John Markoff

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The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick by Jonathan Littman

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, centre right, computer age, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, telemarketer

"Tsutomu, some people outside the computer world look at hackers as the last rugged individualists," she begins what sounds like a prepared question. "There are people who like Kevin Mitnick." "He did nothing imaginative," Shimomura snaps, clearly irritated at the question. "Nothing interesting, nothing new that I can see." Shimomura tosses out John Markoff's name while answering a question, and John Johnson, a reporter for the Los Angeles Times, quickly picks up on it. "What was John Markoff's role?" asks the reporter. "John wrote the book on Kevin," Shimomura informs the crowd of journalists and network TV scouts. "The third member of our team was John Markoff," volunteers Julia Menapace, the woman who accompanied Shimomura into the courtroom. She's casually dressed in jeans, taller than Shimomura, with long brown hair. She doesn't work for the feds or the San Diego Supercomputer Center. She's Shimomura's girlfriend.

Mitnick shackled in Raleigh, North Carolina. Kevin Poulsen, aka Dark Dante Henry Spiegel Ron Austin with his father Erica Videotape image of Justin Petersen, aka Eric Heinz or Agent Steal, working undercover for the FBI at a 1992 hacker conference. Shimomura in North Carolina Shimomura's equipment Shimomura in the Media Tsutomu Shimomura, John Markoff of the New York Times, former San Francisco Assistant U.S. Attorney Kent Walker, and Joe Orsak and Jim Murphy of Sprint Cellular. Kent Walker John Markoff Joe Orsak Jim Murphy Kevin Pazaski Todd Young Todd Young, a cellular fraud gumshoe, and Kevin Pazaski of CellularOne in Seattle, found Kevin Mitnick in a few hours and kept his basement apartment under surveillance for two weeks. Federal authorities rejected the cellular fraud case as insignificant. Young's Cellscope Mitnick's apartment in Seattle I figure I might as well ask my subject for some ideas on where to start researching.

He's complaining again about Newsweek putting his name "way in lights" when he says he hasn't done anything new. "Maybe they think I did Shimomura, you know. They're bringing up cellular involved in it. Who knows? "I know you can find out the inference here by calling your friend John Markoff because Markoff is friends with Shimomura. Why don't you just dial Markoff up and say, 'Hey, Markoff, what's the scoop?' " A couple of minutes later, as if on cue, my call waiting beeps again. "Could you hold on just one second? My beeper's going off again," I kid him. "Looks like they got half of the trace done," Mitnick jokes. It's John Markoff again. I apologize, and ask once again if I can call him back. He tells me not to worry about it, jokes we'll probably play telephone tag a couple more times, and asks me to call him back when I've got a chance. "It didn't work," I say, returning to Mitnick.


pages: 611 words: 188,732

Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator

Andy Hertzfeld: It’s walking distance. A long walk. John Markoff: What I remember in walking up with Steven Levy was that the security was so intense that it felt like a presidential event. It wasn’t just private security. It was governmental security: the Secret Service. We were certain that Obama was coming, but he didn’t. Rahm Emanuel came, but no Obama. Jon Rubinstein: Clinton was there—lots of billionaires, lots of famous people. John Markoff: Joan Baez and George Lucas and Larry Ellison and Bill Gates and John Warnock, and, and, and… John Couch: Everyone was there! There were competitors there. People that Steve had butted heads with. They were there. Dan Kottke: I was not invited. Alvy Ray Smith: I wasn’t invited. Steve Wozniak: I did not go. John Markoff: The crowd was really kind of stunning.

It was like, We’re all part of this thing. This is a drag. This sucks. John Couch: There was this incredible, quiet respect and a sense of mortality for all of us. Mike Slade: So anyway, we get escorted into the church: five hundred, seven hundred people? John Markoff: They don’t fill Memorial Chapel completely. Jon Rubinstein: It was a beautiful service. Clearly it had been stage-managed by Steve from beyond the grave. John Markoff: Yo-Yo Ma played first and wonderfully. Andy Hertzfeld: It was really deep, just heartbreakingly beautiful, one of the most emotional pieces of music I’ve ever heard. John Markoff: Afterward he briefly introduced the event and told a short, funny story about how Steve had wanted him to play at his funeral and how he had asked Steve to speak at his. As usual, he noted, “Steve had gotten his way.” Mike Slade: So then Laurene spoke and had written this beautiful speech about Steve that was surprisingly analytical.

And while some may see them as the crazy ones, we see genius. Because the people who are crazy enough to think they can change the world, are the ones who do.” John Markoff: I cried. Wayne Goodrich: The wave of emotion in the church was such that it was a conscious effort to even keep my perception about me, instead of just breaking down in a pool of my own tears. John Markoff: Mona Simpson spoke and told of how she met her brother and about their relationship. It was much closer than I realized. She, too, talked about Steve’s search for beauty. Mona Simpson: I remember when he phoned the day he met Laurene: “There’s this beautiful woman and she’s really smart and she has this dog and I’m going to marry her.” John Markoff: Joan Baez stood, and her guitar was brought out and she sang “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot.” Mike Slade: She sat down with the guitar and played it.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

Hagerty, “A Roboticist’s Trip from Mines to the Moon,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2011, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304569504576405671616928518. 4.John Markoff, “The Creature That Lives in Pittsburgh,” New York Times, April 21, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/04/21/business/the-creature-that-lives-in-pittsburgh.html. 5.John Markoff, “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html?pagewanted=all. 6.“Electronic Stability Control Systems for Heavy Vehicles,” National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2012, http://www.nhtsa.gov/Laws+&+Regulations/Electronic+Stability+Control+(ESC). 7.John Markoff, “Police, Pedestrians and the Social Ballet of Merging: The Real Challenges for Self-Driving Cars,” New York Times, May 29, 2014, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/29/police-bicyclists-and-pedestrians-the-real-challenges-for-self-driving-cars/?

PREFACE 1.This distinction was famously made by Richard Stallman, an iconoclastic software developer who pioneered the concept of freely shared software. 1|BETWEEN HUMAN AND MACHINE 1.John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005), 282. 2.Moshe Y. Vardi, “The Consequences of Machine Intelligence,” Atlantic, October 25, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/10/the-consequences-of-machine-intelligence/264066. 3.Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, “Dancing with Robots: Human Skills for Computerized Work,” http://content.thirdway.org/publications/714/Dancing-With-Robots.pdf. 4.J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (March 1960): 4–11, http://groups.csail.mit.edu/medg/people/psz/Licklider.html. 5.John Markoff, “Can Machines Think? Humans Match Wits,” New York Times, November 9, 1991, http://www.nytimes.com/1991/11/09/us/can-machines-think-humans-match-wits.html. 6.Jonathan Grudin, “AI and HCI: Two Fields Divided by a Common Focus,” AI Magazine, Winter 2009, http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?

Brock, “How William Shockley’s Robot Dream Helped Launch Silicon Valley,” IEEE Spectrum, November 29, 2013, http://spectrum.ieee.org/at-work/innovation/how-william-shockleys-robot-dream-helped-launch-silicon-valley. 2.David C. Brock, “From Automation to Silicon Valley: The Automation Movement of the 1950s, Arnold Beckman, and William Shockley,” History and Technology 28, no. 4 (2012), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07341512.2012.756236#.VQTPKCbHi_A. 3.Ibid. 4.John Markoff, “Robotic Vehicles Race, but Innovation Wins,” New York Times, September 14, 2005. 5.John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005). 6.Pamela McCorduck, Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence, 2nd ed. (Natick, MA: A K Peters/CRC Press, 2004), 268. 7.Ibid., 273. 8.Brad Darrach, “Meet Shaky [sic], the First Electronic Person: The Fascinating and Fearsome Reality of a Machine with a Mind of Its Own,” Life, November 1970. 9.Charles A.


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

The environmental and social costs of the era’s tech boom are explored in Lenny Siegel and John Markoff, The High Cost of High Tech (1985). On the culture wars on campus and beyond, see Andrew Hartman, A War for the Soul of America (2015). On broader cultural and political polarization, see Daniel T. Rodgers, Age of Fracture (2012). The literature on artificial intelligence and “machines that think” is rich and engaging. Norbert Wiener’s Cybernetics (1948) and its popularizing contemporary, Edmund Callis Berkeley’s Giant Brains, or, Machines That Think (1949), remain fascinating and revealing reads. Secondary works that helped inform this part of the story include Daniel Crevier, AI (1993); John Markoff, Machines of Loving Grace (2015); and Thomas Rid, Rise of the Machines (2016). The impact of automation and robotics on work is a deservedly hot topic.

Brad Darrach, “Meet Shaky, the First Electronic Person—The Fearsome Reality of a Machine with a Mind of Its Own,” Life Magazine, November 20, 1970, 58B–68; John Markoff, Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots (New York: HarperCollins, 2015), 7–8, 95–131. ACT TWO 1. Floyd Kvamme, interview with the author, February 16, 2016, Stanford, Calif. ARRIVALS 1. Ed Zschau, interview with the author, January 19, 2016, Stanford, Calif.; John Balzar, “A Portrait of Serendipity: Ed Zschau: An Unknown Grabs for the Brass Ring,” The Los Angeles Times, September 7, 1986, 1. 2. Regis McKenna, interview with the author, May 31, 2016, Menlo Park, Calif.; “CHM Revolutionaries: Regis McKenna in Conversation with John Markoff,” video, The Computer History Museum, February 6, 2014; Jaime González-Arintero, “Digital? Every Idiot Can Count to One,” Elektor, May 27, 2015; Harry McCracken, “Regis McKenna’s 1976 Notebook and the Invention of Apple Computer, Inc.,” Fast Company, April 1, 2016, https://www.fastcompany.com/3058227/regis-mckennas-1976-notebook-and-the-invention-of-apple-computer-inc, archived at https://perma.cc/P4JC-NWU8.

Domestic Policy Council, Carol Rasco, and Meetings, Trips, Events Series, “NII Advisory Meeting February 13, 1996,” Clinton Digital Library, accessed August 3, 2017, https://clinton.presidentiallibraries.us/items/show/20743. 42. Heilemann, “The Making of the President 2000.” CHAPTER 20: SUITS IN THE VALLEY 1. John Doerr, “The Coach,” interview by John Brockman, 1996, Edge.org, https://www.edge.org/digerati/doerr/, archived at https://perma.cc/9KWX-GLWK. 2. John Markoff, interview with Kara Swisher, Recode: Decode podcast, February 17, 2017, https://www.recode.net/2017/2/17/14652832/full-transcript-tech-reporter-john-markoff-silicon-valley-recode-decode-podcast, archived at https://perma.cc/XE3U-FCPC. 3. Michael Schrage, “Nation’s High-Tech Engine Fueled by Venture Capital,” The Washington Post, May 20, 1984, G1; Udayan Gupta, Done Deals: Venture Capitalists Tell Their Stories (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press, 2000), 374–5; Regis McKenna, interview with the author, May 31, 2016. 4.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

newsId=40920394–9e62–415d-b038–15fe2e72a677&pageTitle=Recent%20Headlines&crumbTitle=Man%20and%20%20machine:%20Better%20writers,%20better%20grades. 3. Ry Rivard, “Humans Fight over Robo-Readers,” Inside Higher Ed, March 15, 2013, http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2013/03/15/professors-odds-machine-graded-essays. 4. John Markoff, “Essay-Grading Software Offers Professors a Break,” New York Times, April 4, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/science/new-test-for-computers-grading-essays-at-college-level.html. 5. John Markoff, “Virtual and Artificial, but 58,000 Want Course,” New York Times, August 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/science/16stanford.html?_r=0. 6. The story of the Stanford AI course is drawn from Max Chafkin, “Udacity’s Sebastian Thrun, Godfather of Free Online Education, Changes Course,” Fast Company, December 2013/January 2014, http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb; Jeffrey J.

A true programmable computer, it was financed by the US Army and intended primarily for calculating firing tables used to aim artillery. ** Due to a miscommunication, Wiener’s article was never published in 1949. A draft copy was discovered by a researcher working with documents in the MIT library archives in 2012, and substantial excerpts were finally published in a May 2013 article by New York Times science reporter John Markoff. * Labor productivity measures the value of the output (either goods or services) produced by workers per hour. It is a critically important gauge of the general efficiency of an economy; to a significant extent it determines the wealth of a nation. Advanced, industrialized countries have high productivity because their workers have access to more and better technology, enjoy better nutrition as well as safer and more healthful environments, and are generally better educated and trained.

The Rise—and Stumble—of the MOOC Free Internet-based courses like those offered by edX are part of the trend toward massive open online courses—or MOOCs—that exploded into the public consciousness in the late summer of 2011, when two computer scientists at Stanford University, Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig, announced that their introductory artificial intelligence class would be available to anyone at no cost over the Internet. Both of the course’s instructors were celebrities in their field with strong ties to Google; Thrun had led the effort to develop the company’s self-driving cars, while Norvig was the director of research and co-author of the leading AI textbook. Within days of the announcement, more than 10,000 people had signed up. When John Markoff of the New York Times wrote a front-page article5 about the course that August, enrollment rocketed to more than 160,000 people from over 190 countries. The number of online students from Lithuania alone exceeded the entire undergraduate and graduate student enrollment at Stanford. Students as young as ten and as old as seventy signed up to learn the basics of AI directly from two of the field’s preeminent researchers—an extraordinary opportunity previously available only to about 200 Stanford students.6 The ten-week course was divided into short segments lasting just a few minutes and modeled roughly on the enormously successful videos for middle and high school students created by the Khan Academy.


pages: 275 words: 84,418

Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution by Fred Vogelstein

Apple II, Ben Horowitz, cloud computing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Dynabook, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Googley, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, zero-sum game

Gundotra’s 2007 start date: Brad Stone, “Larry Page’s Google 3.0,” Bloomberg Businessweek, 1/26/2011; and my own reporting. But Gundotra thrived: Levy, In the Plex, 219. For example, the trio: Ibid., 218. The secrecy, leaks, and backbiting: John Markoff, “I, Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone,” New York Times, 11/4/2007. It wasn’t just dull: Ryan Block, “Live coverage of Google’s Android Gphone mobile OS announcement,” Engadget.com, 11/5/2007; Danny Sullivan, “Gphone? The Google Phone Timeline,” SearchEngineLand.com, 4/18/2007; Miguel Helft and John Markoff, “Google Enters the Wireless World,” New York Times, 11/5/2007. Google got more attention: See the first Android introduction and demo by Sergey Brin and Steve Horowitz at www.youtube.com/watch?v=egxNkU5__hU. Certainly, Google’s other initiatives: Ken Auletta, Googled: The End of the World as We Know It (New York: Penguin Press, 2009), e-book location 2842.

People describe his home as something akin to Tony Stark’s basement laboratory in Iron Man—a space jammed with robotic arms, the latest computers and electronics, and prototypes of various projects. Like many electronics whizzes in Silicon Valley, he had Tony Stark’s respect for authority too. At Apple in the late 1980s he got in trouble for reprogramming the corporate phone system to make it seem as if CEO John Sculley were leaving his colleagues messages about stock grants, according to John Markoff’s 2007 profile in The New York Times. At General Magic, an Apple spin-off that wrote some of the first software for handheld computers, he and some colleagues built lofts above their cubicles so they could more efficiently work around the clock. After Microsoft bought his next employer, WebTV, in the mid-1990s, he outfitted a mobile robot with a web camera and microphone and sent it wandering around the company, without mentioning to anyone that it was connected to the Internet.

But he also hated the idea that consumers would see the iPhone this way. Computers are things that run software from developers all over the world—outside Apple. He didn’t want the iPhone to become that at all. After the unveiling, when software developers began clamoring for permission to make programs for the iPhone, Jobs said no publicly and emphatically. “You don’t want your phone to be like a PC,” he told John Markoff of The New York Times right after the announcement. “The last thing you want is to have loaded three apps on your phone and then you go to make a call and it doesn’t work anymore. These are more like iPods than they are like computers.” But the iPhone had so many other cool new features that consumers overlooked its flaws. It wasn’t just that the iPhone had a new kind of touchscreen, or ran the most sophisticated software ever put in a phone, or had an Internet browser that wasn’t crippled, or had voice mail that could be listened to in any order, or ran Google Maps and YouTube, or was a music and movie player and a camera.


pages: 317 words: 98,745

Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

The scope and importance of the victims, sophistication of the attack (given the negligible resources used to pull it off), detailed exposure of what was going on beneath the surface and, finally, the shock of such widespread infiltration made it so. We are used to our computers being windows onto the world. With GhostNet, we argued that “it is time to get used to them looking back at us.” • • • “It’ll be on the front page,” John Markoff of the New York Times told me hours before the GhostNet story appeared, and he was right. It was above the fold on Sunday, March 29, 2009, and soon thereafter became one of the top news stories in the world. The University of Toronto’s media relations office was overwhelmed. There were satellite trucks parked outside of the Munk School of Global Affairs, where we are based, cameras everywhere, and I experienced my first media scrum.

From that moment on, their chats were intercepted, as were those with whom they were communicating, and uploaded to a server in China, presumably to be shared with Chinese security services. The interception directly contravened Skype’s explicit terms of service, which promised state-of-the-art “end-to-end encryption,” allowing it to be widely promoted as a secure tool for dissidents and others at risk. The scandalous tale was covered by John Markoff in the New York Times, and Skype later apologized. A few years later, however, University of New Mexico researchers found the exact same content-filtering and interception system was still in place on TOM-Skype. Notably, Skype scores zero on the EFF scorecard, and its present owner, Microsoft, fares little better: neither tells users about data demands, is transparent about government requests, or fights for user privacy rights in court.

The Shadows attackers went to great lengths to obscure their trail, splitting the documents and other data stolen from unwitting computer owners into bits and pieces and hopscotching them across the Internet through “drop zones” set up on a spider’s web of free hosting sites, before reassembling them. Nart Villeneuve was able (again) to get partial access to one of these stepping stones – an open file transfer protocol (FTP) used by the attackers on an improperly secured computer – and once he found this window into their subterranean lair, he engineered a script that automatically copied anything that passed through the FTP site. As I told John Markoff of the New York Times (which gave front-page coverage to Shadows in the Cloud), we were going “behind the backs of the attackers and picking their pockets.” As with the GhostNet investigation, we had privileged access to Tibetan computers, including those situated in the Office of His Holiness the Dalai Lama in India, which we had wiretapped with permission. Seeing it from both sides – from that of the victims (the Dalai Lama’s office and the Tibetan Government-in-Exile), and that of the attackers (through a backdoor left open into their networks) – allowed us to confirm that the data being exfiltrated was, in fact, stolen from the source.


pages: 265 words: 74,807

Our Robots, Ourselves: Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy by David A. Mindell

Air France Flight 447, autonomous vehicles, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Charles Lindbergh, Chris Urmson, digital map, disruptive innovation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fudge factor, index card, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics, trade route, US Airways Flight 1549, William Langewiesche, zero-sum game

“without traffic accidents or congestion”: Sebastian Thrun, “Self-Driving Cars Can Save Lives, and Parking Spaces,” New York Times, December 5, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/06/science/sebastian-thrun-self-driving-cars-can-save-lives-and-parking-spaces.html. Sebastian Thrun, “What We’re Driving At,” Google official blog, http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/10/what-were-driving-at.html, accessed July 10, 2014. John Markoff, “A Trip in a Self-Driving Car Now Seems Routine,” Bits Blog, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/13/a-trip-in-a-self-driving-car-now-seems-routine, accessed July 10, 2014. John Markoff, “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html. The Google car’s successful driving tests: Mark Harris, “How Google’s Autonomous Car Passed the First U.S. State Self-Driving Test,” IEEE Spectrum Online, September 10, 2014, http://spectrum.iee.org.

It Depends On Whom You Work For,” IEEE Spectrum Cars That Think, February 24, 2015, http://spectrum.ieee.org/cars-that-think/transportation/human-factors/how-much-training-do-you-need-to-be-a-robocar-test-driver-it-depends-on-whom-you-work-for. He put a video camera on the dashboard of his car: John Leonard, “Conversations on Autonomy,” presentation, MIT, March 13, 2014. John Markoff, “Police, Pedestrians and the Social Ballet of Merging: The Real Challenges for Self-Driving Cars,” Bits Blog, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/05/29/police-bicyclists-and-pedestrians-the-real-challenges-for-self-driving-cars/, accessed July 10, 2014. We know that driverless cars will be susceptible: John Markoff, “Collision in the Making Between Self-Driving Cars and How the World Works,” New York Times, January 23, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/24/technology/googles-autonomous-vehicles-draw-skepticism-at-legal-symposium.html. Will Knight, “Proceed with Caution toward the Self-Driving Car,” MIT Technology Review, April 16, 2013, http://www.technologyreview.com/review/513531/proceed-with-caution-toward-the-self-driving-car/.

They travel routes mapped with great precision by Google’s human-driven survey cars; the maps serve as virtual railway tracks for the cars (indeed, they are as yet unable to drive on roads without these detailed maps). The drives have included human safety drivers and software experts who can turn the autonomy on and off. “The idea was that the human drives onto the freeway, engages the system, [and] it takes them on the bulk of the trip—the boring part—and then they reengage,” said Google engineer Nathaniel Fairfield. A ride in one of these vehicles led the New York Times’s John Markoff to conclude that “computerized systems that replace human drivers are now largely workable and could greatly limit human error,” potentially supporting Google’s goal of cutting the number of U.S. highway deaths in half. Google’s rhetoric around the project has the kind of Silicon Valley optimism that typically surrounds software systems. Roboticist Sebastian Thrun, lead engineer for the project, envisions a future of utopian autonomy “without traffic accidents or congestion.”


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The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

In The Myth of the Machine, the sociologist Lewis Mumford warned that the rise of computers could mean that “man will become a passive, purposeless, machine-conditioned animal.”7 At peace protests and hippie communes, from Sproul Plaza at Berkeley to Haight-Ashbury in San Francisco, the injunction printed on punch cards, “Do not fold, spindle or mutilate,” became an ironic catchphrase. But by the early 1970s, when the possibility of personal computers arose, attitudes began to change. “Computing went from being dismissed as a tool of bureaucratic control to being embraced as a symbol of individual expression and liberation,” John Markoff wrote in his history of the period, What the Dormouse Said.8 In The Greening of America, which served as a manifesto for the new era, a Yale professor, Charles Reich, denounced the old corporate and social hierarchies and called for new structures that encouraged collaboration and personal empowerment. Instead of deploring computers as tools of the old power structure, he argued that they could aid the shift in social consciousness if they were made more personal: “The machine, having been built, may now be turned to human ends, in order that man once more can become a creative force, renewing and creating his own life.”9 A technotribalism began to emerge.

The demo gods were with him, and to his amazement there were no glitches. The crowd gave him a standing ovation. Some even rushed up to the stage as if he were a rock star, which in some ways he was.41 Down the hall from Engelbart, a competing session was being presented by Les Earnest, who had cofounded, with the MIT refugee John McCarthy, the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab. As reported by John Markoff in What the Dormouse Said, their session featured a film about a robot that acted as if it could hear and see things. The two demos presented a clear contrast between the goal of artificial intelligence and that of augmented intelligence. The latter mission had seemed rather quirky when Engelbart began working on it, but when he showed off all of its elements in his December 1968 demo—a personal computer that humans could easily interact with in real time, a network that allowed collaborative creativity—it overshadowed the robot.

Led by the growth of blogs and wikis, both of which emerged in the mid-1990s, a revitalized Web 2.0 arose that allowed users to collaborate, interact, form communities, and generate their own content. JUSTIN HALL AND HOW WEB LOGS BECAME BLOGS As a freshman at Swarthmore College in December 1993, Justin Hall picked up a stray copy of the New York Times in the student lounge and read a story by John Markoff about the Mosaic browser. “Think of it as a map to the buried treasures of the Information Age,” it began. “A new software program available free to companies and individuals is helping even novice computer users find their way around the global Internet, the network of networks that is rich in information but can be baffling to navigate.”54 A willowy computer geek with an impish smile and blond hair flowing over his shoulders, Hall seemed to be a cross between Huck Finn and a Tolkien elf.


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What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

—Library Journal “Thanks to the cunning of history and the wondrous strangeness of Northern California, the utopian counterculture, psychedelic drugs, military hardware and antimilitary software were tangled together inextricably in the prehistory of the personal computer. Full of interesting details about weird but not arbitrary connections, John Markoff’s book tells one of the oddest—because truest—of California tales and thereby helps illuminate the still unsettled legacy of the Sixties.” —Todd Gitlin, author of Media Unlimited and The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage “It is easy to see how the personal computer has shaped contemporary culture. But how did contemporary culture shape the emergence of the personal computer? In this innovative, lively narrative, veteran technology reporter and cultural critic John Markoff demonstrates how the values and obsessions of the 1960s, especially as centered in the San Francisco Bay Area, created the environment for the emergence of the personal computer as social tool and cultural catalyst.”

Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi–110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), cnr Airborne and Rosedale Roads, Albany, Auckland 1310, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Copyright © John Markoff, 2005 All rights reserved Grateful acknowledgment is made for permission to reprint an excerpt from “White Rabbit” by Grace Slick. © 1966, 1994 Irving Music, Inc./BMI. Used by permission. International copyright secured. All rights reserved. THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS HAS CATALOGED THE HARDCOVER EDITION AS FOLLOWS: Markoff, John. What the dormouse said—: how the sixties counterculture shaped the personal computer industry / John Markoff. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN: 978-1-1012-0108-4 1. Microcomputers—History. 2. Computers and civilization. 3. Nineteen sixties. I. Title.

PENGUIN BOOKS WHAT THE DORMOUSE SAID John Markoff is a senior writer for The New York Times who has coauthored Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier and the bestselling Takedown: The Pursuit and Capture of Kevin Mitnick, America’s Most Wanted Computer Outlaw. He lives in San Francisco, California. Praise for What the Dormouse Said “At the core of Dormouse lies a valid and original historical point.” —The New York Times “A convincing case…. This makes entertaining reading.” —The New York Times “Evocative” —Newsweek “Fascinating” —Computerworld “Fascinating…Markoff is a wonderful writer and storyteller, and he effortlessly weaves together the stories of the main cast of characters. The individuals had the most unusual knack for crossing paths, and Markoff’s ability to show these sometimes tangential—but always important—relationships, without losing the thread of the story, is impressive.”


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From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

They have been extraordinarily open and [ x ] Acknowledgments forthcoming, devoting hours and sometimes days to helping me understand their histories. For all of their help, I’d like to thank Bob Albrecht, Dennis Allison, John Perry Barlow, Reva Basch, Keith Britton, Lois Britton, John Brockman, Michael Callahan, John Coate, Doug Engelbart, Bill English, Lee Felsenstein, Cliff Figallo, David Frohman, Asha Greer (formerly Barbara Durkee), Katie Hafner, Paul Hawken, Alan Kay, Kevin Kelly, Art Kleiner, Butler Lampson, Liza Loop, John Markoff, Jane Metcalfe, David Millen, Nancy Murphy, Richard Raymond, Danica Remy, Howard Rheingold, Louis Rossetto, Peter Schwartz, Mark Stahlman, Gerd Stern, Shirley Streshinsky, Larry Tesler, Paul Tough, Jim Warren, and Gail Williams. Most of all, I thank Stewart Brand, whose openness to this project has been a lesson in itself. I am also grateful to a number of people and institutions for permission to quote conversations and to reprint previously published material.

Against these accounts, others have argued that the notion of the computer as a tool for personal and communal transformation first came to life outside the computer industry, among an insurgent group of hobbyists with countercultural loyalties. Members of this group, they point out, built the Homebrew Computer Club and ultimately not only Apple Computer, but a number of other important personal computer companies as well.6 A close look at the computing world of the Bay area in the late 1960s and early 1970s reveals that both of these accounts are true but that neither is complete. As journalist John Markoff has shown, industry engineers and hobbyists lived and worked side-by-side in this period, and both were surrounded by countercultural activities and institutions.7 Two of the most influential of these groups in the region maintained offices within a few square blocks of each other and of the offices of the Whole Earth Catalog in Menlo Park. One of the groups consisted of the researchers associated with Douglas Engelbart’s Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) and later Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), and the other was made up of computer hobbyists affiliated with the People’s Computer Company and, later, the Homebrew Computer Club.

In the Hackers’ Conference, Brand and company provided computer workers with a venue in which to develop and live a group identity around the idea of hacking and to make sense of emerging economic forms in terms of that identity. This work had the effect of rehabilitating hackers in the public eye, but it also explicitly and securely linked Whole Earth people and the Whole Earth ethos to the world of computing. Virtually all of the journalistic reports that came from the Conference echoed John Markoff ’s comments in Byte magazine: “Anyone attending would instantly have realized that the stereotype of computer hackers as isolated individuals is nowhere near accurate.”67 Some of [ 138 ] Chapter 4 those same reports picked up on another theme as well, however. Several either quoted or paraphrased Ted Nelson’s exclamation “This is the Woodstock of the computer elite!”68 One listed Stewart Brand among the “luminaries of the personal computer ‘revolution.’”


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Stealing Fire: How Silicon Valley, the Navy SEALs, and Maverick Scientists Are Revolutionizing the Way We Live and Work by Steven Kotler, Jamie Wheal

3D printing, Alexander Shulgin, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, high batting average, hive mind, Hyperloop, impulse control, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, music of the spheres, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, urban planning

“I do not seek recognition”: Posted by Mark Divine, “The Navy Seal Code,” NavySeals.com, 2016. 12. “Larry and I [had] managed”: Gregory Fernstein, “How CEOs Do Burning Man,” Fast Company, August 27, 2013. 13. . . . New York Times’ John Markoff’s assessment”: John Markoff, “In Searching the Web, Google Finds Riches,” New York Times, April 13, 2003. 14. The company that set the bar: For a complete breakdown of Google’s involvement at Burning Man, see Fred Turner, “Burning Man at Google,” New Media & Society 11 (2009): 73–94. 15. Eric was the only one: Gregory Ferenstein, “How CEOs Do Burning Man,” Fast Company, August 27, 2013; John Markoff, “In Searching the Web, Google Finds Riches,” New York Times, April 13, 2003; and the original citation, Doc Searls, Harvard Berkman fellow, 2002, http://doc.weblogs.com/2002/12/10. 16. Stanford sociologist Fred Turner: Turner, ”Burning Man at Google.” 17.

In choosing their CEO, Page and Brin came to the conclusion that they had to look beyond their normal screening process. Resumes were all but useless. The technical part was more or less a given—there were plenty of sharp guys in the Valley who could run a stable of code monkeys. But, in a town full of outsize personalities, they had to find someone who could set ego aside and get what Google was trying to do. Someone who could, in the New York Times’ John Markoff’s assessment,13 “discipline Google’s flamboyant, self-indulgent culture, without wringing out the genius.” Get it right, and they’d own the search engine space for a decade or more. Screw it up, and they could lose control of their company. Game over. Back to grad school. So, in a stroke of desperate inspiration, Page and Brin found themselves turning to an unusual selection process, a brutal filtration system both strikingly similar to BUD/S and as wildly different as it could get.

“The scientists didn’t have the guts”: Joshua Fried, “What a Trip,” Stanford Alumni Magazine, January/February 2002. 21. “Volunteer Kesey gave himself over to science”: Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1968), p. 45. 22. Half the time”: Ibid., p. 46; Richard Strozzi-Heckler, In Search of the Warrior Spirit: Teaching Awareness Disciplines to the Green Berets (Berkeley: Blue Snake Books, 2007), p. 17. 23. Armed with speakers mounted in the redwoods: John Markoff, What the Doormouse Said (New York: Viking, 2005), p. 122. 24. A round of post-Vietnam soul-searching”: FrankRose, “A New Age for Business?,” Fortune, October 8, 1990. 25. “I just made it my weekend duty”: Jim Channon, interview, Goats Declassified: The Real Men of the First Earth Battalion (Anchor Bay Entertainment, 2009). 26. He penned: Jim Channon, First Earth Battalion Operations Manual ([N.p.]: CreateSpace, 2009), p. 64. 27.


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Troublemakers: Silicon Valley's Coming of Age by Leslie Berlin

AltaVista, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, discovery of DNA, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, Leonard Kleinrock, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, packet switching, Ralph Nader, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, union organizing, upwardly mobile, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Butler Lampson, interview by Alan Kay, CHM. The research project was Project Genie. For more on Berkeley Computer Company, see “Preliminary Proposal for a Systems Group within the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center,” RWT. 22. Taylor, interview by author, April 22, 2013. 23. Taylor, interviews by author, March 18 and April 24, 2013. John Markoff cited several sources who said that Engelbart could not “let go of his creation so the world could use it.” An effort to license Engelbart’s system to PARC was “stillborn,” according to Markoff. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin Books, 2005): 204. 24. Doug Engelbart, Smithsonian oral history, at http://americanhistory.si.edu/comphist/englebar.htm. 25. Robert Taylor, Forum 79 talk, RWT. 26. Lampson, CHM interview. 27.

A deep bow to these people who shared their expertise and assistance: the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences 2012–2013 fellows, Janet Abbate, Bob Andreatta, David Brock, Carolyn Caddes, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Catherine de Cuir, Beth Ebben, Benj Edwards, Bret Field, Terry Floyd, Daniel Hartwig, the HP Alumni Association, Paula Jabloner, Kathy Jarvis, Laurene Powell Jobs, Kris Kasianovitz, Mike Keller, Chigusa Kita, Greg Kovacs, Steven Levy, Sara Lott, Anna Mancini, Natalie-Jean Marine Street, John Markoff, Pam Moreland, Mary Munill, Tim Noakes, Bill O’Hanlan, Margaret O’Mara, Sue Pelosi, Nadine Pinell, Sarah Reis, Paul Reist, Nora Richardson, James Sabry, Larry Scott, Lenny Siegel, Lisa Slater, Kurt Taylor, Bill Terry, and Fred Turner. Two men who have no idea I exist have been an important part of writing this book. John August and Craig Mazin host a podcast called Scriptnotes. It’s about “screenwriting and things that are interesting to screenwriters.”

Taylor, “The Computer as a Communication Device,” Science and Technology, April 1968: 21–31; “metacommunity”: Taylor, CBI interview. 19. Robert Taylor, “Plans for an Experimental, Interactive Computer Network,” paper to be presented at the 2nd Workshop on National Systems of the Task Group on National Systems for Scientific and Technical Information, Front Royal, VA, n.d., but probably 1968. 20. Banks and airline reservation systems also used a different type of remote computing. 21. Taylor, interview by John Markoff, Dec. 9, 2008, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqsTpNtziE8&list=PL653B57BD7DA5B890&index=1&feature=plpp_video. 22. Taylor, interview by author, April 22, 2013. Whether Licklider envisioned the Intergalactic Network as a centralized system (imagine a giant time-sharing system, with a single machine at the core and nodes taking the place of individual users) or a decentralized one (which is how the Arpanet worked and the Internet does now) is the subject of some debate.


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In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

“At that time Google still really had a beautiful, angelic reputation.” Even after the local paper outed the benefactor as Google, the company still insisted that local people not make reference to that fact and had local officials sign a confidentiality agreement. When they talked about it, they used the code name Project 02. When visitors came asking, the locals clammed up like bay mussels; New York Times reporter John Markoff traveled to the site in 2006 and was stonewalled by the city manager. An official in a nearby town, free to make sour-grapes jokes at the lucky municipality across the river, said, “It’s a little bit like He-Who-Must-Not-Be-Named in Harry Potter.” Indeed, as local reporters found out when Google finally allowed them a glimpse of the compound (only the cafeteria and the public area—not the vast area where the servers resided), outside the security fence was a sign that read voldemort industries.

My friend Lynnea Johnson proved a lifesaver when she offered the Palo Alto cottage she co-owns with Carolyn Rose as my base camp for the project. The actual writing of the book accelerated because of a fantastic uncluttering of my office by Erin Rooney Doland. My fact-checking team included Deborah Branscum, Victoria Wright, Stacy Horn, Teresa Carpenter, and Andrew Levy. (Though, as always, the buck stops with the author.) I got wisdom and advice along the way from John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, and Brad Stone. My first and most enthusiastic reader, of course, was my wife, Teresa Carpenter. (Having a Pulitzer Prize winner in the house is pretty useful.) As always, my agent Flip Brophy was invaluable at every stage of the perilous publishing process. At Simon & Schuster, Bob Bender was again my sharp-eyed editor, with Johanna Li assisting. The meticulous copyeditor at Simon & Schuster was Nancy Inglis.

Kaplan, The Silicon Boys and Their Valley of Dreams (New York: William Morrow, 1999). 74 “zero percent possibility” Ince, “The Lost Google Tapes.” 75 Google’s first press release “Google Receives $25 Million in Equity Funding,” Google Press Center website, June 7, 1999. 77 “true story testimonials” “Google True Story Testimonials,” 2000–2001, Google Press Release. 80 “He was the only” John Markoff and G. Pascal Zachary, “In Searching the Web, Google Finds Riches,” The New York Times, April 13, 2003. 82 “Basically, we needed” Kevin Gray, “The Little Engine That Could,” Details, February 2002. 85 “long tail” The definitive article on this phenomenon is Chris Anderson, “The Long Tail,” Wired, October 2004. Anderson (who is my editor at Wired) later wrote a best-selling book with the same title. 85 Yossi Vardi “Interview with Sergey Brin,” Haaretz.com, June 2, 2008. 90 So Veach devised I described the workings of Google’s ad model in “Secret of Googlenomics,” Wired, April 2009. 94 “That’s really satisfying” Brin told me this while I was researching “The World According to Google,” Newsweek, December 16, 2002. 95 Overture’s failures Flake presented his slide show, “How Google Won the Search Engine Wars,” at the Marketing 3.0 conference in New York City, April 25, 2009. 99 “the dominant transaction mechanism” Benjamin Edelman, Michael Ostrovsky, and Michael Schwarz, “Internet Advertising and the Generalized Second Price Auction: Selling Billions of Dollars Worth of Keywords,” American Economic Review, March 2007. 101 “many synergies” Amy Harmon, “Google Deal Ties Company to Weblogs,” The New York Times, February 17, 2003. 102 “The potential exists” Danny Sullivan, “Google Throws Hat into the Contextual Advertising Ring,” Search Engine Watch, March 4, 2003. 102 “We could change the economics” Wojcicki called me at Newsweek in 2003 to explain the product. 105 In 2008, a story Nicholas Carlson, “Google’s Worst Ads, Ever,” Business Insider, August 20, 2009. 106 In May 2010 Neal Mohan, “The AdSense Revenue Share,” Google Inside AdSense blog, May 24, 1010.


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The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

RegBlog (blog), Penn Program on Regulation, http://www.regblog.org/2013/02/14-melekhina-social-media-antitrust.html; Bruce Baer Arnold, “Big Fine for a Broken Promise: Microsoft’s Antitrust Breach Puts Tech Firms on Notice,” The Conversation, March 8, 2013, http://theconversation.com/big-fine-for-a-broken-promise-microsofts-antitrust-breach-puts-tech-firms-on-notice-12683; Jeff Elder, “Silicon Valley Tech Giants Struck Deals on Hiring, Say Documents,” Wall Street Journal, April 20, 2014. 67. John Markoff, “Google Puts Money on Robots Using Man Behind Android,” New York Times, December 4, 2013; Eric Mack, “Google Launches Calico to Take on Illness and Aging,” CNET, September 18, 2013, http://www.cnet.com/news/google-launches-calico-to-take-on-illness-and-aging; John Markoff, “Google Adds to Its Menagerie of Robots,” New York Times, December 14, 2013; Neal E. Boudette and Daisuke Wakabayashi, “Google, Apple Forge Auto Ties,” All Things Digital, December 29, 2013, http://allthingsd.com/20131229/google-apple-forge-auto-ties. 68.

.,” Bloomberg Businessweek, December 17, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-12-17/amazon-may-get-its-first-labor-union-in-the-u-dot-s. 126. Tian Luo and Amar Mann, “Survival and Growth of Silicon Valley High-tech Businesses Born in 2000,” Monthly Labor Review, September 2011, pp. 16–31. 127. Timothy Noah, “Steve Jobs, Jobs-Creator,” New Republic (blog), October 6, 2011, http://www.newrepublic.com/blog/timothy-noah/95877/steve-jobs-job-creator. 128. John Markoff, “Silicon Valley Reacts to Economy With a New Approach,” New York Times, April 21, 2001; Robert D. Hof, “Venture Capital’s Liquidators,” Bloomberg Businessweek, December 03, 2008, http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2008-12-03/venture-capitals-liquidators. 129. Paul Abrahams, “End of Second California Gold Rush Leaves the Valley in Shock,” Financial Times, May 9, 2001. 130. Robert Marquand, “Fast, Cheap, and in English, India Clerks for the World,” Christian Science Monitor, April 30, 1999. 131.

Alex Knapp, “Ray Kurzweil’s Predictions For 2009 Were Mostly Inaccurate,” Forbes, March 20, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2012/03/20/ray-kurzweils-predictions-for-2009-were-mostly-inaccurate; Robert Jonathan, “Google Exec Ray Kurzweil Takes 150 Vitamin Supplements Every Day,” Inquisitr, October 20, 2013, http://www.inquisitr.com/1000017/google-exec-ray-kurzweil-takes-150-vitamin-supplements-every-day; Eric Mack, “Google Launches Calico to Take on Illness and Aging,” CNET, September 18, 2013, http://www.cnet.com/news/google-launches-calico-to-take-on-illness-and-aging; Holman W. Jenkins, Jr., “Will Google’s Ray Kurzweil Live Forever?” Wall Street Journal, April 12, 2013. 86. John Markoff, “Brainlike Computers, Learning from Experience,” New York Times, December 29, 2013; Nick Bilton, “Computer-Brain Interfaces Making Big Leaps,” Bits (blog), New York Times, August 4, 2013, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/04/disruptions-rather-than-time-computers-might-become-panacea-to-hurt. 87. David Gelernter, “The Closing of the Scientific Mind,” Commentary, January 1, 2014, http://www.commentarymagazine.com/article/the-closing-of-the-scientific-mind. 88.


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Steve Jobs by Walter Isaacson

air freight, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fixed income, game design, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Jony Ive, lateral thinking, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, profit maximization, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

In The Myth of the Machine, the historian Lewis Mumford warned that computers were sucking away our freedom and destroying “life-enhancing values.” An injunction on punch cards of the period—“Do not fold, spindle or mutilate”—became an ironic phrase of the antiwar Left. But by the early 1970s a shift was under way. “Computing went from being dismissed as a tool of bureaucratic control to being embraced as a symbol of individual expression and liberation,” John Markoff wrote in his study of the counterculture’s convergence with the computer industry, What the Dormouse Said. It was an ethos lyrically expressed in Richard Brautigan’s 1967 poem, “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,” and the cyberdelic fusion was certified when Timothy Leary declared that personal computers had become the new LSD and years later revised his famous mantra to proclaim, “Turn on, boot up, jack in.”

It then went up even further, to $49, before settling back to close the day at $39. Earlier that year Jobs had been hoping to find a buyer for Pixar that would let him merely recoup the $50 million he had put in. By the end of the day the shares he had retained—80% of the company—were worth more than twenty times that, an astonishing $1.2 billion. That was about five times what he’d made when Apple went public in 1980. But Jobs told John Markoff of the New York Times that the money did not mean much to him. “There’s no yacht in my future,” he said. “I’ve never done this for the money.” The successful IPO meant that Pixar would no longer have to be dependent on Disney to finance its movies. That was just the leverage Jobs wanted. “Because we could now fund half the cost of our movies, I could demand half the profits,” he recalled. “But more important, I wanted co-branding.

They dubbed it iTunes. Jobs unveiled iTunes at the January 2001 Macworld as part of the digital hub strategy. It would be free to all Mac users, he announced. “Join the music revolution with iTunes, and make your music devices ten times more valuable,” he concluded to great applause. As his advertising slogan would later put it: Rip. Mix. Burn. That afternoon Jobs happened to be meeting with John Markoff of the New York Times. The interview was going badly, but at the end Jobs sat down at his Mac and showed off iTunes. “It reminds me of my youth,” he said as the psychedelic patterns danced on the screen. That led him to reminisce about dropping acid. Taking LSD was one of the two or three most important things he’d done in his life, Jobs told Markoff. People who had never taken acid would never fully understand him.


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Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

monitors physical spaces: Calum MacLeod (3 Jan 2013), “China surveillance targets crime—and dissent,” USA Today, http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2013/01/03/china-security/1802177. Messages containing words: Vernon Silver (8 Mar 2013), “Cracking China’s Skype surveillance software,” Bloomberg Business Week, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-03-08/skypes-been-hijacked-in-china-and-microsoft-is-o-dot-k-dot-with-it. 30,000 Internet police: John Markoff (1 Oct 2008), “Surveillance of Skype messages found in China,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/02/technology/internet/02skype.html. India: John Ribeiro (13 Jan 2011), “RIM allows India access to consumer BlackBerry messaging,” CIO, http://www.cio.com/article/654438/RIM_Allows_India_Access_to_Consumer_BlackBerry_Messaging. Amol Sharma (28 Oct 2011), “RIM facility helps India in surveillance efforts,” Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204505304577001592335138870.

Ethiopia used this software: Bill Marczak et al. (12 Feb 2014), “Hacking Team and the targeting of Ethiopian journalists,” Citizen Lab, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, https://citizenlab.org/2014/02/hacking-team-targeting-ethiopian-journalists. Craig Timberg (12 Feb 2014), “Foreign regimes use spyware against journalists, even in U.S.,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/technology/foreign-regimes-use-spyware-against-journalists-even-in-us/2014/02/12/9501a20e-9043-11e3-84e1-27626c5ef5fb_story.html. We labeled the Chinese actions: Andrew Jacobs, Miguel Helft, and John Markoff (13 Jan 2010), “Google, citing attack, threatens to exit China,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/13/world/asia/13beijing.html. David E. Sanger (6 May 2013), “U.S. blames China’s military directly for cyberattacks,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/07/world/asia/us-accuses-chinas-military-in-cyberattacks.html. sometimes invoking: New York Times (7 May 2013), “China and cyberwar (editorial),” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/08/opinion/china-and-cyberwar.html.

George Mason University School of Public Policy (Feb 2014), “Cyber security export markets 2014,” Virginia Economic Development Partnership, http://exportvirginia.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Report-on-Cyber-Security-Preface.pdf Estonia was the victim: Joshua Davis (21 Aug 2007), “Hackers take down the most wired country in Europe,” Wired, https://web.archive.org/web/20071019223411/http://www.wired.com/politics/security/magazine/15-09/ff_estonia. ex-Soviet republic of Georgia: John Markoff (13 Aug 2008), “Before the gunfire, cyberattacks,” New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/technology/13cyber.html. South Korea was the victim: Matthew Weaver (8 Jul 2009), “Cyberattackers target South Korea and US,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/jul/08/south-korea-cyber-attack. a pro-Kremlin youth group: Charles Clover (11 Mar 2009), “Kremlin-backed group behind Estonia cyber blitz,” Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/57536d5a-0ddc-11de-8ea3-0000779fd2ac.html.


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@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, John Markoff, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

. [>] As of 2013, the NSA: Keith Alexander provided the figures on NSA employment in public remarks at a cyber security event sponsored by Politico in Washington, DC, on October 8, 2013, http://www.politico.com/events/cyber-7-the-seven-key-questions/. 11. The Corporate Counterstrike [>] “a highly sophisticated”: David Drummond, “A New Approach to China,” Google blog, January 12, 2010, http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2010/01/new-approach-to-china.html. [>] “crown jewels”: John Markoff, “Cyberattack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/technology/20google.html?_r=0. [>] “Google broke in”: Author conversation with said official, February 2013. [>] Google uncovered evidence: For more on Google’s investigation, see David E. Sanger and John Markoff, “After Google’s Stand on China, US Treads Lightly,” New York Times, January 14, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/15/world/asia/15diplo.html?_r=0. [>] Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg : Author interview with a US intelligence agency consultant with knowledge of the conversation, February 2010.

Thanks also to Ben Pauker, Peter Scoblic, Mindy Kay Bricker, and David Rothkopf for all they’ve done guiding this fast-moving and fast-growing ship. I owe a particular debt of gratitude to the voluminous and insightful reporting of several journalist colleagues whose work informed my own research, including Siobhan Gorman and Danny Yadron at the Wall Street Journal; David Sanger, Nicole Perlroth, and John Markoff at the New York Times; Ellen Nakashima at the Washington Post; Tony Romm at Politico; Spencer Ackerman at the Guardian and formerly of Wired’s Danger Room blog; Kim Zetter, also of Wired and author of its Threat Level blog; Joseph Menn at Reuters; and Michael Riley at Bloomberg Businessweek. Each of them has done groundbreaking work on this terrain. Thanks to my friend and favorite lunch companion, Ben Wittes, whose blog Lawfare is an indispensable destination for serious thinking about national security.

. [>] In 2013 the NSA had a budget: Barton Gellman and Ellen Nakashima, “US Spy Agencies Mounted 231 Offensive Cyber-Operations in 2011, Documents Show,” Washington Post, August 30, 2013, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-08-30/world/41620705_1_computer-worm-former-u-s-officials-obama-administration. [>] “Graduates of the program become”: “About the Program,” Systems and Network Interdisciplinary Program, http://www.nsa.gov/careers/_files/SNIP.pdf. [>] The company itself has been the target: John Markoff, “Cyber Attack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010. 6. The Mercenaries [>] “Bonesaw is the ability to map”: Aram Roston, “Nathaniel Fick, Former CNAS Chief, to Head Cyber Targeting Firm,” C4ISR Journal, January–February 2013, http://www.defensenews.com/article/20130115/C4ISR01/301150007/Nathaniel-Fick-Former-CNAS-Chief-Heads-Cyber-Targeting-Firm. [>] Internal documents show: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Cyber Weapons: The New Arms Race,” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 20, 2011, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/cyber-weapons-the-new-arms-race-07212011.html#p4. [>] “Eventually we need to enable”: Andy Greenberg, “Founder of Stealthy Security Firm Endgame to Lawmakers: Let US Companies ‘Hack Back,’” Forbes, September 20, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/09/20/founder-of-stealthy-security-firm-endgame-to-lawmakers-let-u-s-companies-hack-back/. [>] “If you believe that wars”: Joseph Menn, “US Cyberwar Strategy Stokes Fear of Blowback,” Reuters, May 10, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/10/us-usa-cyberweapons-specialreport-idUSBRE9490EL20130510. [>] One prominent player: Information about CrowdStrike’s techniques is based on author interviews with Steve Chabinksy, the company’s general counsel and a former senior FBI official, conducted in July and August 2013.


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Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Healey, “Toyota Deaths Reported to Safety Database Rise to 37,” USA Today, Feb. 17, 2010. 24 A jury found: Phil Baker, “Software Bugs Found to Be Cause of Toyota Acceleration Death,” Daily Transcript, Nov. 4, 2013; Junko Yoshida, “Acceleration Case: Jury Finds Toyota Liable,” EETimes, Oct. 24, 2013. 25 Toyota was accused: Jerry Hirsch, “Toyota Admits Misleading Regulators, Pays $1.2-Billion Federal Fine,” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 2014. 26 According to the London Metropolitan Police: Victoria Woollaston, “Forget Carjacking, the Next Big Threat Is Car-HACKING,” Mail Online, May 8, 2014. 27 The operation takes less: William Pentland, “Car-Hacking Goes Viral in London,” Forbes, May 20, 2014; Thomas Cheshire, “Thousands of Cars Stolen Using Hi-Tech Gadgets,” Sky News, May 8, 2014. 28 Using nothing more than a laptop: Sebastian Anthony, “Hackers Can Unlock Cars via SMS,” ExtremeTech, July 28, 2011; Robert McMillan, “ ‘War Texting’ Lets Hackers Unlock Car Doors Via SMS,” CSO Online, July 27, 2011. 29 Your musical tastes: Rebecca Boyle, “Trojan-Horse MP3s Could Let Hackers Break into Your Car Remotely, Researchers Find,” Popular Science, March 14, 2011. 30 For just under $30: Victoria Woollaston, “The $20 Handheld Device That Hacks a CAR—and Can Control the Brakes,” Mail Online, Feb. 6, 2014. 31 Entirely possible: John Markoff, “Researchers Hack into Cars’ Electronics,” New York Times, March 9, 2011; Chris Philpot, “Can Your Car Be Hacked?,” Car and Driver, Aug. 2011; Andy Greenberg, “Hackers Reveal Nasty New Car Attacks—with Me Behind the Wheel,” Forbes, July 24, 2013; Dan Goodin, “Tampering with a Car’s Brakes and Speed by Hacking Its Computers: A New How-To,” Ars Technica, July 29, 2013. 32 Renault Nissan’s CEO: Paul A. Eisenstein, “Spying, Glitches Spark Concern for Driverless Cars,” CNBC.​com, Feb. 8, 2014. 33 The biggest proponent: Sebastian Anthony, “Google’s Self-Driving Car Passes 700,000 Accident-Free Miles, Can Now Avoid Cyclists, Stop at Railroad Crossings,” ExtremeTech, April 29, 2014; John Markoff, “Google’s Next Phase in Driverless Cars: No Steering Wheel or Brake Pedals,” New York Times, May 27, 2014. 34 Law enforcement officials clearly: Lance Whitney, “FBI: Driverless Cars Could Become ‘Lethal Weapons,’ ” CNET, July 16, 2014. 35 Just as vehicles were rated: Ms.

Weapons System Designs Compromised by Chinese Cyberspies,” Washington Post, May 27, 2013. 56 According to an FBI report: Marcus Ranum, “Cyberwar Rhetoric Is Scarier Than Threat of Foreign Attack,” U.S. News and World Report, March 29, 2010. 57 Of course it is not just the American military’s: Craig Timberg and Ellen Nakashima, “Chinese Cyberspies Have Hacked Most Washington Institutions, Experts Say,” Washington Post, Feb. 20, 2013. 58 Moreover, a 2009 report: John Markoff, “Vast Spy System Loots Computers in 103 Countries,” New York Times, March 28, 2009; Omar El Akkad, “Meet the Canadians Who Busted GhostNet,” Daily Globe and Mail, March 30, 2009; Tom Ashbrook et al., “Unmasking GhostNet,” On Point with Tom Ashbrook, WBUR, April 2, 2009, http://​onpoint.​wbur.​org/​2009/​04/​02/​unmasking-​ghostnet. 59 China has also been accused: David E. Sanger, David Barboza, and Nicole Perlroth, “Chinese Army Unit Is Seen as Tied to Hacking Against U.S.,” New York Times, Feb. 18, 2013. 60 The Times hired the private: Mandiant Corp., “APT 1: Exposing One of China’s Cyber Espionage Units,” Mandiant. 61 In 2012, Bloomberg Businessweek: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Inside the Chinese Boom in Corporate Espionage,” Bloomberg Businessweek, March 15, 2012. 62 All told, between thefts: Lisa Daniels, “DOD Needs Industry’s Help to Catch Cyber Attacks, Commander Says,” Department of Defense News, March 27, 2012; David E.

,” Mashable, June 22, 2012; Kristin Burnham, “Facebook’s WhatsApp Buy: 10 Staggering Stats,” InformationWeek, Feb. 21, 2014. 4 Put another way, every ten minutes: Verlyn Klinkenborg, “Trying to Measure the Amount of Information That Humans Create,” New York Times, Nov. 12, 2003. 5 The cost of storing: McKinsey Global Institute, Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity, May 2011; Kevin Kelly speaking at the Web 2.0 conference in 2011, http://​blip.​tv/​web2expo/​web-​2-​0-​expo-​sf-​2011-​kevin-​kelly-​4980011. 6 Across all industries: World Economic Forum, Personal Data: The Emergence of a New Asset Class, Jan. 2011. 7 Eventually, your personal details: Cory Doctorow, “Personal Data Is as Hot as Nuclear Waste,” Guardian, Jan. 15, 2008. 8 That’s one account: Emma Barnett, “Hackers Go After Facebook Sites 600,000 Times Every Day,” Telegraph, Oct. 29, 2011; Mike Jaccarino, “Facebook Hack Attacks Strike 600,000 Times per Day, Security Firm Reports,” New York Daily News, Oct. 29, 2011. 9 Because 75 percent of people: “Digital Security Firm Says Most People Use One Password for Multiple Websites,” GMA News Online, Aug. 9, 2013. 10 Many social media companies: “LinkedIn Hack,” Wikipedia; Jose Pagliery, “2 Million Facebook, Gmail, and Twitter Passwords Stolen in Massive Hack,” CNNMoney, Dec. 4, 2013. 11 Transnational organized crime groups: Elinor Mills, “Report: Most Data Breaches Tied to Organized Crime,” CNET, July 27, 2010. 12 Such was the case: Jason Kincaid, “Dropbox Security Bug Made Passwords Optional for Four Hours,” TeckCrunch, June 20, 2011. 13 Later, however, it was revealed: John Markoff, “Cyberattack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010; Kim Zetter, “Report: Google Hackers Stole Source Code of Global Password System,” Wired, April 20, 2010. 14 According to court documents: John Leyden, “Acxiom Database Hacker Jailed for 8 Years,” Register, Feb. 23, 2006; Damien Scott and Alex Bracetti, “The 11 Worst Online Security Breaches,” Complex.​com, May 9, 2012. 15 More recently, in 2013, the data broker Experian: Brian Krebs, “Experian Sold Customer Data to ID Theft Service,” Krebs on Security, Oct. 20, 2013. 16 Experian learned of the compromise: Byron Acohido, “Scammer Dupes Experian into Selling Social Security Nos,” USA Today, Oct. 21, 2013; Matthew J.


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Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Jacobsen, Pentagon’s Brain, chap. 13, “In America, antiwar protests raged on…” Student protests against the ILLIAC-IV quickly devolved into violence: a campus armory and a US Air Force recruiting station were firebombed, and thousands of students protested on campus, smashing windows and breaking into the chancellor’s office. The protests put the supercomputer in physical danger, and the university was forced to relocate it across the country to the NASA Ames Research Center, which is today located next door to Google in Mountain View, California. 90. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer (New York: Viking Adult, 2005). 91. The protests against the Stanford Research Institute were persistent and violent enough that the university regents decided to spin off the Stanford Research Institute as a private entity, hoping to mollify students by officially distancing the university from classified military research. 92.

It shows very clearly that what we consider to be new developments are really warmed-over ideas and notions that originated in the 1960s. Indeed, in that sense, Internet culture is not so different from the rest of American contemporary culture. 12. Quoted in Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 41. 13. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer (New York: Viking Adult, 2005). 14. Bruce Shlain and Martin A. Lee, Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond, rev. ed. (New York: Grove Press, 1994), 155–156. 15. Ibid., 109. 16. Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture, 4. 17. Ibid. 18. “Steve Jobs’ Commencement address,” YouTube video, 15:04, June 12, 2005, posted March 7, 2008, https://www.youtube.com/watch?

“After the agreements which the NSF had signed creating ANS, and providing it with exclusive commercial access, were released in December of 1991, it was clear that ANS’s president was correct, the T3 had been privatized. This occurred without public discussion or disclosure, and was effectively hidden for a year” (“Management of NSFNET,” Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Science of the Comm. on Science, Space, and Technology, US House of Representatives, 102nd Cong., 2nd sess. [March 12, 1992]). From then on, the NSFNET backbone ran as part of a larger private network owned by MCI and IBM. 56. John Markoff, “Data Network Raises Monopoly Fear,” New York Times, December 19, 1991. 57. Kesan and Shah, “Fool Us Once Shame on You,” 122–123. 58. Ibid. “ANS took advantage of the public in several ways. First, it relied heavily on support from the government. Second, ANS did not find new customers, instead it attempted mainly to convert customers from the government-subsidized regional networks. Finally, ANS’s decision to create a for-profit subsidiary raised questions as to ANS’s responsibility to the NSFNET and to the public interest.


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The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

Nazila Fathi, “Iran Disrupts Internet Service ahead of Protests,” New York Times, February 11, 2010. 4. Farhad Manjoo, “How the Internet Helps Iran Silence Activists,” Slate, June 25, 2009; Miguel Helft and John Markoff, “Google, Citing Cyber Attack, Threatens to Exit China,” New York Times, January 13, 2010. 5. John Ribeiro, “Google Placates India, China with Different Map Versions,” PC World, October 23, 2009. 6. Miguel Helft and David Barboza, “Google Shuts China Site in Dispute over Censorship,” New York Times, March 22, 2010. 7. Miguel Helft and David Barboza, “Google’s Plan to Turn Its Back on China Has Risks,” New York Times, March 23, 2010; John Markoff, “Cyberattack on Google Said to Hit Password System,” New York Times, April 19, 2010; John Markoff and Ashlee Vance, “Software Firms Fear Hackers Who Leave No Trace,” New York Times, January 20, 2010. 8. Harry Lewis, “Does Google Violate Its ‘Don’t Be Evil’ Motto?”

Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). 9. Levy, “Secret of Googlenomics.” 10. Randall E. Stross, Planet Google: One Company’s Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know (New York: Free Press, 2008), 109–28. 11. Cecillia Kang, “AT&T Accuses Google of Violating Telecom Laws; Google Rejects Claims,” Post I.T., blog, September 25, 2009; Amy Schatz, “AT&T Asks for Curbs on Google,” WSJ.com, September 26, 2009; John Markoff and Matt Richtel, “F.C.C. Hands Google a Partial Victory,” New York Times, August 1, 2007. 12. “GOOG: Google Inc Company Profile,” CNNMoney.com, August 12, 2010. 13. Ken Auletta, “Annals of Communications: The Search Party,” New Yorker, January 14, 2008; Rob Hof, “Maybe Google Isn’t Losing Big Bucks on YouTube After All,” BusinessWeek, June 17, 2009; Nicholas Thompson and Fred Vogelstein, “The Plot to Kill Google,” Wired, January 19, 2009; Eli Edwards, “Stepping Up to the Plate: The Google-Doubleclick Merger and the Role of the Federal Trade Commission in Protecting Online Data Privacy,” SSRN eLibrary, April 25, 2008, http://papers.ssrn.com; Michael Liedtke, “Guessing Game: How Much Money Is YouTube Losing?”


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Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, online collectivism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

CHAPTER 4: VARIANTS AND PERMUTATIONS 51 When the Egyptian government shut down the Internet: Initially one Egyptian ISP, Noor, remained online for a few days but was eventually shut down as well. For a detailed technical analysis of the shutdown, see James Cowie, “Egypt Leaves the Internet,” Renesys Blog, January 28, 2011, www.renesys.com/blog/2011/01/egypt-leaves-the-internet.shtml; and Earl Zmijewski, “Egypt’s Net on Life Support,” Renesys Blog, January 31, 2011, www.renesys.com/blog/2011/01/egypts-net-on-life-support.shtml. Also see James Glanz and John Markoff, “Egypt Leaders Found ‘Off’ Switch for Internet,” New York Times, February 15, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/technology/16internet.html (accessed June 27, 2011). 52 After Muammar Gaddafi cut off phone and Internet service to rebel-held areas in eastern Libya: Margaret Corker and Charles Levinson, “Rebels Hijack Gadhafi’s Phone Network,” Wall Street Journal, April 13, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703841904576256512991215284.html (accessed June 27, 2011). 53 In a comprehensive book about technology and politics in the Islamic world: Philip N.

Satter, “Vodafone: Egypt Forced Us to Send Text Messages,” Associated Press, February 3, 2011, www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9L5ANI80.htm (all accessed August 13, 2011). 185 in June 2011 the UN Human Rights Council approved the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: “Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on the Issue of Human Rights and Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises, John Ruggie; Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‘Protect, Respect and Remedy’ Framework,” UN Human Rights Council A/HRC/17/31, March 21, 2011, www.business-humanrights.org/media/documents/ruggie/ruggie-guiding-principles-21-mar-2011.pdf. CHAPTER 12: IN SEARCH OF “INTERNET FREEDOM” POLICY 189 Global Internet Freedom Consortium (GIFC): www.internetfreedom.org. 189 The GIFC found powerful allies in Mark Palmer . . . and Michael Horowitz: See John Markoff, “Iranians and Others Outwit Net Censors,” New York Times, April 30, 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/05/01/technology/01filter.html; James O’Toole, “Internet Censorship Fight Goes Global,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 4, 2009, www.post-gazette.com/pg/09155/974993-82.stm; Brad Stone, “Aid Urged for Groups Fighting Internet Censors,” New York Times, January 20, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/01/21/technology/21censor.html; Caylan Ford, “What Hillary Clinton, Google Can Do About Censorship in China,” Washington Post, January 20, 2010, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/20/AR2010012002805.html; Genevieve Long, “Internet Freedom Software Should Get Federal Funding, Group Says,” Epoch Times, March 5, 2010; Gordon Crovitz, “Mrs.

.& A. with Rebecca MacKinnon: Internet in China” with Evan Osnos, New Yorker, February 22, 2011, www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/evanosnos/2011/02/internet-in-china.html. 190 Senator Richard Lugar . . . called for the remaining funds to be removed from State Department control and given to the Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG): “Another U.S. Deficit—China and America—Public Diplomacy in the Age of the Internet: A Minority Staff Report Prepared for the Use of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate,” February 15, 2011, http://lugar.senate.gov/issues/foreign/diplomacy/ChinaInternet.pdf. 191 “Internet-in-a-suitcase”: James Glanz and John Markoff, “US Underwrites Internet Detour Around Censors,” New York Times, June 12, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/06/12/world/12internet.html. Also see Josh Smith, “State Allocates Final $28 Million for Internet Freedom Programs,” National Journal, May 3, 2011, www.nextgov.com/nextgov/ng_20110503_8059.php. 191 Clay Shirky critiqued Washington’s obsession with circumvention: Clay Shirky, “The Political Power of Social Media,” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 1 (January–February 2011): 28–41. 193 as Ethan Zuckerman of Harvard’s Berkman Center warns: See Ethan Zuckerman, “Internet Freedom: Beyond Circumvention,” My Heart’s in Accra blog, February 22, 2010, www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2010/02/22/internet-freedom-beyond-circumvention. 193 Evgeny Morozov has been even more critical: Evgeny Morozov, The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (New York: PublicAffairs, 2011). 193 US Internet freedom policy also has critics among its intended beneficiaries: Sami Ben Gharbia, “The Internet Freedom Fallacy and the Arab Digital Activism,” September 17, 2010, http://samibengharbia.com/2010/09/17/the-internet-freedom-fallacy-and-the-arab-digital-activism. 195 While the Bahraini government was arresting bloggers and suppressing dissent, the United States was planning to sell $70 million in arms to Bahrain: See Ivan Sigal, “Going Local,” Index on Censorship 40, no. 1 (2011): 93–99. 195 When Clinton visited Cairo a month after the revolution, Egypt’s January 25 Revolution Youth Coalition refused to meet with her: Kirit Radia and Alex Marquardt, “Young Leaders of Egypt’s Revolt Snub Clinton in Cairo,” ABC News Political Punch, March 15, 2011, http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalpunch/2011/03/young-leaders-of-egypts-revolt-snub-clinton-in-cairo.html. 195 “International Strategy for Cyberspace”: www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/internationalstrategy_cyberspace.pdf. 196 Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt called for a “new transatlantic partnership for protecting and promoting the freedoms of cyberspace”: Carl Bildt, “Tear Down These Walls Against Internet Freedom,” Washington Post, January 25, 2010, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/24/AR2010012402297.html. 196 In July 2010 the French and Dutch foreign ministers convened an international conference on the Internet and freedom of expression: “Ministers to Meet in the Netherlands to Champion Internet Freedom,” Permanent Mission of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations, www.netherlandsmission.org/article.asp?


pages: 547 words: 160,071

Underground by Suelette Dreyfus

airport security, invisible hand, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, zero day

Atika Shubert, ‘Tens of thousands of alleged Afghan war documents go online,’ CNN online, 25 July, 2010. See: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-07-25/tech/wikileaks.afghanistan_1_julian-assange-whistle-blower-website-afghan-war?_s=PM:TECH 7. William J. Broad, John Markoff and David E Sanger, ‘Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay, New York Times online, 15 January, 2011. See: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html?pagewanted=3&_r=1 8. Ibid. 9. CBS News, ‘Iran Confirms Stuxnet Worm Halted Centrifuges’, 29 November, 2010. See: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/11/29/world/main7100197.shtml 10. William J. Broad, John Markoff and David E. Sanger, ‘Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay’, New York Times online, 15 January, 2011. See: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html?

‘Listen to this,’ Erik had said, reading Phoenix the lead paragraph, ‘ “A computer intruder has written a program that has entered dozens of computers in a nationwide network in recent weeks, automatically stealing electronic documents containing users’ passwords and erasing files to help conceal itself.” ’ Phoenix was falling off his chair he was laughing so hard. A program? Which was automatically doing this? No. It wasn’t an automated program, it was the Australians! It was the Realm hackers! God, this was funny. ‘Wait – there’s more! It says, “Another rogue program shows a widespread vulnerability”. I laughed my ass off,’ Erik said, struggling to get the words out. ‘A rogue program! Who wrote the article?’ ‘A John Markoff,’ Erik answered, wiping his eyes. ‘I called him up.’ ‘You did? What did you say?’ Phoenix tried to gather himself together. ‘ “John,” I said, “You know that article you wrote on page 12 of the Times? It’s wrong! There’s no rogue program attacking the Internet.” He goes, “What is it then?” “It’s not a virus or a worm,” I said. “It’s PEOPLE.” ’ Erik started laughing uncontrollably again. ‘Then Markoff sounds really stunned, and he goes, “People?”

The idea of penetrating so many sites all in such a short time clearly baffled the investigators, who concluded it must be a program rather than human beings launching the attacks. ‘Yeah,’ Erik continued, ‘And then Markoff said, “Can you get me to talk to them?” And I said I’d see what I could do.’ ‘Yeah,’ Phoenix said. ‘Go tell him, yes. Yeah, I gotta talk to this idiot. I’ll set him straight.’ Page one, the New York Times, 21 March 1990: ‘Caller Says he Broke Computers’ Barriers to Taunt the Experts’, by John Markoff. True, the article was below the crease – on the bottom half of the page – but at least it was in column 1, the place a reader turns to first. Phoenix was chuffed. He’d made the front page of the New York Times. ‘The man identified himself only as an Australian named Dave,’ the article said. Phoenix chuckled softly. Dave Lissek was the pseudonym he’d used. Of course, he wasn’t the only one using the name Dave.


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Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone by Satya Nadella, Greg Shaw, Jill Tracie Nichols

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Amazon Web Services, anti-globalists, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bretton Woods, business process, cashless society, charter city, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fault tolerance, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Mars Rover, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, NP-complete, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, place-making, Richard Feynman, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telepresence, telerobotics, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, two-sided market, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional, zero-sum game

Chapter 8 The Future of Humans and Machines Toward an Ethical Framework for AI Design If you’d like to glimpse the state of computer-human relations and to understand its future, a good way to start is to observe some of the conversations we are having with our digital counterparts. Already millions of people around the world are working and talking with digital productivity assistants like Cortana; millions more spend part of everyday interacting with social companions—chatbots—like Xiaoice in China and Zo in the United States. John Markoff of The New York Times wrote about the phenomenon in his reporting on Xiaoice. The personalities of Cortana, Zo, and Xiaoice were developed by our AI team, whose work is now core to our AI aspirations. Users of social companions like Zo and Xiaoice say that when they are lonely, in a bad mood, or just aching for dialogue, they find these digital friends on their smartphones to be intelligent and sensitive.

We can daydream about how we will use our suddenly abundant spare time when machines drive us places, handle our most mundane chores, and help us make better decisions. Or we can fear a robot-induced massive economic dislocation. We can’t seem to get beyond this utopia/dystopia dichotomy. I would argue that the most productive debate we can have about AI isn’t one that pits good vs. evil, but rather one that examines the values instilled in the people and institutions creating this technology. In his book Machines of Loving Grace, John Markoff writes, “The best way to answer the hard questions about control in a world full of smart machines is by understanding the values of those who are actually building these systems.” It’s an intriguing observation, and one that our industry must address. At our developer conferences, I explain Microsoft’s approach to AI as based on three core principles. First, we want to build intelligence that augments human abilities and experiences.


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Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

The earliest networks—like the Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link (WELL), organized by Stewart Brand, the founder of The Whole Earth Catalog—grew directly out of 1960s counterculture. Brand had helped novelist Ken Kesey organize the Acid Tests—epic be-ins where thousands of hippies ingested LSD and danced to the music of a new band, the Grateful Dead. Steve Jobs, founder of Apple Computer, Inc., dropped acid as well. “Jobs explained,” wrote John Markoff in his book What the Dormouse Said, “that he still believed that taking LSD was one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life, and he said he felt that because people he knew well had not tried psychedelics, there were things about him they couldn’t understand.” Brand, Kesey, and Jobs envisioned a new kind of network that was truly “bottom-up.” But our hopes that this new kind of network would overthrow political hierarchies and decrease inequality have turned out to be pipe dreams, the fantasies of digital utopians.

Less than two minutes into the San Francisco demo, Engelbart said, “If in your office you as an intellectual worker were supplied with a computer display backed up by a computer that was alive for you all day and was instantly responsive to every action you have, how much value could you derive from that?” Engelbart had built a working prototype of what we today would easily recognize as a contemporary Internet device—fifteen years before the introduction of the Apple Macintosh. The next year Engelbart took a team from the Stanford Research Institute to the Lama Foundation commune, north of Taos, New Mexico. It was Stewart Brand who suggested that Lama might provide an atmosphere, as John Markoff wrote, “to create a meeting of the minds between the NLS researchers and the counterculture community animated by the Whole Earth Catalog.” The land outside Taos was full of alternative communities—Morningstar East, Reality Construction Company, the Hog Farm, New Buffalo, and the Family, to name a few. Steve Durkee and Steve Baer, both disciples of Buckminster Fuller and close friends of Stewart Brand, ran Lama, and the architecture of the buildings hewed closely to Bucky Fuller’s geodesic dome design.

Chapter Three: Tech’s Counterculture Roots Although I never got to meet Doug Engelbart, I was fortunate enough to have spent time with some of the founders of the Internet, including Vint Cerf, Tim Berners-Lee, and most especially John Seely Brown, who has been a mentor to me for the past seven years. Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2000). Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008), and John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said (New York: Viking, 2005), are both wonderful resources around the story of the early Internet. Lee Vinsel and Andrew Russell, “Hail the Maintainers,” Aeon, April 7, 2016, aeon.co/essays/innovation-is-overvalued-maintenance-often-matters-more. Chapter Four: The Libertarian Counterinsurgency Peter A. Thiel and David O. Sachs, The Diversity Myth (Oakland: The Independent Institute, 1998).


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World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer

artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism

In some neighborhoods of techland, Kurzweil is subjected to haughty dismissal. John McCarthy, the godfather of AI, once said that he wanted to live to 102, so that he could laugh at Kurzweil when the singularity fails to arrive at its appointed hour. Still, Kurzweil’s devotees include members of the tech A-list. Bill Gates, for one, calls him “the best person I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence.” The New York Times’s John Markoff, our most important chronicler of the technologists, says that Kurzweil “represents a community of many of Silicon Valley’s best and brightest,” ranks that include the finest minds at Google. • • • LARRY PAGE LIKES TO IMAGINE that he never escaped academia. Google, after all, began as a doctoral dissertation—and the inspiration for the search engine came from his connoisseurship of academic papers.

She has supplied me with the love, encouragement, and wisdom to make it all the way through the challenges of writing and life. Notes CHAPTER ONE: THE VALLEY IS WHOLE, THE WORLD IS ONE as an “Indian freak”: Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1968), 2, 11. child of an advertising executive: For biographical details about Brand, I leaned heavily on three excellent books: Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (University of Chicago Press, 2006); John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said (Viking Penguin, 2005); Walter Isaacson, The Innovators (Simon & Schuster, 2014). “cosmic consciousness”: Turner, 59. “tend to be extra-planetary”: Sherry L. Smith, Hippies, Indians, and the Fight for Red Power (Oxford University Press, 2012), 52. “a peyote meeting without peyote”: Charles Perry, The Haight-Ashbury (Random House, 1984), 19. messing around with acid: Markoff, 61.

Geraci, “Apocalyptic AI: Religion and the Promise of Artificial Intelligence,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 76, no. 1 (March 2008): 158–59. once said that he wanted to live to 102 so that he could laugh: Wendy M. Grossman, “Artificial Intelligence Is Still the Future,” The Inquirer, April 7, 2008. “the best person I know at predicting the future of artificial intelligence”: Kurzweil, Singularity, back cover. “represents a community of many of Silicon Valley’s best and brightest”: John Markoff, Machines of Loving Grace (HarperCollins, 2015), 85. Google invests vast sums: Alphabet Inc., Research & Development Expenses, 2015, Google Finance. “Google is not a conventional company”: Larry Page and Sergey Brin, “Letter from the Founders: ‘An Owner’s Manual’ for Google’s Shareholders,” August 2004. The aphorism became widely known only: Josh McHugh, “Google vs. Evil,” Wired, January 2003.


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The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect: World Trade Organization International Trade Statistics, 2013, World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2013_e/its2013_e.pdf. The highest-skilled labor markets: Richard Rahn, “RAHN: Estonia, the Little Country That Could,” Washington Times, June 20, 2011, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/jun/20/the-little-country-that-could/. A computer that can speed up analysis: John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all. Social networks can open doors: Larry Rosen, iDisorder: Understanding Our Obsession with Technology and Overcoming Its Hold on Us (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012). The digitization of payments: Luke Landes, “What Happens If Your Bank Account Is Hacked?”

Apparently the Germans: Alex Knapp, “The World’s Largest Walking Robot Is a Giant Dragon,” Forbes, September 18, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2013/09/18/the-worlds-largest-walking-robot-is-a-giant-dragon/. Run by the National Science Foundation: “National Robotics Initiative Invests $38 Million in Next-Generation Robotics,” R&D Magazine, October 25, 2013, http://www.rdmag.com/news/2013/10/national-robotics-initiative-invests-38-million-next-generation-robotics. The private sector is also investing: John Markoff, “Google Adds to Its Menagerie of Robots,” New York Times, December 14, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/14/technology/google-adds-to-its-menagerie-of-robots.html?_r=1&. As a kid, Hassabis was: Samuel Gibbs, “Demis Hassabis: 15 Facts about the DeepMind Technologies Founder,” Guardian, January 28, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/technology/shortcuts/2014/jan/28/demis-hassabis-15-facts-deepmind-technologies-founder-google; “Breakthrough of the Year: The Runners-Up,” Science 318, no. 5858 (2007): 1844–49, doi:10.1126/science.318.5858.1844a.

Each of these robots currently costs $25,000: John Biggs, “Foxconn Allegedly Replacing Human Workers with Robots,” TechCrunch, November 13, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/13/foxconn-allegedly-replacing-human-workers-with-robots/; Nicholas Jackson, “Foxconn Will Replace Workers with 1 Million Robots in 3 Years,” Atlantic, July 31, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/07/foxconn-will-replace-workers-with-1-million-robots-in-3-years/242810/. By the end of 2012: Jackson, “Foxconn Will Replace Workers.” Gou hopes to have the first: Robert Skidelsky, “Rise of the Robots: What Will the Future of Work Look Like?” Guardian, February 19, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/feb/19/rise-of-robots-future-of-work. As he explained in a 2012 New York Times article: John Markoff, “Skilled Work, without the Worker,” New York Times, August 19, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industry.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. But wages in China: Keith Bradsher, “Even as Wages Rise, China Exports Grow,” New York Times, January 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/business/international/chinese-exports-withstand-rising-labor-costs.html?


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The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

., ModMyiFone, Main Page, http://www.modmyifone.com/wiki/index.php/ (as of Sept. 30, 2007, 16:17 GMT) (containing code and instructions for modifications). 5. See Posting of Saul Hansell to N.Y. Times Bits Blog, Saul Hansell, Steve Jobs Girds for the Long iPhone War, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/09/27/steve-jobs-girds-for-the-long-iphone-war/ (Sept. 27, 2007, 19:01); Jane Wake-field, Apple iPhone Warning Proves True, BBC NEWS, Sept. 28, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7017660.stm. 6. See John Markoff, Steve Jobs Walks the Tightrope Again, N.Y. TIMES, Jan. 12, 2007, available at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/12/technology/12apple.html. 7. Posting of Ryan Block to Engadget, A Lunchtime Chat with Bill Gates, http://www.engadget.com/2007/01/08/a-lunchtime-chat-with-bill-gates-at-ces/ (Jan. 8, 2007, 14:01). PART I. THE RISE AND STALL OF THE GENERATIVE NET 1. For a discussion of the consolidation of the telephone industry at the turn of the twentieth century, see JASON A.

See Sullivan, supra note 1; see also SPAFFORD, THE INTERNET WORM INCIDENT, supra note 7, § 3.3. 11. Sullivan, supra note 1; see, e.g., James Bone, Computer Virus at Pentagon, THE TIMES (LONDON), NOV. 5, 1989; Philip J. Hilts, ‘Virus’ Hits Vast Computer Network; Thousands of Terminals Shut Down to Halt Malicious Program, WASH. POST, NOV. 4, 1988, at A1; Tom Hundley, Computer Virus Attack Called More Persistent Than Brilliant, CHI. TRIE.., Nov. 7, 1988, at C4; John Markoff, Author of Computer ‘Virus’ is Son of N.S.A. Expert on Data Security, N.Y. TIMES, NOV. 5, 1988, § 1, at 1. 12. Ted Eisenberg et al., The Cornell Commission: On Morris and the Worm, 32 COMM. OF the ACM 706, 707 (1989), available at http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=63526.63530 (publishing findings and dispelling myths about Morris and the worm). 13. GAO REPORT, supra note 3. The GAO used the occasion to make its report the first distributed over the Internet as well as on paper.

This all-in-one approach does carry some legal risks: for example, in a recent antitrust case, Microsoft was accused of putting a thumb on the scale for its own browser, not by designing its system to exclude new code, but by exploiting the power of system default options. See United States v. Microsoft Corp., 159 F.R.D. 318, 321 (D.D.C. 1995) (discussing the antitrust investigation against Microsoft and subsequent charges). 5. See John Markoff, Apple Earnings Bolstered by iPod and Notebook Sales, NY. TIMES, July 20, 2006, at C3 (reporting Apple’s 4.6 percent share of the U.S. PC market). 6. See DONALD A. NORMAN, THE INVISIBLE COMPUTER 52 (1998) (arguing that the usefulness of a tool for a particular task is the key virtue of “information appliances”). Indeed, “the primary motivation behind the information appliance is clear: simplicity.


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Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

According to the BBC report, Aghazadeh resigned sometime around June 26. But the June 2009 version of Stuxnet was unleashed June 22, and once it found itself on the right PLC, it took thirteen days for the sabotage to begin. So unless an earlier version of Stuxnet or something else caused an accident at Natanz, the timing didn’t match Aghazadeh’s resignation. 14 Author interview, September 2010. 15 John Markoff, “A Silent Attack, but Not a Subtle One,” New York Times, September 26, 2010. 16 Laurent Maillard, “Iran Denies Nuclear Plant Computers Hit by Worm,” Agence France-Presse, September 26, 2010, available at iranfocus.com/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21820. 17 David E. Sanger, “Iran Fights Malware Attacking Computers,” New York Times, September 25, 2010. 18 Six months later, a report from the Iranian Passive Defense Organization, a military organization chaired by Revolutionary Guard General Gholam-Reza Jalali, which is responsible for defending Iran’s nuclear facilities, contradicted these statements.

Bradley Graham, “Military Grappling with Rules for Cyber,” Washington Post, November 8, 1999. 25 James Risen, “Crisis in the Balkans: Subversion; Covert Plan Said to Take Aim at Milosevic’s Hold on Power,” New York Times, June 18, 1999. A Washington Post story says the plan never came to fruition. “We went through the drill of figuring out how we would do some of these cyber things if we were to do them,” one senior military officer told the paper. “But we never went ahead with any.” Graham, “Military Grappling with Rules for Cyber.” 26 John Markoff and H. Sanker, “Halted ’03 Iraq Plan Illustrates US Fear of Cyberwar Risk,” New York Times, August 1, 2009. According to Richard Clarke, it was the secretary of treasury who vetoed it. See Richard Clarke and Robert Knake, Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It (New York: Ecco, 2010), 202–3. In general, nations have observed an unspoken agreement against manipulating financial systems and accounts out of concern over the destabilizing effect this could have on global markets and economies. 27 David A.

See “How West Infiltrated Iran’s Nuclear Program, Ex-Top Nuclear Official Explains,” Iran’s View, March 28, 2014, www.iransview.com/west-infiltrated-irans-nuclear-program-ex-top-nuclear-official-explains/1451. 15 Yong and Worth, “Bombings Hit Atomic Experts in Iran Streets.” 16 Dagan was reportedly pushed out by Prime Minister Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak because he opposed an air strike against Iran. 17 Yong and Worth, “Bombings Hit Atomic Experts in Iran Streets.” 18 William J. Broad, John Markoff, and David E. Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011. 19 Ibid. CHAPTER 14 SON OF STUXNET As spring arrived in 2011, the story of Stuxnet seemed to be winding down. Symantec had resolved the mystery of the devices the digital weapon attacked, Albright had made the final connection between Stuxnet and the centrifuges at Natanz, and although the US government still hadn’t made a formal admission of responsibility for the attack, the New York Times had confirmed what everyone suspected—that the United States and Israel were behind it.


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The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman

Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, fixed income, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Parag Khanna, Pareto efficiency, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K, zero-sum game

An energy company could also use Willow for flexible solar cells. Corning even envisions e-books with glass pages. Eventually, Willow will ship out on huge spools, like movie reels, each holding up to 500 feet of glass. That is, once someone places an order. For now, rolls of glass sit on the Harrodsburg factory floor, a solution waiting for the right problem to arise. John Markoff 26. Skilled Work, Without the Worker New York Times The robots are coming for the last of the manufacturing jobs, as John Markoff writes in this fascinating look at the future of building things. This isn’t science fiction or futurism. It’s already happening, and it raises critical questions for society as a whole. At Tesla, the assembly-line workers have “a slightly menacing ‘Terminator’ quality” as the ten-foot-tall robots weld, rivet, and install parts.

Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs Greg Smith New York Times 23. Death Takes a Policy: How a Lawyer Exploited the Fine Print and Found Himself Facing Federal Charges Jake Bernstein ProPublica Part VIII. Brave New World 24. How Companies Learn Your Secrets Charles Duhigg New York Times Magazine 25. Glass Works: How Corning Created the Ultrathin, Ultrastrong Material of the Future Bryan Gardiner Wired 26. Skilled Work, Without the Worker John Markoff New York Times 27.I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave Mac McClelland Mother Jones 28. In China, Human Costs Are Built Into an iPad Charles Duhigg and David Barboza New York Times 29. How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking Mat Honan Wired Permissions List of Contributors Introduction Dean Starkman Compiling the Best Business Writing series each year reliably brings the pleasures of the eclectic and unexpected.

The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited. www.nytimes.com. “Glass Works: How Corning Created the Ultrathin, Ultrastrong Material of the Future.” Copyright © 2012 Condé Nast. All Rights Reserved. Article by Bryan Gardiner originally published in Wired. Reprinted by permission “Skilled Work, Without the Worker,” by John Markoff, from the New York Times, August 19, 2012. © 2012 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the Copyright Laws of the United States. The printing, copying, redistribution, or retransmission of this Content without express written permission is prohibited. www.nytimes.com. “I Was a Warehouse Wage Slave,” by Mac McClelland. First published in Mother Jones March/April 2012. © 2012 by Foundation for National Progress.


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Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

or a missile: Dan Froomkin, “Deciphering Encryption,” Washington Post, May 8, 1998, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/encryption/encryption.htm. First Amendment rights: John Markoff, “Judge Rules against U.S. in Encryption Case,” New York Times, December 19, 1996, https://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/19/business/judge-rules-against-us-in-encryption-case.html; “Bernstein v. US Department of Justice,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.eff.org/cases/bernstein-v-us-dept-justice. without explaining why: John Markoff, “Data-Secrecy Export Case Dropped by U.S.,” New York Times, January 12, 1996, accessed October 3, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/12/business/data-secrecy-export-case-dropped-by-us.html. the NSA couldn’t break: Steven Levy, “Battle of the Clipper Chip,” New York Times Magazine, June 12, 1994, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/1994/06/12/magazine/battle-of-the-clipper-chip.html.

were staffed by women: Bryony Norburn, “The Female Enigmas of Bletchley Park in the 1940s Should Encourage Those of Tomorrow,” The Conversation, January 26, 2015, accessed August 16, 2018, https://theconversation.com/the-female-enigmas-of-bletchley-park-in-the-1940s-should-encourage-those-of-tomorrow-36640; Sarah Rainey, “The Extraordinary Female Codebreakers of Bletchley Park,” The Telegraph, January 4, 2015, accessed August 16, 2018, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/history/world-war-two/11308744/The-extraordinary-female-codebreakers-of-Bletchley-Park.html. calculating ballistics trajectories, were women: Jennifer S. Light, “When Computers Were Women,” Technology and Culture 40, no. 3 (July 1999): 455–83. hired back both times: Charles E. Molnar and Wesley A. Clark, “Development of the LINC,” in A History of Medical Informatics, eds. Bruce I. Blum and Karen A. Duncan (New York: ACM Press, 1990), 119–38. or laboratory room: John Markoff, “Wesley A. Clark, Who Designed First Personal Computer, Dies at 88,” New York Times, February 27, 2016, accessed August 16, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/28/business/wesley-a-clark-made-computing-personal-dies-at-88.html. “conversational access” to the LINC: Mary Allen Wilkes, “Conversational Access to a 2048-Word Machine,” Communications of the ACM 13, no. 7 (July 1970): 407–14. “terrible food,” she recalls: This specific comment is from Wilkes’s interview in this video: Dr.

to name just one example: Masashi Crete-Nishihata, Jakub Dalek, Etienne Maynier, and John Scott-Railton, “Spying on a Budget: Inside a Phishing Operation with Targets in the Tibetan Community,” The Citizen Lab, January 30, 2018, accessed August 19, 2018, https://citizenlab.ca/2018/01/spying-on-a-budget-inside-a-phishing-operation-with-targets-in-the-tibetan-community. when the NSA itself was hacked: Lily Hay Newman, “The Leaked NSA Spy Tool That Hacked the World,” Wired, May 7, 2018, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.wired.com/story/eternalblue-leaked-nsa-spy-tool-hacked-world. CHAPTER 9: CUCUMBERS, SKYNET, AND RISE OF THE AI AlphaGo dominated, 4 to 1: John Markoff, “Alphabet Program Beats the European Human Go Champion,” New York Times, January 27, 2016, accessed August 19, 2018, https://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2016/01/27/alphabet-program-beats-the-european-human-go-champion; Bloomberg News, “How You Beat One of the Best Go Players in the World? Use Google,” Washington Post, March 14, 2016, accessed August 19, 2018, https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/how-you-beat-one-of-the-best-go-players-in-the-world-use-google/2016/03/14/1efd1176-e6fc-11e5-b0fd-073d5930a7b7_story.html.


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Army of None: Autonomous Weapons and the Future of War by Paul Scharre

active measures, Air France Flight 447, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, brain emulation, Brian Krebs, cognitive bias, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, DevOps, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, Flash crash, Freestyle chess, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, ImageNet competition, Internet of things, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Loebner Prize, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, pattern recognition, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sensor fusion, South China Sea, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Turing test, universal basic income, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, William Langewiesche, Y2K, zero day

Breaking Defense, March 11, 2016, http://breakingdefense.com/2016/03/navy-hits-gas-on-flying-gas-truck-cbars-will-it-be-armed/. 62 a range of only 67 nautical miles: 67 nautical miles equals 124 kilometers. 62 can fly up to 500 nautical miles: 500 nautical miles equals 930 kilometers. 63 three New York Times articles: John Markoff, “Fearing Bombs That Can Pick Whom to Kill,” New York Times, November 11, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/12/science/weapons-directed-by-robots-not-humans-raise-ethical-questions.html?_r=0. John Markoff, “Report Cites Dangers of Autonomous Weapons,” New York Times, February 26, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/29/technology/report-cites-dangers-of-autonomous-weapons.html. John Markoff, “Arms Control Groups Urge Human Control of Robot Weaponry,” New York Times, April 11, 2016, http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/12/technology/arms-control-groups-urge-human-control-of-robot-weaponry.html. 63 “artificial intelligence outside human control”: Markoff, “Fearing Bombs That Can Pick Whom to Kill.” 63 “an autonomous weapons arms race”: Ibid. 63 “LRASM employed precision routing and guidance”: Lockheed Martin, “Long Range Anti-Ship Missile,” http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/LRASM/overview.html (accessed on May 15, 2017). 63 Lockheed’s description of LRASM: Lockheed Martin, “Long Range Anti-Ship Missile,” as of October 20, 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20141020231650/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/LRASM.html. 64 “The semi-autonomous guidance capability gets LRASM”: Lockheed Martin, “Long Range Anti-Ship Missile,” as of December 16, 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20141216100706/http://www.lockheedmartin.com/us/products/LRASM.html. 64 video online that explains LRASM’s functionality: The video is no longer available on the Lockheed Martin website.

Ralph Langner, “Stuxnet Deep Dive,” S4x12, https://vimeopro.com/s42012/s4-2012/video/35806770. Kushner, imeopro.com/s42012/Stuxnet.t 214 Nearly 60 percent of Stuxnet infections: Falliere et al., “W32.Stuxnet Dossier,” 5–7. Kim Zetter, “An Unprecedented Look at Stuxnet, the World’s First Digital Weapon,” WIRED, November 3, 2014, https://www.wired.com/2014/11/countdown-to-zero-day-stuxnet/. 214 sharp decline in the number of centrifuges: John Markoff and David E. Sanger, “In a Computer Worm, a Possible Biblical Clue,” New York Times, September 24, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/30/world/middleeast/30worm.html. 214 Security specialists have further speculated: Ibid. Gross, “A Declaration of Cyber War.” 215 “While attackers could control Stuxnet”: Falliere et al., “W32.Stuxnet Dossier,” 3. 215 “collateral damage”: Ibid, 7. 215 spread via USB to only three other machines: Ibid, 10. 215 self-terminate date: Ibid, 18. 215 Some experts saw these features as further evidence: Gross, “A Declaration of Cyber War.” 215 “open-source weapon”: Patrick Clair, “Stuxnet: Anatomy of a Computer Virus,” video, 2011, https://vimeo.com/25118844. 215 blueprint for cyber-weapons to come: Josh Homan, Sean McBride, and Rob Caldwell, “IRONGATE ICS Malware: Nothing to See Here . . .

Horvitz, “Viewpoint Rise of Concerns about AI: Reflections and Directions,” Communications of the ACM 58, no. 10 (October 2015): 38–40, http://web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~tgd/publications/dietterich-horvitz-rise-of-concerns-about-ai-reflections-and-directions-CACM_Oct_2015-VP.pdf. 243 “The increasing abilities of AI”: Tom Dietterich, interview, April 27, 2016. 244 “robust to adversarial attack”: Ibid. 244 “The human should be taking the actions”: Ibid. 244 “The whole goal in military doctrine”: Ibid. 245 AGI as “dangerous”: Bob Work, interview, June 22, 2016. 245 more Iron Man than Terminator: Sydney J. Freedburg Jr., “Iron Man, Not Terminator: The Pentagon’s Sci-Fi Inspirations,” Breaking Defense, May 3, 2016, http://breakingdefense.com/2016/05/iron-man-not-terminator-the-pentagons-sci-fi-inspirations/. Matthew Rosenberg and John Markoff, “The Pentagon’s ‘Terminator Conundrum’: Robots That Could Kill on Their Own,” New York Times, October 25, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/26/us/pentagon-artificial-intelligence-terminator.html. 245 “impose obligations on persons”: Office of General Counsel, Department of Defense, “Department of Defense Law of War Manual,” June 2015, https://www.defense.gov/Portals/1/Documents/law_war_manual15.pdf, 330. 245 ”the ultimate goal of AI”: “The ultimate goal of AI (which we are very far from achieving) is to build a person, or, more humbly, an animal.”


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Habeas Data: Privacy vs. The Rise of Surveillance Tech by Cyrus Farivar

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, John Markoff, license plate recognition, Lyft, national security letter, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Hackers Conference, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Around that same time, Phil Zimmerman: Steven Levy, Crypto (Penguin Books, 2002), p. 191. Pretty Good Privacy: John Markoff, “Move on Unscrambling Of Messages Is Assailed,” The New York Times, April 17, 1991. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/​1991/​04/​17/​business/​move-on-unscrambling-of-messages-is-assailed.html. “to obtain the plaintext contents”: Joseph Biden, “All Information (Except Text) for S.266 - Comprehensive Counter-Terrorism Act of 1991,” January 24, 1991. https://www.congress.gov/​bill/​102nd-congress/​senate-bill/​266/​all-info. This notion ended up becoming: Office of the Press Secretary, “Statement by the Press Secretary,” April 16, 1993. Available at: http://cd.textfiles.com/​hackersencyc/​PC/​CRYPTO/​CLIPPER.TXT. Clipper chip would not: John Markoff, “Big Brother and the Computer Age,” The New York Times, May 6, 1993.

Over 1993 and 1994: Testimony of Jerry J. Berman, Executive Director Electronic Frontier Foundation before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology Subcommittee on Technology, Environment and Aviation U.S. House of Representatives Hearing on Communications and Computer Surveillance, Privacy and Security, May 3, 1993. Available at: https://totseans.com/​totse/​en/​zines/​cud_a/​cud644.html. Not a month later, a young AT&T: John Markoff, “Flaw Discovered in Plan for Federal Wiretapping,” The New York Times, June 2, 1994. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/​1994/​06/​02/​us/​flaw-discovered-in-federal-plan-for-wiretapping.html. one of Clipper chip’s critical flaws: Matt Blaze’s Clipper attack—details, sci. crypt, May 3, 1994. Available at: https://groups.google.com/​d/​msg/​sci.crypt/​J5QT1l6t8Vk/​3howjM9tNx0J. By the summer, the White House: “White House Wants a Clipper Alternative,” Washington Technology, July 14, 1994.

Available at: https://washingtontechnology.com/​articles/​1994/​07/​14/​white-house-wants-a-clipper-alternative.aspx?m=.1 But at the same time: Anthony Ramirez, “FBI’s Proposal on Wiretaps Criticized by Federal Agency,” The New York Times, January 15, 1993. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/​1993/​01/​15/​us/​fbi-s-proposal-on-wiretaps-criticized-by-federal-agency.html And in the end, the FBI’s efforts: John Markoff, “Big Brother and the Computer Age,” The New York Times, May 6, 1993. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/​1993/​05/​06/​business/​big-brother-and-the-computer-age.html. The law primarily targeted: Nate Anderson, The Internet Police (W. W. Norton & Company, 2014). p. 107. Crucially, the law does: 47 U.S. Code § 1002. Available at: https://www.law.cornell.edu/​uscode/​text/​47/​1002. In late June 1996: Philip Zimmermann, “Testimony of Philip R.


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The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan

active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day

Sanger, Confront and Conceal; Kim Zetter, Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World’s First Digital Weapon (New York: Crown, 2014). 8. For a much more detailed technical discussion of Fanny and related pieces of malicious code, see Kaspersky Lab, “A Fanny Equation”; Kaspersky Lab, “Equation: The Death Star of Malware Galaxy,” February 16, 2015; Kaspersky Lab, “Equation Group: Questions and Answers,” February 2015. 9. For the first reporting of this test, see William Broad, John Markoff, and David Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011. 10. Sanger, Confront and Conceal, 197. 11. For the first reporting of this order, see Sanger, Confront and Conceal, ch. 8. 12. For a good discussion of this propagation, see Zetter, Countdown to Zero Day, 91. See also Zetter and Modderkolk, “Revealed.” 13. Zetter, Countdown to Zero Day, 97.

As part of his response, that analyst referenced a conversation with the State Department’s special envoy for North Korean human rights issues, saying the envoy was not particularly worried about the threat because it sounded like “typical North Korean bullying.” Seal, “An Exclusive Look at Sony’s Hacking Saga.” 5. Seth Rogen (@Sethrogen), tweet, June 25, 2014, 10:48 AM. 6. Sanger, The Perfect Weapon, 129. 7. For contemporaneous coverage of two previous North Korean cyber operations, see Choe Sang-Hun and John Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. And South Korea,” New York Times, July 8, 2009; and Choe Sang-Hun, “Computer Networks in South Korea Are Paralyzed in Cyberattacks,” New York Times, March 20, 2013. For technical analysis, see Sergei Shevchenko, “Two Bytes to $951m,” BAE Systems Threat Research Blog, April 25, 2016; Kate Kochetkova, “What Is Known About the Lazarus Group: Sony Hack, Military Espionage, Attacks on Korean Banks and Other Crimes,” Kaspersky Daily, February 24, 2016; “Operation Blockbuster,” Novetta, 2016. 8.

For a good summary of the North Korean hacking program, see David Sanger, David Kirkpatrick, and Nicole Perlroth, “The World Once Laughed at North Korean Cyberpower. No More,” New York Times, October 15, 2017. 7. “The World Factbook: Korea, North,” Central Intelligence Agency, continually updated at https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html, accessed September 15, 2017. See also Michelle Nichols, “North Korea Took $2 Billion in Cyberattacks to Fund Weapons Program: U.N. Report,” Reuters, August 5, 2019. 8. John Markoff and Thom Shanker, “Halted ’03 Iraq Plan Illustrates U.S. Fear of Cyberwar Risk,” New York Times, August 1, 2009. 9. Richard A. Clarke, Michael J. Morell, Geoffrey R. Stone, Cass R. Sunstein, and Peter Swire, “Liberty and Security in a Changing World,” President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies, report, December 12, 2013, 221. 10. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J.


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Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power

air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

It was a computer in Engelbart’s Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute that would make the second node of the ARPANET. His dream was a future where workers would sit at personal computers connecting and collaborating. At the same time as many social hierarchies were being challenged, the technical architectures and hardware that would become the internet were taking shape. The links between the 1960s Californian freak scene and the pioneering days of early personal computing are chronicled in John Markoff’s 2005 book What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (even the book’s title is taken from a hoary old Jefferson Airplane track). In it, Markoff revealed that the world’s first online transaction was a drug deal: ‘In 1971 or 1972, Stanford students using Arpanet accounts at SAIL engaged in a commercial transaction with their counterparts at MIT.

Shulgin’s influence and experience bridges the gaps between the early 1950s intellectual explorers and psychiatric treatment pioneers, the 1960s hippy counterculture, 1970s and 1980s underground psychiatry, the 1980s explosion of Ecstasy as a recreational drug, the early internet drug scene of the 1990s and early 2000s – right into the chaotic twenty-first-century situation. What was to complicate the picture was a development that, on reflection, was entirely predictable. As the twentieth century ended, the web wasn’t just a place where you could talk about drugs – it was about to become a place where you could buy them. Notes 1. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2005), p. 109 2. Mylon Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros: 35 Years of Psychedelic Exploration: Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness (Thaneros Pr, 1994) 3. http://kk.org/ct2/2008/09/the-whole-earth-blogalog.php 4. Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, p. 109 5. www.giganews.com/usenet-history/index.html 6.

Nicholas Saunders, E for Ecstasy (Octavo, May 1993); http://ecstasy.org/books/e4x/e4x.ch.02.html 17. The Face, August 1990; http://testpressing.org/2010/07/the-face-europe-a-ravers-guide-august-1990/ 18. www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/subnational-health3/deaths-related-to-drug-poisoning/2010/stb-deaths-related-to-drug-poisoning-2010.html 19. Simon Reynolds, Rip it Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984 (Faber and Faber, 2006), p. xvi Notes 1. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2005), p. 109 2. Mylon Stolaroff, Thanatos to Eros: 35 Years of Psychedelic Exploration: Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness (Thaneros Pr, 1994) 3. http://kk.org/ct2/2008/09/the-whole-earth-blogalog.php 4. Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, p. 109 5. www.giganews.com/usenet-history/index.html 6.


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Selfie: How We Became So Self-Obsessed and What It's Doing to Us by Will Storr

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, bitcoin, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, gig economy, greed is good, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, Lyft, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Mother of all demos, Nixon shock, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, twin studies, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Book Six: The Digital Self A man, Doug Engelbart, appearing in a headset: My account of the story of Doug Engelbart, ARC, EST and Stewart Brand was mostly sourced from: What the Dormouse Said, John Markoff (Penguin, 2005); From Counterculture to Cyberculture, Fred Turner (University of Chicago Press, 2006); The Network Revolution, Jacques Vallee (Penguin, 1982); Bootstrapping, Thierry Bardini (Stanford University Press, 2000); ‘Chronicle of the Death of a Laboratory: Douglas Engelbart and the Failure of the Knowledge Workshop’, Thierry Bardini and Michael Friedewald, History of Technology (2003), 23, pp. 191–212; ‘Douglas Engelbart’s lasting legacy’, Tia O’Brien, Mercury News, 3 March 2013. A video of Engelbart’s presentation is widely available online. The account I’ve given in the text has been lightly edited for sense and concision. audience considered Engelbart a ‘crackpot’: ‘The Mother of All Demos – 150 years ahead of its time’, Cade Metz, Register, 11 December 2008. John Markoff has called ‘a complete vision of the information age’: What the Dormouse Said, John Markoff (Penguin, 2005), p. 9. In 1968, the year of the demo, the Institute’s co-founder Michael Murphy had written: ‘Esalen: Where Man Confronts Himself’, Michael Murphy, Stanford Alumni Almanac, May 1968. with one 1985 Esquire story reporting ‘scientists’: ‘Encounters at the Mind’s Edge’, George Leonard, Esquire, June 1985. Tim O’Reilly, the man who in 2005 christened the internet’s: ‘The Trend Spotter’, Steven Levy, Wired, 1 October 2010.

This insight came to him during his commute and he found it so awful he’d had to pull his car over. ‘My God, this is ridiculous. No goals!’ He spent that night preoccupied with finding a new project to aim his life at. He knew he wanted to change the world. But how? Could he invent something that would help humans cope better with the dizzying complexity of the future? It all came to him, then, in a torrent of fabulous insight that Silicon Valley historian John Markoff has called ‘a complete vision of the information age’. In his vision, he saw a man sitting at a screen that was attached to a computer and there were characters on the screen and the computer would be a kind of portal to all the information you’d need to do your work, and it would be wired to other computers, so you could communicate with each other, and your computer would work for you, organizing and aiding your working life.

It doesn’t necessarily follow that because she’s influential, she’d automatically agree with the ideas and works of all the people she’s influenced. In fact, as we’re talking about Rand, this seems staggeringly unlikely. Book Six: The Digital Self A man, Doug Engelbart, appearing in a headset: My account of the story of Doug Engelbart, ARC, EST and Stewart Brand was mostly sourced from: What the Dormouse Said, John Markoff (Penguin, 2005); From Counterculture to Cyberculture, Fred Turner (University of Chicago Press, 2006); The Network Revolution, Jacques Vallee (Penguin, 1982); Bootstrapping, Thierry Bardini (Stanford University Press, 2000); ‘Chronicle of the Death of a Laboratory: Douglas Engelbart and the Failure of the Knowledge Workshop’, Thierry Bardini and Michael Friedewald, History of Technology (2003), 23, pp. 191–212; ‘Douglas Engelbart’s lasting legacy’, Tia O’Brien, Mercury News, 3 March 2013.


Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in the Digital Age by Steven Levy

Albert Einstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, Donald Knuth, Eratosthenes, Extropian, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knapsack problem, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, new economy, NP-complete, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web of trust, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise

His NSA reader did point out a couple of errors in numerical transcription and one grammatical error. Now all Blaze had to do was get an okay from his employer—who had millions of dollars riding on its Clipper phones. Though there were some who wanted to bury the paper, eventually Blaze managed to convince his bosses that it would be impossible to keep his findings secret, so they shouldn’t even try. In any case, John Markoff of the New York Times had already gotten wind of the work. Blaze got permission to send him a draft, so that whatever story ran would be accurate. Markoff called back for some clarification and a few hours later called back again and asked Blaze a strange question: how newsworthy did he consider the story? Blaze felt that it was indeed a story—it showed how rushed the NSA was to get its system out, and emphasized how dangerous it was to foist something half baked on the public—but not a front-page story or anything like that.

Shamir, “How to Share a Secret,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 24, No. 11, November 1979, pp. 612–13. Shamir and G. R. Blakley are generally granted shared credit for the innovation. 166 Mafia-owned store A. Shamir, lecture at Securicom ’89, quoted in Schneier’s Applied Cryptography, p. 92. 166 Landau “Zero Knowledge and the Department of Defense,” Notices of the American Mathematical Society (Special Article Series), Vol. 35, No. 1 (1988), pp. 5–12. 166 Merkle John Markoff, “Paper on Codes Is Sent Despite U.S. Objections,” New York Times, August 9, 1989. 177 NIST, “A Proposed Federal Information Processing Standard for the Digital Signature Standard (DSS),” Federal Register, Vo. 56, August 1991, p. 169. 178 white flag NIST memo, “Twenty-third Meeting of the NIST/NSA Technical Working Group,” March 18, 1991. 179 the wrong agency Diffie, Privacy on the Line, p. 74. 181 “What crypto policy” Rivest’s remarks were made at the 1992 Computers, Freedom, and Privacy Conference. 182 National Security Decision Directive Background on NSDD 145 can be found in Diffie’s Privacy on the Line, Schneier and Banisar’s The Electronic Privacy Papers, and Tom Athanasiou, “Encryption: Technology, Privacy, and National Security,” Technology Review, August–September 1986. 183 orchestrated Clinton Brooks, Memo, April 28, 1992. 183 Memorandum of Understanding The MOU between the directors of NIST and the NSA “concerning the implementation of Public Law 100-235” is reprinted in Schneier and Banisar’s The Electronic Privacy Papers, pp. 401–4. 183 General Accounting Office “Communications Privacy: Federal Policy and Actions,” GAO/OSI-92-2-3 (November 1993). 184 hearings U.S.

Davis, “Use of Clipper Chip in AT&T TSD 3600 During Phase of Production,” memo to Sessions, December 23, 1992. 240 Encryption, Law Enforcement Briefing document sent to Tenet, February 19, 1993. 244 slide show “Telecommunications Overview” prepared by the FBI’s Advanced Telephony Unit. 248 Barlow “Jackboots on the Infobahn,” reprinted in Ludlow’s High Noon on the Electronic Frontier, pp. 207–13. 249 Denning See Steven Levy, “Clipper Chick,” Wired, September 1996. 249 Pilgrim maiden Sterling, The Hacker Crackdown, p. 299. 249 important step “Statement by the Press Secretary,” The White House, April 16, 1993. 250 Times article John Markoff, “New Communication System Stirs Talk of Privacy vs. Eavesdropping,” April 16, 1993. 252 It’s not America Steven Levy, “Uncle Sam.” 252 Safire “Sink the Clipper,” New York Times, February 4, 1994. 253 lion’s den Baker’s speech was adapted as “Don’t Worry Be Happy: Why Clipper Is Good for You,” in Wired, June 1994. 253 Skipjack E. F. Brickell, D. E. Denning, S. T. Kent, D. P. Maher, and W.


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Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

At the time, Bush was working as the chief administrator of the application of science to warfare: as Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, he coordinated the activities of some 6,000 scientists. The essay was republished, in an abridged form, a month after the atom bomb dropped. It is widely interpreted as sketching a path for new collaborations of scientists from different disciplines in peacetime. But it is most notable for the general-purpose information storage and retrieval machine it proposes, the “memex”. According to John Markoff, author of What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counter-culture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, at around about the time America’s atom bomb destroyed the city of Hiroshima – killing 80,000 of its residents, maiming tens of thousands more, and ending Japan’s involvement in World War II – Doug Engelbart was sailing out of San Francisco harbour on his way to do his military service in the Philippines.

But outside of Chaos, your average 21st-century computer user will be more familiar with the computer components that Doug Engelbart troubled himself over than with anything Vannevar Bush wrote about. Ask a child to draw a computer and he will draw a keyboard, screen, mouse and – possibly – a box sitting next to it. Yet the box is the computer – the rest of it is just input and output devices. Engelbart was not an acid head, but according to John Markoff he, like Brand, had taken part in the IFAS experiments, with mixed results. His first dose of LSD left the reclusive engineer catatonic. In a later experiment, a weaker, second dose was administered before participants, including Engelbart, were asked to work on a selection of engineering problems. According to Markoff: Engelbart’s contribution to the creativity session was a toy he conceived… called… a “tinkle toy”, and it was a little waterwheel that would float in a toilet bowl and spin when water (or urine) was run over it.


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The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Urmas Paet, accused the Kremlin directly: Doug Bernard, “New Alarm Bells, and Old Questions, About the Flame Virus and Cyber-War,” VOA (blog), May 30, 2012, http://blogs.voanews.com/digital-frontiers/tag/cyber-war/. NATO and European Commission experts were unable to find evidence: “Estonia Has No Evidence of Kremlin Involvement in Cyber Attacks,” RIA Novosti (Moscow), June 9, 2007, http://en.rian.ru/world/20070906/76959190.html. websites for the Georgian military and government were brought down: John Markoff, “Georgia Takes a Beating in the Cyberwar with Russia,” Bits (blog), New York Times, August 11, 2008, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/08/11/georgia-takes-a-beating-in-the-cyberwar-with-russia/; John Markoff, “Before the Gunfire, Cyberattacks,” New York Times, August 12, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/technology/13cyber.html. Russian hackers targeted the Internet providers in Kyrgyzstan: Gregg Keizer, “Russian ‘Cybermilitia’ Knocks Kyrgyzstan Offline,” Computerworld, January 28, 2009, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9126947/Russian_cybermilitia_knocks_Kyrgyzstan_offline.

Some refer to this as the upcoming Code War: Michael Riley and Ashlee Vance, “Cyber Weapons: The New Arms Race,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, July 20, 2011, http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/cyber-weapons-the-new-arms-race-07212011.html. As you can see, we did not coin the term “code war.” DDoS attacks crippled major government websites: Kim Zetter, “Lawmaker Wants ‘Show of Force’ Against North Korea for Website Attacks,” Wired, July 10, 2009, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/07/show-of-force/. suggested that the network of attacking computers, or botnet, began in North Korea: Choe Sang-Hun and John Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” New York Times, July 9, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/10/technology/10cyber.html?_r=1; Associated Press (AP), “U.S. Officials Eye N. Korea in Cyberattack,” USA Today, July 9, 2009, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/washington/2009-07-08-hacking-washington-nkorea_N.htm. Officials in Seoul directly pointed their fingers at Pyongyang: Choe and Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” New York Times, July 9, 2009.

mobile-phone service was also suspended: Associated Press (AP), “Vodafone: Egypt Ordered Cell Phone Service Stopped,” Huffington Post, January 28, 2011, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/01/28/vodafone-egypt-service-dropped_n_815493.html. Vodafone Egypt, issued a statement that morning: “Statements—Vodafone Egypt,” Vodafone, see January 28, 2011, http://www.vodafone.com/content/index/media/press_statements/statement_on_egypt.html. fiber-optic cables housed in one building in Cairo: James Glanz and John Markoff, “Egypt Leaders Found ‘Off’ Switch for Internet,” New York Times, February 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/technology/16internet.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. through its state-owned company Telecom Egypt, physically cut their service: Ibid. It was a move unprecedented in recent history: Parmy Olson, “Egypt Goes Dark, Cuts Off Internet and Mobile Networks,” Forbes, January 28, 2011, http://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2011/01/28/egypt-goes-dark/.


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Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

,” International Trade Administration, October 2010, http://trade.gov/publications/ita-newsletter/1010/services-sector-how-best-to-measure-it.asp. 31 AI with Jeremy Howard, 2013. 32 For information on the German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark see http://benchmark.ini.rub.de. 33 Geoffrey Hinton et al., “ImageNet Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks,” http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~fritz/absps/imagenet.pdf. 34 John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced By Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all. 35 David Schatsky and Vikram Mahidhar, “Intelligent automation: A new era of innovation,” Deloitte University Press, January 22, 2014, http://dupress.com/articles/intelligent-automation-a-new-era-of-innovation/. 36 John Markoff, “Computer Wins on ‘Jeopardy!’: Trivial, It’s Not,” New York Times, February 16, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/science/17jeopardy-watson.html?pagewanted=all. 37 “IBM Watson’s Next Venture: Fueling New Era of Cognitive Apps Built in the Cloud by Developers,” IBM Press Release, November 14, 2013, http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/42451.wss. 38 Nancy Dahlberg, “Modernizing Medicine, supercomputer Watson partner up,” Miami Herald, May 16, 2014. 39 AI with Daniel Cane, 2014. 40 Ray Kurzweil, “The Law of Accelerating Returns.” 41 Daniela Hernandez, “Meet the Man Google Hired to Make AI a Reality,” Wired, January 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/geoffrey-hinton-deep-learning/. 42 AI with Geordie Rose, 2014. 43 See http://1qbit.com. 44 John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude E.

Seriously, it’s one thing for a computer to recognize known objects (zip codes, traffic signs), but categorizing thousands of random objects is an ability that is downright human. Only better. For again the algorithms outperformed people.33 Similar progress is showing up in reading. Today, there are AIs that can accurately and consistently decipher everything from high school student essays to complicated tax forms far faster than humans. Take legal documents, a linguistic quagmire if ever there was one. Yet, as John Markoff wrote in a 2011 article for the New York Times:34 “Thanks to advances in artificial intelligence, ‘e-discovery’ software can analyze documents in a fraction of the time for a fraction of the cost. . . . Some programs go beyond just finding documents with relevant terms at computer speeds. They can extract relevant concepts—like documents relevant to social protest in the Middle East—even in the absence of specific terms, and deduce patterns of behavior that would have eluded lawyers examining millions of documents.”


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The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness by Steven Levy

Apple II, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, en.wikipedia.org, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technology bubble, Thomas L Friedman

An addendum by Bill Kincaid (www.panic.com/extras/audionstory/ popup-sjstory.html) describes the origin of Soundjam. 54 Anthony Michael Fadell: Tony Fadell's now-dark Web site provided background, as did Pamela Kruger and Katherine Miezknowski, "Stop the Fight," Fast Company, September 1998; Stephen Roskoff, "U-M Students: They're Bullish on Business," Michigan Alumnus, November-December 1989; and John Markoff, "Oh, Yeah, He Also Sells Computers," The New York Times, April 25,2004. 64 PortalPlayer, Pixo: Besides personal interviews, my account of the iPod's outside suppliers drew on Erik Sherman, "Inside the Apple iPod Design Triumph," Electronics Design Chain, Summer 2002; Mathew Yi, Notes "Little Known Startup Was Behind iPod's Easy-to-use Interface," San Francisco Chronicle, August 16,2004; and John H.

Notes 201 Mac team: I addressed the dynamics of Jobs and the Mac team in Insanely Great: The Story of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything (New York: Viking, 1994). 214 "Style is nice": Colleen Ryan was interviewed by my Newsweek colleague Brad Stone. 216 Sony: In addition to several personal interviews with Howard Stringer and other Sony executives, my discussion of Sony was informed by Phred Dvorak, "At Sony, Rivalries Were Encouraged; Then Came iPod," The Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2005; and Frank Rose, "The Civil War Inside Sony," Wired, February 2003. 218 Neistat: My researcher Jodi Mardesch interviewed the Neistat brothers. You can view the movie on the Neistat Web site http://www.ipods dirtysecret.com. 221 The iPod Economy: Damon Darlin, "Add-ons Have Become a Billion-Dollar Bonanza," The New York Times, February 3,2006. 226 "Michael Dell wasn't perfect at predicting the future": John Markoff, "Michael Dell Should Eat His Words, Apple Chief Suggests," The New York Times, January 16,2006. Podcast 230 iPod-based tour commentaries: Hannah Karp, "Hearing the Sights," The Wall Street Journal, April 21,2006. 231 ShasPod: My researcher Jodi Mardesch interviewed Shmidman. I also consulted Alex Mindlin, "2000 Talmud Tapes, or One Loaded iPod," The New York Times, March 17,2005. 238 Think Secret: Tom McNichol, "Think Belligerent," Wired, May 2005. 240 "Podcasting will shift": Doc Searls, "DIY Radio with Podcasting," Doc Searls'IT Garage, September 28,2004.

Once I engaged in a round of interviews and investigation for the book, I was aided in my work by Jodi Mardesch, a truly over-qualified researcher. Victoria Wright did her usual terrific job of transcribing tapes (and this time, MP3 files). Kevin McCarthy and J. Gabriel Boylan painstakingly fact-checked the manuscript. Brooke Hammerling and Julie Panebianco helped with music industry connections. Thanks also to J. J. Jacobi, Carl Malamud, Bruce Schneier, and John MarkofF. My agent. Flip Brophy, not only supplied the usual good advice but the perfect place to work during crunch time. (Thanks also to everyone at Sterling Lord Literistic.) I'm happy that David Rosenthal of Simon & Schuster finally bought one of my books, and happier still to be edited by Bob Bender, who even kept his cool when I told him my idea about shuffling the book. Johanna Li kept things moving.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Michael Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009), p. 4. 3. Joseph Hooper, “DARPA’s Debacle in the Desert,” Popular Science, June 4, 2004, http://www.popsci.com/scitech/article/2004-06/darpa-grand-challenge-2004darpas-debacle-desert. 4. Mary Beth Griggs, “4 Questions About Google’s Self-Driving Car Crash,” Popular Mechanics, August 11, 2011, http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/news/indus try/4-questions-about-googles-self-driving-car-crash; John Markoff, “Google Cars Drive Themselves, in Traffic,” New York Times, October 9, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/10/science/10google.html. 5. Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises (New York: HarperCollins, 2012), p. 72. 6. Levy and Murnane, The New Division of Labor, p. 29. 7. “Siri Is Actually Incredibly Useful Now,” Gizmodo, accessed August 4, 2013, http://gizmodo.com/5917461/siri-is-better-now. 8.

“Minneapolis Street Test: Google Gets a B+, Apple’s Siri Gets a D - Apple 2.0 -Fortune Tech,” CNNMoney, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/06/29/minneapolis-street-test-google-gets-a-b-apples-siri-gets-a-d/ (accessed June 23, 2013). 10. Ning Xiang and Rendell Torres, “Architectural Acoustics and Signal Processing in Acoustics: Topical Meeting on Spatial and Binaural Evaluation of Performing Arts Spaces I: Measurement Techniques and Binaural and Interaural Modeling,” 2004, http://scita tion.aip.org/getpdf/servlet/GetPDFServlet?filetype=pdf&id=JASMAN000116000004. 11. As quoted in John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 12. “Spring Cleaning for Some of Our APIs,” The Official Google Code Blog, June 3, 2011, http://googlecode.blogspot.com/2011/05/spring-cleaning-for-some-of-our-apis.html. 13. Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (New York: Random House, 2007), p. 54. 14.

Lars Bo Jeppesen and Karim Lahkani, “Marginality and Problem Solving Effectiveness in Broadcast Search,” Organization Science 20 (2013), http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/3351241/Jeppesen_Marginality.pdf?sequence=2. 24. “Predicting Liability for Injury from Car Accidents,” Kaggle, 2013, http://www.kaggle.com/solutions/casestudies/allstate. 25. “Carlsberg Brewery Harnesses Design Innovation Using Affinnova,” Affinnova, http://www.affinnova.com/success-story/carlsberg-breweries/ (accessed August 6, 2013). Chapter 6 ARTIFICIAL AND HUMAN INTELLIGENCE IN THE SECOND MACHINE AGE 1. John Markoff, “Israeli Start-Up Gives Visually Impaired a Way to Read,” New York Times, June 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/04/science/israeli-start-up-gives-visually-impaired-a-way-to-read.html. 2. “Press Announcements – FDA Approves First Retinal Implant for Adults with Rare Genetic Eye Disease,” WebContent, February 14, 2013, http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm339824.htm. 3.


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The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement by David Graeber

Bretton Woods, British Empire, corporate personhood, David Graeber, deindustrialization, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, financial innovation, George Gilder, John Markoff, Lao Tzu, late fees, Occupy movement, payday loans, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, working poor

If we want to explore the origins of those democratic sensibilities that caused ordinary New Yorkers to feel sympathetic to the idea of democratic rule in the first place, or even to find where people actually had direct, hands-on experience in collective decision making that might have influenced their sense of what democracy might actually be like, we not only have to look beyond the sitting rooms of the educated gentry. In fact, we soon find ourselves in places that might seem, at first, genuinely startling. In 1999, one of the leading contemporary historians of European democracy, John Markoff, published an essay called “Where and When Was Democracy Invented?” In it there appears the following passage: That leadership could derive from the consent of the led, rather than be bestowed by higher authority, would have been a likely experience of the crews of pirate vessels in the early modern Atlantic world. Pirate crews not only elected their captains, but were familiar with countervailing power (in the forms of the quartermaster and ship’s council) and contractual relations of individual and collectivity (in the form of written ship’s articles specifying shares of booty and rates of compensation for on-the-job injury).16 He makes the remark very much in passing but in a way it’s a very telling example.

Generally the electorate was a local council of worthies; in London, for instance, such a group might consist of 150 out of 3,000 local inhabitants. 7. Bernard Manin, The Principles of Representative Government (Cambridge: The Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 38. In ancient Greece, for instance, democracies tended to choose holders of executive positions by lot, from among a pool of volunteers, while election was considered the oligarchic approach. 8. See John Markoff, “Where and When Was Democracy Invented?,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 41, no.4 (1991): 663–65. 9. Gouverneur Morris to [John] Penn, May 20, 1774, in Jared Sparks, The Life of Gouverneur Morris: With Selections from His Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers: Detailing Events in the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and in the Political History of the United States (Boston: Grey & Bowen, 1830), p. 25. 10.

Madison, Federalist Papers, No. 10, pp. 54–55. 13. Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, Athens on Trial (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), p. 183. 14. Benjamin Rush, Medical Inquiries and Observations, vol. 1 (Philadelphia: J. Conrad, 1805), pp. 292–93. 15. Francis Dupuis-Déri, “History of the Word ‘Democracy’ in Canada and Québec: A Political Analysis of Rhetorical Strategies,” World Political Science Review, 6, no. 1 (2010): 3–4. 16. John Markoff, “Where and When Was Democracy Invented?,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, no. 41 (1999): 673. 17. As reconstructed by Marcus Rediker in Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age (Boston: Beacon Press, 2004). 18. Ibid., p. 53. 19. Colin Calloway, New Worlds for All (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997). (cf. Axtell 1985) 20. Cotton Mather, Things for a Distress’d People to Think Upon (Boston, 1696). 21.


pages: 307 words: 88,180

AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order by Kai-Fu Lee

AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, ImageNet competition, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, new economy, pattern recognition, pirate software, profit maximization, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Y Combinator

making up 48 percent: James Vincent, “China Overtakes US in AI Startup Funding with a Focus on Facial Recognition and Chips,” The Verge, February 2, 2018, https://www.theverge.com/2018/2/22/17039696/china-us-ai-funding-startup-comparison. first software program: Kai-Fu Lee and Sanjoy Mahajan, “The Development of a World Class Othello Program,” Artificial Intelligence 43, no. 1 (April 1990): 21–36. to create Sphinx: Kai-Fu Lee, “On Large-Vocabulary Speaker-Independent Continuous Speech Recognition,” Speech Communication 7, no. 4 (December 1988): 375–379. profile in the New York Times: John Markoff, “Talking to Machines: Progress Is Speeded,” New York Times, July 6, 1988, https://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/06/business/business-technology-talking-to-machines-progress-is-speeded.html?mcubz=1. demolished the competition: ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2012, Full Results, http://image-net.org/challenges/LSVRC/2012/results.html. for over $500 million: Catherine Shu, “Google Acquires Artificial Intelligence Startup for Over $500 Million,” TechCrunch, January 26, 2014, https://techcrunch.com/2014/01/26/google-deepmind/.

Sanchez, “China’s Counterfeit Disneyland Is Actually Super Creepy,” BuzzFeed, December 11, 2014, https://www.buzzfeed.com/gabrielsanchez/chinas-eerie-counterfeit-disneyland. 0.2 percent of the Chinese population: Xueping Du, “Internet Adoption and Usage in China,” 27th Annual Telecommunications Policy and Research Conference, Alexandria, VA, September 25–27, 1999, https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4881/088c67ad919da32487c567341f8a0af7e47e.pdf. “free is not a business model”: “Ebay Lectures Taobao That Free Is Not a Business Model,” South China Morning Post, October 21, 2005, http://www.scmp.com/node/521384. his autobiography, Disruptor: 周鸿祎, “颠覆者” (北京: 北京联合出版公司, 2017). Sinovation event in Menlo Park: Dr. Andrew Ng, Dr. Sebastian Thrun, and Dr. Kai-Fu Lee, “The Future of AI,” moderated by John Markoff, Sinovation Ventures, Menlo Park, CA, June 10, 2017, http://us.sinovationventures.com/blog/the-future-of-ai. book The Lean Startup: Eric Ries, The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses (New York: Crown Business, 2011). 3. CHINA’S ALTERNATE INTERNET UNIVERSE the Next Web: Francis Tan, “Tencent Launches Kik-Like Messaging App,” The Next Web, January 21, 2011, https://thenextweb.com/asia/2011/01/21/tencent-launches-kik-like-messaging-app-in-china/.

“historic achievement”: Allison Linn, “Historic Achievement: Microsoft Researchers Reach Human Parity in Conversational Speech Recognition,” The AI Blog, Microsoft, October 18, 2016, https://blogs.microsoft.com/ai/historic-achievement-microsoft-researchers-reach-human-parity-conversational-speech-recognition/. Ng left Baidu: Andrew Ng, “Opening a New Chapter of My Work in AI,” Medium, March 21, 2017, https://medium.com/@andrewng/opening-a-new-chapter-of-my-work-in-ai-c6a4d1595d7b. proposed cutting funding: Paul Mozur and John Markoff, “Is China Outsmarting America in A.I.?” New York Times, May 27, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/27/technology/china-us-ai-artificial-intelligence.html?_r=0. “venture socialism”: “Capitalizing on ‘Venture Socialism,’” Washington Post, September 18, 2011, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/capitalizing-on-venture-socialism/2011/09/16/gIQAQ7sYdK_story.html?utm_term=.5f0e532fcb86. 260,000 annual road fatalities: “Scale of Traffic Deaths and Injuries Constitutes ‘a Public Health Crisis’—Safe Roads Contribute to Sustainable Development,” World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region, press release, May 24, 2016, http://www.wpro.who.int/china/mediacentre/releases/2016/20160524/en/. 5.


The Deep Learning Revolution (The MIT Press) by Terrence J. Sejnowski

AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Conway's Game of Life, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, delayed gratification, discovery of DNA, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, Henri Poincaré, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Norbert Wiener, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, PageRank, pattern recognition, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Socratic dialogue, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Jordan, “Serial Order: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach,” Advances in Psychology 121 (1997): 471–495; G. Hinton, L. Deng, G. E. Dahl, A. Mohamed, N. Jaitly, A. Senior, et al., “Deep Neural Networks for Acoustic Modeling in Speech Recognition,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, 29, no. 6 (2012): 82–97. 18. S. Hochreiter and J. Schmidhuber, “Long Short-Term Memory,” Neural Computation 9, no. 8 (1997): 1735–1780. 19. John Markoff, “When A.I. Matures, It May Call Jürgen Schmidhuber ‘Dad.’” New York Times, November 27, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/27/ technology/artificial-intelligence-pioneer-jurgen-schmidhuber-overlooked.html. 20. K. Xu, J. L. Ba, K. Kiror, K. Cho, A. Courville, R. Slakhutdinov, R. Zemel, Y. Bengio, “Show, Attend and Tell: Neural Image Captions Generation with Visual Attention,” 2015, rev. 2016. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1502.03044.pdf. 21.

Connecting Interdisciplinary Research on Learning to Practice and Policy in Education) Shanghai, 1-6 March 2014 Summary Report. https://www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/International-Convention-on-the-Science-of -Learning-1-6-March-2014-Summary-Report.pdf. 27. See B. Bloom, “The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring,” Educational Researcher 13, no. 6 (1984): 4–16. 28. John Markoff, “Virtual and Artificial, but 58,000 Want Course,” New York Times, August 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/science/16stanford .html. 29. One of my favorite letters was from a fifth-grade student: February 2, 2015 Dear Professors, I took my final exams and it was great. I am in grade five. My mom was browsing through Coursera and I pestered her to make me join in. She chose this course for me.

This is an expensive undertaking, difficult for a small startup company. 40. Johana Bhuiyan, “Ex-Google Sebastian Thrun Says That the Going Rate for SelfDriving Talent Is $10 Million per Person,” Recode, September 17, 2016. https://www .recode.net/2016/9/17/12943214/sebastian-thrun-self-driving-talent-pool. 41. Geoffrey Hinton is the chief scientific advisor of the Vector Institute. See http:// vectorinstitute.ai/. 42. Paul Mozur and John Markoff, “Is China Outsmarting America in A.I.?” New York Times, May 27, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/27/technology/china -us-ai-artificial-intelligence.html. 43. Paul Mozur, “Beijing Wants A.I. to Be Made in China by 2030,” New York Times, July 20, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/20/business/china-artificial -intelligence.html. 44. See Mike Wall, “JFK’s ‘Moon Speech’ Still Resonates 50 Years Later,” Space.com (blog), posted September 12, 2012, https://www.space.com/17547-jfk-moon-speech -50years-anniversary.html.


pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Clay Shirky, transcript of talk at Web 2.0 conference, April 23, 2008, www.herecomeseverybody.org/2008/04/looking-for-the-mouse.html. Chapter 4 1 David Weinberger, “Transparency is the New Objectivity,” JOHO the Blog, July 19, 2009, www.hyperorg.com/blogger/2009/07/19/transparency-isthe-new-objectivity. The video of Weinberger’s talk is posted here www. youtube.com/watch?v=o3qSDLF6lU4. 2 John Markoff, “Plan Opens More Data to the Public,” The New York Times, October 22, 1993. 3 Carl Malamud, “By the People,” Address to the Government 2.0 Summit, Washington D.C., September 9, 2009, http://public.resource.org/people. 4 John Markoff, “Group to Widen Access to Federal Data Bases,” The New York Times, December 23, 1994. 5 Gary Ruskin, “America Off-Line: Gingrich’s Unfulfilled Internet Promise,” The Washington Post, November 16, 1997, www.washingtonpost.com/ wp-srv/politics/govt/fedguide/stories/fig112197.htm. 6 Daniel Charles, “2006 Young Innovators Under 35,” Technology Review, www.technologyreview.biz/TR35/Profile.aspx?


pages: 345 words: 84,847

The Runaway Species: How Human Creativity Remakes the World by David Eagleman, Anthony Brandt

active measures, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, haute couture, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, lone genius, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, microbiome, Netflix Prize, new economy, New Journalism, pets.com, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Simon Singh, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, X Prize

Learning of the Wright brothers’ success, he built a similar glider, but this time with ailerons. 6 From email correspondence with David Hagerman, curator of the Raymond Loewy estate and COO of Loewy Design. 7 Jillian Eugenios, “Lowe’s Channels Science Fiction in New Holoroom,” CNN, June 12, 2014, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://money.cnn.com/2014/06/12/technology/innovation/lowes-holoroom/> 8 John Markoff, “Microsoft Plumbs Ocean’s Depths to Test Underwater Data Center,” New York Times, January 31, 2016, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/01/technology/microsoft-plumbs-oceans-depths-to-test-underwater-data-center.html> 9 Gail Davidson, “The Future of Television,” Cooper Hewitt, August 16, 2015, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.cooperhewitt.org/2015/08/16/the-future-of-television/> 10 Ian Wylie, “Failure Is Glorious,” Fast Company, September 30, 2001, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.fastcompany.com/43877/failure-glorious> 11 Malcolm Gladwell, “Creation Myth,” New Yorker, May 16, 2011, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/05/16/creation-myth> 12 B.

Learning of the Wright brothers’ success, he built a similar glider, but this time with ailerons. 6 From email correspondence with David Hagerman, curator of the Raymond Loewy estate and COO of Loewy Design. 7 Jillian Eugenios, “Lowe’s Channels Science Fiction in New Holoroom,” CNN, June 12, 2014, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://money.cnn.com/2014/06/12/technology/innovation/lowes-holoroom/> 8 John Markoff, “Microsoft Plumbs Ocean’s Depths to Test Underwater Data Center,” New York Times, January 31, 2016, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/01/technology/microsoft-plumbs-oceans-depths-to-test-underwater-data-center.html> 9 Gail Davidson, “The Future of Television,” Cooper Hewitt, August 16, 2015, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.cooperhewitt.org/2015/08/16/the-future-of-television/> 10 Ian Wylie, “Failure Is Glorious,” Fast Company, September 30, 2001, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.fastcompany.com/43877/failure-glorious> 11 Malcolm Gladwell, “Creation Myth,” New Yorker, May 16, 2011, accessed May 11, 2016, <http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2011/05/16/creation-myth> 12 B.


A People’s History of Computing in the United States by Joy Lisi Rankin

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, computer age, corporate social responsibility, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pink-collar, profit motive, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, wikimedia commons

See, especially, Arthur Norberg, Judy O’Neill, and Kerry Freedman, Transforming Computer Technology: Information Pro­ cessing for the Pentagon, 1962–1986 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996) and Atsushi Akera, Calculating a Natu­ral World: Scientists, Engineers, and Computers during the Rise of U.S. Cold War Research (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007). Accounts that highlight the role of the counterculture in personal computing’s origins include Fred Turner’s From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006) and John Markoff’s What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture S ­ haped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking Penguin, 2005). 5. ­T hese works include Susan Rosegrant and David Lampe, Route 128: Lessons from Boston’s High-­Tech Community (New York: Basic Books, 1992); 245 246 Notes to Pages 3–5 AnnaLee Saxenian, Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994); Christophe Lécuyer, Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006); and Barry Katz, Make It New: The History of Silicon Valley Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2015).

The most comprehensive work on Engelbart is Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000). The demonstration is viewable at https://­w ww​.­youtube​.­com ​/­watch​?­v ​= y­ JDv​-­z dhzMY. Many works describe it, including Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The P ­ eople and Ideas ­behind the Next Computer Revolution (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985); and John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture ­Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005). 98. Alan Kay, “The Early History of Smalltalk,” in History of Programming Languages II, ed. Thomas Bergin Jr. and Richard Gibson Jr. (New York: ACM , 1996), 511–579. 99. Michael A. Hiltzik, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age (New York: HarperBusiness, 1999); Douglas K.

According to Levy, Albrecht was on a “planner” mission to spread computing far and wide, while Moore exhibited a “hacker” fascination with hardware. Yet Levy ­later notes (222) that ­others also dismissed the Homebrew crew as “chip-­monks, ­people obsessed with chips.” 18. ­People’s Computer Com­pany 3, no. 3 (January 1975). 19. ­People’s Computer Com­pany 3, no. 4 (March 1975), 6–7; capitalization of TINY BASIC in original. 20. Ibid. 21. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture ­Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005), 264–265. Note the play on byte, overbyte, and overbite, leading to “orthodontia” in the title. 22. Jim Warren quoted in Markoff, What the Dormouse Said, 265. 23. Warren quoted in Levy, Hackers, 235. Notes to Pages 236–241 293 24. Bill Gates, oral history interview by David Allison, National Museum of American History (Smithsonian Institution), http://­americanhistory​.­si​.­edu​ /­comphist ​/­gates​.­htm#tc3. 25.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Advances in AI are now being employed across a range of professional disciplines to increase efficiency and productivity and reduce human labor. EDiscovery is a software program that can sift through millions of legal documents, looking for patterns of behavior, lines of thought, concepts, and the like, at speeds that would trump the best Harvard-educated lawyers and with crisp analysis that even the most well-trained legal scholars might miss. The savings in labor cost is equally impressive. The New York Times journalist John Markoff cites the example of a blockbuster lawsuit in 1978 involving five television studios, the U.S. Justice Department, and CBS. The studios’ lawyers and paralegals had the unenviable task of reading through more than 6 million documents over months at a cost of $2.2 million in labor time. In January 2011 BlackStone Discovery, a Palo Alto, California, enterprise, analyzed 1.5 million legal documents using eDiscovery software for less than $100,000.

Peter Joseph, Roxanne Meadows, and Jacque Fresco, “The Zeitgeist Movement: Observations and Responses,” Zeitgeist Movement, February 2009 http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/socio politica/zeitgeist08.htm (accessed June 13, 2013). 14. Caroline Baum, “So Who’s Stealing China’s Manufacturing Jobs?,” Bloomberg, October 14 2003, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aRI4bAft7Xw4 (accessed July 1, 2013). 15. John Markoff, “Skilled Work, without the Worker,” New York Times, August 18, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-indus try.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 (accessed July 1, 2013). 16. Ibid. 17. “World Robotics 2012 Industrial Robots,” International Federation of Robotics, http://www.ifr .org/industrial-robots/statistics/ (accessed May 26, 2013). 18.

Jason Perlow, “In the Battle of Clicks versus Bricks, Retail Must Transform or Die,” ZDNet, December 8, 2011, http://www.zdnet.com/blog/perlow/in-the-battle-of-clicks-versus-bricks-retail -must-transform-or-die/19418 (accessed August 3, 2013). 33. “Occupational Employment and Wages News Release,” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 29, 2013, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/ocwage.htm (accessed June 8, 2013). 34. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all (accessed October 20, 2013). 35. Ibid. 36. Christopher Steiner, “Automatons Get Creative,” New York Times, August 17, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10000872396390444375104577591304277229534#printprin (accessed June 30, 2013). 37.


pages: 382 words: 105,819

Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee

4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Lanier has been a thought leader in technology for three decades, with an early emphasis on virtual reality, but in this book he speaks as a concerned technologist who is also a philosopher about technology. This book did not need ten arguments, but I learned something from every one. One of Lanier’s major concerns—unrestricted development of artificial intelligence—is the subject of Machines of Loving Grace, by John Markoff (New York: Ecco, 2015). The book explains how artificial intelligence risks undermining humans, rather than leveraging them. To understand the world of Big Data, and the challenges it poses to society, I recommend Cathy O’Neil’s Weapons of Math Destruction (New York: Crown, 2016), which has the best explanation of the good, the bad, and the ugly of algorithms that I have ever read. Yuval Harari’s 21 Lessons for the 21st Century (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2018), explores the implication of a future where robots and artificial intelligence threaten the relevance of humans in the economy.

Troublemakers: Silicon Valley’s Coming of Age, by Leslie Berlin (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017), tells the story of the men and women, some well known, others obscure, who helped to build Silicon Valley. The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution, by Walter Isaacson (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014), looks back on the key people whose work created Silicon Valley. What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, by John Markoff (New York: Viking, 2005), shows how hippie culture became the culture of the PC industry. Tom Wolfe’s The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (New York: Farrar Straus and Giroux, 1968) is a helpful introduction to the culture embraced by a core group in Silicon Valley at a critical time. Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer, by Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine (Berkeley: Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1984), is the best book I know on the early days of the personal computer industry, from computer clubs to the start of Microsoft and Apple, to the battle that followed.

The revised edition, which bears a different subtitle, follows the industry into its declining years. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, by Steven Levy (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984), investigates a key subculture in Silicon Valley. Levy wrote this as it was happening, which makes the book particularly helpful, as in the case of The Facebook Effect. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier, by Katie Hafner and John Markoff (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), picks up the story of Hackers and carries it forward. * * * — I RECOMMEND LEARNING ABOUT the origin stories of the other internet platforms. The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon, by Brad Stone (New York: Little, Brown and Co., 2013), blew my mind. I remember the day Jeff Bezos first presented to my partners, the venture capital firm of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.


pages: 440 words: 117,978

Cuckoo's Egg by Clifford Stoll

affirmative action, call centre, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, John Markoff, Menlo Park, old-boy network, Paul Graham, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, undersea cable

He’s only active late at night.” This was a difference. I often watched my hacker at noon. As I thought about it, Stanford was following different people. If anything, the Berkeley hacker seemed to prefer the name, “Hunter,” though I knew him by the several different account names he stole. Three days later, the headlines of the October 3 San Francisco Examiner blared, “Computer Sleuths Hunt A Brilliant Hacker.” Reporter John Markoff had sniffed out the Stanford story. On the side, the newspaper mentioned that this hacker had also gotten into the LBL computers. Could this be true? The story described Dan’s snares and his inability to catch Stanford’s Pfloyd hacker. But the reporter got the pseudonym wrong—the newspaper reported “a crafty hacker using the name ‘Pink Floyd.’ ” Cursing whoever leaked the story, I prepared to close things up.

Who knew where it landed next? Someone had leaked it to Quick magazine. And they published the story two weeks before I was going to. Damn. One year of silence. A year of covert cooperation with the authorities. Betrayed to a cheap tabloid in Germany. How ignominious. Even with a copy of my notebook, Quick was anything but accurate. Not much to do but get the facts out ourselves. Damn. Whatever we did, we’d be late. John Markoff—now at the New York Times—had heard about the story and was asking questions. Damn. Only one thing to do: my lab announced a press conference. With me at center stage. Damn. That evening, at 11 P.M., I was nervous and worried sick. Me? At a press conference? A phone call from the NSA didn’t help, either. Sally Knox, an administrator with NSA’s computer security center, was in town. She’d heard about tomorrow’s press conference.

“For once, I’ll tell you the truth,” Bob said. “I know who wrote the virus.” “Are you going to tell me?” “No.” Now that’s efficient. Ten hours after I call them, the National Computer Security Center has found the culprit. But I hadn’t. He’s still a mystery to me, so it’s back to snooping around the networks. If I could only find the computer that had been first infected. No, that won’t work. There’s thousands out there. John Markoff, a reporter from the New York Times, called. “I heard a rumor that the person who wrote the virus has the initials RTM. Is that any help?” “Not much, but I’ll check it out.” How do you find someone from his initials? Of course … you look him up in the network directory. I log into the Network Information Center and search for anyone with the initials RTM. One guy pops up: Robert T. Morris.


pages: 394 words: 117,982

The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age by David E. Sanger

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, computer age, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, ransomware, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Bloomberg among others, folded: Edward Wong, “Bloomberg Code Keeps Articles from Chinese Eyes,” New York Times, November 28, 2013, sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/28/bloomberg-code-keeps-articles-from-chinese-eyes/. A secret State Department cable: Described in the New York Times “State’s Secrets” series in 2010. James Glanz and John Markoff, “Vast Hacking by a China Fearful of the Web,” New York Times, December 5, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/12/05/world/asia/05wikileaks-china.html?pagewanted=print. “images of China’s military”: Ibid. in December 2009, Google’s top executives discovered: David E. Sanger and John Markoff, “After Google’s Stand on China, U.S. Treads Lightly,” New York Times, January 15, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/01/15/world/asia/15diplo.html. “Operation Aurora”: Kim Zetter, “Google Hack Attack Was Ultra Sophisticated, New Details Show,” Wired, January 14, 2010, www.wired.com/2010/01/operation-aurora/.

That number sounded pretty random to malware sleuths, but it set off my mental alarms. The centrifuges at the Natanz nuclear facility—I knew from years of covering Iran’s nuclear program and interviewing inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency—were organized in groups of 164. That left little mystery about the intended target. The following summer and fall, two Times colleagues, Bill Broad and John Markoff, and I published several stories about the hints emerging from the Stuxnet code. Markoff uncovered stylistic and substantive evidence of Israel’s role in the code writing. Next, we found one of several American calling cards embedded in the code—an expiration date, when the code would drop dead. Teenagers don’t put expiration dates into their code. Lawyers do—for fear that malware could become the digital equivalent of an abandoned land mine in Cambodia, waiting for someone to step on it two decades after it was planted.


pages: 363 words: 94,139

Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products by Leander Kahney

Apple II, banking crisis, British Empire, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Computer Numeric Control, Dynabook, global supply chain, interchangeable parts, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, race to the bottom, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the built environment, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple

The couple moved into a modest house on San Francisco’s Twin Peaks, the highest hill in the city, from which they enjoyed a stunning view of the city that extended the length of Market Street to the skyscrapers downtown. Inside, the place reflected Jony’s design tastes. “There is a fireplace in the sparsely appointed interior and a tiny television sitting atop an upscale stereo with a turntable, and virtually all the furniture is on wheels,” wrote reporter John Markoff, who visited Jony and his wife for a New York Times profile a few years later.1 “The room is lighted by a futuristic lamp, which appears to hang like a red orb, but there isn’t a personal computer in sight.” Jony bought an orange Saab convertible for the commute to Apple, about thirty-five miles away down the Peninsula in Cupertino. He went to work in the IDg studio on Valley Green Drive, a short walk from Apple’s main campus on Infinite Loop.

Peter Burrows, “Who Is Jonathan Ive?” Businessweek, originally in Radical Craft Conference, the Art Center College of Design in Pasadena, California., http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-09-24/who-is-jonathan-ive 52. Design Museum, http://designmuseum.org/design/jonathan-ive. 53. Ibid. 54. Interview with Peter Phillips, Spring 2013. CHAPTER 4 Early Days at Apple 1. John Markoff, “At Home with Jonathan Ive: Making Computers Cute Enough to Wear,” http://www.nytimes.com/1998/02/05/garden/at-home-with-jonathan-ive-making-computers-cute-enough-to-wear.html, published Feruary 05, 1998. 2. Paul Kunkel, AppleDesign, (New York: Graphis Inc., 1997), p. 81. 3. Interview with Robert Brunner, March 2013. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Interview with Rick English, December 2012. 7.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

The next chapter explores half a dozen of the most plausible scenarios. By assessing the likelihood and utility of each scenario, and understanding how to achieve or avoid them, we may be able to achieve the most positive outcome of the economic singularity. 6. - Scenarios 6.1 – No Change In a July 2015 interview with Edge, an online magazine, Pulitzer Prize-winning veteran New York Times journalist John Markoff lamented the deceleration of technological progress - in fact he claimed that it has come to a halt.[cccxlii] He reported that Moore’s Law stopped reducing the price of computer components in 2013, and pointed to the disappointing performance of the robots entered into the DARPA Robotics Challenge in June 2015 (which we reviewed in chapter 3.7). He claimed that there has been no profound technological innovation since the invention of the smartphone in 2007, and complained that basic science research has essentially died, with no modern equivalent of Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Centre (PARC), which was responsible for many of the fundamental features of computers which we take for granted today, like graphical user interfaces (GUIs) and indeed the PC.

[cccxl] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_and_drugs_and_rock_and_roll [cccxli] I am that terrible old cliché: a socialist student whose left-wing views did not long survive contact with the world of work. As a trainee BBC journalist writing about Central and Eastern Europe long before the Berlin Wall fell, I soon realised how fortunate I was to have grown up in the capitalist West. I didn’t expect to be heading back in the other direction in later life. [cccxlii] https://edge.org/conversation/john_markoff-the-next-wave [cccxliii] http://uk.pcmag.com/robotics-automation-products/34778/news/will-a-robot-revolution-lead-to-mass-unemployment [cccxliv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment [cccxlv] http://www.prisonexp.org/ [cccxlvi] http://fourhourworkweek.com/2014/08/29/kevin-kelly/ [cccxlvii] https://www.edge.org/conversation/kevin_kelly-the-technium [cccxlviii] http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/165acton.html [cccxlix] http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Brito_BitcoinPrimer.pdf [cccl] http://www.dugcampbell.com/byzantine-generals-problem/ [cccli] http://www.economistinsights.com/technology-innovation/analysis/money-no-middleman/tab/1 [ccclii] : The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI) in Northern California, The Future of Humanity Institute (FHI) and the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (CSER) in England’s Oxford and Cambridge respectively, and the Future of Life Institute (FLI) in Massachussetts.


Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams

Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K

In August of 1998, when chip-maker Intel purchased a stake in GNU/Linux vendor 142 Red Hat, an accompanying New York Times article described the company as the product of a movement "known alternatively as free software and open source."See Amy Harmon, "For Sale: Free Operating System," New York Times (September 28, 1998). Six months later, a John Markoff article on Apple Computer was proclaiming the company's adoption of the "open source" Apache server in the article headline.See John Markoff, "Apple Adopts 'Open Source' for its Server Computers," New York Times (March 17, 1999). Such momentum would coincide with the growing momentum of companies that actively embraced the "open source" term. By August of 1999, Red Hat, a company that now eagerly billed itself as "open source," was selling shares on Nasdaq. In December, VA Linux-formerly VA Research-was floating its own IPO to historical effect.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

When we log onto Google, it instantly identifies our approximate geographical location from the Internet Protocol address on the browser that connects us to the Internet. Thus the query is dispatched to the closest data center, which produces a speedier result. But the data centers are meant for more than search. Eric Schmidt, Schachter noted, has been proselytizing for cloud computing for two decades, since he was a Sun executive touting “network computing.” That same year, 2004, John Markoff of the New York Times spotted it too. While others saw Microsoft training its guns on search, he saw Google taking aim at Microsoft’s software. The scale of the Google computer system, as well as the backgrounds of its management, he wrote, “suggests that while Microsoft may want to be the next Google, the Web search company has its own still-secret plans to become the next Microsoft.” A STRIKING TAKEAWAY from the Google IPO and letter is that Google’s two thirty-one-year-old founders were driving the company with a clarity of purpose that would be stunning if they were twice their age.

“Your choices suck”: author interview with Mel Karmazin, May 13, 2008. 12 “I will believe in the 500-channel world”: Sumner Redstone speech before the National Press Club, October 19, 1994. 13 Vinod Khosla ... once told: “An Oral History of the Internet,” Vanity Fair, July 2008. 13 “a tsunami”: author interview with Craig Newmark, January 11, 2008. 14 Nielsen reported: The Nielsen Company, “Three Screen Report,” May 2008. 14 In 2008, more Americans: press release from the Pew Research Center for People & the Press, December 23, 2008. 14 the number one network teleuision show: Nielsen Media Research. 14 an estimated 1.6 billion: Universal McCann study, “Wave.3,” March 2008, and John Markoff, the New York Times, August 30, 2008. 14 newspapers, which traditionally claimed nearly a quarter: JackMyers.com. 14 lost 167,000 jobs: Advertising Age report from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 18, 2008. 14 two hundred billion dollars: Myers Advertising and Marketing Investment Insights, annual advertising spending forecast, September 15, 2007. 14 plunge below 20 percent: McCann Erickson Worldwide chart of percentage of ad dollars by media, 1980-2007. 15 it took telephones seventy-one years ... just five years: Progress & Freedom Foundation report, January 16, 2008, and “The Decade of Online Advertising,” DoubleClick, April 2005. 15 thirty-four technology stocks: charts provided to the author by Yossi Vardi. 15 1 million job applications: author interview with Lazslo Bock, August 22, 2007. 15 Its revenues... from advertising and other Google statistics: Google’s SEC filing for fiscal year ending December 31, 2007, Google Amendment No. 9 to Form S-1, filed with the SEC August 18, 2004, and Google 10-K filed with the SEC, December 31, 2008. 16 daily advertising impressions: Google Product Strategy Meeting attended by the author, April 16, 2008. 16 Google’s hundreds of millions of daily auctions: reported in its Google 10-K SEC filing for the year ending December 31, 2007. 16 index contained: Google’s third-quarter earnings report, October 16, 2008. 16 billions of pages per day: Google internal documents for March 2008, presented at an April 16, 2008, Google Product Strategy Meeting attended by the author. 16 tens of billions: May 2007 revenue report, the Interactive Advertising Bureau. 16 YouTube ... twenty-five million unique daily visitors; DoubleClick posted seventeen billion: Eric Schmidt presentation to Google employees, April 28, 2008. 16 Google’s ad revenues in 2008: “Media Spending 2006-2009 Estimates,” JackMyers. com, January 29, 2008. 16 “We began”: Google 10-K filed in 2008 for the period ending December 31, 2007. 16 “We are in the advertising business”: author interview with Eric Schmidt, October 9, 2007. 17 likens Google to ...

“: author interview with Marissa Mayer, November 4, 2008. 108 The stock reached $108.31 ... to its employees: SEC Form S-1, August 2004. 109 Even Bonnie Brown: Stefanie Olsen, CNET News, January 23, 2008. 110 ”We began as a technology company“: Google IPO, SEC form 3-1, August 2004. 110 two hundred million dollars in 2003: author interview with Benjamin Schachter, February 15, 2008. 110 ”In a second“: author interview with Matt Cutts, March 26, 2008. 111 ”suggests that while Microsoft“: John Markoff, ”Why Google Is Peering Out, at Microsoft,“ New York Times, May 3, 2004. 111”we believe that our user focus“: Google IPO, August 2004. 112 ”Being less experienced“: author interview with Larry Page, March 25, 2008. 112. ”A lot of it is common sense“: author interview with Sergey Brin, September 18, 2008. 112 ”They wanted to replicate the Stanford culture“: author interview with Ram Shriram, June 12, 2008. 112 ”They predicted things that did not make sense to me“: author interview with Urs Hölzle, September 10, 2007. 112 ”Their clear, coherent point of view“: author interview with Terry Winograd, September 25, 2007. 112”The number of times they made me change my opinion“: author interview with Rajeev Motwani, October 12, 2007. 113 the construct framed by Eric Steven Raymond: Eric Steven Raymond, ”The Cathedral and the Bazaar,“ found at http:/wwwcatb.org/-esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/. 113 Page and Brin actually have more experience: author interview with Eric Schmidt, September 12, 2007. 113 ”quintessential Montessori kids“: author interview with Marissa Mayer, August 21, 2007. 114 ”question everything“: Larry Page speech at University of Michigan, 2005. 114 ”There’s kind of a strength in the duo“: author interview with Bill Campbell, October 8, 2007. 114 ”We agree eighty to ninety percent of the time“: author interview with Sergey Brin, March 26, 2008. 114 ”If we both feel the same way ... we’re probably right“: author interview with Larry Page, March 25, 2008. 114 strength ”to be different“: author interview with Susan Wojcicki, September 10, 2007. 114 ”having a mental sparring partner“: author interview with Jen Fitzpatrick, September 12, 2007. 114 ”Having the two of them being completely in sync“: author interview with Omid Kordestani, September 12, 2007. 114 ”to force a conversation“: author interview with Eric Schmidt, September 12, 2007. 115 ”Some companies would be worried“: author interview with Sheryl Sandberg, October 11, 2007. 115 ”people saw values we believed in“: author interview with Craig Newmark, January 11, 2008. 115 the reason the troika ”works is that whoever you go to“: author interview with Sheryl Sandberg, October 11, 2007. 116 ”Eric is the leader for the company“: author interview with Sergey Brin, October 11, 2007. 116 ”I can’t imagine“: author interview with Bill Campbell, October 8, 2007. 116 ”A balanced appreciation“: author interview with Dan Rosensweig, February 27, 2008. 116 ”It borders on insulting“: author interview with Elliot Schrage, October 12, 2007. 116 ”catcher“: author interviews with Eric Schmidt, September 12, 2007, and October 9, 2007. 116 At the press lunch: post-Zeitgeist lunch attended by author, October 11, 2007. 117 ”the best business partner“: annual Google shareholder meeting attended by author, May 10, 2007. 117 ”Eric is the person who said“: author interview with Sheryl Sandberg, October 11, 2007. 117 ”I’ve become a huge cheerleader“: author interview with Michael Moritz, March 31, 2009. 118 an incident at the 2005 World Economic Forum: author interview with Andrew Lack, October 4, 2007. 118 ”no recollection of the specific incident“: e-mail from Arthur Sulzberger, Jr., April 29, 2009. 118 ”Schmidt confirmed Lack’s account“: author interview with Eric Schmidt, April 1, 2009. 118 ”Here’s the part you don’t see“: author interview with Bill Campbell, April 1, 2009. 119 ”We’re smart guys“: author interview with Terry Winograd, September 25, 2007. 120 ”privacy concerns“: Google IPO, August 2004.


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Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Y Combinator

Taxi Business Could (Finally) Get Some Disruption,” TechCrunch, https://techcrunch.com/2010/08/31/what-if-ubercab-pulls-an-airbnb-taxi-business-could-finally-get-some-disruption/. Chapter 7: THE TALLEST MAN IN VENTURE CAPITAL 65 “It’s magic”: GigaOm, “Bill Gurley, Benchmark Capital (full version),” YouTube video, 32:48, December 14, 2012, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBaYsK_62EY. 65 fund returned $250 million: John Markoff, “Internet Analyst Joins Venture Capital Firm,” New York Times, July 14, 1997, https://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/14/business/internet-analyst-joins-venture-capital-firm.html. 66 worked at the Johnson Space Center: Marissa Barnett, “Former Resident Donates $1M to Dickinson,” Galveston County Daily News, September 6, 2017, http://www.galvnews.com/news/article_7c163944-63ee-5499-8964-fec7ef7e0540.html. 66 Lucia spent her spare time: Bill Gurley, “Thinking of Home: Dickinson, Texas,” Above the Crowd (blog), September 6, 2017, http://abovethecrowd.com/2017/09/06/thinking-of-home-dickinson-texas/. 66 one of the first relatively inexpensive: “Commodore VIC-20,” Steve’s Old Computer Museum, http://oldcomputers.net. 66 he mostly rode the bench: Eric Johnson, “Full Transcript: Benchmark General Partner Bill Gurley on Recode Decode,” Recode, September 28, 2016, https://www.recode.net/2016/9/28/13095682/bill-gurley-benchmark-bubble-uber-recode-decode-podcast-transcript. 66 He played for one minute: “Bill Gurley,” Sports Reference, College Basketball (CBB), https://www.sports-reference.com/cbb/players/bill-gurley-1.html and “Bill Gurley Season Game Log,” Sports Reference, College Basketball (CBB), https://www.sports-reference.com/cbb/players/bill-gurley-1/gamelog/1988/. 67 he was infatuated: Gabrielle Saveri, “Bill Gurley Venture Capitalist, Hummer Winblad Venture Partners,” Bloomberg, August 25, 1997, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/1997-08-24/bill-gurley-venture-capitalist-hummer-winblad-venture-partners. 70 “He’s kind of an animal”: Stross, Randall E., EBoys: The First Inside Account of Venture Capitalists at Work (Crown Publishers, 2000). 71 Gurley wrote: Bill Gurley, “Benchmark Capital: Open for Business,” Above the Crowd (blog), December 1, 2008, https://abovethecrowd.com/2008/12/01/benchmark-capital-open-for-business/.

Chapter 18: CLASH OF THE SELF-DRIVING CARS 176 “The reason I’m excited”: James Temple, “Brin’s Best Bits from the Code Conference (Video),” Recode, May 28, 2014, https://www.recode.net/2014/5/28/11627304/brins-best-bits-from-the-code-conference-video. 178 “We get stuff like this”: Biz Carson, “New Emails Show How Mistrust and Suspicions Blew Up the Relationship Between Uber’s Travis Kalanick and Google’s Larry Page,” Business Insider, July 6, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/emails-uber-wanted-to-partner-with-google-on-self-driving-cars-2017-7. 181 Trucking was an enormous industry: American Trucking Associations, “News and Information Reports, Industry Data,” https://www.trucking.org/News_and_Information_Reports_Industry_Data.aspx. 181 Trucks drive 5.6 percent: National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration, “USDOT Releases 2016 Fatal Traffic Crash Data,” https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/usdot-releases-2016-fatal-traffic-crash-data. 182 “I want to be in the driver seat”: Duhigg, “Did Uber Steal Google’s Intellectual Property?” 182 autonomous vehicle engineering specialists: John Markoff, “Want to Buy a Self-Driving Car? Big-Rig Trucks May Come First,” New York Times, May 17, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/05/17/technology/want-to-buy-a-self-driving-car-trucks-may-come-first.html. 182 Levandowski ignored them: Mark Harris, “How Otto Defied Nevada and Scored a $60 Million Payout from Uber,” Wired, November 28, 2016, https://www.wired.com/2016/11/how-otto-defied-nevada-and-scored-a-680-million-payout-from-uber/#.67khcq4w5. 183 “Safety Third”: Chafkin and Bergen, “Fury Road.” 183 “brother from another mother”: Chafkin and Bergen, “Fury Road.” 184 “Super Duper” version of Uber: From Waymo LLC v.

., https://twitter.com/ariannahuff/status/207915187846656001. 228 an unfaithful journalist: Vanessa Grigoriadis, “Maharishi Arianna,” New York, November 20, 2011, http://nymag.com/news/media/arianna-huffington-2011-11. 228 a warm, intelligent woman: Lauren Collins, “The Oracle: The Many Lives of Arianna Huffington,” New Yorker, October 13, 2008, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2008/10/13/the-oracle-lauren-collins. 228 “Your dowry is your education”: Collins, “The Oracle.” 229 “a kind of liberal foil”: Collins, “The Oracle.” 230 “a unified theory of Arianna”: Meghan O’Rourke, “The Accidental Feminist,” Slate, September 22, 2006, https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2006/09/arianna-huffington-the-accidental-feminist.html. 230 “There are two schools of thought”: Maureen Orth, “Arianna’s Virtual Candidate,” Vanity Fair, November 1, 1994, https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/1994/11/huffington-199411. 230 Her political career: https://www.vanityfair.com/culture/1994/11/huffington-199411. Chapter 24: NO ONE STEALS FROM LARRY PAGE 232 first consumer-ready version: John Markoff, “No Longer a Dream: Silicon Valley Takes on the Flying Car,” New York Times, April 24, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/24/technology/flying-car-technology.html. 233 “a new way forward in mobility”: Daisuke Wakabayashi, “Google Parent Company Spins Off Self-Driving Car Business,” New York Times, December 13, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/13/technology/google-parent-company-spins-off-waymo-self-driving-car-business.html. 233 suing him months ago: Biz Carson, “Google Secretly Sought Arbitration Against Its Former Self-Driving Guru Months Before the Uber Lawsuit,” Business Insider, March 29, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/google-filed-against-anthony-levandowski-in-arbitration-before-uber-lawsuit-2017-3. 233 old Google workplace accounts: Waymo LLC v.


pages: 352 words: 96,532

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon

air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy

Also by Katie Hafner The House at the Bridge: A Story of Modern Germany Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (with John Markoff) TOUCHSTONE Rockefeller Center 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 Visit us on the World Wide Web: http://www.SimonSays.com Copyright © 1996 by Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon All rights reserved, including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. First Touchstone Edition 1998 TOUCHSTONE and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster Inc. Includes index. ISBN-10: 0-684-87216-1 ISBN-13: 978-0-684-87216-2 To the memory of J. C. R. Licklider and to the memory of Cary Lu Contents Prologue 1. The Fastest Million Dollars 2. A Block Here, Some Stones There 3.

Memories were growing fuzzy in late 1993, when we first started thinking about doing a book, and Frank Heart and others were interested in having BBN’s considerable role in the creation of the original ARPANET recorded. Not only did the company open its archives to us and cooperate in every way but it helped fund the project as well, while agreeing to exercise no control over the content of the book. Marian Bremer, then BBN’s head librarian, made the initial phone call that led to the book. Cary Lu and John Markoff urged us to take on the project. Helen Samuels and the folks at MIT archives were immensely helpful, as was Kevin Corbitt, assistant archivist at the Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing, at the University of Minnesota. We are grateful to John Day, Larry Roberts, Al Vezza, and John Shoch for digging around in old boxes for us. Deborah Melone and Bob Menk sent photographs and archives from BBN.


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

The ideas that shaped it came together at Stanford University’s campus in Palo Alto, California, during the 1950s and 1960s. There a handful of young tech students, who were involved with both the antiwar and the hippie movements, fed their psychedelic social ideas into the development of the computer. Many scientists working on similar projects at nearby R&D facility Xerox PARC also were influenced by flower power. Some were hippies themselves. According to John Markoff, author of What the Dormouse Said: How 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer, “There was this very interesting parallel between the way they worked with psychedelics—which was about augmenting human potential— and the works of a man named Doug Engelbart [a pioneer of humancomputer interaction, who, among other things, invented the mouse], who was attempting to build a machine that he thought would augment the human mind.”

For those who want a more detailed account of the history of the Loft and how disco evolved, I would recommend: Tim Lawrence, Love Saves the Day (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003). Bill Brewster and Frank Broughton, Last Night a DJ Saved My Life (London: Headline, 1999). Page 143 R. U. Sirius (aka Ken Goffman), True Mutations (San Francisco: Pollinator Press, 2006), p. 15. 260 | Notes John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said (New York: Penguin, reprint edition 2006). Page 145 Bill Gates, “An Open Letter to Hobbyists,” February 3, 1976. http://www .blinkenlights.com/classiccmp/gateswhine.html. Page 146 R. U. Sirius (aka Ken Goffman) and Dan Joy, Counterculture Through the Ages (New York: Villard, 2004), p. 353. Page 147 Richard Stallman, “The Free Software Definition,” Free Software Foundation. http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html.


pages: 72 words: 21,361

Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy by Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", Amazon Mechanical Turk, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, business process, call centre, combinatorial explosion, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, hiring and firing, income inequality, intangible asset, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Ray Kurzweil, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, shareholder value, Skype, too big to fail, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Similarly, the best therapists, managers, and salespeople excel at interacting and communicating with others, and their strategies for gathering information and influencing behavior can be amazingly complex. But it’s also true, as the examples in this chapter show, that as we move deeper into the second half of the chessboard, computers are rapidly getting better at both of these skills. We’re starting to see evidence that this digital progress is affecting the business world. A March 2011 story by John Markoff in the New York Times highlighted how heavily computers’ pattern recognition abilities are already being exploited by the legal industry where, according to one estimate, moving from human to digital labor during the discovery process could let one lawyer do the work of 500. In January, for example, Blackstone Discovery of Palo Alto, Calif., helped analyze 1.5 million documents for less than $100,000. … “From a legal staffing viewpoint, it means that a lot of people who used to be allocated to conduct document review are no longer able to be billed out,” said Bill Herr, who as a lawyer at a major chemical company used to muster auditoriums of lawyers to read documents for weeks on end.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

The ads that appeared in 1976 for their first Apple computer announced that “our philosophy is to provide software for our machines free or at minimal cost” and “yes folks, Apple BASIC is Free.”16 1984 During the decade after Computer Lib, as personal computers became fixtures in American homes and as computer companies became established organizations in their own right, the notion that personal computers represented a naked challenge to the centralized power of both computing and larger institutions persisted. John Markoff’s account of the counterculture’s influence on personal computing relates how “[t]he old computing world was hierarchical and conservative. Years later, after the PC was an established reality, Ken Olson, the founder of minicomputer maker Digital Equipment Corporation, still … publicly asserted that there was no need for a home computer.”17 On the other hand, antiestablishment ideology became entrenched in manifold specifics of the PC’s design; Markoff relates, for instance, that the visualization that comes with iTunes—the pretty colors that move and change in sequence with the music—was inspired in part by Jobs’s use of LSD, which Jobs called “one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life.”

The quotation is taken from his essay “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time, 1 Mar. 1995. 13. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/newsletters/peoples-computer/peoples-1972-oct/index.html 14. http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/homebrew_and_how_the_apple.php 15. http://www.digibarn.com/collections/newsletters/homebrew/V2_01/index.html 16. http://www.gadgetspage.com/comps-peripheral/apple-i-computer-ad.html 17. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 1996). 18. http://pdgmag.com/2012/02/02/steve-jobs-lee-clow-and-ridley-scott-the-three-geniuses-who-made-1984-less-like-1984/ 19. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYecfV3ubP8 20. Adelia Cellini, “The Story Behind Apple’s ‘1984’ TV Commercial: Big Brother at 20.” MacWorld 21, no. 1 (2004): 18. 21. http://partners.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/12/biztech/articles/122099outlook-bobb.html?


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Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

For kindly housing and looking after me during my research trips, I would like to thank Ralph and Shan Logan, Andrea Shallcross and Jonathan Burn, Rachel Layne and John Mulrooney, Barbara Bestor and Tom Stern, and assorted relatives. I am also indebted to a number of talented and hardworking authors who brought clarity to various aspects of historic and current issues in security touched on here, including John Markoff, Phil Lapsley, Fred Kaplan, Ronald Deibert, Shane Harris, Andy Greenberg, Bruce Sterling, Steven Levy, and Gabriella Coleman. For those interested in learning more about the bulletin board era, I strongly recommend Jason Scott Sadofsky’s multipart documentary and his text file collection, both publicly available. I would especially like to thank my keen-eyed editor, Colleen Lawrie, agent David Patterson, and media advisor Elinor Mills.

I also used Bruce Sterling’s The Hacker Crackdown (New York: Bantam Books, 1992) and Masters of Deception, by Michelle Slatalla and Joshua Quittner (New York: HarperPerennial, 1995). “Attendee Dale Drew of Arizona”: Drew went on to have a serious security career with Tymnet, MCI, and Level 3 Communications, where he was chief security officer. He didn’t respond to my interview request. “Barlow’s fellow acid-taking Deadhead”: For more on Brand and the connections between psychedelics and major technology innovations, see John Markoff’s What the Dormouse Said (New York: Viking, 2005). “I’ve been in redneck bars wearing shoulder-length curls”: John Perry Barlow, “Crime and Puzzlement,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, June 1990, www.eff.org/pages/crime-and-puzzlement. The site has a collection of his other writings as well. “Ladopoulos and Abene were arrested and prosecuted”: One member of MoD who got away, Red Knight, was also in cDc.


pages: 81 words: 24,626

The Internet of Garbage by Sarah Jeong

4chan, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Network effects, Silicon Valley

In her documentation of the phenomenon of doxing, Katherine Cross writes, “I am at pains to remind the reader that all of this traces back to opinions about video games, a seething hatred of feminists who play and write about them, and a harassment campaign that began as an extended act of domestic violence against developer Zoe Quinn by a vengefully abusive ex-boyfriend.” Doxing Women Bruce Schneier notes that doxing has existed since 2001. Others recall seeing the term come up in IRC channels in the mid-2000s, particularly regarding retaliation against New York Times writer John Markoff, who had written a controversial exposé of the hacker Kevin Mitnick. Markoff is credited (or blamed) by some to have helped with Mitnick’s later arrest and imprisonment. (The journalist’s email account was compromised in 1996.) In 2011, dox were dropped on HBGary Federal, a company that claimed to be able to out members of Anonymous and LulzSec (infamous Internet vigilante groups composed of entirely anonymous or pseudonymous members) by gathering information on social media.


pages: 889 words: 433,897

The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey by Emmanuel Goldstein

affirmative action, Apple II, call centre, don't be evil, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, information retrieval, John Markoff, late fees, license plate recognition, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, optical character recognition, packet switching, pirate software, place-making, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RFID, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, undersea cable, Y2K

But what was most amazing was that we wound up getting steered in a totally different direction when in 1998 we got a hold of an internal copy of the screenplay (don’t 94192c08.qxd 6/3/08 3:32 PM Page 235 Pop Culture and the Hacker World ask) for a new movie called Takedown. To put it mildly, we thought it was treating the hacker community and Mitnick in particular in a very unfair manner. So we decided to speak up about it. And that would lead to the making of our own film.... When Hackers Ride Horses: A Review of Cyberpunk (Summer, 1991) Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier By Katie Hafner and John Markoff $22.95, Simon and Schuster, 354 pages Review by The Devil’s Advocate The exploits of Kevin Mitnick, Pengo, and Robert Morris have become legendary both in and out of the hacker mainstream. Until now, however, hackers have had to worship their idols from afar. Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier unites hackers in this true-life testimony by presenting an in-depth, up-front view of these “techno-menaces” without the overreactive doomsday prophecies that usually accompany such a work.

Rather, Littman’s brand of compassion is 245 94192c08.qxd 6/3/08 3:32 PM Page 246 246 Chapter 8 an acute understanding of the abuses of his own craft, that of the media in distorting facts to the point of creating fiction. Fugitive is the story of how just such irresponsible journalism turned computer expert Kevin Mitnick into “the most wanted computer hacker in the world.” Readers will remember Mitnick as the spiteful and vindictive teenager featured in Katie Hafner and John Markoff’s Cyberpunk: Computers and Outlaws on the Electronic Frontier. At the time of its release, Cyberpunk’s portrayal of Mitnick was thought to be biased, allegedly because Mitnick was the only hacker featured who refused to be interviewed. Biased or not, he was portrayed by the authors as a “Dark Side” hacker, and the antithesis of the hacker ethic. He was considered more evil than Pengo, a West Berlin hacker who sold his knowledge of American systems on the Internet to the Russians for cash.

In Fugitive, Littman reminds us that an investigative journalist’s most powerful weapon is still to question. Question everything. Question the good guys. Question the bad guys. Question authority. Fugitive is replete with questioning, most of which remains unanswered. While loose ends are not usually considered praiseworthy for an investigative work, in this case, the kudos are indeed appropriate because Littman seems to be the only one doing the questioning. Certainly John Markoff, despite Cyberpunk and all of his New York Times pieces, has never bothered to scratch below the surface of Mitnick or acquire the true facts of his case. Littman spends entire chapters debunking the myths and distortions surrounding Mitnick, most of which originated from these very sources. And Littman’s questions have a way of reminding the reader to remain skeptical, that things are never as simple as we 94192c08.qxd 6/3/08 3:32 PM Page 247 Pop Culture and the Hacker World would like them to be.


pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business cycle, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

“‘Father of Aerobics,’ Kenneth Cooper, MD, MPH to Receive Healthy Cup Award from Harvard School of Public Health,” press release, April 16, 2008, http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/2008-releases/aerobics-kenneth-cooper-to-receive-harvard-healthy-cup-award.html. 22. J. D. Reed, “America Wakes Up,” Time, Nov. 16, 1981, http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/printout/0,8816,950613,00.html. 23. Personal communication, October 5, 2012. 24. Kurt Eichenwald with John Markoff, “Wall Street’s Souped-up Computers,” New York Times, Oct. 16, 1988, http://www.nytimes.com/1988/10/16/business/wall-street-s-souped-up-computers.html. 25. Dean Baker, “The Run-up in Home Prices: Is It Real or Is It Another Bubble” briefing paper, Center for Economic and Policy Research, August 2002, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/housing_2002_08.pdf; and Dean Baker, “The Productivity to Paycheck Gap: What the Data Show,” briefing paper, April 2007, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/growth_failure_2007_04.pdf. 26.

Daniel Katz, “Quantitative Legal Prediction—Or—How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Start Preparing for the Data-Driven Future of the Legal Services Industry,” Emory Law Journal, 62, no. 909 (2013): 965. 3. Laura Manning, “65 Students Chasing Each Training Contract Vacancy,” Lawyer 2B, June 28, 2011, http://l2b.thelawyer.com/65-students-chasing-each-training-contract-vacancy/1008370.article. 4. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” The New York Times, March 4, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.htmlpagewanted=1&_r=1&hp. 5. Thor Olavsrud, “Big Data Analytics Lets Businesses Play Moneyball,” ComputerworldUK, Aug. 24, 2012, http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/it-business/3377796/big-data-analytics-lets-businesses-play-money ball/. 6. Daniel Martin, Katz “Quantitative Legal Prediction—Or—How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Start Preparing for the Data-Driven Future of the Legal Services Industry,” Emory Law Journal, 62, no. 909 (2013): 938. 7.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

T. Fairfield, Owned: Property, Privacy, and the New Digital Serfdom (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017). 7. Sheila Jasanoff, The Ethics of Invention:Technology and the Human Future (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2016), 169. 8. Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2015), 21. 9. John Markoff, Machines of Loving Grace: the Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots (New York: HarperCollins, 2015), xvi. 10. Robert W. McChesney, Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism is Turning The Internet Against Democracy (New York: The New Press, 2014), 166. 11. McChesney, Digital Disconnect, 162. 12. Philip N. Howard, Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2015), xix–xx. 13.

See Leo Kelion and Shiroma Silva, ‘Pro-Clinton Bots “Fought Back but Outnumbered in Second Debate” ’, BBC News, 19 October 2016<http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-37703565> (accessed 1 December 2017); Amanda Hess, ‘On Twitter, a Battle Among Political Bots’, New York Times, 14 December 2016 <https://mobile. nytimes.com/2016/12/14/arts/on-twitter-a-battle-among-politicalbots.html?contentCollection=weekendreads&referer=> (accessed 1 December 2017); Bence Kollanyi, Philip N. Howard, and Samuel C. Woolley,‘Bots and Automation over Twitter during the U.S. Election’, Computational Propaganda Project, 2016 <http://comprop.oii.ox.ac. uk/2016/11/17/bots-and-automation-over-twitter-during-the-us-election/> (accessed 1 December 2017); John Markoff, ‘Automated Pro-Trump Bots Overwhelmed Pro-Clinton Messages, Researchers Say’, New York Times, 17 November 2016 http://www.nytimes. com/2016/11/18/technology/automated-pro-trump-botsoverwhelmed-pro-clinton-messages-researchers-say.html)> (accessed 1 December 2017). 20. Ian Sample, ‘Study Reveals Bot-on-Bot Editing Wars Raging on Wikipedia’s Pages’, The Guardian, 23 February 2017 <https:// www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/feb/23/wikipedia-botediting-war-study> (accessed 1 December 2017).


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, G4S, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Singer, “The Unmanned Mission,” Fortune, 161 (March 1, 2010), S2; Associated Press, “Robot Performs Wedding Ceremony in Tokyo,” Boston Globe, May 17, 2010, A3; and Kirsner, “You, Robot,” Boston Sunday Globe, May 30, 2010, G1, G4. Interestingly, Ramo has recently argued that robots could and should replace humans as much as possible in future space landings on Mars and elsewhere. See Simon Ramo, “Too Big a Step for Mankind,” Los Angeles Times, April 26, 2010, A15. 59 John Markoff, “Race to Build a Robot More Like Us,” Science Times, New York Times, July 12, 2011, D1. 60 See Karl Ritter, Associated Press, “Nobel Prize in Medicine Goes to In Vitro Fertilization Pioneer,” Boston Globe, October 5, 2010, A4; and Nicholas Wade, “In Vitro Fertilization Pioneer Wins Nobel Prize,” New York Times, October 5, 2010, A1, A3. 61 Quoted by Gwynne Dyer in his “A Long Way from Designing Chromosomes,” Bangor Daily News, May 25, 2010, A7. 62 Review by Deborah D.

See, for example, Newsweek’s cover story on Apple’s latest invention, the iPad, by Daniel Lyons and Nick Summers, “Think Really The Resurgence of Utopianism 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Different,” 155 (April 5, 2010), 47–51. The issue’s cover title was explicit: “What’s So Great About the iPad? Everything. How Steve Jobs Will Revolutionize Reading, Watching, Computing, Gaming— and Silicon Valley.” Similarly, Time’s cover story for 175 (April 12, 2010), 6, 36–43, was “Inside Steve’s Pad.” On new visions of artificial intelligence, see John Markoff, “The Coming Superbrain: Computers Keep Getting Smarter, While We Just Stay the Same,” Sunday New York Times, Week in Review, May 24, 2009, 1, 4; and Alex Beam, “Apocalypse Later: Ray Kurzweil Predicts the Not-So-Near Future in ‘Post-Biological’ Visions of Humanity,” Boston Globe, June 29, 2010, G23. On nuclear power, see the references in Chapter 6, notes 31–34 and 37–52. See James Fleming, Fixing the Sky: The Checkered History of Weather and Climate Control (New York: Columbia University Press, 2010).


pages: 332 words: 97,325

The Launch Pad: Inside Y Combinator, Silicon Valley's Most Exclusive School for Startups by Randall Stross

affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, always be closing, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, index fund, inventory management, John Markoff, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, transaction costs, Y Combinator

Jessica Livingston, Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days (Berkeley, CA: Apress, 2007), 205–22. This is the basis for the remainder of this account of Viaweb, other than specific exceptions noted. 6. Biographical details are drawn from PG’s biography on the Viaweb Web site, preserved at http://ycombinator.com/viaweb/com.html. 7. John Markoff, “How a Need for Challenge Seduced Computer Expert,” New York Times, November 6, 1988, www.nytimes.com/1988/11/06/us/how-a-need-for-challenge-seduced-computer-expert.html; John Markoff, “Computer Intruder Is Put on Probation and Fined $10,000,” New York Times, May 5, 1990, www.nytimes.com/1990/05/05/us/computer-intruder-is-put-on-probation-and-fined-10000.html. Coverage of the incident did not fail to note that this Robert Morris—Robert Tappan Morris—was the son of Robert Morris, the well-known computer scientist who was then the chief scientist for the National Computer Security Center, a division of the National Security Agency.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Provine Don’t Ring Me: Aubrey de Grey A Thousand Hours a Year: Simon Baron-Cohen Thinking Like the Internet, Thinking Like Biology: Nigel Goldenfeld The Internet Makes Me Think in the Present Tense: Douglas Rushkoff Social Prosthetic Systems: Stephen M. Kosslyn Evolving a Global Brain: W. Tecumseh Fitch Search and Emergence: Rudy Rucker My Fingers Have Become Part of My Brain: James O’Donnell A Mirror for the World’s Foibles: John Markoff a completely new form of sense: Terence Koh By Changing My Behavior: Seirian Sumner There Is No New Self: Nicholas A. Christakis I Once Was Lost but Now Am Found, or How to Navigate in the Chartroom of Memory: Neri Oxman The Greatest Pornographer: Alun Anderson My Sixth Sense: Albert-László Barabási The Internet Reifies a Logic Already There: Tom McCarthy Instant Gratification: Peter H.

What all this means is that we are in a different space now, one that is largely unfamiliar to us even when we think we’re using familiar tools (like a “newspaper” that has never been printed or an “encyclopedia” vastly larger than any shelf of buckram volumes), and one that has begun life by going through rapid changes that only hint at what is to come. I’m not going to prophesy where that goes, but I’ll sit here a while longer, watching the ways I’ve come to “let my fingers do the walking,” wondering where they will lead. A Mirror for the World’s Foibles John Markoff Journalist; covers Silicon Valley for the New York Times; author, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry It’s been three decades since Les Earnest, then assistant director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, introduced me to the ARPANET. It was 1979, and from his home in the hills overlooking Silicon Valley he was connected via a terminal and a 2,400-baud modem to Human Nets, a lively virtual community that explored the impact of technology on society.


pages: 383 words: 105,021

Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War by Fred Kaplan

Cass Sunstein, computer age, data acquisition, drone strike, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, game design, hiring and firing, index card, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, national security letter, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Y2K, zero day

He’d been a hacker: His guitar playing at Berklee comes from Mark Small, “Other Paths: Some High-Achieving Alumni Have Chosen Career Paths That Have Led Them to Surprising Places,” Berklee, Fall 2007, http://www.berklee.edu/bt/192/other_paths.html. He and the other L0pht denizens: The hearing can be seen on YouTube, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVJldn_MmMY. Three days after Mudge’s testimony: Bill Clinton, Presidential Decision Directive/NSC-63, “Critical Infrastructure Protection,” May 22, 1998, http://fas.org/irp/offdocs/pdd/pdd-63.htm. FIDNET, as he called it: John Markoff, “U.S. Drawing Plan That Will Monitor Computer Systems,” New York Times, July 28, 1999; and interviews. “Orwellian”: Tim Weiner, “Author of Computer Surveillance Plan Tries to Ease Fears,” New York Times, Aug. 16, 1999; and interviews. “While the President and Congress can order”: Bill Clinton, National Plan for Information Systems Protection, Jan. 7, 2000, http://cryptome.org/cybersec-plan.htm.

The postmortem indicated: David Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran,” New York Times, June 1, 2012. “offensive capabilities in cyber space”: Quoted in Richard A. Clarke and Robert K. Knake, Cyber War (New York: HarperCollins, 2010), 44–47. “cyber-offensive teams”: Zachary Fryer-Biggs, “U.S. Sharpens Tone on Cyber Attacks from China,” DefenseNews, March 18, 2013, http://mobile.defensenews.com/article/303180021; and interviews. In Obama’s first year as president: Choe Sang-Hun and John Markoff, “Cyberattacks Jam Government and Commercial Web Sites in U.S. and South Korea,” New York Times, July 18, 2009; Clarke and Knake, Cyber War, 23–30. A year and a half later: Zetter, Countdown to Zero Day, 276–79. Four months after that: “Nicole Perlroth, “In Cyberattack on Saudi Firm, U.S. Sees Iran Firing Back,” New York Times, Oct. 23, 2013. “demonstrated a clear ability”: “Iran—Current Topics, Interaction with GCHQ: Director’s Talking Points,” April 2013, quoted and linked in Glenn Greenwald, “NSA Claims Iran Learned from Western Cyberattacks,” The Intercept, Feb. 10, 2015, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2015/02/10/nsa-iran-developing-sophisticated-cyber-attacks-learning-attacks/.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

four times that amount over a lifespan: Martin Haegele, Thomas Skordas, Stefan Sagert, et al., “Industrial Robot Automation,” White Paper FP6-001917, European Robotics Research Network, 2005. Priced at $25,000: Angelo Young, “Industrial Robots Could Be 16% Less Costly to Employ Than People by 2025,” International Business Times, February 11, 2015. all but seven minutes of a typical flight: John Markoff, “Planes Without Pilots,” New York Times, April 6, 2015. 3: FLOWING steady flow of household replenishables: “List of Online Grocers,” Wikipedia, accessed August 18, 2015. new medium imitates the medium it replaces: Marshall McLuhan, Culture Is Our Business (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970). top ten music videos: “List of Most Viewed YouTube Videos,” Wikipedia, accessed August 18, 2015.

Footnotes, invented in about: Ivan Illich, In the Vineyard of the Text: A Commentary to Hugh’s Didascalicon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 97. bibliographic citations: Malcolm B. Parkes, “The Influence of the Concepts of Ordinatio and Compilation on the Development of the Book,” in Medieval Learning and Literature: Essays Presented to Richard William Hunt, eds. J.J.G. Alexander and M. T. Gibson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), 115–27. gaining visual intelligence rapidly: John Markoff, “Researchers Announce Advance in Image-Recognition Software,” New York Times, November 17, 2014. “one can only reread it”: Vladimir Nabokov, Lectures on Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980). “He who receives an idea from me”: Thomas Jefferson, “Thomas Jefferson to Isaac McPherson, 13 Aug. 1813,” in Founders’ Constitution, eds. Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1986).


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Lou Gerstner, addressing the eBusiness Conference Expo in New York City, 12 December 2000, <http://www.ibm.com/lvg/1212.phtml> (2 February 2002). 35. Michelle Delio, “The Grid Draws Its Battle Lines,” Wired News, 20 February 2002, <http://www.wired.com/news/technology/0,1282,50538,00.html> (29 March 2002). 36. Ian Foster, “Internet Computing and the Emerging Grid,” Nature, 7 December 2000, <http://www.nature.com/nature/webmatters/grid/grid.html> (23 November 2001). 37. Ibid. 38. John Markoff, “The Soul of the Ultimate Machine,” New York Times, 12 December 2000, <http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/10/technology/10SMAR.html> (24 January 2002). 39. Ibid. 40. Ibid. 41. Steve Lohr, “IBM Making a Commitment to Next Phase of the Internet,” New York Times, 2 August 2001, <http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/02/technology/02BLUE.html > 42. Ann Harrison, “The Crime of Distributed Computing,” Register, 12 December 2001, <http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/6/23477.html> (1 February 2002). 43.

Peter Meyers, “In a Pinch, Wi-Fi Fills the Gap,” New York Times, 4 October 2001, <http://www.nytimes.com/2001/10/04/technology/circuits/04ACCE.html?ex=100> (23 February 2002). 28. PlayaNet, <http://www.playanet.org > (23 February 2002). 29. Burning Man, <http://www.burningman.com > (23 February 2002). 30. Cory Doctorow, email correspondence, 25 February 2001. 31. “SFLan Manifesto,” <http://www.sflan.com/index.html > (23 February 2002). 32. John Markoff, “The Corner Internet Network vs. the Cellular Giants,” New York Times, 4 March 2002, <http://www.nytimes.com/2002/03/04/technology/04MESH.html > (6 March 2002). 33. Michael Behar, “The Broadband Militia,” Washington Monthly, March 2002, <http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2001/0203.behar.html > (6 March 2002). 34. Rob Flickenger, Building Wireless Community Networks: Implementing the Wireless Web (Sebastopol, Calif.: O’Reilly Associates, 2001), <http://www.oreil-lynet.com/pub/a/wireless/2001/03/06/recipe.html> (21 February 2002). 35.


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Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

“If they could do a black-bag job on everyone who had it,” Gilmore recalled in a café in Haight-Ashbury, “then they could classify anything.”48 By now the anarchists were beginning to understand what the NSA feared. The c-punks had seen that the spooks at Fort Meade could tweak the law and play politics. But the activists also knew the secret agency hated publicity. So Gilmore started calling some of the technology reporters he knew through the cypherpunks list. One of the best-known journalists in San Francisco at the time was John Markoff, from the New York Times. Gilmore reached out to him. The Times later ran the story. “In Retreat, U.S. Spy Agency Shrugs at Found Secret Data,” the headline read.49 Gilmore’s plan worked as predicted: the NSA shunned the light. The agency declassified the Friedman documents in response to the high-profile publicity. The NSA’s lawyers didn’t call Gilmore’s lawyer to tell him that they had finally yielded and would declassify the Friedman books; they told Markoff straightaway.

., 61. 39.Kelly, “Cypherpunks, e-Money,” 46. 40.May, “Announcement.” 41.Ibid. 42.Kelly, “Cypherpunks, e-Money,” 42. 43.Kevin Kelly, Out of Control (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995), 178. 44.May, “True Nyms and Crypto Anarchy,” 82. 45.James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1982), 47–56. 46.The find wasn’t too remarkable. James Bamford had prominently reported on the wider Friedman papers in an influential book on the NSA: The Puzzle Palace, published in 1982. John Gilmore, interview by the author, April 7, 2014. 47.Gilmore, interview, April 7, 2014. 48.Ibid. 49.John Markoff, “In Retreat, U.S. Spy Agency Shrugs at Found Secret Data,” New York Times, November 28, 1992. 50.Gilmore, interview, April 7, 2014. 51.John Perry Barlow, “Remarks,” in First International Symposium: “National Security & National Competitiveness: Open Source Solutions”: Proceedings, vol. 2 (Reston, VA: Open Source Solutions, 1992), 182–83. 52.Timothy May, “‘Stopping Crime’ Necessarily Means Invasiveness,” e-mail to cypherpunks@toad.com, October 17, 1996.


Fortunes of Change: The Rise of the Liberal Rich and the Remaking of America by David Callahan

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, automated trading system, Bernie Sanders, Bonfire of the Vanities, carbon footprint, carried interest, clean water, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Thorp, financial deregulation, financial independence, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, income inequality, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, medical malpractice, mega-rich, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, NetJets, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, working poor, World Values Survey

“Computers are c08.indd 191 5/11/10 6:24:56 AM 192 fortunes of change mostly used against people instead of for people; used to control people instead of to free them,” stated the first newsletter of a Silicon Valley organization called the People’s Computer Company that Moore helped found in the early 1970s. “Time to change all that.” In his book What the Doormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry, John Markoff argues that it was inevitable that the PC would emerge on the West Coast. “The East Coast computing industry didn’t get it,” Markoff wrote. “The old computing world was hierarchical and conservative.” Markoff documents how computer engineers in the Bay Area—such as Douglas Engelbart, who would invent the computer mouse— experimented with LSD, believing that the drug could spur their creativity.

bnotes.indd 302 5/11/10 6:29:36 AM notes to pages 190–221 303 17. Paul Festa, “High-Tech Advocates Clash over School Vouchers, Skilled Labor,” CNET News, September 22, 2000, http://news .cnet.com/High-tech-advocates-clash-over-school-vouchers,-skilledlabor/2100-1023_3-246068.html. 18. Neil Gross and Solon Simmons, “The Social and Political Views of American Professors,” Harvard University, Working Paper, September 24, 2007. 19. John Markoff, What the Doormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Viking, 2005). 9. Patrician Politicians 1. Robert Frank, “A Richistani Runs for Office,” Wall Street Journal Online, May 23, 2007, http://blogs.wsj.com/wealth/2007/05/ 23/a-richistani-runs-for-office/. 2. Lynn Bartels, “Money Pours into Effort to Influence Ethics Measure,” Rocky Mountain News, April 18, 2007. 3.


pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

A. Roger Ekirch, Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Shoshana Zuboff, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

Scot Ober, “Review of Research on the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard,” Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, vol. 34, no. 4 (Fall 1992), 167–82; Scot Ober, “Relative Efficiencies of the Standard and Dvorak Simplified Keyboards,” Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, vol. 35, no. 1 (Winter 1993), 1–13, and references cited in each article; Peter J. Howe, “Different Strokes Catch On,” Boston Globe, January 15, 1996; Jennifer B. Lee, “Keyboards Stuck in the Age of NumLock; Defunct Keys and Odd Commands Still Bedevil Today’s PC User,” New York Times, August 12, 1999. 43. Neal Taslitz, telephone interview, August 17, 2002. 44. John Markoff, “Microsoft Sees New Software Based on Pens,” New York Times, November 9, 2000; “Newtonian Marketing Lessons,” Advertising Age, August 15, 1994, 20. 45. Frank R. Wilson, The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, 1998), 309–10; Lisa Guernsey, “For Those Who Would Click and Cheat,” New York Times, April 26, 2001. 46. Monaco, “Difficult Birth,” 15. 47.

Fowler, “In the Digital Age, ‘All Thumbs’ Is Term of Highest Praise,” Wall Street Journal, April 17, 2002; Libby Copeland, “Thumbs Up: After Eons Spent in Its Siblings’ Shadow, the Dumpy Digit Finally Counts,” Washington Post, June 24, 2002; Frank Wilson, The Hand: How Its Use Shapes the Brain, Language, and Human Culture (New York: Pantheon Books, 1998), 146. 7. Eric von Hippel, The Sources of Innovation (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), 1–25, 102–16; Kim J. Vicente, Cognitive Work Analysis: Towards Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work (Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum), 109–38. 8. John Markoff, “Kristen Nygaard, 75, Who Built Framework for Modern Computer Languages,” New York Times, August 14, 2001. Suggestions for Further Reading On human culture in comparative perspective, the best survey that I have found is Tim Ingold, ed., Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology (London: Routledge, 1994), with a number of important articles by leading figures on themes such as tools and tool behavior, technology, and artifacts.


pages: 481 words: 125,946

What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, global pandemic, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

DEDICATION To Marvin Minsky CONTENTS DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PREFACE: THE 2015 EDGE QUESTION MURRAY SHANAHAN Consciousness in Human-Level AI STEVEN PINKER Thinking Does Not Imply Subjugating MARTIN REES Organic Intelligence Has No Long-Term Future STEVE OMOHUNDRO A Turning Point in Artificial Intelligence DIMITAR D. SASSELOV AI Is I FRANK TIPLER If You Can’t Beat ’em, Join ’em MARIO LIVIO Intelligent Machines on Earth and Beyond ANTONY GARRETT LISI I, for One, Welcome Our Machine Overlords JOHN MARKOFF Our Masters, Slaves, or Partners? PAUL DAVIES Designed Intelligence KEVIN P. HAND The Superintelligent Loner JOHN C. MATHER It’s Going to Be a Wild Ride DAVID CHRISTIAN Is Anyone in Charge of This Thing? TIMO HANNAY Witness to the Universe MAX TEGMARK Let’s Get Prepared! TOMASO POGGIO “Turing+” Questions PAMELA MCCORDUCK An Epochal Human Event MARCELO GLEISER Welcome to Your Transhuman Self SEAN CARROLL We Are All Machines That Think NICHOLAS G.

If you’re willing to entertain the simulation hypothesis, then maybe—given the amount of effort currently under way to control or curtail an AI that doesn’t yet exist—you’ll consider that this world is the simulation to torture those who didn’t help it come into existence earlier. Maybe, if you do work on AI, our superintelligent machine overlords will be good to you. OUR MASTERS, SLAVES, OR PARTNERS? JOHN MARKOFF Senior writer, science section, New York Times; author, Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots Hegel wrote that in the relationship between master and slave, both are dehumanized. That insight touched a wide range of thinkers, from Marx to Buber, and today it’s worth remembering. While there’s no evidence that the world is on the cusp of machines that think in a human sense, there’s also little question that in an Internet-connected world, artificial intelligence will soon imitate much of what humans do, both physically and intellectually.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

various insurgent groups Siobhan Gorman, August Cole, and Yochi Dreazen, “Insurgents Hack U.S. Drones,” Wall Street Journal, December 17, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126102247889095011.html. “preserve of great states” Lewis, “The Threat,” p. 20. “the most to lose” Clayton, “The New Cyber Arms Race.” “tons of vulnerabilities” Ibid. “power equalization” Nye, “Power and National Security in Cyberspace,” p. 14. dummy set of centrifuges William J. Broad, John Markoff, and David E. Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html? pagewanted=all&_r=0. “smaller dogs bite” Nye, “Power and National Security in Cyberspace,” p. 14. escalation dominance Mahnken, “Cyberwar and Cyber Warfare,” p. 61. WHO HAS THE ADVANTAGE, THE OFFENSE OR THE DEFENSE?

tried to harm Facebook Dennis Fisher, “How Facebook Prepared to Be Hacked,” Threatpost, March 8, 2013, http://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/how-facebook-prepared-be-hacked-030813. offensive tactics and tricks Samuel L. King, Peter M. Chen, Yi-Min Wang, et al., “SubVirt: Implementing Malware with Virtual Machines,” University of Michigan, http://web.eecs.umich.edu/~pmchen/papers/king06.pdf, accessed August 11, 2013. “Israelis tried it out” William J. Broad, John Markoff, and David E. Sanger, “Israeli Test on Worm Called Crucial in Iran Nuclear Delay,” New York Times, January 15, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/16/world/middleeast/16stuxnet.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. network-based attack Tucker Bailey, James Kaplan, and Allen Weinberg, “Playing Wargames to Prepare for a Cyberattack,” McKinsey Quarterly, July 2012. McKinsey found Ibid. pension database Estonian defense official, interview with the authors, March 17, 2012, Washington DC.


Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

14 The results of the next session seemed underwhelming; Engelbart came up with an idea for a “tinkle toy” for helping to potty train young boys. Over the next few years, however, Engelbart’s team began to expand their horizons, working amid the San Francisco Bay area’s petri dish of cultural experimentation. When Engelbart took the stage in San Francisco that day in 1968, many of the attendees felt they had experienced a revelation. As New York Times reporter John Markoff puts it, “Every significant aspect of today’s computing world was revealed in a magnificent hour and a half.”15 Some members of that audience became enthusiastic converts to the digital revolution. Brown University computer science professor and early hypertext pioneer Andy van Dam was there and subsequently dubbed the event “the Mother of all Demos.” Also in attendance were a few key members of the original NLS team, who migrated over to Xerox’s PARC research division under the direction of Alan Kay, with whom they began developing the first true personal computer, the Alto.


pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, lifelogging, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Very modest modern computers can easily solve yesterday’s problems.” The data and report illustrate Gray’s fondness for understanding through constant building and experimentation. Through various paths, Jim infected me with the importance of data. It’s “all about the data,” he would say. In one of our more playful times, while discussing how to get the concern for data into the national computing resource allocation agenda, we bumped into John Markoff, a friend and columnist at The New York Times who also had an office in our building. We made the case that the national computing agenda was missing the point by just thinking about computation speed. John took our picture in the lab on Friday and wrote an article that appeared in the Times on Sunday. Our compute-centric friends in Washington were not especially happy, but they slowly came around to our view, and after many years the situation is gradually changing from models and simulation to real world, data-based, data-intensive science.


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, Joi Ito, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

For an analysis of Google’s hard disks, see Pinheiro, Weber, and Barroso, “Failure Trends in a Large Disk Drive Population.” 26. In fact, information on a hard disk drive even survived the catastrophic disintegration of Space Shuttle Columbia. See Minkel, “Hard Disk Recovered from Columbia Shuttle.” 27. See, for example, Oakley, “E-Beam Hard Disk Drive Using Gated Carbon Nano Tube Source and Phase Change Media,” 245–50. 28. John Markoff, “H. P. Reports Big Advance in Memory Chip Design,” The New York Times, May 1, 2008. 29. Markoff, “Redefining the Architecture of Memory,” The New York Times. 30. Eisenstein, The Printing Revolution, 64–73. 31. Kilgour, The Evolution of the Book, 76–77. 32. Ibid., 94–95. 33. Cole, Suspect Identities. 34. Michael R. Curry, “Location and Identity: A Brief History,” 157; see also Michael R.


pages: 476 words: 132,042

What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

New York: Schenkman Publishing, p. 66. 134 known in statistics as a Poisson distribution: Dean Keith Simonton. (1978) “Independent Discovery in Science and Technology: A Closer Look at the Poisson Distribution.” Social Studies of Science, 8 (4). 134 greatest discoverers buy lots of tickets: Dean Keith Simonton. (1979) “Multiple Discovery and Invention: Zeitgeist, Genius, or Chance?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (9). 134 Westinghouse laboratory in Paris: John Markoff. (2003, February 24) “A Parallel Inventor of the Transistor Has His Moment.” New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/24/business/a-parallel-inventor-of-the-transistor-has-his-moment. html. 135 within months of each other in 1977: Adam B. Jaffe, Manuel Trajtenberg, et al. (2000, April) “The Meaning of Patent Citations: Report on the NBER/Case-Western Reserve Survey of Patentees.” Nber Working Paper No.

Prehoda. (1972) “Technological Forecasting and Space Exploration.” An Introduction to Technological Forecasting, ed. Joseph Paul Martino. London: Gordon and Breach, p. 43. 158 to the Moon quite soon after that: Damien Broderick. (2002) The Spike: How Our Lives Are Being Transformed by Rapidly Advancing Technologies. New York: Forge, p. 35. 158 “Arthur C. Clarke had expected it to occur”: Ibid. 159 start-up making the integrated chips: John Markoff. (2005) What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer. New York: Viking, p. 17. 160 Plotting Moore’s Law: Data from Gordon Moore. (1965) “The Future of Integrated Electronics.” Understanding Moore’s Law: Four Decades of Innovation, ed. David C. Brock. Philadelphia: Chemical Heritage Foundation, p. 54. https://www.chemheritage.org/pubs/moores_law/; David C. Brock and Gordon E.


pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, corporate raider, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, zero-sum game

Ten years before Licklider wrote his paper, for instance, a young engineer named Douglas Engelbart was pondering what he might do with his life. He was recently married yet felt himself lost, an idealist in search of a meaningful contribution. One evening in 1950 he was struck with a powerful vision: a general purpose machine that might augment human intelligence and help humans negotiate life’s complexities. John Markoff, who has documented Engelbart’s life carefully, describes the vision in some detail: Engelbart “saw himself sitting in front of a large computer screen full of different symbols. He would create a workstation for organizing all of the information and communications needed for any given project.”5 Engelbart’s ideas were similar to Licklider’s, if a bit further along in their development. But neither was as yet close to describing how one might practically wed human and computer capacities.

Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (New York: Penguin, 2002). 3. For Rheingold’s description of the AN/FSQ-7, see Howard Rheingold, Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000), 142–44. 4. J.C.R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE-1 (1960): 4. 5. John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (New York: Penguin, 2005), 9. 6. For an extensive discussion of Baran’s career and innovations, see Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon, Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet (New York: Touchstone, 1996), 53–67. CHAPTER 13: NIXON’S CABLE 1. The opening story is based on the author’s interview with Ralph Lee Smith, September 14, 2008.


pages: 459 words: 140,010

Fire in the Valley: The Birth and Death of the Personal Computer by Michael Swaine, Paul Freiberger

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Google Chrome, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Jony Ive, Loma Prieta earthquake, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog

Finally, they explore the conflict between empowering individuals and loss of privacy, placing us directly in the Snowden Age. Even Steve Jobs came to admire the first edition of this book, saying, “Reading it made me cry, thinking about those early days.” Fire in the Valley has stood the test of time well. It remains a great adventure that gives the reader a sense of being close to a historical movement that is still playing itself out. John Markoff Senior writer, science section, The New York Times San Francisco, May 2014 Copyright © 2014, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Preface to the Third Edition It was a magic, crazy time when cranks and dreamers saw the power they imagined drop into their hands and used it to change the world. It was a technological and business turning point when multinational corporations lost their way and kitchen-table entrepreneurs seized the banner and ran off into a future out of science-fiction stories.

Our friends Eva Langfeldt and John Barry read our initial proposal; Dave Needle provided timely research assistance; Thom Hogan initially prodded us to do the book and offered many useful suggestions; Dan McNeill often found just the right word; Nancy Groth brought grace with a red pencil; Nelda Cassuto offered sweet support in the form of zabaglione and editing; Levi Thomas and Laura Brisbee lent photographic expertise; Amy Hyams provided patient research and friendly conversation; Carol Moran opened secret doors; Scott Kildall gave his trust; John Markoff provided knowledge, insight, and friendship and wrote the foreword; Jason Lewis shared software wizardry; David Reed made corrections from his kitchen on the other coast; Charlie Athanas provided timely and generous insights; former colleagues Judy Canter, Phil Bronstein, and Richard Paoli of the San Francisco Examiner opened photo archives; Howard Bailen gave endless and persistent support.


Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)

Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional

It began to look as if some of the industry giants were planning to become competitors in the same market where, as Internet contractors, they controlled commercial access to the Net. IBM and MCI's venture, ANS, had been managing NSFNET since 1987; in 1991, ANS, a nonprofit corporation, set up a for-profit subsidiary called ANS CO+RE to sell CMC services. In a December 1991 story in the New York Times , headlined "U.S. Said to Play Favorites in Promoting Nationwide Computer Network," technology reporter John Markoff , who broke the story of the Morris Worm, wrote, "Just one week after President Bush signed legislation calling for the creation of a nationwide computer data `superhighway,' a debate has erupted over whether the government gave an unfair advantage to a joint venture of IBM and MCI that built and manages a key part of the network." Markoff quoted several experts and private competitors who fear ANS could use its position as manager of the NSFnet to make things difficult for competitors who want to connect to the Net.

Time and Newsweek magazines both did cover stories on information superhighways. Neither of the major newsmagazines mentioned the potential for many-to-many communications between citizens. The most powerful alliance was disclosed in June 1993. Microsoft, the company started by home-brew PC hobbyist Bill Gates, dominates the PC software market. Tele-Communications Inc. is the world's largest cable television company. On June 13, John Markoff reported on the first page of the New York Times that Time-Warner, Microsoft, and Tele-Communications Inc. were forming a joint venture that, in Markoff's words, "would combine the worlds of computing and television and perhaps shape how much of popular culture is delivered." Markoff quoted James F. Moore, an expert consultant: "This has tremendous economic and social importance; it is the gateway for popular culture. . . .


pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, animal electricity, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

It too is steeped in history. Apple is one of the most secretive companies in the world, and the imperative originated at the top. Jobs was always proactive in managing his company’s media appearances; from the early days, he was keen on developing relationships with editors and writers at the major magazines and newspapers. But he wasn’t always super-secretive. The New York Times reporter John Markoff, one of the writers who’d earned access to Apple, noticed the change in the late 1990s and early 2000s. “Since Mr. Jobs returned to Apple, he has increasingly insisted that the company speak with just the voices of top executives,” Markoff noted after being denied an interview with a driving force behind the iPod, Tony Fadell. Another Times writer, Nick Bilton, observed that Jobs frequently described his products as “magical,” and, “as Mr.

Quotes were drawn from the Apple/Samsung trial of 2012, when Phil Schiller and Scott Forstall took the stand. Books that provided extraordinarily useful detail, research, and background were Dogfight, by Fred Vogelstein; Steve Jobs, by Walter Isaacson; Becoming Steve Jobs, by Brent Schlender; Inside Apple, by Adam Lashinsky; and Jony Ive, by Leander Kahney. Quotes attributed to Jony Ive, Steve Jobs, Mike Bell, and Douglas Satzger were drawn from those sources. John Markoff’s New York Times reporting and Steven Levy’s book The Perfect Thing and his work in Newsweek were used for reference. Sales figures cited are provided by Apple unless otherwise stated. Acknowledgments A key theme of this book is that little progress is possible without deep collaboration and sustained collective effort—nothing could be truer about writing this thing too. It simply wouldn’t have happened without the support of family, friends, colleagues, and even, sometimes, near-strangers.


From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry by Martin Campbell-Kelly

Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business process, card file, computer age, computer vision, continuous integration, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Grace Hopper, information asymmetry, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, linear programming, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, popular electronics, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Lukewarm reviews and the absence of Table 8.7 Windowing systems for IBM-compatible PCs, 1984–1985. Publisher Product Price Announced Released Notes VisiCorp VisiOn $495 November 1982 January 1984 Price reduced to $95 Digital Research GEM $399 November 1983 September 1984 Price included Concurrent DOS Microsoft Windows 1.0 $95 November 1983 November 1985 IBM TopView $149 August 1984 February 1985 Quarterdeck DESQ $399 Spring 1983 May 1984 Sources: John Markoff, “Five Window Managers for the IBM PC,” Byte Guide to the IBM PC (Fall 1984): 65–7, 71–6, 78, 82, 84, 87; Irene Fuerst, “Broken Windows,” Datamation (March 1, 1985): 46, 51–2; Allen G. Taylor, “It’s Gem vs. Topview as IBM, DRI Square Off,” Software News (August 1985): 71–3; Ken Polsson, History of Microcomputers: Chronology of Events, http://www.maxframe.com/hiszcomp.htm (accessed December 2000).

Hiltzik, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age (HarperBusiness, 1999). 27. Steven Levy, Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything (Penguin, 1994). 28. See, e.g., “A Fierce Battle Brews Over the Simplest Software Yet,” Business Week, November 21, 1983: 61–63. 29. Phil Lemmons, “A Guided Tour of VisiOn,” Byte, June 1983: 256ff. 30. Irene Fuerst, “Broken Windows,” Datamation, March 1, 1985: 46, 51–52. 31. John Markoff, “Five Window Managers for the IBM PC,” Byte Guide to the IBM PC, fall 1984: 65–66, 71–76, 78, 82, 84, 87. 32. Efrem Sigel, “Alas Poor VisiCorp,” Datamation, January 15, 1985: 93–94, 96. 33. Lawrence D. Graham, Legal Battles That Shaped the Computer Industry (Quorum Books, 1999), pp. 35–41. 34. The best account of the complicated history of OS/2 appears in Paul Carroll, Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM (Crown, 1993). 35.


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The Pentagon's Brain: An Uncensored History of DARPA, America's Top-Secret Military Research Agency by Annie Jacobsen

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, John Markoff, John von Neumann, license plate recognition, Livingstone, I presume, low earth orbit, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, place-making, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

The future of TIA seemed bright. Then suddenly, as Bob Popp recalls, “we had our own battle, with Congress.” In August 2002, John Poindexter unveiled TIA at the DARPATech conference in Anaheim, California. This technology conference marked the beginning of the program’s public end. In November 2002, a New York Times headline read “Pentagon Plans a Computer System That Would Peek at Personal Data of Americans.” Reporter John Markoff wrote that the Department of Defense had initiated a massive computer-based domestic surveillance program, “a vast electronic dragnet, searching for personal information as part of the hunt for terrorists around the globe—including the United States… without a search warrant.” Markoff named DARPA as the agency in charge, and reported that the computer system was called Total Information Awareness.

Robert Popp, DARPA’s Initiative on Countering Terrorism, TIA, Terrorism Information Awareness, Overview of TIA and IAO Programs, briefing slides. 26 a whooshing sound: Glenn Greenwald, “Inside the Mind of NSA Chief Gen. Keith Alexander,” Guardian, September 15, 2013. 27 “initial TIA experiment”: Quotes are from interview with Bob Popp; see also Harris, 187. 28 “a vast electronic dragnet”: John Markoff, “Pentagon Plans a Computer System That Would Peek at Personal Data of Americans,” New York Times, November 9, 2002. 29 Safire wrote: William Safire, “You Are a Suspect,” New York Times, November 14, 2002. 30 285 stories: Robert L. Popp and John Yen, 409. 31 true numbers: Belasco memo; DefenseNet transfers from Project ST-28 in FY2002 to Project ST-11 in 2003. 32 No interviews: Interview with Bob Popp, June 2014. 33 “I don’t know much about it”: U.S.


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Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

cxl Antifragile by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (2012), p.125. cxli Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Rates by Mode of Travel (2007). cxlii The Exercise Cure by Dr. Jordan Metzl (2013). cxliii The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams (1979), p.76. cxliv The Outer Limits of Reason by Noson Yanofsky (2013), p.40. cxlv Yanofsky (2013), p.291. cxlvi Scientists Report Finding Reliable Way to Teleport Data by John Markoff (2014). cxlvii Yanofsky (2013), p.201. cxlviii The Closing Circle by Barry Commoner (1971). cxlix The Limits to Growth by Donella Meadows, Dennis Meadows, Jorgen Randers, and William Behrens III (1972). cl Meadows (1972), p.1. cli Beyond the Limits by Donella Meadows, Dennis Meadows, and Jorgen Randers (1992). clii Meadows (1972), p.154. cliii The Sixth Extinction by Elizabeth Kolbert (2014), p.17.


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We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

story_id=6794228 15 See Steven Levy and Brad Stone, ‘The New Wisdom of the Web’, Newsweek, April 2006. Available from http:// www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12015774/site/newsweek 16 Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago, IL/London: University of Chicago Press, 2006) 17 Patrice Flichy, The Internet Imaginaire (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007) 18 Charles Leadbeater, ‘The DIY State’, Prospect 130, January 2007 19 Fred Turner, op. cit. 20 John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2006) 21 Patrice Flichy, The Internet Imaginaire (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007) 22 Jonathan Lethem, ‘The Ecstasy of Influence’, Harper’s Magazine, February 2007 23 Garrett Hardin, ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’, Science 162 (1968), pp. 1243–48 24 Elenor Ostrom, Governing the Commons (Cambridge University Press, 1990) 25 Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1999) and Free Culture (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2004) 26 Melvyn Bragg, The Routes of English (BBC Factual and Learning, 2000); Melvyn Bragg, The Adventure of English (Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, 2003) 27 Jonathan Lethem, ‘The Ecstasy of Influence’, Harper’s Magazine, February 2007 28 Cory Doctorow et al., ‘On “Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism” By Jaron Lanier’, Edge (2006). http://www.edge.org/discourse/digital_ maoism.html 29 Paul A.


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Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley

air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, undersea cable, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

“It had more to do with the difficulty of opening up a bank account when you have the word ‘Party’ in your name.” 319 Third Annual Phone Phreak Convention: YIPL ran phone phreak conventions in 1972 and 1973, but a dry spell followed until THC-79. 319 “For several reasons, I have permanently retired”: John Draper, “Greetings” (open letter to THC-79 attendees), TAP, no. 59, September–October 1979. 320 “While intrepidly trekking”: Cheshire Catalyst, “The News Is In from the West, and It’s Beige,” TAP, no. 51, July 1978, p. 4. 320 CBBS: Ward Christensen and Randy Suess, “Hobbyist Computerized Bulletin Board,” Byte, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 150–57. 320 first phone phreak/hacker BBSes: Katie Hafner and John Markoff, Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991), p. 44; see also a description of the 8BBS in Santa Clara, California, which ran from 1980 to 1982, at http://everything2.com/title/8BBS. 321 “Enclosed for Bureau”: FBI file 117-HQ-2905, serial “X,” April 30, 1979 <db374>. 321 “nuclear yield”: FBI file 117-HQ-2905, serial 3, August 24, 1979 <db374>. 321 Judge Harold Greene: In an odd coincidence, in 1980 as part of a totally separate case, Judge Greene “ordered the FBI to stop destroying its surveillance files and to design a plan in which no files could be destroyed until historians and archivists could review them for historical value.”

Monaghan, in “The Child in a Man,” puts the year Engressia began calling himself Joybubbles as 1988. 328 “We were on a retreat”: Jim Ragsdale, “One Name Says It All,” St. Paul Pioneer Press, November 27, 2005, p. A1. 328 “I’m a survivor”: Huse, interview with Joybubbles. 329 legally changed his name: Ibid. 329 “Nobody knows how much peace”: Collier, “There’s Martin Luther King.” 329 selected it to be the word processor: John Markoff and Paul Freiberger, “Visit with Cap’n Software, Forthright Forth Enthusiast,” Infoworld, October 11, 1982, p. 31. 329 “wealthy executive”: Pete Carey, “Cap’n Crunch Programs His Way from Jail to Success,” Chicago Tribune, May 25, 1983, p. D1. 329 personal fortunes were crumbling: Alexander Besher, “The Crunching of America,” Infoworld, June 18, 1984, p. 66. 329 forging tickets to BART: Gary Richards, “‘Captain Crunch’ Charged in Ticket Forgery,” San Jose Mercury News, January 9, 1987, p. 1B; “John Draper at AutoDesk,” DigiBarn Computer Museum interview with John Draper, May 2006, at http://www.digibarn.com/collections/audio/digibarn-radio/06-05-john-draper-autodesk. 330 where-are-they-now newspaper article: Chris Rhodes, “The Twilight Years of Cap’n Crunch,” Wall Street Journal, January 13, 2007. 330 TAP ceased publication: See http://artofhacking.com/tap.


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Robot Rules: Regulating Artificial Intelligence by Jacob Turner

Ada Lovelace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, Basel III, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, effective altruism, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, friendly fire, future of work, hive mind, Internet of things, iterative process, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Loebner Prize, medical malpractice, Nate Silver, natural language processing, nudge unit, obamacare, off grid, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

For instance, it would not make sense for a person marooned alone on a desert island to claim that she has a right to life, because there is no one else against whom she can claim that right. To hold rights, therefore, is to coexist with others capable of upholding or infringing upon those rights. This social feature of rights underscores the importance of considering how humans (as well as other entities already afforded rights, like corporations and animals) are to live alongside AI as it becomes increasingly prevalent. As science journalist and author John Markoff has written, we will need to ask ourselves whether robots are to become “our masters, slaves, or partners”.4 Following Markoff’s lead, this chapter asks whether AI can or should be treated as a “moral patient”, namely the subject of certain protections from the actions of “moral agents”. As explained in Chapter 2 at Section 2.1, agency involves a party being capable of understanding and acting on certain rules and principles.

The final two chapters of this book consider how we can prevent undesirable consequences arising in the first place.1 In so doing, we will engage with the third major issue raised by AI: “How should ethical standards be applied to the new technology?” This chapter and Chapter 8 distinguish between those rules which apply to “creators” and those which apply to “creations”. The term creators refers to the humans who (at present) design, programme, operate, collaborate with and otherwise interact with AI. Creations means the AI itself. Technology journalist John Markoff writes in Machines of Loving Grace: “[t]he best way to answer the hard questions about control in a world full of smart machines is by understanding the values of those who are actually building these systems”.2 This is true up to a point, but the answers to “hard questions” will also be shaped by what is technologically possible. Although human input is needed to write both sets of rules, the distinction relates to the addressees of standards rather than their source: rules for creators tell humans what to do; rules for creations do this for AI.


pages: 554 words: 149,489

The Content Trap: A Strategist's Guide to Digital Change by Bharat Anand

Airbnb, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Minecraft, multi-sided market, Network effects, post-work, price discrimination, publish or perish, QR code, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, two-sided market, ubercab, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Facebook introduced Facebook Platform Mikolaj Jan Piskorski et al., “Facebook,” HBS No. 808-128 (Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, rev. March 20, 2014); Michael Arrington, “Facebook Responds to MySpace with Facebook Connect,” TechCrunch , May 9, 2008. Marketplace Stig Leschly et al., “Amazon.com—2002,” HBS No. 803-098 (Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, November 21, 2002). the App Store John Markoff and Laura M. Holson, “Apple’s Latest Opens a Developers’ Playground,” New York Times , July 10, 2008. to more than a billion Barbara Ortutay, “Facebook Tops 1 Billion Users,” Associated Press, October 4, 2012; Julie Sloane, “Facebook Got Its $15 Billion Valuation—Now What?,” Wired, October 26, 2007. Arrington, “Facebook Responds”; Brad Stone, “Facebook Aims to Extend Its Reach Across the Web,” New York Times , November 30, 2008; Charlene Li, “Facebook Connect—Another Step to Open Social Networks,” Harvard Business Review , May 17, 2008.

“Thoughts on Music”…“DRM Free”…“create a truly interoperable music marketplace” Memorandum by Steve Jobs, “Thoughts on Music,” originally published on Apple’s website, February 6, 2007, accessed March 30, 2016, http://web.archive.org/​web/​20080517114107/​; http://www.apple.com/​hotnews/​thoughtsonmusic. the numbers hadn’t increased much “Apple’s iTunes Store Passes 35 Billion Songs Sold Milestone,” MacDailyNews, May 29, 2014, accessed March 30, 2016; http://mac -dailynews.com/​2014/​05/​29/​apples-itunes-store-passes-35-billion-songs-sold-milestone-itunes-radio-now-has-40-million-listeners/ . “If anything can play on anything” John Markoff, “Jobs Calls for End to Music Copy Protection,” New York Times . A tire manufacturer I owe this example to Felix Oberholzer-Gee. “This isn’t a device, it’s a service” Jeff Bezos quoted in Steven Levy, “Amazon: Reinventing the Book,” Newsweek . In 2009 Tata Motors Information about Tata Nano here and elsewhere in the book is drawn primarily from Krishna Palepu, Bharat Anand, et al., “Tata Nano—The People’s Car,” HBS No. 710-420 (Boston: Harvard Business Publishing, rev.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

“By opening the way to non-silicon materials it gave Moore’s law another shot in the arm at a time when many people were thinking it was coming to an end,” said Sadasivan Shankar, who worked on Intel’s material design team at the time and now teaches materials and computational sciences at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. Commenting on the breakthrough, the New York Times Silicon Valley reporter John Markoff wrote on January 27, 2007: “Intel, the world’s largest chip maker, has overhauled the basic building block of the information age, paving the way for a new generation of faster and more energy-efficient processors. Company researchers said the advance represented the most significant change in the materials used to manufacture silicon chips since Intel pioneered the modern integrated-circuit transistor more than four decades ago.”

Because Watson, of course, was not a human but a computer, designed and built by IBM. By defeating the best human Jeopardy! champions in a three-day competition, Watson demonstrated the solution to the problem that “artificial intelligence researchers have struggled with for decades”: to create “a computer akin to the one on Star Trek that can understand questions posed in natural language and answer them” in natural language, as my colleague John Markoff put it in his February 16, 2011, New York Times story summing up the competition. Watson, by the way, won handily, showing great facility with some pretty complex clues that might easily stump a human, such as this one: “You just need a nap. You don’t have this sleep disorder that can make sufferers nod off while standing up.” Watson buzzed in first—in less than 2.5 seconds—and replied, “What is ‘narcolepsy’?”


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Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar

At Toyota, they told us of cars talking with traffic lights to avoid bottlenecks and collisions at intersections. Some experts are more optimistic about when driverless cars will arrive in a showroom near you. Bob Lutz, GM’s retired vice chairman, predicts that driverless cars would be ubiquitous in about 20 years. We think it will be more like ten years before the vehicles are technically ready and affordable. In the time it took us to write this chapter, our friend John Markoff, a New York Times technology reporter, may have witnessed a technological breakthrough when he was a passenger in a driverless, lidar-less Audi A7 that zipped down an Israeli highway at 65 miles an hour. Equipped with a system from a Netherlands-based start up called Mobileye Vision Technologies, the system could significantly reduce costs compared with lidar-based systems. During the same period, Tesla’s Musk, who has long been linked by investments and friendship with Google’s founders, declared “…Google’s current approach … is too expensive.


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This Is Your Country on Drugs: The Secret History of Getting High in America by Ryan Grim

airport security, Alexander Shulgin, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Burning Man, crack epidemic, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, failed state, global supply chain, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, John Markoff, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, mandatory minimum, new economy, New Urbanism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, women in the workforce

“I compare it to painting.” It’s not surprising that the Web-savvy and the drug-savvy have come together at Erowid. Psychedelic drugs have influenced some of America’s foremost computer scientists. The history of this connection is well documented in a number of books, the best probably being What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer, by New York Times technology reporter John Markoff. Psychedelic drugs, Markoff argues, pushed the computer and Internet revolutions forward by showing folks that reality can be profoundly altered through unconventional, highly intuitive thinking. Douglas Engelbart is one example of a psychonaut who did just that: he helped invent the mouse. Apple’s Steve Jobs has said that Microsoft’s Bill Gates would “be a broader guy if he had dropped acid once.”


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Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

For Toronto, see Garton Ash et al. 2013, 12 15. for ‘postmigrants’ see Timothy Garton Ash, ‘Freedom & Diversity: A Liberal Pentagram for Living Together’, New York Review of Books, 22 November 2012, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/nov/22/freedom-diversity-liberal-pentagram/ 16. see Darnton 2009, 21–23 17. see Zittrain 2008, 27 and his online source available at http://perma.cc/RN6R-4JS2 18. see Post 2009, 30 19. the Oxford English Dictionary attributes it to Vint Cerf et al., ‘Request for Comments’ (1974). See also Internet Society, ‘Brief History of the Internet’, http://perma.cc/SNY8-TYAE 20. Mueller 2004, 86 21. Berners-Lee 1999, chapters 2–4; see also the original website at http://perma.cc/MWR3-VASS 22. see ‘The End of Moore’s Law’, The Economist, 19 April 2015, http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2015/04/economist-explains-17 and John Markoff, ‘Smaller, Faster, Cheaper, Over’, New York Times, 27 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/27/technology/smaller-faster-cheaper-over-the-future-of-computer-chips.html. Note that Moore’s Law is variously cited as predicting that the number of transistors on a microchip will double every two years, or every 18 months, while he originally predicted that it would happen every year. The basic point stands 23. this is according to the decimal scale.

The minimal definition of literacy was established in 1958. Note that the UN estimate includes some 775 million adults and 122 million illiterate youth 29. Shteyngart 2010 30. Kurzweil 2005 31. Weizenbaum 1984 and Carr 2010, 201–8 32. Ian Sample and Alex Hern, ‘Scientists Dispute Whether Computer ‘Eugene Goostman’ Passed Turing Test’, The Guardian, 9 June 2014, http://perma.cc/9YMC-LJW7 33. John Markoff et al., ‘For Sympathetic Ear, More Chinese Turn to Smartphone Program’, New York Times, 31 July 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/04/science/for-sympathetic-ear-more-chinese-turn-to-smartphone-program.html 34. see Future of Life Institute, ‘Research Priorities for Robust and Beneficial Artificial Intelligence: An Open Letter’, http://perma.cc/ZD2A-DP7E, and Martin Rees, ‘Cheer Up, the Post-Human Era Is Dawning’, Financial Times, 10 July 2015, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4fe10870-20c2-11e5-ab0f-6bb9974f25d0.html#axzz3qv6zRoSp 35. this is essentially also the conclusion of Wu 2013 36. on the often neglected subject of touch, see Linden 2015 37.


pages: 261 words: 10,785

The Lights in the Tunnel by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Bill Joy: nanobots, Black-Scholes formula, business cycle, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, full employment, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, pattern recognition, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, Thomas L Friedman, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, War on Poverty

Web: http://loebner.net/Prizef/TuringArticle.html 55 “French students shy of real world”, BBC News, March 14, 2008. Web: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7293992.stm 56 Blue Brain Project, Web: http://bluebrain.epfl.ch/ 57 Roger Penrose, The Emperor’s New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics, Oxford University Press, 1989 and Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness, Oxford University Press, 1994. 58 For example: John Markoff, “Scientists worry that Machines may Outsmart Man”, New York Times, July 25, 2009. Web: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/26/science/26robot.html?em


pages: 350 words: 98,077

Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans by Melanie Mitchell

Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, dark matter, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, ImageNet competition, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, ought to be enough for anybody, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Figure 41 gives a few examples of captions that the trained Show and Tell system generated on test images—that is, images that were not in its training set. It’s hard not to be dazzled, and maybe a bit stunned, that a machine can take in images in the form of raw pixels and produce such accurate captions. That’s certainly how I felt when I first read about these results in The New York Times. The author of that article, the journalist John Markoff, wrote a careful description: “Two groups of scientists, working independently, have created artificial intelligence software capable of recognizing and describing the content of photographs and videos with far greater accuracy than ever before, sometimes even mimicking human levels of understanding.”26 FIGURE 41: Four (accurate) automatically produced captions from Google’s Show and Tell system Other journalists were not so restrained.


Free Money for All: A Basic Income Guarantee Solution for the Twenty-First Century by Mark Walker

3D printing, 8-hour work day, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, commoditize, financial independence, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, market clearing, means of production, new economy, obamacare, off grid, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, science of happiness, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, universal basic income, working poor

Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1990), 53. 5 Peace, Robots, and Technological Unemployment 1. This chapter borrows very substantially from a previously published article: Mark Walker, “BIG and Technological Unemployment: Chicken Little Versus the Economists,” Journal of Evolution & Technology 24, 1 (2014): 5–25. 2. John Markoff, “Skilled Work, Without the Worker,” New York Times, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industr y. html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 3. Ibid. 4. Timorthy Lee, “Amazon Envisions Eventually Delivering Packages in 30 Minutes via Drones,” The Washington Post, 2013, http://www. washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2013/12/01/amazonwants-to-deliver-packages-in-30-minutes-with-drones/. 5.


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Over the longer term, the rate of increase is a bit more uncertain, although there is no reason to believe it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the number of components per integrated circuit for minimum cost will be 65,000. I believe that such a large circuit can be built on a single wafer.” 14 . See Thierry Bardini, Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001). 15 . See John Markoff, What the Dormouse Said: How the 60s Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer (New York: Viking, 2005). For a broader sense of the California spiritual landscape, see Erik Davis, Visionary State (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2006). 16 . There is no book-length biography of Kay, although there should be. Many writings are available on the Web, and a good reminiscence is Alan Kay, “User Interface: A Personal View,” in The Art of Human Computer Interface Design, ed.


pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

At the Times, several editors have—and still do—encourage my reporting in the field of data science, and its implications. They include Larry Ingrassia, Dean Murphy, Damon Darlin, Suzanne Spector, Joseph Plambeck, James Kerstetter, Quentin Hardy, David Gillen, Lon Teter, Thomas Kuntz, and David Corcoran. Conversations with Natasha Singer have sharpened my thinking on the subject of data and privacy. Then there is John Markoff, a science reporter these days; he and I have labored agreeably and often together in the data-laden precincts of business and science coverage for years. While I was on leave from the Times, Mark Hansen generously offered me office space to work in and travel from and an appointment as a research fellow at the Brown Institute for Media Innovation. Mark is a director of the Brown Institute, a collaboration between the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism and the Stanford School of Engineering.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

For example, a brute-force algorithm to find the divisors of a natural number n is to enumerate all integers from 1 to the square-root of n, and check whether each of them divides n without remainder. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brute-force_search 81 Chatbots fail to convince judges that they’re human, 2011. New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/onepercent/2011/10/turing-test-chatbots-kneel-bef.html 82 Did you Know?, Jeopardy! http://www.jeopardy.com/showguide/abouttheshow/showhistory/ 83 Computer Program to Take On ’Jeopardy!’, John Markoff, 2009. The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/27/technology/27jeopardy.html 84 According to IBM, Watson is a workload optimised system designed for complex analytics, made possible by integrating massively parallel POWER7 processors and the IBM DeepQA software to answer Jeopardy! questions in under three seconds. Watson is made up of a cluster of ninety IBM Power 750 servers (plus additional I/O, network and cluster controller nodes in 10 racks) with a total of 2880 POWER7 processor cores and 16 Terabytes of RAM.


pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For a firsthand narrative of some of these events by the inventor himself, see Vic Scheinman’s interview at Robotics History: Narratives and Networks, accessed November 25, 2014, http://roboticshistory.indiana.edu/content/vic-scheinman. 2. I’m indebted to my friend Carl Hewitt, known for his early logic programming language Planner, for his eyewitness report on this incident. Carl is now board chair of the International Society for Inconsistency Robustness. Seriously, it’s a real topic. 3. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Stanford University, “Jedibot—Robot Sword Fighting,” May 2011, http://youtu.be/Qo79MeRDHGs. 4. John Markoff, “Researchers Announce Advance in Image-Recognition Software,” New York Times, November 17, 2014, science section. 5. “Strawberry Harvesting Robot,” posted by meminsider, YouTube, November 30, 2010, http://youtu.be/uef6ayK8ilY. 6. For an amazingly insightful analysis of the effects of increased communication and decreased energy cost across everything from living cells to civilizations, see Robert Wright, Nonzero (New York: Pantheon 2000). 7.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

Research that once required well-paid legal scholars to trawl through piles of legal documents can now be done by computers, unhampered by headaches or eyestrain. A large chemical company that recently unleashed its software on work done by its own legal staff in the 1980s and 1990s found an accuracy rate of only 60%. “Think about how much money had been spent to be slightly better than a coin toss,” reflected one of the former lawyers. See: John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” The New York Times (March 4, 2011). http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html 16. Warren G. Bennis first said this. Cited in: Mark Fisher, The Millionaire’s Book of Quotations (1991), p. 15. 17. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation,” Oxford Martin School (September 17, 2013). http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf For the calculation for Europe, see: http://www.bruegel.org/nc/blog/detail/article/1399-chart-of-the-week-54-percent-of-eu-jobs-atrisk-of-computerisation 18.


pages: 244 words: 66,599

Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything by Steven Levy

Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, information retrieval, information trail, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, rolodex, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush

My excursions in computer journalism have been greatly aided by incisive and supportive editors: Rich Friedman of the late Popular Computing; David Rosenthal and, later, Bob Love of Rolling Stone; and at Macworld, three aces in a row-Dan Farber, Nancy Dunn, and Deborah Branscum. I've also benefited from expertise and advice from many other Macworld col leagues, beginning with editors-in-chief David Bunnell, Jerry Borrell, and Adrian Mello, and down through the masthead-sadly, too many names to list here. The manuscript benefited from comments by Deb orah Branscum, Teresa Carpenter, Andy Hertzfeld, Joanna Hoffman, Susan Kare, John Markoff, and Larry Tesler. Thanks, too, to my agent Flip Brophy for constant support; and to editor Pam Dorman, whose enthusiasm for the project lured me to Viking. And, as always, my gratitude and love to Teresa and Andrew Max. The world has arrived at an age of cheap complex devices of great reliability; and something is bound to come of it. -VANNEVAR BUSH CHAPTER 1 What I first remember was the light.


pages: 801 words: 209,348

Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Tim Berners-Lee attributed: Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web: The Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web (San Francisco, Harper, 1999), 22–23. making Jobs a billionaire: John Markoff, “Apple Computer Co-Founder Strikes Gold with New Stock,” New York Times, November 30, 1995. Apple agreed to buy: Isaacson, Steve Jobs, 301. lose over $1 billion: Apple Computer Inc., Annual Report (Washington DC: Securities and Exchange Commission, 1997). $150 million from Microsoft: Michele Matassa Flores and Thomas W. Haines, “Microsoft, Apple Join Forces: Disbelief, Boos Greet Today’s Stunning Announcement at Macworld Expo,” Seattle Times, August 6, 1997. “I’d shut it down”: John Markoff, “Michael Dell Should Eat His Words, Apple Chief Suggests,” New York Times, January 16, 2006. $8 billion to $5.3 billion and its first store: Apple Computer Inc., 2001 Annual Report (Washington DC: Securities and Exchange Commission, 2001).


pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, Joan Didion, John Gruber, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

Special, Special, Special Thanks Danielle Bilton, for your patience, understanding, love, and baked goods. Special, Special Thanks This book would not have happened without the invaluable input from following people: David Carr, John Mahaney, Karen Blumenthal, Matthew Fishbane, Mark Hansen, Katinka Matson, John Brockman, Clay Shirky, Clive Thompson, Larry Ingrassia, Tom Bodkin, Mike Young, John Markoff, Tim O’Reilly, Sam Sifton, Hubert McCabe, Mark Bittman. New York Times Arthur Sulzberger Jr., Janet Robinson, Martin Nisenholtz, Bill Keller, John Geddes, Jill Abramson, Rick Berke, Damon Darlin, David Gallagher, Suzanne Spector, Michael Zimbalist, Ted Roden, Alexis Lloyd, Justin Ouellette, Patricia McSweeney, Amy Hyde, Susan Edgerly, Brian Stelter, Jenna Wortham, Jim Roberts, Doug Latino, Kelly Doe, Brad Stone, Ashlee Vance, Steve Lohr, Matt Richtel, Miguel Helft, Tim O’Brien, Claire Cain Miller, Michael Golden, Evan “Scoop” Sandhaus, Bill Cunningham, Glenn Kramon, Rob Larson, Rob Samuels, Kevin McKenna, and Fiona Spruill.


pages: 366 words: 76,476

Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One's Looking) by Christian Rudder

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Howard Zinn, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, p-value, pre–internet, race to the bottom, selection bias, Snapchat, social graph, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steve Jobs, the scientific method

Scientific American, November 2013, 65–71. all the analysis was done anonymously and in aggregate It bears repeating that at no time was any data tied back to any individual. For the user photos and text cited in the book see the notes above related to them. Jaron Lanier My discussion of Lanier’s work focuses on his article “How Should We Think About Privacy?” “Using data drawn from queries” See John Markoff, “Unreported Side Effects of Drugs Are Found Using Internet Search Data, Study Finds,” New York Times, March 7, 2013, nytimes.com/2013/03/07/science/unreported-side-effects-of-drugs-found-using-internet-data-study-finds.html. a crowdsourced family tree Geni.com reports more than 75 million entries in its tree. They’re owned by MyHeritage, which claims 1.5 billion. two political scientists debunked See Jowei Chen and Jonathan Rodden, “Don’t Blame the Maps,” New York Times, January 26, 2014, nytimes.com/2014/01/26/opinion/sunday/its-the-geography-stupid.html.


pages: 261 words: 79,883

Start With Why: How Great Leaders Inspire Everyone to Take Action by Simon Sinek

Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Black Swan, business cycle, commoditize, hiring and firing, John Markoff, low cost airline, Nick Leeson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route

New York: Back Bay Books, 2002. 116 Everett M. Rogers was the first to formally describe how innovations spread through society: Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations. New York: Free Press, 2003. 116 Geoffrey Moore expanded on Rogers’s ideas to apply the principle to high-tech product marketing: Geoffrey A. Moore, Crossing the Chasm. New York: Collins, 2002. 122 In 1997, TiVo was racing to market with a remarkable new device: John Markoff, “Netscape Pioneer to Invest in Smart VCR,” New York Times, November 9, 1998, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DE0D6133EF93AA35752C1A96E958260. 123 TiVo finally shipped in 1999: http://www.tivo.com/abouttivo/aboutushome/index.html. 123 TiVo sold about 48,000 units the first year: Roy Furchgott, “Don’t People Want to Control Their TV’s?” New York Times, August 24, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/24/technology/don-t-people-want-to-control-their-tv-s.html. 123 “More U.S.


pages: 345 words: 75,660

Prediction Machines: The Simple Economics of Artificial Intelligence by Ajay Agrawal, Joshua Gans, Avi Goldfarb

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Air France Flight 447, Airbus A320, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, blockchain, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, data acquisition, data is the new oil, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Google Glasses, high net worth, ImageNet competition, income inequality, information retrieval, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Lyft, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, performance metric, profit maximization, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, The Future of Employment, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, US Airways Flight 1549, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Stephen Hawking, “This Is the Most Dangerous Time for Our Planet,” The Guardian, December 1, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/dec/01/stephen-hawking-dangerous-time-planet-inequality. 4. “The Onrushing Wave,” The Economist, January 18, 2014, https://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21594264-previous-technological-innovation-has-always-delivered-more-long-run-employment-not-less. 5. For more, see John Markoff, Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots (New York: Harper Collins, 2015); Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future (New York: Basic Books, 2016); and Ryan Avent, The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century (London: St. Martin’s Press, 2016). 6. Jason Furman, “Is This Time Different? The Opportunities and Challenges of AI,” https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/page/files/20160707_cea_ai_furman.pdf. 7.


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Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms by Hannah Fry

23andMe, 3D printing, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Brixton riot, chief data officer, computer vision, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, ransomware, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, Shai Danziger, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web of trust, William Langewiesche

Alan Ohnsman, ‘Bosch and Daimler to partner to get driverless taxis to market by early 2020s’, Forbes, 4 April 2017, https://www.forbes.com/sites/alanohnsman/2017/04/04/bosch-and-daimler-partner-to-get-driverless-taxis-to-market-by-early-2020s/#306ec7e63c4b. 16. Ford, Looking Further: Ford Will Have a Fully Autonomous Vehicle in Operation by 2021, https://corporate.ford.com/innovation/autonomous-2021.html. 17. John Markoff, ‘Should your driverless car hit a pedestrian to save your life?’, New York Times, 23 June 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/24/technology/should-your-driverless-car-hit-a-pedestrian-to-save-your-life.html. 18. Clive Thompson, Anna Wiener, Ferris Jabr, Rahawa Haile, Geoff Manaugh, Jamie Lauren Keiles, Jennifer Kahn and Malia Wollan, ‘Full tilt: when 100 per cent of cars are autonomous’, New York Times, 8 Nov. 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/11/08/magazine/tech-design-autonomous-future-cars-100-percent-augmented-reality-policing.html#the-end-of-roadkill. 19.


pages: 252 words: 75,349

Spam Nation: The Inside Story of Organized Cybercrime-From Global Epidemic to Your Front Door by Brian Krebs

barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, cashless society, defense in depth, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, John Markoff, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pirate software, placebo effect, ransomware, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, the payments system, transaction costs, web application

This amplification effect is especially pronounced if the perpetrators query dozens of DNS servers with these spoofed requests simultaneously. The good news is that Internet and security experts have long understood how to block these extraordinarily powerful attacks. “Indeed, a number of computer security specialists pointed out that the attacks would have been impossible if the world’s major Internet firms simply checked that outgoing data packets truly were being sent by their customers, rather than botnets,” wrote John Markoff and Nicole Perlroth of the New York Times. The bad news is that little has changed since these ultra-powerful attacks first surfaced more than a decade ago, said Rodney Joffe, senior vice president and senior technologist at Neustar, a security company that also helps clients weather huge online attacks. Joffe estimates that there are approximately 25 million misconfigured or antiquated home and business routers that can be abused in these digital sieges.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

Albert Einstein, animal electricity, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, twin studies, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

As hard-core fans of science fiction, ham radio, and Japanese monster movies: “Spacewars and Beyond: How the Tech Model Railroad Club Changed the World,” Henry Jenkins. http://henryjenkins.org/2007/10/spacewars_and_beyond_how_the_t.html#sthash.vNI7iDoK.dpuf equal parts of “science, fiction, and science fiction”: Scientific Temperaments, p. 266. “Do the arithmetic or be doomed to talk nonsense”: “John McCarthy, 84, Dies; Computer Design Pioneer,” John Markoff. New York Times, Oct. 25, 2011. François Mitterrand, the president of France, visited her office: Jean Hollands, personal communication. Homebrew Computer Club: Ibid. a combination of Sherlock Holmes and A. J. Raffles: The Senior Class Book, compiled by the class of 1906, Cornell University, 1906, p. 147. he embarked on a bike tour of Europe: Lee Felsenstein, personal communication.

“I’m not daydreaming, I’m inventing”: “Oral History of Lee Felsenstein,” Kip Crosby. Edited by Dag Spicer. May 7, 2008. Computer History Museum, p. 2. http://www.computerhistory.org/collections/catalog/102702231 He began to think of the basement as a holy sanctuary: Lee Felsenstein, personal communication. “I realized that I had made a mistake”: Lee Felsenstein, interview with the author, 2014. While McCarthy wanted to design machines: “An Interview with John Markoff: What the Dormouse Said.” Ubiquity, Aug. 2005. tools that would facilitate “conviviality”: Tools for Conviviality, Ivan Illich. Harper & Row, 1973. a programmer at a bustling commune: “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” Stewart Brand. Rolling Stone, Dec. 7, 1972. which was twenty-four feet long: “Convivial Cybernetic Devices: An Interview with Lee Felsenstein,” Kip Crosby.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K

An associate computer-science professor named Michael Zimmer has created an amazing resource called the Zuckerberg Files, an attempt at a comprehensive archive of every single interview of its namesake; I feasted on it. Casey Newton’s newsletter, The Interface, helped me keep current with the daily torrent of Facebook news. I spent a lot of time in California working over the past three years, and I owe a lot to those who provided me with shelter and support. Lynnea Johnson and Caroline Rose’s bungalow was my bivouac for much of the time, until I imposed on John Markoff and Leslie Terizan. Katie Hafner and Bob Wachter were splendid hosts in San Francisco. Leslie Berlin generously lent me her son’s car before he rightfully claimed it for his campus use. Thanks also to friends on two coasts: Bradley Horowitz, Irene Au, Brad Stone, Kevin Kelly, Megan Quinn, M. G. Siegler, and Steve and Michelle Stoneburn. Back on the East Coast, I had two other writing homes.

instant messages: Nicholas Carlson, “At Last—The Full Story of How Facebook Was Founded,” Business Insider, March 5, 2010; and “EXCLUSIVE: Mark Zuckerberg’s Secret IMs from College,” Business Insider, May 17, 2012. Aaron Greenspan: Besides personal interviews, Greenspan’s story is drawn from his book Authoritas: One Student’s Harvard Admissions and the Founding of the Facebook Era (Think Press, 2008); John Markoff, “Who Founded Facebook? A New Claim Emerges,” New York Times, September 1, 2007. “unfazed”: Matt Welsh blogged, “How I Almost Killed Facebook,” February 20, 2009. Harry Lewis: Alexis C. Madrigal, “Before It Conquered the World, Facebook Conquered Harvard,” The Atlantic, February 4, 2019. “There was nothing like that”: Interview with Y Combinator, “Mark Zuckerberg at Startup School 2013,” October 25, 2013, Zuckerberg Transcripts, 160.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

Richard Stallman, “The GNU Project,” available online at http://www.gnu.org/gnu/ thegnuproject.html and in Chris Dibona et al, eds., Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly, 1999). 57. Ross, Strange Weather, p. 80. 58. From a telephone interview with Kevin Mitnick, cited in Taylor, Hackers, p. 57. For more details on the Mitnick story, see the following texts: Katie Hafner and John Markoff, Cyberpunk: Outlaws and Hackers on the Computer Frontier (New York: Touchstone, 1991); Tsu- Chapter 5 170 A British hacker named Dr-K hardens this sentiment into an explicit anticommercialism when he writes that “[c]orporations and government cannot be trusted to use computer technology for the benefit of ordinary people.”59 It is for this reason that the Free Software Foundation was established in 1985.


pages: 317 words: 84,400

Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World by Christopher Steiner

23andMe, Ada Lovelace, airport security, Al Roth, algorithmic trading, backtesting, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delta neutral, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, dumpster diving, Flash crash, G4S, Gödel, Escher, Bach, High speed trading, Howard Rheingold, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, late fees, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, medical residency, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Sergey Aleynikov, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

Paul Kedrosky and Dane Stangler, Financialization and Its Entrepreneurial Consequences, Kauffman Foundation Research Series, March 2011, http://www.kauffman.org/uploadedfiles/financialization_report_3-23-11.pdf. CHAPTER 10: THE FUTURE BELONGS TO THE ALGORITHMS AND THEIR CREATORS 1. “Algorithm Measures Human Pecking Order,” MIT Technology Review, December 21, 2011, http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/27437/. 2. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 4, 2011. 3. Eric Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race against the Machine (Digital Frontier Press e-book, 2011). 4. Steve Lohr, “More Jobs Predicted for Machines, Not People,” New York Times, October 23, 2011. 5. Steve Lohr, “In Case You Wondered, a Real Human Wrote This Column,” New York Times, September 10, 2011. 6.


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Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

On the German population growing again, see Suzanne Daley and Nicholas Kulish, “Brain Drain Feared as German Jobs Lure Southern Europeans,” The New York Times, April 28, 2012. On job growth in services, see A. Michael Spence and Sandile Hlatshwayo, “The Evolving Structure of the American Economy and the Employment Challenge,” Council on Foreign Relations, March 2011. For one recent look at reshoring, see John Markoff, “Skilled Work, Without the Worker,” The New York Times, August 18, 2012. Chapter 10: Relearning Education For figures on K–12, see Stephanie Banchero and Stephanie Simon, “My Teacher is an App,” The Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2011. The point about stronger incentives for innovation I owe to Alex Tabarrok. On the Emporium model, see Daniel de Vise, “At Virginia Tech, computers help solve a math class problem,” The Washington Post, April 22, 2012.


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Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, Donald Davies, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Its total cost was $1.8 million: For an account of Google’s arrival in The Dalles, see Steven Levy, In the Plex (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), pp. 192–95. “It was visionary—this little town…”: Ibid., p. 192. I’d even read a little note about it: The site has since been changed, but it was accessible as of June 2011 at http://www.google.com/corporate/datacenter/index.html; a copy is preserved here: http://kalanaonline.blogspot.com/2011/02/where-is-your-data-google-and-microsoft.html. Where Google had kept everything top secret: John Markoff and Saul Hansell, “Hiding in Plain Sight, Google Seeks More Power,” New York Times, June 14, 2006 (http://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/14/technology/14search.html). “It’s time to stop treating data centers like Fight Club”: Maggie Shiels, “Facebook Shares Green Data Centre Technology,” BBC News, April 8, 2011 (http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-13010766). Facebook had come under fire from Greenpeace: Elizabeth Weingarten, “Friends Without Benefits,” Slate, March 7, 2011 (http://www.slate.com/id/2287548/).


pages: 330 words: 83,319

The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder by Sean McFate

active measures, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, hive mind, index fund, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero day, zero-sum game

See Matt Cox, “Congress Wants More Control of Special Ops Iron Man Suit,” Military.com, 29 April 2014, www.military.com/defensetech/2014/04/29/congress-wants-more-control-of-special-ops-iron-man-suit; Matthew Cox, “Industry: Iron Man Still Hollywood, Not Reality,” Military.com, 7 June 2018, www.military.com/daily-news/2014/04/22/industry-iron-man-still-hollywood-not-reality.html. 4. Rise of the robots: Matthew Rosenberg and John Markoff, “The Pentagon’s ‘Terminator Conundrum’: Robots That Could Kill on Their Own,” New York Times, 25 October 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/10/26/us/pentagon-artificial-intelligence-terminator.html; Kevin Warwick, “Back to the Future,” Leviathan, BBC News, 1 January 2000, http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/special_report/1999/12/99/back_to_the_future/kevin_warwick.stm. 5. Robots are stupid: Andrej Karpathy and Li Fei-Fei, “Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions,” Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2015): 3128–37, http://cs.stanford.edu/people/karpathy/cvpr2015.pdf. 6.


pages: 362 words: 86,195

Fatal System Error: The Hunt for the New Crime Lords Who Are Bringing Down the Internet by Joseph Menn

Brian Krebs, dumpster diving, fault tolerance, Firefox, John Markoff, Menlo Park, offshore financial centre, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular electronics, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, zero day

Some of the premier experts in government are cited in the text, while others asked not to be exposed. I was fortunate to be aided by many of the most able private researchers, not all of whom are paid for their work, including Joe Stewart, Rafal Rohozinski, Don Jackson, Jart Armin, Paul Ferguson, Avivah Litan, and Dmitri Alperovich. My fellow journalistic specialists also do an important service for followers like me and for the world at large. Among the very best are Brian Krebs, John Markoff, Jon Swartz, Byron Acohido, Kevin Poulsen, Kim Zetter, John Leyden, and Robert McMillan. I am grateful to my former colleagues at the Los Angeles Times, who supported my early reporting and allowed me a leave to write; my new friends at the Financial Times, who gave me time to finish; Lindsay Jones and others at PublicAffairs; my agent Jill Marsal; Chris Gaither, who served as an unpaid manuscript editor; and those close to me who dealt with my prolonged distraction and repeated absences.


pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

GSMA Intelligence, “Connections Excluding Cellular M2M: Q2 2007.” 33. Much of this section is based on Daniel Roth, “Google’s Open Source Android OS Will Free the Wireless Web,” Wired, June 23, 2008, http://archive.wired.com/techbiz/media/magazine/16-07/ff_android?currentPage=all. 34. Larry Page and Sergey Brin had met Andy Rubin and heard about his mobile vision when Rubin gave a talk to an engineering class at Stanford in 2002. John Markoff, “I Robot: The Man Behind the Google Phone,” New York Times, November 4, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/04/technology/04google.html?pagewanted=all. 35. Vogelstein, Dogfight, 46–48. 36. Symbian was based on legacy PDA code. West and Wood, “Tradeoffs of Open Innovation Platform Leadership.” The Microsoft Mobility story is apparently more complicated. See Brian X. Chen, “The Microsoft Blew It with Windows Mobile,” Wired, November 17, 2009, http://www.wired.com/2009/11/microsoft-windows-mobile/. 37.


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The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Quotes from an interview with the author except for this one, which is from Justin Cox, “Documenting a Bin Laden Ex-Confidante: Q&A with Filmmaker Laura Poitras,” TheHill.com, July 13, 2010, http://thehill.com/capital-living/cover-stories/108553-documenting-a-bin-laden-ex-confidante-qaa-with-filmmaker-laura-poitras#ixzz2YfhpMdXu. 2. The other person Snowden contacted was the journalist Glenn Greenwald of the Guardian, with whom Poitras collaborated. 3. That start-up is Narrative Science, a computer program that generates sports stories. Janet Paskin, “The Future of Journalism?,” Columbia Journalism Review (November/December 2010): 10. 4. John Markoff, “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software,” New York Times, March 5, 2011, A1. 5. See Janice Gross Stein’s book based on her Massey Lecture: Janice Gross Stein, The Cult of Efficiency (Toronto: House of Anansi Press, 2002). 6. Christopher Steiner, Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World (New York: Portfolio, 2012), 88. 7. I owe this observation to an exchange with Richard Nash, who went on to make the point eloquently here: Richard Nash, “What Is the Business of Literature?


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The Doomsday Calculation: How an Equation That Predicts the Future Is Transforming Everything We Know About Life and the Universe by William Poundstone

Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Arthur Eddington, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, digital map, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, Elon Musk, Gerolamo Cardano, index fund, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sam Altman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, Turing test

In 2016 a New Yorker profile of venture capitalist Sam Altman mentioned in passing that “two tech billionaires have gone so far as to secretly engage scientists to work on breaking us out of the simulation.” This promptly led to speculation that one of the billionaires was Musk. Others wondered how it was even possible for simulated beings to break out of their simulation. Journalist Sam Kriss complained that “the tech industry is moving into territory once cordoned off for the occult.” New York Times science writer John Markoff called the simulation hypothesis “basically a religious belief system in the Valley”—Silicon Valley, naturally. The Omphalos Scenario How has the simulation hypothesis gained such intellectual currency? Does it merit being taken even a little seriously? The answer has to do with the self-sampling assumption, and with a set of beliefs ingrained in contemporary culture. The notion that the world could be an illusion is as old as philosophy.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Everyone was attending preachy “workshops” where a narrative about a mystical path to self-empowerment was reinforced. If you found it to be a load of claptrap you learned to keep quiet. It wasn’t worth the arguments. We like to pretend this phase of Silicon Valley culture didn’t happen, but it did. To my mind, this was a distinct period from the 1970s hippie/tech crossover, which was documented nicely in John Markoff’s book What the Dormouse Said. Well before the computer nerds showed up, California was already a center of “Eastern Religion.” There were Tibetan temples and Hindu ashrams. The wave of Eastern-influenced spiritual style was inescapable. During the wild early development of Virtual Reality, in the 1980s, I lived for a while in a faux Greek temple in the Berkeley hills built by friends of the radical dancer Isadora Duncan much earlier in the century.


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