal Accident,” New York Times, July 1, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/07/01/business/inside-tesla-accident.html. “A Tragic Loss,” June 30, 2016, https://www.tesla.com/blog/tragic-loss. 148 The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Sorcerer’s Apprentice—Fantasia, accessed June 7, 2017, http://video.disney.com/watch/sorcerer-s-apprentice-fantasia-4ea9ebc01a74ea59a5867853. 148 German poem written in 1797: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice,” accessed June 7, 2017, http://germanstories.vcu.edu/goethe/zauber_e4.html. 149 “When you delegate authority to a machine”: Bob Work, interview, June 22, 2016. 150 “Traditional methods . . . fail to address”: U.S. Air Force Office of the Chief Scientist, Autonomous Horizons: System Autonomy in the Air Force—A Path to the Future (June 2015), 23, http://www.af.mil/Portals/1/documents/SECAF/AutonomousHorizons.pdf?
Coffeeland: One Man's Dark Empire and the Making of Our Favorite Drug by Augustine Sedgewick
affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, business cycle, California gold rush, collective bargaining, European colonialism, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, Food sovereignty, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Honoré de Balzac, imperial preference, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Philip Mirowski, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game
Used daily by the great majority of Americans—perhaps 80 percent—it is “by any measure, the world’s most popular drug . . . the only addictive psychoactive substance that has overcome resistance and disapproval around the world to the extent that it is freely available almost everywhere, unregulated, sold without license, offered over the counter in tablet and capsule form, and even added to beverages intended for children.”11 Yet two centuries ago, at the moment of its discovery, caffeine was anything but mundane. Instead it was a window on nature’s sublime intricacy. Toward the end of his life, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the most celebrated intellect in Napoleon’s Europe, could see in his mind the invisible connections that bound the world together. He rejected Descartes’s separation of the mind and the body. He rejected Newton’s idea that the universe could be chopped into free-standing parts, each of which could be analyzed in isolation from the others. Instead Goethe sought evidence of the wholeness he envisioned, some concrete example of “how the various parts work together.”12 He told a friend in conversation: “In nature we never see anything isolated, but everything in connection with something else which is before it, beside it, under it, and over it.”13 His thinking pointed in the direction science was going.
Fodor's Rome: With the Best City Walks and Scenic Day Trips by Fodor's Travel Publications Inc.
call centre, Donald Trump, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, low cost airline, Mason jar, mega-rich, Murano, Venice glass, starchitect, urban planning, young professional
You may prefer to limit your shopping on Via Condotti to the window variety, but there’s one thing here that everybody can afford—a stand-up coffee at the bar at the Antico Caffè Greco, set just off the Piazza di Spagna and the Fontana della Barcaccia. With its tiny marble-top tables and velour settees, this 200-year-old institution has long been the haunt of artists and literati; it’s closed Sunday. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Byron, and Franz Liszt were habitués. Buffalo Bill stopped in when his road show hit Rome. The caffè is still a haven for writers and artists, along with plenty of Gucci-clad ladies. The tab picks up considerably if you decide to sit down to enjoy table service. | Via Condotti 86, Spagna | 00187 | 06/6791700 | www.anticocaffegreco.eu. Il Palazzetto. For the ultimate view from atop the Spanish Steps, you can climb up, taking the elevator from inside the Spagna Metro…or pay for the privilege at the glamorous wine bar Il Palazzetto, where an interior elevator takes you to the level of the top terrace. | Vicolo del Bottino 8, Spagna | 00187 | 06/699341000 | www.ilpalazzettoroma.com.
Berlin by Andrea Schulte-Peevers
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, indoor plumbing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
Meanwhile, up-and-coming Armin Petras took over the Gorki in 2006; he’s also a playwright writing under the nom de plume of Fritz Kater and made a name for himself with a stage adaptation of Fatih Akin’s screenplay Gegen die Wand (Head On). Also part of the new generation are Thomas Ostermeier and Jens Hillje, codirectors of the Schaubühne am Lehniner Platz. Dramatic History Surprisingly, Berlin’s theatre scene had rather modest beginnings. The first quality productions weren’t staged until the arrival of such stellar dramatists as Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in the middle of the 18th century. One of the first impresarios was August Wilhelm Iffland (1759–1814), who took over the helm of the Royal National Theatre in 1796 and was noted for his natural yet sophisticated productions. Iffland’s act proved hard to follow: when he died in 1814, Berlin theatre languished until Otto Brahm became director of the Deutsches Theater in 1894. Dedicated to the naturalistic style, Brahm coaxed psychological dimensions out of characters and sought to make their language and situations mirror real life.
Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West
Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor
And this is even worse if you live in a large city, have small children, or run a business. This speeding up of socioeconomic time is integral to modern life in the Urbanocene. Nevertheless, like many of us, I harbor a romantic image that not so long ago life was less hectic, less pressured, and more relaxed and that there was actually time to think and contemplate. But read what the great German poet, writer, scientist, and statesman Johann Wolfgang von Goethe said on the subject almost two hundred years ago in 1825, soon after the beginning of the Industrial Revolution1: Everything nowadays is ultra, everything is being transcended continually in thought as well as in action. No one knows himself any longer; no one can grasp the element in which he lives and works or the materials that he handles. Pure simplicity is out of the question; of simplifiers we have enough.
Lotharingia: A Personal History of Europe's Lost Country by Simon Winder
Evans, The Pursuit of Power: Europe, 1815–1914 (London, 2016) James Farr, Artisans in Europe, 1300–1914 (Cambridge, 2000) Stefan Fischer, Hieronymus Bosch (Köln, 2016) John B. Freed, Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth (New Haven, 2016) Johannes Fried, Charlemagne (Cambridge, MA, 2016) Robert Gerwarth, The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End, 1917–1923 (London, 2016) Robert Gildea, Children of the Revolution: The French, 1799–1914 (London, 2008) Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Campaign in France and Siege of Mainz, trans. Ricardo Cunha Mattos Portella (Amazon, 2012) Lionel Gossman, Basel in the Age of Burckhardt: A Study in Unseasonable Ideas (Chicago, 2000) Ruth Harris, The Man on Devil’s Island: Alfred Dreyfus and the Affair that Divided France (London, 2010) Marjolein ’t Hart, The Dutch Wars of Independence (Abingdon, 2014) Holger H. Herwig, The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1914–1918 (London, 1997) Hildegard von Bingen, Selected Writings, trans.
Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Satyajit Das, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game
The Mirrored Room The genius of money made possible the modern economy and the money culture. Georg Simmel, a German sociologist and contemporary of Freud, argued that money imitated the world around it: “There is no more striking symbol...of the world than that of money.”29 Money is the ultimate Faustian bargain—a pact with the devil in return for earthly power, wealth, or knowledge. In the second part of Faust, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe has Faust and Mephistopheles visit the Emperor who lacks the money to pay his retinue of soldiers and servants as well as his lenders. Mephistopheles comes to the aid of the Emperor, obtaining his permission to print paper money. Faust has the Emperor sign a note that anticipates modern money: “To whom it may concern, be by these presents known, this note is legal tender for one thousand crowns and is secured by the immense wealth safely stored underground in our Imperial States.”
The 4-Hour Chef: The Simple Path to Cooking Like a Pro, Learning Anything, and Living the Good Life by Timothy Ferriss
Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, Golden Gate Park, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, microbiome, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Pepto Bismol, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, Skype, spaced repetition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, the High Line, Y Combinator
Sometimes, whether in the world of fire-making or cooking, finding the path of least resistance is as easy as Googling “backward,” “upside-down,” or “reverse,” plus whatever skill you’re deconstructing. TRANSLATING: THE GRAMMAR OF ANY LANGUAGE (If the language stuff gets too dense, skip to “Learning to ‘Taste.’”) * * * “Wer fremde Sprachen nicht kennt, weiß nichts von seiner eigenen.” “He who doesn’t know foreign languages knows nothing of his own.” —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe * * * Cardinal Giuseppe Mezzofanti, born 1774, was called “the Devil” on many occasions. The charming Italian could speak at least 39 languages and, by some accounts, had been tested in 72. As arguably the world’s most famous hyperpolyglot, he was also systematic. First, he learned languages in families. Second, and related to deconstruction: instead of using grammar books, he had native speakers of each language recite the Lord’s Prayer.
Tribe of Mentors: Short Life Advice From the Best in the World by Timothy Ferriss
23andMe, A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, dematerialisation, don't be evil, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fear of failure, Gary Taubes, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Google Hangouts, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, helicopter parent, high net worth, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, index fund, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Turing machine, uber lyft, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator
Lewis “It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all—in which case you fail by default.”—J. K. Rowling What is one of the best or most worthwhile investments you’ve ever made? “If I accept you as you are, I make you worse; however, if I treat you as though you are what you are capable of becoming I help you become that.”—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe In my practice, when I see clients for the first time, I see them as the end product—the way they will be in the future. They are all beautiful. What stands between who they are and who they want to be is their willingness to change strong habits, belief systems, and the gracefulness to embrace a new way of living. I aid them in their pursuit of change and liberation from unwanted habits.
Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra
War just won’t be the same. [TWO] SMART BOMBS, NORMA JEANE, AND DEFECATING DUCKS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ROBOTICS The further backward you look, the further forward you can see. —SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL “Perhaps the most wonderful piece of mechanism ever made” is how the famous Scottish engineer Sir David Brewster would describe it some one hundred years after it was invented. By contrast, the great poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe called it “most deplorable ... like a skeleton [with] digestive problems.” The two men were talking about Vaucanson’s duck, the mechanical wonder of its age, or, as present-day scientists call it, “the Defecating Duck.” Jacques de Vaucanson was born in Grenoble, France, in 1709. At the age of twenty-six, he moved to Paris, then the center of culture and science during the Age of Enlightenment.
Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, assortative mating, buy low sell high, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test
When ethnic pride turns to xenophobia, for instance, this mirrors the phenomenon of a tolerable bacillus that mutates into something deadly — if not necessarily to its original carrier, then to others. 12. Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin (1984, p. 283) claim that memes presuppose a "Cartesian" view of the mind, whereas in fact memes are a key (central but optional) ingredient in the best alternatives to Cartesian models (Dennett 1991a). CHAPTER THIRTEEN Losing Our Minds to Darwin 1. This bon mot appeared in the Tufts Daily, attributed to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, but I daresay it is a meme of more recent birth. 2. This is an elaboration of ideas I first presented in Dennett 1975.1 recently discovered that Konrad Lorenz (1973) described a similar cascade of cranes — in different terms, of course. 3. In fairness to Chomsky, all he says is that free will might be a mystery. "I am not urging this conclusion, but merely noting that it is not to be ruled out a priori" (Chomsky 1975, P-157).
Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum
active measures, affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning
(One of them snorted that Lenin had celebrated his fiftieth birthday by “inviting a few friends to drop in for dinner.”)74 But the regimes planned celebrations with more universal themes as well. Parades, floats, spectacles, and speeches were also dedicated to older or more universal cultural figures, with an aim to winning over a wider public and appealing to national pride. When the German communist party realized that August 28, 1949, was not only the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, one of Germany’s most revered writers, but that Goethe had fortuitously been born in Weimar, an East German city, the party, the Culture Ministry, and even the Stasi launched an almost frantic effort to claim this aristocratic Enlightenment figure as a kind of proto-communist. Meticulously, they planned an elaborate festival designed to show the West that communists cared more about high culture than did capitalists, to show their own people that communists were true German patriots, and to involve as many different kinds of people in as many events as possible.
Roller-Coaster: Europe, 1950-2017 by Ian Kershaw
airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, centre right, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, illegal immigration, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour market flexibility, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, young professional
For me, that in itself makes the enterprise worthwhile. As for the future: on that a historian’s predictions are no better than anyone else’s. Ian Kershaw, Manchester, November 2017 Foreword: Europe’s Two Eras of Insecurity It is the same with history as with nature, as with all profound problems, whether past, present or future: the more deeply and seriously one enters into problems, the more difficult are those that arise. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe In 1950 Europe was reawakening from the dark years of the worst war in history. The physical scars were to be seen throughout the continent in the ruins of bombed-out buildings. The mental and moral scars would take far longer to heal than the time to rebuild towns and cities. The inhumanity of the recent past would, in fact, cast a deep shadow over Europe throughout subsequent decades.
The Art of Community: Building the New Age of Participation by Jono Bacon
barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps, do-ocracy, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Guido van Rossum, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application
The chapter provides a good grounding for getting started, but always be open to your own context and how you meet the needs of that context. You will find your own approaches and techniques that will build on and in some cases replace the approaches here. This chapter is a start, not an end to this process. Chapter 10. Governance “Which is the best government? That which teaches us to govern ourselves.” —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Mike Basinger is a nice guy. Some would say a little too nice for his own good: he is one of those people who are impossible to dislike, no matter how much you try. Quiet, conscientious, considerate, and understated, Mike is the epitome of the open source community. Few would imagine that he helps to govern the worldwide Ubuntu community at the highest level. At the same time, many of the people who know that don’t realize that Mike has never worked for Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu’s commercial sponsor; he has always remained a volunteer.
The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff
Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck
Mark Zuckerberg, “Building Global Community,” Facebook, February 16, 2017, https://www.facebook.com/notes/mark-zuckerberg/building-global-community/10154544292806634. 15. Mark Zuckerberg, “Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s Keynote at F8 2017 Conference (Full Transcript),” April 19, 2017, https://singjupost.com/facebook-ceo-mark-zuckerbergs-keynote-at-f8-2017-conference-full-transcript. 16. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice,” German Stories at Virginia Commonwealth University, 1797, http://germanstories.vcu.edu/goethe/zauber_e4.html. 17. Frank E. Manuel and Fritzie P. Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1979), 20. 18. Manuel and Manuel, Utopian Thought, 23 (italics mine). 19. Todd Bishop and Nat Levy, “With $256 Billion, Apple Has More Cash Than Amazon, Microsoft and Google Combined,” GeekWire, May 2, 2017, https://www.geekwire.com/2017/256-billion-apple-cash-amazon-microsoft-google-combined. 20.
EuroTragedy: A Drama in Nine Acts by Ashoka Mody
"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, book scanning, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, loadsamoney, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, pension reform, premature optimization, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, working-age population, Yogi Berra
To an audience in Stuttgart, she said that the risks of fiscal spending were best understood by the Swabian housewives from that region. Those frugal housewives, Merkel said, “would give us some short and good advice, which would be this: ‘You cannot live beyond your means in the long run.’ ”35 Merkel’s finance minister, Wolfgang Schäuble, repeated that theme. Quoting German writer and polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Schäuble said, “Let everyone sweep in front of his own door, and the whole world will be clean.”36 Schäuble believed that countries like Greece, with their undisciplined public finances, did not belong in the euro area. Since 1994, he had promoted his strongly held view that European integration should move forward with only a “hard core” of grown-up countries while the laggards shaped up.37 In his original conception, even Italy did not fit into Europe’s hard core.
From Peoples into Nations by John Connelly
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, oil shock, old-boy network, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, Transnistria, union organizing, upwardly mobile, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce
The French, distracted by enthusiasm for systems and universal principles, had failed to notice the unique beauty and importance of a people’s tongue; in contrast to the idea of French philosophes that languages were interchangeable, each one being an endless variety of the same thing, German thinkers held that every language gave expression to a people’s soul, placing it in direct relation to God. In the early nineteenth century, a cult of German language and culture grew in the Thuringian city of Weimar that was associated with the poets who made their home there, above all Friedrich Schiller and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. But the cult’s prophet was their friend Johann Gottfried Herder, a Protestant pastor, universal historian, and thinker about nationhood whose ideas became so popular among Germans that Goethe later said people forgot the origins of these ideas, assuming they constituted eternal wisdom. After Napoleon’s defeat in 1815, the university at Jena—an afternoon’s walk from Weimar—became a hotbed for the new romantic nationalism among German students.
Europe: A History by Norman Davies
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl
There is not a Pole who cannot recite ‘Oh, Litwo, my homeland, you are like health …’; not a German who has not been bewitched by ‘the land where the lemon-trees bloom’; no Russian schoolchild who has not been taught the lines of ‘The Bronze Horseman’ from St Petersburg: (Here we are destined by nature | To cut a window into Europe; | And to gain a foothold by the sea … I love you, Peter’s creation, | I love your severe, graceful appearance, | The Neva’s majestic current, | the granite of her banks… | City of Peter, stand in all your splendour, | Stand unshakeable as Russia! | May the conquered elements, too, make their peace.)15 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), however, was not merely a national bard. He was an Olympian who bestrode almost all intellectual domains. The variety of genres in which he excelled, his awareness of a rapidly changing world, and the numerous evolutions through which his creativity passed gave him a claim to be the last ‘universal man’. Born in Frankfurt-am-Main, educated in Leipzig and Strasburg, and resident for half a century in Weimar, he was poet, dramatist, novelist, philosopher, scientist, traveller, lawyer, administrator.