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Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness by Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein
Al Roth, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, availability heuristic, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, continuous integration, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, endowment effect, equity premium, feminist movement, fixed income, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, index fund, invisible hand, late fees, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mason jar, medical malpractice, medical residency, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, pension reform, presumed consent, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, school choice, school vouchers, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Zipcar
This makes it clear why leaving ballot design to politicians is an obviously bad idea, whereas letting politicians hire experts to help pick sensible default options for Medicare participants is probably a good idea (especially if politicians have to report donations from insurance companies). Why Stop at Libertarian Paternalism? We hope that conservatives, moderates, liberals, self-identified libertarians, and many others might be able to endorse libertarian paternalism. So far we have emphasized the criticisms of certain conservatives and the most ardent libertarians. A different set of objections can be expected from the opposite direction. Enthusiastic paternalists might well feel emboldened by evidence of Human frailties. So emboldened, they might urge that in many domains, nudging and libertarian paternalism are much too modest and cautious. If we want to protect people, why not go further?
And just as a building architect must eventually build some particular building, a choice architect like Carolyn must choose a particular arrangement of the food options at lunch, and by so doing she can influence what people eat. She can nudge.* Libertarian Paternalism If, all things considered, you think that Carolyn should take the opportunity to nudge the kids toward food that is better for them, Option 1, then we welcome you to our new movement: libertarian paternalism. We are keenly aware that this term is not one that readers will find immediately endearing. Both words are somewhat off-putting, weighted down by stereotypes from popular culture and politics that make them unappealing to many.
As we will see, these principles (and many more) can be applied in both the private and public sectors, and there is much room for going beyond what is now being done. A New Path We shall have a great deal to say about private nudges. But many of the most important applications of libertarian paternalism are for government, and we will offer a number of recommendations for public policy and law. Our hope is that that those recommendations might appeal to both sides of the political divide. Indeed, we believe that the policies suggested by libertarian paternalism can be embraced by Republicans and Democrats alike. A central reason is that many of those policies cost little or nothing; they impose no burden on taxpayers at all.
Why Nudge?: The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism by Cass R. Sunstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, energy security, framing effect, invisible hand, late fees, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, nudge unit, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler
A jail sentence and a fine count as hard paternalism, whereas a disclosure policy, a warning, and a default rule count as soft or libertarian paternalism. Some forms of paternalism impose material costs, such as fines, on people’s choices in order to improve their welfare. Other forms impose affective or psychic costs, as in the case of graphic health warnings, which might be designed to frighten people. Behavioral economists have generally favored soft rather than hard paternalism.48 Means paternalism can be hard or soft, and the same is true of ends paternalism. My topic here extends far beyond libertarian paternalism and nudges, understood as approaches that affect choices without coercion, but it is important to see that nudges generally fall in the categories of means paternalism and soft paternalism.
We can understand soft paternalism, thus defined, as including nudges, and I will use the terms interchangeably here. In a careful and illuminating book, one that is sharply critical of paternalism in any form, Riccardo Rebonato offers a provocative and different definition of libertarian paternalism, or nudges: Libertarian paternalism is the set of interventions aimed at overcoming the unavoidable cognitive biases and decisional inadequacies of an individual by exploiting them in such a way as to influence her decisions (in an easily reversible manner) towards choices that she herself would make if she had at her disposal unlimited time and information, and the analytic abilities of a rational decision-maker (more precisely, of Homo Economicus).9 This definition is useful, but it is imprecise in three respects.
STORRS LECTURES ON JURISPRUDENCE Yale Law School, 2012 Cass R. Sunstein Why Nudge? The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism Published with assistance from the foundation established in memory of Amasa Stone Mather of the Class of 1907, Yale College. Copyright © 2014 by Cass R. Sunstein. All rights reserved. This book may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, including illustrations, in any form (beyond that copying permitted by Sections 107 and 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law and except by reviewers for the public press), without written permission from the publishers. Yale University Press books may be purchased in quantity for educational, business, or promotional use.
Misbehaving: The Making of Behavioral Economics by Richard H. Thaler
"Robert Solow", 3Com Palm IPO, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, impulse control, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, late fees, law of one price, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market clearing, Mason jar, mental accounting, meta-analysis, money market fund, More Guns, Less Crime, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, New Journalism, nudge unit, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Post-Keynesian economics, presumed consent, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, risk free rate, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical model, Steve Jobs, sunk-cost fallacy, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game
Are there ways to make it easier for people to make what they will deem to be good decisions, both before and after the fact, without explicitly forcing anyone to do anything? In other words, what can we achieve by limiting ourselves to libertarian paternalism? We knew that the phrase “libertarian paternalism” would raise some hackles. It is not just at the University of Chicago that people dislike the term “paternalism”; many object to the government, or anyone else for that matter, telling them what to do, and that is what the term normally means. The phrase “libertarian paternalism” is a mouthful, and it does sound like an oxymoron. But it is not; at least not the way we define the terms. By paternalism, we mean trying to help people achieve their own goals.
Peter was an early fan of and contributor to behavioral economics, and he took the opportunity to organize a few sessions at the meeting on behavioral topics and invited a session on paternalism. Cass and I wrote a short paper that introduced the idea of libertarian paternalism. With the five published pages we were allotted, Cass was barely getting warmed up, so he took that piece and developed it into a proper law review article, over forty pages. We called it “Libertarian Paternalism Is Not an Oxymoron.” When I printed a draft of the law review version of the paper it looked quite long to me. One day I asked Cass whether he thought there might be a book in it. It would be an understatement to say that Cass loved the idea.
., 316 Laibson, David, 110, 183, 315n, 353 Lamont, Owen, 244, 250 law and economics, 257–69 law of large numbers, 194–95 law of one price, 237–39, 244, 247, 248, 250, 348 learning critique of behavioral economics, 49–51, 153 Leclerc, France, 257 Lee, Charles, 239 closed-end fund paper of, 240–43, 244 Leno, Jay, 134 Lester, Richard, 44–45 Letwin, Oliver, 331 Levitt, Steven, 354 Lewin, Kurt, 338, 340 liar loans, 252 Liberal Democrats, U.K., 332 libertarian paternalism, 322, 323–25 “Libertarian Paternalism Is Not an Oxymoron” (Sunstein and Thaler), 323–25 Lichtenstein, Sarah, 36, 48 life, value of, see value of a life life-cycle hypothesis, 95–96, 97, 98, 106, 164 “Life You Save May Be Your Own, The” (Schelling), 12–13, 14 limits of arbitrage, 249, 288, 349 Lintner, John, 166, 226, 229 Liquid Assets (Ashenfelter), 68 List, The, 10, 20–21, 24, 25, 31, 33, 36, 39, 43, 58, 68, 303, 347 List, John, 354 lives, statistical vs. identified, 13 loans, for automobiles, 121–23 Loewenstein, George, 88, 111, 176, 180–81, 362 in Behavioral Economics Roundtable, 181 effort project of, 199–201 paternalism and, 323 London, 248 Long Term Capital Management (LTCM), 249, 251 loss aversion, 33–34, 52, 58–59, 154, 261 dividends and, 166 of managers, 187–89, 190 myopic, 195, 198 Lott, John, 265–66 Lovallo, Dan, 186, 187 Lowenstein, Roger, xv–xvi, 12 LSV Asset Management, 228 Lucas, Robert, 159 Luck, Andrew, 289 MacArthur Foundation, 184 Machiguenga people, 364 Machlup, Fritz, 45 macroeconomics: behavioral, 349–52 rational expectations in, 209 Macy’s, 62, 63 Madrian, Brigitte, 315–17 Magliozzi, Ray, 32 Magliozzi, Tom, 32–33 Major League Baseball, 282 “make it easy” mantra, 337–38, 339–40 Malkiel, Burton, 242 managers: growth, 214–15 gut instinct and, 293 loss aversion of, 187–89, 190 risk aversion of, 190–91 value, 214–15 mandated choice, 328–29 marginal, definition of, 27 marginal analysis, 44 marginal propensity to consume (MPC), 94–95, 98 markets, in equilibrium, 44, 131, 150, 207 Markowitz, Harry, 208 marshmallow experiment, 100–101, 102n, 178, 314 Marwell, Gerald, 145 Mas, Alexandre, 372 Massey, Cade, 194, 278–79, 282, 289 Matthew effect, 296n McCoy, Mike, 281–82 McDonald’s, 312 McIntosh, Donald, 103 mean reversion, 222–23 Mechanical Turk (Amazon), 127 Meckling, William, 41, 105 Mehra, Raj, 191 mental accounting, 54, 55, 98, 115, 116, 118, 257 bargains and rip-offs, 57–63 budgeting, 74–79 and equity premium puzzle, 198 on game show, 296–301, 297 getting behind in, 80–84 house money effect, 81–82, 83–84, 193n of savings, 310 sunk costs, 21, 52, 64–73 “two-pocket,” 81–82 Merton, Robert K., 296n “Methodology of Positive Economics, The” (Friedman), 45–46 Mian, Atif, 78 Miljoenenjacht, see Deal or No Deal Miller, Merton, 159, 167–68, 206, 208 annoyed at closed-end fund paper, 242–43, 244, 259 irrelevance theorem of, 164–65, 166–67 Nobel Prize won by, 164 Thaler’s appointment at University of Chicago, reaction to, 255, 256 Minnesota, 335 Mischel, Walter, 100–101, 102, 103, 178, 314 mispricing, 225 models: beta–delta, 110 of homo economicus, 4–5, 6–7, 8–9, 23–24, 180 imprecision of, 23–24 optimization-based, 5–6, 8, 27, 43, 207 Modigliani, Franco: consumption function of, 94, 95–96, 97, 98, 309 irrelevance theorem of, 164–65 Nobel Prize won by, 163–64 Moore, Michael, 122 More Guns, Less Crime (Lott), 265 Morgenstern, Oskar, 29 mortgage brokers, 77–78 mortgages, 7, 77–79, 252, 345 mugs, 153, 155, 263, 264–66, 264 Mullainathan, Sendhil, 58n, 183–84, 366 Mulligan, Casey, 321–22 Murray, Bill, 49–50 mutual fund portfolios, 84 mutual funds, 242 myopic loss aversion, 195, 198 Nagel, Rosemarie, 212 naïve agents, 110–11 Nalebuff, Barry, 170 narrow framing, 185–91 and effort project, 201 NASDAQ, 250, 252 Nash, John, 212 Nash equilibrium, 212, 213n, 367 National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), 35, 236, 244, 349 National Football League, 139n draft in, 11, 277–91, 281, 283, 285, 286 rookie salaries in, 283 salary cap in, 282–83 surplus value of players in, 285–86, 285, 286, 288 National Public Radio, 32, 305 naturally occurring experiments, 8 NESTA, 343 Net Asset Value (NAV) fund, 238–39, 241 Netherlands, 248, 296–301 neuro-economics, 177, 182 New Contrarian Investment Strategy, The (Dreman), 221–22 New Orleans Saints, 279 New York, 137 New Yorker, 90–91, 91, 92 New York Stock Exchange, 223, 226, 232, 248 New York Times, 292, 327, 328 New York Times Magazine, xv–xvi, 12 Next Restaurant, 138–39 NFL draft, 11, 277–91, 281, 283, 285, 286, 295 Nick (game show contestant), 304–5 Nielsen SoundScan, 135 Nixon, Richard, 363 Nobel, Alfred, 23n Nobel Prize, 23, 40, 207 no free lunch principle, 206, 207, 222, 225, 226n, 227, 230, 233–36, 234, 236, 251, 255 noise traders, 240–42, 247, 251 nomenclature, importance of, 328–29 Norman, Don, 326 normative theories, 25–27 “Note on the Measurement of Utility, A” (Samuelson), 89–94 no trade theorem, 217 Nudge (Thaler and Sunstein), 325–26, 330, 331–32, 333, 335, 345 nudges, nudging, 325–29, 359 number game, 211–14, 213 Obama, Barack, 22 occupations, dangerous, 14–15 Odean, Terry, 184 O’Donnell, Gus, 332–33 O’Donoghue, Ted, 110, 323 Odysseus, 99–100, 101 Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), 343–44 Office of Management and Budget, 343 offices, 270–76, 278 “one-click” interventions, 341–42 open-end funds, 238 opportunity costs, 17, 18, 57–58, 59, 73 of poor people, 58n optimal paternalism, 323 optimization, 5–6, 8, 27, 43, 161, 207, 365 Oreo experiment, 100–101, 102n, 178, 314 organizations, theory of, 105, 109 organs: donations of, 327–28 markets for, 130 Osborne, George, 331 Oullier, Olivier, 333 outside view, inside view vs., 186–87 overconfidence, 6, 52, 124, 355 and high trading volume in finance markets, 217–18 in NFL draft, 280, 295 overreaction: in financial markets, 219–20, 222–24, 225–29 generalized, 223–24 to sense of humor, 218, 219, 223 value stocks and, 225–29 Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Economics and the Law, 269 Palm and 3Com, 244–49, 246, 250, 348 paradigms, 167–68, 169–70 Pareto, Vilfredo, 93 parking tickets, 260 passions, 7, 88, 103 paternalism, 269, 322 dislike of term, 324 libertarian, 322, 323–25 path dependence, 298–300 “pay as you earn” system, 335 payment depreciation, 67 Pearl Harbor, Japanese bombing of, 232 P/E effect, 219–20, 222–23, 233, 235 pensions, 9, 198, 241, 320, 357–58 permanent income hypothesis, 95 Peter Principle, 293 pharmaceutical companies, 189–90 Pigou, Arthur, 88, 90 plane tickets, 138 planner-doer model, 104–10 Plott, Charlie, 40, 41, 48, 49, 148, 149, 177, 181 poker, 80, 81–82, 99 poor, 58n Posner, Richard, 259–61, 266 Post, Thierry, 296 poverty, decision making and, 371 Power, Samantha, 330 “Power of Suggestion, The” (Madrian and Shea), 315 practice, 50 predictable errors, 23–24 preferences: change in, 102–3 revealed, 86 well-defined, 48–49 pregnancy, teenage, 342 Prelec, Drazen, 179 Prescott, Edward, 191, 192 present bias (hyperbolic discounting), 91–92, 110, 227n and NFL draft, 280, 287 savings and, 314 presumed consent, in organ donations, 328–29 price controls, 363 price/earnings ratio (P/E), 219–20, 222–23, 233, 235 prices: buying vs. selling, 17, 18–19, 20, 21 rationality of, 206, 222, 230–33, 231, 237, 251–52 variability of stock, 230–33, 231, 367 price-to-rental ratios, 252 principal-agent model, 105–9, 291 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 143–44, 145, 301–5, 302 “Problem of Social Cost, The” (Coase), 263–64 profit maximization, 27, 30 promotional pricing strategy, 62n prompted choice (in organ donation), 327–29 prospect theory, 25–28, 295, 353 acceptance of, 38–39 and “as if” critique of behavioral economics, 46 and consumer choice, 55 and equity premium puzzle, 198 expected utility theory vs., 29 surveys used in experiments of, 38 psychological accounting, see mental accounting “Psychology and Economics Conference Handbook,” 163 “Psychology and Savings Policies” (Thaler), 310–13 Ptolemaic astronomy, 169–70 public goods, 144–45 Public Goods Game, 144–46 Punishment Game, 141–43, 146 Pythagorean theorem, 25–27 qualified default investment alternatives, 316 quantitative analysis, 293 Quarterly Journal of Economics, 197, 201 quasi-hyperbolic discounting, 91–92 quilt, 57, 59, 61, 65 Rabin, Matthew, 110, 181–83, 353 paternalism and, 323 racetracks, 80–81, 174–75 Radiolab, 305 randomized control trials (RCTs), 8, 338–43, 344, 371 in education, 353–54 Random Walk Down Walk Street, A (Malkiel), 242 rational expectations, 98, 191 in macroeconomics, 209 rational forecasts, 230–31 rationality: bounded, 23–24, 29, 162 Chicago debate on, 159–63, 167–68, 169, 170, 205 READY4K!
A Pelican Introduction: Basic Income by Guy Standing
bank run, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, independent contractor, intangible asset, job automation, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, labour market flexibility, land value tax, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, universal basic income, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Zipcar
They have been highly influential, to the extent that one of the authors of Nudge, the seminal book on the subject, became principal regulator in Barack Obama’s White House, while the other became an adviser to the British Prime Minister.11 Libertarian paternalism has become a dominant mode of policy making in the globalization era, advocated and implemented by those calling themselves liberals (as in the case of Britain’s Liberal Democrats when they were in the coalition government) and by social democrats, as well as by conservatives. Its vision of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ is rooted in the political philosophy of utilitarianism, drawing heavily on the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832). In particular, libertarian paternalism derives from Bentham’s ‘panopticon’, a prison design enabling prisoners to be watched by a guard at all times and their behaviour monitored.
Green opposite, as well as libertarians, have long been united in their opposition to paternalism of all sorts, and above all to what is best described as state paternalism, except regarding children and the mentally frail. But intellectual consistency has not been a virtue of modern politicians, on the left as well as the right. Many have implicitly or explicitly embraced a dangerous hybrid known as ‘libertarian paternalism’, which ‘steers’ or ‘nudges’ people to ‘make the right choice’. Today it may be a bigger threat to freedom than outright authoritarianism, because it is so invidious and manipulative. The implications are considered later in this chapter. A basic income can be described as a basic economic right that is a necessary condition for liberal notions of freedom.
So we are trading off freedom for freedom.’10 Although this line of reasoning can be rebutted in various ways, the simplest retort is that unless the state protects the basic freedoms of its most vulnerable members, they will be inclined to hit back by violating the freedoms of those intensifying their vulnerability. If libertarians succeeded in creating such a minimalist social state that the vulnerable were left bereft of hope, they should not be surprised if the resentment led to some retributive justice. The Danger of Libertarian Paternalism Many libertarians reveal themselves as little more than moralistic conservatives. Thus Charles Murray sees a basic income as encouraging ‘better’ behaviour and a revival of ‘civic culture’. This is a paternalistic argument, not one about freedom. But he is not as explicit as the new breed of libertarian paternalists, who lean on ‘behavioural economics’ and ‘nudge theory’ to justify giving a very prominent role to government to steer or nudge people to make ‘the right choices’.
The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Air France Flight 447, attribution theory, bitcoin, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, combinatorial explosion, computer age, crowdsourcing, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Ethereum, Flynn Effect, Hernando de Soto, hindsight bias, hive mind, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, libertarian paternalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, obamacare, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator
We think it is inevitable that people will continue to make decisions—even very consequential decisions—without deep understanding. So how can we help people to make wiser choices? Nudging Better Decisions The University of Chicago economist Richard Thaler and the Harvard legal scholar Cass Sunstein have developed a philosophy that they call libertarian paternalism. Although the name is a mouthful, the idea is simple and compelling. The main observation is that people don’t always make the best possible decisions; they don’t always choose the option that makes it most likely that they will achieve their own goals. Examples abound: We choose the large pizza instead of the salad and regret it as we’re leaving the restaurant.
People post questions, often about difficult topics like particle physics or finance, and forum members try to provide a satisfying explanation that is easily understood. The popularity of this forum speaks to how enjoyable it is to read explanations that we can actually make sense of. It also highlights how rare these are in our day-to-day lives. Lesson 2: Simple Decision Rules Richard Thaler, one of the fathers of the libertarian paternalism approach, has thought a lot about financial decision-making. He agrees that attempting to give people a deep understanding of financial topics is unlikely to work. The financial world is just too complex and people’s abilities are too limited. He argues that rather than trying to educate people, we should give them simple rules that work pretty well and can be applied with little knowledge or effort, rules like “Invest as much as possible in your 401(k) plan,” “Save 15 percent of your income,” or “Get a fifteen-year mortgage if you are over fifty.”
See vision facial recognition, 45–46 false information, spreading, 231–32 Faro, David, 164 fear, 104 Fernbach, Philip, 121–22 financial issues annuity paradox, 242–43 consumers’ lack of knowledge regarding, 233–37, 253 credit card debt, 235–36 economies as example of hive mind collaboration, 244–46 education programs to address, 240–41 household cognitive financial labor, 246–47 just-in-time education, 251–52 linear vs. nonlinear change, 234–37 mortgage rates and payments, 233, 236–37, 246 savings, growth of, 234–35 simple decision rules for, 250–51 value of currency, 245–46 Woodward, Susan, 233–34 Yap economy, 245 Fisher, Matt, 137 fluid intelligence, 202 fly ball example of gaze-direction strategy, 96–98 flying as an example of shared knowledge, 18 food choices example of libertarian paternalism, 248–49 hunting for, 108–10, 113 irradiation, 167–68 forward reasoning. See predictive reasoning Fox, Craig, 121 fractals, 33–34 Frederick, Shane, 80–82 “Funes the Memorious” (Borges), 37–39, 47–48 Galileo’s experiments with dropping different weights, 65–66 Galton, Francis, 148 Gandhi, Mahatma, 196–97 Garcia, John, 51 gay marriage, 186 gaze-direction strategy fly ball example, 96–98 genetic engineering citrus greening disease example, 166–67 crops, new varieties of, 155 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 155, 165–67 “golden rice” to prevent Vitamin A deficiency, 155 geology article example of accessible knowledge, 123–24 gestures, 117 Ginges, Jeremy, 187 Giuliano, Toni, 120 global warming, 169–70 Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence (GOFAI) project, 86–90 Gould, Stephen Jay, 34–35 GPS (Global Positioning System) software, 139–40, 143 graffiti example of storytelling, 63 Graves, Alvin, 19–20 groupthink, 173–75 group thinking, 121–22.
Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, different worldview, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, IKEA effect, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, longitudinal study, market design, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, twin studies, World Values Survey
Within particular domains, such as encouraging giving up smoking, the role of behaviour was palpably obvious and clearly made the case for some behavioural and psychological thinking. The thinking in the PMSU paper also had another specific impact, which was on pensions policy. One of the papers quoted – and highlighted by Kahneman when he came in – was an early piece on ‘libertarian paternalism’ documenting the powerful impacts of defaults. At that time we had a big review running on pensions, led by an outsider named Adair Turner. I thought the paper on the impacts of defaults so important to the review that I printed off a copy and sent it to Adair and the review team, with a scribbled note along the lines of ‘I think this is probably the most important and interesting paper that you are going to read on pensions’.
PRIME MINISTER CAMERON AND DEPUTY PRIME MINISTER CLEGG, THE COALITION AGREEMENT, 2010 Five years after the ill-fated PMSU review, and on the other side of the Atlantic, there was a major breakthrough in the application of behavioural science to policy. When Richard Thaler, a Chicago economist, and Cass Sunstein, a Harvard academic lawyer, first wrote their book, it was intended to be called Libertarian Paternalism, just like the paper on which it drew heavily. Fortunately for them, and for the rest of us, a prospective publisher suggested an alternative title, Nudge, under which it was published in 2008fn1. It makes you wonder how many other great ideas are buried under the weight of an academic title.
The politicos didn’t mind that I had worked closely with Blair, since the Cameron team quite admired him – and the three elections he won. It also helped that the Liberal Democrats, the junior partner in the Coalition, were also rather taken with the nudge approach. The two key advisers to the Lib Dem Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg – Richard Reeves and Polly Mackenzie – both liked the liberal aspects of ‘libertarian paternalism’, and also the empiricism associated with the approach. The wheels of the civil service had already started to turn, seeking to interpret what it was that the new government wanted – or at least a compromise between what the new government wanted and what the civil service thought would be a good idea.
The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing
8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, Herbert Marcuse, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, independent contractor, job polarisation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional
Give them what they want! This is an illusion of empowerment that degrades responsibility and professionalism. Soon, everybody will be rating everybody else. The state as libertarian paternalist A new perspective on social and economic policy is behavioural economics, which has produced libertarian paternalism. Nudge, an influential book by Cass Sunstein and Richard Thaler (2008), two Chicago-based advisers and friends of Barack Obama, was premised on the idea that people have too much information and so make irrational decisions. People must be steered, or nudged, to make A POLITICS OF INFERNO 139 the decisions that are in their best interest.
At least that recognised that jobs were not attractive in themselves. But here was the state indulging in paternalistic steering while contributing to the demonisation of part of the precariat. They cannot work out how to behave themselves! One could give many examples of the use of behavioural economics and libertarian paternalism to bear on the lives of the precariat, notably through clever use of ‘opt-out’ rules, making it hard to opt out and almost obligatory to ‘opt in’. The new buzz word is ‘conditionality’. There has been a remarkable growth of conditional cash transfer schemes or CCTs. The leading examples have been in Latin America, led by the Progresa scheme (now Oportunidades) in Mexico and Brazil’s Bolsa Familia, which by 2010 was reaching over 50 million people.
However, making a fetish of happiness is not a prescription for civilised society. The precariat must beware of the modern equivalent of a bread-and-circuses existence being offered by the state through pseudo-science and nudging. The therapy state While they set out to make people happy, libertarian paternalism and the utilitarianism underlying it have unleashed a cult of therapy, mirroring what happened in the period of mass insecurity at the end of the nineteenth century 142 THE PRECARIAT (Standing, 2009: 235–8). The hegemonic instrument in today’s equivalent is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), which originated in the United States but which is globalising with indecent commercial speed.
Rationality: What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters by Steven Pinker
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, backpropagation, basic income, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, coronavirus, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, delayed gratification, disinformation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, Erdős number, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, feminist movement, framing effect, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, high batting average, index card, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta-analysis, microaggression, Monty Hall problem, Nash equilibrium, New Journalism, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Peter Singer: altruism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, QAnon, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, scientific worldview, selection bias, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Bannon, Steven Pinker, sunk-cost fallacy, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Tragedy of the Commons, twin studies, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Walter Mischel, yellow journalism, zero-sum game
Before being faced with that temptation, we might allow our employers to make the choice for us (and other choices that benefit us in the long run) by enrolling us in mandatory savings by default: we would have to take steps to opt out of the plan rather than to opt in. This is the basis for the philosophy of governance whimsically called libertarian paternalism by the legal scholar Cass Sunstein and the behavioral economist Richard Thaler in their book Nudge. They argue that it is rational for us to empower governments and businesses to fasten us to the mast, albeit with loose ropes rather than tight ones. Informed by research on human judgment, experts would engineer the “choice architecture” of our environments to make it difficult for us to do tempting harmful things, like consumption, waste, and theft.
Informed by research on human judgment, experts would engineer the “choice architecture” of our environments to make it difficult for us to do tempting harmful things, like consumption, waste, and theft. Our institutions would paternalistically act as if they know what’s best for us, while leaving us the liberty to untie the ropes when we are willing to make the effort (which in fact few people exercise). Libertarian paternalism, together with other “behavioral insights” drawn from cognitive science, has become increasingly popular among policy analysts, because it promises more effective outcomes at little cost and without impinging on democratic principles. It may be the most important practical application of research on cognitive biases and fallacies so far (though the approach has been criticized by other cognitive scientists who argue that humans are more rational than that research suggests).26 Rational Ignorance While Odysseus had himself tied to the mast and rationally relinquished his option to act, his sailors plugged their ears with wax and rationally relinquished their option to know.
New York: Oxford University Press. Gigerenzer, G. 2011. What are natural frequencies? BMJ, 343, d6386. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d6386. Gigerenzer, G. 2014. Breast cancer screening pamphlets mislead women. BMJ, 348, g2636. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g2636. Gigerenzer, G. 2015. On the supposed evidence for libertarian paternalism. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 6, 361–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13164-015-0248-1. Gigerenzer, G. 2018a. The Bias Bias in behavioral economics. Review of Behavioral Economics, 5, 303–36. https://doi.org/10.1561/105.00000092. Gigerenzer, G. 2018b. Statistical rituals: The replication delusion and how we got there.
The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred
airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, new economy, Pareto efficiency, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, Thomas Bayes, trade liberalization, ultimatum game, When a measure becomes a target
For example, in deciding whether to enter a pension scheme, libertarian paternalists argue that we should have to ‘opt out’ rather than ‘opt in’, so that mere inertia does not prevent us from making choices which bring important long-term benefits. Libertarian paternalists often use this example as an ideal illustration of their philosophy in practice, and see it as influencing government policy. But if this is a leading achievement of libertarian paternalism, it is tempting to conclude that it tells us little we did not already know. Libertarian paternalism is good as far as it goes, but that is not very far. By trying to reconcile the irreconcilable — that is, combine libertarianism with paternalism — economists and policy makers end up with a minimalist ethics, which answers few practical questions.
Caplan argues that initially undergraduates should be kept in the dark too, advising fellow academics not to mention the assumptions or limitations behind textbook economics, and to tell their students ‘I’m right, the people outside this classroom are wrong, and you don’t want to be like them, do you?’15 He concludes that ‘democracies fall short because voters get the foolish policies they ask for’.16 But rather than dismissal, seeking a compromise between democracy and science would seem to be a better way forward. Libertarian paternalism is one currently fashionable attempt at this compromise.17 In practice, it means trying to steer a person’s decision making in the right direction, rather than restricting free choices directly or banning some choices altogether. For example, in deciding whether to enter a pension scheme, libertarian paternalists argue that we should have to ‘opt out’ rather than ‘opt in’, so that mere inertia does not prevent us from making choices which bring important long-term benefits.
Land Economics 73: 492-507 Index ability to pay 87 absolute consumption 58-59 accountability 199, 205-206, 230 see also audit culture adaptation 23-24, 25, 237 and increasing happiness 66-67, 98, 140-141 to economic growth 55-57, 61-62 addictive consumption 22-24, 98 advertising brand recognition 16 consumer sovereignty 19-21 increased choice 41 restricting 236-237 affluenza 3, 235-238 altruism see unselfish behaviour animal lives 160 Aristotle 134, 135 audit culture 192-198, 202, 204-205 availability 15-16, 122 babies, markets in 181, 209 Baumol’s cost disease 68-74, 78, 237-238 affordability of personal services 74-77, 191 Baumol, William 68, 75, 76, 77 Bayesianism 164-166, 178, 224-225 Bayes, Thomas 164 Becker, Gary 27, 34 behavioural economics 26, 232-233, 234 belief 13 benefit transfer 157 Bentham, Jeremy 120-121, 130-131, 135 best practice 201, 202 Bewley, Truman 229 biodiversity 160 black box economics 1-2, 4 Blanchard, Oliver 48 Blinder, Alan 232 blood donation 33, 197, 217 body shape and weight 42 brand recognition 16, 21 Breyer, Stephen 156 Broome, John 154 Bush, George W. administration 146, 153, 156 capital investment 168 capital punishment 215-216 Caplan, Bryan 226-227 carbon trading markets 222, 223 cars advertising 20 ownership 42-43, 63 catastrophe, precautionary principle 173 charitable giving 27, 28, 33-34 choice 25-26 costs to consumers 39, 191 economic analysis 12-14, 25-26, 43-44 increasing options 39-43, 182-184, 192 inequalities of 43, 189-190, 209-210 ofjobs 101-102 psychologist analysis 14-19 in public services 184-186, 188-192, 205 rational 11-12, 21, 28, 164-165 see also decision making choice advisers 191 citizen’s income 97 citizens’ juries 214, 215 climate change 2, 21, 146, 147-151, 159, 218 precautionary principle 173 valuing the future 161, 162 commodification 179-181, 206-216 alternatives to CBA 213-216 limits to monetary valuation 216-219 meaning of monetary valuation 207-210 rational decision making 211-213 commuters 56, 57 compensation argument for rates of pay 99-103, 105 competitive consumption 24-25, 57-62, 62-63 congestion 60-61 consumers 11-45 addictive consumption 22-24, 98 choice in public services 182-192 competitive consumption 24-25, 57-62, 62-63 preference satisfaction 37-43 rational choice 11-12 self-interest 26-36 shopping 12-19 sovereignty myth 19-22, 25, 156, 158, 225 consumption future 168 see also consumers context-specific valuation of risk 157-158 contingent valuation surveys 152, 157 contracts 203-204 contribution argument for rates of pay 103-108 coordination problem 63 cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 145-178 alternatives to 173-174, 213-216 best practice 201, 202 climate change 2, 146, 147-151, 159 determining preferences 39 of emotions 30-31 limits to monetary quantification 175-178 valuing the future 161-173 valuing human life 147-148, 151-160, 209 valuing nature 160-161 Coyle, Diane 2 cream-skimming 189-190, 210 cultural differences in perception of happiness 118-120 cultural value 207 Damasio, Antonio 44 decision making 174, 175, 176-177, 211-214 see also cost-benefit analysis (CBA) declining discount rates 169-170 democracy and accountability 199, 206, 230 and CBA 172-173, 176-177, 214 economics as 225, 227-228 valuing life 158-159 see also politics deserving what we earn 99-109 desire 13 Dickens, Charles 138 digital TV 41, 42 diminishing marginal utility 95, 158-159 disappointment 41 discounting 149, 166-173, 176, 178, 226, 234 doctors 2, 70, 91, 106-107 decisions on behalf of patients 186-187 drugs 128 earnings 79-80 differences in 99-109 personal services sector 70-71 see also performance-related pay (PRP); taxation economic growth 47-78, 168, 170 adaptation to 55-57, 61-62 affordability of personal services 74-77 alternative form of 236-238 and consumer sovereignty 21-22 and happiness 48-55, 61-62, 66-68, 141-142 meaning and measurement of 64-66 rivalry 57-62, 62-63 self-help 62-64 and taxation 88, 89 and work 235-236 see also Baumol’s cost disease economic imperialism 180, 222-223, 233 ecosystem services 160-161 education as a positional good 60-61, 190 reflected in pay 100, 105, 106 to enable pursuit of a good life 136, 236 education services 69, 237-238 choices 185-186 goals 202 inequality 189 supply and demand 190 efficiency 4-6, 8, 177 personal services 75, 191 taxation 93, 94, 95-98, 111-112, 237 effort 108 Ellsberg Paradox 164-165 emotions and choosing public services 185 and complex choices 40-41, 42 and monetary incentives 197 and prediction of satisfaction 16 and self-interest 30-31 employment 48, 53, 142, 235-236 Environmental Protection Agency (US) (EPA) 151 ethics 7-9, 224-228, 239 consumers 34-36, 37-38, 44 desert 108 and efficiency 5-6, 112 impartiality across generations 166-167, 171-172 limits to monetary valuation 216-219 monetary value for human life 150, 159-160 personal 138 principled disagreement 201-202 for public policy 133-139, 140-141, 142, 177, 234 view of discount rates 170-171 Experience Machine 127 Experience Sampling Method 123,124 fairness and efficiency 94-98 framing effects 14-15, 16, 18, 197 Frank, Robert 56 Freakonomics 1, 31-32, 34, 233 free trade 5-6 Friedman, Milton 7 future generations, discounting 166-167, 168-169, 171-172 future outcomes discounting 149, 166-173 precautionary principle 173-174 see also probabilities gambling games 164 game theory 222, 233 goals happiness 125, 126, 129-133 monetary incentives 200-201 for public services 199, 201-202 self interest 17, 37 Goodhart’s Law 141, 192, 194, 202, 223-224 governments auditing public services 203-204 consumer sovereignty 30, 38, 186 economic growth 47-48, 49, 68 Greatest Happiness principle 137-138 policy and CBA 150, 154, 157, 160, 172-173, 175, 215-216 policy for maximizing happiness 141-143 rights of ownership 81-82, 84-85 setting priorities 210 trust in 230-231 Greatest Happiness principle 127-133, 136-138 growth paths 65, 66 guilt 27, 28, 30-31 habitat destruction 160 Hahn, Robert 163 happiness 113-143 adaptation to material improvement 55-57 defining 114-116, 120-121, 134 and economic growth 48-55, 61-62, 66-68 maximized through extending choice 183 maximized through pay incentives 109 maximized through taxation 94-98 measurement of 53-54, 116-126, 139-140, 141, 224 philosophy of 126-133 and public ethics 133-139 as public policy 140-143 of service providers 191 happiness economics 50-55, 64, 78, 115, 122 alternative form of economic growth 236-237 and politics 137-138, 141-143 happiness treadmill 23, 24, 55 see also satisfaction treadmill Harrod, Sir Roy 59 Hayeck, Friedrich von 27-28 health insurance (US) 189-190 health services 69, 71-72, 237-238 difficulty in choosing 184-185 inequality in 189-190 productivity improvements 70, 74 see also doctors Heckman, James 188 higher pleasures 130-131, 135-136 Hirsch, Fred 59, 63 holiday entitlements 58, 59 holidays 17 Homo economicus 27, 29-36, 44, 111,178 and behavioural economics 232 determining preferences 39 location in brain 225-226 self-fulfilling assumption 224 service providers 187 and trust 230-231 useful context for 222-223 hours of work 91-92, 105, 108 House of Lords (UK) report on climate change 148, 150 human life discounting 168 monetary value of 21, 147-148, 151-160, 207-208 Quality-Adjusted Life Years 176 Hume, David 129 identity 24-25, 42, 154 ignorance 162 incentive to work 89-92, 104, 109 and tax 109-112 see also audit culture; monetary incentives income adaptation to 23-24 and happiness 52-54 relative 57-58, 59-60, 62 see also earnings; taxation income effect 91, 92 income tax see taxation inconspicuous consumption 59 inefficiency see efficiency inequality acceptability of 79-80 and choice in public services 188-190, 209-210 effect on happiness 54 rates of pay 99-109 information for consumers advertising 19-20 complexity in public services 184-185 inheritance 81, 86, 99 genetic 101, 108 in-kind valuations 213—214 intellectual diversity 229 interest rates 167—168, 169 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 147-148, 158 internet 43 interpersonal utility comparisons 49-50 Israeli day-care centres study 32 Japan, economic growth and happiness 52 Jefferson, Thomas 130 Jevons, William Stanley 49 job centre case workers 188, 202 Kahneman, Daniel 25-26, 124 objective happiness 114, 121, 125, 126 Peak-End evaluations 17, 122, 125 Keynes, John Maynard 6, 177, 235 Kyoto Protocol 146, 148 labour costs see Baumol’s cost disease labour market 5, 72, 142 language 87, 239 and reporting happiness 116-117, 118-119 law-breakers 34-35 Layard, Richard 121, 126, 137 alternative form of economic growth 236-237 Greatest Happiness principle 129-130, 132-133 happiness drugs 128 Le Grand, Julian 184, 186, 187, 188-189, 195-198 libertarianism view of taxation 82, 84, 86 widening choice 183, 205 libertarian paternalism 227-228 life expectancy 54 limited edition products 60 Locke, John 84 lost wallets 27, 28, 30 love 27, 208 luck and responsibility 105-106 marginal tax rates 96-97 market imperfections 218 market prices 33, 107 market rates of pay 99 compensation argument 100-101, 102, 103 contribution argument 103, 104, 106-107 putting a value on human life 147-148, 152-155 mental illness 3, 42, 54 Mill, John Stuart 130-131, 135-136, 183 mobile phone spectrum auctions 222 monetary incentives 30, 31-33, 195-198, 217 public services 200-201 see also performance-related pay (PRP) monetary quantification see commodification; cost benefit analysis (CBA) money corrosive effects of 209 see also monetary incentives mood 121-122, 125 moral convictions 217 motivation intrinsic 33, 195, 197, 200-201 public service staff 186-188, 191-198, 199, 200-201, 206 see also self-interest; status seeking national product 64-65, 70 natural talents 99, 101, 102, 105 nature ownership rights 210 putting a value on 160-161, 208, 213-214 neuroscience 50, 115-116, 117-118, 225-226 news media current perceptions of economics 6-7 doctrine of self-interest 34 silence on Baumol’s cost disease 68-69, 77 Nietzche, Friedrich Wilhelm 119 non-economic impacts 7 non-renewable resources 168 Nozick, Robert 127 Nussbaum, Martha 131 objective happiness 114, 121, 125, 126, 127 objective list theories 134-136 optimal tax theory 95-98 optimization 233 options 13-16 increasing 39-43, 182-184, 192 ownership principle 80-87, 218 pay see earnings; performance-related pay (PRP) Peak-End evaluation 17-18, 122, 125-126 perceived happiness 140 perfect preferences 37-39, 43, 135-136 performance-related pay (PRP) 33, 193-194, 195-198, 200, 237 performative contradiction 231 performative economics 223-224 personal services 69-77, 237-238 Peter the plumber 92-93 pleasure 22-23, 130-131, 134, 135 policy entrepreneurs 1-2 political economics 230-231, 233 political forums 214, 215 politics democracy and CBA 172-173, 177, 215 and happiness economics 137-138, 141-143 poll taxes 93-94 positional goods 59-61, 63, 190, 236, 237 post-tax distribution 85—86, 87, 98 precautionary principle 173—174 preferences 13, 14, 135—136, 225 and advertising 19—20 of future generations 168-169 pure time 166-167, 172 revealed by choices 21, 64 risk 156, 159, 176 satisfaction 37-43 pre-tax economic activity 92-93, 94 pre-tax income 80-84 pricelessness 209, 210 principled disagreement 201-202 priorities audit culture 193, 202 government policy 38, 50, 141,142 private property 80-81 probabilities 150, 154, 155, 161-162, 164-166 productivity 65-66 high earners 96-97 personal services 70-72, 73-74, 75-76 and taxation 88, 89, 90 progressive tax systems 96, 97 psychological well-being (PWB) 134-135 psychology 14-19 see also behavioural economics public opinion 214 public perception of risk 153, 155-156 public service ethos 194, 199-201, 205, 210,219 public services 68, 74-75, 180 affordability 74-77, 237-238 and attitudes to taxation 110-111 audit culture 192-198 complexity and importance 184-185 distinctiveness of 198-206, 216-217 ensuring real choice 188-192 implications of choices for others 185-186 motivation of service providers 186-188, 191-198, 199, 200-201, 206 trust 203-206 widening choice 182-184 see also Baumol’s cost disease pure time preference 166-167, 172 qualitative factors 163 Quality-Adjusted Life Years 174 quality of life 3, 236 measurement of 49-50, 50-55 and public ethics 135-139 quantifying the unquantifiable 162-166 targets 193 Ramsey, Frank 167 rational choice 11-12, 21, 28, 164-165 see also decision making Rawls, John 99, 101, 102 redistribution 86, 88, 92-94 maximization of happiness 95-98 Rees, Bill 232 regret 41, 42 relationships, putting a value on 208 relative consumption 58-59, 61 relative income 57-58, 59-60, 62 research objectives and methods 228-230 responsibility 41, 100, 105 rights 82, 83, 181, 210, 218 rigour in research methods 229 risk monetary value of 21, 151-158, 178, 211 versus uncertainty 161-166 rivalry 24-25, 57-62, 62-63, 237 and increasing happiness 66-67, 98 sacrifice 196 satisfaction treadmill 125, 126, 140 see also happiness treadmill scarcity 59-61, 106-107 science and economics 1, 8, 50, 224, 225,227, 228-230 Greatest Happiness principle 131-133 see also neuroscience self-control 18-19 self-help 62-64 self-interest 12, 13, 17-19, 26-36 and consumer sovereignty 21-22 politicians and economists 230-231 public service providers 187, 188 self-fulfilling assumptions of 31-34, 223 self-reported happiness see surveys, happiness Sen, Amartya 132, 136, 234 Shaw, George Bernard 208, 210 shopping 11, 12 addiction and compulsion 22-26 economist perspective 12-14 psychologist perspective 14-19 smiley-face sampling 124, 130 smiling 119-120 Smith, Adam 6 smoking 18-19, 132, 135 spare capacity in public services 190 standard of living 48 state benefits 85-86 statistical lives 151-152, 154, 207-208 status anxiety 24-25 status seeking 58-61, 62-63, 236 Stern Review 148-149, 150, 166 substitution effect 91, 92, 96 subtractive method 117 supply and demand in public services 189, 190 rates of pay 100, 101, 105, 106 surveys 214 contingent valuation 152, 157 happiness 53-54, 114-115, 116-117, 118-124, 130, 137 public services users 182 sustainability 171 sustainable development 173 Sutton, Willie 34 targets see audit culture taxation 76, 79-98 cigarettes 132 effect on work 88-92 evasion 35 incentive to work 109-112 ownership principle 80-87 redistribution 86, 88, 92-94 to maximize happiness 94-98, 237-238 teachers 70 team working 193, 194 technical innovation 65, 70, 73-74 theory and self-fulfillment 223-224 Titmuss, Richard 33 trade-offs 13 complex choices 40-41 economic growth 63-64 life 160, 211 taxation 94, 95, 97 The Truman Show 127 trust 203-206, 230-231 TWA Flight 800 163 ultimatum game 29, 33-34 uncertainty and the precautionary principle 173 and risk 161-166 unselfish behaviour 27-28, 29 reaction to manipulation 31-32 service providers 187-188 utilitarianism 120-121, 126-133, 135,136,138-139, 183 Uttal, William 117 value judgements see ethics value for money 212 veto economics 2-3, 6, 227 Viscusi, Kip 153 volunteers 195 wage differentials 152-153, 157 Weitzman, Martin 169 work and employment 235-236 hours of 91-92, 105, 108 see also incentive to work worker inputs and outputs 104-105 Table of Contents Contents Acknowledgements Chapter One - Introduction: Ethical Economics?
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
Bentham’s utilitarianism, that bizarre project to quantify every aspect of the human condition, has reappeared in the guise of the quantified-self movement. Even the nineteenth-century debate between Bentham’s utilitarianism and John Stuart Mill’s liberalism over individual rights has reappeared in what Harvard Law School’s Cass Sunstein calls “the politics of libertarian paternalism”—a struggle between “Millville” and “Benthamville” about the role of “nudge” in a world where the government, through partnerships with companies like Acxiom and Palantir, has more and more data on us all25 and Internet companies like Facebook and OkCupid run secretive experiments designed to control our mood.
,” Guardian, March 24, 2014. 18 On the impracticality of this law, see, for example, this rather self-serving piece by Google’s legal czar David Drummond: “We Need to Talk About the Right to Be Forgotten,” Guardian, July 10, 2014. 19 Roger Cohen, “The Past in Our Future,” New York Times, November 27, 2013. 20 Jonathan Freedland, “From Memory to Sexuality, the Digital Age Is Changing Us Completely,” Guardian, June 21, 2013. 21 Mark Lilla, “The Truth About Our Libertarian Age,” New Republic, June 17, 2014. 22 Ibid. 23 Douglas Rushkoff, Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now (New York: Current, 2014), p. 9. 24 Mic Wright, “Is ‘Shadow’ the Creepiest Startup Ever? No, CIA Investment Palantir Owns That Crown,” Telegraph, September 21, 2013. 25 Cass R. Sunstein, Why Nudge: The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 116. 26 Cohen, “Beware the Lure of Mark Zuckerberg’s Cool Capitalism.” 27 europarl.europa.eu/ep_products/poster_invitation.pdf. 28 John Naughton, “Amazon’s History Should Teach Us to Beware ‘Friendly’ Internet Giants,” Guardian, February 22, 2014. 29 Richard Sennett, “Real Progressives Believe in Breaking Up Google,” Financial Times, June 28, 2013. 30 Ibid. 31 Rebecca Solnit, “Who Will Stop Google?
100 Years of Identity Crisis: Culture War Over Socialisation by Frank Furedi
1960s counterculture, 23andMe, Cass Sunstein, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, epigenetics, Gunnar Myrdal, Herbert Marcuse, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, New Urbanism, nudge unit, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen
. → Stoczkowski, W. (2009) ‘UNESCO’s doctrine of human diversity: a secular soteriology?’, Anthropology Today, 25(3), 7 – 11. a, b Strong, S. (1944) ‘A review of a book on the educational theories of George H. Mead’s approach to behaviourism by A.S. Clayton’, American Journal of Sociology, 50, 7 – 11. → Sunstein, C.R. (2014) Why Nudge? The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism, New Haven: Yale University Press. → Sunstein, C.R. and Vermeule, A. (2020) Law and Leviathan: Redeeming the Administrative State, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press. → Sussman, M.B. (1955) Sourcebook in Marriage and the Family, New York: Houghton Mifflin. → Szasz, T. (1989) Law, Liberty and Psychiatry, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press. → Taft, J. (1921) ‘Mental hygiene problems of normal adolescence’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 98(1), 61 – 67. a, b Thaler, L.K. and Koval, R. (2015) Grit to Great: How Perseverance, Passion, and Pluck Take You from Ordinary to Extraordinary, New York: Crown Business. → Thomson, I.T. (1997) ‘From conflict to embedment: the individual–society relationship, 1920 – 1991’, Sociological Forum, 12(4), 631 – 658. a, b, c Thomson, M. (2006) Psychological Subjects: Identity Culture, and Health in Twentieth-Century Britain, Oxford: Oxford University Press. a, b, c, d, e, f Trilling, L. (1957) ‘The sense of the past’, in Trilling, L., The Liberal Imagination: Essays on Literature and Society, New York: Doubleday Anchor Books. → Trilling, L. (1965) Beyond Culture, New York: Viking Press. a, b, c, d Tucker, A. (1777) The Light of Nature Pursued, 1st edition, 1768−1777, vol. 3, pt 1, → London: W.
Walsh (1997) The Growth of the Liberal Soul, Columbia: University of Missouri Press, p.89. 7 I. Mészáros (1989) The Power of Ideology, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, p.180. 8 L.K. Frank (1953), ‘The promotion of mental health’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 286, 167 – 174, at 167−168. 9 See C.R. Sunstein (2014) Why Nudge? The Politics of Libertarian Paternalism, New Haven: Yale University Press. 10 See the discussion on ‘moral science’ in D.J. Hunter and P. Nedelisky (2018) Science and the Good: The Tragic Quest for the Foundations of Morality, New Haven: Yale University Press. 11 See R. Wuthnow (1989), Meaning and Moral Order: Explorations in Cultural Analysis, Berkeley: University of California Press, p.68. 12 For a discussion of the challenges to the authority of science, see Jewett (2020). 1 See https://identityid.com/ (accessed 22 February 2019). 2 See www.idemia.com/we-stand-augmented-identity (accessed 19 February 2019). 3 E.H.
Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking by Richard E. Nisbett
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, endowment effect, experimental subject, feminist movement, fixed income, fundamental attribution error, Garrett Hardin, glass ceiling, Henri Poincaré, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Shai Danziger, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tragedy of the Commons, William of Occam, Zipcar
And behavioral economists are beginning to move into the business of helping people to make choices. They’re not only telling you how to make choices, they’re engineering the world so that you make choices they believe to be optimal. If this sounds Orwellian, it really isn’t. The tongue-in-cheek name that some behavioral economists use to describe their enterprise is “libertarian paternalism.” These economists will tell you how to make choices and arrange the world so that you’ll be likely to make good ones. But they’re not forcing you. You can always choose to ignore the choices they steer you toward making. As you might expect, the entry of psychologists onto the economic scene has brought along some of the basic assumptions discussed in the previous chapters.
Some ways of structuring decisions result in better outcomes for individuals and for society than other ways of structuring decisions. No one is hurt by opt-out procedures for things like organ donation; no coercion is involved because people who wish not to have their organs harvested are free to decline. The deliberate design of decision frameworks that function for individual and collective good has been called “libertarian paternalism” by Thaler and Sunstein.8 The difference between choice architectures that foster the right choices and those that don’t can be subtle—at least to people who are unfamiliar with the power of loss aversion and consequent status quo bias. In a “defined contribution” retirement plan, an employer pays a fixed amount of money into a savings plan equal to some fraction of what the employee puts into the plan.
Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman
Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, cognitive bias, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demand response, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, framing effect, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, index card, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, medical residency, mental accounting, meta-analysis, nudge unit, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, pre–internet, price anchoring, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Shai Danziger, sunk-cost fallacy, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, union organizing, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War
In 2008 the economist Richard Thaler and the jurist Cass Sunstein teamed up to write a book, Nudge, which quickly became an international bestseller and the bible of behavioral economics. Their book introduced several new words into the language, including Econs and Humans. It also presented a set of solutions to the dilemma of how to help people make good decisions without curtailing their freedom. Thaler and Sunstein advocate a position of libertarian paternalism, in which the state and other institutions are allowed to nudge people to make decisions that serve their own long-term interests. The designation of joining a pension plan as the default option is an example of a nudge. It is difficult to argue that anyone’s freedom is diminished by being automatically enrolled in the plan, when they merely have to check a box to opt out.
It is a good sign that some of these recommendations have encountered significant opposition from firms whose profits might suffer if their customers were better informed. A world in which firms compete by offering better products is preferable to one in which the winner is the firm that is best at obfuscation. A remarkable feature of libertarian paternalism is its appeal across a broad political spectrum. The flagship example of behavioral policy, called Save More Tomorrow, was sponsored in Congress by an unusual coalition that included extreme conservatives as well as liberals. Save More Tomorrow is a financial plan that firms can offer their employees.
It avoids the resistance to an immediate loss by requiring no immediate change; by tying increased saving to pay raises, it turns losses into foregone gains, which are much easier to bear; and the feature of automaticity aligns the laziness of System 2 with the long-term interests of the workers. All this, of course, without compelling anyone to do anything he does not wish to do and without any misdirection or artifice. The appeal of libertarian paternalism has been recognized in many countries, including the UK and South Korea, and by politicians of many stripes, including Tories and the Democratic administration of President Obama. Indeed, Britain’s government has created a new small unit whose mission is to apply the principles of behavioral science to help the government better accomplish its goals.
The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game
Corporate employees want to save for retirement but, when young, underestimate how much they will need. So why not require that the default option for workers be a “Save More Tomorrow” plan, which would cause their deductions to escalate automatically as the years passed? The authors called such measures “choice architecture” or “libertarian paternalism.” No one would be ordering anybody around. Authorities would just firmly steer subjects to a choice that was obviously superior. You didn’t have to contribute to your retirement, the way you did with Social Security. Rather than fine or jail you for not conforming, the government would resort to other, more intimate tools, starting with inconvenience.
As long as no one questioned the claim of activists to be fighting bias, the burden of proof on society’s “choice architects” was virtually zilch. For the improvements in government efficiency that Thaler and Sunstein sought, no cost in damaged traditions and institutions was too high: We agree that long-standing traditions may be quite sensible, but we do not believe that traditionalists have a good objection to libertarian paternalism. Social practices, and the laws that reflect them, often persist not because they are wise but because Humans, often suffering from self-control problems, are simply following other Humans. Inertia, procrastination, and imitation often drive our behavior. The authors were ready to enforce conformity to their own new institutions but deaf to others’ claims for conformity to older ones.
Think Twice: Harnessing the Power of Counterintuition by Michael J. Mauboussin
affirmative action, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, butter production in bangladesh, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Edward Thorp, experimental economics, financial innovation, framing effect, fundamental attribution error, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, hiring and firing, information asymmetry, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, money market fund, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, Performance of Mutual Funds in the Period, Philip Mirowski, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, presumed consent, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game
Science 302 (November 21, 2003), 1338–1339. People who structure choices create a context for decision making. Since many people go with the default alternatives, choice architects can influence the quality of decisions for large groups, for better or for worse. Thaler and Sunstein advocate for an idea they call “libertarian paternalism,” where the default is a good choice for many (paternalism), yet individuals can depart from the default if they want to (libertarianism). Choice architects—doctors, businesspeople, government officials—are everywhere and operate with a wide range of skill and awareness. A prominent psychologist who is popular on the speaker circuit told me a story that underscores how underappreciated choice architecture remains.
Exercised: The Science of Physical Activity, Rest and Health by Daniel Lieberman
A. Roger Ekirch, active measures, caloric restriction, caloric restriction, clean water, clockwatching, Coronary heart disease and physical activity of work, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, Donald Trump, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, George Santayana, hygiene hypothesis, impulse control, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Steven Pinker, twin studies, two and twenty, working poor
Exercise, moreover, is part of a general fitness culture at Björn Borg. Instead of a boozy Christmas party, the entire company goes sledding and then drinks hot chocolate. Every summer they do a six-mile “fun run” through the streets of Stockholm. To be honest, I had qualms about Henrik’s approach. Philosophically, I classify myself as an admirer of “libertarian paternalism,” the idea that companies, governments, and other institutions should help us act in our own best self-interests while respecting our freedom of choice.4 Libertarian paternalists favor nudges over coercion. Instead of forcing people to exercise, libertarian paternalists provide incentives.
See San hunter-gatherers Kalenjin ethnic group, xii Kaplan, Hillard, 311 Kelley, Johnny, 224 Kenya: chair habits and strength of backs of teenagers in, 54 distance runners from, 11 Eldoret, research in, xi, xii, 218–19, 337–8 excavation project in Olorgesailie, 97–8 modernization and changes to life in, 337–8 Nataruk massacre, 147, 374n14 Pemja, research in, xi–xii, 183–4, 184, 185, 337–8 research on physical activities in, xiv running form of runners from, 218–19 Keys, Ancel, 33–7 killer-ape hypothesis, 149–50 kilocalories, 30, 346n5–6 King, William, 130 King Kong, 128 Kipchoge, Eliud, 218 knuckle walking, 180–2, 381n14 kudu, xiv, 172, 183, 203, 210–11, 224, 388–9n37 lactate, 108, 109, 110 Lahr, Marta, 147 LaLanne, Jack, 122, 280, 293 lazy/laziness: born to be lazy, 41–6 concept and definition of, 46 defense of and praise for, 46–8 not exercising enough as lazy, xv sloth compared to, 46 Le Corre, Erwan, 122–3 Lee, I-Min, 401n3 Lee, Richard B., 17–18, 154–5 libertarian paternalism, 259–60 Liebenberg, Louis, 211, 212, 224 longevity and mTOR, 338–9 Lovejoy, Owen, 150 Lucy, 150 Lumholtz, Carl, 223 Maasai, 97, 124–5, 126 MacDonald, Chris, 50 Man Against Horse race, 200–1, 203 mandatory exercise, 257–60, 258, 271–3 Mansfield Park (Austen), 38–9 marathons and ultramarathons: Boston Marathon, 224, 265–6 calories consumed by running, 182, 382n20 costs associated with, xiii midlife crisis and training for, 213 motivation for running, xiii, 266 New York City Marathon, 224 number of finishers, 205, 386n10 physical and mental demands of, 13–14 sitting patterns of runners, 65 speed of runners, 116–17, 386n7 training for, 7 weather conditions and dressing for, 265–6 marriage and too much or too little exercise, 291 Marshall, Elizabeth, 221 Marshall, John, 221, 294 Marshall, Laurence, 221 Marshall, Lorna, 221 Marx, Groucho, 177, 181 Massachusetts physical education law, 275–6 mattresses, 74 McDade, Thom, 353n43 McDougall, Christopher, 6, 343–4n1 McGillivray, Dave, 311 McLaurin, John, 376–7n42 meat, scavenging for, 210–11 Medawar, Peter, 229, 237 medical care advances treatment of diseases, 249, 250 medicalized exercise, xiii, xv, 24, 228, 280, 291–2, 298–301 Meijer, Johanna, 20–1 menopause, 229, 234, 323 mental health: evolutionary mismatch of, 331–3 exercise recommendation, 335–6 medication to treat, 334, 416n130 mood-altering effects of exercise, 222, 223–4, 267–9, 399n22 physical activity effects on, 21–2, 23, 331, 333–5, 415–16nn129–130 resistance training benefits for, 138 See also anxiety; depression metabolic equivalents (METs) and activity levels, 351n27, 401n8 metabolic syndrome, 305–8, 405n15 metabolism: aerobic exercise benefits for, 293 aerobic metabolism, 107, 108–10, 109, 365n22, 365n25, 366n35 afterburn, 192, 239–41, 240, 384n48 basal metabolic rate (BMR), 31, 32–3, 35–7, 347nn10–11, 347n16, 384nn46–47 HIIT effect on, 295 resistance training benefits, 297 resting metabolic rate (RMR), 30–1, 32, 34–7, 191–2, 239, 240 starvation effects on human metabolism, 33–7, 347n14, 347n16 walking and weight loss, 191–3, 384nn46–48 metabolites, 78–9 Mexico, 84.
Eat People: And Other Unapologetic Rules for Game-Changing Entrepreneurs by Andy Kessler
23andMe, Andy Kessler, bank run, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, British Empire, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Money creation, Netflix Prize, packet switching, personalized medicine, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, wealth creators, Yogi Berra
Who has any idea how to confront situations unless there is some anchor of honesty or morality or self-interest or just kindness that influences what we do? Entire wings of psychology departments exist to study this stuff. And now so do businesses and society. Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein wrote Nudge, a book about how governments can act with “libertarian paternalism” to influence people’s behavior, to nudge them away from making poor decisions. Of course, who decides what is right or wrong, good or bad? Andrew Ferguson wrote an April 2010 piece in The Weekly Standard aptly titled “Nudge Nudge, Wink Wink,” pointing out that many of the favorite behavioral economics studies are done by grad students observing paid volunteer undergraduates doing trivial tasks, and arguing that this is hardly a basis for making largescale policy recommendations for a better society.
The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game
The default setting of automatic enrollment, Thaler and Sunstein explain, helped employees overcome the “inertia” caused by business, distraction, and forgetfulness.9 That choice architecture could have such an important effect on so many human behaviors without overt coercion or even elaborate incentives convinced Thaler and Sunstein that taking advantage of it can accomplish many important public-policy goals without signiﬁcant cost to either the state or private ﬁrms. They call this approach “libertarian paternalism.” If a system is designed to privilege a particular choice, they observe, people will tend to choose that option more than the alternatives, even though they have an entirely free choice. “There is no such thing as a ‘neutral’ design.”10 It’s clear that Google understands the power of choice architecture.
How to Run a Government: So That Citizens Benefit and Taxpayers Don't Go Crazy by Michael Barber
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, deliberate practice, facts on the ground, failed state, fear of failure, full employment, G4S, illegal immigration, invisible hand, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Nate Silver, North Sea oil, obamacare, performance metric, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, school choice, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs, WikiLeaks
In fact, it is entirely consistent with both, as David Halpern, Britain’s leading nudge ‘guru’, affirms. It is best seen as a major contribution to thinking about how quasi-markets can work successfully in public systems. To summarize a somewhat academic or theoretical argument, the authors of Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness argue for what they call ‘libertarian paternalism’: ‘libertarian’ because they advocate choice in the public as well as private sectors; ‘paternalism’ because they believe that real human beings as opposed to ‘econs’ – the theoretical human beings beloved of economists – don’t necessarily maximize either their own interests or those of their society.
The Confidence Game: The Psychology of the Con and Why We Fall for It Every Time by Maria Konnikova
attribution theory, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Bluma Zeigarnik, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, epigenetics, hindsight bias, lake wobegon effect, lateral thinking, libertarian paternalism, Milgram experiment, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, side project, Skype, Steven Pinker, sunk-cost fallacy, the scientific method, tulip mania, Walter Mischel
Just as a grifter never coerces in any observable way, a nudge never actually forces one behavior or forbids another—a smoking ban is not a nudge but a policy regulation—but rather changes the nature of the choice itself. That is, you influence a decision by changing how, precisely, that decision is presented. Thaler and Sunstein explain their reasoning in terms of a seeming oxymoron: libertarian paternalism. The environment affects our choices no matter what, the argument goes, so why not make sure it’s doing so for the better? Or, in the case of the con artist, for the worse? The order effect is the tip of a very large iceberg that includes things like position effects—where something is located physically.
Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K
No such single study is a problem in itself – the problem is that such studies are increasingly prioritized (because they’re easier and cheaper to run) over studies of slower-changing, internal traits and are becoming disproportionately influential in policy. 16.For the canonical exposition of behavioral economics’ “nudges,” see Thaler and Sunstein (2008), who popularized the term. Their notion of “libertarian paternalism” is among the gentlest conceptions of manipulation, and most of their ideas are undoubtedly worth implementing. But is that all we’re going to ask of ourselves? Can’t we go beyond nudging one another? 17.Psychologists’ notions of personality development differ from the “personality development” that I have encountered in some social change efforts, especially outside of the United States.
Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan
"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game
As a practical matter, those mistakes often do spill over to affect the rest of us, as we saw in the real estate collapse and the accompanying mortgage mess. And there is a range of views in between (e.g., you’re allowed to sniff glue and roll down the steps but only while wearing a helmet). One intriguing and practical middle ground is the notion of “libertarian paternalism,” which was advanced in an influential book called Nudge by Richard Thaler, a professor of behavioral science and economics at the University of Chicago, and Cass Sunstein, a Harvard Law School professor now serving in the Obama administration. The idea behind benign paternalism is that individuals do make systematic errors of judgment, but society should not force you to change your behavior (that’s the libertarian part); instead, we should merely point you in the right direction (that’s the paternalism part).
Live and Let Spy: BRIXMIS - the Last Cold War Mission by Steve Gibson
Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, disinformation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, John Nash: game theory, libertarian paternalism, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, unbiased observer, WikiLeaks
They want individuals to come to the correct decisions by themselves; provided, those decisions coincide with what the Government predetermines! Far from fulfilling the rhetoric of getting out of people’s lives, government continues to make itself more indispensable. Similar to the false contrast between hard and soft power, libertarian paternalism (nudging), like authoritarianism, is still telling you what to do – with or without force. Thus, the singularly most important ideological goal of all twentieth-century political elites – freedom – has become reinterpreted as ‘public choice’, ‘marketisation’ or ‘nudge politics’. This interference with individual moral autonomy – the ability to make your own choices, including bad ones – was based upon the dark and dismal Cold War notion of self-interested people responding only to targets and incentives.
The Myth of the Rational Market: A History of Risk, Reward, and Delusion on Wall Street by Justin Fox
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, card file, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, compensation consultant, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of the americas, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, endowment effect, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, impulse control, index arbitrage, index card, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, linear programming, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market design, Myron Scholes, New Journalism, Nikolai Kondratiev, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pushing on a string, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, selling pickaxes during a gold rush, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, stocks for the long run, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, tulip mania, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, volatility smile, Yogi Berra
“We’ve accepted the argument of behavioralists like Dick Thaler that people do dumb things,” said William Niskanen, a former Chicago student of Milton Friedman and chairman of the Cato Institute, the libertarian Washington think tank.14 Thaler joined forces with Chicago law professor Cass Sunstein to apply his ideas beyond retirement savings. They dubbed their guided approach to choice “libertarian paternalism,” and showed how it could improve lending regulation, Medicare prescription plans, public schools, and marriage.15 Just as the law and economics movement that emerged from Chicago gave intellectual backing to the great deregulation of the 1970s through the 1990s, Sunstein became a leading proponent of a new behavioral law and economics movement that aimed to guide a rethink of law and regulation.16 Sunstein’s friend Barack Obama, a former part-time Chicago law professor, put together a presidential campaign platform replete with behaviorist ideas—and appointed Sunstein as his regulation czar after he was elected.
The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, Garrett Hardin, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Herbert Marcuse, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, sunk-cost fallacy, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tragedy of the Commons, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
Much of what looks like a lack of self-control in the modern world may consist of using a discounting rate that was wired into our nervous systems in the iffy world of our pre-state ancestors, when people died much younger and had no institutions that could parlay savings now into returns years later.76 Economists have noted that when people are left to their own devices, they save far too little for their retirement, as if they expect to die in a few years.77 That is the basis for the “libertarian paternalism” of Richard Thaler, Cass Sunstein, and other behavioral economists, in which the government would, with people’s consent, tilt the playing field between their current and future selves.78 One example is setting an optimal retirement savings plan as the default, which employees would have to opt out of, rather than as a selection they would have to opt into.
Lebanon war as a lapse of self-control: Mueller & Lustick, 2008. 75. The logic of self-control: Ainslie, 2001; Daly & Wilson, 2000; Kirby & Herrnstein, 1995; Schelling, 1978, 1984, 2006. 76. Ancestral versus modern discounting rates: Daly & Wilson, 1983, 2000, 2005; Wilson & Daly, 1997. 77. Myopic retirement planning: Akerlof, 1984; Frank, 1988. 78. Libertarian paternalism: Thaler & Sunstein, 2008. 79. Myopic discounting: Ainslie, 2001; Kirby & Herrnstein, 1995. 80. Hyperbolic discounting: Ainslie, 2001; Kirby & Herrnstein, 1995. 81. Hyperbolic discounting as composite of two mechanisms: Pinker, 1997, p. 396; Laibson, 1997. 82. Two selves: Schelling, 1984, p. 58. 83.
Termites of the State: Why Complexity Leads to Inequality by Vito Tanzi
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Andrew Keen, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, experimental economics, financial repression, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, means of production, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, urban planning, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce
See Statutes urbanization and, 254 weakness of, 70 Legitimization of market, 85–86 Lenin, V.I., 322 Leontief, Wassily, 3, 46–47 Leo XIII (Pope), 20 Lex mercatoria, 99–100, 328 Liberals on growth and income redistribution, 227 regulations and, 160 Libertarians challenges to welfare policies, 60–61 on government intervention, 317–18 “libertarian paternalism,” 141–42 on limited role of government, 99–100, 259 regulations, opposition to, 153–54, 278 on safety-related regulations, 147 Life expectancy, 390–91 Limited role of government generally, 85 Buchanan on, 85, 313–14 conservatives on, 99–100, 259 criminal law and, 95–96 Friedman on, 85, 313–14 Hayek on, 85, 259, 313–14 health care and, 98 income redistribution and, 98, 160–61 infrastructure and, 96 libertarians on, 99–100, 259 market fundamentalism and, 80, 159 ministrant functions, 98–99 nudges and, 97 protection of property and, 94–96 public spending and, 96 Smith on, 99 social contract and, 89–91 social needs and, 96–97 in UK, 98 urbanization, effect of, 97 in US, 98 438 Lincoln, Abraham, 328, 340 Lobbyists defense spending and, 178–79 former government employees as, 113, 173 genetically modified food and, 182–83 power of, 336–38 problems with, 339 regulations and, 171, 173, 280 restrictions on, 119 Locke, John, 7–8 Lopokova, Lydia, 27–28 Louis XIV (France), 291 Lucas, Robert, 38, 85, 160–61, 313–14, 378–79, 394 “Luck,” income inequality and, 321–23 Luxemburg, marginal tax rates in, 376 Maastricht Stability and Growth Pact, 273 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 183 Madison, James, 202, 249–50 Mafia, 97–98 Maginot Line, 338 Mandated disclosures, 127–28 Mao Zedong, 322 Marat, Jean-Paul, 160 Marginal tax rates.
Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann
Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, critique of consumerism, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, Herbert Marcuse, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, Pier Paolo Pasolini, post-industrial society, Post-Keynesian economics, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
Today, the discussion of change is mainly framed in terms of choice, markets and the sovereign consumer. Behavioural economists have added the concept of ‘choice architecture’ to show that consumers do not make decisions in a vacuum but are influenced by available information as well as their own inertia, procrastination or unfounded optimism.20 Their analysis has encouraged a libertarian paternalism, a mix of measures that gently nudges people towards more sustainable behaviour by improving the ‘architecture’ with the help of more salient information, default rules and opinion from valued groups, while preserving freedom of choice overall. This is a step in the right direction but, from a historical perspective, does not go far enough.