mass immigration

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pages: 420 words: 126,194

The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam by Douglas Murray

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, open borders, post-industrial society, white flight

So why import people to do low-skilled work when so many low-skilled workers already exist in Europe? Sometimes mass immigration is advocated because of the advantage it gives in supporting pensioners, sometimes because of the advantage it allegedly gives in stopping young people from doing jobs they don’t want. But in both cases it is an argument that if allowed to run will only encourage a greater and greater problem with every year that passes, as more ageing people need support and as fewer young people have any chance of getting into work. It is a habit Europe has got into, and one which becomes harder to kick with each passing year. DIVERSITY One of the most striking things about the arguments for ongoing mass migration into European countries is that they are so readily able to shift. Whenever the economic cases for mass immigration are briefly dislodged, along come moral or cultural arguments.

But the only way to present migrants as contributing not just equally but actually more than those already working and paying taxes in Britain is if we talk almost exclusively about highly educated, high net-worth individuals from first-world countries. The cliché of the ‘average immigrant’ being an economic boon for the country only works when such exceptions are made to appear as though they are the rule. All efforts to make an economic case for mass immigration rely on this trick. Among those to have used it are EU Commissioner Cecilia Malmström and UN Representative Peter Sutherland. In a 2012 piece they suggested that unless Europe opens its borders to mass migration, ‘Entrepreneurs, migrants with Ph.Ds’ and others will all be ‘flocking to places like Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia, Mexico, China, and India’, thus leaving Europe to be a more impoverished place.2 One of the few studies in this area is from the Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration at University College London.

Similar stretches are occurring in the National Health Service (which spends more than £20 million a year on translation services alone) and in every other area of state provision. Because such things are so obvious, it requires a concerted effort to pretend they are untrue. One example of just such an effort is the report that was a foundation document for the wave of mass migration during the Blair government. ‘Migration: An Economic and Social Analysis’ was completed in 2000, a joint production of the Home Office Economics and Resource Analysis Unit and the Cabinet Office Performance and Innovation Unit (even their names seeming designed to bore any opponents to inattention). Both entities were staffed with people already known to be in favour of mass immigration and therefore clearly intended to provide ‘intellectual ballast’ to support the existing views of ministers.1 Among the claims of this seminal report was that ‘overall, migrants have little aggregate effect on native wages or employment’.

pages: 324 words: 80,217

The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K

The Writing On the Wall If this is how the story of our decadence ends, there will be a morality-play element to it after all, a sense in which our fall fits the Durant quote and the Gibson vision strangely well. Because climate change and population imbalances and mass migration are not problems dropping like European microbes out of a clear blue Mesoamerican sky, nor are they accidental Y2K or nuclear-launch disasters that can be feared but not exactly predicted. Instead, they are challenges that follow from long-term technological and economic trends, long-term patterns of human behavior—which in turn means that they’re the kinds of trends that a vigorous, nondecadent, advanced civilization should have been able to cope with and head off before they led to some dégringolade. If mass migration ultimately overthrows the Western political order, there will be a cautionary story told by reactionaries ever after, in which the foolish elites of America and Europe couldn’t see that their relaxed attitude toward immigration and their indifference to the most basic aspect of human flourishing imaginable, the birthrate, were both species of decadence, which richly merited the destruction that followed.

And the consequence would be what Bill McKibben, one of the most eloquent climate alarmists, calls the “shrinking” of the planet: “Until now, human beings have been spreading, from our beginnings in Africa, out across the globe—slowly at first, and then much faster. But a period of contraction is setting in as we lose parts of the habitable earth.” At a sufficient scale, that contraction would accelerate mass migration to a point where it ceases to be politically manageable. In the Syrian refugee crisis, in which drought played a supporting role, you had a preview of how migration can upend political normalcy in the developed world. If that one crisis helped give us Brexit and Trump and various populist victories across the European continent, it’s not hard to see how a rolling, decades-long pattern of climate-driven migrations could put stresses on the developed world that our sclerotic institutions and political coalitions simply aren’t prepared to bear.

The Neo-Medieval Future If something like this happens, we will look back on Trump-era disturbances and recognize them not as the playacting that they often seem to be but as a kind of dress rehearsal for a looming tragedy—Karl Marx’s dictum about history repeating as tragedy followed by farce, but in reverse. And more even than in the first scenario, the scenario of economic crisis, in the climate crisis/mass migration scenario, impulses that today belong (at least officially) to the disreputable extremes will become near universal. In a landscape of rolling calamity and constant migration, the concepts of reform, renewal, and renaissance will lose their salience entirely, and what will be sought, quite understandably, is a kind of Augustus or Diocletian option for the West: a figure or figures capable of imposing order, guaranteeing public safety, and ensuring continuity of government when all else seems to be melting into swiftly warming air.

pages: 190 words: 56,531

Where We Are: The State of Britain Now by Roger Scruton

bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, Corn Laws, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Fellow of the Royal Society, fixed income, garden city movement, George Akerlof, housing crisis, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, old-boy network, open borders, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, sceptred isle, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, web of trust

The Scots and the Protestant Irish accepted to be included in the revised conception of the country, and the Act of Union with Ireland of 1800, followed by the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829, invited the Irish fully to share in the deal. The years that followed were not harmonious: the Highland clearances continued, as did the oppression of the Irish smallholders, exacerbating the disastrous famine of 1845–52. So too did the mass migration to the industrial towns, the exploitation of child labour, and the dehumanizing factory regimes. However, as I noted above, the British do not, as a rule, confront problems with an attitude of resignation and laissez-faire. Their instinct is to combine in order to solve them. The Factory Acts, the Friendly Societies, Building Societies, church schools and people’s dispensaries, the Chartist movement, the second Reform Bill extending the franchise to large sections of working-class men, the growth of the Labour movement – these and many other social and political initiatives overcame the worst of the problems in England, and ensured that the pre-political ‘we’ of Britain was strong enough to reconcile the many resentments.

Fair-mindedness, acceptance of eccentricity and a reluctance to take offence, combined with an aversion towards abuse and slander – all these were attributes of the British, and belonged to them by virtue of public institutions in which they placed their trust and which they were tutored to defend both in thought and deed against those who might otherwise destroy them. Such citizens fought for the freedom of their country, and for their own freedom as part of it. And that, in a nutshell, was the British character. Nothing in history stays still, however. Years of peace and prosperity, the decline of the Christian faith, mass migration and the spread of global trade and communications – these and other vast changes have produced a generation of young people more attuned to networks that connect them to their peers than to the liberties that their grandparents fought for. They have not been confronted in their lives with the emergency to which patriotism is the only cogent response, although the jihadists are trying hard to rectify this.

At least since the Enlightenment our serious literature, art and music have been consistently pastoral in their inspiration. Without the countryside and all that it means there would be no Coleridge or Wordsworth, no Jane Austen, no Brontë sisters, no Walter Scott, no George Eliot or Thomas Hardy, no Elgar, Vaughan Williams or Ivor Gurney, no Constable, Crome or Turner. When, in the nineteenth century, people began to confront the questions posed by the mass migration to the cities and the rise of the factories, therefore, it was in part with a view to protecting the countryside from further spoliation at the hands of the industrialists. This feeling for the countryside has profoundly influenced urbanization in both England and Scotland. From the eighteenth century onwards developers have provided potted versions of the rural environment – green squares, small parks, tree-lined streets, sometimes gardens front and rear – with scant respect for the kind of economy of land use that we witness in Italy or France.

pages: 303 words: 83,564

Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game

For him the pertinent question is whether immigration produces long-term benefits to these descendants. As you will see, I think that such imagined futures can be helpful. But in this instance the argument smacks of a sleight of hand. To see the limitations of an argument, it sometimes helps to guy it to an extreme. Suppose, entirely hypothetically, that mass immigration led to the exodus of most of the indigenous population, but that the remainder intermarried with immigrants and their joint descendants ended up better off. Knowing this ex ante, the indigenous population might reasonably determine that mass immigration was not in its interest. Whether it would then be legitimate for this perceived self-interest to translate into restrictions on entry would depend upon whether freedom of movement is a global right. A related argument is that all indigenous populations are themselves mongrels, the result of previous waves of immigration.

Settlers may, in the long term, prove to have been good for black South Africans, but this did not begin until power shifted to a government intent on ensuring benefits for blacks by transferring income from the settler population. Currently, the most high-profile settlers are Jewish Israelis: while the rights of Jewish settlement of the Occupied Territories are hotly disputed—and entirely outside the scope of this book—no one attempts to justify Jewish settlement on the grounds that it is beneficial for indigenous Palestinians. In the post-Napoleonic period, when mass migration to North America took off, the group with the greatest appetite to become settlers was the Protestant community in the north of Ireland (emigration by Catholics from southern Ireland did not take off until after the potato famine of the 1840s). The most likely explanation for this propensity is that the Protestants in the north of Ireland were already settlers, brought in from Scotland and England by successive British governments to establish a loyalist population in the unruly colony.

Extreme libertarianism denies the right of governments to restrict individual freedom, in this instance the freedom of movement. Universalist utilitarianism wants to maximize world utility by whatever means. The best possible outcome would be if the entire world population moved to the country in which people were most productive, leaving the rest of the earth empty. A useful supplement to such mass migration would be if Robin Hood could rob all the rich people and transfer the money to all the poor people, although economists would caution Robin to temper robbery with concern for incentives. Evidently, neither of these philosophies provides an ethical framework by which a democratic society would wish to navigate migration policy. Indeed, they could be dismissed as the stuff of teenage dreams were they not the ethical basis for the standard economic models of migration.

pages: 405 words: 121,999

The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

For example, there is a clear correlation in the UK between changes in the ethnicity of a local district in the decade prior to the European referendum, and the share of voters opting for Brexit. Attitudes to immigration correlate more closely to an ‘out’ vote than to any other factors, other than to the EU itself. Moreover, support for Germany’s far-right AfD surged after the highly publicised mass migrations of Syrians in the summer of 2015. Without its early lead in the demographic transformation, Britain could not have exported its people to run an empire on which the sun never set. Without the sharp drop in fertility rates that followed–and the simultaneous rapid expansion of populations in lands where Britain had once ruled–mass immigration and the arrival of a more multicultural society would almost certainly not have happened. If one wishes to understand why Californians speak English or why there are five times more Muslims than Methodists in the UK, consider the great forces of population change in recent times.

It is true that there was much migration to England from Scotland and especially Ireland (both at that time within the United Kingdom) and, at the very end of the nineteenth century, of east European Jews, but this was dwarfed by the outward movement to the colonies and the USA. Estimates vary–the record keeping was not very good–and of course many people came back, complicating the picture, but one estimate is that in the 1850s alone, more than 1 million people left the country.7 By contrast, in the peak year for immigration in the century before the First World War, barely 12,000 from outside the UK came to stay.8 Given that there was a mass migration out of England, and yet its population nearly quadrupled in the course of the century, the cause of the population growth must have been a vastly greater number of births than deaths, sufficient not only to generate this large domestic population growth but also to fuel the emigration. The poor, narrow streets of London’s East End, into which Jews were packed by the end of the century, representing the bulk of immigration into the country, counted as nothing when compared to the vast spaces into which emigrants poured out from Britain, in Canada, the United States, Australia, New Zealand and beyond.

When the musical West Side Story received its premiere in 1957, featuring the line ‘Puerto Rica–you lovely island… always the hurricanes blowing, always the population growing’, the women of this US dependency in the Caribbean were bearing nearly five children each; today they are having one and a half. (In fact, even in the late 1950s the population was not growing, despite the high fertility rate, thanks to mass migration to the US mainland.) The rise in life expectancy and fall of infant mortality are objectives which all societies will achieve if they can. It is a biological imperative and part of human nature to want to preserve one’s own life, to put off the moment of death and to do what one can to preserve the lives of one’s nearest and dearest, particularly one’s children. In this, if in not much more, humans are pretty uniform.

pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

This is a fundamental challenge to a divided Europe. It is not just about immigration; it is also about economies, trade, sovereignty and liberalism in general. But, as we cope with the new realities of mass immigration and the moral necessity to take in refugees, we must not lose sight of core values. If we do, we may condemn all future Europeans, from whatever background, to live in a more repressive society than at present. It’s worth remembering that most of those coming to Europe are trying to get away from despotic regimes that have failed them. We need to deal with radical Islamism, manage mass migration and care for refugees, but in a manner that does not undermine our liberal values and rule-of-law-based systems. Those laws, values and that system are what eventually healed the most recent great schism in Europe, the one that developed after 1945.

In 1987 President Ronald Reagan went to the Brandenburg Gate in divided Berlin and called out to his opposite number in the Soviet Union, ‘Mr Gorbachev – tear down this wall!’ Two years later it fell. Berlin, Germany and then Europe were united once more. They were heady times in which some intellectuals predicted an end of history. However, history does not end. In recent years, the cry ‘Tear down this wall’ is losing the argument against ‘fortress mentality’. It is struggling to be heard, unable to compete with the frightening heights of mass migration, the backlash against globalization, the resurgence of nationalism, the collapse of Communism and the 9/11 attacks and their aftermath. These are the fault lines that will shape our world for years to come. We are seeing walls being built along borders everywhere. Despite globalization and advances in technology, we seem to be feeling more divided than ever. Thousands of miles of walls and fences have gone up around the world in the twenty-first century.

To achieve this involves a mass uprooting of people, along with the destruction of villages and the building of cities, megacities, roads and high-speed railways. The majority of the movement continues to be from west to east, the west still tending to be more rural, with higher illiteracy rates; the east, especially towards the seaboard, is increasingly urban and oriented towards technology, industry and business. However, the mass migration to the cities reveals and exacerbates another gap within the urban population, again between rich and poor. It has been created by the hukou system, a form of registration that is rooted in the social structure of the country. It is one of the things that have helped to entrench the perception of the rural population as second-class citizens. The hukou system predates the Great Wall, going all the way back to the Xia dynasty (2070–1600 BCE), which started registering every member of every family.

The Next Great Migration by Sonia Shah

Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Donald Trump,, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, open borders, out of africa, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, trade route, urban sprawl

They roil fear and panic about the next great migration today, reshaping the politics of the most powerful nations on earth. Conservationists warn of the “invasive” appetites of alien species moving into habitats already populated by native ones. Biomedical experts warn of migrant species carrying foreign microbes into new places, sparking epidemics that will threaten the public health. Foreign policy experts predict instability and violence as the necessary result of mass migrations forced by climate change. Antimigrant politicians speak of economic calamity and worse. The idea of migration as a disruptive force has fueled my own work as a journalist. For years I reported and wrote about the damage caused by biota on the move. I investigated how mosquitoes flitting across landscapes and nations infected societies with malaria parasites, shaping the rise and fall of empires, and how cholera bacteria traveling across continents in the bodies of traders and travelers triggered pandemics that reshaped the global economy.

Meanwhile, in the cavernous halls of the UN Security Council,10 where officials debated the use of armed forces to secure the international order from threats such as drug trafficking, terrorism, and weapons of mass destruction, attention turned instead to the dangers posed by climate-driven migrants. By 2011 officials at the council had held two open debates on the subject. At the time, the specter of mass migration had been an abstraction, like the hordes of zombies featured on hit television programs. Then political and geographical circumstances conspired to create a spectacle, one in which migrants materialized in conspicuous masses, just as Kaplan and the others had warned, on Europe’s southern shores. One day in early March 2011,11 a few bored teenagers in Daraa, a dusty Syrian town decimated by years of drought and neglect, found a can of red paint.

The possibility that Europe, with its total population of over 500 million, could absorb another million people went mostly unexplored. In fact, countries such as Greece and Hungary had plenty17 of accommodations and jobs to offer newcomers. In Athens, three hundred thousand residential properties stood vacant. In Hungary, a critical labor shortage meant employers couldn’t find sufficient workers to fill vacant posts. But for many observers, the newly conspicuous spectacle of mass migration appeared ominous. They saw an army of robotic migrants, full of disruptive and destructive potential. By 2015 over a million people from Syria, Afghanistan, and elsewhere had found their way into Europe, primarily Germany but also Sweden and elsewhere.18 In their wake, a wave of politicians promising harsh new measures against migrants swept into power across Europe and the United States.

pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

The rebellion was finally put down more than a decade later, with massive loss of life. Some of the Taiping program would later be adopted by Sun Yat-sen, who would overthrow the imperial regime, and then by Mao Tse-tung and the Communists.15 The Revolt against Mass Migration The contemporary versions of peasant rebellions, particularly in Europe and the United States, are in large part a reaction against globalization and the mass influx of migrants from poor countries with very different cultures. The numbers of international migrants worldwide swelled from 173 million in 2000 to 258 million in 2017; of these, 78 million were living in Europe and 50 million in the United States.16 Mass migration from poorer to wealthier countries seems all but unstoppable, given the great disparities between them. According to a Gates Foundation study, 22 percent of the people in sub-Saharan Africa live in extreme poverty, defined as subsisting on less that $1.90 a day.

Today a majority of the world’s people live in countries with fertility rates well below replacement level.20 This number will grow to 75 percent by 2050, according to the United Nations; many societies, including some in the developing world, can expect a rapidly aging population and a precipitous decline in workforce numbers.21 Overall world population growth could all but end by 2040, says Wolfgang Lutz, and be in decline by 2060.22 Shrinking populations in advanced countries will threaten economic growth by limiting the size of the labor force, and will undermine the fiscal viability of the welfare state.23 This is one reason for the receptiveness of Western governments to high levels of immigration from poorer countries, which continue to produce offspring more prodigiously than wealthier countries. Between now and 2050, half of all global population growth is expected to take place in Africa.24 A widening demographic imbalance between the poorer and wealthier countries could cause more disruption in both spheres, and lead to a reprise of the mass migrations that did much to undermine the ancient empires of Europe and Asia.25 Social conflict resulting from high levels of immigration from poorer countries is already a prominent feature of Western politics and seems likely to fester in the coming decades.26 The Technology Gap Technological advances once fueled growing prosperity for the many. Today, automation and the use of artificial intelligence promise to accelerate social divisions both between and within countries.

But as James Burnham noted, they generally share an ideology of “managerialism,” centered on efficiency in producing the results desired by managers themselves. As the managerial class grows in power, it becomes more self-referential. Its members are responsible not to the citizenry, but only to other managers and to those regarded as part of a qualified peer group.57 The complexity of problems facing our society—climate change, mass migration, or the effects of technology, for example—may often seem beyond the competency of elected representatives. If higher education made for better people with wiser judgment, it might be tolerable to hand great powers for controlling society to highly educated experts. But as Aldous Huxley observed, scientists and other experts do not own a monopoly on either virtue or political wisdom.58 There are clear dangers in ceding too much power to unelected and unaccountable elites who claim moral authority or expertise backed by higher education.

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

In 1889, the International Emigration Conference defended the freedom of movement as a natural right: “We affirm the right of the individual to the fundamental liberty accorded to him by every civilized nation to come and go and dispose of his person and his destinies as he pleases.”76 International migration may have been fiercely contested from some corners and for some people during the late nineteenth century—particularly the Chinese, and also southern Europeans and Slavs—but an ideology of economic openness and liberalism prevailed overall. Transatlantic Migration The period between 1840 and 1914 is commonly referred to as the “age of mass migration” because of the rapid increase in free mobility during this time.77 Mass migration raised the labor force of the United States and Australia by one-third, and reduced the labor force in Europe by about one-eighth. The average number of Europeans migrating to North America increased from about 300,000 per year in 1850 to around 600,000 per year in the 1870s, and then almost doubled again to over 1 million migrants annually at the beginning of the twentieth century.

The prevailing rationales for free movement and open borders were ethical—that people had the right to move—and economic—that the movement of people responded to similar economic forces (namely, supply and demand) as the movement of goods and capital. At times of major economic or social upheaval—such as the Irish famine, the anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia, or rapid industrialization—the result of open borders was mass migration. Two significant aspects of the nineteenth-century migration to the New World are less recognized than the fact of mass migration itself. First, a large number of migrants returned to their home countries after several years—half of those leaving Spain and Italy, for example. Second, sending countries went through life cycles of emigration. The volume of migrants remained high during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, but the sources of emigrants shifted over time.12 The flow of people rose to a peak as the demographic push factors and economic pull factors increased, and descended into a valley as they diminished.

“Ritualization of Regulation: The Enforcement of Chinese Exclusion in the United States and China,” The American Historical Review 108(2): 377–403. 84. Hatton and Williamson, 1998. 85. Harzig, Hoerder, and Gabaccia, 2009: 37. 86. Winder, 2004: 196. 87. Ibid.: 229. 88. Hatton and Williamson, 1998. 89. Timothy Hatton and Jeffrey Williamson. 1998. The Age of Mass Migration: Causes and Economic Impact. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 90. Carl Solberg. 1978. “Mass Migrations in Argentina, 1870–1970,” in William H. McNeill and Ruth Adams (eds.), Human Migration: Patterns and Policies. London: Indiana University Press, p. 148. 91. Solberg, 1978: 151. 92. Hatton and Williamson, 1998. 93. Herbert S. Klein. 1995. “European and Asian Migrations to Brazil,” in Robin Cohen (ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration.

pages: 215 words: 64,460

Shadows of Empire: The Anglosphere in British Politics by Michael Kenny, Nick Pearce

battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, corporate governance, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, informal economy, invention of the telegraph, Khartoum Gordon, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Nixon shock, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, trade route, Washington Consensus

As the British Empire declined in the twentieth century, this Anglo-world came to form the core of a new ‘Anglo-America’ – an economic, political, ideological and military constellation through which the USA first assumed, and then exercised, global hegemony (as we shall see, the ‘special relationship’ between the UK and the USA is a central axis upon which debate about the Anglosphere would come to turn). The nineteenth century witnessed explosive population growth in the Anglo-world. From 1790 to 1930, the number of English speakers grew sixteenfold, from 12 million to 200 million, far outstripping population growth anywhere else in the world.9 This demographic surge was underpinned by mass migration from the British Isles to the USA and the settler societies of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the course of little over a century after the end of the Napoleonic wars, 25 million people migrated from the United Kingdom to these countries and the smaller enclaves of the Empire.10 The USA was the most popular destination, particularly for Irish migrants, and drew two-thirds of people leaving the British Isles up until the end of the nineteenth century.

Migration to South Africa was smaller in scale, despite its late nineteenth-century mineral and gold booms, while Canada became the primary magnet at the turn of the twentieth century for British migrants, drawn to the rapid economic growth of its prairie towns. Although the USA remained the preferred destination for the Irish migrants, the dominions together took nearly 60 per cent of British emigrants in the years running up to the First World War. These were peak years for mass migration to the ‘Old Commonwealth’, as it would later become known.11 Migration on this scale was made possible by the revolutions in transport and communications that took place in the Victorian age. The growth in power and speed of steamships dramatically reduced the cost, in time and money, of long-distance travel. Merchant fleets were dominated by the British, which carried something like a half of the world's shipping by the end of the nineteenth century.

Increasingly, it came to be seen as a portal through which various alien peoples could enter the country, and a reactive current of sentiment began to gather around a more tightly drawn, insular sense of the nation. Towards the end of his own career, Churchill was troubled by the emergence of immigration as a popular concern in Britain and expressed considerable scepticism about whether the indigenous population would tolerate mass immigration from the non-white peoples of the Commonwealth. In conversation in 1954 he remarked about the problems that ‘will arise if many coloured people settle here. Are we to saddle ourselves with colour problems in the UK?’32 Conclusions During the middle decades of the last century, the decline of the British Empire was widely viewed as irreversible, although politicians and political parties continued to argue, often sharply, over how quickly decolonisation should happen, how the British state should manage this process, and how its relationships with its former colonies should be arranged.

pages: 197 words: 49,240

Melting Pot or Civil War?: A Son of Immigrants Makes the Case Against Open Borders by Reihan Salam

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bonfire of the Vanities, charter city, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ghettoisation, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, obamacare, open borders, race to the bottom, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, two tier labour market, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor

Instead, workers in South Korea and Vietnam are collaborating in ways that allow the former country to remain relatively egalitarian while making Vietnam far more productive and affluent than it would have been in the absence of South Korean investment. A devoted cosmopolitan might fault South Korea’s voters for not being enlightened enough to welcome the prospect of admitting lots of Vietnamese workers, but the deepening of economic ties between South Korea and Vietnam seems to be working out rather well for all concerned, even without mass migration. This example might strike you as counterintuitive. It often seems as though protectionism and immigration restriction are a package deal. And as a matter of cultural sensibilities, they do tend to go together. Simply put, the kind of people who celebrate free trade tend to be the kind of people who have a taste for change, which makes them more favorably disposed toward the free movement of people across borders.11 Similarly, on the other side of the political fence, immigration skeptics are often motivated by a sense of nostalgia, which inclines them to oppose offshoring, automation, and other forces that threaten to change the look and feel of society.

These tensions “spill over” into the political sphere, inflecting issues like taxes and crime—generating authoritarian impulses among whites, undermining support for the welfare state, and threatening ethnic comity. The book is a prescient case for alarm about the ways in which rapid demographic change is affecting America’s political psyche. The widening racial gap in party identification, in particular, bespeaks “a nation in danger of being driven apart.” But even in the face of this trend, the authors never consider paring back the mass immigration policies that brought it about. Instead they hope that diversity will eventually bury ethnic conflict and usher in a more liberal future—though they acknowledge an alternate possibility, where “the racial divide in US party politics expands to a racial chasm, and the prospects for racial conflict swell.” In a similar vein, the political scientists Claire L. Adida, David D. Laitin, and Marie-Anne Valfort likewise identify troubling political implications from existing immigration policies but conclude that immigration must be accelerated regardless.18 They reviewed statistics on Muslim immigration into a variety of Western countries.

But there is no doubt that immigration policy was one of the more potent ingredients of the cocktail. This was Trump’s core issue during the primaries; the force that animated his base; the unifying theme of the populist explosion that has transformed politics throughout the Western world. Much academic and journalistic writing on immigration is defined by what might be called the Backlash Paradox. On the one hand, it is clear to most liberal scholars and journalists that mass immigration has contributed to racism and polarization. On the other, they view slowing the pace of immigration as a callow surrender to bigotry, so the only option is to double down on the status quo and hope that the storm passes—even if this approach risks triggering an “extinction-level event” for open societies. It is almost as though these thinkers believe things have to get worse before they can get better—that traditionalists who worry about the pace of cultural change need to be crushed rather than accommodated, especially when it comes to immigration policy.

pages: 649 words: 185,618

The Zionist Ideas: Visions for the Jewish Homeland—Then, Now, Tomorrow by Gil Troy

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, demand response, different worldview, European colonialism, financial independence, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Silicon Valley, union organizing, urban planning, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

After the war, Jabotinsky was the least hopeful of all the Zionists that the British would provide real support or smooth relations with the Arabs during the expected period of mass immigration. During the Arab riots of 1920, he organized a self-defense corps in Jerusalem. The British military administration sentenced him to fifteen years for illegal possession of arms—instigating a storm. He was soon pardoned and the conviction subsequently revoked. Jabotinsky’s reputation was now at its height. He was elected to the Zionist Executive in 1921, but he and Chaim Weizmann clashed. Jabotinsky believed in rapid mass immigration to Palestine and in mobilizing Jewish military and police units; Weizmann called for careful colonization and trusted the British. Within two years Jabotinsky resigned, charging that his colleagues’ policies would result in the loss of Palestine.

In Israeli political terms, May 14, 1948, answered the essential question of Political Zionism: Will we have a Jewish state? Still, a new challenge emerged: surviving. The ongoing fight for Israel’s existence then entailed repeated restatements of the essential Zionist idea. As the state developed amid crushing conditions—facing wars, international repudiation, terrorism, hostile internal populations, and waves of mass migration—leaders kept updating the Zionist vision for war and peace, for democracy and prosperity. Underlying all this was the question Herzl never fully resolved: Should the Jewish state be a normal state or an exceptional light unto the nations? This first selection, Israel’s Declaration of Independence, captures the two sides of Zionism—a movement that is both particular and universal, tempering ethnic nationalism with essential civic and democratic dimensions.

The current borders of our state guarantee security and peace while expanding the horizons that once were missing, encouraging a thorough national renewal, physically and spiritually. Within these borders, all will enjoy freedom and equality: the fundamental rights the State of Israel provides all of its inhabitants, with no distinctions. Our future depends on the two principles of continuing aliyah, immigration, and settling the land. A mass migration from all over the Jewish Diaspora is an essential condition for fulfilling the Land of Israel’s full national destiny. The new missions and possibilities this era evokes will trigger a new awakening and focus for the People of Israel and the Land of Israel. . . . The Green Space: Without Zionism, It’ll Never Happen (1991) The Green Space is Eretz Yisra’el, the Land of Israel. . . . Amid the constant sense of flashing red lights signaling danger, defying all the world’s warning signs and stop signs, Jewish history has been progressing for over a hundred years in this Green Space.

pages: 273 words: 83,802

Hostile Environment: How Immigrants Became Scapegoats by Maya Goodfellow

Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, falling living standards, G4S, housing crisis, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, moral panic, open borders, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, Scientific racism, Winter of Discontent, working poor

Money in its most crude form of notes and coins isn’t the only motivation for migration. If all movement were just a case of following the money, author and professor Arun Kundnani writes, ‘everyone in Greece would have moved to Luxembourg where they could instantly double their wages’.49 Many people can’t scrape together enough money to move, and many others might not want to move in the first place. The frenzied discussion about ‘mass migration’ ignores that the vast majority of people stay where they are or move within countries. In 2016, estimates suggested only 3.2 per cent of the world’s population were international migrants; in 1960 it was 3 per cent.50 The world’s population has grown substantially in this period, so although this amounts to more people moving, it’s not a significantly higher proportion than in the past. What’s also changed over this almost sixty-year period is that the countries people leave are more diverse and the number of destinations is far smaller.

Assessments of the reasons behind the notable rise in fractious, anti-migrant feeling that came in the wake of New Labour tend to overlook this Janus-faced brand of politics, which undoubtedly played a part in the way immigration is talked about and understood to this day. Instead, most analysts focus on the hard statistics on immigration, arguing that it became such a big issue because New Labour relaxed the system too much and let too many people in. In 2009, Andrew Neather, former adviser to Tony Blair and the Home Office, gave succour to this line of argument when he wrote that Labour had an intentional policy to ‘open up the UK to mass migration’.10 An article treasured by the far right, this is taken as proof that Labour were part of an elite group colluding to change the country right under the noses of ‘ordinary’ people but without their consent. The facts seem to be on their side. Between 1993 and 2011 the number of people in the UK who were born abroad doubled from 3.8 million to over 7 million. And when ten new countries joined the EU in 2004, the UK was one of three member countries that didn’t impose transitional controls.

But these ideas about ‘difference’ and otherness, nurtured and disseminated by the New Right, still thrive in contemporary Britain, as people coming from different political traditions advocate for similar ideas. Journalist and commentator David Goodhart is one of those people. A self-described former liberal, he presents himself as a ‘straight-talker’ who is willing to challenge the left when, as he claims, it ignores peoples’ concerns about ‘mass immigration’ and the assumed threat it poses to social democracy and the welfare state. On TV, and in the pages of magazines, newspapers and two books, he’s argued that when there are too many new immigrants coming in the UK, the country’s bonds of solidarity are weakened because more diversity erodes common culture and undermines what’s needed for a cohesive society and welfare state. Even though, immigrants have made and continue to make possible that very welfare state.

pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

The platform, which is still the party’s official stand, called for a “strategic plan for reindustrialization,” tariffs and quotas to protect against “unfair competition,” the separation of commercial from investment banking, a transactions tax on stock purchases, the nationalization of banks facing difficulties, a “cap” on credit card charges, opposition to cuts in social spending and to the privatization of public services, equal quality health care access regardless of income or location, and rejection of the European Union’s attempts to impose austerity. The EU had led, the platform said, to “open borders inducing relocation, unemployment, market dictatorship, destruction of public services, insecurity, poverty, and mass immigration.” The platform blamed Greece’s debt crisis on “the elites who want to feed the new Minotaur to save the Euro.” The FN demanded that France’s relationship to the EU be “renegotiated” and a referendum held on the Euro. The FN’s new program on economic nationalism became as integral to its appeal as its opposition to mass immigration. Its entire program was now subsumed under the concept of defending French sovereignty—in an echo of Chevenement and earlier de Gaulle, souveraniste was the new watchword. In Le Pen’s election brochure, its position on immigration, calling for a 95 percent reduction in annual entries, came on page seven after her position on consumer rights, the Euro, jobs, finance, pensions, and justice.

Beginning in the 1980s, Krarup argued that Danes had a special culture informed by Lutheranism to which Islam, which he saw as a political movement and not simply a religion, was antithetical. Krarup’s crusade against Denmark’s immigration policies was sparked by the Danish parliament’s passage in 1983 of an Alien Act welcoming refugees who had begun pouring into Europe from the Iran-Iraq war, and who after the act began entering Denmark annually by the thousands rather than hundreds. Krarup denounced the act as “legal suicide” for allowing “the uncontrolled and unconstrained mass migration of Mohammedan and Oriental refugees [who] come through our borders.” In 1997, Krarup was invited to address the newly formed People’s Party’s convention, and in 2001, he was elected to parliament from the party and headed its immigration and naturalization committee. The People’s Party campaigns were incendiary. One campaign poster from 1999 showed a woman with a burqa. The text read: “Your Denmark: A multiethnic society with rapes, violence, insecurity, forced marriages, oppressed women, gang crimes.”

pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

Either they invite the laborers into their society, and the costs to natives take the form of overburdened institutions, rapid cultural change, and diluted political power; or they exclude the laborers, and the costs take the form of exploitation, government repression, and bad conscience. Until that bill comes due, immigration must be counted among a country’s “off-balance-sheet liabilities.” These liabilities are difficult to quantify. Mass immigration can help a confident, growing society undertake large projects—the settlement of the Great Plains, for instance, or the industrialization of America’s cities after the Civil War. But for a mature, settled society, mass immigration can be a poor choice, to the extent that it is a choice at all. Reagan was tasked by voters with undoing those post-1960s changes deemed unsustainable. Mass immigration was one of them, and it stands perhaps as his emblematic failure. Reagan flung open the gates to immigration while stirringly proclaiming a determination to slam them shut. Almost all of Reaganism was like that.

Peter Brimelow, an editor at National Review, published a book the following year that treated the idea of a universal nation as an oxymoron. All nations were special. A nation too cavalier about who fit in and who didn’t was losing sight of what made it special, and would not be a nation much longer. An Alien Nation, to cite the title of Brimelow’s book, was a more likely outcome. Most historical experience would lead one to fear that the pessimists were correct. Yet the United States, faced with a comparable wave of mass migration between 1880 and 1920, had confounded similar predictions. “In fifteen of the largest cities of the United States,” the historian Arthur M. Schlesinger had warned in 1921, the foreign immigrants and their children outnumber the native whites; and by the same token alien racial elements are in the majority in thirteen of the states of the Union. . . . Whatever of history may be made in the future in these parts of the country will not be the result primarily of an “Anglo-Saxon” heritage but will be the product of the interaction of these more recent racial elements upon each other and their joint reaction to the American scene.

It was, in its essence, an ideology of the innovative, entrepreneurial, and managerial classes, an ally of technocracy, modernity, progress, and wealth. Feminists wanted to integrate the Metropolitan Club, not the Elks. Steinem mocked “the house-bound matriarchs of Queens and the Bronx.” She complained that, “to top it all off, the problem of servants or child care often proves insurmountable after others are solved”—and this at a time well before mass immigration had reintroduced household servants into American upper-middle-class life. In the eyes of almost all men, women’s liberation was not just by but for such women as Steinem. It aimed at improving the position of women in white-collar work. The question of whether blue-collar work—plowing, lifting, grinding, getting dirty—was appropriate to women came up much less often than one might have anticipated.

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Much has been written about China and India, in particular the sheer size of their populations, but the 60 million Chinese and 20 million Indians already living abroad who are subtly affecting their host nations are often overlooked. Instability in developing countries, brought on by environmental degradation, could send further waves of migration into Europe on a par with the movements that led to the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century. The most likely areas to experience mass migration include Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, which are affected by water shortages, a decline in food production, rising sea levels and radical Islam. The impact would be seen first at the edges of these areas, but would become more problematic as borders disappear and large urban populations become ungovernable. Population may influence politics in other, more subtle ways. Across the globe, people are having fewer children.

The key consequence of climate change — and one that politicians should worry about — is how higher temperatures, rising sea levels and increasingly severe and unpredictable weather will threaten the food security of millions and perhaps hundreds of millions of people. And remember, this isn’t just an altruistic point. If millions have their food or water supplies shut off, they will do what any sensible person would — they will move to the areas where supply is more certain. Such mass migrations would have profound implications for the stability of the entire world. Water in particular will become a serious problem over the next few years, although not in the way some people expect. It takes 11,000 liters of water to make a hamburger and 83,000 to make a medium-size family car, while the average person uses 135 liters every day (most of it wasted). Water, or more precisely the lack of it, will be a big problem in the future due to growing populations and urbanization.

However globalization, which means that everyone is increasingly connected to everyone else, is the most likely suspect. First, it means that animals are moved from one place to another more frequently. Second, people are traveling more often and faster. 234 FUTURE FILES The illness SARS (which was of animal origin) was spread by international travel. As we become more connected through cheap travel, the globalization of jobs and mass migration, we are more susceptible to new and old diseases alike. This brings us on to the issue of global pandemics. The 1918–19 flu pandemic killed somewhere in the region of 20 to 100 million people. Nobody knows for sure how many died, but the figure is almost certainly greater than the number killed during the First World War. Most (but not all) experts agree that another pandemic is overdue, possibly not on the same scale but devastating to our mental state nonetheless.

pages: 497 words: 123,778

The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It by Yascha Mounk

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, basic income, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump,, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, Parag Khanna, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

In the United States and Canada, there has always been a clear racial hierarchy, with whites enjoying myriad privileges. In Western Europe this dominance went even further. Founded on a monoethnic basis, countries like Germany or Sweden did not recognize immigrants as true members of the nation. To an extent we often prefer to disregard, the functioning of democracy may have depended on that homogeneity. Decades of mass migration and social activism have radically transformed these societies. In North America, racial minorities are finally claiming an equal seat at the table. In Western Europe, the descendants of immigrants are starting to insist that somebody who is black or brown can be a real German or Swede. But while a part of the population accepts, or even welcomes, this change, another part feels threatened and resentful.

The government peacefully changed hands. Its lively civil society featured critical media, strong NGOs, and one of the best universities in Central Europe. Hungarian democracy seemed to be consolidating.13 Then the trouble started. Many Hungarians felt that they were getting too small a share of the country’s economic growth. They saw their identity threatened by the prospect (though not the reality) of mass immigration. When a big corruption scandal enveloped the ruling center-left party, their discontent turned into outright disgust with the government. At parliamentary elections in 2010, Hungarian voters gave Viktor Orbán’s Fidesz party a stomping majority.14 Once in office, Orbán systematically consolidated his rule. He appointed loyal followers to lead state-run television stations, to head the electoral commission, and to dominate the country’s constitutional court.

Elections were, in the words of James Madison, meant to “refine and enlarge the public views, by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country.”3 That this radically curtailed the degree to which the people could actually influence the government was no accident: “The public voice, pronounced by the representatives of the people,” Madison argued, “will be more consonant to the public good than if pronounced by the people themselves, convened for the purpose.”4 In short, the Founding Fathers did not believe a representative republic to be second best; on the contrary, they found it far preferable to the factious horrors of a democracy. As Alexander Hamilton and James Madison made clear in Federalist No. 63, the essence of the American Republic would consist—their emphasis—“IN THE TOTAL EXCLUSION OF THE PEOPLE, IN THEIR COLLECTIVE CAPACITY, from any share” in the government.5 It was only in the nineteenth century, as the material and political conditions of American society changed with mass immigration, westward expansion, civil war, and rapid industrialization, that a set of entrepreneurial thinkers began to dress up an ideologically self-conscious republic in the unaccustomed robes of a born-again democracy. The very same institutions that had once been designed to exclude the people from any share in the government were now commended for facilitating government “of the people, by the people, for the people.”6 But though America increasingly came to be seen as a democracy, reality lagged far behind.

pages: 427 words: 114,531

Legacy of Empire by Gardner Thompson

Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, Ronald Reagan, zero-sum game

Insofar as it was known at all, to many contemporary Jews it was not merely eccentric but fantastic, divisive, even dangerous. It is worth stressing that, in these first decades, Zionism’s critics were Jews, not gentiles. There could have been no clearer distinction between anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism. Emigration, settlement, regeneration The Zionist colonial project was part ideology, part movement. In its first three decades or so, the actual Zionist colonisation of Palestine was slight: the mass migration of Jews out of Europe went elsewhere. Nonetheless, by 1914 it was unwelcome enough for the resident Arab population – largely Muslim, but also Christian – to resist it and to inspire an incipient Palestinian national consciousness. The early 1880s had seen the first wave of Jewish emigrants. For the most part they were escaping from the upsurge of violent anti-Semitism in Russia. This first aliyah comprised around 25,000, most of whom settled in the towns, though a few established agricultural settlements.

This political emphasis on establishing close links with representatives of the Great Powers was grounded in Herzl’s personal conviction, noted above, that what he called the ‘infiltration’ alternative was both inadequate and counter-productive. He insisted that the Zionist project could not succeed without international recognition. He thus set out to gain approval and endorsement for Zionism, in the form of a charter, from one or more of the European powers of his day. A charter would recognise Jewish sovereignty over the designated territory and set in motion a centrally funded, irreversible, internationally sanctioned, mass migration.74 Herzl has been described as a man who combined ‘wild fantasies with an uncanny flair for practical action’.75 He was endowed with exceptional organisational talents. He had convened the First Zionist Congress in Basel. This in turn founded the World Zionist Organisation as a permanent institution that could speak for the movement. As Michael J. Cohen puts it in his 1987 book The Origins and Evolution of the Arab-Zionist Conflict, Herzl had ‘the audacity to practice diplomacy in the name of a people as yet without its own country’.76 And it was, in the event, Herzl’s own voice that came to speak for Zionism.

He wrote: ‘The ultimate aim is to build up this land of Israel and restore to the Jews the political independence that has been taken from them… The Jews, with weapons in their hands if necessary, will announce with a loud voice that they are masters of their ancient homeland.’39 There is no mention here of indigenous inhabitants, Arab or otherwise; but there is no mistaking the colonial aspiration of conquest, by force if needed. Dubnow’s dramatic prophecy dates from 1882. However, only after Herzl founded the Zionist Organisation in 1897 did the prospect of a Jewish majority, through mass immigration, begin to be seriously envisaged. But not easily accomplished. Between 1882 and 1914 around 100,000 Jews emigrated to Palestine (where 20–30,000 Jews already dwelt). Over half of these, however, did not actually settle but left again.40 Jewish immigrants of the first and second aliyahs struggled, dependent on financial support from abroad. Meanwhile, most of the former, mainly Sephardi, Jewish community – still a majority of all the Jews in Palestine – lived in Jerusalem, indifferent towards Zionism.

pages: 852 words: 157,181

The Origins of the British by Stephen Oppenheimer

active measures, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Eratosthenes, gravity well, mass immigration, out of africa, phenotype, the scientific method, trade route

For comparison, they also used samples from Friesland and Norway ‘to look for evidence of male immigration from the continent’.20 Their British samples were carefully selected to represent stable populations from at least the time of the Domesday Book (1086).21 In his analysis, Weale wanted to explore three different population processes: simple splitting with subsequent divergence, single mass migration (analogous to the first model described above) and continuous background migration (analogous, but not identical, to the third model, since no other previous sources of migration are considered). Since none of the available mathematical methods allowed these three processes to be examined simultaneously, in their own words they ‘developed an alternative inference method that allowed [them] to explore more flexible models under a range of historical scenarios involving both background [migration] and mass migration in the presence of population splitting and growth’. Figure 11.2a Weale’s British transect line and Continental ‘homelands’. The aims of Weale’s study were to genetically sample seven ancient market towns in a line from Norfolk to north Wales, and to determine whether the line of Offa’s Dyke formed a genetic boundary – and, if so, why.

The short answer is that Herodotus, in his identification of the geographical location of the Keltoi, mistakenly thought that the Danube rose somewhere near the Pyrenees rather than in Germany (but more of that below). Celto-sceptics Some archaeologists have, over the last couple of decades, become quite red-faced about the whole issue of Celts. They warn against the dangers of racial migrationism and point to the lack of archaeological evidence for mass migrations into the British Isles during the Iron Age. They further question the relevance and meaning of Celtic ethnicity. Their reasoning is that whatever the term ‘Celt’ may have meant to the ancients, it was not based on a clearly defined language group and thus does not amount to an adequate ethnic description.3 Furthermore, they argue that classical Celts bear little relation to the modern imagined picture of the origins of Atlantic coastal Celts.

And he explains why: The use of cord decoration was well known among eastern communities extending to the steppes, while the stone battle axes were evidently copied from metal forms already well established among the copper-using communities of south-eastern Europe. In the past it was conventional to explain large-scale culture change in terms of invasions. Thus some archaeologists argued that the Corded Ware/Battle Axe ‘culture’ reflected a mass migration of warriors moving into northern Europe from the Russian steppes. Explanations of this kind are no longer in favour, and it is now generally accepted that the development is likely to have been largely indigenous, growing out of contacts between the local farming groups of the TRB (Funnel-necked Beaker) culture, the metal-using communities of the south, and pastoralists on the Pontic steppes where the domestication of the horse had taken place.120 Figure 5.11 A cult of heroes from the East.

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling,, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

Figure 1-1 presents a framework of the salient ingredients in immigration, regardless of the country of origin or destination, and presents a framework of these dimensions. Salient Factors in Home Country Conditions in Home Country When conditions in a home country are satisfactory and meet physical, social, and emotional needs, the likelihood of leaving is minimal. Economic, political, or religious turbulence can cause dissatisfaction and result in mass migrations. For example, poor economic conditions, low income, and overcrowding in the home country often force individuals to seek opportunities elsewhere. As an illustration, from 1996 and well into 2003, Indonesia evidenced a prolonged economic crisis that continued to deepen, while news reports indicated that political corruption precluded any possibility of rapid recovery. Employment options for many Indonesians were increasingly limited, and legal and illegal migration out were high.

During the pre-Soviet period, 1796–1916, the total outflow of 47 48 Nations with Large Immigrant Populations population from European territories of Russia to its marches is estimated as 7 million persons; among them ethnic Russians were 80% (Population Encyclopedia, 1994). In the Soviet period, the opposite—centripetal—trends also existed; however, the total negative migration balance between Russia and other Soviet republics in 1917–1992 was about 4 million persons. These former population movements, which were at that time internal migrations by nature, in many respects determined causes and the structure of the current mass migration exchange between Russia and so-called new foreign states (Iontsev & Magomedova, 1999; Kabuzan, 1998). ‘‘New Foreign States’’ Phenomenon The term ‘‘new foreign states’’ (blijnee zarubejie) appeared in Russia in 1992 to define the former Soviet republics that have become the newborn sovereign states (in contrast to ‘‘old foreign states’’ (dalnee zarubejie), i.e., all other countries outside the ex-USSR territory).

At the same time social policy of the State in all of these new countries except for Russia was directed at ‘‘pushing out’’ the aliens. Slogans of ethnic superiority of indigenous populations popularized by new political leaders for their political self-establishment have resulted in the splash of ethnic intolerance and open nationalistic conflicts, as well as in ousting of ‘‘ethnically different’’ population from local labor markets, and finally in mass migration outflows to the places where these people hoped to find guaranties at least of ethnic security (Iontsev & Ivakhniouk, 2002:57). For ‘‘ethnic Russians’’ living in other ‘‘new foreign states,’’ their historical motherland, Russia, seemed a safe asylum. While some researchers use the term ‘‘repatriation’’ for return migration of Russians in the post-Soviet period, we prefer to put this term in quotes, as in fact persons who moved from their native places to other regions of the USSR during the Soviet or pre-Soviet periods were not emigrants as they participated in internal but not international migrations.

pages: 235 words: 73,873

Half In, Half Out: Prime Ministers on Europe by Andrew Adonis

banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, congestion charging, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Dominic Cummings, eurozone crisis, imperial preference, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, oil shock

Merkel’s unilateral decision in August to open German borders to hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees sparked a huge and bitter internal EU debate about burden sharing. That the UK had an opt-out from the compulsory mechanism the Commission proposed for allocating refugees to member states added to the sense that the British were semi-detached, and insulating themselves from yet another Continental crisis. For those whose crisis was one of uncontrolled mass migration of refugees from outside the EU, the British obsession with controlling free movement within it by EU citizens, felt like a sideshow. They objected even to the UK ‘migration’ nomenclature, which, for us, covered two issues that, for others, were completely different. So the appetite to spend leader time on the UK question was limited, and the mood fraught. On the two core primary law issues I identified earlier, which Cameron duly tabled as central demands, reactions proved mixed.

With typical Wilson finesse, this elided ‘common market’ and ‘political union’ into one concept, which is how it was seen at the time, with different emphasis depending upon who was speaking to whom about what. However, it is the third point which is perhaps most significant; there is a large ‘dog that didn’t bark’. Immigration barely featured in the 1975 referendum campaign or indeed in the entire controversy about British membership of Europe in the 1970s. Why? Partly because the ‘Europe of the Nine’ – unlike today’s ‘Europe of the Twenty-Eight’ – did not herald mass immigration. But, just as important, because there was, by the mid-1970s, little net immigration from the black Commonwealth, which might have confused the issue, as it did in 2016. And why was that? Because by 1975, black immigration into Britain had been practically halted – by none other than Harold Wilson, following Enoch Powell’s 1968 ‘rivers of blood’ speech. Wilson had long before recognised the political toxicity of immigration and shut it down.

We are doing this because of a departure from what we have always believed in the past to be our preferred method of accountability, decisions taken in Parliament. The referendum rules, OK? Not if you were Edmund Burke. Not if you were Margaret Thatcher. And why are we to do it? Because we believe that we ‘must take back control’ of our destiny, take back control in a world where most of the problems faced by individual member states, including let it be said mass immigration, can only be dealt with through international cooperation. How had we lost control of our ability to run our education system (not conspicuously well), or our health service, or our welfare service, or our steadily diminishing defence forces? The main area where we had allegedly lost control was in the creation of a genuine single market. As Margaret Thatcher said, ‘Almost every major nation has been obliged by the pressure of the post-war world to pool significant areas of sovereignty so as to create more effective political units.’

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The English by Jeremy Paxman

back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, George Santayana, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Right to Buy, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

He is right: it was non-conformist denominations from the Methodists to the Salvation Army who tried to meet the challenge of urban life, while Irish immigrants brought their own Catholic faith with them. In the few areas where popular urban Toryism took root, the Church of England broadened its base. But, for the most part, those vast, echoing buildings built by the Anglicans on street corners throughout the great industrial cities as an instinctive response to mass migration from the countryside have never been filled, not even when originally built. Small wonder they look cold and uncared for over a century later, waiting to be bought up and turned into a Sikh temple or nightclub. The Reverend Lionel Espy and others like him are doing their best. But so long after the event, they have no chance at all of making up the ground lost. As things stand, the Church of England has the worst of all worlds.

When I was reading, with extreme care, the first batch of questionnaires which I received, I found I was constantly making the same notes: ‘What dull lives most of these people appear to lead!’ I remarked; and secondly, ‘What good people!’ I should still make the same judgements.1 The reasons for this unity are obvious enough – the country had just come though a terrible war, which had required shared sacrifice. The population of England was still relatively homogeneous, used to accepting the inconvenience of discipline and unaffected by mass immigration. It was still insular, not merely in a physical sense but because the mass media had yet to create the global village. It is the world of today’s grandparents. It is the world of Queen Elizabeth and her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh. The young Princess Elizabeth married the naval lieutenant, Philip Mountbatten, in 1947. In an age of austerity (potatoes rationed to 3 lb per person per week and bacon to one ounce) the wedding brought a breath of spectacle and magic to a drab country.

The flower-throwers had learned their behaviour from watching television, for it is a Latin custom: the potency of the mass media can hardly be exaggerated. Fashions in food, clothing, music and entertainment are no longer home-grown. Even those customs which remain authentically indigenous are the fruit of a greatly changed ‘English’ population. Within fifty years of the docking of the Empire Windrush at Tilbury, disembarking 492 Jamaican immigrants, the racial complexion of the country had changed utterly. Mass immigration to Britain had been concentrated on England and most cities of any size contained areas where white people had become a rarity. In those places, talking about immigrants as ‘ethnic minorities’ was beginning to sound decidedly perverse. By 1998, it was white children who had become a minority at local-authority secondary schools in inner London and even in the suburbs they made up only 60 per cent of the secondary-school population.

Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City by Mike Davis

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, invisible hand, job automation, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mass immigration, new economy, occupational segregation, postnationalism / post nation state, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor

Jose Sanchez, "Puerto HasHp-Viera and Bayer, pp. 346 and 348. Rican Politics in New York: Beyond 'Secondhand' Theory," in eds., p. 273. The Liberal Party was an anticommunist secession, engineered by Dubinsky, from East Harlem congressman Vito Marcantonio's American Labor Party, which, until its demise had an in 1954, excellent record of sponsoring Puerto Rican leadership. 195. See the conclusions in William Clark, "Mass Migration and Local Outcomes: International Migration to the United States Creating a New Is Urban Underclass," Urban Studies 35:3 (1998), p. 380. 196. Ramona Hernandez, Francisco Rivera-Batiz and Roberta Godini, Dominican New A Socioeconomic Profile, 1 990, Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Colum- Yorkers: bia University, New York 1995. 197. New7orfeTtme5, 28 July 1997. 198. Mahler, 199.

As ness and homeowner a final bad joke on the elites (including migrant Proposition 187) have started drive in the San Fernando Valley, future, white busi- key organizers of anti-ima well-financed secession claiming that the recent fiascos have shown Los Angeles to be "ungovernable." (Activists in the Latino-majority east Valley have retaliated by threatening a subsecession of their own).^"*^ BROKEN RAINBOWS Exactly ment as some Reagan in the cities strategists had hoped, combined with Washington's unwillingness to bear a fair share of the social costs of not local government pockets the mass immigration (national fiscal comers) have exploded what remains of The old civil rights federal disinvest- coalition surplus generated by new- New Deal-era allegiances. between Blacks and Latinos, first built during the progressive campaigns of the 1940s and temporarily newed by Jesse Jackson during the 1990s. As the ets, in the 1980s, collapsed across in the fiscal noose has tightened around re- country city budg- demographically ascendant Latino communities - hungry for more control over schools, transit and public found themselves locked employment - have in increasingly bitter zero-sum conflicts with Black leaderships unwilling to share hardwon gains.

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Wealth, Poverty and Politics by Thomas Sowell

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, European colonialism, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Scramble for Africa, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, very high income, War on Poverty

Mark Jefferson, Peopling the Argentine Pampa (New York: American Geographical Society, 1926), p. 1. 74. Carl Solberg, Immigration and Nationalism, pp. 49–50. 75. Robert F. Foerster, The Italian Emigration of Our Times, pp. 254–259. 76. Gino Germani, “Mass Immigration and Modernization in Argentina,” Studies in Comparative International Development, Volume 2, Issue 11 (November 1966), p. 170; Laura Randall, An Economic History of Argentina in the Twentieth Century (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), p. 116. 77. Mark Jefferson, Peopling the Argentine Pampa, p. 76. 78. Gino Germani, “Mass Immigration and Modernization in Argentina,” Studies in Comparative International Development, Volume 2, Issue 11 (November 1966), p. 178. 79. Carl E. Solberg, “Peopling the Prairies and the Pampas: The Impact of Immigration on Argentine and Canadian Agrarian Development, 1870–1930,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Vol. 24, No. 2 (May 1982), pp. 136, 152; Gloria Totoricagüena, Basque Diaspora: Migration and Transnational Identity (Reno: Center for Basque Studies, University of Nevada, 2005), pp. 171, 180.

George F.W. Young, The Germans in Chile, p. 115. 95. Carl Solberg, Immigration and Nationalism, p. 63. 96. Fernand Braudel, A History of Civilizations, translated by Richard Mayne (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), p. 440. 97. Gino Germani, “Mass Immigration and Modernization in Argentina,” Studies in Comparative International Development, Volume 2, Issue 11 (November 1966), pp. 171–172. 98. Fred C. Koch, The Volga Germans, pp. 231–232; M.G. and E.T. Mulhall, Handbook of Brazil (Buenos Ayres, 1877), pp. 148–149. 99. See, for example, Gino Germani, “Mass Immigration and Modernization in Argentina,” Studies in Comparative International Development, Volume 2, Issue 11 (November 1966), pp. 173–174; Eric N. Baklanoff, “External Factors in the Economic Development of Brazil’s Heartland: The Center-South, 1850–1930,” The Shaping of Modern Brazil, edited by Eric N.

In Georgia that same year, no more than half the black adult population had reached the third grade.18 At that time, only 19 percent of black children of high school age in the South actually went to high school.19 It was 1924 before the first permanent public high school for black children in Atlanta was built,20 after years of campaigns for such a school by the local black community. As of 1940, 87 percent of black families in the United States lived below the poverty line. But this declined to 47 percent by 1960, as black education and urban job experience increased in the wake of the mass migrations of blacks out of the South. This 40 percentage point drop in the black poverty rate occurred prior to both the civil rights laws and the “war on poverty” social welfare programs of the 1960s. Over the next 20 years, from 1960 to 1980, the black poverty rate dropped an additional 18 points21— significant, but the continuation of a preexisting trend at a slower pace, rather than being a new result from new civil rights laws and welfare state policies, as so often claimed.

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A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, business cycle, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise

The Bilu members, who had set up a central office in Constantinople, waited therefore in vain for a firman (official permit) to establish a series of settlements in Palestine which would create the basis for mass immigration. The Turkish government put many obstacles in their way, and in 1893 banned altogether the immigration of Russian Jews into Palestine and the purchase of land. These orders were frequently circumvented by registering the land that was bought in the name of Jews from western Europe and by distributing baksheesh among the local administration. In this way a few settlements were established, but these were hardly the conditions envisaged by Pinsker for mass immigration, let alone the establishment of a Jewish state. Among the first agricultural settlements established during that period were Zikhron Ya’akov, south of Haifa, and Rosh Pina, built by new immigrants from Rumania.

Ruppin’s main antagonist was Davis Trietsch, who had developed various highly original, sometimes splenetic colonisation schemes at the prewar Zionist congresses. For many years he continued to submit detailed programmes for mass immigration, all of them ignored by the experts or treated with disdain. In retrospect, however, Trietsch’s arguments seem weightier than most of his contemporaries were ready to acknowledge: he advocated intensive agriculture in contrast to the advice given by most other experts at the time. Moreover, in view of the lack of agricultural experience among the Jews as well as other obstacles, he insisted on the paramount importance of developing industry for the absorption of mass immigration. Whereas Ruppin and the other experts thought that an investment of £1,000-£1,500 was needed for the absorption of one family, Trietsch argued that since funds of such magnitude would never be available, they should develop cheaper methods of settlement.

The training of workers was an obvious case in point; it certainly would not show any profits in the ledger at the end of the year, but who would deny that it was an enterprise of essential national importance? Towards the end of his speech Ruppin made yet another point in justification of ‘practical Zionism’ which had never been made so clearly: ‘For a long time to come our progress in Palestine will depend entirely on the progress of our movement in the diaspora.’* This was a far cry from the early visions of Herzl and Nordau, the idea that there would be a wave of mass migration resulting in the establishment of a Jewish state, and that thereafter the state would be in a position to solve the Jewish question. Ruppin was not a great orator, but his case was forceful and convincing and he got a big ovation. Compared to other Zionist leaders his background was unconventional. Born in eastern Germany, he had worked his way up against heavy odds. The extreme poverty of his boyhood was movingly described many years later in his autobiography.

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Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley

affirmative action, business cycle, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

What’s more, they’re learning it with the encouragement of their parents and despite the best efforts of bilingual education advocates and other nettlesome multiculturalists. Another goal of this book was to put today’s debate into perspective. Scapegoating foreigners for domestic problems real or imagined is something of an American tradition. Any student of history knows that the complaints and criticisms lodged against today’s Latinos were thrown at previous immigrant groups. But how easily some of us forget. Ireland was the source country of the first mass migration to the United States. The Irish flooded America in the middle of the nineteenth century, particularly the cities. In 1850, more than a quarter of New York City’s residents were born in Ireland. Throughout the 1800s, the United States absorbed Irish newcomers at more than double the rate of current Mexican immigration. These Irish immigrants were dirt-poor peasants back home, but in America they settled in urban ghettos among their own kind, where crime and violence and disease were not uncommon.

An Urban Institute study of immigration’s impact on Southern California in the 1970s—a period of high unemployment nationwide, remember—reached a similar conclusion. “To what extent did the influx of immigrants entering Southern California in the 1970s reduce the jobs available to nonimmigrant workers?” wrote Thomas Muller, the study’s author. “The answer for the 1970s is little if at all,” he concluded. “Despite mass immigration to Southern California, unemployment rates rose less rapidly than in the remainder of the nation.” Muller also found that labor-force participation rates among natives seemed to be unaffected, and “the participation rate for both blacks and whites was higher in Southern California [where the bulk of immigrants settled] than elsewhere in the state and the nation.” In 1994 economist Richard Vedder of Ohio University, working with Lowell Gallaway and Stephen Moore, conducted a historical analysis of immigration’s impact on the entire U.S. labor force.

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Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration and the Future of White Majorities by Eric Kaufmann

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk,, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, income inequality, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open borders, phenotype, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, twin studies, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional

Islam is also a major theme of the American libertarian right, encompassing online commentators such as Ben Shapiro, Gavin McInnes and Mike Cernovich. Ethno-demographic change is becoming more openly discussed in mainstream right intellectual circles. Christopher Caldwell, a columnist for the Weekly Standard and Financial Times, argues that Europe would not be the same civilization without European people. Mass migration is altering its fundamental essence.99 Thilo Sarrazin, a German Social Democratic politician and ex-central banker, penned his Germany Does Away With Itself (2010), which became a runaway bestseller, notching up sales of 1.5 million in its first year. He argues that low German birth rates coupled with non-European immigration is leading to the decline of the ethnic German population. Sarrazin is unsparing in its criticism of Islam, writing ‘I do not have to acknowledge anyone who lives by welfare, denies the legitimacy of the very state that provides that welfare, refuses to care for the education of his children and constantly produces new little headscarf-girls.

Fukuyama was also of the view that immigration was not a growing issue in American politics, a position disputed by National Review editor John O’Sullivan, whom I also spoke to at the time.56 Fukuyama was right: O’ Sullivan was two decades early. Michael Lind, former editor of the neoconservative Public Interest and Harvard professor Samuel Huntington operated between the neocon and paleocon positions. Lind’s Next American Nation (1995) mounted a stinging critique of the American elite’s universalist individualism. In the book, Lind offered a groundbreaking attack on ‘mass immigration’ as a policy which both right- and left-wing American elites favoured but which was opposed by working-class Americans of all races. John Judis endorsed this view, accusing the neoconservative right of fetishizing a free-market ideology which appealed to few ordinary Americans.57 Huntington, in his final book, Who Are We?: Challenges to American Identity (2004), pushed back against the missionary creedal nationalism he had once endorsed, arguing that if America had been settled by French or Spanish Catholics instead of Anglo-Protestants it would have been a wholly different country.

The third individual was Colorado Congressman Tom Tancredo, who ran in the 2008 Republican primary on a hardline anti-immigration ticket, winning 5 per cent support before pledging his support to Mitt Romney. Tancredo founded and led from 1999 to 2007 the Congressional Immigration Reform Caucus, which worked closely with FAIR to advance the anti-immigration agenda. In 2001, he sponsored a proposed moratorium on immigration entitled the Mass Immigration Reduction Act which called for immigration to be restricted for a period of five years to the spouses and children of American citizens. Though unsuccessful, it signalled a new assertiveness within the restrictionist movement. FEDERAL IMMIGRATION BATTLES, 2005–2014 A chronically gridlocked Congress made it difficult for federal legislation on border enforcement or the fate of undocumented immigrants to pass – a vacuum increasingly filled by local and state IIROs.

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Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, longitudinal study, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

The concessions achieved by Britain’s minority religious communities in the nineteenth century can be characterised as piecemeal reforms: there was no universal declaration of the freedom of religious expression or all-inclusive protection of religious rights. Religious diversity was tolerated, 56 U N E Q UA L B R I TA I N alongside an understanding that Britain remained a Christian country with a dominant established church. The history of multi-faith Britain is inextricably connected with the history of immigration (see Chapter 2). Britain’s indigenous Catholic population was small in the 1830s and it was only mass migration from Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century that re-established Catholicism as a fixed presence on the British mainland. Similarly, the integration and acceptance of Anglo-Jewry is linked to the growth of Britain’s Jewish population. Between the 1880s and 1914, some 100,000 Jews escaping from persecution in Eastern Europe migrated chiefly to the East End of London, as well as establishing smaller communities in Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and Scotland.

The following comment from columnist Peregrine Worsthorne, published in the Sunday Telegraph in 1991, suggests: Islam, once a great civilization worthy of being argued with . . . has degenerated into a primitive enemy fit only to be sensitively subjugated . . . If they want jihad, let them have it . . . [Islam,] once a moral force, has long been corrupted by variations of the European heresies, fascism and communism – a poisonous concoction threatening seepage back into Europe through mass migration.18 The first Gulf War (1990–1) caused further problems for British Muslims, now defined by some as ‘the enemy within’. During the war, West Yorkshire police noted a 100 per cent rise in racist attacks in Bradford. The classifying of such attacks as ‘racist’ rather than ‘anti-religious’ further demonstrated an unwillingness by public institutions to recognize British Muslim identity.19 The introduction of a question concerning ethnic origin in the 1991 Census was further testimony to a lack of understanding within Whitehall of the predominance of religious identity over ethnic identity within the Muslim community.

In a poll for the Scottish Daily Herald in September 1999, 37 per cent of readers agreed that there were ‘deep rooted anti-Catholic attitudes throughout Scottish society’; a further 13 per cent agreed ‘strongly’, while 45 per cent disagreed.9 A report by the Scottish Executive showed that between 2004 and 2005, the number of sectarian incidents reported to the police rose by 50 per cent, to 440, mostly in the Glasgow area and contrary to an overall decline in reported crime. Sixty-four per cent of these were offences against Catholics and 31 per cent were against Protestants, with many of them occurring at football matches where historic sectarian rivalry between Glasgow’s (Catholic) Celtic and (Protestant) Rangers remains strong.10 1950s AND 1960s: IMMIGRATION AND CHANGE Mass immigration from the former Empire during the 1950s and 1960s transformed Britain (in demographic terms) into a multi-faith society (see Chapter 2). Numbers are imprecise, as immigration statistics were not calculated on the basis of religion, but by 1980, Britain’s Hindu and Muslim populations are estimated to have more than doubled to 120,000 and 600,000 respectively (see Table 3.3). In addition, substantial numbers of Christians of all denominations migrated from the Caribbean.

To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland's Global Diaspora, 1750-2010 by T M Devine

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, deindustrialization, deskilling, full employment, ghettoisation, housing crisis, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land tenure, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, railway mania, Red Clydeside, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce

But a secondary purpose is to consider the global ‘scattering’ and impact of Scottish religious and secular ideas, borne to several overseas countries by the emigrants and leaving a deep mark there, as well as commodities and funding exported from Scotland itself. Scottish overseas investment and capital goods production were often basic to the economic transformation of the new lands in the Victorian era and without which mass migration and settlement there would have been much diminished. These factors are therefore seen as an integral part of the history of diaspora as a whole. Viewed from this perspective, the Scots, in the same way as the Jews, the Irish, Chinese, Palestinians and others, can be rightly considered a diasporic people. A striking feature is the remarkable longevity of the Scottish emigrations. From the thirteenth century to the present, Scots have been leaving their homeland in significant numbers.

VisitScotland figures indicate that about 70 per cent of ‘Roots Tourists’, whatever their family ancestral background in either Scotland or Ireland, visit the Western Highlands and the Grampians: ‘While their actual roots may be in Kelso or Peebles, interviewees often report feeling more “in touch with their Scottish heritage” on the Isle of Skye.’42 For such returnees the primary interest is not modern Scotland but in the Scotland of three centuries ago. They come to see the battlefields and ‘clanscapes’ associated with Jacobitism and Jacobite-induced exile. For such pilgrims the Field of Culloden is above all else a sacred place, where the destruction of clanship is seen to have led directly to the displacement of the Clearances and then, inevitably, to the mass migrations of which they are the descendants.43 Key sources for this understanding of the Scottish past are the books of John Prebble, who is still by far the most influential and widely read writer on Scottish history among the Scottish-American diaspora, closely followed by the historical novelist Nigel Tranter and, more recently, the American fantasy writer Diana Gabaldon, whose Outlander series of books recounts time travel between the 1940s and the era of the Jacobite Risings.

State Visit of Queen Victoria to the Glasgow International Exhibition 1880, by Sir John Lavery. The monarch is welcomed by the imperial elites of Scotland. 13. The depression of the 1920s hit Scotland hard. 14. Emigrants waiting for transport across the Atlantic at the Broomielaw, Clydeside. In the 1920s Scotland topped the league table of European emigration. 15. On boat to New Zealand. The development of New Zealand, like that of Canada, was profoundly influenced by mass immigration from Scotland. 16. The Hercules carried several hundred destitute emigrants from the Hebrides to Australia in 1852. The voyage was notorious for the large numbers of deaths on board caused by typhus and smallpox. 17. The ruins of Shiaba township, Isle of Mull. The people were mainly cleared in 1847 and ‘emigrated’ by the Duke of Argyll to Canada. 18. Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919). Born into a family of weavers in Dunfermline, he rose to become America’s richest man and later in life a philanthropist without peer. 19.

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The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

Borders are inherently unjust and as Reece Jones points out in his book Violent Borders, they reproduce inequality, which is backed up by the violence of state actors and the indignity and danger of being forced to cross borders illegally.45 Until the Clinton administration, unauthorized cross-border migration was widespread, yet it did not lead to the collapse of the American economy or culture. In fact, in many ways it strengthened it, giving rise to new economic sectors, revitalizing long-abandoned urban neighborhoods, and better integrating the US into the global economy. When the EU lowered its internal borders, there were fears that organized crime would benefit, local cultures would be undermined, that mass migration would create economic chaos as poorer southern Europeans moved north. None of this happened. In fact, migration decreased as the EU began developing poorer areas within Europe as a way of producing greater economic and social stability. We could do the same thing in North America, but instead have largely done the opposite. The North American Free Trade Agreement had devastating consequences for agricultural production in Mexico, displacing and impoverishing millions.46 The end of state-subsidized corn farming in Oaxaca led to the collapse of the rural economy there, driving hundreds of thousands to attempt to migrate to the US.

Much of the language used in debating the act was explicitly racist and consistent with local bans on the right of Chinese people to own property and appear as witnesses in court.1 Proponents referred to Chinese immigrants as a “Mongolian horde” and “Johnny Chinaman” and accused them of being immoral and lazy. Small informal units were mobilized to limit unauthorized entry of Chinese immigrants, mostly along California’s border with Mexico. The only restrictions on white immigration during this period banned those who were criminals, infirm, or politically radical. Anarchists were specifically banned in 1903, with Italians targeted for particular scrutiny. With the rise of mass immigration in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries came growing nativist resentment. Throughout this period, groups such as the Immigration Restriction League and the American Party organized around ideas of racial purity, cultural superiority, and religious prejudice to demand an end to open immigration. This was finally achieved in 1924 with the passage of the National Origins Act, which established nationality-based immigration quotas for the first time.

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Content Provider: Selected Short Prose Pieces, 2011–2016 by Stewart Lee

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Boris Johnson, call centre, centre right, David Attenborough, Etonian, James Dyson, Livingstone, I presume, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Saturday Night Live, sensible shoes, Socratic dialogue, trickle-down economics, wage slave, young professional

Or would our liberty, security and prosperity be better assured by submitting to an elected Bullingdon bureaucracy here at home, accepting the will of demonstrably unaccountable politicians and linking our destiny with that of a sclerotic Eurosceptic camp that tries to achieve the impossible by uniting personalities as diverse as Theresa May, former UKIP hat-wearer Winston McKenzie and Michael Caine? Whom wilst spakey for England? Who for England wilst spakey? Were we to be a self-governing nation, free in this age of mass migration to opt out of the attempts of the wider European community to co-operate to solve the greatest refugee crisis since the Second World War, strike trade agreements with tyrannical dictatorships whenever we choose and dismiss codes of practice regarding environmental safeguards, pollution and human rights if they displease us, like some pusillanimous ostrich, sticking its stupid head into the rapidly dissipating sands of time?

Anyway, some UKIP supporters had been involved in an adoption row, inevitably misrepresented by the right-wing press as far more black and white an issue than it was. The below-the-line comments on my piece in the Observer were the usual litany of false victimhood: “You don’t have to do much to incur the wrath of SL and the other guardian’s of the new etiquette of the middle classes, namely ‘PC’. Expressing any nationalist sentiments whatsoever and opposing on-going mass immigration will more than suffice. The unfairness and imbalance that the guardians insist on with their enforced privileges for their chosen minorities is clear to see. Likening the humble UKIP members to ‘apes’ is presented here as clever, satirical and amusing. Suggesting that certain other chosen privileged minorities are like ‘monkeys’ on the football pitch will land you in jail.” David “So not being able to make the racist tag stick we have a crude connotation with UKip members and apes.

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The Lost Decade: 2010–2020, and What Lies Ahead for Britain by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, centre right, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Attenborough, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy transition, Etonian, first-past-the-post, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Dyson, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, moral panic, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Right to Buy, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, smart meter, Uber for X, urban renewal, working-age population

Events touching on foreign affairs came and went without eliciting more than transient attention with respect to their causes and contexts in the Middle East or Africa – or, indeed, the rest of Europe. As Brexit fever raged, a posse of ex-diplomats spoke up about the UK’s ‘weakened standing in the world [and] threats to national security and loss of influence’. They were preaching to deaf ears. The very possibility of Brexit sprang from a retreat from the world and its problems – mass migration across the Mediterranean, Russian pressure, Isis, Chinese hacking. Reaction to the Skripal poisonings in Salisbury was oddly muted in both right-wing media and among the public. Even aggression in a cathedral city in the heartlands failed to provoke an outwards-directed, adult response – which might, among other things, have raised questions about the capacity of the UK to deal with Russia alone.

Brexit was not – or wasn’t entirely – about money, jobs, things; the EU was not the only aspect of modern Britain many leavers despised. It was the interplay of belief and ideas with the practical conditions of life (often comfortable and moneyed) that made the phenomenon. Substantial numbers of leavers were well enough off, reasonably well educated and lived in the south of England. Resentment, unease and frustration at changed local and social circumstances had swirled through the interviews we did in 2009 and 2010. Mass immigration had been mishandled (by successive governments) and was an electoral accident waiting to happen. ‘Well, it’s not quite as simple as that,’ said Ken Clarke, the Tory remainer, when asked what he would say to leavers. Brexit ‘isn’t going to make the faintest difference to most of the things that so annoy you. What I will take on board is that you feel so angry about the ruling class and politicians and the Establishment and so on.’

pages: 411 words: 95,852

Britain Etc by Mark Easton

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, credit crunch, financial independence, garden city movement, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral panic, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, social software

‘It is traditional that British subjects, whether of Dominion or Colonial origin (and of whatever race or colour), should be freely admissible to the United Kingdom,’ Attlee continued. ‘That tradition is not, in my view, to be lightly discarded, particularly at a time when we are importing foreign labour in large numbers.’ The arrival of the Empire Windrush became the symbolic starting point for mass migration of Commonwealth citizens to the United Kingdom, but it also fundamentally changed the politics of immigration. From the moment those nervous but eager Jamaicans stepped ashore, the alien threat – privately at least – became less about economics and more about the colour of people’s skin. Front of house, post-war Britain was anxious to appear honourable, generous and loyal. The uplifting narrative was of a nation that had defeated the vile racism of Nazi Germany by occupying the moral high ground.

But the political debate was no less dishonest than that which had gone before. Labour had been so timid about discussing immigration that it almost forgot to mention how its open door policy had seen the number of foreigners coming to live in the UK more than double since it took office: from 224,000 in 1996 to 494,000 in 2004. Later, government insider Andrew Neather would claim that there had been a political purpose in using mass immigration to make the UK multicultural. An advisor to the Prime Minister and Home Secretary, Neather let slip how ministers understood the conservatism of their core voters and, while they might have been passionately in favour of a more diverse society, ‘it wasn’t necessarily a debate they wanted to have in working men’s clubs in Sheffield or Sunderland.’ Labour’s reluctance to talk about the record levels of immigration into Britain meant there was little public discussion about the impact the new arrivals were having on communities and resources.

pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, G4S, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Fogarty examined 141 communities that arose between 1860 and 1914, including mystical Shalam in New Mexico, free-love Spirit Fruit in Ohio and Illinois, all-female Women’s Commonwealth in Texas, and socialist, then anarchist, Equality in Washington state. To varying degrees all were inspired by the Book of Revelations’ injunction to “make all things new” and were self-conscious about their need for journeying elsewhere in America or abroad (usually Palestine) to do so. As such they both reflected and took to extremes the mass migrations and frontier extensions of other, non-utopian Americans of their day. Contrary to stereotypes, some of these 141 utopias were conservative, not radical—for example, rejecting the growing calls for class action in favor of older ideals of the common good. Certain communities were even “anti-modernist” in various respects. It is therefore wrong to assume that utopian communities in this— or any other—period of American history were invariably on the political or social or cultural fringes, for many were not.

The book envisioned the establishment of countless factories and the steady increase of national wealth. The identification between America as a distinctive social collection and its idyllic crusade for nationwide coherence and homogeneity collapsed in the decade following the Civil War. Obviously the war undermined national unity for decades to come. But the growing nation was becoming fractionalized in other ways and for other reasons. Mass immigration from Central and Eastern Europe, more than any other factor, resulted in an increasingly diverse The American Utopias and Utopians and Their Critics 77 America that, unlike in contemporary times, was lamented more than celebrated. Unlike their mid-nineteenth-century counterparts, late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Americans routinely made firm, fixed, and critical distinctions between peoples, places, and things.

pages: 632 words: 171,827

Israel: A Concise History of a Nation Reborn by Daniel Gordis

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-oil, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

In the middle of a great square was the splendid Peace Palace, where international congresses of peace-lovers and scientists were held, for Jerusalem was now a home for all the best strivings of the human spirit: for Faith, Love, Knowledge.40 Nor was it only Jerusalem that had been repaired. The creation of a Jewish homeland had solved the problem of Jews in Europe, no less: Dr. Walter . . . launched on a description of the effects of Jewish mass migration upon the Jews who had remained in Europe. He was bound to say for himself, it had always been clear to him that Zionism was bound to be as salutary for the Jews who remained in Europe as for those who emigrated.41 IT WAS A BOLD DREAM, and a fanciful one in many ways. But it quickly became exceedingly practical, as well. The more desperate the Jews in Europe became, the more amenable they grew to imagining a very different world.

Yosef, Rabbi Ovadia—A legal genius and popular rabbi to Israel’s Mizrachim, Rabbi Ovadia, upon completing his tenure as the Sephardic chief rabbi of Israel, formed the Shas Party, the first political party representing Mizrachim. Zangwill, Israel—A novelist and playwright, Zangwill was a Zionist thinker who described Palestine as a “land without a people, waiting for a people without a land.” Zangwill, like Herzl, believed that a mass migration of Jews from Europe to Palestine would serve both Jews and Palestine. Appendix B GLOSSARY OF NON-ENGLISH TERMS aliyah—From the Hebrew verb “to go up,” aliyah is used to refer to people moving to Israel. It is also used to describe a wave of immigration to Palestine or Israel, as in the First Aliyah or the Russian Aliyah. Ashkenazi—The name for the Jews from most of Europe (Ashkenazim in the plural).

So, too, did protests and demonstrations, and no small number of intrepid American Jews who applied for and received visas to visit Russia and used their visits there to take books, music, and other educational and religious items to bolster the spirits and deepen the education of the repressed community. Slowly, the gates opened. In 1970, 992 immigrants to Israel came from the Soviet Union. By 1980, that number was 7,570. In 1990, it was 185,227. By the time the mass immigration had subsided, shortly after 2000, some one million Soviet Jews had made their way to the Jewish state, changing its character dramatically. Like many who had come before them, Soviet immigrants often arrived with little money and needed significant support upon arrival. Many who had been highly trained in the Soviet Union had to settle for menial jobs in the competitive Israeli job market.

pages: 372 words: 110,208

Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past by David Reich

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, European colonialism, Google Earth, invention of agriculture, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, supervolcano, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

Chapter 5, “The Making of Modern Europe,” explains how Europeans today descend from three highly divergent populations, which came together over the last nine thousand years in a way that archaeologists never anticipated before ancient DNA became available. Chapter 6, “The Collision That Formed India,” explains how the formation of South Asian populations parallels that of Europeans. In both cases, a mass migration of farmers from the Near East after nine thousand years ago mixed with previously established hunter-gatherers, and then a second mass migration from the Eurasian steppe after five thousand years ago brought a different kind of ancestry and probably Indo-European languages as well. Chapter 7, “In Search of Native American Ancestors,” shows how the analysis of modern and ancient DNA has demonstrated that Native American populations prior to the arrival of Europeans derive ancestry from multiple major pulses of migration from Asia.

The Nazi ideology of a “pure” Indo-European-speaking Aryan race with deep roots in Germany, traceable through artifacts of the Corded Ware culture, has been shattered by the finding that the people who used these artifacts came from a mass migration from the Russian steppe, a place that German nationalists would have despised as a source.49 The Hindutva ideology that there was no major contribution to Indian culture from migrants from outside South Asia is undermined by the fact that approximately half of the ancestry of Indians today is derived from multiple waves of mass migration from Iran and the Eurasian steppe within the last five thousand years.50 Similarly, the idea that the Tutsis in Rwanda and Burundi have ancestry from West Eurasian farmers that Hutus do not—an idea that has been incorporated into arguments for genocide51—is nonsense.

The new methods have made it possible to analyze hundreds of samples in a single study. With such data, it is possible to reconstruct population changes in exquisite detail, transforming our understanding of the past. By the end of 2015, my ancient DNA laboratory at Harvard had published more than half of the world’s genome-wide human ancient DNA. We discovered that the population of northern Europe was largely replaced by a mass migration from the eastern European steppe after five thousand years ago18; that farming developed in the Near East more than ten thousand years ago among multiple highly differentiated human populations that then expanded in all directions and mixed with each other along with the spread of agriculture19; and that the first human migrants into the remote Pacific islands beginning around three thousand years ago were not the sole ancestors of the present-day inhabitants.20 In parallel, I initiated a project to survey the diversity of the world’s present-day populations, using a microchip for analyzing human variation that my collaborators and I designed specifically for the purpose of studying the human past.

pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser,, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Most Somewheres are not bigots and xenophobes. Indeed much of what I call the ‘great liberalisation’ of the past forty years in attitudes to race, gender and sexuality (see the next chapter) has been absorbed and accepted by the majority of Somewheres. But compared with Anywheres the acceptance has been more selective and tentative and has not extended to enthusiasm for mass immigration or European integration. Somewheres are seldom anti-immigrant but invariably anti-mass immigration. They still believe that there is such a thing as Society. The 1960s were not just about challenging traditional ideas and hierarchies—they also marked a further dismantling of the stable, ordered society in which roles were clearly ordained. Individuals became freer to win or lose (see chapter seven). That was disorientating to many. Most Somewheres did not share the optimism of baby boomer Anywhere liberalism and instead found that the emerging post-industrial, post-nationalist, post-modern Britain was in many non-material ways a less hospitable place for them.

That brief notoriety triggered a lasting interest in immigration, race, multiculturalism, national identity and so on (which in 2013 resulted in a book, The British Dream).15 And the more I studied these things and tried to defend my initial, rather accidental, scepticism the more I became convinced that the left had got on the wrong side of the argument on mass immigration (too enthusiastic), and integration of minorities and national identity (too indifferent). On matters of culture and community the sometimes socially conservative intuitions of mainstream public opinion came to seem to me at least as rational and decent as the individualistic egalitarianism of the middle class, university educated left which now dominates the Labour party. Liberalism, as the late Jamaican-born cultural theorist Stuart Hall once said, is stupid about culture. It can be stupid about parts of human nature too. It understands the yearning for freedom and autonomy much less so for recognition and belonging. As I heard Labour politicians, some of them friends, talking about the fiscal benefits of mass immigration as the party’s old working class base drifted away I understood what Hall meant.

It is true that the effect on jobs and wages, even at the bottom end, is less negative than many people assume—and employment rates in 2016 were at an all time high for the British born. But mass immigration is still somewhat regressive (and would have been more so in recent years without the minimum wage) and there is not a strikingly positive economic story for the existing population on wages, employment or growth per capita either. On fiscal contribution, EU immigrants are mainly slightly positive because the vast majority are of working age and have come to work, but taking immigration as a whole in recent decades the fiscal contribution of newcomers is slightly negative.10 (Economists are overwhelmingly pro-mass immigration but are far better at combating negative assumptions than providing a positive case, see the more detailed discussion of the economics of immigration in my book The British Dream.)11 It is a different story for employers who have been able to sharply cut their training bills in recent years, and replace the sulky, poorly educated local teenager with, say, a keen-as-mustard Latvian graduate who speaks excellent English.

pages: 105 words: 18,832

The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View From the Future by Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway

anti-communist, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction,, energy transition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, Pierre-Simon Laplace, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, the built environment, the market place

Moreover, the scientists who best understood the problem were ham-strung by their own cultural practices, which demanded an excessively stringent standard for accepting claims of any x i n t r o d u C t i o n kind—even those involving imminent threats. Here, our future historian, living in the Second People’s Republic of China, recounts the events of the Period of the Penumbra (1988–2093) that led to the Great Collapse and Mass Migration (2073–2093). The Collapse of WesTern CivilizaTion The nation formerly known as the Netherlands Once referred to as the “Low Countries” of Europe, much of the land area of this nation had been reclaimed from the sea by extensive human effort from the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries. The unexpectedly rapid rise of the seas of the Great Collapse overwhelmed the Dutch citizens. The descendants of their survivors largely reside in the Nordo-Scandinavian Union, while the rusting skyscrapers of their drowned cities are a ghostly reminder of a glorious past. 1 The Coming of the Penumbral Age In the prehistory of “civilization,” many societies rose and fell, but few left as clear and extensive an account of what happened to them and why as the twenty-first-century nation-states that referred to themselves as Western civilization.

In poor nations, conditions were predictably worse: rural portions of Africa and Asia began experiencing significant depopulation from out-migration, malnutrition-induced disease and infertility, and starvation. Stil , sea level had risen only 9 to 15 centimeters around the globe, and coastal populations were mainly intact. Then, in the Northern Hemisphere summer of 2041, unprecedented heat waves scorched the planet, destroying food crops around the globe. Panic ensued, with food riots in virtually every major city. Mass migration of undernourished and dehydrated individuals, coupled with explosive increases in insect populations, led to widespread outbreaks of typhus, cholera, dengue fever, yellow fever, and viral and retroviral agents never before seen. Surging insect populations also destroyed huge swaths of forests in Canada, Indonesia, and Brazil. As social order began to break down in the 2050s, governments were overthrown, particularly in Africa, but also in many parts of Asia and Europe, further decreasing social capacity to deal with increasingly desperate populations.

The European Union announced similar plans for voluntary northward relocation of eligible citizens from its southernmost regions to Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. While governments were straining to maintain order and provide for their people, leaders in Switzerland and India—two countries that were rapidly losing substantial portions of their glacially-sourced water resources— convened the First International Emergency Summit on Climate Change, organized under the rubric of Unified Mass migration of undernour- Nations for Climate Pro- ished and dehydrated indi- tection (the former United viduals, coupled with explosive increases in insect populations, Nations having been disled to widespread outbreaks credited and disbanded over of typhus, cholera, dengue the failure of the UNFCCC). fever, yellow fever, and viral Political, business, and reli- and retroviral agents never gious leaders met in Geneva before seen.

pages: 484 words: 120,507

The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler

barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre,, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile

This, then, would belong with Swahili and Malay as a trade-created lingua-franca, if it had not largely died away by the early nineteenth century. Africa and Brazil saw some take-up of Portuguese creoles, mostly among slaves. But the spread of Portuguese to Brazil—by now far the most populous speech community that it has—only began in earnest in the late seventeenth century, when discoveries of gold and precious metals, and the opening up of the interior to economic development, caused mass migration from Portugal itself. Once it was known that there were fortunes to be made in Brazil, European settlement, and hence the spread of Portuguese, took off . In general, then, these world languages with less than 40 percent lingua-franca use are languages that have grown through gradual immigration, a process which acts mainly to create larger mother tongue communities rather than lingua-francas, although inevitably in a multilingual environment some bilingualism and recruitment of speakers of other languages will occur.

This has applied not just to the major western empires of France and Great Britain, but also to smaller (or older) colonial powers such as the Netherlands and Spain, and even (since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991) from the states of Central Asia to Russia. Moreover, this is not just an effect of the twilight of Empire. Similar trends have affected powers that did not have relevant ex-imperial territories: these notably include the mass immigration of Turks into Germany (long characterized as Gastarbeiter ‘guest-workers’, though large numbers have eventually taken up residence), and of Latin Americans into the USA (much of the latter clandestine—hence the term mojados ‘wetbacks’, suggesting informal crossing of the Rio Grande). Most recently (especially in the last decade) additional flows of “asylum seekers” have left the war-troubled countries of the Balkans, Middle East, Africa, and South Asia for quieter and richer lands, usually in Europe or North America.

pages: 463 words: 115,103

Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

Set against that, the residential university experience also seems to be responsible for a sharp rise in mental stress among students. The Guardian in the United Kingdom reported in March 2019 on an online survey of nearly 40,000 students that found very high levels of anxiety and thoughts of self-harm, with fully one-third saying they had experienced a serious psychological issue for which they needed help.52 Every autumn 1.5 million British teenagers take part in a mass migration—leaving home to go to university—dividing the country into a residential university class of mobile, professional people and a more rooted nongraduate group. This has surely exacerbated the country’s value and social divisions—and anti-London feeling—revealed in the Brexit vote. Mass residential higher education remains a very British phenomenon, and even more so in England than in Scotland; it is less common in continental Europe and the United States, although the trend is for it to decrease somewhat in Britain—partly because of more students from less mobile low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds—and increase in the rest of the rich world.

Care, especially in the private realm, is about duty to others, and its results are sometimes nebulous and hard to measure. (See Chapter Eight.) There is some potential for the use of smart technologies in elderly care, with more remote monitoring and so on (and this could draw more men into the sector). But most caring jobs cannot easily be automated or performed by machines. Even in aging Japan, with its antipathy to mass immigration, Filipino caregivers are preferred to robots and are gradually being welcomed in larger numbers. The rise of cognitive-analytical ability—Head work—as a measure of economic and social success, combined with the hegemony of cognitive-class political interests, has led to the current great unbalancing of Western politics. The disaffection of large minorities, even majorities, in many countries is linked intimately to the declining status and self-respect attached to work associated with the Hand and the Heart.

Immigration and Ethnic Formation in a Deeply Divided Society: The Case of the 1990s Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union in Israel by Majid Al Haj

demographic transition, ghettoisation, job satisfaction, mass immigration, phenotype, profit motive, zero-sum game

(Note that, according to halakhah, a child’s Jewishness depends on that of its mother.) This debate was spearheaded by the religious parties, in the wake of the considerable number of such cases in the first wave of mass immigration from Europe (ibid.). These parties also demanded a definition of “who is a Jew” before the Law of Return could be enacted. In the end, however, a compromise was 40   reached and the law was passed without reference to what remains a controversial issue to the present day (Hacohen 1998: 85). The movement’s attitude toward large-scale immigration by nonEuropean Jews has been always ambivalent and to some extent even projectionist (Gilbar 1998). This was very obvious in the discussions of mass immigration from Arab and Islamic countries toward the end of the Second World War. The declarations by Zionist leaders reflected a clear preference for “qualitative” immigration from Anglophone countries and strong fears of a “backward” immigration by Oriental Jews (Mizrahim) (ibid.).

This group, which claims to its credit that it was the leading force in the establishment of the Jewish community (Yishuv) in Palestine and later in the establishment of Israel, perceived the Oriental mass immigration as a threat to its political and cultural dominance. Hence warnings were voiced about the “danger” of the “orientalization and levantization of the Yishuv” and the need to instill into these oriental immigrants the spirit and culture of the veteran Ashkenazi group. 48   Ya"akov Zerubavel, one of the leaders of Po"alei Zion–Left and a member of the Jewish Agency Executive, wrote: The great spiritual entity produced through arduous labor and pioneering effort, along with all the rest of the basic enterprises of the Zionist movement, may come to naught if it does not have successors who act in the spirit of the Pioneers. The mass immigration now flowing in from backward, primitive countries to Eretz Israel may inundate all our work.

In addition, the monograph analyzes the dynamic relationship between immigrants and the veteran Israeli population and the immigrants’ impact on the ethnic structure of Israel and the possibilities of developing a civil  3 society, based on multicultural conception. These issues are analyzed in light of the economic, political, and ideological changes that have taken place in Israel during the past decade, including developments in the peace process and the deterioration in Israeli-Palestinian relations since October 2000. The following questions are addressed: What are the implications of mass immigration for a deeply divided society that is coping with both internal conflicts (the result of internal cleavages) and external (territorial-national) conflict? What are the main factors affecting ethnic formation, ethnic identity, and ethnic cohesiveness among these immigrants? What forms of political organization and behavior exist among immigrants? Are these patterns based on individual or collective mobilization?

The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer

back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

As the petroleum age winds down, many nations with large populations, limited resources and strong maritime traditions will have few options other than mass migration by sea. Consider the situation of Japan: close to 150 million Japanese now live on a crowded skein of islands with little arable land and no fossil fuels at all, supported by trade links made possible only by abundant energy resources elsewhere. As fossil fuel production declines, industrial agriculture and food imports both will become problematic, and over the long term the Japanese population will have to contract to something like the small fraction of today’s figures the Japanese islands supported in the past. Mass migration is nearly the only option for the rest of the population. Japan’s ample supply of ships and fishing boats provide the means, and possible destinations beckon all around the Pacific basin.

The possibility that twenty million Japanese “boat people” could follow the Pacific currents to the west coast of North America by 2075 or so, or that millions of Indonesians might head for the northern shores of Australia for the same reason, has not yet become a part of our collective discourse about the future. Our unwillingness to grapple with the likelihood of mass migrations in the wake of the industrial age, however, will do nothing to make the impacts of population shifts easier to face. culture death The political and social landscape of the industrial world may not need mass migration to face dramatic change, however. The industrial age has also been the age of the nation-state. In a cascade of change that began a century before the industrial revolution, ­nation-​ A Short History of the Future states defined themselves on two fronts: against both local loyalties and the transnational community of Christendom.

Sprawling Sun Belt cities with little water and no resources will shrivel and die as the energy that keeps them going sputters and goes out, and tourist communities across the continent will pop like bubbles and become ghost towns once travel becomes a luxury, while Rust Belt towns struggling for survival today will likely find a new lease on life when adequate rain, workable soil and access to waterborne transport become the keys to prosperity, as they were in the early 19th century. völkerwanderung What is less certain is whether it will be the descendants of today’s Americans or some other peoples who will populate the renewed Rust Belt towns and salvage valuable metal scrap from the crumbling ruins of today’s Sun Belt cities. Mass migration is already a fact of life throughout the contemporary world, and the twilight of cheap energy promises to shift this into overdrive. It’s common today to think of nations as a fixed reality with which historical changes have to deal, but this is far from true. Even in periods of relative stability, populations move, cultures relocate and nations flow, fuse and break apart like grease on a hot skillet.

The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind

affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

The Pew Research Center reports that in the US, immigrants make up nearly half of all household servants, who are employed by a relatively small number of affluent households.12 As Lynn Stuart Parramore writes for the left-leaning AlterNet, “In the US, nearly half of maids and housekeepers are not native-born, with Latin Americans dominating. (A big chunk of the wealthy is happy to support mass immigration of cheap labor so that these workers can continue to be underpaid.)”13 The adoption by many US hub cities of seemingly idealistic “sanctuary city” laws, which forbid local law enforcement officers from collaborating with federal officials in identifying and deporting illegal immigrants, saves money for managers and professionals by maintaining their access to local pools of low-wage, untaxed, unregulated, off-the-books nannies, as well as other luxury service labor that allows college-educated professionals to maintain their privileged lifestyles.

But the class war has been smoldering for half a century. For the last two generations, in different decades, and in different Western countries, the occasions of populist protest have been different—the white backlash against the civil rights revolution of the 1960s, the traditionalist backlash against the sexual and censorship revolution of the 1970s, populist resistance to the Japanese import shocks of the 1980s, and then, more recently, mass immigration, globalization, deindustrialization, and the Great Recession. All of these different issues resulted in similar alignments of large portions of the non-college-educated working class against managerial and professional elites. Long before Brexit and Trump, their lack of voice and influence made alienated native working-class voters—mostly but not exclusively white—a destabilizing force in politics.

According to Drutman, both populists and “business Republicans” tend to support the Republican Party. The business Republicans, whose preferences Republican politicians promote, on average make $69,711 a year, around $30,000 more than the Republican populists, whose preferences most Republican politicians ignore.2 The second-largest group of voters in the American electorate, those whom Drutman calls “liberals,” that is, the moderate left, shares liberal cultural views and support of mass immigration with the free market libertarian right. But on economic policy issues, leftists, agreeing with populists on issues like Social Security spending, find their policy preferences neglected by the much smaller but more influential neoliberal faction of the Democratic Party. One way to understand these results is to recognize that in the United States and similar Western democracies there are two political spectrums, one for the college-educated managerial-professional overclass minority and one for the non-college-educated working-class majority of all races.

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Rule Britannia: Brexit and the End of Empire by Danny Dorling, Sally Tomlinson

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden,, epigenetics, Etonian, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, housing crisis, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, wealth creators

The chapter ends with an image of Britain’s contribution to the EU Border Force on the Greek island of Lesbos and asks: how did it come to this? How did we come to think that sending a warship to the tiny Greek island of Lesbos was an appropriate response to families fleeing Syria to seek asylum? Who might have wanted such a picture to be broadcast? In whose interests was it to make it appear as if the UK was under threat from mass migration of people with darker skins or different religions? CHAPTER 3: FROM EMPIRE TO COMMONWEALTH Chapter 3 looks at some of the beliefs and myths underlying British imperialism, which from the mid-nineteenth century onwards were bound up with social Darwinism – beliefs that the white Anglo-Saxon ‘race’ was superior to all other races and peoples, and that hierarchies could be constructed of inherently superior and inferior groups of people.

The Aliens Act of 1905, passed by a Conservative government and aimed at restricting Jewish immigration, was the first Act to translate British dislike of the foreigners and immigrants that they relied upon into official policy. The men who came from the colonies to fight in the First World War were firmly told after the war to go home like good little children. Attitudes changed during the 1920s and 1930s. To accommodate Poles unwilling to return to Poland, Great Britain enacted the Polish Resettlement Act 1947, the UK’s first mass immigration law for people not from the empire. It offered citizenship to around 200,000. The Second World War was only won due to the intervention of others: not only the Americans, Canadians, Australians and New Zealanders, and (especially) the Russians, but also the Poles, people from the Caribbean, those from British colonies in Africa, Indians, and especially the Gurkhas, who were later denied rights of settlement and pensions, until the actor Joanna Lumley took up their case with her cry of ‘Ayo Gorkhali!’

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

It is in such unmediated human encounters that words come closest to deeds, and sometimes the word becomes flesh. Who knows, perhaps bioengineering and communications technology will one day combine to reproduce cybercognitively, at a distance of thousands of miles, the incomparable richness of that experience. In the meantime, what characterises our transformed world is external combinations of the virtual and the physical, as a result of developments that I summarise as ‘mass migration and the internet’. COSMOPOLIS In a book called The Gutenberg Galaxy, published in 1962, the media guru Marshall McLuhan declared that ‘the new electronic interdependence recreates the world in the image of a global village’.37 This was an extraordinary seerlike insight, well ahead of its time, but McLuhan’s simile of ‘global village’ is inadequate, both as description and prescription.

In doing so, they draw on documents such as the authoritative General Comment of the UN Human Rights Committee on Article 19, the judgements of various courts, and philosophical, political and psychological arguments of the kind I have explored. Their work has traditionally been concentrated on states and international organisations, laws and the executive actions of governments. I have argued that in the cosmopolis created by mass migration and the internet, we must also look at other levels of the multidimensional struggle for word power, especially the role of private powers and that of self-shaping, networked communities, both online and offline. (‘Offline’ is a strange term, almost implying that ‘online’ is the richer, fuller human condition. ‘Real world’, on the other hand, falsely suggests that the online world is unreal.)

But living with such an intimate plenitude of difference is also difficult, and many people might prefer to live more among ‘their own’. This difficulty is hardly new. It is something that those inhabiting the territories we now call India and Pakistan have wrestled with for millennia. The emperors Ashoka and Akbar were promoting peaceful coexistence between communities and sects long before Europeans discovered the virtue of ‘toleration’. Yet the combination of mass migration and the internet has produced a staggering growth in visible diversity on the physical streets of a global city and the online pages of the virtual one. Unsurprisingly, some of the most intense free speech controversies of our time have concerned how people express themselves about such differences. Across the quarter century since the Rushdie affair exploded in 1989, many of those controversies have involved religion.

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The Little Book of Hedge Funds by Anthony Scaramucci

Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, business process, carried interest, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fear of failure, fixed income, follow your passion, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, index fund, John Meriwether, Long Term Capital Management, mail merge, margin call, mass immigration, merger arbitrage, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, the new new thing, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Chapter Seven: A Balancing Act Long/Short Equity—Borrowing from Peter to Pay Paul Relative Value—Two of a Kind . . . but Different Event Driven—One Man’s Loss is Another Man’s Gain Directional Chapter Eight: If you Can’t Beat ’Em, Join ’Em Stop Right There! Manager Selection The Screening Process The Never-Ending Process Filling in the Data Portfolio Construction Stay Alert . . . It’s Your Money Chapter Nine: The Men Behind the Curtains A Quick History Lesson More than Just a Middleman The Specifics Your Dream Team The Pluses . . . . . . and the Minuses Chapter Ten: From Wall Street to Park Avenue Wall Street’s Mass Migration Only the Strongest Survive Inside the Mind of a Super Capitalist A Quick Pop Quiz Scoring a Job at a Hedge Fund A Final Few Words: 15 Things I Would Do If I Were you Conclusion Appendix Acknowledgments Little Book Big Profits Series In the Little Book Big Profits series, the brightest icons in the financial world write on topics that range from tried-and-true investment strategies to tomorrow’s new trends.

If you are looking to chase money, fortune, or fame and don’t think you have the stomach for managing money or being a part of an asset management organization, then hopefully you will go back to your art or poetry class when you are done reading this chapter. As I tell any young person I advise or mentor: follow your passions and do want you really want to do. Don’t chase what you think you should do; it will only delay your journey to job and life fulfillment. Wall Street’s Mass Migration Growing up, it was fairly simple. Whenever I was asked what I wanted to be when I grew up, my answer was always the same: I wanted a job that would give me and my family financial security. At the time, I had no idea what a hedge fund was and if someone asked me I probably would have said it had to do with landscaping (as in hedges) and nothing to do with money management. When I graduated college and law school in the 1980s, the dream job was to work in investment banking.

From seasoned money managers to up-and-coming MBAs to college students working out of their dorms, everywhere you turned some whiz kid (and in some cases, some not so whiz kid) was starting his own fund. During that time, I, too, caught the hedge fund fever. Seven years out of law school I began my journey and entered the industry by cofounding Oscar Capital with Andrew K. Boszhardt Jr. So, what was the cause of this mass migration? Earnings Potential: Just as insects are attracted to light, money managers are attracted to lucrative fee structures. Take that and throw in the fact that the money manager is joining an exclusive secret club and it’s easy to see why the industry boomed. In the last decade, the top hedge fund managers earned “more money than God in a couple of years of trading,” amassing more wealth than the mightiest masters of the universe at prominent investment banks and private equity firms.

pages: 197 words: 49,296

The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac

3D printing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump,, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, trade route, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

For a while people tried to carry on, but when you can’t work outside, when you can fall asleep only at four a.m. for a couple of hours because that’s the coolest part of the day, there’s not much you can do but leave. Mass migrations to less hot rural areas are beset by a host of refugee problems, civil unrest, and bloodshed over diminished water availability.16 Inland glaciers around the world are quickly disappearing. The millions who depended on the Himalayan, Alpine, and Andean glaciers to regulate water availability throughout the year are in a state of constant emergency: there is little snow turning to ice atop mountains in the winter, so there is no more gradual melting for the spring and summer. Now there are either torrential rains leading to flooding or prolonged droughts. The most vulnerable communities with the least resources have already seen what can ensue when water is scarce: sectarian violence, mass migration, and death. Even in some parts of the United States, there are fiery conflicts over water, battles between the rich who are willing to pay for as much water as they want and everyone else demanding equal access to the life-enabling resource.

Scientists tried to develop varieties of staples that could stand up to drought, temperature fluctuations, and salt, but there was only so much we could do. Now there simply aren’t enough resilient varieties to feed the population. As a result, food riots, coups, and civil wars are throwing the world’s most vulnerable from the frying pan into the fire. As developed countries seek to seal their borders from mass migration, they too feel the consequences. Stock markets are crashing, currencies are wildly fluctuating, and the European Union has disbanded.20 As committed as nations are to keeping wealth and resources within their borders, they’re determined to keep people out. Most countries’ armies are now just highly militarized border patrols. Lockdown is the goal, but it hasn’t been a total success.

pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

everything south of Wall Street: Benjamin Strauss, “American Icons Threatened by Sea Level Rise: In Pictures” Climate Central, October 16, 2015. See: Ellie Mae O’Hagan wrote in the Guardian: Ellie Mae O’Hagan, “Mass Migration Is No ‘Crisis’: It’s the New Normal as the Climate Changes,” Guardian, August 18, 2015. See: the 1947 partitioning of India and Pakistan: “History’s Greatest Migration,” Guardian, September 25, 1947. See:,,105131,00.html. See also: Tokyo is the largest mega-city on Earth: Alexandre Tanzi and Wei Lu,“Tokyo’s Reign as World’s Largest City Fades,” Bloomberg, July 13, 2018.

We climbed mountains, forged forests, swam rivers, crossed continents, sailed oceans, and, eventually, managed to work our way into every corner of the Earth. It was an exodus-driven influx of innovation. While we left the old and sought the new, we brought our ideas, technologies, and cultures along for the ride. And this process is not just how the Harlem Shake got to Hong Kong, it’s how we—all of us—got to now. This has not been an easy journey. A great many of our mass migrations began with people fleeing from danger, disaster, and all the unspeakable horrors we now know as “history.” Yet, despite originating in strife and tragedy, in the long run, migration has a positive impact on culture. In their book Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future, Oxford’s Ian Goldin and Geoffrey Cameron explain it this way: The history of human communities and world development highlights the extent to which migration has been an engine of social progress.

We’ll need new ideas to counter environmental and existential risks and new jobs to replace the ones that robots and AI are about to make obsolete. To implement those ideas, we’ll also need greater global collaboration and cooperation, and a deep empathy that crosses borders, cultures, and continents. And thanks to five of the greatest migrations the world has yet seen, we’ll soon see all of this and more. In this chapter, as we widen our view from the next decade to the century that follows, we’re about to witness mass migration on a massive scale. In some cases, we’re moving for familiar reasons—to avoid environmental disaster and chase economic opportunity—but in shorter time frames and greater numbers than anything yet seen. In others, we’re crossing borders we’ve never crossed before. Moving off world and into outer space; moving out of regular reality and into virtual reality; moving, if the cutting-edge of brain-computer-interface development continues apace, out of individual consciousness and into collective consciousness, a technologically enabled hive mind, or, for those who speak “Trekkie,” a kinder, gentler Borg.

pages: 358 words: 93,969

Climate Change by Joseph Romm

carbon footprint, Climatic Research Unit, decarbonisation, demand response, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge worker, mass immigration, performance metric, renewable energy transition, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, the scientific method

In 2008, Thomas Fingar, then “the U.S. intelligence community’s top analyst,” estimates that it will happen by the mid-2020s, as “droughts, food shortages and scarcity of fresh water will plague large swaths of the globe, from northern China to the Horn of Africa.” This “will trigger mass migrations and political upheaval in many parts of the developing world.” The UK government’s chief scientist, Professor John Beddington, laid out a scenario similar in a 2009 speech. He warned that by 2030, “A ‘perfect storm’ of food shortages, scarce water and insufficient energy resources threaten to unleash public unrest, cross-border conflicts and mass migration as people flee from the worst-affected regions,” as the UK’s Guardian put it. What is the plausible best-case scenario for climate change this century? The plausible best-case scenario for climate change this century would be keeping total warming below 2°C (3.6°F).

It warned, “Climate change will have devastating consequences for human health from”: • changing patterns of infections and insect-borne diseases, and increased deaths due to heat waves • reduced water and food security, leading to malnutrition and diarrhoeal disease • an increase in the frequency and magnitude of extreme climate events (hurricanes, cyclones, storm surges) causing flooding and direct injury • increasing vulnerability for those living in urban slums and where shelter and human settlements are poor • large-scale population migration and the likelihood of civil unrest A 2011 editorial in The British Medical Journal, led by the surgeon rear admiral of the UK’s Ministry of Defence, reviewed and synthesized recent reports on “Climate change, ill health, and conflict.” The editorial warned that “Climate change poses an immediate and grave threat, driving ill health and increasing the risk of conflict, such that each feeds on the other.” The threat posed by climate change to regional security “will limit access to food, safe water, power, sanitation, and health services and drive mass migration and competition for remaining resources.” There will be a rise in starvation, diarrhea, and infectious diseases as well as in the death rate of children and adults. The authors note that “in 2004, seven of the 10 countries with the highest mortality rates in children under 5 were conflict or immediate post-conflict societies.” The warmer temperatures are, the more ozone smog that forms. The combination of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and a warming climate will triple the percentage of the world population affected by low-level ozone, according to the UK’s Met Office Hadley Center.

The study, “Climate Change in the Fertile Crescent and Implications of the Recent Syrian Drought,” published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that global warming made Syria’s 2006 to 2010 drought two to three times more likely. “While we’re not saying the drought caused the war,” lead author Dr. Colin Kelley explained, “We are saying that it certainly contributed to other factors—agricultural collapse and mass migration among them—that caused the uprising.” “It’s a pretty convincing climate fingerprint,” Retired Navy Rear Admiral David Titley has said. Titley, also a meteorologist, said, “you can draw a very credible climate connection to this disaster we call ISIS right now.” In particular, the study finds that climate change is already drying the region out in two ways: “First, weakening wind patterns that bring rain-laden air from the Mediterranean reduced precipitation during the usual November-to-April wet season.

pages: 100 words: 31,338

After Europe by Ivan Krastev

affirmative action, bank run, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, clean water, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, job automation, mass immigration, moral panic, open borders, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, too big to fail, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

Now it’s generally right-wing parties that claim the right of prosperous European communities to defend their way of life and to resist those refugees who aspire to live in Europe as they have lived in their own countries. The Left is struggling with how to respond to this new reality. The European center-left is also facing its own identity crisis, as it has been gravely weakened electorally in these years of mass migration. Social democratic parties throughout the continent are themselves in free fall as the worker’s vote flees to the Far Right. In Austria, almost 90 percent of blue-collar workers voted for the far-right candidate in the second round of the May 2016 presidential elections. In the German regional elections, more than 30 percent of that same group supported the reactionary Alternative for Germany.

Being more impoverished than western Europeans, they wonder how anyone can expect them to express spontaneous humanitarian solidarity. The reaction of eastern Europeans to globalization is not so different, frankly, than that of Trump’s white working-class supporters. They both view themselves as forgotten losers. Eastern Europeans’ hostile reaction to refugees and migrants is also rooted in a sense of betrayal that many feel when they hear European leaders describe mass migration as a win-win proposition. In his book Exodus, Oxford economist Paul Collier makes clear that while the migration of people from poor countries to the West is beneficial to the migrants and as a whole benefits host societies, it can negatively affect the lower classes of these same host societies and particularly the chance that their children will have better lives.28 The resistance of liberals to conceding any negative effects of migration has triggered the antiestablishment (and particularly anti-mainstream-media) reaction that is convulsing political life in democracies in so many places today.

pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

As the novelist James Fenimore Cooper noted in 1828, New York’s remarkably diverse society bore “a strong impression of its commercial character.” Migration from abroad, as well as from the rural hinterland, made sure that New York did not stagnate, bringing new economic forces and entrepreneurs into the city and keeping Gotham in what he called “a state of effervescence.”38 A city’s appeal to newcomers has remained critical in modern times. One notable example was the mass migration of skilled migrants and entrepreneurs from Hitler’s Europe, which flooded London as well as New York and Los Angeles. These people brought with them their skills, connections, and creative input. This critical migration has continued to the modern day, although the countries that people come from are now more diverse and less European in origin. Some predict the United Kingdom will receive 2 million foreigners every 10 years, a large proportion of whom will settle in the London area.

American demographer Phillip Longman compares Europe to a woman whose “biological clock is running down. It is not too late to adopt more children, but they won’t look like her.”142 Germany, with its ultra-low birth rate and rapidly aging population, epitomizes the stakes of migration arbitrage. By 2025, Germany’s economy will need 6 million additional workers, or an annual 200,000 new migrants, to keep its economic engine humming, according to government estimates.143 The rationale for mass migration seems inexorable. Germany is unlikely to meet this demand internally due to a shrinking workforce.144 Additionally, many migrants to Germany do not have the skills to participate in that country’s high-end economy. They also threaten to inject many of their homelands’ maladies, ranging from jihadism to street crime, into what have been fairly prosperous and peaceful places. Indeed, as Europe’s Muslim population continues to surge rapidly, particularly in northern Europe,145 it poses a severe threat to old European values—not just religious but also civil.

GEIGER, Friedrich. (2014, December 22). “Germany’s Big Firms Pay Price for Small-Town Ties,” Wall Street Journal, GERMAN, Erik and PYNE, Solana. (2010). “Dhaka: fastest growing megacity in the world,” GlobalPost, ——— (2010, September 10). “Disasters drive mass migration to Dhaka,” GlobalPost, GILBERT, Alan and GUGLER, Josef. (1991). Cities, Poverty and Development: Urbanization in the Third World, Oxford: Oxford University Press. GIROUARD, Mark. (1985). Cities and People: A Social and Architectural History, New Haven: Yale University Press. GITTELSOM, John. (2011, July 20).

pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

Because 'class' had for so long been a forbidden word within the political establishment, the only inequalities discussed by politicians and the media were racial ones. The white working class had become another marginalized ethnic minority, and this meant that all their concerns were understood solely through the prism of race. They became presented as a lost tribe On the wrong side of history, disorientated by multiculturalism and obsessed with defending their identity from the cultural ravages of mass immigration. The rise of the idea of a 'white working class' fuelled a new liberal bigotry. It was OK to hate the white working class, because they were themselves a bunch of racist bigots. One defence of the term' chav' points out that 'Chavs themselves use the word, so what's the problem?' They have a point: some young working-class people have even embraced the word as a cultural identity. But the meaning of a word often depends on who is using it.

Many of these caricatures appeared in the BBe's White season, a supposedly sympathetic series of programmes dedicated to the white working class that aired in 2007. In reality, it simply boostedthe image of white working-class people as a race-obsessed, BNP- voting rump. Their problems were not portrayed as economic-thingslike housing and jobs that affect working-class people of all colours did not get a look-in. They were simply portrayed as a minority culture under threat from mass immigration. 'The White season examines why some feel increasingly marginalised and explores possible reasons behind the rise in popularity of far-right politics in some sections of this community,' the BBC announced. But the trailer for the series said it all: a white man's face being scrib- bled over by dark-skinned hands with a black marker pen until he disappeared into the background. Accompanying the trailer was the question: 'Is the white working class becoming invisible?'

On the night of the GLC election, they didn't have a majority, but they were the leading party in those wards ... But two years ago, they virtually got no votes-just a couple of per cent. So I think you tend to get a problem of racism in an area undergoing transition.' Hackney is one of the most mixed areas in the country, and as a result the far right has died out there. But it flourishes in areas such as Barking and Dagenham, where mass immigration is a new phenomenon and where the BNP has done well; or, conversely, where there is very little immigration but a tremendous fear of it. The demonization of the working class has also had a real role to play in the BNP's success story. Although ruling elites have made itclear that there is nothing of worth in working-class culture, we have been (rightly) urged to celebrate the identities of minority groups.

pages: 138 words: 40,525

This Is Not a Drill: An Extinction Rebellion Handbook by Extinction Rebellion

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, feminist movement, full employment, gig economy, global pandemic, ice-free Arctic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, mass immigration, Peter Thiel, place-making, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, Sam Altman, smart grid, supply-chain management, the scientific method, union organizing, urban sprawl, wealth creators

Humanity finds itself embroiled in an event unprecedented in its history, one which, unless immediately addressed, will catapult us further into the destruction of all we hold dear: this nation, its peoples, our ecosystems and the future of generations to come. The science is clear: we are in the sixth mass extinction event and we will face catastrophe if we do not act swiftly and robustly. Biodiversity is being annihilated around the world. Our seas are poisoned, acidic and rising. Flooding and desertification will render vast tracts of land uninhabitable and lead to mass migration. Our air is so toxic the United Kingdom is breaking the law. It harms the unborn while causing tens of thousands to die. The breakdown of our climate has begun. There will be more wildfires, unpredictable super-storms, increasing famine and untold drought as food supplies and fresh water disappear. The ecological crises that are impacting upon this nation – and on this planet and its wildlife – can no longer be ignored, denied or go unanswered by any beings of sound rational mind, ethical conscience, moral concern or spiritual belief.

Taking their cue from Elon Musk colonizing Mars, Peter Thiel reversing the ageing process, or Sam Altman and Ray Kurzweil uploading their minds into supercomputers, they were preparing for a digital future that had a whole lot less to do with making the world a better place than it did with transcending the human condition altogether and insulating themselves from the very real and present danger of climate change, rising sea levels, mass migrations, global pandemics, nativist panic and resource depletion. For them, the future of technology is really about just one thing: escape. There’s nothing wrong with madly optimistic appraisals of how technology might benefit human society. But the current drive for a post-human utopia is something else. It’s less a vision for the wholesale migration of humanity to a new a state of being than a quest to transcend all that is human: the body, interdependence, compassion, vulnerability and complexity.

pages: 301 words: 89,076

The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

Of course, the internet works both ways, so the most competitive rich-nation professionals will find more opportunities, but for the least competitive, it is just more wage competition. Second, telecom breakthroughs—like telepresence and augmented reality—are making remote workers seem less remote. Widespread shifts in work practices (toward flexible teams) and adoption of innovative collaborative software platforms (like Slack, Asana, and Microsoft 365), are helping to turn telemigration into tele-mass-migration. And there is more. This new competition from “remote intelligence” (RI) is being piled on to service-sector workers at the same time as they are facing new competition from artificial intelligence (AI). In short, RI and AI are coming for the same jobs, at the same time, and driven by the same digital technologies. WHITE-COLLAR ROBOTS—NEW PHASE OF AUTOMATION Amelia works at the online and phone-in help desks at the Swedish bank, SEB.

In America, employment in all three sectors rose rapidly until the early 1900s. Just as in England, the dynamic duo of trade and mechanization was creating millions of new jobs in industry, and rising incomes were creating millions of service sector jobs. The introduction of railroads, acquisition of new land, and the construction of inland waterways had the effect of grandly expanding the amount of arable land. That, plus mass migration from Europe, resulted in booming farm-sector employment. The shares shown in the right panel of Figure 2.4 display the classic structural transformation of an agrarian/rural economy into an urban/industrial one. Agriculture’s share plummeted, while services and manufacturing shares soared. The number of US jobs in manufacturing rose for much longer than in the UK—even though the two nations’ share figures fell from about 1965.

We have not witnessed the rise of twenty-first century versions of Mussolini, Hitler, or Stalin on the dismal side, or FDR and Attlee on the hopeful side. But it hasn’t always worked out this way. The radical transformations that came with the industrial revolution and the shift from feudalism to capitalism destroyed the social fabric that had, for centuries, been based on reciprocity and ancient hierarchical relationships. As Karl Polanyi wrote in his 1942 book, The Great Transformation, the commoditization of labor and mass migration to urban and industrial areas disturbed traditional values to such an extent that the people pushed back by embracing communism or fascism. Back then, however, the push and pushback both took many decades. The industrial and societal revolutions started accelerating around 1820, but communism and fascism took off only in the 1920s. Things are moving much faster this time. My guess is that it will all work out well in the long run, but only if we can make sure globotics advances at a human pace, and the disruption can be seen by many as a decent development.

pages: 349 words: 86,224

Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States by James C. Scott

agricultural Revolution, clean water, David Graeber, demographic dividend, demographic transition, deskilling, facts on the ground, invention of writing, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, means of production, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route

Instead of the population of the alluvium having to shift camp from one ecological zone to another, it could stay in the same place while, as it were, the different habitats came to them.14 A subsistence niche in the southern Mesopotamian wetlands was, compared with the risks of agriculture, more stable, more resilient, and renewable with little annual labor. A propitious location and a sense of timing are crucial to hunter-gatherers in another way. The “harvest” of hunters and gatherers is less a daily hit-or-miss proposition than a carefully calculated effort to intercept the roughly predictable (late-April and May) mass migration of game such as the huge herds of gazelle and wild asses in the alluvium. The hunt was carefully prepared in advance. Long, narrowing lanes were prepared to funnel the herds onto a killing ground, where they could be dispatched and preserved by drying and salting. For the hunters, as for hunting folk elsewhere, a crucial part of their yearly animal protein supply came from a week or so of intense round-the-clock efforts to take as much migrating prey as practicable.

Depending on the setting, the migrating prey in question can comprise large mammals (caribou, gazelle), water fowl (ducks, geese), other migrating birds at their resting or roosting sites, or migrating fish (salmon, eels, alewives, herring, shad, smelt). In many cases the factor limiting the “protein harvest” was not the scarcity of prey but the scarcity of labor to process it before it spoiled. The point is that the rhythm of most hunters is governed by the natural pulse of migrations that represent much of their most prized food supply. Some of these mass migrations of prey may well be a response to human predation, as Herman Melville suggested for the sperm whale, but there is no doubt that it gives a radically different tempo to the lives of hunting and fishing peoples in contrast to agriculturalists—a rhythm that farmers often read as indolence. The most common route for a great many of these migrations has been via the wetlands, estuaries, and river valleys of major waterways, owing to the density of nutritional resources they offer.

The event was during the reign of Ramses III. Quoted in Maria Golia, “After Tahrir,” Times Literary Supplement, February 12, 2016, p. 14. 29. The account immediately below owes much to Lewis, The Early Chinese Empires; Keightley, The Origins of Chinese Civilization; and Yates, “Slavery in Early China.” 30. See, for example, Yates, “Slavery in Early China.” 31. Readers will perhaps have noted that mass migration to northern Europe and North America, though largely voluntary, accomplishes much the same thing in terms of making the productive life of people raised and trained elsewhere available to the country where they settle. 32. Taylor, “Believing the Ancients.” For a dissent from this position, see Scheidel, “Quantifying the Sources of Slaves.” 33. Rather than a victory, the battle seems actually to have been a standoff, although the term “Armageddon” comes to us from the clash. 34.

pages: 510 words: 163,449

How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World and Everything in It by Arthur Herman

British Empire, California gold rush, creative destruction, do-ocracy, financial independence, global village, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, Republic of Letters, Robert Mercer, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

—Sir Charles Napier One afternoon Robert Louis Stevenson noted a story in an Edinburgh newspaper about an apartment house in the Old Town that had suddenly collapsed, burying the residents in plaster and rubble. “All over the world,” he mused to himself, “in London, in Canada, in New Zealand, fancy what a multitude of people could exclaim with truth, ‘The house that I was born in fell down last night!’ ” The Scottish mass migration of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Stevenson himself was born in Edinburgh and died in Samoa) was as momentous as any in history. In sheer numbers, it hardly stands out: perhaps 3 million all told, compared to the 8 million Italians who left their native land between 1820 and World War I. Yet its impact was far-reaching in more ways than one. Scots blanketed the British dominions in North America from Georgia and Nova Scotia to Vancouver.

In Bernard Aspinwall’s phrase, they were “the shock troops of modernization, ” the first echelon of skilled immigrant labor to reach America’s shores and make it a productive nation. They transformed the new republic from an agricultural community of “agrarian yeoman” into an industrial powerhouse, the quintessential modern nation. The Scots who came to the United States in the nineteenth century reveal once again why the Scottish diaspora was so different from other mass immigrations in history. Despite their relatively small numbers (less than three-quarters of a million, compared with 5 million Irish), the vast majority of Scottish immigrants could read and write English. Most knew some trade other than farming. Almost half of the Scottish males who came to America between 1815 and 1914 qualified as either skilled or semiskilled workers. In fact, while Canada tended to draw Scotsmen who wanted to own a farm and lead a rural life, the United States attracted those who were determined to succeed in a trade or in a factory job.

Unfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain by John Darwin

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, Kowloon Walled City, land tenure, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Right to Buy, Scientific racism, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing

Clerics were hired to preach apposite sermons: John Donne gave one for the Virginia Company.32 By the mid eighteenth century, the promotional literature included plausible maps: the one for Halifax carefully thinned out the forests, omitted wild animals and excluded the Indians.33 In the nineteenth century, there were huge numbers of ‘emigrant guides’, warning, cajoling, steering, misinforming. The migrants had to make the best sense they could: hence, perhaps their reliance on the letters sent home – although even these could be doctored by a vigilant company. But perhaps most important of all was the fact that by the time the era of mass migration arrived in the 1840s and 1850s, the British at home were already a nation of movers and settlers: from region to region, from village to town, from all over Britain to the metropolis in London. Migration, like charity, began at home. ARRIVING For most emigrant families, it was the arrival not the journey that mattered. They might have been lucky and enjoyed a smooth voyage. But until the 1860s most of those who crossed the Atlantic did so under sail; the cost of coal at a great distance from Europe and the convenience of a southerly route delayed the change from sail to steam still further in the case of Australia and New Zealand.

By 1914 they appeared as a footnote to the story of white occupation – except in New Zealand where dogged resistance had preserved a large Maori zone in the North Island uplands and key political rights: four seats in the parliament were reserved for Maori representatives. South Africa was different. There exclusion (by wipe out) was practised against the San (or Bushmen) hunter-gatherers. But against the Xhosa, the Zulus and other pastoralist peoples (who also grew foodgrains), these tactics were useless. They were too numerous, too rooted, and in white eyes too useful, to be driven away. In a country too poor (before the finding of gold) to attract mass immigration from Europe (the British were always fewer in number than the local-born ‘Dutch’), black land and black labour were equally valuable. So the mode of exclusion was varied. South Africa’s blacks were (largely) dispossessed of their land and transformed into serfs. Penned into ‘locations’ and forced to earn their living by labour, they were excluded by rule from the white man’s South Africa. Physically omnipresent, they were culturally and morally invisible – an imagined exclusion of astonishing power.84 The settlers were also obsessed by an external threat – an invasion by stealth of migrants from Asia.

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Losing Earth: A Recent History by Nathaniel Rich

Dissolution of the Soviet Union, energy security, ice-free Arctic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, the scientific method

The prospect of a 5-degree warming prompts some of the world’s preeminent climate scientists, not an especially excitable type, to warn of the fall of human civilization. The proximate cause will be not the warming itself—we won’t burst in flame and crumble all to ashes—but its secondary effects. The Red Cross estimates that already more refugees flee environmental crises than violent conflict. Starvation, drought, the inundation of the coasts, and the smothering expansion of deserts will force hundreds of millions of people to run for their lives. The mass migrations will stagger delicate regional truces, hastening battles over natural resources, acts of terrorism, and declarations of war. Beyond a certain point, the two great existential threats to our civilization, global warming and nuclear weapons, will loose their chains and join to rebel against their creators. If an eventual 5- or 6-degree warming scenario seems outlandish, it is only because we assume that we’ll respond in time.

In “How to Wreck the Environment,” an essay published in 1968, while he was a science adviser to Lyndon Johnson, MacDonald predicted a near future in which “nuclear weapons were effectively banned and the weapons of mass destruction were those of environmental catastrophe.” The world’s most advanced militaries, he warned, would soon be able to weaponize weather. By accelerating industrial emissions of carbon dioxide, they could alter weather patterns, forcing mass migration, starvation, drought, and economic collapse. In the decade since, MacDonald had grown alarmed to see humankind accelerate its pursuit of this particular weapon of mass destruction, not maliciously, but unwittingly. President Carter’s initiative to develop high-carbon synthetic fuels—gas and liquid fuel extracted from shale and tar sands—was a frightening blunder, the equivalent of building a new generation of thermonuclear bombs.

pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

It is not only directed by the top 1 percent and supported by a contented middle class. We can no longer ignore the stagnant, expendable bottom layers of society in explaining the national identity. The poor, the waste, the rubbish, as they are variously labeled, have stood front and center during America’s most formative political contests. During colonial settlement, they were useful pawns as well as rebellious troublemakers, a pattern that persisted amid mass migrations of landless squatters westward across the continent. Southern poor whites figured prominently in the rise of Abraham Lincoln’s Republican Party, and in the atmosphere of distrust that caused bad blood to percolate among the poorer classes within the Confederacy during the Civil War. White trash were dangerous outliers in efforts to rebuild the Union during Reconstruction; and in the first two decades of the twentieth century, when the eugenics movement flourished, they were the class of degenerates targeted for sterilization.

Whether by accident or, as some have speculated, by secret design, their first ship, the Mayflower, landed on Cape Cod, beyond the purview of the Virginia Company, in 1620. The small, struggling band lost half their number to starvation and disease during the first year. The wife of one of the leaders, William Bradford, mysteriously disappeared over the side of the Mayflower. It would be a full decade before the English settlers in Massachusetts made significant inroads in attracting new settlers to the region.39 When the mass migration of 1630 did take place, it was the well-organized John Winthrop who led a fleet of eleven ships, loaded with seven hundred passengers and livestock, and bearing a clear objective to plant a permanent community. Far more intact families migrated to the colony than had to Virginia, and a core of the settlers were Puritans who did not need the threat of a death sentence to attend church services on the Sabbath—one of the many examples of heavy-handedness practiced in the early days of Jamestown.

The glorious title of cultivator would remain beyond the reach of most backcountry settlers.48 CHAPTER FIVE Andrew Jackson’s Cracker Country The Squatter as Common Man Obsquatulate, To mosey, or to abscond. —“Cracker Dictionary,” Salem Gazette (1830) By 1800, one-fifth of the American population had resettled on its “frontier,” the territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi. Effective regulation of this mass migration was well beyond the limited powers of the federal government. Even so, officials understood that the country’s future depended on controlling this vast territory. Financial matters were involved too. Government sale of these lands was needed to reduce the nation’s war debts. Besides, the lands were hardly empty, and the potential for violent conflicts with Native Americans was ever present, as white migrants settled on lands they did not own.

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The Flat White Economy by Douglas McWilliams

"Robert Solow", access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, correlation coefficient, Edward Glaeser,, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, George Gilder, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, smart cities, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, working-age population, zero-sum game

CHAPTER 4 Flat White Lifestyles What makes the Flat White Economy tick is arguably the number of people available to work in it. Many of them are attracted to London by jobs – London has been the only place in Europe creating jobs for young people at Western rates of pay on a significant scale over the past ten years. And the virtual collapse of employment opportunities for young people in most of the Eurozone has stimulated mass migration into London. But the people aren’t only attracted by the jobs. Often they come to London to look for fun. Once they are in London, of course, they then look for work to pay for the fun. This creates the supply of skills that support either the Flat White Economy itself with high-tech skills knowhow or the support industries that rely on more prosaic abilities like making coffee or mending bikes.

It is a small, but highly networked and highly educated country with a strong sense of creativity and entrepreneurship. Its unique geopolitical situation also seems to foster a necessary culture of innovation in the face of daunting opposition – much of the reasons for Israel’s strength in telecommunications technology, security and encryption stems from substantial funding by the government for military purposes. It also has an exceptional, multicultural and multilingual talent base and Jewish mass migration from Eastern Europe in the past quarter century has massively expanded its skills base.18 Despite the geopolitical problems of the Middle East, the Israeli tech sector has such momentum that it is highly unlikely to stumble unless Israel gets involved in a war on so large a scale that it makes it impossible for the industry to operate. Bangalore/Bengaluru19 Known as ‘India’s Silicon Valley’, Bangalore is the focus of the IT and software industry in India.

pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

The debt crisis in Europe or trade wars, triggered by American anger at Chinese mercantilism, could plunge the world economy into a severe new downturn. The inability to stabilize failing states could see countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan slipping further into violent anarchy, with dangerous consequences for the rest of the world. Over the longer term, a failure to deal with climate change could provoke the most serious international crises of all—leading to flooding, famine, mass migration, and even war. Crises such as these ultimately threaten the future of the whole world. Yet the world’s major powers are unable to deal with them cooperatively. That is because a damaged and dysfunctional world economy and the growth of new international rivalries—in particular between the United States and China—are increasingly trapping the world in a zero-sum logic, in which one country’s gain looks like another’s loss.

Indeed, far from being alarmist, Obama’s list of global problems was arguably a little on the short side. The president chose to highlight terrorism, war, genocide, the proliferation of nuclear weapons, global warming, global poverty, and the threat of pandemics. To that list could be added global economic tensions; shortages of food, water, and energy; failed states; international crime; and uncontrolled mass migration. All of these issues are problems of globalization. Some have been created or worsened by the process of global economic integration that has defined international politics since 1978. None of them can be solved without a significant degree of international cooperation. And yet the world lacks the international political structures needed to fix global problems. That will be the central dilemma of international politics for the next decade or more.

Western intelligence services are also concerned about Somalia and Yemen as bases for terrorist activity. A spate of terrorist attacks inside India is also increasing the dangers of war between Pakistan and India, two nuclear-armed neighbors. The dangers of climate change have been amply rehearsed. If the United Nations’ International Panel on Climate Change is correct, there is a serious risk in the coming decades of desertification, crop failures, the flooding of coastal cities, and mass migration by displaced people—with war and conflict following in the wake of environmental disaster. Even many of those who are skeptical about the UN-endorsed science on climate change accept the need for international action to curb greenhouse gases, even if only as an insurance policy against catastrophe. The failure to address global economic imbalances will, as outlined above, probably lead to a rise in protectionism.

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The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

It is time to understand "the environment" for what it is: the national-security issue of the early twenty-first century. The 20 / THE COMING ANARCHY political and strategic impact of surging populations, spreading disease, deforestation and soil erosion, water depletion, air pol­ lution, and, possibly, rising sea levels in critical, overcrowded regions like the Nile Delta and Bangladesh—developments that will prompt mass migrations and, in turn, incite group con­ flicts—will be the core foreign-policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate, arousing the public and uniting assorted interests left over from the Cold War. In the twenty-first century water will be in dangerously short supply in such diverse locales as Saudi Arabia, Central Asia, and the southwestern United States. A war could erupt between Egypt and Ethiopia over Nile River water.

Israel, with a 6.6 percent economic growth rate based increasingly on high-tech exports, is about to enter Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, fortified by a well-defined political community that is an organic outgrowth of history and ethnicity. Like prosperous and peaceful Japan on the one hand, and war-torn and poverty-wracked Armenia on the other, Israel is a classic national-ethnic organism. Much of the Arab world, however, will undergo alteration, as Islam spreads across artifi- 42 / THE COMING ANARCHY cial frontiers, fueled by mass migrations into the cities and a soaring birth rate of more than 3.2 percent. Seventy percent of the Arab population has been born since 1970—youths with lit­ tle historical memory of anticolonial independence struggles, postcolonial attempts at nation-building, or any of the ArabIsraeli wars. The most distant recollection of these youths will be the West's humiliation of colonially invented Iraq in 1991.

pages: 169 words: 54,002

A River in Darkness by Masaji Ishikawa

colonial rule, mass immigration

And what did they do about it? Nothing. In the early days of the so-called repatriation, some seventy thousand people left Japan and crossed the sea to North Korea. With the exception of a brief three-and-a-half-year hiatus, the process continued until 1984. During this period, some one hundred thousand Koreans and two thousand Japanese wives crossed over to North Korea. That’s one hell of a mass migration. In fact, it was the first (and only) time in history that so many people from a capitalist country had moved to a socialist country. The Japanese government actively promoted the repatriation, supposedly on humanitarian grounds. But in my opinion, what they were actually pursuing was opportunism of the most vile and cynical kind. Look at the facts. During the period of the Japanese Empire, thousands upon thousands of Koreans had been brought to Japan against their will to serve as slave laborers and, later, cannon fodder.

Suddenly I could speak a little more clearly. My Japanese was coming back to me. “My name is Ishikawa. I’m a Japanese citizen. My father was Korean. My mother Japanese. Way back in 1960, my father was conned into taking us to North Korea. We were promised a new life in a paradise on earth. The Japanese government was all for it. The United Nations knew all about it. Your charity was happy to supervise the greatest mass migration in the history of the world. Have you any idea what you did to us? You consigned us to a living hell. I’ve finally escaped. No one else has. I’m the first. The rest of us are dying or dead. It would be nice if you could help me get home.” It all came pouring out of me. Silence. I’ve gone too far, I thought. But then he spoke. And he sounded troubled. “Okay. Please wait a moment. I’ll call the Red Cross in China,” he said.

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Revolting!: How the Establishment Are Undermining Democracy and What They're Afraid Of by Mick Hume

anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, colonial rule, David Brooks, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Slavoj Žižek, the scientific method, We are the 99%, World Values Survey

The first thing we need to do is clarify the issue through a clash of opinions rather than an exchange of insults. Concerns about immigration in the UK today generally have little in common with old-fashioned send-them-back racism. Instead mass immigration to the UK, especially from Eastern Europe, has become a symbol of the way that many people feel their world has been changed without anybody asking them. They have woken up to find that their communities are disintegrating, their traditional values trashed from on high. Some of their new neighbours may have their own native tongues, but the ones who really seem to speak a foreign language are the UK elites ignoring the UK’s own ‘ghastly people’. In particular since the New Labour government of the late 1990s, mass immigration to the UK has been encouraged and organised from the top down, but without any public debate about its benefits or costs to society.

Indeed any attempt at discussing immigration has been effectively barred as racist. Think of Labour prime minister Gordon Brown, unknowingly recorded dismissing a lifelong Labour voter as ‘some bigoted woman’ because she asked him about Romanian immigration on camera in the 2010 general election campaign. Britain’s borders have effectively been opened by the state, not as a consequence of governments or experts winning an argument for mass immigration, but instead by avoiding one and going ahead without public consent. In this context the immigration issue has become another symbol of the yawning gap between millions of people and the political establishment, of the absence of democracy and open public debate. You did not need to be a racist to revolt against that state of affairs. Those who want a more liberal, open society would do better trying to win an argument for one than condemning those who disagree with them as xenophobes and thugs.

pages: 470 words: 148,730

Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems by Abhijit V. Banerjee, Esther Duflo

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, charter city, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser,, endowment effect, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, fear of failure, financial innovation, George Akerlof, high net worth, immigration reform, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, land reform, loss aversion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart meter, social graph, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K

Borjas, “The Wage Impact of the Marielitos: A Reappraisal,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 70, no. 5 (February 13, 2017): 1077–1110. 21 Giovanni Peri and Vasil Yasenov, “The Labor Market Effects of a Refugee Wave: Synthetic Control Method Meets the Mariel Boatlift,” Journal of Human Resources 54, no. 2 (January 2018): 267–309. 22 Ibid. 23 George J. Borjas, “Still More on Mariel: The Role of Race,” NBER Working Paper 23504, 2017. 24 Jennifer Hunt, “The Impact of the 1962 Repatriates from Algeria on the French Labor Market,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 45, no. 3 (April 1992): 556–72. 25 Rachel M. Friedberg, “The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (November 2001): 1373–1408. 26 Marco Tabellini, “Gifts of the Immigrants, Woes of the Natives: Lessons from the Age of Mass Migration,” HBS Working Paper 19-005, 2018. 27 Mette Foged and Giovanni Peri, “Immigrants’ Effect on Native Workers: New Analysis on Longitudinal Data,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 8, no. 2 (2016): 1–34. 28 The Economic and Fiscal Consequences of Immigration, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2017), 29 Christian Dustmann, Uta Schönberg, and Jan Stuhler, “Labor Supply Shocks, Native Wages, and the Adjustment of Local Employment, “Quarterly Journal of Economics 132, no. 1 (February 2017): 435–83. 30 Michael A.

Who migrates typically depends on the barriers migrants have to overcome. When President Trump compared the migrants from “shithole countries” to the good ones coming from Norway, he most probably did not know that a long time ago Norwegian immigrants were part of the “huddled masses” Emma Lazarus talked about.34 There is actually a case study of Norwegian migrants to the United States during the age of mass migration, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.35 At the time, there was nothing to stop migration, other than the price of passage. The study compared the families of migrants to the families where nobody migrated. It found migrants tended to come from among the poorest families; their fathers were substantially poorer than average. So, by one of the cute ironies historians (and economists) delight in, Norwegian migrants were exactly the kinds of people Trump would instinctively prefer to keep away.

Postel, “Immigration Restrictions as Active Labor Market Policy: Evidence from the Mexican Bracero Exclusion,” American Economic Review 108, no. 6 (June 2018): 1468–87. 31 Foged and Peri, “Immigrants’ Effect on Native Workers.” 32 Patricia Cortés, “The Effect of Low-Skilled Immigration on US Prices: Evidence from CPI Data,” Journal of Political Economy 116, no. 3 (2008): 381–422. 33 Patricia Cortés and José Tessada, “Low-Skilled Immigration and the Labor Supply of Highly Skilled Women,” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 3, no. 3 (July 2011): 88–123. 34 Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus,” in Emma Lazarus: Selected Poems, ed. John Hollander (New York: Library of America, 2005), 58. 35 Ran Abramitzky, Leah Platt Boustan, and Katherine Eriksson, “Europe’s Tired, Poor, Huddled Masses: Self-Selection and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration,” American Economic Review 102, no. 5 (2012): 1832–56. 36 “Immigrant Founders of the 2017 Fortune 500,” Center for American Entrepreneurship, 2017, 37 Nakamura, Sigurdsson, and Steinsson, “The Gift of Moving.” 38 Jie Bai, “Melons as Lemons: Asymmetric Information, Consumer Learning, and Quality Provision,” working paper, 2018, accessed June 19, 2019, M/view. 39 “For the conversion of his money into capital, therefore, the owner of money must meet in the market with the free labourer, free in the double sense, that as a free man he can dispose of his labour-power as his own commodity, and that on the other hand he has no other commodity for sale, is short of everything necessary for the realisation of his labour-power.”

pages: 31 words: 7,670

Why America Must Not Follow Europe by Daniel Hannan

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, mass immigration, obamacare, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, stakhanovite, Upton Sinclair

Like most folk memories, the idea of a European economic miracle has some basis in fact. Between 1945 and 1974, Western Europe did indeed outperform the U.S. And in retrospect, we can see why. Europe happened to enjoy perfect conditions for rapid growth. Infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, but an educated, industrious, and disciplined workforce remained. There was also, for the first time in Europe’s history, mass migration. Within individual nations, people moved in unprecedented numbers from the countryside to the growing cities. Within Europe, they journeyed from the Mediterranean littoral to the coalfields and steelworks of northern Europe. And millions more came from beyond Europe – from North Africa, Turkey, and the former British, French, and Dutch colonies. As if all these advantages were not enough, Europe received a massive external stimulus.

pages: 207 words: 59,298

The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction by Jamie Woodcock, Mark Graham

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, disintermediation,, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, global value chain, informal economy, information asymmetry, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, Lyft, mass immigration, means of production, Network effects, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, precariat, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Second, while most gig economy firms are focused on the provision of local services (for example, cleaning or food delivery), some gig economy firms have been able to set up global-scale platforms for services like data entry, graphic design or transcription that have fewer geographic limitations on where they need to be delivered from (see chapter 2 for more on this). These global platforms set up what you might think of as ‘planetary labour markets’ (Graham and Anwar, 2019). In the words of Guy Standing (2016), they enable a mass migration of labour, but not of people. Clients suddenly have a world of workers to choose from, and workers from around the global are placed into competition with one another – all made possible because the majority of humanity has now been connected to the global network. Consumer attitudes and preferences New economic activity requires consumer demand. An important precondition for the gig economy is therefore preferences and desires of end users and consumers.

This means that information-based work can, in theory, be done by anyone, from anywhere, with access to the right technological affordances. When you email customer support or report an image as inappropriate on your favourite social platform, the workers handling those tasks could either be in your city or on the other side of the globe. The untethering of work from place that this has allowed has meant that, for the first time, we potentially have a mass migration of labour without the migration of workers (Standing, 2016). In order to adequately discuss why our expectations and visions about the relationships between work and economic development may have changed, it is useful to first outline what is and isn’t new about digital work. Long, complicated global production networks have always existed. Workers on one side of the planet have laboured to make things for customers on the other without ever coming in contact with them.

Arabs: A 3,000 Year History of Peoples, Tribes and Empires by Tim Mackintosh-Smith

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, invention of movable type, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, New Urbanism, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scramble for Africa, trade route

If there was indeed a great diaspora of settled peoples as a result of the breakdown of irrigation and society in the South, as the stories claim, the dispersal would have happened long before that last, late pre-Islamic damburst. The folk histories, as we shall see, go on to speak of the migration from Marib of the great tribe of Azd and its important sub-tribe, Ghassan, which must have taken place a few centuries earlier. Whether there was in fact a single mass migration is not known; a gradual ebbing away of settled populations is much more likely. But in either case it would have far-reaching effects: it may not have been a cataclysm, but the setting in motion of settled people in large numbers would be a catalyst for change across the Arabian subcontinent. With nomads percolating into the old settled lands and, now, previously settled people leaving those lands, the old unitary states were dissolving and the boundaries between badw and hadar breaking down: ‘The kings have left their homelands,’ says a poem attributed to a pre-Islamic southern ruler, ‘and gone to other lands where both badw and hadar dwell’.

The Islamic community was an Arab (to begin with) super-tribe unified, like the old South Arabian sha’bs or peoples, by allegiance to a shared deity. Now, hijrah became a form of super-migration, a severance not just from one’s birthplace, but altogether from one’s Arabian roots. The severance enabled far conquest, or super-raids. It was Muhammad’s move to Medina, writ large. In fact, very large. The idea of hijrah has some similarities with the modern Zionist idea of mass-migration to a physical Promised Land. But it is that idea blown wide open: all lands are promised. The Wandering Zionist eventually settles in what he looks on as the land of his ancestors; the Wandering Arab forsakes the land of his ancestors and is potentially always on the move. As the Qur’an puts it in one of many passages encouraging travel, And Allah has made the earth for you as a carpet spread out, That you may go about therein on broad roads.

Most pointed of all, however, is his name, which sounds even sillier in Arabic than it does translated into English: ‘Firewood-gatherer, son of the father of Scold’. In theory – at least in later theory – Muhammad’s revolution had shifted the whole foundation and focus of Arab society from tribal to theocratic. Din had shifted in meaning from honouring ancestors and tribal deities to worshipping the One God, and sunnah from emulating tribal heroes to emulating God’s prophet. The revolution had set off mass migrations and great victories. It had brought the peoples of South Arabia under its aegis, and made Persians and Egyptians members of the family of Islam. It had made these peoples equal with Arabs, and Arabs with each other. Superiority, nobility could only come from piety, not parentage. And yet here were two members of the same small tribe arguing about whose immediate family was posher. It was the same argument that the Qurashi ancestors Hashim and Umayyah had had, back in the pre-Islamic ‘Ignorance’, the same dispute that down the centuries had fuelled posturing poems and blood feuds between cousins.

Global Financial Crisis by Noah Berlatsky

accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, centre right, circulation of elites, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, George Akerlof, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, working poor

“In several instances, we are seeing a net outflow from countries facing economic crisis, especially from badly affected sectors such as construction and tourism, where many migrants are employed.” Ban said it is important that governments protect the rights of foreign workers in order to prevent mass migrations of angry, unemployed, and impoverished workers. 131 The Global Financial Crisis “I would also urge those countries who accommodate many migrants—they should ensure, through their domestic legislation and political and social framework—to protect and promote the human rights of migrant workers,” he said. But there are signs that the opposite is taking place in some countries. [UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon] said it is important that governments protect the rights of foreign workers in order to prevent mass migrations of angry, unemployed, and impoverished workers. In Russia, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin this month [December 2008] signed a decree aimed at reducing quotas on the number of foreigners working in the country.

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

At various points in the nineteenth century, places like Camberwell, Deptford, and Holloway were home to large squatter enclaves of very poor rural arrivals (mixed with inner-city castoffs). And, while social mobility remained a visible and concrete goal for most migrants, rural–urban migration was by no means always an ascent to better living standards. A significant number of the thousands of abandoned children who roamed the streets of London, according to the Victorian reformer Thomas Barnardo, were “victims of the family dislocation involved in mass migration to London.”19 At least half of all prostitutes at any time were born outside London. As everywhere, the move to a city almost always meant an improvement in livelihood—but one that was not without risk. London in the latter half of the nineteenth century became famous for the wide range of public-housing schemes developed by philanthropic and government bodies. These were often admirable. But they also had little relationship to the actual needs of the people flooding into London, and they often made matters worse.

Rushdie, facing the fatwa, defended his novel The Satanic Verses by describing it as an arrival city, like the arrival cities that fill its pages, like the arrival cities throughout the world: a place that “celebrates hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs. It rejoices in mongrelisation and fears the absolutism of the Pure. Melange, hotchpotch, a bit of this and a bit of that is how newness enters the world. It is the great possibility that mass migration gives the world, and I have tried to embrace it.”22 This is the way of the world. The functioning arrival city slowly colonizes the established city (just as the failed arrival city is likely, after festering and simmering, to invade it violently). The city discovers, confronts, and, in fortunate circumstances, embraces the arrival city. Yesterday’s alien villagers and immigrants become today’s urban merchants and tomorrow’s professionals and political leaders.

., 23–34. 24 David Mitch, “Literacy and Occupational Mobility in Rural Versus Urban Victorian England,” Historical Methods 38, no. 1 (2005); Jason Long, “Social Mobility within and across Generations in Britain since 1851,” in Economic History Society Conference (Oxford: 2007). 25 Aside from the previously cited works by Andrew Miles and Jason Long, see Sara Horrell, Jane Humphries, and Hans-Joachim Voth, “Destined for Deprivation: Human Capital Formation and Intergenerational Poverty in Nineteenth-Century England,” Explorations in Economic History 38 (2001); Kenneth Prandy and Wendy Bottero, “Social Reproduction and Mobility in Britain and Ireland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,” Sociology 34, no. 2 (2000); Paul Lambert, Kenneth Prandy, and Wendy Bottero, “By Slow Degrees: Two Centuries of Social Reproduction and Mobility in Britain,” Sociological Research Online 12, no. 1 (2007), 26 Jason Long and Joseph Ferrie, “A Tale of Two Labor Markets: Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Britain and the U.S. since 1850,” ed. National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, MA: 2005). 27 Leslie Page Moch, Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe since 1650 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003), 149. 28 Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G Williamson, “What Drove the Mass Migrations from Europe in the Late Nineteenth Century?” ed. National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, MA: 1992); Dudley Baines, Migration in a Mature Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). 29 Cited in Richard Harris, Unplanned Suburbs (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 111–25. 30 Ibid., 200–232; David G. Burley, “Review of Richard Harris, Unplanned Suburbs,” Humanities & Social Sciences Online, March 19, 1997,

pages: 421 words: 125,417

Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs

agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

This activist philosophy, which holds that the self-organizing forces of a market economy should be guided by overarching principles of social justice and environmental stewardship, has not yet been extended robustly to global society. In the twenty-first century our global society will flourish or perish according to our ability to find common ground across the world on a set of shared objectives and on the practical means to achieve them. The pressures of scarce energy resources, growing environmental stresses, a rising global population, legal and illegal mass migration, shifting economic power, and vast inequalities of income are too great to be left to naked market forces and untrammeled geopolitical competition among nations. A clash of civilizations could well result from the rising tensions, and it could truly be our last and utterly devastating clash. To find our way peacefully through these difficulties, we will have to learn, on a global scale, the same core lessons that successful societies have gradually and grudgingly learned within their own national borders.

These problems can still be overcome by helping impoverished farmers to adopt improved technologies and diversified income strategies, but such gains will not be sufficient to keep ahead of a doubling of population every generation! Figure 7.7: Average Farm Size by Continent front 1930 to 1990 Source: Estimates from Eastwood et al. (2004) Note: Vertical axis on logarithmic scale Fourth, and finally, there are the threats to the rest of the world. Rapid population growth raises the pressures for mass migration and local conflict. Today’s conflicts in Africa mainly reflect a breakdown of order among hungry and impoverished communities. Violence is not just a matter of poverty but also of the age-population structure. Higher fertility rates, we’ve seen, lead to age-population pyramids with a wide base and a narrow apex: too few elders per adolescent. The evidence points to added risks of violence and even war, a link that we will explore further in the next chapter.

At the same time, massive migration from the interior to the coastal provinces, and from the rural areas to the cities, has also helped the development process in two ways. It has provided jobs and improved incomes for more than one hundred million migrants. Many of these migrants were unemployed or working at very low productivity in their home villages. Second, part of that increased income has been sent back to the villages to support local consumption, business formation, and investments in homes and farms. The costs, however, are high, since the mass migration has very often meant separated families, and even mothers and children left behind in the villages, with the husbands not seen again. THE BENEFITS AND LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION One solution for desperate regions is out-migration. The solution for China’s poor interior is clearly a combination of out-migration and investment and remittances in. When a country has both geographically stressed regions and geographically favored regions, out-migration from the difficult regions is both inevitable and salutary.

Transatlantic Liners by J. Layton

mass immigration

Ships grew larger and faster with astonishing speed, and competition on the North Atlantic – which connected Europe and the Americas, and was thus a focal point for international trade between the world’s leading powers – grew ever greater. There was also no small amount of national pride over who had the world’s largest, fastest or most luxurious ocean liners, and this further drove competition between the great steamship lines. Despite the hazards involved, there were many reasons why people travelled across the Atlantic. Some travelled for business, some for pleasure, and others formed part of the mass migration from the Old World to the New. These passengers were divided into different categories, or classes, based on their financial and social status. Immigrants formed a large proportion of ocean-going clientele. Steamship lines provided them with simple, relatively inexpensive accommodation in the less desirable areas of their ships, and found great profits in doing so. This group comprised third class, also known as steerage in a term held over from the early days of immigrant ships.

pages: 173 words: 52,725

How to Be Right: In a World Gone Wrong by James O'Brien

Boris Johnson, clockwatching, collective bargaining, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, game design, housing crisis, mass immigration, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, QAnon, ride hailing / ride sharing, sexual politics, young professional

Andy: Well, obviously, being in a trade, immigration has pulled prices down James: No, not as a qualified plumber. There’s scant evidence [from the Bank of England in 2015] that immigration effected some wage compression in the completely unskilled labour market but there’s actually a shortage of qualified plumbers in this country, which is probably why you’ve gone self-employed. So it’s not that, is it? So, just in terms of Andy in Nottingham and the damage that uncontrolled mass immigration has done to your life, just give me the headline. Andy: Um. Walking through the city centre and seeing mobs of, um, of immigrants not willing to integrate. James: And how do you think leaving the European Union is going to disperse those mobs, Andy? Andy: I think we’ll have more control— James: They’re already here, mate. Andy: Yeah, but we’ll have more control— James: But they’re here.

Today, I speak regularly to people with six-figure joint incomes who work in London but cannot afford to buy a home anywhere in the city. That’s not quite true, of course. They can afford to buy a home. They are, in most cases, paying more in rent than they would be required to pay towards a mortgage. But because they cannot raise the hefty deposit now needed to secure a mortgage they are, in fact, ‘buying’ the home in which they live for their landlords. For all the talk of ‘Polski Skleps’, ‘uncontrolled mass immigration’ and changing demographics, this is surely the most profound alteration British society has undergone in the last 18 years. Many people also on the ‘winning’ side of this generational divide are, however, remarkably reluctant to acknowledge it. I’m not sure why. Exchanges like the following are commonplace whenever the subject of housing costs comes up on the programme. Doris: My husband worked fifty hours or more a week in 1966 to get the money together for our first home.

pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

Before long, Carrier and a band of entrepreneurial engineers from Buffalo Forge broke off and formed the Carrier Engineering Corporation, devoted exclusively to the manufacture of air-conditioning systems. The business made Carrier a wealthy man, as air conditioning went from a curiosity to a luxury item to a middle-class necessity. In 2007, the Carrier Corporation, now part of United Technologies, did $15 billion in sales. Thanks to Carrier’s brilliant idea, the second half of the twentieth century saw a mass migration within the United States to the Sunbelt and to Deep South climates that had been nearly intolerable before the widespread adoption of air conditioning. It is not exaggerating matters to say that Carrier’s idea ultimately rearranged the social and political map of America. Carrier’s story is the archetypal myth of modern innovation. A clever individual, working in a private research lab, driven by ambition and the promise of great riches, hits upon a brilliant idea in a sudden flash of insight and the world changes.

First-quadrant solo entrepreneurs, crafting their products in secret to ensure their eventual payday, turn out to be practically nonexistent. Gutenberg was the exception, not the rule. 1600-1800 Scanning the next two centuries, we see that the pattern changes dramatically (see page 229). Solo, amateur innovation (quadrant three) surrenders much of its lead to the rising power of networks and commerce (quadrant four). The most dramatic change lies along the horizontal axis, in a mass migration from individual breakthroughs (on the left) to the creative insights of the group (on the right). Less than 10 percent of innovation during the Renaissance is networked; two centuries later, a majority of breakthrough ideas emerge in collaborative environments. Multiple developments precipitate this shift, starting with Gutenberg’s press, which begins to have a material impact on secular research a century and a half after the first Bible hits the stands, as scientific ideas are stored and shared in the form of books and pamphlets.

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

In many cities, at the moment, there is a greater problem of oversupply than of unfulfilled demand. There are partially inhabited or partially complete condominium towers awaiting the return of an economy in which more people who find them attractive will be able to afford them. But this state of affairs will not last forever. It is important to reiterate that demographic inversion and mass migration are not the same thing. Mass migration means, to me, at least, a reversal in which a much greater proportion of the residents of a large metropolitan area will live near the center of the city than have lived there for the past thirty or forty years. Robert Fishman, one of America’s most respected urban historians, believes that a “fifth great migration” is taking place. This amplifies the contention of Lewis Mumford in the 1920s that there had been three previous ones (west across the frontier in the early nineteenth century; from farms to factory towns a few decades later; and to the great metropolitan centers around the beginning of the twentieth century), and Mumford’s accurate prediction that there would soon be a fourth, decentralizing population away from city centers and into empty suburban land, as the twentieth century unfolded.

pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, social intelligence, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

Some people are deeply attracted to this highly accelerated pace of life—going far out of their way to bring it about and feeling anxious, tense or uncomfortable when the pace slows. They want desperately to be "where the action is." (Indeed, some hardly care what the action is, so long as it occurs at a suitably rapid clip.) James A. Wilson has found, for example, that the attraction for a fast pace of life is one of the hidden motivating forces behind the much publicized "brain-drain"—the mass migration of European scientists to the United States and Canada. After studying 517 English scientists and engineers who migrated, Wilson concluded that it was not higher salaries or better research facilities alone, but also the quicker tempo that lured them. The migrants, he writes, "are not put off by what they indicate as the 'faster pace' of North America; if anything, they appear to prefer this pace to others."

This is only slightly different than in the United States. In France, a continuing housing shortage contrives to slow down internal mobility, but even there a study by demographer Guy Pourcher suggests that each year 8 to 10 percent of all Frenchmen shift homes. In Sweden, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, the rate of domestic migration appears to be on the rise. And Europe is experiencing a wave of international mass migration unlike anything since the disruptions of World War II. Economic prosperity in Northern Europe has created widespread labor shortages (except in England) and has attracted masses of unemployed agricultural workers from the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. They come by the thousands from Algeria, Spain, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Turkey. Every Friday afternoon 1000 Turkish workers in Istanbul clamber aboard a train heading north toward the promised lands.

The earth's weather system is an integrated whole; a minute change at one point can touch off massive consequences elsewhere. Even without aggressive intent, there is danger that attempts to control a drought on one continent could trigger a tornado on another. Moreover, the unknown socio-psychological consequences of weather manipulation could be enormous. Millions of us, for example, hunger for sunshine, as our mass migrations to Florida, California or the Mediterranean coast indicate. We may well be able to produce sunshine—or a facsimile of it—at will. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is studying the concept of a giant orbiting space mirror capable of reflecting the sun's light downward on night-shrouded parts of the earth. A NASA official, George E. Mueller, has testified before Congress that the United States will have the capacity to launch huge sunreflecting satellites by mid-1970.

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Yet today many scholars still hold political boundaries to be the most fundamental man-made lines on the map out of a bias toward territory as the basis of power, the state as the unit of political organization, an assumption that only governments can order life within those states, and a belief that national identity is the primary source of people’s loyalty. The march of connectivity will bring all these beliefs to collapse. Forces such as devolution (the fragmentation of authority toward provinces), urbanization (the growing size and power of cities), dilution (the genetic blending of populations through mass migration), mega-infrastructures (new pipelines, railways, and canals that morph geography), and digital connectivity (enabling new forms of community) will demand that we produce maps far more complex. SUPPLY CHAIN WORLD It’s time to reimagine how human life is organized on earth. There is one—and only one—law that has been with us since we were hunter-gatherers, outlasted all rival theories, transcended empires and nations, and serves as our best guide to the future: supply and demand.

The combination of viewing the globe from the top rather than the side, living in an extreme climate that defies borders, and forging a common Arctic culture leads to fresh relational thinking about geography. “China is our neighbor now,” jokes Hoffmann. “It’s just 20 days away by ship!” — BY 2100, THE BROADER Persian Gulf geography is projected to be too excruciatingly hot and humid for humans to safely spend more than a few hours outside.10 The twentieth century witnessed the population of the global south eclipsing that of the north, but the twenty-first century may require mass migrations from south to north as equatorial and southern populations stricken by the triple whammy of increasing temperatures, drought, and rising sea levels flock toward more temperate and agriculturally productive regions. As Canada and Russia become massive agricultural breadbaskets that could produce most of the world’s subsistence crops, their almost completely depopulated geographies will need workers to run the agribusiness industries.

Mid-twentieth-century concerns over world population growth and food shortages led some legal scholars to argue that a few million Australians could not justify possessing an entire continent while billions were deprived basic nourishment. As the earth’s overpopulated equatorial latitudes experience drought, crop failure, and desertification while the depopulated far northern latitudes experience thaw, warming, and abundance, will mass migrations to Canada and Russia turn them into internationally governed agribusiness colonies? Because neither country would suddenly accept the burden of massive numbers of new citizens, there are initial financial and administrative costs that would need to be managed by international agencies and investors. But both Russia and Canada would also benefit massively from doubling or tripling—or, in Canada’s case, quintupling—their populations.

pages: 92

The Liberal Moment by Nick Clegg, Demos (organization : London, England)

banking crisis, credit crunch, failed state, housing crisis, income inequality, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Right to Buy, smart grid, too big to fail, Winter of Discontent

No challenge for our generation is greater than averting a climate catastrophe. The best predictions science offers suggest that, if the planet warms by more than 2 degrees centigrade, it will tip us into a nightmare scenario that will lead to climate chaos we cannot control. It will affect not only the world’s prosperity, but also our very ability to feed ourselves, threatening resource wars and mass migration on an unprecedented scale. While Labour has done more than previous administrations to tackle carbon emissions, that is largely because the need is more apparent now than it had been in the past. Just doing more is not sufficient: only doing enough to stop the 2 degrees temperature rise will be good enough. But take a look at Labour’s record. Carbon dioxide emissions are higher now than when Labour came to power ten years ago.

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage,, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Economist David Card, for example, evaluated the impact of Cuba’s 1980 Mariel boatlift (a mass emigration of Cubans to the United States approved by Fidel Castro) on the Miami labor market. Mariel brought over one hundred thousand people to the city in less than a year and increased its labor force by 7 percent, yet Card found “virtually no effect on the wages or unemployment rates of less-skilled workers, even among Cubans who had immigrated earlier.”28 Economist Rachel Friedberg reached virtually the same conclusion about mass migration from Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union into Israel.29 Despite increasing the country’s population by 12 percent between 1990 and 1994, this immigration had no discernible adverse effect on Israeli workers. Despite this and other evidence, concerns persist in America that large-scale immigration of unskilled workers, particularly from Mexico and other Latin American countries and particularly by illegal means, will harm the economic prospects of the native-born labor force.

Measuring the Economic Benefits of Immigration Reform,” Cato Institute, August 13, 2009, (accessed December 14, 2012); Robert Lynch and Patrick Oakford, “The Economic Effects of Granting Legal Status and Citizenship to Undocumented Immigrants,” Center for American Progress, March 20, 2013, (accessed August 12, 2013). 28. David Card, “The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, August 1989), 29. Rachel M. Friedberg, “The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (2001): 1373–1408, doi:10.1162/003355301753265606. 30. Amy Sherman, “Jeb Bush Says Illegal Immigration Is ‘Net Zero,’ ” Miami Herald, September 3, 2012, 31. Gordon F. De Jong et al., “The Geography of Immigrant Skills: Educational Profiles of Metropolitan Areas,” Brookings Institution, June 9, 2011, 32.

pages: 297 words: 89,176

Cheese and Culture: A History of Cheese and Its Place in Western Civilization by Paul Kindstedt

agricultural Revolution, Kickstarter, mass immigration, New Urbanism, trade route

The move toward pastoralism (that is, primary reliance on livestock grazing) and milk production was probably a response to these troubled times (Bellwood 2005). Pastoralism enabled peoples who were threatened by crop failures and hunger to take advantage of surrounding unused marginal land that was unsuitable for crop cultivation but could support sheep and goat grazing (Zarins 1990). This in turn encouraged the movement of pastoral populations in search of new land, which soon erupted into mass migrations that led to the settlement of northwest Anatolia around this time. There, along the fertile shores of the Sea of Marmara, the settlers shifted their pastoral emphasis from small ruminants to cattle, and the production of cow’s milk commenced probably for the first time (Evershed et al. 2008). Neolithic man’s first efforts at harvesting milk were probably targeted toward the feeding of infants and young children, for whom milk was an invaluable food, rather than toward the adult population.

Layered on top of these developments were dramatic social and demographic changes that accompanied the bubonic plague outbreak of 1348 through 1350, during which between 30 and 45 percent of the general population of England perished. The scarcity of labor that resulted dealt a fatal blow to the labor-intensive manor demesnes and catalyzed a progressive shift away from demesne agriculture in favor of capitalistic yeomanry. In the process, mass migrations of peasants who became dislocated from the rural countryside as the manors broke up streamed into London and other population centers in search of work, creating large urban centers for the first time in England and new markets for cheese. The London market would profoundly influence the next chapter in English cheese history, that of the yeoman cheeses. Mountain Cheeses Cheese making was already well developed in the mountains of central Europe before the Roman occupation.

pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

After all, when the global crisis hit, the rural system acted as a safety valve, with millions returning to the land. The Chinese precariat is easily the largest such group in the world. Earlier generations of social scientists would have called them semi-proletarian. But there is no reason to think they are becoming proletarians. First, stable jobs would have to come and stay. That is unlikely and surely will not come before social tensions turn ugly. Already, while the authorities are organising mass migration, the floating labour force has posed a threat to locals, creating ethnic tensions. An example was the government-organised transportation of Turkic-speaking Muslim Uighurs 3,000 miles to labour for the Xuri toy factory in Guangdong. The Uighurs, housed near the Han majority, were paid much less than the Hans they displaced. In June 2009, in riots over the alleged rape of a local woman, a Han mob killed two Uighurs.

MIGRANTS: VICTIMS, VILLAINS OR HEROES? 109 Placating an itinerant labour force is hard enough. But the scale of the movement was bound to raise tensions. As one Han worker told a journalist, ‘The more of them there were, the worse relations became’. In those riots, the Uighurs claimed their death toll was understated and that the police did not protect them. Whatever the truth, the violence was an almost inevitable outcome of mass migration of temporary workers across unfamiliar cultures. The internal migration in China is the largest migratory process the world has ever known. It is part of the development of a global labour market system. Those migrants are having an effect on how labour is being organised and compensated in every part of the world. The emerging labour export regimes An early feature of globalisation was that a few emerging market economies, notably in the Middle East, became magnets for migration from other parts of the world.

pages: 326 words: 91,559

Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

It happened with the monasteries that lasted through the collapse of the Roman Empire, with the urban guilds that bore the costs of caskets in plagues, with the cooperative stores and workshops that helped workers endure the sweatshops that disrupted the guilds. The disruptions of the early third millennium cascade and intersect. Human civilization’s exhaust has caused extreme weather events to grow in frequency and force, together with the long, slow devastation of droughts. These combine with a whack-a-mole world war on terrorism to set off waves of mass migration. Globalized markets let capital flow freely but stop the desperate migrants at the borders. The liberal-democratic consensus that some expected to spread everywhere has buckled as voters around the world elect autocrats. We’ve also been living through a disruption of networks. For Silicon Valley, the internet has created the favorite case in point of disruptive innovation. It wasn’t walking, talking, sci-fi robots that took the place of travel agents or Borders Books, it was apps—new points of connection that replaced incumbent intermediaries.

We don’t have a backyard, but we have a community garden plot and our choice of common, public parks. We know there are benefits to staying as nomadic as we can manage. This is a sort-of-chosen kind of nomadism. Others come by their nomadism less voluntarily. Following the 2008 financial crisis, giant holding companies started buying homes once owned by resident families, turning more residents into tenants. We live in a time, meanwhile, of mass migrations due to the linked causes of war, climate change, and famine. Stateless insurgents sow terror through spectacle. Spells of automation and other disruptions keep workers on the run, changing occupations more during their lifetimes than in times past. We’re living through a shift of population from rural areas to cities, a shift far more drastic and sudden than anything in Ibn Khaldun’s historical data set.

pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

Given this situation, the massive transatlantic labor migration during the 1880 to 1914 period (Table 3) raised average productivity in both sending and receiving regions. This triggered what are called “Kuznets cycles.” As the dramatic drop in transport costs—especially the construction of railroads and canals—opened U.S. frontier areas to staple production, the United States experienced a sequence of fifteen-to twenty-year booms driven by migration and capital flows that were responding to the newly opened land. TABLE 3 Nineteenth-century mass migration from Europe to the New World. % of own population 1880s 1890s 1900s Senders: U.K. −3.1 −5.2 −2.0 Italy −1.7 −3.4 −4.9 Spain −1.5 −6.0 −5.2 Sweden −2.9 −7.2 −3.5 Portugal −3.5 −4.2 −5.9 Receivers: U.S. 5.7 8.9 4.0 Canada 2.3 4.9 3.7 Europe in the nineteenth century was overpopulated while the New World was underpopulated. The partial evening out of this state of affairs was one of the most remarkable economic aspects of Act I of globalization’s Phase Three.

After all, the migration did not reverse America’s land-based comparative advan tage in wheat; it exaggerated it. The resulting U.S. growth and higher exports, however, were of a very different nature than would have been expected from Ricardo’s framework. First, the migration changed (strengthened) U.S. comparative advantage in the sense that wheat exports rocketed. Second, unlike lower trade costs, the impact was not global. It was geographically limited to the nations that got the mass migration (United States, Canada, Argentina, etc.). This is how I suggest we think about the second unbundling. The ICT revolution is like the open-migration policy of the United States in that it allows the G7’s source of comparative advantage (know-how) to move to the I6’s source of comparative advantage (labor). But unlike the nineteenth-century case, the new knowledge flows did not merely exaggerate the comparative advantage of the receiving nations.

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

Argentina was a major outperformer between 1870 and the outbreak of the First World War, thanks largely to the free-­trade instincts of the late nineteenth-­century British Empire, new scientific advances and the mass migration of people in the late nineteenth century. It may have been a long way away from Europe and the US but Argentina was able to take full advantage of the Royal Navy’s commitment to keep international sea lanes open. New refrigerator technologies – and faster ships – meant its beef could be 14 4099.indd 14 29/03/13 2:23 PM Taking Progress for Granted exported to destinations many thousands of miles away. Its working age population grew rapidly, a reflection of the Belle Époque mass migration from Europe – particularly from southern Europe – that led to equally dramatic demographic changes in the US, Canada and Australia. The growth of international financial markets, meanwhile, led to huge improvements in Argentina’s capital stock.

Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System by Alexander Betts, Paul Collier

Alvin Roth, anti-communist, centre right, charter city, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, global supply chain, informal economy, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rising living standards, risk/return, school choice, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, urban planning, zero-sum game

See, for example, Ruud Koopmans, ‘How to Make Europe’s Immigration Policies More Efficient and More Humane’, Migration and Citizenship: Newsletter of the American Political Science Association, 4/2 (2016): 55–9; and for debate on the empirical legacy of ‘Wir schaffen das’, see also Cathryn Costello, ‘Europe’s Refugee and Immigration Policies – Obligation, Discretion, Cooperation and Freeriding’, Migration and Citizenship: Newsletter of the American Political Science Association, 4/2 (2016): 59–66, and Georg Menz, ‘Europe’s Odd Migration Policy Choices’, Migration and Citizenship: Newsletter of the American Political Science Association, 4/2 (2016): 51–5. See, for example, Clár Ní Chonghaile, ‘People Smuggling: How It Works, Who Benefits and How It Can be Stopped’, Guardian, 31 July 2015. For an alternative view, see Thomas Spijkerboer, ‘Fact Check: Did “Wir Schaffen Das” Lead to Uncontrolled Mass Migration?’, Guest Blog, 28 September 2016, Oxford University Faculty of Law, See, for example, Save the Children, ‘Children on the Move in Europe: Save the Children’s Response to the Deepening Child Refugee and Migrant Crisis in Europe’, 26 July 2016,

For more details on CIREFCA, see Alexander Betts, ibid. For an analysis of the role of business in relation to refugees, see, for example, Alexander Betts et al., Refugee Economies: Forced Displacement and Development (Oxford, 2017: Oxford University Press), Chapter 9. For analysis of the manipulation of refugee sending for foreign-policy purposes, see, for example, Kelly Greenhill, Weapons of Mass Migration: Forced Displacement, Coercion, and Foreign Policy (Ithaca, 2010: Cornell University Press). See, for example, Will Jones and Alex Teytelboym, ‘The Refugee Match’, presentation at the CMS conference on ‘Rethinking the Global Refugee System Protection’, New York, 6 July 2016. Hein de Haas, ‘Turning the Tide? Why Development Will Not Stop Migration’, Development and Change, 38/5 (2007): 819–41.

pages: 225 words: 64,595

Catch-67: The Left, the Right, and the Legacy of the Six-Day War by Micah Goodman

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, European colonialism, mass immigration, one-state solution, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

As the Nazis were gaining power in Germany in the 1930s, Jabotinsky warned repeatedly of a terrible catastrophe that would soon befall the Jews of Europe: “We are living on the brink of the abyss, the eve of a final disaster in the global ghetto.”2 He tried to shake the Zionist movement out of its complacency, and urged the Zionists to push for the migration of the Jews of Europe to Palestine. The man who correctly predicted the Jews’ betrayal at the hands of the British also correctly predicted their annihilation at the hands of the Germans.3 Jabotinsky was also right about the Arabs. Contrary to widespread opinion among Zionists, Jabotinsky foresaw that mass immigration to Palestine by the Jews would provoke mass resistance in Palestine from the Arabs. Jabotinsky wrote that the anti-Jewish Jaffa riots of 1921 were not an exception to the norm but were now the norm.4 The Zionist movement was unwittingly marching toward a violent confrontation with the Arab national movement. Some Zionists believed that the Arabs would not object to Zionism because they were certain to benefit from it.5 Jabotinsky saw this position as patronizing: This childish fantasy of our “Arabophiles” is rooted in a kind of prejudiced contempt for the Arab people, in a kind of totally groundless perception of this race, which sees it as a corrupt mob that would surrender its homeland for a good railway system.

This threefold aim was achievable in Jabotinsky’s day, at least in theory. Millions of Jews lived in Europe; if most of them had immigrated, Palestine would have had a massive Jewish majority. But the extermination of European Jewry changed Jewish demographics forever, making it impossible for them to dream any longer of realizing all three ambitions. The way to create a Jewish majority in Jabotinsky’s day was to encourage mass immigration—and some Israelis still believe that a majority can be achieved thus, without territorial compromise. But when the princes relinquished the objective of a land united in favor of safeguarding the Jewish majority on a land divided, they compromised on one goal of Jabotinsky’s philosophy. They did so, however, in order to realize a different, no less important, goal of that philosophy. I have laid out with great brevity the story of a big, all-embracing ideology that fractured into its constituent parts.

pages: 288 words: 64,771

The Captured Economy: How the Powerful Enrich Themselves, Slow Down Growth, and Increase Inequality by Brink Lindsey

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Build a better mousetrap, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, inventory management, invisible hand, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, patent troll, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, software patent, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Washington Consensus, white picket fence, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

Consider the wide range of factors implicated in the growing economic divide between the highly skilled (or, roughly speaking, the college educated) and everybody else. Skill-biased technological change, for instance, means that information technology serves as a valuable complement for skilled “knowledge workers” while substituting for less-skilled manual and clerical workers. The slowdown in the growth of workers’ average years of schooling completed means that the relative supply of skilled workers lags behind relative demand. Mass immigration expands the ranks of low-skill workers even as demand for them has flagged. People increasingly marry within their social class, reducing the marital pathway to social mobility. The factors contributing to outsized gains at the very top are similarly diverse. They include the rise of “winner-take-all” markets produced by information technology’s network effects as well as globalization’s expansion of relevant market size; a huge run-up in stock prices; continuing growth in the size of big corporations (which has helped to fuel rising CEO pay); and a big drop in the top income tax rate (which has facilitated the use of high compensation as a strategy for attracting top managers, professionals, and executives).

The aging of the population and the exhaustion of possibilities for rapid improvement in educational attainment and women’s labor force participation already meant that growth would slow in the absence of a surge in productivity growth. With the rise of policies that suppress and distort competition in key sectors, productivity growth has been hampered instead of encouraged; consequently, the country’s growth outlook is now even cloudier. At the same time, increasing inequality was powered by a number of different factors, including the rise of IT, women’s increasing labor market opportunities, and the return of mass immigration. A large-scale political project to siphon off further resources and funnel them to the rich was the opposite of what was needed, yet that is what we got. In short, our case studies show the rise of policies that deliver the maximum benefit for a favored few while inflicting maximum harm on everybody else. Which raises the question, How could this happen? What is it about our political system that made it so vulnerable to capture by narrow interests?

pages: 736 words: 210,277

1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris

Albert Einstein, British Empire, family office, friendly fire, illegal immigration, mass immigration

Herzl reached a dismal conclusion: There was no hope and no future for the Jews in Europe; it could not and would not assimilate them. And in the large, multiethnic Continental empires, Jews would eventually face the hostility of the various minorities bent on selfdetermination. Ultimately, the Jews of Europe faced destruction. The solution was a separate, independent Jewish state to be established after a mass migration of Jews out of Europe. Herzl dashed off a political manifesto, The Jews' State (1896), and spent his remaining years organizing the "Zionist" movement. He unsuccessfully canvassed Europe's potentates, including Sultan Abdulhamid II of Turkey, to grant the Jews a state. But the sultan, unwilling to relinquish any part of his steadily diminishing empire, rebuffed Herzl, a master bluffer, who had promised the Ottomans billions (which he did not have and probably could not have raised).

Later, Palestine should be granted independence within a unitary or binational framework. The AAC's recommendations were unanimous. But the AAC had done nothing to heal the basic Anglo-American rift. Truman once again endorsed the passage of a hundred thousand DPs to Palestine and approved the scrapping of the white paper's land sale provisions, which the AAC had deemed discriminatory; Attlee ruled out mass immigration until the Yishuv was disarmed (which he knew was a nonstarter). The Jewish Agency endorsed the report's immigration recommendation but rejected all the rest. The Arabs rejected everything. They demanded immediate independence for an Arab-ruled Palestine, not "binationalism," whatever that might mean, and called for an immediate cessation of immigration. One Foreign Office cable, in the wake of the report, spoke of Arab hatred of the Jews as being greater than that of the Nazis.

pages: 86 words: 26,489

This America: The Case for the Nation by Jill Lepore

Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, immigration reform, liberal world order, mass immigration

Illiberal nationalism is often thought of as what happens when a nation-state demands extraordinary sacrifices from its people—especially by participation in wars of aggression—and, requiring their consent, asks for that sacrifice in the name of the nation. The more outrageous the war, the harder it is to gain that consent, the more grotesque the depiction of the nation’s enemies. But illiberal nationalism is an outgrowth of other late nineteenth-century developments as well, including mass politics, mass communication, and mass migration. More than twenty million Europeans emigrated to the United States between 1880 and 1920. The smaller and more fluid the world became, the flimsier were stories of ancient nations made of a single people, united by a shared line of descent, and the more eagerly people keen for political power searched for rationales for exclusion, discrimination, and aggression. New racial “sciences,” above all the quackery of eugenics, purported to cull the worthy from the unworthy; sorting out peoples into “nationalities” very soon meant sorting them out by “races,” to be ranked hierarchically.

pages: 1,015 words: 170,908

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

Obviously they will come into view and consolidate themselves only after tremendous socialist crises.’’8 We cannot say exactly what Nietzsche foresaw in his lucid delirium, but indeed what recent event could be a stronger example ofthe power ofdesertion and exodus, the power ofthe nomad horde, 214 I N T E R M E Z Z O than the fall ofthe Berlin Wall and the collapse ofthe entire Soviet bloc? In the desertion from ‘‘socialist discipline,’’ savage mobility and mass migration contributed substantially to the collapse ofthe system. In fact, the desertion of productive cadres disorganized and struck at the heart ofthe disciplinary system ofthe bureaucratic Soviet world. The mass exodus ofhighly trained workers from Eastern Europe played a central role in provoking the collapse of the Wall.9 Even though it refers to the particularities of the socialist state system, this example demonstrates that the mobility ofthe labor force can indeed express an open political conflict and contribute to the destruction ofthe regime.

In the expression of its own creative energies, immaterial labor thus seems to provide the potential for a kind of spontaneous and elementary communism. Network Production The first geographical consequence ofthe passage from an industrial to an informational economy is a dramatic decentralization of pro- duction. The processes ofmodernization and the passage to the industrial paradigm provoked the intense aggregation ofproductive forces and mass migrations of labor power toward centers that became factory cities, such as Manchester, Osaka, and Detroit. Ef- ficiency ofmass industrial production depended on the concentra- tion and proximity ofelements in order to create the factory site and facilitate transportation and communication. The informatization of industry and the rising dominance ofservice production, however, have made such concentration ofproduction no longer necessary.

Is it possible to imagine U.S. agriculture and service industries without Mexican migrant labor, or Arab oil without Palestinians and Pakistanis? Moreover, where would the great innovative sectors of immaterial production, from design to fashion, and from electron- ics to science in Europe, the United States, and Asia, be without the ‘‘illegal labor’’ ofthe great masses, mobilized toward the radiant 398 T H E D E C L I N E A N D F A L L O F E M P I R E horizons ofcapitalist wealth and freedom? Mass migrations have become necessary for production. Every path is forged, mapped, and traveled. It seems that the more intensely each is traveled and the more suffering is deposited there, the more each path becomes productive. These paths are what brings the ‘‘earthly city’’ out of the cloud and confusion that Empire casts over it. This is how the multitude gains the power to affirm its autonomy, traveling and expressing itselfthrough an apparatus ofwidespread, transversal territorial reappropriation.

pages: 343 words: 101,563

The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, cognitive bias, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, endowment effect, energy transition, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, failed state, fiat currency, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Whole Earth Catalog, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

Farmlands that had produced the same strains of grain or grapes for centuries or more will adapt, if they are lucky, to entirely new crops; in Sicily, the breadbasket of the ancient world, farmers are already turning to tropical fruits. Arctic ice that formed over millions of years will be unleashed as water, literally changing the face of the planet and remodeling shipping routes responsible for the very idea of globalization. And mass migrations will sever communities numbering in the millions—even tens of millions—from their ancestral homelands, which will disappear forever. Just how long the ecosystems of Earth will be thrown into flux and disarray from anthropogenic climate change also depends on how much more of that change we choose to engineer—and perhaps how much we can manage to undo. But warming at the level necessary to fully melt ice sheets and glaciers and elevate sea level by several hundred feet promises to initiate rolling, radically transformative changes on a timescale measured not in decades or centuries or even millennia, but in the millions of years.

For Rushkoff, these are all facets of the same impulse, broadly shared by the class of visionaries and power brokers and venture capitalists whose dreams for the future are received as blueprints, especially by the armies of engineers they command like impetuous fiefdoms—investing in new forms of space travel, life extension, and technology-aided life after death. “They were preparing for a digital future that had a whole lot less to do with making the world a better place than it did with transcending the human condition altogether and insulating themselves from a very real and present danger of climate change, rising sea levels, mass migrations, global pandemics, nativist panic, and resource depletion,” he writes. “For them, the future of technology is really about just one thing: escape.” “An Account of My Hut”: Christina Nichol, “An Account of My Hut,” n+1, Spring 2018. Nichol explains the title this way: I once read a story called “An Account of My Hut,” by Kamo no Chōmei, a 12th-century Japanese hermit. Chōmei describes how after witnessing a fire, an earthquake, and a typhoon in Kyoto, he leaves society and goes to live in a hut.

pages: 831 words: 98,409

SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

EU populist parties and “extremist” U.S. presidential candidates reflect the explosive anger of globalization’s losers, who are now lobbying for radical change in greater numbers. Protectionism and isolationism are resurging, manifesting themselves in the opposition to trade agreements, and in separatist movements in the U.K. with regard to Europe, in Scotland with regard to the U.K., and in Catalonia with regard to Spain. Global inequality has also driven mass migration, which in turn polarizes politics even further. According to the WEF’s Global Risk Report, we are currently seeing the highest level of protests since the 1980s, because through access to information on the Internet, people realize the extent of inequality and their own powerlessness.19 Several years ago, former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned of the impending “global political awakening.”

Why have so few improvements been made after the dramatic global financial meltdown of 2008? Perhaps—as Einstein said—we don’t need to think more, but think differently. Traditionally, we have been trained to think analytically and deal with parts of problems separately. However, today’s multidimensional, complex world is not linear, but is the result of dynamic, simultaneously interacting phenomena. Brexit, unpredictable monetary policies, mass migration and terrorism are but a few examples. We can attain a deeper understanding of these problems by employing a different approach called “systems thinking” and focusing more on the relationship of individual parts than on the parts themselves, which alone say nothing about the system’s behavior.39 According to organizational theorist Stephen Haines, “major change fails 75 percent of the time because of a piecemeal and analytical approach to a systems problem that tries to cure one problem at a time.”40 And in the opinion of world systems analyst Immanuel Wallerstein, part of the problem is that “we have studied . . . phenomena in separate boxes to which we have given special names—politics, economics, the social structure, culture—without seeing that these boxes are constructs more of our imagination than of reality.”41 The postcrisis banking regulation exemplifies the analytical, one-dimensional approach to problem solving.

pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Once-in-a-thousand-year storms are becoming familiar news items. The earth’s climate is already 0.85°C warmer than in 1880; only a rapid reduction in atmospheric greenhouse gases would avoid a rise to potentially catastrophic levels over the twenty-first century. Even the upper limits of warming aimed for by the Paris climate accord (c. 1.5–2°C above pre-industrial levels) could have an impact on sea levels and agriculture that would produce mass migrations, famines, and resource wars. Cities such as New York, with its 520-mile coastline, are severely imperiled by rising seas. Increased global temperature levels have already had a measurable impact on public health, from the impact of extreme heat on the elderly and the greater prevalence of dengue fever.6 If this weren’t frightening enough, resistance of diseases to drugs is rising steadily.

A movement such as Black Lives Matter gives a glimpse of the sort of political movements that will likely dominate the twenty-first century, aimed at highlighting inequalities in the defense of life itself. The central claim of Black Lives Matter is brutally simple: the American Leviathan does not deliver on its function of protecting all lives equally. It is almost certain that the number and scope of such political demands is going to multiply in the coming years, especially as climate-related mass migration increases. Threats to life do not need to be as direct as those publicized by Black Lives Matter in order to be politicized. The Missing Migrants Project has sought to count the number of migrants who have died or gone missing while migrating, initially in response to the mounting humanitarian crisis of boats sinking in the Mediterranean. Applied retrospectively, the project estimates that 60,000 people disappeared between 1997 and 2017 as a result of migrating.

pages: 276 words: 78,061

Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence

The British had never really gone in for saluting their flag, or flying it at schools; there was no daily pledge of allegiance, and such rules as there are in handling it were unknown to almost everyone and still are. However, it was the symbol of the nation, and mostly respected as such. Then it began to fall out of fashion, and the English flag was almost a no-go area for those nervous of being associated with the Far Right. There was an unspoken assumption in England that prominent displays of either flag, outside state events, might symbolize an aggressive mindset supporting a pre-mass-immigration white culture. To some it undoubtedly did. In the mid 1980s I took a bus from Oxford train station bound for Oxford United football club, which was due to play Leeds United. The bus, packed with Leeds supporters, passed a group of young black men in their late teens. From the top deck came the chant ‘There’s no black in the Union Jack! Send the bastards back!’ It was routine, albeit to be reviled.

However, back home they are also aware that nationalist parties, such as the Swedish Democrats, are increasingly displaying it and a Far Right magazine is called Blue-Yellow Questions, so it is again becoming . . . problematic. The popular view of Sweden is that it is a haven of cultural ultra-liberalism and third-way economic policies. This view is at least two decades out of date and belongs to the Sweden of Abba, not the Sweden of mass immigration. Since the 1990s the market has been slowly allowed into the state. Welfare and education spending are significantly down, and some schools have even been privatized. Strict police and intelligence surveillance laws have been passed by several successive governments. Ethnic enclaves are common in the urban areas and unemployment is high, especially among non-white Swedes. According to figures from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, one-fifth of Swedes were born outside the country or have at least one parent who was.

pages: 319 words: 75,257

Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy by David Frum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, coronavirus, currency manipulation / currency intervention, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, illegal immigration, immigration reform, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley

As a policymaker and leader? Dear god no. In August 2019, Patrick Crusius opened fire upon a predominantly Hispanic crowd in El Paso, Texas. Crusius killed twenty-two and wounded many more. His manifesto cited the New Zealand shooting, half a world away, as his inspiration. “This attack is a response to the Hispanic invasion of Texas,” he wrote. He blamed politicians “of both parties” for enabling mass immigration and insisted, “My opinions on automation, immigration, and the rest predate Trump and his campaign for president.” Yet among Crusius’s complaints about Hispanic immigration into Texas was that it could shift the state’s politics from Republican to Democrat—not a complaint you’d expect to hear from a person wholly alienated from the political system and equally hostile to both parties. Robert Bowers, who killed eleven and wounded six in a Pittsburgh synagogue in October 2018, stated on his social media account that he had not voted for Trump.

But more important than the number of immigrants should be the composition of immigration: more people who come to meet a gap in the US labor market; fewer who come because a relative got here first. The United States runs an immigration policy as if it were a country facing a desperate labor shortage. In fact, the United States faces a desperate social cohesion shortage. Immigration done right can tighten the bonds of nationhood. Done wrong, as the United States is doing it, mass immigration only intensifies the mutual suspicions of American society—and impedes any effort to rewrite the social contract to offer a better deal to the average American. There are extreme fringes in the immigration debate for sure, and no moderate policy will appease them. As in the 1950s, so it is today, the goal is not to convert convinced extremists, but to render them harmless by denying them followers.

Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism by Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Cass Sunstein, centre right, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, declining real wages, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, open borders, open economy, post-industrial society, post-materialism, precariat, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, statistical model, stem cell, War on Poverty, white flight, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The Us-versus-Them frame is used to stir up fears that provide a support base almost impervious to criticisms of Trump’s actual policy performance.65 Similarly, the Brexit Leave campaign and UKIP Eurosceptic rhetoric also harks back nostalgically to a time before Britain joined the EU, decades ago, when Westminster was sovereign, society was predominately white Anglo-­Saxon, manufacturing and extracting industries – producing steel, coal, cars – still provided well-­paid and secure jobs for unionized workers, and, despite the end of empire, Britain remained a major economic and military world power leading the Commonwealth. UKIP rhetoric blends criticism of the European Union with concern about mass immigrations and hostility toward political elites in Westminster and Brussels.66 Similar nostalgic messages echo in the rhetoric of other Authoritarian-­ Populist leaders. This appeal resonates among traditionalists for whom rapid social change and long-­term demographic shifts have eroded the world they once knew.67 How these value appeals translate into votes – and thus seats and ministerial offices – is conditioned by the institutional rules of the game, especially the electoral system, the strategic response to rivals from mainstream parties, and the campaign communication process through leadership appeals and the media.

In the European Parliament, the Europe of Nations and Freedom (ENL) coordinates Authoritarian-­Populist parties in an alliance of the FN, the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), the Flemish Vlaams Belang (VB), the Alternative for Germany (AfD), the Italian Northern League, the Dutch PVV, and the British UKIP, among others. These parties share a deeply Euro­sceptic philosophy, seeking to restore national sovereignty, to roll back Brussels bureaucracy, and to control immigration. As the ENL website proclaims: ‘Our European cultures, our values and our freedom are under attack. They are threatened by the crushing and dictatorial powers of the European Union. They are threatened by mass immigration, by open borders and by a single European currency: one size does not fit all.’35 Across the Atlantic, Trump has repeatedly advocated tightening America’s borders against illegal aliens and limiting legal immigration. In addition to his campaign pledge to build a wall on the US–Mexican border, his administration’s actions include employing more immigration officials to round up illegal aliens, barring Muslims from entering the country, limiting the number of refugees and asylum seekers, rescinding the rights of undocumented ‘Dreamers,’ brought into the country illegally as children – which had been recognized by the Obama administration – strengthening vetting of asylum seekers, and cracking down on ‘sanctuary’ cities.36 As the official White House website summarizes these policies: ‘The United States must adopt an immigration system that serves the national interest.

This provides a loose alliance for the Austrian Freedom Party, the Flemish Vlaams Belang (FB), the French National Front (FN), the Alternative for Germany (AfD), the Italian Lega Nord, the Dutch Party for Freedom (PVV), and some individual MEPs from other countries. In the words of Marcel de Graff, the ENF’s co-­president: ‘Our European cultures, our values and our freedom are under attack. They are threatened by the crushing and dictatorial powers of the European Union. They are threatened by mass immigration, by open borders and by a single European currency: one size does not fit all.’18 However, the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFD) provides another rival group in the European Parliament, linking UKIP, the Alternative for Germany, the Five Star Movement, the Lithuanian Order and Justice Party, the Swedish Democrats, and other members. The EFD is Eurosceptic, with Nigel Farage as the president, claiming to reflect ‘the people’s voice’ by fighting ‘big government, big banks, and big business’ which are ‘strangling national identities.’19 Favoring the populist principles of direct democracy, the Charter for the EFD advocates referenda: ‘Convinced that the legitimate level for democracy lies with the nation-­ states, their regions and parliaments since there is no such thing as a single European people; the Group opposes further European integration (treaties and policies) that would exacerbate the present democratic deficit and the centralist political structure of the EU.

pages: 128 words: 35,958

Getting Back to Full Employment: A Better Bargain for Working People by Dean Baker, Jared Bernstein

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, business cycle, collective bargaining, declining real wages, full employment, George Akerlof, income inequality, inflation targeting, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, price stability, publication bias, quantitative easing, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, selection bias, War on Poverty

For example, North Dakota maintained an unemployment rate of 4.0 percent even in the worst years of the Great Recession. Workers in the state experienced substantial pay increases – the average weekly wage rose 16 percentage points more than the national average from 2007 to 2011.[9] Clearly more workers could have been employed if they had opted to move from areas of high unemployment to North Dakota. However, the economy-wide impact of a mass migration to North Dakota would have been minimal. In 2011 there were 380,000 people employed in North Dakota. Boosting that number by a massive 25 percent would reduce the national unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage point. To make a serious case that a mismatch between the location of unemployed workers and the location of the available jobs is a major cause of unemployment would require identifying dozens of North Dakotas.

pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

If the UK had a formula it was still Thatcher’s: the costs of employing people remained lower in the UK than elsewhere in Europe – workers were more ‘flexible’. During the recession, unemployment remained relatively low, at 8 per cent. But the social costs of a low-wage economy are also destabilizing, putting extreme pressure on households and communities, helping explain idiosyncratic British worries about crime and disorder. Socially disruptive mass migration pegged down low wages. The British model was only one of the ways to trade off inequality, social disruption, job creation and prosperity. The Germans had higher unemployment, but treated those out of work more generously because, right and left, they valued ‘social solidarity’. The UK formula started with consumption. Growth kept going because people spent more than they could afford. The ratio of UK savings to GDP was the lowest of any OECD country; the proportion of private disposable income saved fell from 12 per cent in the early 1990s to zero in 2008.

Because employment law was flexible – a coy way of saying in the UK it was easier to hire and fire staff – French, German, Spanish and other job-seekers came and often stayed. Brits of course also worked in Paris, Madrid and Frankfurt am Main but on the Paseo del Prado your waiter was not going to be a UK migrant. British plumbers did not fix the blocked drains of Wroclaw. The UK was far from unique; mass migration affected the Netherlands and Sweden and 13 per cent of Germany’s population was foreign-born. Getting into Britain to work legally had become easier. By 2009, 14 per cent of the population of working age had been born abroad, compared with 8 per cent in 1995, 6.8 million people, up from 2.9 million. Labour extended the Tories’ policy of encouraging those with desirable skills – nurses, for example – to take jobs and settle.

Lonely Planet Ireland's Best Trips by Lonely Planet

Kickstarter, mass immigration, reserve currency, urban renewal

Soon speed-limit signs switch from mph to km/h: welcome to the Republic of Ireland. Shortly after Muff take the small left turn, signed Iskaheen, up the hill. Park beside Iskaheen church (11km). Tower Museum, Derry STEPHEN SAKS/GETTY IMAGES © Top of Chapter 8 Iskaheen It’s completely off the tourist trail, but Iskaheen church’s tiny graveyard offers evidence of two of Ireland’s most significant historical themes: the poverty that led to mass migration and the consequences of sectarian violence. One gravestone among many is that of the McKinney family, recording a string of children dying young: at 13 years, 11 months, nine months, and six weeks. It also bears the name of 34-year-old James Gerard McKinney, one of 13 unarmed civilians shot dead when British troops opened fire on demonstrators on Bloody Sunday, 1972. The Drive » Rejoin the R238 north, turning onto the R240 to Carndonagh, climbing steeply into rounded summits.

ESSENTIAL PHOTO The gorgeous sandy-bay views from Inishowen Head. BEST DRIVE The white-knuckle ascent up mountainous Mamore’s Gap. Malin Head Ireland’s most northerly point DESIGN PICS/THE IRISH IMAGE COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES © Inishowen Peninsula This trip isn’t about skimming Ireland’s surface through big-name sights. Instead it’s a route to the heart of the country’s compelling narratives: faith, poverty, mass migration, territorial disputes, the Troubles. With unsigned, cliffside roads that look more like farm tracks, you’ll probably get a little lost. But locals are helpful if you do – and asking for directions is a great conversation starter. Top of Chapter 1 Derry Kick-start your Inishowen trip by exploring the story of one of the coast’s most famous victims: La Trinidad Valenciera. This Venetian trader was the second-biggest vessel in the Spanish Armada and was shipwrecked at Kinnagoe Bay in 1588 – a spot you’ll see later.

pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor, Saul Singer

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

And it gives an inkling of the nature of the human resource that Israel received when the Soviet floodgates were opened in 1990. It was a challenge to figure out what to do with an immigrant influx that, although talented, faced significant language and cultural barriers. Plus, the educated elite of a country the size of the Soviet Union would not easily fit into a country as small as Israel. Before this mass immigration, Israel already had among the highest number of doctors per capita in the world. Even if there had not been a glut, the Soviet doctors would have had a difficult adjustment to a new medical system, a new language, and an entirely new culture. The same was true in many other professions. Though the Israeli government struggled to find jobs and build housing for the new arrivals, the Russians could not have arrived at a more opportune time.

The Center for Absorption in Science helps match arriving scientists with Israeli employers, and the absorption ministry runs entrepreneurship centers, which provide assistance with obtaining start-up capital.16 There are also absorption programs supported by the government but launched by independent Israeli citizens. Asher Elias, for example, believes there is a future for Ethiopians in the vaunted high-tech industry in Israel. Elias’s parents came to Israel in the 1960s from Ethiopia, nearly twenty years before the mass immigration of Ethiopian Jews. Asher’s older sister, Rina, was the first Ethiopian-Israeli born in Israel. After completing a degree in business administration at the College of Management in Jerusalem, Elias took a marketing job at a high-tech company and attended Selah University, then in Jerusalem, to study software engineering—he had always been a computer junkie. But Elias was shocked when he could find only four other Ethiopians working in Israel’s high-tech sector.

The State and the Stork: The Population Debate and Policy Making in US History by Derek S. Hoff

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, feminist movement, full employment, garden city movement, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, New Economic Geography, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, War on Poverty, white flight, zero-sum game

Population concerns remained robust and intimately connected to foundational policy questions surrounding slavery and westward expansion in the decades before the Civil War. Apprehension of enlargement did not, as is often supposed, develop merely in response to the “closing of the frontier” at the end of the nineteenth century. True, the closing of the frontier led many white Americans to worry that their nation had “filled up”—and, given the era’s mass immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, filled up with the wrong kinds of people. It also fueled the popular culture’s nostalgia for an imagined untamed West. Among economists, however, Malthusians were on the defensive at the turn of the twentieth century. Conservatives theorists, following the classical economists (and breaking with their Federalist forbearers), suggested that steady population expansion threatened the economy and supply of natural resources.

So wise a man as John Stuart Mill allowed his economic philosophy to be overshadowed by this idea.”86 Warner conceded that there was something to the theory of overpopulation-induced poverty, just as there was something to Marx’s insistence on capitalists’ appropriation of surplus, Henry George’s theory of land monopoly, and the conservative position that personal vice causes poverty. Yet no single theory could explicate the poverty that accompanied modern industrialization; according to Warner, “the causes of destitution must be indefinitely numerous and complicated.”87 Many American economists and poverty experts did assume (correctly) that mass immigration to the United States, which picked up steam in the 1880s, stunted the wages of the working class.88 As the antiimmigrant movement strengthened in the early twentieth century, however, it was guided less by pure Malthusianism and more by a new idea used to explain poverty and justify harsh treatment of the poor: genetic deficiency. An American eugenics movement, which sought to breed a “better” population by promoting procreation among the genetically “fit” and discouraging it among the “unfit,” rose to prominence and reinforced currents of garden-variety racism and nativism that had long plagued the nation. 58 chapter 2 Professing Malthus Today, scholars commonly but erroneously equate eugenics and Malthusianism, especially when disparaging the post–World War II campaign to lower birthrates in the developing world.

This tripling in about the same number of years as the average American lives has changed how humans lead their lives as profoundly as did the technological, economic, social, and environmental transformations wrought by the Industrial Revolution. And in the United States, where the population increased from 112 million when Keynes made these comments to 281 million at the century’s end, fractious discussions surrounding population-related issues as diverse as eugenics, declining birthrates, the “population explosion,” and the return of mass immigration roiled both culture and politics. And yet, the population question remained, at root, an economist’s one—it was the great shift in prevailing economic expertise from moderate Malthusianism to veneration of population growth that determined answers to the (non-) Problem of Population most of all. Thus, a 1999 statement by the libertarian Cato Institute provides an apt bookend to Keynes’s quotation.

pages: 137 words: 37,066

Permafrost by Alastair Reynolds

mass immigration, phenotype

Humans manage, for a while. We had a lot of systems in place to buffer us from the immediate effects. But it’s only a temporary lull, before it starts hurting us as well. Crops fail. Soils start to turn sterile. Decomposition processes falter, triggering a second public health emergency beyond the initial famine. Within a decade, the effects are global and climatic. Dust storms, aridification, mass migration. A gradual collapse of social order. We had to give a name to the whole thing so we called it the Scouring: an environmental and biological cascade. Not much comes through the other side; certainly not enough for anyone to live on. All animal and plant life gone, except for a few laboratory specimens. By 2080, we’re down to stored rations, the last human generation. She absorbed my words. They had flowed easily enough.

pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

., 2011, p. 141. 15. Beavan, C., No Impact Man, Piatkus, 2011, p. 183. 16. Ibid., p. 190. Chapter 11: A Place Called Home 1. Jackson, A., London’s Metroland, Capital Transport Publishing, 2006, p. 59. 2. 3. Williams, A. and Donald, A., 2011, p. 59. 4. Ehrlich, P., Population Bomb, Ballentine Books, 1968, p. 1. 5. Pearce, F., Peoplequake: Mass Migration, Ageing Nations and the Coming Population Crash, Eden Project Books, 2010, Introduction. 6. Williams, A. and Donald, A., 2011, p. 63. 7. Ibid., p. 39. 8. UNFPA Youth Supplement, 2007, p. 7. 9. Florida, R., Gulden, T. and Mellender, C., The Rise of the Mega-Region, Martin Prosperity Institute, October 2007, p. 2. 10. 11. 12. Davis, M., Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City, Verso, 2001, p. 67. 13.

., ‘Slum/Shack Dwellers International (SDI) – Foundations to Treetops’, Environment and Urbanisation, 2001 Patel, S., Arputham, J., Burra, S. and Savchuk, K., ‘Getting the Information Base for Dharavi’s Redevelopment’, Environment and Urbanisation, 2009 Patel, S. and Mitlin, D., ‘Gender Issues and Slum/Shack Dweller Foundation’, IIED, Gender and Urban Federations, 2007 Pearce, F., Peoplequake: Mass Migration, Ageing Nations and the Coming Population Crash, Eden Project Books, 2010 Pereira, F., Vaccari, A., Glardin, F., Chiu, C. and Ratti, C., ‘Crowd Sensing in the Web: Analysing the Citizen Experience in the Urban Space’, Perlman, J., Favela: Decades of Living on the Edge in Rio de Janeiro, OUP, 2012 Peter, P. F., Time, Innovation and Mobilities, Routledge, 2006 Polo, M., The Travels of Marco Polo, Posshehl, G.

pages: 385 words: 119,859

This Is London: Life and Death in the World City by Ben Judah

British Empire, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, high net worth, illegal immigration, mass immigration, multicultural london english, out of africa, period drama, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Skype, white flight, young professional

I came up with this ruse a week ago, because you can’t call up in English and get an answer. You can’t call up in accented Romanian and get an answer either. They hang up immediately: police. This is why I have been driving around with the Interpreter, a Romanian friend, from Enfield Chase. He is making the calls. His lie: he’s looking for work. My lie: I’m Russian. We find the doss house the way everyone else does: online. Romanians, Poles, Lithuanians – every mass migration has huge web portals where the migrant can find all the numbers he needs. These are some of the busiest classified sites in London. There are mobiles for forklift-truck lessons. There are mobiles for bosses after tilers. And there are numbers for shared rooms. These are almost all in the decaying working-class suburbs: and in the East this means Newham, then out into Ilford, Beckton and Barking.

The English . . . hah, they probably thought it was football we were always arguing about so passionately.’ The man driving the white van is an eighties political refugee. His very first job on site was wall painting, in a building trade then run by Irish wide boys. Pawel is one of the old Poles. Today he swerves the corners between his sites. Pawel is one of the winners: one of the make-it-up-as-you-go-along building bosses who enlisted the mass migration in 2000s. Pawel knew London wanted those bathroom refits for cheap. And he has been rewarded for it. As we hit red lights, he reminisces: how he walked this street when he owned nothing, only a small ripped suitcase, when he slept in that mite-infested bedsit. Today he owns a house in Balham, a chalet in France and an apartment in Warsaw. As the van whirs to leave I ask him to place his class.

pages: 91 words: 24,469

The Once and Future Liberal: After Identity Politics by Mark Lilla

affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Gordon Gekko, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley

Within a few years after the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, democratic institutions were established there. But not a sense of shared citizenship, which is the work of generations. Democracies without democrats do not last. They decay, into oligarchy, theocracy, ethnic nationalism, tribalism, authoritarian one-party rule, or some combination of these. For most of its history the United States has been lucky enough to evade these classic forces of entropy, even after a devastating Civil War and mass immigration. What’s extraordinary—and appalling—about the past four decades of our history is that our politics have been dominated by two ideologies that encourage and even celebrate the unmaking of citizens. On the right, an ideology that questions the existence of a common good and denies our obligation to help fellow citizens, through government action if necessary. On the left, an ideology institutionalized in colleges and universities that fetishizes our individual and group attachments, applauds self-absorption, and casts a shadow of suspicion over any invocation of a universal democratic we.

pages: 307 words: 88,745

War for Eternity: Inside Bannon's Far-Right Circle of Global Power Brokers by Benjamin R. Teitelbaum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Etonian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Saturday Night Live, school choice, side project, Skype, South China Sea, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks

They flash on and off the entire meal, reminding me at one moment of the multicolored Simon light board memory games of my childhood. Eventually Steve lays a napkin over them, lifting a corner and peering beneath it on occasion. A coping strategy. That made it easier for him to converse with the other guests, and with me. * * * “IT BECAME SO THIN,” Steve says. “There was no resonance to the debate, it was—it didn’t mean anything. The Republicans never addressed trade, they never addressed jobs, they never addressed mass immigration, illegal immigration as taking away people’s sovereignty and taking away their jobs. They never discussed it. They had this very thin thing on tax cuts. It was, it’s what I call thin, with no human substance, no lifeblood. That’s what Trump provided. Trump provided a non-politically correct vernacular that hit the working class right in their . . .” Gut, chest, heart, I think to myself as I nod—something visceral to tie it all back to the lack of blood in standard Republican political rhetoric he was just talking about.

Its theories of inversion provide theological, eschatological justifications for rejecting the institutions that provide us with knowledge about the world we live in, whether they be universities or the media. It implores us to consider how the liberal project of progress might have been degrading our lives under the guise of social advance; to view artificial intelligence as a late stage of secularization and the removal of spirit from the world; to regard the emancipation of women as a step toward loneliness and confusion born of the death of given social roles; to view support for mass immigration as an outgrowth of an instinct to view people as mere quantifiable material; to envision the loss of community, diversity, and sovereignty when we hear talk of universal democracy. It can inspire racism as well, though one can make few assumptions about how Traditionalists today—including those I studied—deal with that legacy. While it is true that even avid followers of Julius Evola have found ways to excise the Italian thinker’s views on race, it also is no accident that when Traditionalism has made inroads into politics, it has almost always done so in or near the company of race ideologues and anti-Semites.

We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade

The category was ‘Society and Diversity Commentator of the Year’ and on the shortlist were also my Guardian colleague Gary Younge and three Times writers. One was Melanie Phillips, a columnist who had over the years made statements about immigrants and Muslims that, in my view, were incendiary. Her inclusion made a mockery of an award category celebrating ‘society and diversity’. Among many other offences, she wrote that ‘mass immigration’ is ‘convulsing Europe’ and that since it is mostly ‘composed of Muslims, it is therefore hardly surprising that anti-immigrant feeling is largely anti-Muslim feeling’. ‘The sheer weight of numbers’, she stated, ‘plus the refusal to assimilate to Western values, makes this an unprecedented crisis for Western liberalism.’ In 2009, on the occasion of the resignation of the Bishop of Rochester, Phillips wrote that he was ‘one of the very few inside the church to make explicit the link between Christian and British values, and to warn publicly that they are being destroyed through the prevailing doctrine of multiculturalism’.

The NY Times top 10 bestsellers list’ (The Open Book Blog, 10 December 2013), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 223 ‘… the Sunday Times top ten bestselling hardback non-fiction chart’: ‘The Sunday Times Bestsellers of the Year 2017’ (Sunday Times, 24 December 2017), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 224 ‘new company-wide goal’: Lionel Shriver, ‘Great writers are found with an open mind’ (Spectator, 9 June 2018), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 225 ‘“mass immigration” is “convulsing Europe”’: Melanie Phillips, ‘How the West Was Lost’ (Spectator, 11 May 2002), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 226 ‘one of the very few inside the church’: Melanie Phillips, ‘When a bishop has to leave the Church of England to stand up for Christians, what hope is left for Britain?’ (Daily Mail, 29 March 2009), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 226 ‘… Islam is “an ideology that itself is non-negotiable”’: Jackie Ashley, ‘The multicultural menace, anti-semitism and me’ (Guardian, 16 June 2006), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 226 ‘testing the fundamentals of free speech’: Matthew d’Ancona, ‘The Comment Awards 2018 show that feelings matter more than facts’ (GQ, 22 October 2018), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 227 ‘a snapshot of a broader censorious atmosphere’: Claire Fox, ‘The Comment Awards Fiasco’ (Quillette, 25 October 2018), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 227 ‘no-platforming’: Matthew Parris, ‘In Defence of Nick Clegg’ (Spectator, 27 October 2018), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 227 ‘repeatedly denounced from the platform as “censorship”’: George Monbiot (Twitter, 10:32 a.m., 16 November 2018), [accessed on 25 July 2019] 228 ‘Quietly lose her nomination?

pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This would further increase social tensions and conflicts, and create a less cohesive, more volatile world, particularly given that people are today much more aware of and sensitive to social injustices and the discrepancies in living conditions between different countries. Unless public- and private-sector leaders assure citizens that they are executing credible strategies to improve peoples’ lives, social unrest, mass migration, and violent extremism could intensify, thus creating risks for countries at all stages of development. It is crucial that people are secure in the belief that they can engage in meaningful work to support themselves and their families, but what happens if there is insufficient demand for labour, or if the skills available no longer match the demand? 3.1.3 The Nature of Work The emergence of a world where the dominant work paradigm is a series of transactions between a worker and a company more than an enduring relationship was described by Daniel Pink 15 years ago in his book Free Agent Nation.26 This trend has been greatly accelerated by technological innovation.

pages: 131 words: 41,052

Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century by Mark Leonard

Berlin Wall, Celtic Tiger, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, global reserve currency, invisible hand, knowledge economy, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, one-China policy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pension reform, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, shareholder value, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus

The institutions of the American order were designed to prevent the biggest threat to our security: stopping other countries from using their armies to interfere in our internal affairs. But in the twenty-first century, many of the most important threats are neither caused by nor aimed at states: they are about mobile individuals in an era of globalization. Today, we fear invading armies less than terrorism, global warming, the spread of diseases like Aids, or mass migrations caused by ethnic cleansing. With the spread of democracy and human rights around the world, cheap travel, and the telescopic vision of a global media and campaigning organizations that bring suffering into our living rooms, the public is no longer insulated from disasters in distant parts of the globe. To deal with these new threats of globalization, states need to intervene in each other’s internal affairs: to agree global standards to control the emission of greenhouse gases; to share intelligence on terrorists and extradite suspects to other countries; to stop armed militias from committing genocide; and to punish war criminals for their acts of violence.

pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

The unusual thing about this country has been the stubborn and quite strong connection between religious belief and political party—a cultural peculiarity that, in the post-materialist politics of values, has allowed computer technicians in Orange County to find common cause with West Virginia coal miners and truck drivers.73 6. THE ECONOMICS OF THE BIG SORT Culture and Growth in the 1990s Opportunity, not necessity, is the mother of invention. —JANE JACOBS "An Inexplicable Sort of Mass Migration" THE Baton Rouge Advocate ran a series of stories in 2002 titled "Leaving Louisiana"—and people were. They were hoofing it from Louisiana by the hundreds of thousands long before Hurricane Katrina washed, rinsed, and tumbled out those who remained. In the flow of people back and forth across the state line, Texas cities alone had a net gain of 121,000 Louisianans between 1992 and 2000. Most went to Houston or Dallas, but a good number migrated to Austin.

Portland (I'm talking about Oregon throughout this chapter), Seattle, Dallas, and Austin gained at the same time the Cleveland Plain Dealer described the depopulation of its city as a "quiet crisis" and the Baton Rouge Advocate published its series. Dave Eggers, in his 2000 autobiographical book A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius, called the movement of his educated and young midwestern friends to San Francisco "an inexplicable sort of mass migration."1 Actually, it was perfectly explicable. Eggers and his heartland buddies weren't the only ones switching addresses. As many as 100 million Americans resettled across a county border in the 1990s. People didn't scatter like ants from a kicked-over hill. There was an order and a flow to the movement—more like the migration of different species of birds. Eggers and his flock landed in San Francisco.

pages: 381 words: 120,361

Sunfall by Jim Al-Khalili

airport security, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Carrington event, cosmological constant, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Attenborough, Fellow of the Royal Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, MITM: man-in-the-middle, off grid, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Turing test

What bloody good this new one would do I don’t know, but I guess it’s about time some action, any action, was taken.’ Sarah knew only too well that it was largely thanks to the efforts of the IPCC over the past forty years that the worst effects of climate change had been averted. And the same was true for the panel on antimicrobial resistance. The controversy these days was with the Intergovernmental Panel on Population Displacement, which had its work cut out and was hugely unpopular. But then the mass migrations forced by sea-level rises were still going on. ‘Well, anyway, I hope I’m not the only scientist on this panel and it’s not just a bunch of megalomaniac politicians with their own vested interests. I mean, how do these things work?’ ‘I’m happy that you think I’m the fount of all knowledge and wisdom. But I’m just a retired hack keeping his head down while watching others try to sort out the planet.

Once they had all materialized there followed a brief buzz of conversation as the remote members exchanged pleasantries with those physically present and with each other. Everyone seemed to know everyone else, Sarah noted, and some exchanges were warmer than others. She looked round the table at each person in turn, scanning the rudimentary information provided on her AR feed. Several of them were not politicians but CEOs of multinational companies. She reflected on how world politics had been transformed during her lifetime. Even before the mass migrations forced by rising sea levels in the early thirties, physical country borders had been getting increasingly blurred. The world was now more noticeably split along economic rather than geographical boundaries and was defined as much by online firewalls set up by multinational companies operating in the Cloud and the movement of cryptocurrencies between them as it was by the old national borders.

Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities by Vaclav Smil

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, complexity theory, coronavirus, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, endogenous growth, energy transition, epigenetics, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Law of Accelerating Returns, longitudinal study, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, megastructure, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, optical character recognition, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Republic of Letters, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, technoutopianism, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, yield curve

American hegemony was threatened but not decisively shaken by the Soviet empire (which had collapsed by 1991), and it is now facing further, and apparently more intractable, challenges arising from the economic and military ascent of China (a modern reincarnation of the world’s oldest existing empire that fits all the key requirements to be defined as such), from militant Islam, and from internal discord. Some notable exceptions aside, nation-states, now the dominant form of political organization, are of relatively recent origin and their foundations are being weakened by new trends ranging from supranational allegiances to mass migration. Unlike many empires, many states reached their maximum extent relatively early in their history as they encountered physical barriers (mountain ranges, major rivers, sea coasts) that, although certainly not insurmountable, were formidable enough to restrict further expansion. On the other hand, many modern states were created by the partition of formerly larger entities and hence they are products of diminution rather than of any organic growth.

As a result, by the century’s end average per capita provision of living space reached 20 m2 in urban and 25 m2 in rural areas, and by 2015 the two rates rose, respectively, to about 35 m2 and 40 m2, that is roughly tenfold compared to the late 1970s before the economic reforms took off (Mao died in 1976). This means that China’s average urban living space is now roughly the same as in the UK and marginally above the Japanese mean. And it also means that the post-1978 growth of Chinese housing provides a rare example of a temporary exponential increase in housing construction, sustaining roughly 3% annual growth for 35 years. Even so, given the mass immigration to China’s rapidly expanding cities, urban overcrowding continues, and the new rules for rental apartments (where many temporary workers often share a single room) now specify a minimum of 5 m2/capita. Despite China’s rapidly aging population, a combination of this urban overcrowding and continued migration from the countryside is expected to keep up significant growth of residential stock at least until 2020.

pages: 459 words: 138,689

Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk,, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor

The echoes of baby booms will reverberate for far longer than a century into the future, even when much else has begun to settle down. In such a scenario, migration, not mortality or fertility, becomes the major driver of change. Even migration becomes less common when so much has settled down. A great deal of current migration is driven by not knowing. People do not know that the roads are not paved with gold in the cities that were once so far ahead of their times. Times change, but the stories change more slowly. Mass migration is driven by turmoil, war, famine, pestilence, or some other great instability. With slowdown, such migration too should slow. Who would want their very few children to move to the other side of the world? People will still move around in the future, of course. In a less frantic and more logical world, they should have much more time to do so. But they won’t be moving to where the work is and away from a place that has become unproductive.

So what, exactly, was it that you were worrying about—even if the population growth in the next eighty years occurs just as the UN projected it would in 2017? What we worry about (when we worry about population growth) is not growth, but death. We worry about too many people resulting in famines—because we have yet to learn that famines were never caused by there being too many people, but by politics. We worry that population growth will lead to mass migration—because we lack the collective imagination to see that migrants will be in huge demand and we should be afraid of having too few migrants, not too many. We think “too many people” leads to war. But it is just a very small number of men who start wars, and sadly it takes many people and usually the loss of many lives to stop wars. We worry that such a large mass of human beings could lead to the spread of new diseases, completely forgetting how deadly diseases used to be when there were so very few of us.

Apocalypse Never: Why Environmental Alarmism Hurts Us All by Michael Shellenberger

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, Corn Laws, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy transition, failed state, Gary Taubes, global value chain, Google Earth, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, land tenure, Live Aid, LNG terminal, long peace, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, renewable energy transition, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Y2K

“There are some scientists who are agreeing and some who are saying that they’re simply not true. But the overall issue is that these deaths are going to happen.” “But most scientists don’t agree with this,” says Neil. “I looked through [the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s recent reports] and see no reference to billions of people going to die, or children going to die in under twenty years. . . . How would they die?” Responds Lights, “Mass migration around the world is already taking place due to prolonged drought in countries, particularly in South Asia. There are wildfires in Indonesia, the Amazon rainforest, also Siberia, the Arctic.” “These are really important problems,” Neil says, “and they can cause fatalities. But they don’t cause billions of deaths. They don’t mean that our young people will all be dead in twenty years.” “Perhaps not in twenty years,” acknowledges Lights.

Pestilence, Death, Famine and War were all there.”20 IPCC’s Summary left out key information, Tol alleges. The Summary “omits that better cultivars and improved irrigation increase crop yields. It shows the impact of sea level rise on the most vulnerable country, but does not mention the average. It emphasizes the impacts of increased heat stress but downplays reduced cold stress. It warns about poverty traps, violent conflict and mass migration without much support in the literature. The media, of course, exaggerated further.”21 It wasn’t the first time IPCC had exaggerated climate change’s impact in a Summary. In 2010, an IPCC Summary falsely claimed climate change would result in the melting of the Himalayan glaciers by 2035. This was a serious case of alarmism given that 800 million people depend on the glaciers for irrigation and drinking water.

pages: 166 words: 49,639

Start It Up: Why Running Your Own Business Is Easier Than You Think by Luke Johnson

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Grace Hopper, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, James Dyson, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Kickstarter, mass immigration, mittelstand, Network effects, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, patent troll, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman, tulip mania, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators

It can broaden horizons and lead to a healthy realignment of priorities. All this dislocation is hard to take, but there is little choice. The task is made easier for those who believe there will always be new opportunities, whatever the temporary difficulties. The consumer’s new mantra is value The most dramatic shift in consumer behaviour one witnesses in a cycle is the trading down from aspirational goods to ‘value goods’. It is a sudden, mass migration. In their work and personal lives, consumers cut back and look for a bargain. As always, the best businesses adapt to the new psychology and the rest asphyxiate. In the good times, nearly every company likes to think of its products as ‘aspirational’. It’s true there always will be customers willing to pay extra for premium goods, obsessively seeking quality over price. But every such era will wax and wane, and must inevitably give way to the mantra of ‘value’ – and it doesn’t matter which market you’re in.

pages: 193 words: 48,066

The European Union by John Pinder, Simon Usherwood

Berlin Wall, BRICs, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, failed state, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, non-tariff barriers, open borders, price stability, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

But cooperation in foreign policy evolved to the point where the Union gave it the name ‘Common Foreign and Security Policy’; and Britain, which had long been adamantly opposed to common action by the EU on defence, in 1999 joined France in initiating a modest EU defence capacity. This is still a minor, though increasingly significant, element in the Union’s external relations. The Union’s external economic policies remain much more important. Meanwhile, the world has been becoming a more dangerous place, with sources of instability such as climate change, environmental degradation, cross-border crime, poverty, consequent mass migration, and terrorism, alongside the military forms of insecurity. The relative simplicity of the confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union has been replaced by American supremacy, and with the perspective of an emergent multipolar world in which the US is in the process of being joined by China and, probably later, India as giant powers, while Russia along with other, rising powers must also be taken into account; and the balance of bipolar economic power, with the predominance of the US and the EU, is being rapidly transformed, likewise with the BRIC economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, into a multipolar world economy.

pages: 193 words: 51,445

On the Future: Prospects for Humanity by Martin J. Rees

23andMe, 3D printing, air freight, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, blockchain, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic transition, distributed ledger, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk,, global village, Hyperloop, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, life extension, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, quantitative hedge fund, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanislav Petrov, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

Information technology (IT) and social media are now globally pervasive. Rural farmers in Africa can access market information that prevents them from being ripped off by traders, and they can transfer funds electronically. But these same technologies mean that those in deprived parts of the world are aware of what they are missing. This awareness will trigger greater embitterment, motivating mass migration or conflict, if these contrasts are perceived to be excessive and unjust. It is not only a moral imperative, but a matter of self-interest too, for fortunate nations to promote greater equality—by direct financial aid (and by ceasing the current exploitative extraction of raw materials) and also by investing in infrastructure and manufacturing in countries where there are displaced refugees, so that the dispossessed are under less pressure to migrate to find work.

pages: 736 words: 233,366

Roller-Coaster: Europe, 1950-2017 by Ian Kershaw

airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, centre right, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, illegal immigration, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour market flexibility, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, young professional

Europe’s future – still riding the roller-coaster – can climb up and swoop down in quick succession. At present (autumn 2017) the auguries are better from what they had been only a few months ago, though the crystal ball remains clouded. Long-term change is another matter. And here, the problems facing Europe (and the rest of the world) are daunting. Climate change, demography, provision of energy, mass migration, tensions of multiculturalism, automation, the widening income gap, international security and dangers of global conflict: all pose major challenges for the decades ahead. Just how well equipped Europe is to deal with these problems is hard to say. How to meet the challenges, to shape the future of the continent, lies not solely, but nevertheless in good measure, in the hands of Europeans themselves.

This describes not just economic integration arising from the free movement of capital, technology and information, but the interweaving of social and cultural patterns of progress across national boundaries and throughout developing areas of the world. Globalization was far from simply a positive trajectory to ever better material provision. It had obvious dark sides. It has caused, for example, massive damage to the environment, a widening gulf between rich and poor, intensified (largely uncontrollable) mass migration, and loss of employment through automation made possible by technological change – and it continues to do so. The transformation brought through globalization runs like a thread through the following chapters. It is far from an unequivocal story of success. Europe’s new era of insecurity is inextricably enmeshed with the deepening of globalization. * * * This book explores the twists and turns, ups and downs, that have led from one era of insecurity to another – from the threat of nuclear war to the multilayered and pervasive sense of present-day insecurity.

The migrant crisis started to recede in Germany too. The numbers crossing from Libya to Italy remained high, however, though they fell sharply in the summer of 2017 following the introduction of a tougher Italian and Libyan stance towards traffickers but also a less liberal approach to rescue organizations. Possibly, the worst of the refugee crisis was over. European countries had to recognize, even so, that mass migration – if not in the critical and uncontrolled dimensions of 2015–16 – was here to stay. This was not just because Europe constituted a peaceful haven for those whose lives had been ruined by war and devastating political violence; it was also because the crass economic disparities that had become ever more glaringly obvious in the process of globalization had themselves ensured a population transfer from poor to rich countries which needed labour and whose own birth rates were low or even in decline.

pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, post-work, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

Over the following decades, labor market performance deteriorated less for married men with children than any other family type. Though only beginning in 1994, CPS data on employment by nativity are compelling. In 1994, prime-age immigrant men were reportedly less likely to be working than their native-born counterparts and more likely to be out of the labor force altogether. By 2015, this situation had been completely reversed. After two decades of mass immigration, prime-age male work rates were more than five points higher among the foreign born, and LFPRs were over four points higher. Indeed, immigrants pushed national prime-age male work rates and LFPRs up by about one percentage point in 2015. The long-term fall in prime-age male work rates and rise in NILF rates are also due to the changing weight of subgroups in the composition of the overall population.

pages: 122 words: 38,022

Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

Anti-Trump conservatives of today are deemed ‘cuckservatives’ by the alt-right, the passive cuckolding husband to the rapacious non-white foreign enemy at the gates. The neocon and old-fashioned Christian right is hated in this way by the alt-right for, in one way or another, failing to protect the nation aggressively enough, by playing too nicely and thus not being up to the job of defeating feminism, Islamification, mass immigration and so on. In stark contrast to the Pepe-posters and potty-mouthed Milo fans would be someone like British conservative columnist Peter Hitchens, for example, who called Trump ‘this yahoo, this bully, this groper, a man who threatened his opponent with jail… I loathe Mr. Trump for his coarseness, his crudity, and his scorn for morals, tradition and law.’ In this sense Trump remains closer to the sensibilities of Yiannopoulos and the trolling online right than he does to conservatism or to something like National Review magazine, founded by William F.

Scandinavia by Andy Symington

call centre, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, connected car, edge city, full employment, glass ceiling, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, mass immigration, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, period drama, Skype, the built environment, trade route, urban sprawl, walkable city, young professional

Kronborg Slot Channel Shakespeare at Hamlet’s old haunt in Helsingør (Click here ) St Petersburg Be dazzled by the candy-coloured swirls and brilliant mosaic decoration on the Church of the Saviour on Spilled Blood (Click here ) Tallinn Weaving your way around the medieval Old Town’s narrow, cobbled streets is like strolling back to the 14th century (Click here ) Gotland Historic churches dot this Swedish island (Click here ) Norwegian stave churches Admire World Heritage–listed Urnes Stave Church on the banks of a fjord (Click here ) Olavinlinna Finland’s most spectacular castle, delicately perched on a rocky islet, lords it over the centre of one of its prettiest towns (Click here ) Wildlife Watching The clamour of seabirds fills the air across the Atlantic while whales roll in the ocean. Elk are widespread, Finnish forests harbour serious carnivores and the mighty polar bear still lords it – for now – over Svalbard. Low population densities make it excellent for observing wildlife in summer. Fanø Witness mass migration of the feathered kind in Denmark (Click here ) Bird boating To and through the spectacular Faroese bird cliffs (Click here ) Reindeer These roam at will across the north of Sweden, Norway and Finland; learn about reindeer in Jukkasjärvi, in Sweden (Click here ) Central Norway Track down the prehistoric musk ox (Click here ) Svalbard Watch out for Europe’s last polar bears in Svalbard (Click here ) Whale watching Head to Norway’s Lofoten Islands (Click here ) or Húsavík in Iceland ( Click here ) Látrabjarg These dramatic cliffs are the world’s biggest bird breeding grounds (Click here ) Bear watching Head out to the Finnish forests on a bear- watching excursion (Click here ) Design Why is Scandinavian design so admired?

Chile and Somalia also have a sizeable presence, and there are around 45,000 Roma. Swedish music stars José González and Salem Al Fakir and film director Josef Fares are testament to Sweden’s increasingly multicultural make-up. In 2007, the small town of Södertälje, 30km south of Stockholm, welcomed 1268 Iraqi refugees; the USA and Canada combined accepted just 1027 the same year. Some 200 languages are now spoken in Sweden. Sweden first opened its borders to mass immigration during WWII. At the time it was a closed society, and new arrivals were initially expected to assimilate and ‘become Swedish’. In 1975 parliament adopted a new set of policies that emphasised the freedom to preserve and celebrate traditional native cultures. Not everyone in Sweden is keen on this idea, with random hate crimes – including the burning down of a Malmö mosque in 2004 – blemishing the country’s reputation for tolerance.

pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

These men had made phony war their business for decades, and ran the largest budgets in the world, so when their era of "mutually assured destruction" ended, they were presumably looking for new work. I would, in their place. I think that by the end of the last century, Islam was selected as the best candidate for a Bad Guy to replace the crumbling East-West divide with its slowing profits for the military-industrial complex. We have the mass immigration of North Africans and Turks into Europe as the basis for anti-Islamic public policies in Europe. We have the conflicts in Chechnya, Indonesia, India, Afghanistan, ex-Yugoslavia, and of course, Palestine, to prove how Islam is the religion of hate. We had at least $600 million of American money going to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the founder of the Hezb-e Islami radical Islamic militant faction.

By September of 2013, the U.S. military had been involved in various activities in Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia, among others, constructing bases, undertaking "security cooperation engagements, training exercises, advisory deployments, special operations missions, and a growing logistics network. The battlefield covers the whole world, and above all, the American homeland itself. The US is the keystone in the Para-state's power structure. It represents by far the richest food source for this parasitic political class. The US is wealthy due to three things: centuries of mass immigration, abundant natural resources, and a geography blessed with generous natural transport. If it was not for the Para-state's predations, the US would be considerably more prosperous, easily affording first rate healthcare, education, transport to all its people, and a massively better technological infrastructure. As it is, other parts of the world have to show this wealthiest of all nations how to build decent trains, schools, networks, health care.

pages: 225 words: 54,010

A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl

Webster believes that at the height of Copan’s magnificence, during the long reign of King Yax Pasaj, “life expectancy was short, mortality was high, people were often sick, malnourished, and decrepit-looking.”61 House remains show that in a century and a half, Copan’s population had shot up from about 5,000 to 28,000, peaking in A.D. 800; it stayed high for one century, then fell by half in fifty years, then dropped to nearly nothing by A.D. 1200. We can’t attribute these figures to mass migration in or out, for much the same pattern occurs throughout the Maya area. The graph, Webster observes, “closely resembles the kind of ‘boom and bust’ cycle associated with … wild animal populations.”62 He might have compared it to something more immediate: Copan’s fivefold surge in just a century and a half is exactly the same rate of increase as the modern world’s leap from about 1.2 billion in 1850 to 6 billion in 2000.

pages: 168 words: 56,211

The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work by Alain de Botton

Donald Trump, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spice trade, supply-chain management, Vilfredo Pareto

In the pale late-afternoon sky, an ultralight aircraft was advancing slowly over the valley, making no discernible progress. But as I continued around the airfield, a more arresting spectacle came into view: on the horizon at the far end of the runway, the entire aeronautical population of a sizeable international airport appeared to have touched down and been parked in close formation, wing tip to wing tip, as if a calamity I had not yet heard about had prompted a mass migration by aircraft from every continent to this particular corner of southern California. There were representatives from the Netherlands, Australia, South Korea, Zimbabwe and Switzerland; there were short-haul Airbuses and giant 747s. Adding to the eeriness of the scene, the planes had none of their usual supporting equipment – no jetties, buses, baggage carts or refuelling trucks. They sat unattended in the desert shrub, their passengers seemingly still waiting inside for the doors to be opened.

pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

The surveillance capabilities already here or about to come online – from vast, permanent databases of number plate records gathered from roads across the Western world, to data mining and behaviour-predicting algorithms and facial recognition technology – were Erich Honecker’s “wet dream”. And thanks to 9/11, new laws were being passed – most notably the EU’s Data Retention Directive – that gave the authorities blanket powers to store and manipulate surveillance information in whatever way they wanted. This was not all. Several external forces – globalisation, climate change, and the resource wars and mass migration that would inevitably follow – were creating the conditions for a “perfect storm”. Soon, every citizen would be a potential threat, an enemy of state stability. Powers reserved for combating terrorism would be unleashed on the entire population. Against such an irresistible force, what could hackers have done differently? They had lost, just as they were always going to. You can still watch videos of this talk online.

What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Since the government doesn’t provide rural credit, thanks to the policies Friedman lauds, you borrow from a usurer at 40 percent interest. Then the next year you can’t pay him, so you’ve got to sell off your land. Pretty soon your children are starving and you can do nothing. That’s why the rate of peasant suicides is sharply rising within eyesight of the marvels that Friedman describes. As the journalist P. Sainath has pointed out, for the first time in Indian history there is mass migration from the countryside.19 There always was migration during harvests. This is different. People are fleeing the devastated countryside, where the large majority lives, and essentially pouring into the Mumbai slums. The most serious economic analyses—not the rave reviews on the op-ed page of the Times but real analyses—indicate that maybe 80 percent of the population or so is in the informal economy, which is not even counted.20 In states such as Uttar Pradesh, which has about the same population as Pakistan, the conditions for women are probably worse than under the Taliban.

pages: 147 words: 41,256

Letters to My Palestinian Neighbor by Yossi Klein Halevi

ghettoisation, market clearing, mass immigration, one-state solution

There had been no prior communication between them; the Jews of Yemen didn’t know about the groups of young Zionists forming in Europe. Those Yemenites weren’t “Zionists” in any political sense. But they were Zionists in the deepest sense: They were Jews returning to their homeland, in anticipation of the restoration of their people’s sovereignty. Zionism came full circle by the end of the twentieth century, with the mass immigration to Israel of Russian Jews, refugees from seventy years of Communism. Subjected to government-imposed assimilation, forbidden to study and practice their faith, many hardly seemed Jewish at all. But here they have rejoined the Jewish people, learning Hebrew and living by the rhythms of the Jewish calendar and marrying Jews from other parts of the Diaspora. Israel is the one place where assimilation works in favor of Jewish continuity.

pages: 353 words: 355

The Long Boom: A Vision for the Coming Age of Prosperity by Peter Schwartz, Peter Leyden, Joel Hyatt

American ideology, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, computer age, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, hydrogen economy, industrial cluster, informal economy, intangible asset, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, open borders, Productivity paradox, QR code, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Y2K

Latin America, a cultural kin to Europe, has also begun a developing-world version of the economic and political transformation toward the new rules of the global game. » NEXT REGION HEADING toward the New Economy is Europe. THEEurope, with a slight stutter step, is going through many of the same changes that Americans went through in the early to middle 1990s. European businesses and households have been quickly adopting new computer technologies and getting wired up to the Internet. They have been incorporating many of the same financial innovations: starting a mass migration of individuals to stocks and mutual funds, taking to initial public offerings, and nurturing new venture capital practices. The fundamental restructuring of the economy is proceeding more slowly but still steadily in the right direction. By the late 1990s, Europeans were finally pushing through with privatizations (e.g., of their public telecommunications companies), 92 Iks LONQ BOOM going through with corporate restructuring, and deregulating the economy so that smaller entrepreneurial firms could begin creating growth and jobs.

pages: 248 words: 57,419

The New Depression: The Breakdown of the Paper Money Economy by Richard Duncan

asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, deindustrialization, diversification, diversified portfolio, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, income inequality, inflation targeting, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization

United or divided, China’s nuclear arsenal would make it Asia’s undisputed superpower if the United States were to withdraw from the region. From Korea and Japan in the North to New Zealand in the South to Burma in the West, all of Asia would be at China’s mercy. And hunger among China’s population of 1.3 billion people could necessitate territorial expansion into Southeast Asia. In fact, the central government might not be able to prevent mass migration southward, even if it wanted to. In Europe, severe economic hardship would revive the centuries-old struggle between the left and the right. During the 1930s, the Fascists movement arose and imposed a police state on most of Western Europe. In the East, the Soviet Union had become a communist police state even earlier. The far right and the far left of the political spectrum converge in totalitarianism.

pages: 164 words: 57,068

The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society by Charles Handy

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, bonus culture, British Empire, call centre, Clayton Christensen, corporate governance, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, falling living standards, future of work, G4S, greed is good, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, late capitalism, mass immigration, megacity, mittelstand, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Veblen good, Walter Mischel

There are always ways round these things but ideally such a formula, adjusted for the size of the organisation and even for the type of industry, would encourage productivity which would, in turn, allow an organisation to pay more to those at the bottom without harming its profitability. If that were accompanied by a profit-sharing scheme related to base salary it would allow a proportional level of reward for everyone, including the senior executives. If that formula were to be internationally agreed that would be even better. Even if it weren’t an international norm there is no evidence that there would be a mass migration of talent in search of more exotic rewards. Money, I sometimes think, is often rightly called compensation, compensation for stressful, tedious or pointless work in unpleasing surroundings. Not everyone would judge the extra compensation to be enough for the pain and upheaval of moving home and family to the other side of the world. Brave organisations could try it and see. So could governments.

pages: 196 words: 58,886

Ten Myths About Israel by Ilan Pappe

British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, WikiLeaks

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt visits Jerusalem and begins bilateral talks with Israel. 1978 Peace treaty signed between Israel and Egypt. PLO attack on Tel Aviv reciprocated by Operation “Litani”—Israel occupies part of southern Lebanon. 1981 Annexation of the Golan Heights to Israel. 1982 Sinai returned to Egypt. Operation “Peace for the Galilee” in which Israel invades Lebanon in an attempt to destroy the PLO. 1987 The First Palestinian Intifada. 1989 Collapse of the USSR and mass migration of Jews and non-Jews from across the Eastern Bloc to Israel. 1991 First Gulf War. US convenes international conference on Palestine in Madrid. 1992 Labor returns to power and Yitzhak Rabin becomes prime minister for the second time. 1993 The PLO and Israel sign the Oslo Declaration of Principles in the White House. 1994 The Palestinian National Authority is formed and Yasser Arafat, the PLO chairman, arrives in the occupied territories to become president of the PNA.

pages: 518 words: 143,914

God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is Changing the World by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Brooks, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

Some one hundred thousand hikers a year make the trek across Europe to Santiago de Compostela in Spain and six million people visit Lourdes. Immigration is playing a dual role in Europe’s religious economy. First, the arrival of millions of Muslims is making many lapsed Christians more aware of their religious inheritance. Nominal Christians are much more likely to practice their faith in areas where there are lots of Muslims. Second, mass immigration is bringing in millions of Christians from the developing world as well. On any given Sunday in London, 44 percent of the people going to church are African or Afro-Caribbean, and another 14 percent are nonwhites of other descent.49 Britain’s most successful preacher is arguably a Nigerian missionary, Pastor Matthew Ashimolowo. He founded Kingsway International Christian Center in East London, with a congregation of a few hundred, because he wanted to provide immigrants with the high-octane style of worship that they were used to back home.

This meant evolving beyond reactionary forces such as nationalism and religious strife. It meant reasserting the primacy of Enlightenment values such as reason and tolerance. And it meant making the maximum possible room for individual freedom and self-expression. All this has made it peculiarly difficult for Europeans to come to terms with the influx of a large religious minority. To begin with, the European elites who masterminded mass immigration simply expected Muslims to undergo the same process of secularization that they themselves had. Back in 1966, Roy Jenkins, then Britain’s Labor home secretary, argued for a multicultural model of immigration: “Not a flattening process of assimilation but equal opportunity accompanied by cultural diversity in an atmosphere of mutual tolerance.” The elites introduced Muslims to Europe’s secular institutions without much heed to religious sensibilities.

pages: 261 words: 10,785

The Lights in the Tunnel by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Bill Joy: nanobots, Black-Scholes formula, business cycle, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, double helix,, factory automation, full employment, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, pattern recognition, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, Thomas L Friedman, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, War on Poverty

As we have seen, this will be very difficult because of low wages, a growing unemployment problem and the Chinese propensity to save rather than consume. However, local consumption will be increasingly essential because the primary incentives which drive the private sector to locate manufacturing in countries like China are likely to shift dramatically in the coming decades. The Future of Manufacturing Recent years have seen a mass migration of manufacturing to developing countries. Low labor costs have clearly been the primary incentive underlying this trend. In the future, however, factories of all types are likely to become increasingly automated. As the years and decades progress, labor costs will comprise a smaller and smaller component of manufacturers’ cost structures. To get some insight into how automation is likely to continue impacting manufacturing, it may help to look at a sector which has already been heavily automated: agriculture in the United States.

pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

Herder’s concept is ideological rather than descriptive, since it sought to act as the catalyst for German unity. It has been the source of a great deal of muddled thinking about the meaning of nations. The idea of lifeblood coursing through the veins of the nation may be instinctively attractive, but it gets analysis off on the wrong foot. National blood ties are always more mixed, loyalties and interests more divided. These tendencies are reinforced in an age of mass communications and mass migration in which, in the West at least, ideas, opinions and people travel more freely than ever before. In English, the term nation entered common currency during the thirteenth century, when it was deployed to refer to a people characterized by common racial affinities. Implicit was a separate meaning of a political group that stands in a relation of representation with respect to the nation. This group includes nationalist movements of various kinds, but its focal point is the nation-state.

Rough Guide DIRECTIONS Venice by Jonathan Buckley

car-free, mass immigration, Murano, Venice glass, place-making

You’re never far from a pay phone – every sizeable campo has at least one, and there are phones by most vaporetto stops. Note that many internet points offer international calls at a better rate than you’ll get from Telecom Italia’s public phones. 9/29/06 2:39:59 PM 05 VeniceChronology.indd 183 Places Chronology 9/29/06 2:40:33 PM 05 VeniceChronology.indd 184 9/29/06 2:40:33 PM 185 9^hedebe]o 05 VeniceChronology.indd 185 C H R O NO L O G Y 453 The first mass migration into the Venetian lagoon is provoked by the incursions of Attila the Hun’s hordes. 568 Permanent settlement is accelerated when the Germanic Lombards (or Longobards) sweep into northern Italy. The resulting confederation owes political allegiance to Byzantium. 726 The lagoon settlers choose their first doge, Orso Ipato. 810 After the Frankish army of Charlemagne has overrun the Lombards, the emperor’s son Pepin sails into action against the proto-Venetians and is defeated.

pages: 202 words: 62,901

The People's Republic of Walmart: How the World's Biggest Corporations Are Laying the Foundation for Socialism by Leigh Phillips, Michal Rozworski

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carbon footprint, central bank independence, Colonization of Mars, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, corporate raider, decarbonisation, discovery of penicillin, Elon Musk, G4S, Georg Cantor, germ theory of disease, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, linear programming, liquidity trap, mass immigration, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, post scarcity, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing

Crucially, Khrushchev oversaw a rebalancing of the flow of value between town and country through a write-off of debts, reductions in quotas, an increase in investment in farm machinery, electrification, fertilizer, and many other measures. The kolkhozes would now in essence tell the center what they would produce, instead of the other way round, and it was the job of Gosplan to reconcile these “draft plans from below” with each other and with economy-wide objectives. Growth in the 1950s was rapid. A massive program of house building coincided with a mass migration of peasants to the cities as technological transformation in agriculture radically reduced labor requirements. Advances in education and training were among the greatest achievements of the era, along with impressive extensions of healthcare and the status of women, with many women becoming engineers, technicians and judges a goodly time before such breakthroughs were achieved elsewhere. This was the golden age of the Soviet Union.

pages: 229 words: 61,482

The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time Off, and Financing the Life You Want by Diane Mulcahy

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, deliberate practice, diversification, diversified portfolio, fear of failure, financial independence, future of work, gig economy, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, mass immigration, mental accounting, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, passive income, Paul Graham, remote working, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, wage slave, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The good news is that, yes, we can still retire. The Gig Economy retirement may never be the corporate-funded, work-free decades they once were, but there’s a case to be made that with thoughtful planning and commitment, retirement can still exist. The less-good news is that we have to save for and finance retirement ourselves. Corporate pensions are no longer around to foot the bill. Instead, employers have mass migrated to offering defined contribution retirement plans, such as 401(k)s, in which employees decide for themselves whether to participate in the plan, how much to contribute, and where to invest their contributions. Pensions still exist in the public sector for government workers and teachers but are generally underfunded, in some cases severely.1 Government sources of retirement funds, like Social Security, appear unreliable at best and insolvent at worst, depending on your generation.

pages: 219 words: 62,816

"They Take Our Jobs!": And 20 Other Myths About Immigration by Aviva Chomsky

affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, call centre, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, full employment, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mass incarceration, new economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Colonial subjects see their homeland deteriorate and the colonial power expand its wealth and power. The lure is inescapable. But Puerto Rico was a U.S. colony, and it was poor and lacking in opportunity (like most other colonies), for a long time before the large flow of Puerto Ricans into the continental United States started. Two interrelated things happened in the 1940s that turned the long-standing unequal relationship into a cause for mass migration. One side of the coin was Operation Bootstrap (which I discuss in more depth in Part One). U.S. investment had been streaming into Puerto Rico for decades, but Operation Bootstrap was something new. Up until now colonial powers had used their colonies to support industrialization at home. Now a colonial power began to take advantage of colonial labor to deindustrialize at home. The other side was recruitment.

pages: 575 words: 171,599

The Billionaire's Apprentice: The Rise of the Indian-American Elite and the Fall of the Galleon Hedge Fund by Anita Raghavan

airport security, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business intelligence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, delayed gratification, estate planning, Etonian, glass ceiling, high net worth, kremlinology, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, mass immigration, McMansion, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, old-boy network, Ponzi scheme, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, technology bubble, too big to fail

Around the same time, on a separate train, Arjun’s future wife and Sanjay Wadhwa’s mother, eight-year-old Rashmi, left Sargodha, where her family owned vast swaths of land and her father, a government contractor, was well connected, even friendly with the Muslim police commissioner. He was so tied to Sargodha he would stay in his ancestral home until August 14, making the trek to Delhi like thousands of other displaced Punjabis only after it was clear that Sargodha would go to Pakistan. Partition triggered a mass migration of people, with about 7.2 million Hindus and Sikhs moving to India from the newly created Pakistan and an equal number of Muslims making the reverse migration. One million lives were lost along the way, many victims of brutal sectarian violence. Stemming bloodshed as a result of Partition was just one of the goals on the new republic’s political agenda. Independent India’s first leader, Jawaharlal Nehru, invited the country’s masses to fulfill their “tryst with destiny” and “awake to life and freedom.”

The story of Sanjay Wadhwa’s father and mother and their family’s experience of Partition: Interview with Arjun and Rashmi Wadhwa, January 21, 2012. Punjab Province, a collection of 17,932 towns and villages with 15 million Hindus, 16 million Muslims, and 5 million Sikhs: Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre, Freedom at Midnight (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975), 121. Partition and the division of Punjab and Bengal: Ibid. Partition triggered a mass migration of people, and 1 million lives were lost: Ibid. Ramachandra Guha, India After Gandhi: The History of the World’s Largest Democracy (London: Macmillan, 2007), 32. Jawaharlal Nehru invited the country’s masses to fulfill their “tryst with destiny” and “awake to life and freedom”: As quoted in “A Tryst With Destiny,”, May 1, 2007. It helped to secure a letter from a member of Parliament: Interview with N.

pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

All you can hear is the sound of the heat pump on the side of the house; all you can see is the blue glow behind the living-room curtains.”12 Gone were seersucker suits. Southern fashion looked not much different from what was worn in Pennsylvania or Illinois. Sunbelt cities—if you could actually call them cities—were thriving; but they were so low density sprawling and absent any economic center, that they were really more like suburbs connected by freeway arterioles. This air-conditioned-induced mass migration would have enormous consequences for national politics as the South regained the dominant position in federal electoral politics that had been wrested away by FDR’s New Deal coalition. Nixon’s “Southern strategy” to peel Democrats off what was once the “solid South” could not have been better timed. Over time, however, the commutes from the Sunbelt (and Northern) suburbs got longer, the traffic got worse, and the quality of life deteriorated.

pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In the countryside, agricultural production soared as new rules gave farmers new freedoms and new incentives to produce. As with Japan and the Asian Tigers, trade expanded and manufacturing boomed. Economic change created social problems. The injection of huge amounts of money into China’s labyrinthine bureaucracy created corruption on a massive scale. In a country with little history of labor mobility, mass migration brought tens of millions of peasants from rural backwaters into the boomtowns of the southern and eastern coasts. A spike in social unrest followed as the gap between rich and poor widened and already populous cities became dangerously overcrowded. Political leaders who feared that the party would lose control of all these changes grew even more anxious as a different form of experimentation sparked turmoil inside the Soviet Union.

pages: 239 words: 68,598

The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning by James E. Lovelock

Ada Lovelace, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, discovery of DNA, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Henri Poincaré, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, short selling, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia

As I mentioned earlier, I base this prediction on the Earth’s historical record and on models like that illustrated in Figure 3 (p. 33). When it happens the ocean may have risen twenty or even thirty metres, if much of West Antarctica melts into the ocean as well as Greenland; and almost everywhere will be five to six degrees hotter than now. These changes are at least as devastating as was the interglacial shift and will affect a world that is already hot and dry. When they do mass migration is inevitable. The recognition that we are the agents of planetary change brings a sense of guilt and gives environmentalism a religious significance. So far it is no more than a belief system that has extended the concept of pollution and ecosystem destruction from the local to the planetary scale. Maybe it will grow into a faith but it is still nascent and its dogma not yet properly codified.

pages: 243 words: 65,374

How We Got to Now: Six Innovations That Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

A. Roger Ekirch, Ada Lovelace, big-box store, British Empire, butterfly effect, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, germ theory of disease, Hans Lippershey, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jacquard loom, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Live Aid, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, planetary scale, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, walkable city, women in the workforce

But the ability to control temperature and humidity in office buildings, stores, and wealthier homes allowed these urban centers to attract an economic base that has catapulted them to megacity status. It’s no accident that the world’s largest cities—London, Paris, New York, Tokyo—were almost exclusively in temperate climates until the second half of the twentieth century. What we are seeing now is arguably the largest mass migration in human history, and the first to be triggered by a home appliance. — THE DREAMERS AND INVENTORS who ushered in the cold revolution didn’t have eureka moments, and their brilliant ideas rarely transformed the world immediately. Mostly they had hunches, but they were tenacious enough to keep those hunches alive for years, even decades, until the pieces came together. Some of those innovations can seem trivial to us today.

Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, crossover SUV, Donald Davies, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, mass immigration, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men

After all of last year’s harvest has been eaten, the cattle sold off, and all favors from friends called in, households sometimes face some very uncomfortable arithmetic. What if there are still too many mouths and too little food? Each household member could go his own way in search of food or work, and migration is a common response to famines. This happened seventy years ago in the United States when the Great Plains turned into a giant dustbowl, causing mass migrations to California during the Great Depression. But countries like Kenya and Chad don’t have a Golden State of opportunity where fortunes can be sought by the starving masses—remember the migrations of Niger’s Tuaregs from chapter 5? Without a possibility of escaping to greener pastures, everyone in the household could instead be called upon to first cut back on what they spend and consume. While this sounds fair, it could actually make the family’s situation even 137 CH A PTER SI X worse.

Woolly: The True Story of the Quest to Revive History's Most Iconic Extinct Creature by Ben Mezrich

butterfly effect, Danny Hillis, double helix, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, microbiome, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Stewart Brand

Church, Stewart, and Ryan had gone through the apocalyptic story of the passenger pigeon numerous times since that email exchange. For a hundred thousand years, at least, the passenger pigeon had been the most abundant bird on the planet, reaching a population in the billions by the early nineteenth century. “Then they met us,” Phelan said. No amount of spiderweb-patterned glass could have saved the passenger pigeon: A mass migration of Europeans into the North American wilderness, combined with the rise of the commercialized use of pigeon meat, led to organized shoots. By 1900, the very last wild passenger pigeon was killed. A few years later, the species was officially declared extinct. The doomed bird was the prime model of what happened when humanity refused to coexist with its environment. Although extinction can be a natural process—and scientists estimate that more than five billion species have gone extinct in Earth’s history—humans have rapidly accelerated the process.

pages: 247 words: 68,918

The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

It’s essentially a catchall term for all the various processes by which ideas, information, people, money, goods, and services cross international borders at unprecedented speed. Together, these processes have created a much more integrated global economy through trade, foreign direct investment, large-scale capital flows, the construction of global supply chains, innovation in communications technologies, and mass migration. None of these individual elements is entirely new. Global trade has existed for centuries. But the multiplier effect these forces create and the velocity with which they move make this phenomenon qualitatively different from anything that has come before. Globalization, like capitalism, is powered by the individual impulses of billions of people. It is not the result of someone’s economic reform plan, and it can’t be reversed by decree.

pages: 242 words: 71,943

Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump,, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

The Long Emergency is going to be a tremendous trauma for the human race.2 Modern Americans have a track record of explaining away the process of decline. The term white flight is an unnecessarily narrow description applied to the depopulation of core cities and the explosion of horizontal growth following World War II. While there is no question that race was an accelerator in the process, and practices like redlining went beyond class to systematically disenfranchise minorities, affluence was the underlying factor driving the mass migration. In a broad sense, people with means and agency decamped from cities, leaving behind those who lacked that option. I make this distinction because, as despotic as that outcome was for those left behind, it pales in comparison to the conditions being created on the current trajectory. When poor people were left behind in the center of Americans cities, they still lived in coherent neighborhoods.

America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

American ideology, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

This overclass is still overwhelmingly White, and even WASP, but creams off and co-opts small numbers of the Black and other elites while diverting the energies of radicals into essentially pointless struggles over symbols—and away from concrete transracial issues such as immigration control and raising the minimum wage, which would genuinely help ordinary members of the racial minorities, who on average remain markedly poorer than the White population.70 Political correctness of this type is not simply the result of a swing to the Left in academia on one hand meeting a newly radicalized Right on the other. It also reflects profound changes in American society from the 1960s on: the freeing of Blacks as a serious political force and the resumption of mass immigration without racial restrictions. The resulting new society is one to which Americans of many different political allegiances have had to respond. Thus not just official American patriotic propaganda, but the visual propaganda of the nationalist and religious Right is in general deliberately multiracial (Lynne Cheney's patriotic primer is full of drawings of Black and Asian American toddlers waving flags and playing at being soldiers).71 Indeed, to be fair, one could almost say that America over the past generation or so has become so complicated that its educational system is more or less forced back to simplistic myths, for trying to teach or discuss the full reality would be physically impossible.

Equally important, if continued, will be the fading of the American Dream as far as large sections of the American middle classes are concerned, due to economic change and the effects of globalization. Over the past thirty years, incomes in this central part of American society have stagnated or even fallen, with the skilled and semiskilled working classes suffering particularly badly.1 Meanwhile, incomes at the lower end of the scale have been held down by the resumption of mass immigration, both legal and illegal. Median family income rose by 40 percent in the 1950s and 1960s, but in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s by only some 7 percent, despite the fact that a vastly greater number of women entered full employment over the latter period. Meanwhile income inequality increased considerably. In 1969 the richest 5 percent of families earned 15.6 percent of all income. In 1996, the figure was 20.3 percent.2 Ruthless competition, the lack of state regulation and a minimum wage, the increase in temporary and informal employment, the use of unregistered illegal immigrants and the decline of the trade unions have meant that many jobs which once kept people in the middle classes now barely maintain them at subsistence level.

The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History by Greg Woolf

agricultural Revolution, capital controls, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, endogenous growth, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, global village, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, joint-stock company, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, social web, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl

Rome fought long wars with the Samnites during the late fourth and early third centuries b.c.e., but there were other dimensions to those relationships, many of them contributing to the creation of a more integrated social system in Italy.4 Ancient writers liked to think in terms of migrations and there was even the idea of a “sacred spring,” the moment when a new people arrived in a land for the first time. Mass migrations were a reality, but they were only a part of a more complex story. No case illustrates this better than Rome’s relations with peoples they usually called Gauls and the Greeks called Celts, especially with those who inhabited the Po Valley and other parts of Adriatic Italy north of the Apennine ridge.5 There are implausible myths (written down much later) about great organized migrations from central France.

Travel in the Ancient World. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Cébeillac-Gervason, M., ed. 1981. Les bourgeoisies municipales italiennes aux IIe et Ier siècles av. J-C. Centre Jean Berard, Institut Français de Naples: Éditions du CNRS & Bibliothèque de l’Institut Français de Naples, Chadwick, John. 1976. The Mycenaean World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Champion, T. C. 1980. “Mass Migration in Later Prehistoric Europe.” In Transport Technology and Social Change: Papers Delivered at Tekniska Museet Symposium No 2, Stockholm, 1979, edited by Per Sörbom, 33–42. Stockholm: Tekniska Museet. Champion, T. C. 2013. “Protohistoric European Migrations.” In Encyclopaedia of Global Human Migration, edited by Immanuel Ness, 2463–2468. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Chang, K. C. 1974. “Urbanism and the King in Ancient China.”

England by David Else

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Return to beginning of chapter Food & Drink * * * STAPLES & SPECIALITIES Breakfast Lunch Dinner Regional Specialities Puddings DRINKS Alcoholic Nonalcoholic WHERE TO EAT & DRINK Picnics & Self-catering Cafes & Teashops Restaurants Pubs & Bars FOOD GLOSSARY * * * Once upon a time, English food was highly regarded. In the later medieval period and 17th century, many people – especially the wealthy – ate a varied diet. Then along came the Industrial Revolution, with mass migration from the country to the city, and food quality took a nosedive – a legacy that means there’s still no English equivalent for the phrase bon appétit. But today the tide has turned once again. In 2005, food bible Gourmet magazine famously singled out London as having the best collection of restaurants in the world, and in the years since then the choice for food lovers – whatever their budget – has continued to improve, so it’s now easy to find decent food in other cities, as well as country areas across England

Certainly the counties were part of King Alfred the Great’s 9th-century kingdom of Wessex. From Tudor times onwards Devon and Cornwall helped England build an empire – plaques on Plymouth’s Barbican (Click here) note the departures of Sir Francis Drake, America’s first settlers and emigrant ships to Australia and New Zealand. The late 1800s saw a sharp decline in Cornwall’s mining industry and mass migration – some communities were cut by a third; today ruined engine houses still dot the county’s cliffs, most dramatically at Geevor and Botallack (Click here). The Victorian era brought the railways, mass tourism and resorts – notably at Torquay (Click here) and Penzance (Click here). WWII brought devastating bombing and hundreds of thousands of American servicemen. The following decades saw the death of the mining industry, and fishing and farming slip into decline; despite the holiday image the region still has among the lowest wages in the country.

History Though Norwich’s history stretches back well over a thousand years, the city’s golden age was during the Middle Ages, when it was England’s most important city after London. Its relative isolation meant that it traditionally had stronger ties to the Low Countries than to London and when Edward III encouraged Flemish weavers to settle here in the 14th century this connection was sealed. The arrival of the immigrants helped establish the wool industry that fattened the city and sustained it right through to the 18th century. Mass immigration from the Low Countries peaked in the troubled 16th century. In 1579 more than a third of the town’s citizens were foreigners of a staunch Protestant stock, which proved beneficial during the Civil War when the Protestant parliamentarians caused Norwich little strife. Today the spoils of this rich period in the city’s history are still evident, with 36 medieval churches (see adorning the streets whose layout is largely unchanged since this time.

pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Farage refers to the BNP as the ‘Bloody Nasty Party’.32 He pointed out that many of UKIP’s potential voters were old enough to remember the Second World War and had a lifelong allergy to fascism. When Theresa May, then Home Secretary, set up a pilot scheme to round up illegal immigrants, he criticised her methods as ‘nasty’ and ‘not the British way’. UKIP is officially opposed to ‘unlimited mass immigration’. But for the most part, it has focused on stopping Britain from turning into ‘a province of the United European superstate’. Only during the Brexit campaign did the party endorse overt xenophobia with its ‘breaking point’ poster showing hordes of Muslim immigrants streaming across the border. That did not deter a significant slice of the non-white electorate – particularly British Asians – from voting to leave Europe.

pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

Although there was one famine in Ethiopia, its estimated eight to ten million victims were divided up, in terms of responsibility, among three major armies and other minor ones in the warring north of Ethiopia. Outside of the main towns, most of Eritrea and Tigre were in the hands of antigovernment guerrillas: the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) and the Tigre People's Liberation Front (TPLF), each with its own famine relief organization whose declared purpose was the same as the RRC's. With troops constantly on the move, and mass migrations of peasants in progress, it often was impossible to know exactly how many starving people were in the territory of any one army at any particular time. As few as one-third, or as many as two-thirds, of those starving could have been in areas held by the EPLF and the TPLF on a given day. A common assumption was that almost half of the eight to ten million affected peasants were in territory reached only by guerrilla relief agencies.

pages: 222 words: 75,561

The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It by Paul Collier

air freight, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, British Empire, business cycle, Doha Development Round, failed state, falling living standards, income inequality, mass immigration, out of africa, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

There is a straightforward explanation: conflict generates territory outside the control of a recognized government, and this comes in handy if your activity is illegal. Osama bin Laden chose to locate in Afghanistan for the same reason. So countries in civil war have what might be called a comparative advantage in international crime and terrorism. AIDS probably spread through an African civil war: the combination of mass rape and mass migration produces ideal conditions for spreading sexually transmitted disease. Consequently, wars in the bottom billion are our problem as well. All in all, the cost of a typical civil war to the country and its neighbors can be put at around $64 billion. In recent decades about two new civil wars have started each year, so the global cost has been over $100 billion a year, or around double the global aid budget.

pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Since there is little “victory” to celebrate in wars today, this would be a good cause to pursue. Chapter Five The New Colonialism: Better Than the Last Some states were never meant to be—and really never were. Centuries of Western colonialism created the modern world as we know it, but that map is unraveling as some states splinter, collapse, or seem to fall off it altogether. Terrorist cells striking from zones of chaos and mass migrations from countries with no economy or stability are a constant reminder that even if we peacefully remap volatile regions, the postcolonial world—which includes most members of the United Nations—is in a state of high entropy, fragmenting into a fluid, neo-medieval labyrinth. Globalization has filled this void with a twenty-first-century colonialism of strong states, international agencies, NGOs, and companies.

pages: 237 words: 77,224

The Fracture Zone: My Return to the Balkans by Simon Winchester

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, borderless world, invention of movable type, Khyber Pass, mass immigration

Once the tide of empire had visibly begun to ebb—once the siege of Vienna had been overwhelmed, and the Ottomans started to be chased back to their lairs—so the Austrians themselves began to cast a covetous eye on the possibility of spoils. Within three years of the failure of the siege, the Austrians had taken Budapest (or Buda as it was then) and two years later, Belgrade (though in a sick convulsion the Ottomans recovered it half a century later). Back in Constantinople people began to fear that a Christian army would suddenly appear at the gates. House prices fell. There was a mass migration across the Bosporus to Asia. There were veiled mutterings against the indifference and pomposity of the sultan and his court, the luxury and abandon, the absurdities of his ram fights and of camel wrestling, and of the cruel caprices of the courtiers’ whims. At its zenith the empire was truly vast—Morocco to Mesopotamia, Poland to Yemen—and when it began to totter, Russia and Austria discussed dividing it between them.

pages: 247 words: 78,961

The Return of Marco Polo's World: War, Strategy, and American Interests in the Twenty-First Century by Robert D. Kaplan

Admiral Zheng, always be closing, California gold rush, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Haight Ashbury, kremlinology, load shedding, mass immigration, megacity, one-China policy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, Westphalian system, Yom Kippur War

It has stockpiles of anthrax, cholera, and plague, as well as eight industrial facilities for producing chemical agents—any of which could be launched at Seoul by the army’s conventional artillery. If the governing infrastructure in Pyongyang were to unravel, the result could be widespread lawlessness (compounded by the guerrilla mentality of the Kim Family Regime’s armed forces), as well as mass migration out of and within North Korea. In short, North Korea’s potential for anarchy is equal to that of Iraq, and the potential for the deployment of weapons of mass destruction—either during or after pre-collapse fighting—is far greater. For a harbinger of the kind of chaos that looms on the peninsula, consider Albania, which was for some years the most anarchic country in post-communist Eastern Europe, save for war-torn Yugoslavia.

pages: 238 words: 73,121

Does Capitalism Have a Future? by Immanuel Wallerstein, Randall Collins, Michael Mann, Georgi Derluguian, Craig Calhoun, Stephen Hoye, Audible Studios

affirmative action, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Isaac Newton, job automation, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, loose coupling, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Lest we forget, villages provided intimate coziness and shelter that meant, by extension, intrusive supervision and the social caging of individuals. The protective inertia of traditions, the inequalities of age and sex inscribed in the patriarchal households, the denigrating and violently vengeful attitudes toward strangers and outsiders were part and parcel of village life, too. The modern history of mass migrations, demographic transitions, and the creation of new political communities brought enormous costs and traumas. The overseas emigration of European settlers helped to improve the ratio of demographics to resources at the cost of the displacement, enslavement, and downright extermination of the indigenous peoples in the colonies who lacked guns and immunity to the germs brought by the invaders. The emergence of modern nations often implied the oppression and expulsion of the “non-national” minorities.

Blindside: How to Anticipate Forcing Events and Wild Cards in Global Politics by Francis Fukuyama

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, energy security, flex fuel, global pandemic, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John von Neumann, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Norbert Wiener, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yom Kippur War

If one were to superimpose Indonesia on a map of Europe, it would reach from Ireland to Turkey. There are some 13,000 islands. Vital trade routes move through the region. Most of the oil that goes to China and Japan moves through the region, so any disintegration or instability in this area would be a vital concern to both of those countries. Terrorism almost certainly would increase, and the prospect of mass migration would be a serious one for Australians to worry about. Another less spectacular but not unimportant surprise may be in the offing: a serious change in the character of the U.S.-Australian alliance. For fifty years the alliance has been marked by undeviating devotion on Australia’s 2990-7 ch13 harries 7/23/07 12:15 PM global discontinuities Page 145 145 part, a willingness to march in lockstep with its great ally.

pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla

British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

For Frans van der Hoff (2005: 136), one of the structural characteristics of neoliberalism is that ‘it takes away money from the poorer social classes to give it to the wealthier social classes’. 27. The economist and historian Jeffrey Williamson, as well as many of his colleagues, distinguish a first ‘wave’ of globalisation, which they place between 1870 and 1913 and refer to as the ‘age of mass migration’. In contrast, the second ‘wave’ of globalisation would have started in the 1950s and continues to the present. From their point of view, the intervening period (1913–45) would be one of de-globalisation. See for example Williamson (1996). 28. According to Rodrik (2007b: 8), with a 3 per cent increase in their share of the labour force of rich countries, immigrants from the South would enjoy net gains of $265 billion per year.

pages: 246 words: 76,561

Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus

Here was the modernist utopia built on a scale that Le Corbusier had dreamt of but was never able to realise. This city within the city comprised 130 buildings, providing 15,000 apartments. At its height, Tlatelolco housed nearly 100,000 people. It was the kind of solution that the problem of Mexico City seemed to demand, a problem of population explosion fuelled by industrialisation and the accompanying mass migrations from the countryside. What was a population of a little over a million in 1940 was on its way to becoming 15 million by 1980. Tlatelolco’s architect was Mario Pani. Like other prominent Latin American architects of his generation, he was trained in Europe, indeed in Paris, where he attended the École des Beaux-Arts in the 1920s before imbibing the spirit of Corbusian modernism. An earlier housing project, the Presidente Miguel Alemán estate, built in 1948, even uses the zigzagging blocks of the Ville Radieuse, Corbu’s blueprint for an ideal city.

pages: 272 words: 78,876

Heart: A History by Sandeep Jauhar

blue-collar work, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, Honoré de Balzac, John Snow's cholera map, mass immigration, medical residency, placebo effect, publish or perish, Rubik’s Cube, selection bias, stem cell, the scientific method

My grandfather lived in a district in the Punjab province of what is today Pakistan, where he owned a land management business, hiring laborers to tend to large estates. With the end of British rule in August 1947, the long-standing animosity between Hindus and Muslims in Punjab, as in the rest of the Indian subcontinent, exploded. That year, six years before my grandfather died, the country was partitioned into India and West and East Pakistan (now called Bangladesh), along largely sectarian lines. The result was the largest mass migration in recorded history. Millions of Hindus trekked into India (my grandfather’s family among them). Millions of Muslims went in the opposite direction. The violence on both sides was unimaginable, with massacres, rapes, abductions, and forced religious conversions. One victim was my grandfather’s family’s priest, whose throat was cut by a Muslim gang when he refused to say “Allahu akbar?” “We had Oms,” my father explains, pointing to a gray tattoo on his hand.

pages: 240 words: 74,182

This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality by Peter Pomerantsev

"side hustle", 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, citizen journalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, mega-rich, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, South China Sea

One meme created by Infokrieg, for example, showed a highly saturated drawing of a happy American family right out of a 1950s advert, with the words ‘Right Wing Extremists’ printed beneath it, indicating that traditional ways of life are being marginalised. But what caught my eye on Infokrieg was the language used by some of the participants: ‘Don’t use any National Socialist memes. Focus on lowest-common-denominator themes: mass migration, Islamification, Identity, Freedom, Tradition.’ ‘Lowest common denominator’ was a concept right out of Srdja’s playbook. Infokrieg was created by members of the ‘Génération Identitaire’ movement. Martin Sellner, leader of the Identitarian Movement of Austria, is perhaps the movement’s most prominent figurehead and its intellectual leader. He advocates a culturally homogeneous Europe and the ‘remigration’ of Muslims: a sort of soft, peaceful path to achieve aims which sound not dissimilar to the ethnic cleansings Milošević supported.

pages: 219 words: 74,775

Liquid: The Delightful and Dangerous Substances That Flow Through Our Lives by Mark Miodownik

3D printing, airport security, clean water, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, mass immigration, megacity, The Design of Experiments

They are exciting and powerful, on the one hand, while being anarchic and slightly terrifying on the other. That is their nature. Nevertheless our ability to control liquids has mostly yielded a positive impact for humanity, and my bet is that at the end of the twenty-first century we’ll look back at lab-on-a-chip medical diagnostics and cheap water desalination and hail them as major breakthroughs that made possible longer life expectancies, and prevented mass migrations and conflict. By then I also hope we’ll have said goodbye to burning fossil fuels, and in particular kerosene. This liquid has given us the gift of cheap global travel, of sunny holidays and exciting adventures, but its role in global warming is too great to ignore. What liquid will we invent to replace it? Whatever it is, I suspect we will have a pre-flight safety ritual. Perhaps it will no longer involve the props of life jackets, oxygen masks and seatbelts – but we will always need ceremonies to celebrate the dangerous and delightful power of liquids.

pages: 264 words: 74,688

Imperial Legacies by Jeremy Black;

affirmative action, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, imperial preference, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

The British notably sought to end the enslavement of minorities, and can be criticized today by those who seek to enforce a monoglot interpretation of nationhood, like Buddhists in Myanmar and Sri Lanka and Hindu supremacists in India. This point needs to be borne in mind in any debate about imperialism, as does the argument that ethnic variety itself was functionally an advantage for, and of, imperial systems, particularly for their commercial viability. Today, in an increasingly multicultural world, marked by mass migrations and new intermixing of peoples, the larger and more capacious political unit can, to some, appear more attractive and efficient than the narrower and more exclusive ones, whether one is looking in present-day terms or historically. Empires indeed arouse particular scholarly interest at present because, for all their faults, they are perceived to embody a wealth of experience in the management of difference and diversity.

pages: 789 words: 207,744