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Lectures on Urban Economics by Jan K. Brueckner
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, congestion charging, Edward Glaeser, invisible hand, market clearing, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Economic Geography, profit maximization, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, urban sprawl
HT321.B78 2011 330.09173'2—dc22 2011006524 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Preface 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 ix Why Cities Exist 1 Introduction 1 Scale Economies 2 Agglomeration Economies 5 Transport Costs and Firm Location 10 The Interaction of Scale Economies and Transportation Costs in the Formation of Cities 16 Retail Agglomeration and the Economics of Shopping Centers 18 Summary 20 Analyzing Urban Spatial Structure Introduction 23 Basic Assumptions 25 Commuting Cost 26 Consumer Analysis 27 Analysis of Housing Production 33 Population Density 39 Intercity Predictions 42 Summary 50 23 Modiﬁcations of the Urban Model 51 Introduction 51 A City with Two Income Groups 51 Commuting by Freeway 56 Adding Employment Outside the CBD 57 Durable Housing Capital 61 Cities in Developing Countries 65 Summary 68 vi 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 Contents Urban Sprawl and Land-Use Controls 69 Introduction 69 Empirical Evidence on the Spatial Sizes of Cities 70 Market Failures and Urban Sprawl 73 Behavioral Impacts of Urban Sprawl 80 Using Land-Use Controls to Attack Urban Sprawl 80 Other Types of Land-Use Controls 84 Summary 89 Freeway Congestion Introduction 91 Congestion Costs 92 91 The Demand for Freeway Use 95 Trafﬁc Allocations: Equilibrium and Social Optimum Congestion Tolls 104 Choice of Freeway Capacity 110 Application to Airport Congestion 112 Summary 114 99 Housing Demand and Tenure Choice 115 Introduction 115 Housing Demand: The Traditional and Hedonic Approaches The User Costs of Housing 119 Tenure Choice 124 Down-Payment Requirements, Tenure Choice, and Mortgage Default 130 Property Abuse and Tenure Choice 133 Summary 136 Housing Policies Introduction 137 Rent Control 137 137 Housing-Subsidy Programs 145 Homelessness and Policies to Correct It Summary 157 Local Public Goods and Services Introduction 159 153 159 The Socially Optimal Level of a Public Good 161 Majority Voting and Voting with One’s Feet 163 116 Contents vii 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 Public-Good Congestion and Jurisdiction Sizes 174 Capitalization and Property-Value Maximization 179 Tax and Welfare Competition 183 Summary 185 9 Pollution 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Introduction 187 Pollution from a Single Factory and Governmental Remedies 188 Bargaining as a Path to the Social Optimum: The Coase Theorem 196 Cap-and-Trade Systems 200 Evidence on Air Pollution and Property Values 204 Summary 205 10 Crime 187 207 Introduction 207 The Economic Theory of Crime 208 Additional Aspects of the Theory 215 How to Divide a Police Force Between Rich and Poor Neighborhoods 221 10.5 Summary 229 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Urban Quality-of-Life Measurement Introduction 231 Theory: The Roback Model 233 Measuring Urban Quality of Life 241 Additional Issues 244 Summary 245 Exercises 247 References 273 Index 281 231 Preface This book offers a rigorous but nontechnical treatment of major topics in urban economics.
They control for self-selection by focusing on individuals who moved between central cities and suburbs, measuring their weight change. The results show no impact of such a move, indicating that suburban living has no causal effect on obesity. Thus, these two studies suggest that both of the alleged behavioral impacts of urban sprawl are absent in the data. 4.5 Using Land-Use Controls to Attack Urban Sprawl 4.5.1 Urban growth boundaries and sprawl The discussion in section 4.3 showed that two price-based instruments can be used to address urban sprawl. The ﬁrst of these instruments 10. In their empirical work on the determinants of sprawl, Burchﬁeld et al. (2006) equate sprawl with scattered development. Urban Sprawl and Land-Use Controls 81 was a development tax, designed to correct the market failure associated with open-space amenities. The second was a congestion toll, designed to correct the market failure associated with the congestion externality.
Instead of residing in a city that contains both rich and poor households, with public services shared between the two groups, high-income households may have an incentive to form their own homogeneous communities at the edge of the city, reinforcing the tendency toward spatial expansion already spurred by the above fundamental forces (see Nechyba and Walsh 2004). Public-sector issues are discussed in detail in chapter 8. Urban Sprawl and Land-Use Controls 4.3 73 Market Failures and Urban Sprawl 4.3.1 The market failure related to open-space amenities Urban economists have identiﬁed several market failures that may be relevant to urban sprawl. The ﬁrst involves the amenity beneﬁts generated by open space, which are lost when this space is consumed by urban development. Suppose, in particular, that each acre of agricultural land yields b dollars of open-space beneﬁts to society, over and above the beneﬁts resulting from the crops it produces.
Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
By 1988, a British study reflected the about-face in our priorities: “The pedestrian remains the largest single obstacle to free traffic movement. . . . For decades, traffic engineers who design roadways actually referred to walkers in the Highway Capacity Manual as ‘traffic interruptions.’ ”7 Whatever a community makes its main form of transportation profoundly shapes the way it will use its land, not the other way around. Weak land use plans and feeble regulations did not create urban sprawl, for example; pouring money into roads and cars did. And whatever transportation our community chooses—for most of us, cars—also shapes our quality of life. As we have learned over the years, single-mindedly choosing car transportation has dispersed and isolated us and degraded our communities’ quality of life, environment, and financial health. The more convenient we make life for cars, the less livable it becomes for us.
Porter fifteen years ago.10 Furthermore, we cannot make car travel easier without making other forms of travel—public transit, bicycling, or our two feet—more difficult.11 So every “solution” that makes our communities more car friendly not only doesn’t work but also makes things worse. All such remedies force us to drive more often; encourage more people and businesses to move from in-town locations; make walking, bicycling, and riding the bus more diffi-cult; degrade our quality of life with noise, hazards, and air pollution; cost us a lot of money; and move our once unique communities closer to becoming Anywhere, USA. As it has become more clear that auto-oriented urban sprawl puts our quality of life in a downward spiral, people-friendly solutions have started to present themselves again. We could develop vacant, underused in-town property instead of more remote “greenfield” suburbs. We could design more modest, low-speed streets and build fewer enormous parking lots. We could design places where people can park once, then walk—to their workplaces, stores, recreation, and civic activities.
With a car at our command, we don’t have to trudge to the subway, huddle in the rain or snow waiting for a bus, or simmer in the summer sun sweating our way six miles to work on a bicycle. So we’re in agreement. We’re keeping our Expeditions, F-150s, Blazers, and Explorers. It is irrational for us not to. WHAT DO THOSE SUVs COST US? Of course, we pay a price for all that convenience. Air, water, and noise pollution. Injury and death. Environmental degradation. Loss of land. Urban sprawl. Our time. Lots and lots of money. Social and emotional isolation. Clean Air Air pollution is an easy place to start, because nearly everyone agrees that cars cause it—or a large portion of it. Beyond that agreement, the arguments get murky. Just to make clear the correlation between driving cars and air pollution . . . The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicated that in 1997, motor vehicles emitted over 50 million tons of carbon monoxide into the air, over 7 million tons of nitrogen oxides, over 5 million tons of volatile organic compounds, 320 tons of sulfur dioxide, and almost 15 million tons of road dust into the nation’s air.
Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg
active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl
The Atlanta system burdens city and regional administrations with unaffordable costs and a widening gap between revenue and expenditure. It also causes enormous problems for ordinary families. The impact on ordinary families of similar situations in Australian cities has been very well documented by Dodson and Sipe (2008). The consequences of misguided policies in Australian cities to encourage urban sprawl, longer distances for most journey purposes and high levels of dependency on private cars has been to give ordinary families huge problems of managing budgets, coping with rising petrol prices and in extremis being unable to get to work and joining the ranks of the urban poor. Urban poverty in this case is directly linked to all those policies that have combined to produce sprawl, car dependency, and lack of destinations that are easily accessible and grossly inadequate public transport.
E-mobility is currently promoted as part of the maximum mobility objective and to provide a green smokescreen to reinforce the mobility paradigm by suggesting that mobility can be zero carbon/lower carbon and non-polluting. If e-mobility can be delivered to the extent that it can replace the vast majority of petrol/diesel car trips in Europe (and this has not yet been demonstrated) the result will be hugely expensive and many more roads with all their damaging effects will be funded and built. Urban sprawl will continue to consume valuable land that could be used for food production and land also provides valuable landscape, ecological and biodiversity services that are destroyed when new roads occupy that space. Distances travelled will increase and as distances increase so walking and cycling decline. With the decline in “active travel” (walking and cycling) obesity prevalence will increase (Roberts 2010) and citizens will be living in increasingly remote suburban communities with all the problems identified by Dodson and Sipe (2008) and paying for their mobility with larger percentages of their disposable income.
E-mobility offers some relief from damaging exhaust emissions and their health impacts but sits very uneasily in the wider context of polices and measures that could increase accessibility reduce congestion and reduce deaths and injuries in the road traffic environment. It cannot deliver on these wider societal objectives and should be more correctly seen as a device to maintain the growth of mobility and in particular the growth of private motorised transport and urban sprawl. It is not located within a coherent sustainable transport policy context characterised by the demotion of mobility as a societal objective. This demotion is now recognised as an overdue policy change by a United Nations report (United Nations, 2013) and this same report recommends its replacement by comprehensive accessibility objectives: “Achieving transport affordability objectives require actions that support non-motorised transport; reduce the financial costs of transport services; and increase transportation affordability through improved land-use accessibility.”
Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
This is why Chris Leinberger believes that “all the fancy economic development strategies, such as developing a biomedical cluster, an aerospace cluster, or whatever the current economic development ‘flavor of the month’ might be, do not hold a candle to the power of a great walkable urban place.”37 WHY JOHNNY CAN’T WALK The obesity bomb; Clearing the air; American car-nage; Tense and lonely The best day for being a city planner in America was July 9, 2004. That’s when Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson published their book Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Until that day, the main arguments for building walkable cities were principally aesthetic and social. More significantly, almost nobody but the planners was making them. But it turns out that while we were shouting into the wilderness about the frustrations, anomie, and sheer waste of suburban sprawl, a small platoon of physicians was quietly doing something much more useful: they were documenting how our built environment was killing us.
.● And sometimes when children do walk to school, their parents are visited by the police: a Salt Lake City newspaper carried in December 2010 the story of Noah Talbot, of South Jordan, who was picked up by the police on the way to school and his mother issued a citation for child neglect.5 Jackson and his coauthors note how “children are increasingly medicated for inattentiveness or hyperactivity, even as many are losing their opportunities for exercise at school or in the neighborhood. There are third-grade classes in which as many as a third of the boys are on Ritalin or similar medications.”6 To summarize the findings of Urban Sprawl and Public Health—which are echoed by a growing number of epidemiologists nationwide—the inactivity-inducing convenience, often violent speed, and toxic exhaust of our cars have contributed mightily to the circumstance that “for the first time in history, the current generation of youth will live shorter lives than their parents.”7 THE OBESITY BOMB In any meaningful discussion about American health (and health care), obesity has to be front and center.■ In the mid-1970s, only about one in ten Americans was obese, which put us where much of Europe is right now.
The study concluded that an hour spent driving triples your risk of heart attack in the hours that follow.32 A Belgian paper published in The Lancet found that traffic exposure accounts for more heart attacks worldwide than any other activity, even including physical exertion.33 Closer to home, a Miami study found that “after driving their cars across the city for forty-five minutes, university students had higher blood pressure, higher heart rates, and lower frustration tolerance.” This study is mentioned in Urban Sprawl and Public Health, where Dr. Jackson and his colleagues go on at length about driving stress, road rage, and their significant impacts on our national well-being. And the numbers are not insignificant—but let’s step back from health for a minute and talk about happiness. Is motoring around and around really how we want to be spending so much of our time? While many of us love driving, we hate commuting.
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
That same year, a report written by Russ Lopez of the Boston University School of Publish Heath for Fannie Mae entitled Thirty Years of Urban Sprawl in Metropolitan America warned of the dangers of our settlement patterns. “Urban sprawl is emerging as a major environmental, health and social issue,” Lopez wrote. California’s Inland Empire, the twenty-seven-thousand-square-mile zone between Los Angeles and the Riverside/San Bernardino hubs, emerged as a poster child of urban sprawl, a massive region where two-thirds of residents lived more than ten miles from a central business district, and the packed highways and clogged arterial roads had led to almost unbearable rates of congestion and pollution. In 2002 a report by the nonprofit agency Smart Growth America rated it the nation’s worst example of urban sprawl. “There is no ‘there’ there,” said one of the authors of the report
In places like Atlanta: Demographia.com, U.S. Census Bureau; see also http://www.demographia.com/db-atl1960.htm. By 2000, metropolitan areas covered: U.S. Census Bureau. That same year: Russ Lopez, Thirty Years of Urban Sprawl in Metropolitan America: 1970–2000: A Report to the Fannie Mae Foundation. a massive region where two-thirds of residents: Scott Gold and Massie Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl,” Los Angeles Times, October 18, 2002. In 2002 a report: Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall, and Don Chen, Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth America, 2002. “There is no ‘there’ there”: Gold and Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl.” The historian Lewis Mumford: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, pp. 237, 244; Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (Mariner Books, 1970). Her influential 1961 book: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961).
Researchers have also found that people get less exercise as the distances among where we live, work, shop, and socialize increase. As far back as 2001, a report from the CDC asserted a link between the design of our “built environment” and our increasing rates of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, obesity, asthma, and depression. “There is a connection . . . between the fact that the urban sprawl we live with daily makes no room for sidewalks or bike paths and the fact that we are an overweight, heart disease-ridden society,” wrote the report’s author, Richard Jackson, MD, a pediatrician, chair of Environmental and Health Sciences at UCLA, and former director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health. Jackson has been tracking the impact of environment on health for his entire career, in recent years focusing specifically on the influence of urban planning, including sprawl, on our overall well-being.
The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin
autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional
“Census reveals African-American children are leaving large U.S. cities as their young parents head for better life in suburbs,” Daily Mail, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2009903/African-American-children-leaving-biggest-U-S-cities-young-parents-head-suburbs.html. DUNN, Ross E. (1987). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century, Berkeley: University of California Press. DURKIN, Martin. (2012, January 13). “Three Cheers for Urban Sprawl,” New Geography, http://www.newgeography.com/content/002622-three-cheers-urban-sprawl. DYOS, H.J. et al. (1968). “Agenda for Urban Historians,” The Study of Urban History, New York: St. Martin’s Press. EARNSHAW, Martin. (2008). “Communities on the Couch,” The Future of Community, London: Pluto Press. EASTERBROOK, Gregg. (1999, March 15). “Suburban Myths,” The New Republic. EBERSTADT, Nicholas. (2005, November 15). “Old Age Tsunami,” American Enterprise Institute, https://www.aei.org/publication/old-age-tsunami/. ——— (2010, November/December).
“For Many in Britain, Being a Homeowner is a Fading Dream,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/24/business/global/24rent.html. WERTHEIMER, Jack. (2005, October). “Jews and the Jewish Birthrate,” aish.com, http://www.aish.com/jw/s/48899452.html. WHYTE, William H. (1965). “The Anti-City,” Metropolis: Values in Conflict, Belmont: Wadsworth. WILFORD, John Noble. (2000, December 19). “In Maya Ruins, Scholars See Evidence of Urban Sprawl,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/12/19/science/in-maya-ruins-scholars-see-evidence-of-urban-sprawl.html. WILKINSON, Francis. (2014, April 9). “Why are Liberal Cities Bad for Blacks?” Bloomberg View, http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2014-04-09/why-are-liberal-cities-bad-for-blacks. WILKINSON, Thomas O. (1965). The Urbanization of Japanese Labor: 1868–1955, Amherst: The University of Massachussetts Press. WILLIAMS, Alex. (2013, February 15).
If people move to the periphery, it is not because they are deluded or persuaded by advertising but because they perceive that is where their quality of life is higher.178 As we’ve seen, suburban and urban expansion are nothing new. New archeological evidence points to the earliest cities being formed by combining several discrete small communities; even the ancient Maya had what researchers described as “urban sprawl,” complete with large houses and even an archaic version of strip malls. For his part, Aristotle spoke about cities as the union of “several villages.” Suburbs and small communities are not new phenomena but instead are woven into the history of urban life.179 Rather than demonizing and belittling the suburbanite, urbanists would be far better off taking a more human-city approach and focusing on how to improve life not only in the city cores but also in extensive areas that have developed around them.
The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America by Jon C. Teaford
anti-communist, big-box store, conceptual framework, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, East Village, edge city, estate planning, Golden Gate Park, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, rent control, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, young professional
Donald C. Williams, Urban Sprawl: A Reference Handbook (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2000), p. 1. 24. James Howard Kunstler, The City in Mind: Notes on the Urban Condition (New York: Free Press, 2001), p. 43. 25. Phillip J. Langman, “American Gridlock,” U.S. News & World Report, 28 May 2001, p. 19. 26. Kunstler, City in Mind, p. 41. 27. Michelle Cottle, “House Arrest,” New Republic, 6 August 2001, p. 18. 28. John G. Mitchell, “Urban Sprawl,” National Geographic, July 2001, p. 71. 29. Lacayo, “Brawl over Sprawl,” p. 45; Randal O’Toole, The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths (Brandon, Ore.: Thoreau Institute, 2001), p. 32; Bruce Katz, “The Permanent Campaign,” Urban Land, May 2003, p. 49. 30. Lacayo, “Brawl over Sprawl,” p. 46. 31. Williams, Urban Sprawl, pp. 21, 47–48; Katz, “Permanent Campaign,” p. 49. 32.
West of Chicago, in suburban Oak Brook, American Can Company opened offices in 1958, and two years later the community’s developers laid out a 154-acre office park that lured an increasing number of new white-collar employers over the next decade. As early as 1952, the upscale Saint Louis suburb of Clayton attracted the corporate headquarters of the Brown Shoe Company, and in 1962 a thirteen-story office building opened, followed a year later by a sixteen-story office tower. In 1966 the St. Louis Post-Dispatch observed that the suburb’s burgeoning skyline “no longer blended into the county’s amorphous urban sprawl, but now appeared more like a little Tulsa or perhaps an Omaha, than just another incorporated outskirt of St. Louis.”34 FIGURE 3.3 Office buildings at Northland Shopping Center, Southfield, Michigan, 1965. (Walter P. Reuther Library, Wayne State University) On the West Coast, Stanford University was nurturing the suburbanization of business. In 1951 its Stanford Industrial Park opened in Palo Alto, south of San Francisco.
Through the creation of entire new communities, Americans could supposedly correct the urban flaws resulting from the unplanned development of the past. Rather than segregating rich and poor, white and black, the new cities could embrace social and racial heterogeneity and provide housing and jobs for a diverse and hopefully harmonious population. Moreover, through enlightened planning, the new communities could halt mindless urban sprawl and offer something better than the prevailing pattern of unrelated housing subdivisions and garish commercial strips along traffic-jammed highways. They could also provide adequate open space and recreational facilities and preserve rather than bulldoze the natural beauty of the countryside. And they could foster imaginative modern architecture rather than create additional rows of the banal boxes with neo-colonial trim so typical of suburbia.
The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida
affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional
On the overall cost of sprawl to the US economy, see Todd Litman, “Analysis of Public Policies That Unintentionally Encourage and Subsidize Urban Sprawl,” London School of Economics and Political Science, for the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate for the New Climate Economy, 2015, http://static.newclimateeconomy.report/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/public-policies-encourage-sprawl-nce-report.pdf. 15. Christopher Ingraham, “The Astonishing Human Potential Wasted on Commutes,” Washington Post, February 25, 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2016/02/25/how-much-of-your-life-youre-wasting-on-your-commute. 16. On the health costs of sprawl, see Reid Ewing, Gail Meakins, Shima Hamidi, and Arthur C. Nelson, “Relationship Between Urban Sprawl and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Morbidity: Update and Refinement,” Health and Place 26 (March 2014): 118–126; Reid Ewing and Shima Hamidi, “Measuring Sprawl, 2014,” Smart Growth America, April 2014, www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/measuring-sprawl-2014.pdf; Jane E.
Laura Doering, “Necessity Is the Mother of Isomorphism: Poverty and Market Creativity in Panama,” Sociology of Development 2, no. 3 (Fall 2016): 235–264; Phyllis Korkki, “Attacking Poverty to Foster Creativity in Entrepreneurs,” New York Times, March 12, 2016, www.nytimes.com/2016/03/13/business/attacking-poverty-to-foster-creativity-in-entrepreneurs.html. 23. These data on population growth, urban expansion and density, and those in the paragraph below on streets are from Shlomo Angel, Atlas of Urban Expansion, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2016. 24. UN-Habitat, Streets as Tools for Urban Transformation in Slums. 25. Mark Swilling, “The Curse of Urban Sprawl: How Cities Grow and Why This Has to Change,” The Guardian, July 12, 2016, www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/jul/12/urban-sprawl-how-cities-grow-change-sustainability-urban-age. 26. Letty Reimerink, “Medellín Made Urban Escalators Famous, but Have They Had Any Impact?,” Citiscope, July 24, 2014, http://citiscope.org/story/2014/medellin-made-urban-escalators-famous-have-they-had-any-impact; “City of the Year,” Wall Street Journal Magazine, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/ad/cityoftheyear. 27.
Data on Ferguson are from Elizabeth Kneebone, “Ferguson, MO, Emblematic of Growing Suburban Poverty,” Brookings Institution, August 15, 2014, www.brookings.edu/blogs/the-avenue/posts/2014/08/15-ferguson-suburban-poverty; James Russell, “Ferguson and Failing Suburbs,” Jamessrussell.net, August 17, 2015, http://jamessrussell.net/ferguson-and-failing-suburbs; Stephen Bronars, “Half of Ferguson’s Young African-American Men Are Missing,” Forbes, March 18, 2015, www.forbes.com/sites/modeledbehavior/2015/03/18/half-of-fergusons-young-african-american-men-are-missing. 13. On the connection between commuting time and economic mobility, see Reid Ewing, Shima Hamidi, James B. Grace, and Yehua Dennis Wei, “Does Urban Sprawl Hold Down Upward Mobility?” Landscape and Urban Planning 148 (April 2016): 80–88. 14. On the delivery of local services to the suburbs, see Arthur Nelson as cited in Leigh Gallagher, The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving (New York: Portfolio Penguin, 2013). For the UCLA study, by the California Center for Sustainable Communities, see Laura Bliss, “L.A.’s New ‘Energy Atlas’ Maps: Who Sucks the Most Off the Grid,” CityLab, October 6, 2015, www.citylab.com/housing/2015/10/las-new-energy-atlas-maps-who-sucks-the-most-off-the-grid/409135.
The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé
Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War
It is highly unlikely that sheep were to be found anywhere near the Prime Minister’s Office when Oz’s book was first published. However, sheep did graze this hillside when the rural Palestinian village of Sheikh al-Badr was situated there. A few of its houses still remain, next to the American hotels frequented by Israeli members of the Knesset who do not live in Jerusalem. The village was gradually swallowed by the city, becoming part of the urban sprawl until it was ethnically cleansed by Israeli forces in 1948. It was a famous part of the city, as it overlooked one of Jerusalem’s best-known landmarks: the Valley of the Cross. Tradition has it that the tree that provided the wood for Christ’s cross stood there and this is why it is said that on that spot Greek Orthodox monks built an impressive monastery, still there today, albeit surrounded by new Jewish neighbourhoods and ring roads.
Thus, 17,000 dunams were confiscated under the Ordinance of the Law (acquisition of land for public use) – all previously held in private ownership by Palestinians. On this land, the government developed the shechunot (‘neighbourhoods’), a euphemism used to describe the new Jewish colonies built in East Jerusalem so as to single them out as part of the new post-1967 Israel. It was through land robbery by the state, endorsed by all the Zionist parties, that these urban sprawls were created. A very thorough and exhaustive study by the Palestinian researcher Khalil Tafakji enables us to follow this process very carefully, facilitated by the helpful way he lists the names and locations of the new settlements. This act of recording is extremely important, as only a handful of Israeli Jews within the consensus, including the Zionist peace camp, would recognize these neighbourhoods as settlements.
So while the ink was still drying on the Oslo Accord, Greater Jerusalem was reinvented as an area consisting of 600 square kilometres, which included 15 per cent of the West Bank (just one block of it, Maleh Edumain, is nearly 1 per cent of the West Bank).7 Satellite settlements in areas adjacent to this new Greater Jerusalem were built with the future intention of serving as land bridges between Greater Jerusalem and the rest of the Israeli colonies in the West Bank. This expansion soon covered the ancient hills of North and East Jerusalem with a new urban sprawl of modern housing dressed up here and there with orientalist façades that resembled the very houses demolished to build these new ‘neighbourhoods’. As Eyal Weizman elucidated so clearly in his book Hollow Land, the 1968 master plan for Jerusalem was committed to both a colonial and oriental heritage dating back to the British urban planning of 1917 – with two huge differences. The British redesign and beautification of the city was not done through the demolition of old houses and the eviction of the indigenous population, and did not involve covering Greater Jerusalem with the concrete monstrosities that characterize the new Jewish ‘neighbourhoods’.8 By 2005, 200,000 Jewish settlers lived in this area.
Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
Yet only a certain percentage of the population wants to live in a suburban house. The baby boom generation is past its child-bearing years, and the proportion of the population in their thirties, the cohort traditionally most likely to buy a house, is at an historic low. There is a corollary to suburban living: utter car dependency. Although the suburbs we’ve built for ourselves depend on cars to function, there is another, more subtle symbiosis at work between urban sprawl and the automobile. My time on the road in Los Angeles and Phoenix was probably the longest uninterrupted stretch I’ve spent in a car in the last decade, and it made me grateful I don’t own one. By pitting you against everybody else on the road, driving turns travel itself into competition. After two weeks, I was looking for any excuse to ditch my ride, go for a walk in a park, eavesdrop on a conversation, or just feel the sidewalk under my feet.
When the French state began building the RER in the early 1960s, it had specific development goals in mind: the Schéma directeur, a kind of regional master plan inspired by Stockholm’s suburban mass transit system, called for new RER stations to concentrate the population in such satellite towns as Cergy-Pontoise, Évry, and Marne-ta-Vallée. Paris’s suburbs would continue to grow, but it would be railways, not highways, that would carry the bulk of the traffic, serving suburban university campuses, airports, and the new high-rise employment centers at La Défense. The goal of the RER was to limit urban sprawl, and it worked. While suburbanization continued—in the six years after line A opened in 1969, central Paris would lose 400,000 inhabitants—the city did not bleed into its hinterland anything like a London or a Moscow. The RER prevented low-density development by encouraging suburbanites, very few of whom use cars to commute, to live within walking distance of stations. The satellite towns in the outer surburbs are remarkably compact, and the three departments that make up Paris’s inner circle of suburbs are actually denser than central San Francisco.
Public transport didn’t structure central Paris the way it did New York or Los Angeles, which grew and evolved simultaneously with their subway and streetcar lines: with infinite care, the métro was shoehorned into an ancient walking city. It was the extensive RER system, which allows suburbanites to live within walking distance of train stations, that played the greatest role in transforming modern Paris, permitting the creation of dense suburbs while limiting urban sprawl. The métro, in contrast, preserved the integrity of the historic city. Why build expressways, after all, when an efficient, reliable, and comfortable alternative could always be found underfoot? And that is how the métro saved Paris. Le Supermétro My instructions were clear: be on the platform at République station, no later than 11:40 a.m. A giant of a man, wearing an Exile on Main Street T-shirt under his blue RATP cardigan, emerged from the loge de conduite—the driver’s cabin—shook my hand, and with a conspiratorial grin invited me aboard his métro train.
The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu
air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl
Increased farming biodiversity is not only desirable from an ecological perspective, but also more aesthetically pleasing than factory farming. In addition, large-scale producers are much less likely to be held accountable by distant consumers for the damage they cause to ecosystems. Promoting local food production also encourages land conservation for agricultural purposes and is an indirect way to fight urban sprawl. Unlike imported food, locally grown produce is often sold without packaging that then gets thrown away. • Security: Populations fed by local producers can always count on them in times of crisis such as during wars or with sudden price hikes on imported food items. By their very nature, international food markets only cater to the highest bidders and are not concerned with the fate of marginal populations.
Of course, additional trade-offs are also present in the case of more modest urban agriculture proposals, from rooftop gardening to the raising of backyard chickens, whose small size and consequent inability to generate economies of scale (try using a tractor on top of a high-rise building or obtaining large-scale discounts on the costs of inputs when farming small backyards) will always confine the practice to the realm of hobby gardeners, or, at best, high-margin luxury producers—either way, a result that is a far cry from the affordable and abundant food promised by locavores. “Protecting” the farmland that surrounds large cities from “urban sprawl” (in other words, preventing residential, industrial, and commercial development on agricultural land) through strict zoning is equally problematic. While restricting development might suit the sensibilities of people who already own residential property in thriving cities, it also unavoidably drives up housing prices, thus affecting disproportionately people of more modest means and newcomers (to say nothing of farmers’ children who would like to get out of this line of work and cash in on the family property).
If, on the other hand, residential and commercial developers are willing to put their own money into new projects, this signals that more people believe that agricultural land should be converted to other uses. (Of course, many individuals argue that markets are too short-sighted and that future agricultural land shortages are looming. Yet, because in advanced economies we now produce much more food on the same piece of land than in the not so distant past, much more agricultural land is currently reverting to a “wild” state than swallowed by “urban sprawl.”47) Also, nothing prevents environmentalists from purchasing land they deem worth preserving rather than using political power to declare private farmland part of a “greenbelt” and prevent its owner from selling it to developers or converting it to other uses. Prohibiting the redevelopment of agricultural land might appeal to the sensibilities of well-off or already established urbanites and environmentalists, but it is a selfish policy that ignores the economic benefits of urbanization and the needs of people of lesser means.48 Time and Trade-offs Finally, another point lost on many locavores is that the one thing that money cannot buy is more time, thus making it the scarcest commodity of all.
A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright
Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl
The food crisis, for example, has merely been postponed by switching to hybrid seed and chemical farming, at great cost to soil health and plant diversity.56 Following the attacks of September 11th, 2001, the world’s media and politicians focused understandably on terrorism. Two things need to be said here. First, terrorism is a small threat compared with hunger, disease, or climate change.57 Three thousand died in the United States that day; 25,000 die every day in the world from contaminated water alone. Each year, 20 million children are mentally impaired by malnourishment.58 Each year, an area of farmland greater than Scotland is lost to erosion and urban sprawl, much of it in Asia. Second, terrorism cannot be stopped by addressing symptoms and not the cause. Violence is bred by injustice, poverty, inequality, and other violence. This lesson was learnt very painfully in the first half of the twentieth century, at a cost of some 80 million lives.59 Of course, a full belly and a fair hearing won’t stop a fanatic; but they can greatly reduce the number who become fanatics.
See Alan Kolata, Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 1996); and Charles Stanish, Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003). 37. Twenty-one square kilometres. 38. The white man was not the first to be guilty of urban sprawl in great rectangles across American landscapes. 39. Webster, for example, (Ancient Maya, p. 297) notes maize pollen at Copan by 2000 B.C. Other Maya cities also began as farming villages at about this time. 40. The early text is on a stela at El Portón, in highland Guatemala. See Sharer, Ancient Maya, p. 79. 41. Nine hectares. 42. This is the Danta platform at El Mirador, which measures 1,000 feet (300 metres) on each side and is 230 feet (70 metres) tall.
., 15, 135n20 rulers, see kings Rwanda, 185n64 salt and soil, 77, 78, 79, 157n62 science and religion, collision, 10 science fiction, 122 scientific method, 10 Scientific Romance, A (Wright), 83, 122–23 scientific romances, 119, 122 Second World War, 121 Secret Agent, The (Conrad), 120, 147n47 sheep, 43, 159n9 slavery, 71, 114 smallpox, 50, 112, 116–17 social Darwinism, 130, 186n70 social safety net, 127, 183n60 social structure, see classes; “pyramids,” social Solon, 87 Soros, George, 129 Soviet Union, 6 Spanish conquests, 86, 112, 174n15 spearthrower, 141n13 speech, 13, 135n19 Steinbeck, John, 124 stock market, 129 Sumerians, 33, 65–79, 82, 83 blind to impact on nature, 87 city-states, 68, 70 classes, 71 collapse, 83, 158n3 emergence of civilization, 33, 149n1 environment, 67–68, 74–75 floods, 74–77, 156n55, 156n56 human sacrifice, 71–73 irrigation and effects, 68, 77–79 kingship, 70–73 population, 68, 154n38, 157n2 priesthood, 69, 70 slaves, 71 temple prostitution, 70, 154n35 trade, 69 writing, 69–70 ziggurats, 69, 153n32 Tainter, Joseph, 92, 107, 125, 128, 181n52 Tattersall, Ian, 38 technological determinism, 47 technology concerns, 122, 182n54 early machinery, 177n28 as measure of progress, 4–7, 46–47 temple prostitution, 70, 154n35 Teotihuacan, 95, 163n38 terrorism, 49, 126, 147n47 Tikal, 95–96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 105, 165n49, 167n55 Time Machine, The (Wells), 120, 121 Tiwanaku, 94, 163n36, 166n52 towns and villages, Neolithic, 48–49 trade China with Rome, 104, 170n75 Sumerians, 69 trees, 59–60, 86, 185n67 United Nations, 128 United States deficits, 186n69 hostility to conservation, 124, 129–30, 181n49 imperial expansion, 86, 159n7 Ur, 78, 79, 154n38 urban sprawl, 126 Uruk, 67, 70, 79 Ussher, Archbishop, 11 Utnapishtim, 75–77, 156n56 Utopia (More), 115–16 Victorian ideal of progress, 3 violence, 33–34, 71–73, 126, 139n5, 140n6 Waiting for the Barbarians (Coetzee), 71, 122 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 117, 178n35 warfare, 33–34, 48–49, 121 early humans, 24–26 twentieth century, 121, 180n43 waste, 125 weapons, 5–6, 29, 31, 121, 179n41 of early humans, 36, 141n13 Webster, David, 100, 101, 145n39 Wells, H.
The State and the Stork: The Population Debate and Policy Making in US History by Derek S. Hoff
"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, feminist movement, full employment, garden city movement, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, New Economic Geography, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, War on Poverty, white flight, zero-sum game
He said, “Sometime ago I came across a comment that the major problems confronting the world today could be summarized as bombs, babies, and bulldozers: Nuclear bombs and missiles which might destroy civilization overnight; an excess of babies which could frustrate efforts at economic development; and bulldozers which are well on their way to leveling the world’s countryside to make way for a chaotic urban sprawl.”70 In the months before Kennedy’s November 1963 assassination, Congress and the bureaucracy moved ahead of the president and set the stage for what historian Donald Critchlow identifies as a quiet “policy revolution.”71 In August, Sen. Joseph Clark (D-Pa.) gave the first major speech in Congress identifying a need for population reduction at home and abroad.72 Clark and Sen. Ernest Gruening (D-Alaska), whom Life magazine dubbed “Mr.
Due to the local-branch nature of the organization, ZPG members spent much of their time trying to combat local sprawl rather than educating Americans about aggregate growth. Judith Morgan, a ZPG vice-president, said that the organization’s chapters were “local salespersons for land use planning, discussions of growth control mechanisms” and the “advocacy of [local] population ‘caps.’ ”187 Given the dramatic increase in the suburban population in midcentury America, ZPG hardly 194 chapter 6 could have avoided the issue of urban sprawl. Yet the emphasis on local growth fostered a certain amount of middle-class, “not in my backyard” (NIMBY) sentiment, which diluted the critique of aggregate population and consumption increases. Reservations about population growth helped shape American environmental policies well before the takeoff of the zero population growth movement of the late 1960s. Yet the center of anti–population growth thought—the simple notion that fewer people promote the Good Life and a better standard of living—practically disappeared during the decade.
Advocates of a national growth policy acknowledged the increase of the aggregate population, but their primary concern was the deleterious effects of distribution, for example, the “sprawl” created by the expanding megalopolises concentrated along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.47 Hence, many proposals for a national growth strategy included efforts to subsidize population relocation.48 The campaign for growth policy united liberals, who opposed the ecological effects of urban sprawl, and conservatives, who focused on the social ills of the city. Within Nixon’s inner circle, Moynihan personified the connections between growing fears of an urban crisis, the drive for growth policy, and the broader population debate. He chaired the White House’s informal Urban Affairs Council, and it was no coincidence that he subsequently spearheaded the population issue. After Nixon’s special message on population, Moynihan noted that “many of the points the President makes are closely linked to concerns of the Urban Affairs Council.”49 In a 1969 Public Interest article, “Toward a National Urban Policy,” Moynihan wrote: “The federal government must assert a specific interest in the movement of people, displaced by technology or driven by poverty, from rural to urban areas, and also in the movement from densely populated central cities to suburban areas.”50 In his 1970 State of the Union address, Nixon called for a federal 204 chapter 7 “growth policy” to “create a new rural environment which will not only stem the migration to urban centers, but reverse it.”51 The congressional drive for such a policy began with promise but ultimately failed, primarily because of the overwhelming antipathy to government planning in the United States.52 Although the question “Where will they live?”
City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar
The city will be not only smarter but also better. Thousands of people walk daily along La Rambla, the leafy three-quarter-mile pedestrian mall in Barcelona, Spain. Image: nito/Shutterstock Walkable cities Why redesigning our communities around walking is the best medicine By Jeff Speck The best day to be a city planner in America was July 9, 2004 — the day Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson published their book Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. Until that day, the main arguments for building more pedestrian-friendly cities were principally aesthetic and social. More significant, almost nobody but city planners was making these arguments. But it turns out that while we were shouting into the wilderness about the frustrations, anomie, and sheer waste of suburban sprawl, a small platoon of physicians was quietly doing something much more useful: documenting how our built environment is killing us.
Peirce, “Biking and Walking, Our Secret Weapon?,” Citiwire.net, July 16, 2009. 4. T. Gotschi and K. Mills, Active Transportation for America (Washington, D.C.: Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, 2008), 44. 5. E. Kolbert, “XXXL: Why Are We So Fat?,” The New Yorker, July 20, 2009. 6. Ibid. 7. Peirce. 8. C.B. Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism (Washington D.C.: Island Press, 2009), 76. 9. H. Frumkin, L. Frank, and R. Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004), 100. 10. E. Noonan, “A Matter of Size,” Boston Globe, March 7, 2010. 11. C. Lutz and A. Lutz-Fernandez, Carjacked (New York: Palgrave McMillan, 2010), 172. 12. “State of the Air 2011 City Rankings,” American Lung Association. 13. Lutz and Lutz-Fernandez, 173. 14. “Cost of Asthma,” Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. 15.
Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane
"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population
But these conditions are rare, short-lived, and rely on the externalisation of the costs onto other groups or society as a whole. In the case of the suburbanisation of cities, these costs can be seen today in the prevalence of low-density, car-dependent neighbourhoods and the resulting road congestion, economic and environmental costs (Litman, 2015) – although these impacts are far less pronounced in Britain than in many other developed economies, thanks to the much greater constraints on urban sprawl imposed after the Second World War. The combined effect of increased social housing and new private development meant that by the time war broke out again in 1939, an additional 4 million homes had been built since 1918 (Marshall, 1969). This period marked the beginning of the next major shift in land’s economic significance as it became the site of what has come to be regarded as a near-universally entitled consumption good: the family home.
In 2011, Altoona became the first place to shift the entire burden of property tax onto the land, in effect making it a full land value tax area. Evidence suggests that the split-rate taxation system in Pennsylvania has positively stimulated the construction and refurbishment of residential and commercial buildings, and resulted in a more efficient use of land (Cohen and Coughlin, 2005) and helped to curb urban sprawl (Banzhaf and Lavery, 2010). 7.4 Financial reform We laid out in Chapter 5 the central role of the financial system and its pro-cyclical interaction with land as the key challenge facing modern economies today. In modern economies, not least the UK, new loans collateralised against property have become the main source of the money supply and house prices have become intimately linked to consumption demand and economic growth via the collateral channel.
‘Understanding and Measuring Finance for Productive Investment’. Discussion paper. London: Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/financialstability/Pages/fpc/fsdiscussionpapers/080416.aspx. Bank of England. 2016d. ‘Three Centuries of Macroeconomic Data’. London: Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/research/Pages/onebank/threecenturies.aspx. Banzhaf, H. Spencer, and Nathan Lavery. 2010. ‘Can the Land Tax Help Curb Urban Sprawl? Evidence from Growth Patterns in Pennsylvania’. Journal of Urban Economics 67 (2): 169–179. Barker, Kate. 2004. Review of Housing Supply: Delivering Stability: Securing Our Future Housing Needs: Final Report: Recommendations. London: HMSO. Barlow, S. M. 1940. Report of the Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population. London: HMSO. Barrell, Ray, Mauro Costantini, and Iris Meco. 2015.
The New Gold Rush: The Riches of Space Beckon! by Joseph N. Pelton
3D printing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, Carrington event, Colonization of Mars, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, global pandemic, Google Earth, gravity well, Iridium satellite, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, life extension, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, megastructure, new economy, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-industrial society, private space industry, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, Tim Cook: Apple, Tunguska event, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, X Prize
The ISS really was no more than a space research station; in contrast this solar shield and transport terminal would protect Earth from trillions of dollars of devastating losses, perhaps save millions of lives, provide a constant supply of clean energy from space, and serve as a cost-efficient way station to the rest of the Solar System. And this is just one idea about how humans could reshape the structure of the inner Solar System to make it more usable and to help protect Earth from future catastrophic losses . 5. Urban Sprawl is Bad, Urban Density is Good, Super Urbanization is Bad Again. For many years urban planners have sung a consistent song about the dangers, wastes and polluting effects of urban sprawl . The thought is that urban density can make for more efficient transportation, water, handling of sewage, communications, power, and storm sewer systems, and that housing, offices, schools, medical facilities, and shopping areas are also more effective and cost efficient. The problem is that in almost every system that can be devised there comes a point of diminishing returns.
Here is the ten point program that could make the world safer, more prosperous, and help us suffer much less strife and warfare.1.Seek agreement on global population control and associated incentives as a means to stop eating our planet alive. 2.Move to adopt sustainability as a strategy to create and achieve new wealth. 3.Encourage the world’s space agencies to prioritize planetary protection programs—including space shields to preserve modern infrastructure. 4.Recognize that urban sprawl is bad, urban density is good, while super urbanization and mega cities are bad again. 5.Refocus efforts on developing systems to address priority needs related to climate change, potable water and U. N. goals for sustainable development. 6.Deploy new space- and ground-based infrastructure for education and health care. 7.Recognize the unrealized potential of the coming singularity and the new abundance. 8.Adopt a new system of laws and regulation for the twenty-first century for global cooperation in space and on the planet. 9.Redefine and re-incentivize exploitation of “the global commons” for the twenty-first century based on sustainability and equitable sharing. 10.Recognize that humanity is at the turning point.
S. regulatory actions Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (SMPAG) Space navigation Space R&D programs Space Resource Exploration and Utilization Act of 2015 common heritage of mankind global commons legal enforcement outer space change policing regulatory system Sentinel infrared telescope space colonies traffic control and management Space Resource Utilization Space Swiss Systems (S3) Space tourism Space transportation ICAO radiation danger radio frequencies, allocation of SARPS traffic management and control Space-based navigation Space-based war-fighting systems SpaceHab Spaceplane system aerospace organizations safe and non-polluting development Space Ship 2 Space Swiss Systems (S3) SpaceShipOne and space tourism SpaceShipOne SpaceShipTwo Star wars Stratobus Stratolaunch Subspace/protospace Super automation Super urbanization Syncom 2 T TASI SeeTime Assignment Speech Interpolation (TASI) TDRS SeeTracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system Ten Point Program the global commons global population control humanity laws and regulation mega-structures and intellectual infrastructure planetary protection programs singularity space- and ground-based infrastructure sustainability urban sprawl Time and human technological progress Time Assignment Speech Interpolation (TASI) Tiny 40-kg Early Bird satellite Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system Transformational Satellite System (TSat) Transitional satellite (TSAT) Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space Tripartite space governance unit TSat SeeTransformational Satellite System (TSat) TSAT SeeTransitional satellite (TSAT) U U.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The innovation precipitated a powerful new economic engine: as people moved from inner cities to detached homes in increasingly distant sprawl, they bought furniture and appliances to fill those homes, and cars to move between increasingly disconnected destinations. The market economist’s case for suburban sprawl goes like this: if you can judge what makes people happy by observing how they spend their money, then the fact that so many people have purchased detached homes in urban sprawl is proof that it leads to happiness. As writers such as Robert Bruegmann and Joel Kotkin have argued, sprawl fulfills American’s preferences for privacy, mobility, and detachment from the problems of high-density environments. By this way of thinking, sprawl reflects every individual’s natural-born right to maximize utility. But this interpretation ignores a few inconvenient truths. First, as I will explore in this book, our preferences—the things we buy, the places we choose to live—do not always maximize our happiness in the long run.
She was surveying what looked to me like the middle of nowhere. Mableton, you may recall, showed up in Lawrence Frank’s urban-health studies as one of those towns that is so unwalkable that people get fatter just living there. The unincorporated community fifteen miles west of downtown Atlanta is the kind of place where you could drive for days and never quite feel that you had arrived anywhere. Tendrils of asphalt braid and curl through the semi-urban sprawl northeast of Atlanta’s Perimeter beltway, with cul-de-sacs and strip malls and business parks evenly scattered over the rolling terrain. If you circled the dying mall down on Veterans Memorial Highway—cruelly misnamed the Village at Mableton—or doubled back and headed up to the big-box power centers that cling to the East-West Connector, you would find yourself increasingly disoriented, and you would not have found anything you’d call a downtown—certainly not the view from the post office parking lot.
Savage, “From Financial Hardship to Child Difficulties: Main and Moderating Effects of Perceived Social Support,” Child: Care, Health and Development, 2011: 679–91. sleep better: Kurina, L. M., K. L. Knutson, L. C. Hawkley, J. T. Cacioppo, D. S. Lauderdale, and C. Ober, “Loneliness Is Associated with Sleep Fragmentation in a Communal Society,” SLEEP 2011; 34(11):1519–26. live longer: Putnam, Robert D., Bowling Alone (New York: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 2000); Frumkin, Howard, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building Healthy Communities (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004); Seeman, T. E., “Social Ties and Health: The Benefits of Social Integration,” Annals of Epidemiology, 1996: 442–51; Hirdes, J. P., and W. F. Forbes, “The Importance of Social Relationships, Socioeconomic Status, and Health Practices with Respect to Mortality Among Healthy Ontario Males,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1992: 175–82; Veenstra, Gerry, “Social Capital and Health (Plus Wealth, Income Inequality and Regional Health Governance),” Social Science and Medicine, 2002: 849–68; Berkman, Lisa F., “The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion,” Psychosomatic Medicine, 1995: 245–54.
Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud
autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
See http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/plans-studies/vanderbilt-corridor/history_of_transit_bonuses.pdf. 18. From NIMBY, “not in my backyard,” an expression used by pressure groups to prevent development of any type, including indispensable public services like hospital and homeless shelters. 19. Jan K. Brueckner and David A. Fansler, “The Economics of Urban Sprawl: Theory and Evidence on the Spatial Sizes of Cities,” Review of Economics and Statistics 65, no. 3 (1983): 479–482, quote on 479. 20. Jan K. Brueckner, “Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics,” Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 2001. 21. Edward L. Glaeser and Matthew E. Kahn, “Sprawl and Urban Growth,” NBER Working Paper 9733, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, May 2003. 22. Marcial H. Echenique, Anthony J.
Urban economists have therefore identified the many factors that could distort urban land markets, such as the inability to price road congestion; the subsidies given to infrastructure and fuel prices; the abusive use of eminent domain underpricing rural land; and finally, the land use regulations that force households and firms to use more land than they need—minimum lot sizes, maximum densities, and maximum FARs. These distortions could indeed result in an excessive expansion of urban land, and removing them would make expanding cities more efficient and the area they occupy closer to an economic optimum. For instance, Brueckner, in a paper titled “Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics,”20 provides an analysis of the possible causes for land market distortions and identifies practical remedies. For each possible cause of distortion, a theoretical model can be built that calculates the impact of the distortion on urban land consumption. For instance, in a country that subsidizes gasoline, an economist can calculate the impact of the subsidy on a city built-up area and the reduction in urbanized land that would result from removing the subsidy.
See Russia Spatial data, 11, 46t theory of, 30, 39–45, 39f, 44f–45f for urban planning, 212–216, 214f–215f, 216t Spatial distribution of agricultural land, 114–116, 115t, 118, 119f, 120–122, 121f–122f density and, 110–111, 111f descriptive model for, 101–105, 102f, 103t, 104f economics of, 93–97, 98f–99f, 99, 109–110, 120–124, 134f labor markets and, 126 land price in, 100–101, 111–113, 112f in Los Angeles, 105–108, 106f–107f in master plans, 131–140, 134f in South Africa, 271, 272f, 273 standard urban model for, 101, 113–114, 115–118, 117f, 130–131, 140–141 theory of, 126–130, 127f, 129f of urban land, 118–120 for urban planning, 108–109, 109f Sprawl. See Standard urban model Sprawl (Bruegmann), 116 Staff agencies, 369–370 Staley, Samuel, 176 Standard of living, 290–291 Standard urban model, 388n18 minimum standards in, 288–289 for spatial distribution, 101, 113–114, 115–118, 117f, 129–130, 140–141 Sprawl (Bruegmann), 116 theory of, 95–97, 98f–99f, 99, 335–336 “Urban Sprawl: Lessons from Urban Economics” (Brueckner), 336 Stanford University, 351 Stockholm, 385n22 St. Petersburg (Russia), 373, 384n6 Strategic Community Investment Report Data, 353 Streetscapes, 331–332 Street space. See Road networks Subdivisions, 230–231, 230f Subletting, 266–267, 282–283 Subsidies in affordability, 303–304 demand side subsidies, 260–263, 262f, 267–268, 286, 304 economics of, 100–101 for infrastructure, 290–292, 291f poverty and, 273 supply side subsidies, 264–269, 265f, 285–286 Subways.
Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Government Printing Office, Congressional Research Service, A Chronology of Housing Legislation and Selected Executive Actions, 1892-2003, Mar. 2004, www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-108HPRT92629/html/CPRT-108HPRT92629.htm. 176 the McMansions of their day: Hayden, “Building the American Way,” 276. 176 disproportionately to middle-class enclaves: U.S. General Accounting Office, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, House of Representatives, Community Development: The Extent of Federal Influence on “Urban Sprawl” Is Unclear, Apr. 30, 1999, GAO/RCED-99-87 Research on “Urban Sprawl,” www.gao.gov/archive/1999/rc99087.pdf. 176 overwhelmingly single-family houses: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census 2000, Data Profile for the United States, Summary File 3, generated using American FactFinder. 177 half of the jobs . . . away from the city center: Kneebone, “Job Sprawl.” 177 inverse connection between density and car usage: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl,” 2499-2500. 177 Accord... a hundred square feet on its own: According to Honda’s Web site, a 2010 Honda Accord has a length of 194.1 inches and a width of 72.7 inches, for an area of 98 square feet: http://automobiles.honda.com/accordsedan/specifications.aspx?
There are still shops on the streets, but most of the office space is much further from the ground. Cities built around the car, like much of Los Angeles and Phoenix and Houston, have enormous, gently curving roads and often lack sidewalks. In those places, shops and pedestrians retreat from the streets into malls. While older cities usually have an obvious center, dictated by an erstwhile port or a rail station, car cities do not. They just stretch toward the horizon in undifferentiated urban sprawl. Places like Atlanta and Houston remind us that there are places that lie between hyperdense Hong Kong and rural Saskatchewan. Living and working in car-oriented Silicon Valley offers plenty of proximity, at least to people in the computer industry. The threat that these places pose to traditional cities reflects the fact that they offer some of the old advantages of urban access along with plenty of land and the ability to drive everywhere.
group=dimensions. 178 typical parking space: Parking regulations in Massachusetts, for instance, require parking spaces to measure at least 9 feet by 18 feet, or 162 square feet: www.mass.gov/Cago/docs/Municipal/sb_parking.rtf. 178 structured parking, which can cost more than $50,000: Marshall and Emblidge, Beneath the Metropolis, 181. 178 average gas tax in France: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl,” 2499-2500. 178 Comparing seventy cities ... 40 percent: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl.” 178 Today, 84 percent of passenger transport: European Road Federation, European Road Statistics 2009, table 6.3: “Inland Transport Modal Split by Country in EU-27,” p. 43. 178 In Italy ... 5 and 5.66: European Automobile Manufacturing Association, Automobile Industry Pocket Guide, “Trends in Motorisation,” p. 4, www.acea.be/images/uploads/files/20090529_motorisation.pdf. 178 there are 7.76 cars for every 10 Americans: Ibid. 178 European Environment Agency . . . “low density residential areas”: European Environment Agency, Urban Sprawl in Europe, fig. 2, p. 12. 179 in the United States . . . forty-eight minutes: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl,” 2499-2500. 179 That time cost . . . for buses and subways: Glaeser et al., “Why Do the Poor Live in Cities?” 12. 180 The Woodlands: General history of The Woodlands from Galatas and Barlow, The Woodlands. 180 on twenty-eight thousand sylvan acres: The Woodlands. http://www.thewoodlands.com/masterplan.htm. 180 over ninety-two thousand people live in The Woodlands: The Woodlands Development Company.
You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard
A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl
Residents on each side of the closed road would no longer be able to visit each other. When we suggested that those so affected could simply walk to one another’s houses, the traffic engineer curtly replied, “They won’t.” The issue was closed. We put our house on the market a few days later. In the second half of the twentieth century, urban sprawl accelerated dramatically. The urban area of Atlanta ballooned to over 160 kilometers when measured from north to south. Detroit’s population actually decreased by 2 percent while its land area increased by 45 percent. And urban sprawl is not just a North American phenomenon. Brussels, Frankfurt, Munich, and Zurich all showed decreases in population density in the late twentieth century. Even Copenhagen, a showpiece city for improving pedestrian access to the urban core, had a net decrease in population density.23 There is much to enjoy in the suburbs.
I have relied heavily on Howard Kunstler’s brilliant and influential The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made Landscape (Free Press: New York, 1994). 23. A fascinating repository of facts and figures related to the worldwide problem of urban sprawl can be found in the book by Jeffrey Kenworthy and Felix Laube entitled An International Sourcebook of Automobile Dependence in Cities, 1960-1990 (University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO, 1999). 24. One of the most widely cited (and frightening) views of the coming changes related to peak oil is Howard Kunstler’s The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil, Climate Change, and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-first Century (Grove Press: New York, 2006). 25. The history of Portland’s experiences with Oregon’s groundbreaking 1973 restrictions on urban sprawl, as well as many other positive examples of smart growth approaches, can be found in the book by F. Kaid Benfield et al., Solving Sprawl: Models of Smart Growth in Communities Across America (Island Press: Washington, DC, 2001). 26.
Once the American Dream: Inner-Ring Suburbs of the Metropolitan United States by Bernadette Hanlon
big-box store, correlation coefficient, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, feminist movement, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Chicago School, transit-oriented development, urban sprawl, white flight, working-age population, zero-sum game
In the following sections, I critically assess relevant initiatives within these policy arenas. Growth Management Policies addressing decline among inner-ring suburbs often exist in the framework of “smart growth.” Definitions of smart growth are varied (e.g., see Smart Growth America 2003; Vermont Forum on Sprawl 2003), but, in their broadest sense, smart-growth policies are characterized as strategies aimed at curbing another ill-defined concept, urban sprawl. In the process of combating sprawl, smart-growth policies encourage the redevelopment of inner-ring core areas and the development of infill sites closer to the urban core area rather on the outer fringe (Downs 2001). The 2002 American Planning Association report, Planning for Smart Growth: 2002 State of the States, surveys various growth-management policies across different states. According to this report, a quarter of states are implementing 136 / Chapter 9 moderate to substantial smart-growth planning reforms, including Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Opening remarks at First Suburbs Symposium, February 15, Washington, DC. Cobb, Roger W., and Charles D. Elder. 1972. Participation in American politics: The dynamics of agenda-building. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cobb, Roger W., Jennie-Keith Ross, and Marc Howard Ross. 1976. Agenda building as a comparative political process. American Political Science Review 70 (1): 126–138. Cohen, James. 2001. Maryland’s smart growth: Using incentives to combat sprawl. In Urban sprawl: Causes, consequences and policy responses. Ed. Gregory Squires, 293–324. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Cooke, Thomas, and Sarah Marchant. 2006. The changing intrametropolitan location of high poverty neighbourhoods in the US, 1990–2000. Urban Studies 43 (11): 1971–1989. Cooper, Donald R., and Pamela S. Schindler. 2003. Business research methods. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Available at http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/howtotalk. html. Accessed February 25, 2009. Smith, Neil. 1996. The new urban frontier: Gentrification and the revanchist city. London: Routledge. Smith, Neil, Patrick Caris, and Elvin Wyly. 2001. The “Camden syndrome” and the menace of suburban decline: Residential disinvestment and its discontents in Camden County, New Jersey. Urban Affairs Review 36 (4): 497–531. Squires, Gregory D. 2002. Urban sprawl: Causes, consequences, and policy responses. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press. Stahura, John M. 1979. Suburban status evolution/persistence: A structural model. American Sociological Review 44 (6): 937–947. Sternlieb, George, and Robert W. Lake. 1975. Aging suburbs and black homeownership. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 422:105–117. Straight, Susan. 2005. 1950s suburb evolves with time.
Straight Flush: The True Story of Six College Friends Who Dealt Their Way to a Billion-Dollar Online Poker Empire--And How It All Came Crashing Down... by Ben Mezrich
Most of the American operators seemed like criminals—the way they dressed, the way they spoke, the way they offhandedly mentioned associates back in New York and Vegas. By the third and fourth book they’d visited, the seediness was reaching almost cartoonish proportions. Around 4 P.M., at the last stop before they were to break for dinner—and start a night of festivities that Eric had assured them would rival anything they had experienced at the fraternity house—they pulled up in front of a warehouse at the edge of an urban sprawl of similar rectangular buildings. Eric parked the car and led them through the front door, past a security desk, then a pair of secretaries who didn’t even bother looking up from the Spanish newspapers they were reading. Then through an unmarked wooden door and into a corner office. And there, the man behind the desk was right out of a Martin Scorsese movie. Overweight, in his midfifties, with an angry, pug-like face and a ring of graying curls barely covering the expansive dome of his skull, he was wearing a polyester suit right out of the seventies, all brown and burnt orange, and he was holding the biggest cigar Scott had ever seen.
Scott leaned back against the seat, trying to find a comfortable position. Outside, the city flashed by. It was midafternoon, just like the last time he’d arrived in San José, but the roads seemed even more congested, traffic going in every direction. As before, he was amazed at how alive the place felt, how it seemed to throb with energy. So many cars, people, noise—even above the insanely loud music pumping through the van’s speakers, the sounds of the urban sprawl felt like a hand, reaching right through those trembling windows, grabbing at Scott’s skin. This was it. He was really here; this was actually happening. It was goddamn exhilarating. Nearly an hour later they were still engulfed by the thrill of it all when Shane shot a finger toward the window by his head. “This is it. Casa Absolute Poker.” The house was situated on a low hill, in a pretty, leafy residential neighborhood in one of the more upscale suburbs of the city.
Brent and Garin would be staying there as well, and although Brent had toured the place a few times since Scott first moved in, he was still awed by its scale. The building itself was massive, an old Spanish-style mansion with at least six bedrooms, a living room that could have doubled as a ballroom, and multiple decks overlooking downtown San José—a vista of sparkling lights, bolstered by the pulsing flare of the constant traffic that threaded between the buildings, like a radiated circulatory system feeding that ravenous urban sprawl. The party was mostly confined to the house’s massive pool deck. A DJ had set up shop on an elevated stage, the music from his spinning CDs blasting out of massive twin speakers that had been built right into one of the house’s exterior brick walls. At five minutes to midnight, Scott strolled through the party, pulling everyone he could find out of whatever trouble they had gotten into to lead them to the farthest railing that looked out over the city.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
—Witold Rybczynski, author of City Life and The Most Beautiful House in the World “Suburban Nation provides a marvelously detailed critique of suburbia as it exists, a landscape most of us are intimately familiar with but few of us have thought much about … Duany, Plater-Zyberk and Speck write surprisingly pithy, elegant prose, and Suburban Nation is full of juicy insider observations drawn from the Orwellian world of suburban planning.” —Andrew O’Hehir, Salon “[A] bold and damning critique … [This] visionary book holds out hope that we can create ‘places that are as valuable as the nature they displaced.’” —Publishers Weekly “I am convinced that the explosion of urban sprawl over the last fifty years has played a part in the breakdown of America’s civic engagement. Suburban Nation calls on all of us to revolutionize how we use politics and public policy to shape our built environment—our local homes, towns, and cities—and ultimately the public life of our own communities.” —Congressman Sam Farr “Lucidly detailing the environmental, aesthetic, and social costs of sprawl, the authors deliver a passionate, stylish manifesto on community quality of life.”
A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (the “Green Book”). Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 1990. Arnold, Henry. Trees in Urban Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Aschauer, David. “Transportation, Spending, and Economic Growth.” Report by the American Public Transit Association, September 1991. Benefield, F. Kaid; Matthew D. Raimi; and Donald D.T. Chen. Once There Were Greenfields: How Urban Sprawl Is Undermining America’s Environment, Economy, and Social Fabric. New York: National Resources Defense Council, 1999. Beyond Sprawl: New Patterns of Growth to Fit the New California. Report by the Bank of America, the Resources Agency of California, the Greenbelt Alliance, and the Low Income Housing Fund, 1995. Blakely, Edward, and Mary Gail Snyder. Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States.
Louis, Pruitt Igoe housing project San Antonio San Bernardino (California) San Diego San Francisco; Embarcadero Freeway Santa Barbara Santa Fe Savannah schools; consolidated districts; federal mandate on; in new towns and villages; state policies on; urban Schuster, Bud Seagrove (Florida) Seaside (Florida); architectural style of; civic buildings in; live-work units in Seattle security; private segregation, income-based Sennett, Richard sense of place septic-tank sprawl Sert, Jose Luis setbacks sewage facilities Shaker Heights (Ohio) shipping methods shootings, high school shopping centers; adjacency versus accessibility to; along highways; versus main streets; neighborhood-scale; see also malls sidewalks; width of Sierra Club Silvetti, Jorge single-family houses; architectural style of; builders of; design of, value and; facades of; federal loan programs for; in new towns and villages; taxes on; urban single-use zoning; adjacency versus accessibility in; investor security and; in regional planning site plans; of five-minute walk neighborhoods site-value taxation Sitte, Camillo smart growth, government policies on “smart streets,” Snyder, Mary Gail soccer moms social decline, environmental causes of social equity: greenfield development and; regional planning and Southern California Association of Governments South Florida Water Management District Soviet Union sparse hierarchy spatial definition special-needs populations, facilities for speeding Spivak, Alvin sports events, urban sprawl; aesthetics of; architectural style and; components of; design to combat; developers and; environmentalist attack on; government policies to combat; history of; homebuilders and; housing as largest component of; increased automobile use and; municipalities bankrupted by; parking requirements and; plans for; poverty and; principles for reshaping, see new towns and villages; proactive approach to fighting; regional planning and; road rage and; successes in fight against; traffic congestion created by; victims of squares, town Stalin, Joseph Stanford Research Institute, state policies stores, corner, see corner stores; see also retail streets: in new towns and villages; pedestrian-friendly, see pedestrian-friendly design; in subdivisions; termination of vistas on; traditional neighborhood; width of strip centers, see shopping centers Stuart (Florida) style, architectural subdivisions; adjacency versus accessibility of shopping to; anticipated costs of servicing; boring; connectivity of new neighborhoods and; construction costs for; “cookie cutter,” 48; crime in; and federal loan programs; homebuilders and; landscaping of; marketing of; open space in; permitting process for; public realm and; street design in subsidies, retail suicide, teenage Supreme Court, U.S.
Who Owns England?: How We Lost Our Green and Pleasant Land, and How to Take It Back by Guy Shrubsole
back-to-the-land, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, congestion charging, deindustrialization, digital map, do-ocracy, Downton Abbey, financial deregulation, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, housing crisis, James Dyson, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, linked data, loadsamoney, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, openstreetmap, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, web of trust, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
The destruction nowadays may be less blatant, but the rot is more insidious: decades of pesticide overuse and intensified agriculture has damaged soil structures and decimated our wildlife. Scientists are clear that agriculture is the main driver of species loss in Britain today. We have a mechanism for deciding how to constrain urban sprawl; it’s called the planning system. But ever since the Town and Country Planning Act was introduced in 1947, landowners have vociferously resisted extending its remit to cover farming and forestry operations. In the 1980s, amid mounting evidence that intensive agriculture had displaced urban sprawl as the driver of environmental destruction, campaigner Marion Shoard proposed applying planning ‘to the task of rescuing our landscape’. Today, it’s time to reopen that debate. A future Land Commission should consider whether major changes in rural land use should become subject to planning decisions – for example, the conversion of ancient pasture to arable, the felling of woodland, or the drainage of wetland to grow crops.
Yet the small-state ideology that’s infected recent governments has blinded decision-makers to the true value of their land. Lodge Hill in north Kent, for example, is an old disused MOD base, which over the decades has reverted to wilderness and become the number one nesting site in the UK for nightingales. I’ve walked through part of it, a glorious tangle of hawthorn and oak, and a breath of fresh air for local residents looking to escape the urban sprawl along the Medway. Yet for years the MOD, under pressure from ministers to sell off land for housing, proposed bulldozing Lodge Hill to build 5,000 new homes. We need to build more homes, no question. Yet rather than fix the real stranglehold on house-building – the hoarding of land by private landowners in pursuit of higher land values – Whitehall has become obsessed with flogging off the remnants of its own estate, regardless of how the land has altered since it first acquired it.
In London, a special case where food-growing space is physically constrained by the density of development, a more creative solution is called for. We need to make London’s Green Belt better serve the city’s inhabitants, by using more of it for community food growing and for nature. Currently, too much of the Green Belt is a welter of golf courses and land banks owned by shadowy firms. Free marketeers argue that we simply need to tear up the Green Belt and build housing on it. But quite apart from the massive urban sprawl and congestion this would generate, it would do little on its own to address the housing crisis – since landowners in the Green Belt would simply pocket huge windfall gains from the spike in land values, and the new housing would end up being sold at unaffordable prices. What we need instead is to rejuvenate the Green Belt so that it better fulfils its original purpose of providing green space and recreation for the public.
Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
This is a reprint edition of the book, which was published originally in 1995. 29 Richard Register, Ecocities: Rebuilding Cities in Balance with Nature (Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada: New Society Publishers, 2006), pp. 316-17. 30 Newman and Kenworthy, Sustainability and Cities, pp. 30-31. 31 Sharon Feigon and David Hoyt, “Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation,” Center for Neighborhood Technology, 2003. 32 Ignacio San Martín, “The Character of Urban Sprawl and Its Indicators,” First Policy Forum on Urban Sprawl, Center for Environmental Studies, Budapest, Hungary, 2000. 33 The sprawling development of Phoenix is aptly described by the caption below a photograph on a NASA website: “Phoenix is actually surrounded by 22 towns and cities that have grown so closely together in recent decades it is almost impossible to distinguish one from another in this 30-meter-resolution satellite image.”
Sagan, Carl Samsø, Denmark San Francisco San Martín, Ignacio Sanderson, Eric Schembri, Dave Schendler, Auden Schwab, Susan Scientific American Seagram Building (New York) shale oil Shellenberger, Michael Sierra Club anti-city ethos anti-sprawl campaign founding of on outdoor activity Silent Spring (Carson) Silverstein, Murray Simonsick, Eleanor Singapore Small Is Profitable (Lovins) solar power systems solid waste soybeans Specter, Michael sprawl. See also anti-urbanism; suburbs and nonurban areas automobile’s role in consumer cost of power corporate campus public transit and Sierra Club campaign against traffic pattern improvement and in Washington D.C. zoning ordinances and Sprint Nextel Corporation building Standard Oil Strong, Gordon Strong, Steven J. suburbs and nonurban areas. See also anti-urbanism; sprawl acquisition and storage of possessions appeal of downsized automobiles environmental profile of home, automobile in grass cultivation inefficient use of resources necessity of automobiles outdoor activity population-dispersion concept sedentary lifestyle and obesity zoning sustainability. See environmental movement Sustainability and Cities (Newman and Kenworthy) Sustainable Urbanism (Farr) SUVs Sway (Brafman and Brafman) Swofford, Anthony Taub, Eric A.
Extreme Rambling: Walking Israel's Separation Barrier. For Fun. by Mark Thomas
It is this phenomenal growth rate that requires the settlement to expand; except the land it intends to use belongs to the Palestinian village of Bil’in, conveniently annexed by the Barrier. The Israeli city was started in 1982 but it feels like the builders were paid before they finished. Roads occasionally run out of pavement, piles of rubble appear in the street and roundabouts wait to be landscaped. I don’t know the correct architectural term for this place but I suspect it might be ‘urban sprawl’ or ‘urban sprawl … with a very long snagging list’. Palm trees sporadically line the roads or sit by bus shelters, but it is tower blocks that dominate the city, stacked side by side in pale brown and grey brick, block after block after block. Essentially, the settlement is a nice religious council estate. Our Hebrew translator is a wiry chap with a close-cut crop of ginger hair. He is an Israeli ex-soldier and a political activist involved in refugee rights.
Like the other illegal settlements, it will find itself encircled by the proposed Barrier, thus extracting it from deep within the West Bank and placing it on the Israeli side. ‘It’s over there,’ says Ray, turning slightly and pointing to apartment blocks on the horizon. ‘That’s Ma’ale Adumim, over in the hills.’ He points to the map once more, and an area called E1, a controversial development plan to extend from the northeast of Jerusalem, deep into the West Bank to the settlement of Ma’ale Adumim. Once completed, it will connect the two cities into one large urban sprawl extending across the West Bank. Not only will it ensure there is no room for natural growth for Palestinian areas of East Jerusalem; it will also irrevocably cut off East Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank, and break the West Bank in two. Richard Makepeace, the British Consul General, had explained one of the hazards of this type of expansion when we had walked with him earlier: ‘Every additional settlement that is built, every settlement unit – whether it is in Jerusalem or elsewhere in the Occupied Territories – that is a problem that has to be overcome in reaching a final status deal.’
Green and Prosperous Land: A Blueprint for Rescuing the British Countryside by Dieter Helm
3D printing, Airbnb, barriers to entry, British Empire, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, digital map, facts on the ground, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, precision agriculture, quantitative easing, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl
By 2050, eels and wild salmon might be an occasional rarity, as their populations decline below the thresholds for renewing themselves naturally. The threats to our urban environment out to 2050 are about both its size and its content. There can be little doubt there is going to be a lot more ‘urban’ in 25 years’ time. More greenfield and brownfield sites12 will be built on, new villages and towns will be built, and the built land area will absorb more and more of the Green Belt. There will be quite a lot of semi-urban sprawl for the ‘executive homes’ so beloved and profitable to the building companies. It is not inevitable that all of these developments will have less biodiversity than the land they concrete over. But concrete they will, and without strong net environmental gain compensations, the aggregate impacts are probably going to be worse. For every showcase green development project, there are many that are anything but.
There was no frontier, but rather a highly urban population and densely populated lowlands. The Hobhouse Report16 led to the National Parks Act in 1949. It was part of the new planning framework that emerged in the late 1940s after World War II, largely within the ambit of local authorities. Green Belts would be the lungs of the cities; the planning framework would limit ribbon development and urban sprawl; and the National Parks would protect the uplands for the wider public’s enjoyment. Britain’s land has different purposes and should be divided up accordingly. It was a highly managed model. That was the theory. In practice, landowning interests watered down the National Park plans in two ways. First, there were delays in implementation, taking a decade for the first batch to be designated.
Small changes in the engineering and the introduction of green pathways (and even green vertical pathways) can make a big difference. Green infrastructure needs to be infrastructure for nature, designed with this purpose in mind, not an add-on afterwards. The outer rings – the Green Belt and what it could be The central urban areas abut the countryside, and they can do this in a variety of ways. Left to normal market forces, ribbon development and urban sprawl would result. Every builder loves a greenfield site. That is what happened in the 1930s and still happens across the USA. The problems with sprawl are not just the ugliness that John Betjeman wrote poems about.16 It is also that by stretching out the city, the access to the countryside is made much weaker for the people in the middle. The countryside as the lungs of the city becomes ever further away, and ribbon developments as opposed to urban hubs lend themselves to the car, and hence major roads.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Department of Transportation at www.fhwa.dot.gov and population from U.S. Census at http://www .census.gov/prod/2005pubs/06statab/pop.pdf. 27. Our Built Environment, EPA, January, 2001, 231-R-01-002. 28. R. Ewing and R. Cervero, “Travel and the Built Environment: A Synthesis,” Transportation Research Board Record no. 1780 (2001): 87–114. 29. Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004). 30. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis,” http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM2feb07.pdf. 31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “2007 Draft U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report,” http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventory report07.html. 32.
Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report,” http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventory report07.html. 32. Ibid. 33. Lawrence Frank et al., “New Data for a New Era: A Summary of the SMARTRAQ Findings,” Smart Growth America, January 2007, http:// www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/SMARTRAQSummary_000 .pdf. 34. Dr. William Rees, interview by Dr. Michael Gismondi, 2000, Aurora Online, http://aurora.icaap.org/index.php/aurora/article/view/18/29. 35. Frumkin, Frank, and Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health. 36. Lawrence D. Frank, Peter O. Engelke, and Thomas L. Schmid, Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2003). 37. Lawrence Frank and Barbara McCann, “Driving, Walking, and Where You Live: Links to Obesity,” http://www.choices4health.org/resource Files/82.pdf. 38. Deborah Cohen et al., Park Use and Physical Activity in a Sample of Public Parks in the City of Los Angeles (Arlington, Va.: Rand Corporation, 2006). 39.
Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg
Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize
Other environmental engineering feats, such as the pneumatic system that literally sucked household garbage down to a subterranean processing and recycling center, storm water capture, and grey water recycling for agriculture, could deliver residual benefits such as reduced traffic noise (there are no garbage trucks) and potable water saved for drinking rather than irrigation. Plus, the city was literally green: 40 percent of the IBD was open space, and its Central Park, located almost dead center of the district, may not have been the busy travel hub that defines an aerotropolis, but to Seoul residents, it was a welcome respite from relentless urban sprawl. Additionally, 40 percent of rooftops would become green space. In all, 75 percent of Songdo’s waste was to be recycled in some shape or form—it was a city that put pedestrians and cyclists before drivers and electric and high-occupancy cars in better parking spaces than standard gas-powered transport. RFID technology could read license plates and detect traffic clusters before they became traffic jams.
Given enough time, video capabilities could have positive impacts on healthcare, traffic, and other aspects of urban life complicated by fast development and dense population. Sensor networks could aid parking and downtown congestion (as in Barcelona). There is no denying that Chongqing wanted surveillance, and a great deal of it. Its infrastructure lacking, the municipality was working with Hangzhou-based Hikvision Digital Technology, the world’s largest supplier of video surveillance, to install and connect 500,000 cameras throughout its urban sprawl. This is many times the number of cameras employed by similarly sized cities (New York City, in 2013, doubled the number of surveillance cameras, bringing the city total to 6,000).16 In the United States, debate and indignation raged after the Wall Street Journal, working off interviews with Hikvision executives, reported that Cisco was close to finalizing a deal to help build the camera network.
The Great Lakes Water Wars by Peter Annin
The Great Lakes, they said, shouldn’t be used as a water subsidy for urban sprawl outside the Basin. If Waukesha residents want Great Lakes water, they should move to the water, rather than moving the water to them. The main point, environmentalists said, is that it’s time for people to think about water before they decide where to live—something that, they argued, people moving to Waukesha had failed to do. Environmental advocates argued that if a community has a water problem, people shouldn’t just continue moving there and assume the government will bail them out. “We’re concerned that Waukesha is the shape of things to come,” complained Susan Howatt, national water campaigner for the Council of Canadians. “We can’t get into these situations where we make it okay for urban sprawl to [receive] water diversions that aren’t sustainable.”
Environmentalists saw the expanded water-supply service area as a land grab by Waukesha that only increased the amount of diverted water that Waukesha was requesting, and that additional water was going to towns that didn’t even need it. They were just being included in the application so the sewer service area mirrored the water service area. Milwaukee officials remained interested in selling water to Waukesha, but they were adamantly opposed to selling water to the neighboring communities. They felt such a move violated the Compact and would contribute to urban sprawl. Milwaukee’s Common Council voted 14–0 to forbid Milwaukee to sell water to the expanded water-supply service area.9 That vote effectively took Milwaukee out of the running as a water supplier, because neither Waukesha nor the DNR would accept those limiting conditions. With its one-time water-supply front runner now out of the race, Waukesha inked a water-supply deal with Oak Creek. That community’s water would cost millions more, but came with no geographic restrictions.
The Rent Is Too Damn High: What to Do About It, and Why It Matters More Than You Think by Matthew Yglesias
Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, land reform, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, pets.com, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, statistical model, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence
But that doesn’t mean everyone lives in expensive houses or pays high rents. Most people either can’t or won’t pay that much. For the most impoverished, that often means putting up with squalid conditions in urban slums beset by high crime, bad schools, and generally substandard public services. For the middle class, and for most office and retail buildings, it simply means going someplace else. This phenomenon is the much-discussed urban sprawl. In Los Angeles, land near the coast or convenient to major employment centers is more expensive than land further inland. But restrictive zoning policies make it difficult for these desirable areas to house all of Southern California’s huge, growing population. Consequently, while the city of Los Angeles saw its population grow by just 2.6 percent between the 2000 and 2010 censuses, the surrounding L.A.
Culture Shock! Costa Rica 30th Anniversary Edition by Claire Wallerstein
Guanacaste’s desiccated and deforested, though beautiful, plains are home to huge cattle ranches, and are dotted with shady Guanacaste trees, shaped like giant mushrooms. The remaining natural forest is deciduous, the trees losing their leaves in the unbearable summer heat. Cattle on the Guanacaste plains—the archetypal scene of the north. Overview of the Land and History 39 In between the two extremes lies the Meseta Central, the central highland plateau which is now home to well over half the country’s population in the urban sprawl of San José and its surrounding towns. This is the traditional coffee-growing area, and the climate is mild thanks to the altitude—San José stands 1,150 m (3,773 ft) above sea level—and temperatures rarely exceed 25°C (77°F). Both coasts are hot, and are home to steamy banana and African palm plantations (excluding the Guanacaste part of the Paciﬁc coast). While the Paciﬁc side has a distinct dry season, the Caribbean coast is rainy all year round, and blanketed in a profusion of wild greenery.
This can also be attributed to the high level of literacy (96 per cent in 2003), widespread use of contraceptives and family planning, and its high standard of health care. The population is very young, with 26.7 per cent of Ticos under the age of 14, and only 6.2 per cent over 65. Ticos have also become, in recent decades, a very urban people (even though they retain many rural habits). Around half of the population lives in the greater San José area alone, and more than two-thirds in the urban sprawl of the Meseta Central. ‘White Ticos’ and Ideas of Colour It has only been a few decades since Costa Rican tourist literature trumpeted the ‘whiteness’ of the people as an attraction. In his 1943 Nueva Geografía de Costa Rica, author Jorge León said the country was ‘effectively the white state of the Caribbean... in Heredia, 96.6 per cent of the population are direct descendants from Europe—a little more than in New York’.
Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan
3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
So far it seems that many planners are choosing to ignore developments - despite its notorious traffic congestion issues, Los Angeles’ 2015 ten-year vision, “Mobility Plan 2025”, doesn’t even mention driverless cars. Less than 3% of the transportation plans for the 50 most populous cities in the US even mention the transit impacts of ride-sharing services Uber and Lyft, let alone driverless cars. Expert opinion on the impact of driverless cars on urban sprawl is divided. On one side, the argument goes that if driverless cars free up parking and garage space, there will be plentiful affordable new residential capacity negating the need for people to move further from city centres for affordable housing. On the other side, the argument goes that if people can be otherwise occupied during even a long commute, they will still be willing to move further from the city centre or their place of employment to have the residence they wish, perhaps with larger gardens than typical closer to the city.
reload=true&tp=&arnumber=5409622&url=http:%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fiel5%2F4149681%2F5409610%2F05409622.pdf%3Farnumber%3D5409622  http://360.here.com/2014/04/30/jams-game-theory-equations-science-of-traffic/  http://engineering.illinois.edu/news/article/21938  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braess%27s_paradox  http://chester.faculty.asu.edu/library/access39_parking.pdf  http://www.transportationlca.org/losangelesparking/  Rethinking a Lot (2012), Eran Ben-Joseph  http://shoup.bol.ucla.edu/CruisingForParkingAccess.pdf  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/10082461/Motorists-spend-106-days-looking-for-parking-spots.html  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/cars/news/london-parking-space-goes-on-sale-for-350000/  http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/12/us/12parking.html  Edge City: Life on the New Frontier, Joel Garreau, 2011  http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21720269-dont-let-people-park-free-how-not-create-traffic-jams-pollution-and-urban-sprawl  https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/images/Housing_Development_Toolkit%20f.2.pdf  Bending the Cost Curve – Solutions to Expand the Supply of Affordable Rentals.” Urban Land Institute Terwilliger Center for Housing: 19. 2014  https://twitter.com/NelsonNygaard/status/684042745216798720  http://www.uspirg.org/news/usp/new-report-shows-mounting-evidence-millennials%E2%80%99-shift-away-driving  https://www.jtlu.org/index.php/jtlu/article/view/751  http://www.cnet.com/uk/news/a-future-of-self-driving-cars-were-ready-now/  http://www.bbc.com/news/business-35242514  https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/national-travel-survey-2014  http://www.people-press.org/2014/06/12/political-polarization-in-the-american-public/  http://www.morganstanley.com/ideas/car-of-future-is-autonomous-electric-shared-mobility  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_car  https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/411471/road-traffic-forecasts-2015.pdf  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marchetti%27s_constant  https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/in-theory/wp/2016/02/29/are-americans-leaving-cars-behind/  Door to Door: The Magnificent, Maddening, Mysterious World of Transportation, Edward Humes, 2016  http://la.curbed.com/2016/9/9/12824240/self-driving-cars-plan-los-angeles  http://sustainablemobility.ei.columbia.edu/files/2012/12/Transforming-Personal-Mobility-Jan-27-20132.pdf  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinclair_C5  http://www.segway.com/  https://www.wired.com/2016/10/teslas-self-driving-car-plan-seems-insane-just-might-work/  Alphabet is Google’s parent company and owner of Waymo, formerly known as Google Self Driving Car project
Are Trams Socialist?: Why Britain Has No Transport Policy by Christian Wolmar
active transport: walking or cycling, Beeching cuts, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, BRICs, congestion charging, Diane Coyle, financial independence, full employment, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Network effects, railway mania, trade route, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, Zipcar
The motor car was supposed to bring about many of the freedoms now being suggested by the promoters of driverless cars. The fundamental error of transport policy based on the spread of the automobile is precisely that it was designed to increase mobility rather than accessibility, and it resulted in planning policies that then actually reduced accessibility for many people. The negative aspects of decades of car-based policy, such as the crowding out of other road users and the encouragement of urban sprawl, which, in turn, entrenched the car’s primacy, were all too easily ignored. The car provided fantastic extra mobility for those who could afford to own one, but by destroying alternatives the options available to those who did not were greatly restricted. And, even more ironically, as cars increased in number, their advantages began to be outweighed by their disadvantages. That is why the emphasis of a future transport policy needs to be on accessibility rather than mobility, a requirement that is all the more important as people increasingly gravitate to live in cities rather than rural areas: for the first time in world history more than half the globe’s population are now urban, and that proportion is set to increase in coming decades.
Stephen Fry in America by Stephen Fry
Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, Donald Trump, illegal immigration, intermodal, jimmy wales, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
‘The American relationship with the outdoors,’ I say, ‘the Thoreau ideal. It’s deep in the American psyche isn’t it? Man and nature. The great paradox of a nation that invades and degrades the wilderness and yet treasures it above all else.’ ‘Guess so.’ ‘New York State contains this, the great outdoors, the American dream of the woods and wilderness but also the industry, the suburbs, the great urban sprawl and of course Manhattan. Maybe New York State is symbolic of all America, embodying both the call of the wild and the call of the street.’ ‘Maybe.’ ‘You’re right. I’m talking drivel. I’ll shut up now.’ I am happy to say that no deer were killed in the making of our scene. In fact we didn’t even see a deer, which suited me. Instead I enjoyed wonderful hospitality, warm companionship and a good walk in beautiful woodland.
Their ideas of discomfort, unease and discontent are very different from ours. It is clear that her apprehension of what spooks, stresses and alarms an animal is extremely accurate: I wonder however if someone will come close one day to understanding what thrills, delights and pleases an animal? Do they respond to beauty in nature, for example? Can they detect, appreciate and value the difference between a dull urban sprawl and a mighty mountain landscape? * * * COLORADO KEY FACTS Abbreviation: CO Nickname: The Centennial State Capital: Denver Flower: Rocky Mountain columbine Tree: Colorado blue spruce Bird: Lark bunting Mineral: Rhodochrosite Motto: Nil Sine Numine (‘Nothing Without Providence’) Well-known residents and natives: John Kerry, Horace ‘Go West Young Man’ Greeley, James Michener, Allen Ginsberg, Clive Cussler, Antoinette ‘Tony Award’ Perry, Ken Kesey, Douglas Fairbanks, Lon Chaney, Bill Murray, Roseanne Barr, Tim Allen, Don Cheadle, Trey Parker, Matt Stone, Paul Whiteman, Glenn Miller, John Denver
Istanbul Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
The building was originally known as the Church of the Holy Saviour Outside the Walls (Chora literally means 'country' and Kariye is the Turkish version of the ancient Greek word Khora, which means the same thing), reflecting the fact that when it was first built it was located outside the original city walls built by Constantine the Great. Within a century the church and the monastery complex in which it was located were engulfed by Byzantine urban sprawl and enclosed within a new set of walls built by Emperor Theodosius II. Around AD 500, the Emperor Anastasius and his court moved from the Great Palace of Byzantium in Sultanahmet to the Palace of Blachernae, a new complex built close to the point where Theodosius' land walls met the old sea walls on the Golden Horn. Its proximity to the Chora Monastery led to the monastery expanding and being rebuilt in 536 during the rule of Justinian.
İstanbul on Page & Screen Writers and directors often use İstanbul as an evocative setting – we list our favourite novels and films set in the city. İstanbul Today As the 21st century gets into gear, this meeting point of Europe and Asia is revelling in the unprecedented growth and prosperity it has achieved over the past decade. It's also getting larger – the official population is 14 million, but most locals think that 20 million is a more accurate estimate, leading to huge problems with urban sprawl and inadequate infrastructure. Best in Music Mercan Dede A major name on the international World Music scene, Dede's distinctive Sufi-electronic techno-fusion is showcased in his albums Sufi Dreams (1996), Journeys of a Dervish (1999), Sayahatname (2001), Nar (Fire; 2002), Sufi Traveller (2003), Su (Water; 2004), Nefes (Breath; 2006), 800 (2007) and Dünya (Earth; 2013). İlhan Erşahin The Turkish-American jazz saxophonist and composer is a big name in both New York, where he resides, and İstanbul, where he and his Istanbul Sessions ensemble regularly play at the Nublu venue in Karaköy.
Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
Fifty percent of Americans live within five miles of their workplaces, so there’s a place to start. It’s important to connect public transport with bicycles, whether it is combining bikes and trains or providing safe infrastructure to and from stations outside of city centers. In Copenhagen, roughly 50 percent of the bicycle infrastructure had been removed in the two decades of redesigning the streets for cars. Copenhagen has sprawl. The third-largest urban sprawl in Europe, actually. People can commute for a hour and a half or more by car to get to the city, as in many other places. Intermodality is the key. Riding your bicycle to the local train station and combining travel modes helps increase bicycle share. The main point here is that few people are going to ride long distances. More than a century of experience would dictate this. Sure, as quoted previously, many “found the bicycle a convenient form of transport for distances up to, say, ten miles.”
In Denmark, Danish State Railways (DSB) has been transporting passengers with bikes almost since the bicycle was invented. Greater Copenhagen is served by the S-Train network—S-tog in Danish—and for many years passengers had to buy a reasonably priced bike ticket. In 2010, DSB decided to make bikes free on all their red S-Trains that transport people to and from the city from the far reaches of our urban sprawl. It was a bold move, but far from being an example of corporate social responsibility, it was simply a clever business model. They assumed correctly and rationally that bikes don’t travel alone, so by making it free, there were good odds of increasing the number of paying passengers. Boy, did they nail it. What started with inventive campaigns advertising the fact that bike tickets on the S-Trains would be eliminated—like placing a makeshift tunnel resembling a mock train compartment on the cycle track, complete with hot air heaters to warm cyclists, however briefly, on a cold December day—ended rather well for them.
The rough guide to walks in London and southeast England by Helena Smith, Judith Bamber
Starting in the northeast fringes of London, the ancient deciduous woodland of Epping Forest stretches along a high gravel ridge for almost twenty kilometres into the Essex countryside. Originally a royal hunting ground, Epping Forest was opened to the public in 1878, since when it has been managed by the Corporation of London. Covering some six thousand acres, the forest is London’s largest public open space, and its sheer scale comes as a surprise to the first-time visitor, not least because of its proximity to the urban sprawl. It remains a popular spot, and at any time of year you can expect to share the forest with plenty of horse-riders and cyclists, as well as many fellow walkers. This circular walk heads from Chingford station up to Queen Elizabeth’s Hunting Lodge before heading north into the heart of the forest. The midway point is the woodland village of High Beach – the King’s Oak here makes a good lunch stop.
Map OS Landranger 198: Brighton & Lewes; OS Explorer 121: Worthing & Bognor Regis. This route starts from Goring-by-Sea, at the far edge of the sprawling seaside town of Worthing, west of Brighton. It runs via a small hillfort and the village of Clapham, through woodland to attractive Findon, where the Gun Inn is a reliable pub lunch stop. From here you climb up to Cissbury Ring, a vast hillfort with sweeping sea views. The path then descends to Worthing, with some urban sprawl to get through before you reach the station. The route doesn’t give you the feeling of unspoilt isolation common to the other South Downs walks in this chapter – aside from Cissbury Ring the downland here has been cultivated and its long contours divided into strips of field. But there are plenty of attractions: the thirteenth-century church at Clapham; the venerable boozer with its World War II associations; and the majesty of Cissbury Ring itself.
Lonely Planet Mexico by John Noble, Kate Armstrong, Greg Benchwick, Nate Cavalieri, Gregor Clark, John Hecht, Beth Kohn, Emily Matchar, Freda Moon, Ellee Thalheimer
AltaVista, Bartolomé de las Casas, Burning Man, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, New Urbanism, off grid, place-making, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, traffic fines, urban sprawl, wage slave
Over 2km high, Mexico City enjoys a springlike climate year-round. And the Chilangos, or defeños, or capitalinos, or whatever you name the locals, are a remarkably patient and helpful bunch. Yet it’s impossible to overlook the city’s very real problems. Kidnappings and taxi holdups, often dangerous levels of ozone and airborne particulates, intolerable traffic jams, overcrowded public transportation, practically unlimited urban sprawl: name your poison, it’s here. But the polluted air improved considerably after the introduction of strict emission controls, and downtown streets have been made unquestionably safer than in previous decades. Remember that Mexico City is, and has ever been, the sun in the Mexican solar system. To truly understand the country, you’ve got to come to grips with El Gran Tenochtitlán. * * * HIGHLIGHTS Study Diego Rivera’s tableau of Mexican history at the Palacio Nacional Sip some smooth and smoky mezcals at the tasting salons (boxed text,) of Roma and Condesa Cheer on the ‘good guys’ at the lucha libre bouts of Arena Coliseo Click Here Gaze upon the Aztec sun stone and other superb relics from Mexico’s pre-Hispanic past at the Museo Nacional de Antropología Share Frida’s pain at her blue birthplace, the Casa Azul, now home to the Museo Frida Kahlo, in Coyoacán TELEPHONE CODE: 55 Population: 21 million Elevation: 2240m * * * Return to beginning of chapter HISTORY Driving over the sea of asphalt that now overlays this highland basin, you’d be hard pressed to imagine that, a mere five centuries ago, it was filled by a chain of lakes.
Exiting the station, turn left and follow the pedestrian bridge across Avenida Insurgentes to a bus stop for free university transportation (called the Pumabús). ‘Ruta 10’ goes to the Centro Cultural Universitario. Several on-campus routes also operate outside metro Universidad with limited service on weekends and during vacation periods. Coyoacán Coyoacán (‘Place of Coyotes’ in the Náhuatl language), 10km south of downtown, was Cortés’ base after the fall of Tenochtitlán. Only in recent decades has urban sprawl overtaken the outlying village. Coyoacán retains its restful identity, with narrow colonial-era streets, cafés and a lively atmosphere. Once home to Leon Trotsky and Frida Kahlo (whose houses are now fascinating museums), it has a decidedly countercultural vibe, most evident on weekends, when assorted musicians, mimes and crafts markets draw large but relaxed crowds to Coyoacán’s central plazas.
Radio Maxi Seguridad ( 5768-8557, 5552-1376) Sitio Parque México ( 5286-7129, 5286-7164) Taxi-Mex ( 9171-8888, 5634-9912) Taxis Radio Unión ( 5514-8124) Return to beginning of chapter Around Mexico City * * * NORTH OF MEXICO CITY TEPOTZOTLÁN TULA TEOTIHUACÁN PACHUCA AROUND PACHUCA EAST OF MEXICO CITY PUEBLA CHOLULA POPOCATÉPETL & IZTACCÍHUATL TLAXCALA CACAXTLA & XOCHITÉCATL LA MALINCHE HUAMANTLA CANTONA CUETZALAN YOHUALICHÁN TEHUACÁN RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA DE TEHUACÁN-CUICATLÁN SOUTH OF MEXICO CITY TEPOZTLÁN CUERNAVACA XOCHICALCO TAXCO PARQUE NACIONAL GRUTAS DE CACAHUAMILPA WEST OF MEXICO CITY TOLUCA NEVADO DE TOLUCA MALINALCO IXTAPAN DE LA SAL * * * With its daunting size and seemingly endless urban sprawl, the megalopolis of Mexico City may seem a challenging place to escape from, yet thousands of Chilangos (Mexico City residents) do so every weekend. Fast toll roads fan out in all directions to the cities, towns and the so-called pueblos mágicos (magical villages) that surround the Distrito Federal, taking you surprisingly easily into a world of ancient ruins, well-preserved colonial towns and beautiful mountain scenery.
The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef
big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
What people do with their free time is golden, a cherished interregnum that most use how they please and that is increasingly endangered. In 2010, the Canadian Index of Wellbeing at the University of Waterloo released a report called ‘Caught in the Time Crunch: Time Use, Leisure and Culture in Canada.’ Its findings were not surprising. For one thing, it reported that Canadians ‘perceive and spend time much differently than they once did,’ and that leisure and cultural activities were changing as a result. Urban sprawl and longer commutes had shrunk free time while laptops and smartphones created a workforce that was perpetually on call. Longer working hours, providing care to an aging population and working non-standard shifts have also devoured more time and reduced leisure. Further, time constraints were worse for people ‘marginalized by race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, dis/ability, gender, sexual orientation and language proficiency, [and who] experience systemic barriers to social and economic opportunity.’
The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly
"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, business climate, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, endogenous growth, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Urbanism, open economy, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
As growth proceeds, old industries die and new ones are created. Growth alters the landscape, turning farms intofast-food restaurants and factory sites. And because growth involves losers as well as winners, it’s easy to see why there has always been a vocal antigrowth faction, even aside from the concern for the environment. On the web is a site for the Preservation Institute, a group that calls for ”the end of economic growth.”18 1999 study warns, ”Urban sprawl is undermining America’s environment, economy, and social fabric.”19 The historian Paul Kennedy notes that economic change ”like wars and sporting tournaments” is ”usually not beneficial to all.” Progress benefits some ”just as it damages others.”20Browsing the library, I find titles like Sustainable Development Is Possible Only If We Forgo Growth,EconomicGrowthandDecliningSocialWelfare, DevelopedtoDeath,ThePoverty of Afluence,TheCosts of Economic Growth, andthemorerestrained GrowthIllusion:HowEconomic Growth Has Enriched the Few, Impoverished the Many, and Endangered the Planet?
“Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 98, no. 5 (October): S12-37. Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew. 1996. Ethnic Cleansing. New York St. Martin’s Press. Belser, Patrick. 2000. “Vietnam: On the Road to Labor-intensive Growth.” World Bank Policy Research Paper 2389. July. Benfield, F.Kaid, Matthew D. Raimi, and Donald D. T.Chen. 1999. Once There Were Greenfields: How Urban Sprawl Is UnderminingAmericas’sEnvironment,Economy,and Social Fabric. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council. 315 References and Further Reading Benhabib, Jess, and Mark Spiegel. 1994. ”Role of Human Capital in Economic Development: Evidence from Aggregate Cross-country Data.” Journal of Monetary Economics 34 (October): 143-173. Poor People: Politics andSociety Benjamin, Thomas. 1996. A RichLand,a Chiapas.
Lonely Planet Colombia (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Alex Egerton, Tom Masters, Kevin Raub
airport security, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, Downton Abbey, El Camino Real, Francisco Pizarro, friendly fire, glass ceiling, haute couture, land reform, low cost airline, low cost carrier, race to the bottom, sustainable-tourism, urban sprawl
Much like the carnival in Rio de Janeiro, there are street bands, masquerade and fancy dress, live performances, and a riotous, slightly unhinged atmosphere as the town drinks and dances itself into the ground. It can be rough and ready, and you need to keep an eye on your possessions and your companions, but let your hair down and it could be a highlight of your trip. Barranquilla is a huge urban sprawl, with its fair share of unsafe barrios. Most of the cheap accommodations can be found around Paseo Bolívar (Calle 34), but this area is seedy – just check the number of army personnel present even during the day. If you'd like to stay in a more pleasant environment, try El Prado. However, if you're coming for carnaval, be sure to secure your hotel reservations months in advance, or you'll have no chance at all.
At any other time of the year, you'll likely only visit the bus station on your way to much more agreeable Santa Marta or Minca, and your experience of Barranquilla will simply be of its bad traffic. Santa Marta %5 / Pop 448,000 / Elev 2m Santa Marta is South America's oldest surviving city and the second most important colonial city on Colombia's Caribbean coast. But despite its long history and charming center, it gets a bad rap from many travelers, who rightly cite its unsightly urban sprawl and terrible traffic as reasons not to hang about here. The secret to Santa Marta is to use it for what it does well: hotels, restaurants and bars, and then get out to the slew of superb destinations nearby during the daytime. It's as a base that Santa Marta excels: come here for a destination in itself and you can easily be disappointed. That said, following the pedestrianization of several streets in the center of town and the renovation of the lovely Parque de los Novios, Santa Marta is slowly gaining a bit more of its own charm, and you might well find yourself spending more time here than you imagined.
In this spectacular setting, where the Río Piedras bursts out of the Sierra Nevada and empties into the Caribbean, sits an architecturally unique home, clinging to a cliff face. Finca Barlovento features open-air beds that jut out on a deck over the sea, so the waves crash right under your mattress. The food is simply sensational. Palomino %5 / Pop 4000 Palomino doesn't look like much as you pass through it on the main Santa Marta–Riohacha highway, but lurking on one side of its urban sprawl is one of Colombia's most perfect beaches, while on the other are the dramatic Sierra Nevada Mountains, a place the Wayuu people still guard carefully from outsiders. Palomino makes a great base from which to explore both, with a number of great places to stay and a backpacker vibe you'll not find in many other places along the coast. The town lies between the Ríos San Salvador and Palomino, which flow from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Lonely Planet Chile & Easter Island (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn McCarthy, Kevin Raub
California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, centre right, Colonization of Mars, East Village, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, land reform, low cost airline, mass immigration, New Urbanism, off grid, place-making, QR code, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white picket fence
From Grecia metro station (Línea 4), take bus D07 south from bus stop 6 and get off at the intersection of Av Los Presidentes and Consistorial (you need a Bip! card). Aquitania is 150m south. Note that Viña Cousiño Macul is located only 2km away. Viña Cousiño Macul WINERY ( 351-4135; www.cousinomacul.cl; Av Quilín 7100, Peñalolén; tours incl 1 varietal & 1 reserva CH$8000; tours 11am, noon, 3pm & 4pm Mon-Fri in English, 11am & noon Sat; Quilín) A pretty winery set in Santiago’s urban sprawl. Most of the vineyards are now at Buin, but tours take in the production process and underground bodega, built in 1872. It’s a 2.25km walk or a quick taxi ride from the metro. Viña Almaviva WINERY ( 470-0225; www.almavivawinery.com; Av Santa Rosa 821, Paradero 45, Puente Alto; tours incl 1 pour US$80; by appointment only 9am-5pm Mon-Fri) This boutique vineyard runs in partnership with Baron Philippe de Rothschild.
But unlike some of its central Chilean neighbors, Concepción is very important to Chile’s economy – specifically because of its manufacturing industry, port facilities and nearby coal deposits. Chileans consider Concepción a socialist hotbed – mainly because of the intellectual influences of its dozen or so universities. Concepción sits on the north bank of the Río Biobío, Chile’s only significant navigable waterway, about 10km from the river’s mouth. Hills block the city’s expansion to the south and east, so Concepción’s urban sprawl is moving rapidly in the opposite direction, toward Talcahuano, 15km to the northwest. History In 1551 Pedro de Valdivia founded the original city of Concepción north of where it is today, near Penco (indeed, Conce’s inhabitants are still known as Penquistas). Over the next few centuries the city was repeatedly besieged during the Spanish-Mapuche war, attacked by British and Dutch pirates and devastated by earthquakes in 1730 and 1751.
Prosperity means it has some of the highest levels of employment and school attendance, and some of the best-quality housing and public services in Chile. Punta Arenas 061 / POP 130,136 A sprawling metropolis on the edge of the Strait of Magellan, Punta Arenas defies easy definition. It’s a strange combination of the ruddy and the grand, witnessed in the elaborate wool-boom mansions and port renovations contrasted with windblown streams of litter and urban sprawl. Set at the bottom of the Americas, it is downright stingy with good weather – the sun shines through sidelong rain. Magellanic hospitality still pervades local culture, undeterred (or perhaps nurtured by) nature’s inhospitality. The city is remarkably relaxed and friendly. Recent prosperity, fed by a petrochemical industry boom and growing population, has sanded down the city’s former roughneck reputation.
The Linguist: A Personal Guide to Language Learning by Steve Kaufmann
I crossed into China from Hong Kong at the Lowu bridge near a small village called Shen Zhen. From the waiting room of the train station I could just make out the rows of low traditional peasant houses behind the posters with 46 A Personal Guide to Language Learning slogans exhorting the people to greater revolutionary efforts. Today, this quiet village has become one of the largest cities in China, a vast urban sprawl of modern skyscrapers and thriving capitalism, and a leader in high tech, fashion and more. As a foreigner, I was automatically seated in the soft seat section on the train to Canton (today’s Guangzhou). This entitled me to a cup of flower tea, which was regularly refreshed with more hot water by an attendant as the train rode through Southern Guangdong Province with its hills of red earth and green rice fields.
Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, low cost airline, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional
Given that both travel generally and car use per person are no longer increasing, what now drives the growth of total travel are demographic factors—population growth, urbanisation and increasing longevity. Planning policy There has been much debate amongst planners and policy makers about the merits of city versus suburban living. In Britain, a general concern to protect the countryside has led to the adoption of ‘green belts’ around many cities—areas of countryside where urban sprawl will be resisted. One result has been the movement of people, housing and employment into towns and villages beyond the green belts. This in turn has prompted calls for an urban renaissance, aimed at both protecting the countryside from house building on greenfield sites and preserving the vitality of the central core of cities. In the US, anxieties about inner city dereliction have led to calls for policies to encourage growth in metropolitan areas in the form of more compact communities less dependent on the automobile.
Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis
Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
Google Earth brings joy and fascination, but it can also be used to make a difference. In 2008 Clean Up The World started to use it to highlight places of particular crisis as well as show the impact of the International Clean Up Weekend. It is also being used to track the loss of the Antarctica ice cap, the depletion of the rainforest in Amazonia, measuring the largest oil spills in the world’s oceans13 as well as the extent of urban sprawl in cities like Houston and Phoenix. Google Earth is already having an unexpected impact on urbanism. In Dubai, islands are being designed to be seen from the air. Palm Jumeirah is a man-made island that spans out into the Gulf in the shape of a palm leaf that can be seen by satellite or aeroplane. Elsewhere the availability of aerial images has changed the way a city is run. In Athens, in the aftermath of the Euro crisis, the Greek government has been using Google Earth to find out who has a swimming pool in their gardens and then checking this apparent wealth with their tax returns.
I have followed a well-worn rite of passage that comes to many comfortably secure people living in the city in the western world at the beginning of the twenty-first century. We have moved to what many people call the ‘inner suburbs’ of London, the ring of development that encircled the city during the first decades of the twentieth century. Here, we are no longer within easy distance of the centre, but looking down our perfectly regular street northwards I see urban sprawl all the way to the horizon. Our house was built in 1907 when pasture was turned over to tarmacadam and respectable housing, built with a hint of Elizabethan historicism, aimed at middle-ranking professionals who could get into St Pancras Station within fifteen minutes on the commuter train. Home in north London When we bought it, the house had been kept in its original state, but like many others in the street we have adapted it to our modern tastes.
City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast
big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
“We drive up and down the gruesome, tragic suburban boulevards of commerce, and we’re overwhelmed at the fantastic, awesome, stupefying ugliness of absolutely everything in sight… as though the whole thing had been designed by some diabolical force bent on making human beings miserable.” Atlanta is an extreme case in point. Just a few years after Kunstler wrote, Time magazine featured it as the classic exemplar of American urban sprawl: “Once wilderness, [metro Atlanta is] now a 13-county eruption, one that has been called the fastest-spreading human settlement in history. What it leaves behind is tract houses, access roads, strip malls, off ramps, industrial parks and billboards advertising more tract houses where the peach trees used to be.” As a relatively low-density city surrounded by mall-studded suburbs, Atlanta most closely resembles other Sunbelt cities, such as Phoenix, Houston, Dallas, Miami, San Jose, and Los Angeles.
.* Today, Grant Park has turned back into a safe, desirable community, as I discovered when I stayed overnight with Sarah Toton and Micah Wedemeyer in their classic three-bedroom bungalow, built in 1907, with hardwood floors, high ceilings, and a huge oak in the backyard on Park Avenue, adjacent to the park’s northeastern section. They bought it for $363,000 in 2013, which seemed a bargain to me. The young Iowa couple came reluctantly to Atlanta for Toton to attend grad school at Emory University in 2003. “I never wanted to move to Atlanta. I heard it was a cancer on America with its urban sprawl.” Now they love it. In Grant Park there are frequent festivals, bike and running races, and other events, and they are close to everything, including the BeltLine Eastside Trail, where Wedemeyer, a computer programmer, rides his bike. It’s a great place to live, with the park and zoo (the Cyclorama is moving to Buckhead to the Atlanta History Center), the Grant Park Coffeehouse, and many nearby restaurants.
Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration and the Future of White Majorities by Eric Kaufmann
4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, income inequality, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open borders, phenotype, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, twin studies, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional
Economic rationales frequently disguise underlying psychological drivers. For instance, in small opt-in samples on Prolific Academic, one group of white Republican voters scored the problem of ‘unchecked urban sprawl’ a 51 out of 100, but another group of white Republicans who saw the question as ‘unchecked urban sprawl caused by immigration’ scored it 74/100 (italics added for emphasis). Likewise, among a sample of white British Brexit voters, the problem of ‘pressure on council housing’ scored a 47/100 but ‘immigrants putting pressure on council housing’ was rated 68/100. In both cases, it logically cannot be the case that the immigration-driven portion of the problem of urban sprawl or pressure on council housing is more important than the problem itself. Thus what’s driving opposition to immigration must be something prior to these material concerns.
City Parks by Catie Marron
I’ve since learned that people always compare Xochimilco to Venice, when in fact the two places have nothing in common but canals. XOCHIMILCO IS ONE OF SIXTEEN delegations (the equivalent of arrondissements in Paris, or boroughs in London or New York) that make up the Federal District, the enormous, palpitating heart of Mexico City. Xochimilco used to be a separate town, but it was one of the many localities enveloped by the urban sprawl that turned Mexico City into a monster of about 22 million souls in the last fifty years. In Xochimilco alone, there are close to half a million residents and about fifty neighborhoods. But when people talk about Xochimilco, they’re usually referring to a network of canals—extending more than a hundred miles—that snake through certain parts of the district. This is where Jesús sent me, to one of nine docks where tourists—mostly locals on a day off—board wooden boats called trajineras, painted yellow and red and covered in battered tin ceilings.
This Is Not a Drill: An Extinction Rebellion Handbook by Extinction Rebellion
3D printing, autonomous vehicles, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, feminist movement, full employment, gig economy, global pandemic, ice-free Arctic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, mass immigration, Peter Thiel, place-making, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, Sam Altman, smart grid, supply-chain management, the scientific method, union organizing, urban sprawl, wealth creators
Only by designing out the car, and the corporate and fossil-fuel webs that support it, can we save the city. The third area is the Bio City. An urgent lock-down of the destructive ecological tendencies of urban life is required. The air, water and land ecosystems that cities depend upon are being intensely degraded, and resources are being depleted and commodified. There are vast deadzones of alienated urban sprawl and dereliction, retail areas, highways and industry where residents have little connection with the natural systems that underpin human flourishing. Worse, there’s a binary division between us humans and the nature out there. This leads to us treating nature as something external rather than as a life-support system we depend upon. At the same time, we need to unlock a new ‘human–city–nature’ deal, which is slowly emerging through restorative and regenerative practices in urban nature.
Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan
"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game
But we don’t have to pay for some of the other significant costs of our driving: the emissions we leave behind, the congestion we cause, the wear and tear on public roads, the danger we pose to drivers in smaller cars. The effect is a bit like a night on the town with Dad’s credit card: We do a lot of things that we wouldn’t do if we had to pay the whole bill. We drive huge cars, we avoid public transportation, we move to far-flung suburbs and then commute long distances. Individuals don’t get the bill for this behavior, but society does—in the form of air pollution, global warming, and urban sprawl. The best way to deal with this growing problem is not the stuff that laissez-faire conservatives usually talk about. It is higher taxes on gasoline and cars. Only with those kinds of measures, as we shall explore in Chapter 3, will the cost of climbing behind the wheel of a car (or a hulking SUV) reflect the real social cost of that activity. Similarly, larger subsidies for public transportation would properly reward those commuters who spare the rest of us by not getting into their cars.
We have an entire public school system that still does not really reward teachers and principals when their students do well (or punish them when their students do poorly). We talk about how important education is, but we make it difficult and time-consuming for smart people to become teachers (despite evidence that this training has little impact). We don’t pay good teachers more than bad ones. We make it artificially cheap to travel by car, implicitly subsidizing everything from urban sprawl to global warming. We assess most of our taxes on productive activity, like work, savings, and investment, when we might raise revenue and conserve resources with more “green taxes.” If we get the incentives right, we can use markets to do all kinds of things. Consider the case of rare diseases. However bad it is to have a serious illness, it is worse to have a serious illness that is also rare.
World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen
active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
Their ability to manage and control migration into, and often across, their territories affects the talent strategies and population management planning of world cities. Their choices about where to locate national military, trade, research or scientific facilities can have big impacts on agglomeration. Their planning policies and regimes can enable or constrain the local governments in world cities as they try to adapt to infrastructure demand, reverse urban sprawl and make developments more attractive to international capital. The way they lobby for intergovernmental rules, treaties and regulations has big implications for their leading cities’ reach and competitiveness. Their response to key industries during economic downturns, whether through economic stimulus, grants or tax, tariff and regulatory adjustments, can inject momentum for a new cycle of growth in a sector, or can stop it in its tracks.
Finance and Governance of Metropolitan Areas in Federal Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Pp. 49–76. Bessis, H. (2016). Is the new ‘Greater Paris’ authority too weak to get things done?. City Metric. Available at http://www.citymetric.com/politics/new‐greater‐paris‐authority‐too‐weak‐get‐ things‐done‐1894. Accessed 2016 Mar 14. Blais, P. (2010). Perverse Cities: Hidden Subsidies, Wonky Policy, and Urban Sprawl. Vancouver: UBC Press. Bremner, C. (2010). Euromonitor International’s Top City Destination Ranking. Euromonitor. Available at http://blog.euromonitor.com/2010/01/euromonitor‐internationals‐top‐city‐ destination‐ranking.html. Accessed 2016 Jan 21. Bremner, C. (2015). Top 100 City Destinations Ranking. Euromonitor. Available at http://blog. euromonitor.com/2015/01/top‐100‐city‐destinations‐ranking.html.
The Architecture of Happiness by Alain de Botton
In order to alleviate overcrowding, the ancient low-rise buildings would have to be replaced by a new kind of structure only recently made possible by advances in reinforced concrete technology: the skyscraper. ‘2,700 people will use one front door,’ marvelled Le Corbusier, who went on to imagine ever taller towers, some housing as many as 40,000 people. When he visited New York for the first time, he came away disappointed by the scale of the buildings. ‘Your skyscrapers are too small,’ he told a surprised journalist from the Herald Tribune. By building upwards, two problems would be resolved at a stroke: overcrowding and urban sprawl. With room enough for everyone in towers, there would be no need for cities to spread outwards and devour the countryside in the process. ‘We must eliminate the suburbs,’ recommended Le Corbusier, whose objection was as much based on his hatred of what he took to be the narrow mental outlook of suburbanites as on the aesthetics of their picket-fenced villas. In the new kind of city, the pleasures of the town would be available to all.
Blood, Iron, and Gold: How the Railways Transformed the World by Christian Wolmar
banking crisis, Beeching cuts, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, invention of the wheel, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, railway mania, refrigerator car, side project, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, urban sprawl
The Illinois Central, which built most of the lines, was probably being just a tad optimistic in portraying ‘the very perfect system of Suburban Trains now run by this Company [in which] seated in their comfortable cars, the business man, after a hard day’s work in the city, finds the homeward ride along the beautiful Lake Front a pleasure rather than a task, as he waits for no drawbridges, railroad crossings or other annoyances’ 40 except, of course, the numerous stops which these trains invariably made. The Illinois Central deliberately set out to attract suburban dwellers and the railways, therefore, were responsible for urban sprawl a couple of generations before the motor car made it possible for every town, rather than only those blessed with a suburban railway network, to expand in that way. Commuting railways were transforming life in big cities all around the world, greatly extending the area in which workers could live. This changed the nature of cities, stimulating the creation of what are now called central business districts that can be served by train with high office blocks densely concentrated in an area of expensive land, while allowing urban sprawl to outer areas where land is cheaper. While in Europe the railways were built into existing cities, in America the central terminals became the focus of development.
Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville
A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game
Sidewalks and parks have benches. Safe neighborhoods are mixed-use with “eyes on the street” all day. Jane’s vision was hopeful, and she made an impact. Her text is required reading in urban studies. Her ideas have become conventional wisdom. Our world is more livable because of her. Sadly, not all cities got the message. As my black Uber car cruises the freeways of San José, I’m besieged by the image of urban sprawl. It’s hard to feel at home in a place like this. But it’s not just the office parks and strip malls that are making me uncomfortable. I’m worried about meeting Sophie. Part of the reason I don’t participate in the sharing economy is I’m an introvert, and a shy one too. Hotels are easy. Staff rarely say more than hello. But Airbnb is different. I’m staying in a home with my host. It’s like crashing with a friend you don’t know.
The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac
3D printing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, trade route, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
It took Emmeline Pankhurst and the suffragette movement slightly more than a decade to force the British government to give women the right to vote.14 The Soviet Union seemed so solid as to be eternal, but once cracks started to appear, the edifice crumbled in just a few months.15 In 1939 General Motors presented visitors to the World’s Fair in New York City with an imaginative vision of what the future could look like. It was called Futurama and consisted of an enormous model of multiple high-rise buildings, vast suburbs, and large motorways for travel between them, necessitating the use of cars.16 Imagination is going to be critical as we work to transform today’s urban sprawl to make it fit for the future. Some futurists have predicted that in the course of a decade, the rise of the autonomous, shared, on-demand electric car means we will need 80 percent fewer cars on the roads than we do now.17 This will free up huge areas of urban space that are currently used as parking lots. In London, for instance, it could mean that 70 percent of the space currently used for parking cars, or the equivalent of about five thousand sports fields, could become available for growing food, rewilding, or building sustainable housing.18 Much of what we imagine to be permanent is more ephemeral than we realize.
Bike Snob by BikeSnobNYC
I heeded the article’s advice, since I do hate swamps and didn’t savor the idea of getting mauled by one of Jamaica’s many alligators. However, unless you count rivulets of dog urine, there were no streams on or near Merrick Road, rippling or otherwise. There also weren’t any cyclists, apart from the odd delivery person riding a department store bike on the sidewalk. There were, however, many used car lots, as well as an abundance of fast-food chicken restaurants. Still, despite the urban sprawl, it wasn’t impossible to imagine a time when this was a country road teeming with cyclists. While more or less straight, Merrick Boulevard isn’t dead straight, like newer roads. Instead, it follows the mild grade and contour of the land like an older road does. And as any cyclist knows, the difference between a plumb-straight road and an “organic” one is huge. It’s the difference between a pleasant ride and a mind-numbing one.
The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan
Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl
Local governmental bodies, such as city councils and school and park boards, should play greater roles in the regulatory system, as they are often more accessible to citizens than federal and state agencies and more willing and able to forge alliances with citizen groups around particular issues (as they have done effectively in relation to, among other things, restrictions on advertising in schools, urban sprawl, "box" retailers, and environmentally damaging practices ). The roles of trade unions and other workers' associations in monitoring and regulating the behavior of corporations should be protected and enhanced, as should those of environmental , consumer, human rights, and other organizations that represent interests and constituencies affected by what corporations do. STRENGTHEN POLITICAL DEMOCRACY.
Better Buses, Better Cities by Steven Higashide
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, business process, congestion charging, decarbonisation, Elon Musk, Hyperloop, income inequality, intermodal, jitney, Lyft, mass incarceration, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, place-making, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart cities, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
The Avenue (Brookings Institute), March 26, 2018. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2018/03/26/us-population-disperses-to-suburbs-exurbs-rural-areas-and-middle-of-the-country-metros/ 11. Lara Fishbane, Joseph Kane, and Adie Tomer, “Stop Trying to Solve Traffic and Start Building Great Places.” Brookings Institution, March 20, 2019. https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2019/03/20/stop-trying-to-solve-traffic-and-start-building-great-places/ 12. Reid Ewing et al., “Does Urban Sprawl Hold Down Upward Mobility?” Landscape and Urban Planning 148 (April 2016): 80–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.11.012 13. Marlon Boarnet et al., “First/Last Mile Transit Access as an Equity Planning Issue.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 103 (September 2017): 296–310. 14. Kelcie Ralph and Evan Iacobucci, “Driven to Participate (Literally): Transportation Barriers to Teen Activity Participation.”
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
Following extensive training at these sites, units deploy to the real cities of Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, and elsewhere to undertake so-called Military Operations on Urban Terrain – MOUT for short. Like the rest of the world, then, military training sites are rapidly being urbanized. Colonel Thomas Hammes, writing in the US Marine Corps Gazette in 1999, was one of many defence planners then asserting the need to build new mock cities because US military training sites were out of phase with ‘the urban sprawl that dominates critical areas of the world today. Continuing in that vein, he wrote, ‘We know we will fight mostly in urban areas. Yet, we conduct the vast majority of our training in rural areas – the hills of Camp Pendleton, the deserts of Twenty Nine Palms, the woods of Camp Lejeune, the jungles of Okinawa, Japan’.4 The US military’s response has been dramatic. The US Army alone has plans to build sixty-one urban-warfare training cities across the world between 2005 and 2010.
‘As the fear of crime, however irrational, has risen in lockstep with the intensification of violence in the mass media’, he writes, ‘the SUV offers itself as an ideal technology for armoring the self against the perceived dangers that lurk outside’.36 As an icon of neoliberal subjecthood, the SUV helps reconfigure urban life as an interlinked series of mobile built capsules, withdrawn from the wider social environment, whilst selective connectivity is maintained through new control and surveillance technologies.37 SUV users’ perceptions of increased security are both paradoxical and illusory, however. For such vehicles merely promote increased oil consumption and dependence, which will only deepen current and future crises and insecurities.38 With suburbanization and sprawl – a project so critical to the mass adoption of SUVs – now threatened by oil depletion, the paradox is pronounced indeed. One influential critic of urban sprawl, Jim Kunstler, is convinced that ‘the grand meta-cycle of the suburban project as a whole’, within which SUVs now play such a major role, is ‘at the end of the cycle’. To him, ‘the remaining things under construction are the last twitchings of a dying organism’ – a process accelerated by the US recession, brought on by a credit crunch generated largely by criminally lax lending of largely fictitious capital to fuel yet another massive round of sprawl and exurbanization.39 Kunstler argues that US suburban history, climaxing in mass SUV ownership and hypersprawl, must be interpreted through the lens of oil geopolitics: The suburban expansion has been based entirely on cheap-and-abundant supplies of oil.
The Great Railroad Revolution by Christian Wolmar
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cross-subsidies, intermodal, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban sprawl
Journeys on such lines might be delayed by the conductor’s deciding it was a good time to shoot a rabbit or, more seriously, because beavers had decided to make a meal of a bridge, a common hazard on the two-foot-gauge lines in western Maine. These lines were run informally, and rarely for profit: “The engineer might well be the president of the company, the brakeman his brother.”34 One kind of local line did prosper, however. This was the period when the number of commuting services began to spread, notably in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, stimulating the growth of the urban sprawl that would later be served so much better by the automobile. In fact, as early as the 1840s, a few railroads had begun offering “commuted” tickets—reduced fares for regular use—to stimulate travel, but demand was limited, as there were few businesses needing such workers or, indeed, suburbs from which they could commute. Boston was an exception, as it boasted eighty-five commuter stations within fifteen miles of the city center by 1848 when a fifth of its managerial class lived in surrounding suburbs and came to work by train.
He saw that good transportation was as essential as ensuring the houses had water and electricity and therefore was not concerned that he lost money on providing it: “The result was the characteristic low-rise form of the region, with mile upon mile of ‘California bungalows’ spreading along the tentacles of the Pacific Electric Network. This extensive urban spread gave Los Angeles a reputation, which has lasted to this day, as the very model of urban sprawl.”19 Lots that were a half-dozen blocks away from the streetcar were simply left undeveloped, but once the car became commonplace, they were built upon and their residents’ automobiles soon displaced the streetcars on the highway. Development of these interurban streetcars was so intensive in parts of the Midwest that it was possible in 1910 to travel continuously by interurban from Elkhart Lake, Wisconsin, to Oneonta, New York, a distance of nearly eleven hundred miles.
How Asia Works by Joe Studwell
affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, liberal capitalism, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population
Japanese agriculture swung back from post-feudal abundance to brutal conditions of rural capitalist exploitation. Journey 1: Tokyo to Niigata You can begin to understand much about Japan’s agricultural history simply by driving around, because that history is so heavily dependent on topography. A journey from Tokyo north-west across the main island of Honshu to Niigata prefecture, producer of the country’s finest rice, highlights the basic challenges. First, however, you must exit from Tokyo’s urban sprawl. The capital, with its silent, strange residential suburbs, its little lanes and its religiously maintained road markings, ends only in theory. In practice it merges into a series of other, less prosperous towns in a seamless continuum of low-rise clapboard houses, malls, discount stores, fast-food restaurants and car showrooms. Not only has Japan developed with an impossibly small supply of cultivable land per capita, but large swathes of that land have been relentlessly gobbled up by its urban and industrial development.
Not only has Japan developed with an impossibly small supply of cultivable land per capita, but large swathes of that land have been relentlessly gobbled up by its urban and industrial development. This trend has long been exacerbated by a cultural aversion to high-rise building. The insistence on low-rise, sadly, has done nothing to make modern Japanese construction more attractive. Avoiding expressways, it is a 40-kilometre, two- to three-hour grind through spirit-sapping urban sprawl, past the vast American Yokota air base, before you see anything remotely rural to the north-west of Tokyo. What happens is that eventually the hills become too steep to build on or, indeed, to farm. And that is the reason why Japan has so little cultivable land – the country is covered in hills and mountains, which in turn are covered in forests. Inside a car, the smell of pine trees announces the ascent.
India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Induced demand, inflation targeting, invisible hand, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, obamacare, Pareto efficiency, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, school choice, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban sprawl, working-age population
As things stand, the resolution of the land acquisition problem is far from satisfactory. Space precludes discussion of problems in urban land markets, other than government land acquisition policies. The urban land ceiling acts which froze up land markets in cities for many years36 have now thankfully gone. But various distortions remain. To take just one example, the rigid ‘floor space index’ (FSI) requirements in cities encourage urban sprawl and hugely increase transport costs for residents. India’s cities are far less dense compared with international good practice. It would make good sense to relax FSI requirements by charging those who wish to exceed them a price [ 96 ] The Growth Challenge 97 that reflects the extra burden they will impose on urban infrastructure (after allowing for the saving on transport costs).37 The Capital Market and Bankruptcy Arrangements A competitive modern economy needs swift and efficient procedures to deal with company distress, insolvency, and exit.
Rationalizing government spending in the agricultural sector (see Chapter 6) and charging economic prices for farm inputs would help to fight water scarcity as well as save energy. Changing the balance of domestic transport from road to rail would increase productivity and also reduce GHG emissions. More efficient urbanization policies, including energy-efficient public transport, would reduce urban sprawl and congestion while furthering climate mitigation. Fears that climate mitigation policies would entail a major growth sacrifice are overblown. Consider, for example, the report of the Expert Group appointed by the Planning Commission on low-carbon strategies, chaired by Kirit Parikh.46 This concluded on the basis of an economy-wide optimizing model that the growth-rate decline from 2007 to 2030 as a result of low-carbon strategies would be small (a decline of only 0.15 percentage points compared with the base case), while India’s annual per capita carbon emissions would fall from a 2030 baseline of 3.6 tonnes to 2.6 tonnes.
Discover Caribbean Islands by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Bartolomé de las Casas, buttonwood tree, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, food miles, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, urban decay, urban sprawl
This is one of Basse-Terre’s longest and prettiest stretches of sand. The entire place is no secret though, and you won’t be alone, but it’s easy to escape the crowds by walking down the bay. There are a number of beachside restaurants. Detour: Les Saintes These tiny islands to the south of Basse-Terre are many people’s highlight of Guadeloupe, as they allow visitors to enjoy a slice of the old Caribbean, far from the development and urban sprawl that has affected much of the region. These tiny charmers are a real secret – many day-trippers come over from Basse-Terre, but very few people spend any real time here exploring these gems. Don’t miss your chance. Lying 10km off Guadeloupe is Terre-de-Haut, the largest of the eight small islands that make up Les Saintes. The island’s only village is Bourg des Saintes, which has plenty of great restaurants and excellent places to stay, including LoBleu Hotel (0590-92-40-00; www.lobleuhotel.com; Fond de Curé; s €114-135, d €122-145; ) and Les Petits Saints (0590-99-50-99; www.petitssaints.com; La Savane; d incl breakfast €140-180; ).
The restaurant offers everything from beef fillet to the fresh lobsters it keeps in a small pool. Martinique POP 400,000 Volcanic in origin, Martinique is a mountainous stunner crowned by the still-smoldering Mont Pelée, which wiped out Martinique’s former capital of St-Pierre in 1902. Martinique offers a striking diversity of landscapes and atmospheres. While it suffers from uncontrolled urban sprawl in some places, particularly in and around the busy capital, Fort-de-France, life – and travel – becomes more sedate as one heads north or south through some of the island’s delicious scenery. The rainforested, mountainous northern part is the most spectacular, but the south has its fair share of natural wonders, including lovely bays and miles of luscious beaches. It’s also a fantastic playground for outdoorsy types, with a host of activities readily available, both on land and at sea.
Italy by Damien Simonis
active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, bike sharing scheme, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, Frank Gehry, haute couture, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, large denomination, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, period drama, Peter Eisenman, Skype, spice trade, starchitect, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Bus line 383 links Stazione Brignole with Piazza de Ferrari and Stazione Principe. A ticket valid for 90 minutes costs €1.20 (single ride €0.70) and an all-day ticket costs €3.50. Tickets can be used on main-line trains within the city limits, as well as on the new wheelchair-accessible metro (www.genovametro.com), which has numerous stations across the city. Return to beginning of chapter AROUND GENOA Nervi A former fishing village engulfed by Genoa’s urban sprawl, modern Nervi classifies itself as a ‘resort’. Though, with plenty of ritzier Riviera competition, it’s rarely top of anyone’s vacation list. Its saving graces are its bounty of museums – four in total – and its 2km cliffside promenade, the Passeggiata Anita Garibaldi. The most celebrated museum is the Galleria d’Arte Moderna ( 010 372 60 25; Via Capolungo 3; adult/child €6/5; 10am-7pm Tue-Sun), displaying works by 19th- and 20th-century artists such as Filippo De Pisis, Arturo Martini and Rubaldo Merello.
The tourist office has information for hikers. For information on the Alpine ski resort of Bormio, in Valtellina’s far eastern reaches, see Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio, Click here. Trains link Milan with Sondrio (€7.80, two hours, every two hours) and terminate further east at Tirano. From Sondrio, buses connect the Valtellina’s resorts and towns. Return to beginning of chapter BRESCIA pop 189,700 Urban sprawl, a seedy bus and train station area, and the odd skyscraper don’t hint at Brescia’s fascinating old town, which serves as a reminder of its substantial history. Brescia already had centuries of (now- obscure) history behind it when the Romans conquered the Gallic town in 225 BC. The Carolingians took over in the 9th century, and were followed by a millennium’s worth of outside rulers, including the Venetians.
A one-day ticket allowing unlimited travel costs €25.80/13.40 (adult/child). Desenzano del Garda pop 26,610 The lake’s main transport hub, Desenzano del Garda, is more residential than its lakeside counterparts, and many tourists pass straight through with barely a backward glance. But while Desenzano is not as quaint as some other spots, it’s also not as touristy and buzzes with activity year-round. Hidden amid its urban sprawl is an attractive old port and historic centre. You can get information on the town here from the tourist office ( 030 374 99 90; Via Porto Vecchio 34; 10am-12.30pm & 3-6pm Mon-Fri, 10am-12.30pm Sat). Right on the lakefront by Desenzano’s main beach, Hotel Europa ( 030 914 23 33; www.desenzano.com; Lungolago Battisti 71; s/d €62/104; ) is a breezy modern place with a good restaurant. Desenzano is also a hub for nightlife in high summer, with bars and discos scattered around town.
Demystifying Smart Cities by Anders Lisdorf
3D printing, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital twin, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Google Glasses, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Masdar, microservices, Minecraft, platform as a service, ransomware, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, self-driving car, smart cities, smart meter, software as a service, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
The famous French modernist architect and city planner, Le Corbusier, wrote an interesting book, The City of To-Morrow and Its Planning, in the start of the previous century in which he summed up two basic approaches to developing the city: “Man walks in a straight line because he has a goal and knows where he is going (..) the pack-donkey meanders along, meditates a little in his scatter brained and distracted fashion, he zigzags in order to avoid larger stones, or to ease the climb, or to gain shade; he takes the line of least resistance.” The pack donkey becomes the image of the irrational unreflected way of city planning known from the medieval towns, urban sprawl, and slums all over the world. If you have ever admired the winding roads of city centers of Paris, Rome, Zurich, or Copenhagen, you would have experienced the particular charm of a city planned by the way of the pack donkey. Conversely, the way of man with his straight lines and right angles can be seen in the rational Roman grid–based cities that formed the inspiration for many American cities like New York, Minneapolis, and Lima.
A Honeybee Heart Has Five Openings by Helen Jukes
‘They’re right here – everything’s fine!’ But getting a hive won’t save the bees, who don’t and never have needed our keeping. If we want to do something to help them we’d do better to turn our attention to flowering habitats beyond the hive, on which they do depend. Wetland, woodland, wildflower pasture – all have been diminished over the last century in a hot wave of intensive agriculture and urban sprawl. I scoop the sticky crumbs from the books and floorboards, return them to my plate. So what is attracting us to beekeeping, if it’s not directly about saving the bees – and how do we become better custodians of their future? Perhaps it’s unfair to see the resurgence only as another form of avoidance of what’s really happening outside, to our climate and landscapes. Isn’t it possible that there is some experience we’re seeking, which we believe we might access, by bringing ourselves into an encounter with a hive?
Fodor's Barcelona by Fodor's
Cons: Barceloneta offers few hotel opportunities, while the Port Olímpic’s principal offering, the monolithic Hotel Arts, can feel like a tourist colony away from the rest of town. Pedralbes, Sarrià & Upper Barcelona Neighborhood Vibe: Upper Barcelona is leafy and residential, and the air is always a few degrees cooler. Pedralbes holds Barcelona’s finest mansions; Sarrià is a rustic village suspended in the urban sprawl. Pros: Getting above the madding fray and into better air has distinct advantages, and the upper reaches of Barcelona offers them. A 15-minute train ride connects Sarrià with the Rambla. Cons: The only drawback to staying in upper Barcelona is the 15-minute commute to the most important monuments and attractions. After midnight on weeknights this will require a taxi. Meal Plans If breakfast is included in the rate, we’ve noted it at the end of each review with abbreviations: the European Plan (EP, with no meals), the Breakfast Plan (BP, with a full breakfast), or Continental Plan (CP, with a continental breakfast).
But it was here 19th-century barcelonins cavorted in bloomers and bathing costumes. The right end of the beach is the home of the Club Natació de Barcelona and there is a semi-private feel that the beaches farther east seem to lack. Platja de Gavà-Castelldefels A 15-minute train ride south of Barcelona near the Gavà stop is a wider and wilder beach, with better water quality and a windswept strand that feels light years removed from the urban sprawl and somewhat dusty beaches of Barcelona. Alighting at Gavà and returning from Castelldefels allows a hike down the beach to Can Patricio or any of the other beach restaurants dishing out delicacies like calçots or paella. Previous Chapter | Beginning of Chapter | Next Chapter | Contents Previous Chapter | Next Chapter | Contents Bicycles and In-line Skates | Golf | Gyms and Spas | Hiking | Scuba Diving | Sailing and Windsurfing | Swimming | Tennis Bicycles and In-line Skates Cruising Barcelona on wheels, whether by bike or skate, is a good way to see a lot, and save on transport.
The Discovery of France by Graham Robb
The idea that hunters had a special understanding of the animals they killed is extremely dubious. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, some hunters believed that marmots pulled each other along like carts and that chamois and bouquetins (ibex) swung themselves headlong down sheer cliffs by stabbing their horns into the earth. Many of the wild inhabitants of France were no better known than the human inhabitants of the French colonies. * ROADKILL AND URBAN SPRAWL are modern innovations, but even two centuries ago there were signs that the discovery and colonization of France would bring devastation and death to animals. Domestic animals in towns were protected by the Grammont Law, but the only protection for animals in the wild was provided by occasional hunting restrictions, and most hunters found that these only enhanced the thrill of the chase. In the early 1780s, while ominous rumblings were threatening the monarchy, the geologist Horace–Bénédict de Saussure became one of the first people to notice a quiet catastrophe in the animal kingdom.
In Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose (The Poem of the Rhône, 1896), the poet Mistral looked back a generation as though to ancient times and compared the grooves cut by the barges’ cables on the stone embankments to the ruts of chariot wheels on Roman roads. The fairgrounds of Beaucaire are now a long, flat riverbank of weeds and rubbish haunted by dog-walkers and bored teenagers. Fortunately, economic development is not the only measure of urban health. Now that many large cities are surrounded by Stygian fields of concrete tedium, urban sprawl looks like an obnoxious side effect of prosperity and decline. The oceanic awfulness of northern Paris and the disheartening suburbs of Marseille exact a heavy toll from travellers who come in search of aesthetic pleasure. Yet until the mid-nineteenth century, the suburbs of Marseille were one of the great sights of southern France. The hills that form an amphitheatre behind the city were covered with tiny houses known as bastidous or cabanons.
The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, clean water, commoditize, corporate raider, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joan Didion, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, William Langewiesche
In November, Georgia governor Sonny Perdue declared a state of emergency for the northern third of his state, asked President George W. Bush to label it a major disaster area, and cut public utilities’ water withdrawals by 10 percent. Then Perdue joined hands with supporters on the statehouse steps to pray for rain. To some, the calamity was no surprise. Years of pro-growth policies and lax zoning had led to poor water management and urban sprawl; hydrologists had warned Georgia for nearly two decades that such a drought was possible, but legislators had never developed a coherent response. In the 1990s, plans to build a network of state reservoirs were defeated, largely by developers who were angered that they would not be allowed to build homes around the new lakes. A 2003 plan to sell water permits, which would limit water use, was derailed by Georgians who feared that neighboring states would be able to outbid them.
., 81 Uganda, 197 ultrapure water, 113, 339 ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, 111 Umma, 199 Unconfined Aquifer, 144 United Kingdom (UK), 75, 76, 267 floods in, 200, 204, 212 United Nations (UN), 93, 124, 145, 268, 276, 352 Development Goals of, 199 Food and Agriculture Organization of, 352n water crisis warnings of, 12, 127, 194, 196, 199 United States: annual wastage of water in, 120 assumptions about drinking water in, 9–10, 126 desalination plants in, 331 droughts in, 12, 128, 133, 361–62 energy demand in, 280 flood control in, 210–13 floods in, 12, 95–96, 128, 204, 207–8, 209–10, 326, 354–55 natural gas use in, 286 need for national water policy in, 354 population growth in, 280 water use in, 125–26, 186–87 see also specific regions and states United Water, 2, 271–72 United Water Resources, 2 Unquenchable (Glennon), 341–42 Upper Clark Fork River, 41 Upper Talarik Creek, 305 Upper Yellowstone River, 85 uranium, 20 urban heat-island effect, 132–33 urbanization: global, 124, 204 see also cities urban sprawl, 154, 206 usufructuary rights, 137 Utah, 169–70, 171, 174, 288 Vaca Partners, 147, 149 Valencia, Pablo, 131–32 value: paradox of (diamond-water paradox), 13, 343 of water, 13, 166, 167, 176–77, 240, 250, 266–67, 343–45, 355–56 Van Cortlandt Park Valve Chamber, 121–22, 124 Vanity Fair, 276, 286 Venice, Italy, 212 Veolia, 265, 266, 268, 269–70, 272, 273, 276 Vermont, 299 Verrado, Ariz., 327 Vibrio cholerae, 107 Vidler Water Company, 159 Vietnam War, 220 Villaraigosa, Antonio, 157, 158 vintners, viniculture, 137 Virginia, 83 water-quality standards of, 79 Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 90 Virginia Poultry Federation, 86 Virgin River, 160, 175 “virtual water,” 137 VISTA, 312 Vivendi, 270, 274 Volta River, 130, 196 Vonnegut, Bernard, 328 Wade, Michael, 193, 251–52 Waldrop, Bob, 320 Wall Street Journal, 101, 265, 273, 320, 333, 337 Wanger, Oliver, 246 Warm Springs Dam, 185 War of 1812, 217 Wasatch Mountains, 167 Washington, 318, 319, 357 Washington, DC, 55, 67, 71, 83 Washington Post, 91, 99 Waste Management Healthcare Solutions, 68 wastewater treatment, see recycled wastewater; sewage treatment, sewage treatment plants water: as axis resource, 4–5, 13, 14, 239, 265, 343, 355 bottled, see bottled water commodification of, 260–66, 268, 277 as defining resource of twenty-first century, 343 energy used by treatment, conveyance, and heating of, 278, 279 fixed supply of, 12, 129, 166, 235, 239, 343–44 global distribution of, 129 as human right, 266, 267–68, 277 power generation use of, 125–26, 278–91 rationing of, 240 as renewable resource, 343–44 valuation of, 13, 166, 167, 176–77, 240, 250, 266–67, 343–45, 355–56 “wet” vs.
Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (And What It Says About Us) by Tom Vanderbilt
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, call centre, cellular automata, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, congestion charging, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, DARPA: Urban Challenge, endowment effect, extreme commuting, fundamental attribution error, Google Earth, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, Induced demand, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, megacity, Milgram experiment, Nash equilibrium, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, statistical model, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, traffic fines, ultimatum game, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor
Hamilton, “Parking Lot Sealcoat: A Major Source of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Urban and Suburban Environments,” Fact Sheet 2005–3147 (Austin: U.S. Geological Survey, January 2006). Not surprisingly, the authors report that PAHs seem to be on the rise: “USGS findings show that concentrations of total PAHs in the majority of lakes and reservoirs in urban and suburban areas across the nation increased significantly from 1970 to 2001. The increases were greatest in lakes with rapidly urbanizing watersheds (urban sprawl); for example, over the last 10 years, the concentrations of PAHs in Lake in the Hills (suburban Chicago, Illinois) increased tenfold as the watershed was rapidly developed.” three to one: Douglas M. Main, “Parking Spaces Outnumber Drivers 3-to-1, Drive Pollution and Warming,” Purdue University News Service, September 11, 2007. Chapter Six: Why More Roads Lead to More Traffic during the shutdown: See Jon D.
“to use the buses”: BBC, February 28, 2001. Accessed from: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1186572.stm. slightly higher in Belgium): Pocket World in Figures 2007 (London: Economist, 2007). risk of traffic fatalities: See Theodore E. Keeler, “Highway Safety, Economic Behavior, and Driving Environment,” American Economic Review, vol. 84, no. 3 (1994), pp. 684–93, and Reid Ewing, Richard A. Schieber, and Charles V. Zegeer, “Urban Sprawl as a Risk Factor in Motor Vehicle Occupant and Pedestrian Fatalities,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93, no. 9 (2003), pp. 1541–45. Belgium had 522: World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, op. cit., p. 198. fairness of the process: Tom R. Tyler, Why People Obey the Law (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2006). The information on Belgium’s traffic enforcement comes from Lode Vereeck and Lieber Deben, “An International Comparison of the Effectiveness of Traffic Safety Enforcement Policies,” unpublished paper, Limburg University, Belgium, 2003.
Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
It’s most easily reached down a little alley off Henley St. BOAT Punts, canoes and rowing boats are available for hire from Avon Boating by Clopton Bridge – it’s under the Thai Boathouse restaurant. Return to beginning of chapter STAFFORDSHIRE Stoke-born novelist Arnold Bennett once wrote that Staffordshire was ‘unsung by searchers after the extreme’, but that doesn’t mean that it’s boring. Wedged between the urban sprawls of Birmingham and Manchester, the county is surprisingly beautiful, from rolling Cannock Chase, a magnet for walkers and cyclists, to the jagged backbone of the Peak District known as the Roaches. The stern might of Lichfield’s cathedral, the wild rides at Alton Towers, and the neoclassical mansion of Shugborough are among the county’s other charms. Orientation Staffordshire’s attractions are spread fairly evenly around the county: Stoke to the northwest; the Peak District and Leek northeast, with Alton Towers just south; Lichfield to the southeast; and Stafford just southwest of the centre.
Nudging a horseshoe loop in the river, Shrewsbury’s defensive potential was crucial to keeping the Welsh in line for many centuries. Then in medieval times the town grew fat on the wool trade. It is also the birthplace of Charles Darwin (1809–82), who rocked the world with his theory of evolution. Orientation Shrewsbury’s near-island status helps preserve the Tudor and Jacobean streetscapes of its centre and protects it from unattractive urban sprawl. The train station is a five-minute walk northeast of the centre and is as far as you’ll need to venture. Information Library ( 01743-255300; Castle Gates; 9.30am-5pm Mon, Wed, Fri & Sat, 9.30am-8pm Tue & Thu, 1-4pm Sun) Free internet access. Royal Shrewsbury Hospital ( 01743-261000; Mytton Oak Rd) Tourist office ( 01743-281200; www.visitshrewsbury.com; Music Hall, The Square; 9.30am-5.30pm Mon-Sat, 10am-4pm Sun May-Sep, 10am-5pm Mon-Sat Oct-Apr) Guided 1½-hour walking tours (adult/child £3.50/1.50) leave the tourist office at 2.30pm Monday to Saturday, and 11am Sunday from May to September and at 2.30pm Saturday only from November to April.
The communities had to then rely on their own resources, gradually becoming reabsorbed into the war-band culture of the native Britons – for some generations soldiers had been recruited locally in any case. Orientation Hadrian’s Wall crosses beautiful, varied landscape. Starting in the lowlands of the Solway coast, it crosses the lush hills east of Carlisle to the bleak, windy ridge of basalt rock known as Whin Sill overlooking Northumberland National Park, and ends in the urban sprawl of Newcastle. The most spectacular section lies between Brampton and Corbridge. Carlisle, in the west, and Newcastle, in the east, are good starting points, but Brampton, Haltwhistle, Hexham and Corbridge all make good bases. The B6318 follows the course of the wall from the outskirts of Newcastle to Birdoswald; from Birdoswald to Carlisle it pays to have a detailed map. The main A69 road and the railway line follow 3 or 4 miles to the south.
Let My People Go Surfing by Yvon Chouinard
People may be afraid of the term activist because they associate it with ecosabotage and violent protests, but I’m talking about normal citizens who want the government to live up to its obligation to protect our air, water, and all other natural resources. Activists have infectious passion about the issues they support, whether they are mothers fighting to clean up toxic landfills that are killing their children or farmers losing their fourth-generation family businesses to urban sprawl. These are the people on the front lines, trying either to make the government obey its own laws or to recognize the need for a new law. That’s why our earth tax, 1 percent of our net sales, goes primarily to them. I’ve learned from a lifetime of being outdoors that nature loves diversity. It hates monoculture and centralization. A thousand activist groups, each working on a specific problem that it’s passionate about, can accomplish much more than a bloated organization or government.
Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl
Paramilitaries patrol the streets of the tiny island wearing blue camou age uniforms, and you can often see smoke rising on the horizon as the incinerators at the largest garbage island in the world—an artificial reef four miles off the coast of Malé—work overtime to deal with the 330 tons of trash that are added to the heap each day. Malé is humid, and you sweat constantly. Between the temperature and the stress, it’s hard not to get headaches. Still, there’s one place in the city that’s relatively relaxing. It’s an arti cial beach on the eastern side of the island. While this beach is not much by the Maldives’ standards—it’s really just a thin strip of sand in the middle of the urban sprawl—the beach is your best option if you nd yourself in Malé and want to escape the city. Here, at least, there are a few open-air cafés facing the ocean that attract hip young Maldivians, and you can always see a few middle-aged men smoking hashish in the nearby bushes. Women dressed in burkas will bring their children to frolic in the surf, and depending on the season whole sections of the beachfront are taken over by either young surfers or skateboarders.
The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the sewing machine, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management
By maintaining the perspective of changes in the standard of living as viewed by the consumer, we omit most topics related to urban planning, urban politics, and the regulation of electric utilities. The spread of the city is treated in chapter 5, in which the development of the city is viewed as a corollary of a succession of transportation innovations that steadily increased the distance that was feasible to travel between the home and the workplace. Decisions that encouraged urban sprawl after World War II are reserved for chapter 10, on housing after 1940. Another deliberate omission from this chapter is the effect of the business cycle. The ease or difficulty of finding jobs varied across recession intervals and across decades, and the decline in the standard of living during the Great Depression stands out. But the Great Depression did not cause housing units to become unplugged from the electricity, water, and sewer networks; the appliances purchased before 1929 still worked to improve the standard of living; and the decade of the 1930s witnessed a sharp increase in the diffusion of electric refrigerators and washing machines.
Howard Johnson’s 1925 drug-store soda fountain in Quincy, Massachusetts, began a chain of roadside restaurants that by 1939 had 132 franchised outlets and in the 1950s and 1960s had a dominant market position, with about 1,000 outlets.137 Harland Sanders developed his famous chicken recipe in 1930 at “Sanders’ Servistation” in Corbin, Kentucky; J. F. McCullough founded what became Dairy Queen in Kankakee, Illinois, in 1938.138 The victory of the motor vehicle was not without controversy. Government policies encouraged urban sprawl and undermined the financial viability of urban transit and passenger railways. Even before World War II, public policy was skewed in favor of the automobile by building streets and highways with public funds while leaving urban transit and the interurban electric railways to operate as self-sufficient private companies. Many of the early roads were built by issuing bonds on which the interest was paid by local property taxes, so the automobile owner and transit rider paid equally to build a road system that made the automobile ever more attractive than transit.
“Heading Off the Entitlement Meltdown; Demography Is Destiny: The Retirement of 77 Million Baby Boomers Is Not a Theoretical Projection,” Wall Street Journal, July 21, pp. 1–2. Pratt, Gill A. (2015). “Is a Cambrian Explosion Coming for Robotics?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 29, no. 3 (summer): 51–60. Prieto, Luis, and Sacristan, Jose A. (2003). “Problems and Solutions in Calculating Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs),” Health Qual Life Outcomes, December 19. www.ricbi.nim.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC317370/. Puga, Diego. (2008). “Urban Sprawl: Causes and Consequences,” Eis Opuscles del CREI, no. 18 (January). Pursell, Carroll. (2007). The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology, 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. Radde, Bruce. (1993). The Merritt Parkway. New Haven, CT/London: Yale University Press. Radford, Gail. (1992). “New Building and Investment Patterns in 1920s Chicago,” Social Science History 16, no. 1: 1–21.
Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Destroyed Our Most Alluring Fruit by Barry Estabrook
With advances in the technologies of working with DNA, new areas are opening up for breeders. Better methods will allow scientists to routinely address more complex traits, such as the elusive matter of taste, which is controlled by multiple genes. Chetelat said he viewed it as a time of opportunity. But, unfortunately, time could be running out for the wild populations upon which future discoveries may depend. Modern agricultural practices and urban sprawl eliminate habitat for wild tomatoes. Herds of goats, llamas, alpacas, and other domestic animals eat and trample them. Even though the Rick Center can produce seed from previously gathered wild specimens, thereby maintaining genetic lines, Chetelat insisted that collections preserved by humans, however carefully, are no substitute for what he calls “in situ” plants, meaning ones that grow in their native environments without human interference.
Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl
Although it is encouraging to see more people take greater responsibility for the food they eat by choosing to buy local, we can’t let governments off the hook. Politicians need to support local agriculture by implementing policies and laws that protect farmland, ensure that farmers receive a fair price for the food they grow, and remove regulatory barriers that hinder farm-gate sales. The protection of rich agricultural soil from urban sprawl, roads, industrial development, and other land use must be central to any government local food strategy. Study after study has shown that valuable agricultural land around the world is being chewed up and paved over because of poor urban-planning decisions that value parking lots, new highways, and larger strip malls over keeping our precious bank of fertile soil for current and future generations of farmers to steward—for our benefit.
The Fix: How Bankers Lied, Cheated and Colluded to Rig the World's Most Important Number (Bloomberg) by Liam Vaughan, Gavin Finch
asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, buy low sell high, call centre, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, urban sprawl
He pulled off his headset and headed home to bed. He’d only recently upgraded from the superhero duvet he’d slept under since he was eight years old. The Fix: How Bankers Lied, Cheated and Colluded to Rig the World’s Most Important Number By Liam Vaughan and Gavin Finch © 2017 Liam Vaughan and Gavin Finch Chapter 2 Tommy Chocolate T homas Alexander William Hayes had always been an outsider. Born in 1979 and raised in the urban sprawl of Hammersmith, West London, Hayes was bright but found it hard to connect with other kids. His parents divorced when he was in primary school. When his mother Sandra remarried, she took Hayes and his younger brother Robin to live with her new husband, a management consultant, and his two children in the leafy, affluent commuter town of Winchester, bordering a stretch of bucolic countryside in the south of England.
A World of Three Zeros: The New Economics of Zero Poverty, Zero Unemployment, and Zero Carbon Emissions by Muhammad Yunus
active measures, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, distributed generation, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban sprawl, young professional
Of course, higher oil prices also drive up the cost of any activity that requires energy, including irrigation, running farm equipment, delivering goods to market, and shipping foods to and from processing plants. All of these economic and social problems are growing worse just as global environmental trends are threatening the future of agriculture around the world. Climate change and drought are turning vast areas that were once fertile farmlands into deserts. The need for new farmland and continuing urban sprawl are driving deforestation, which further accelerates global warming. Scientific simulations suggest that while climate change will slightly increase the total amount of land available for farming, the overall quality of croplands will decline. What’s more, the regions most vulnerable to loss of farmland are already some of the most economically troubled areas of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and North Africa.6 One of the countries that is most immediately impacted is my homeland of Bangladesh, the world’s most densely populated country, which is a flat country with 20 percent of its land less than 1 meter above sea level.
The Growth Delusion: Wealth, Poverty, and the Well-Being of Nations by David Pilling
Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, call centre, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Hangouts, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, off grid, old-boy network, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, performance metric, pez dispenser, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, science of happiness, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
There was a reason for that. You could increase GDP, say by building on greenfield sites or getting people to work longer hours, but in GPI terms the positive of higher economic output was offset by the negatives of natural destruction or the loss of leisure time. In explaining the GPI’s rationale, the department’s website gives the example of economic expansion resulting from the “explosive growth of urban sprawl.” All that activity in construction, new sewerage systems, new roads, and new cars counts toward growth, but sprawl is also associated with several costs such as longer commutes, loss of community, destruction of natural land, as well as water and air pollution. “Just because we are exchanging money within an economy does not necessarily mean that we are sustainable or prosperous.” It is pure Kuznets.
Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus
Contractors don’t even need an architect on board to get funding from Caixa, the National Housing Bank – an engineer’s signature will do. And you can tell. These flimsy towers and rudimentary housing blocks have no architectural aspirations at all. For the poorest, MCMV is providing worse housing than was built at City of God in the late 1960s. History is repeating itself, and the result is yet more urban sprawl. The lessons of John Turner, PREVI and even Favela-Bairro appear not to have been learnt. The notion of conveniently located, self-built, adaptable housing has been rejected in favour of the construction industry’s profits. I spoke to a veteran of Brazilian social housing strategies, Ephim Shluger, who spent thirty years working as an architect for UNICEF and the World Bank, and he painted a very clear picture.
Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington
airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, low cost airline, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War
Whether the details of how they did it will ever be fully worked out, however, remains an open question. Kids The Pyramids It’s a cliché, but there’s really no sight like them. For sheer, dominating bulk, the pyramids on Giza have got pretty well everywhere else in the world beat. It used to be that you came upon them slowly, riding on horseback across the green fields that separated the plateau from the city. Nowadays, urban sprawl laps at the very feet of the Sphinx himself, and by the time you see the pyramids, they’re right on top of you. It’s a moment that you’ll never forget. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the first one you come to. The entrance is on the north face, and once inside, you face a long and uncomfortable scramble to the Great Gallery, which is some 47m (154 ft.) long and 8.5m (28 ft.) high. Don’t even think about going in if you suffer from the slightest bit of claustrophobia—the passages are narrow and the spaces are tight, and in the heat of the summer stuffed with tourists, the inside of this place is guaranteed to set you off.
On the north coast, as with much of Egypt, you have to develop the trick of 09_259290-ch06.qxp 7/22/08 12:31 AM Page 128 Northern Egypt 0 50 mi N 0 50 km M e d i t e r r a n e a n Sidi Barrani Salum Marsa Matruh N O R T H Area of detail EGYPT Sidi abd al Rahmen 3 200 mi Q Siwa Oasis 2 El-Alamein War Cemet C Red Sea Hixj el-Qatar 0 1 Nile Cairo Zawyat Sidi Musa A T T A R A N SIO ES PR E D Qara Oasis seeing through a thick layer of urban sprawl that has taken place in the last 30 or 40 years, as well as past the decay that has accompanied it. Many miles of once pristine beach both east and west of Alexandria have been obscured by swathes of cheap concrete “holiday village” development, and the city itself has swelled from a population of 1 million in the 1960s to almost 4 times that today, with some of the growth going into new, unplanned neighborhoods and the rest being absorbed into the neglected housing of Alexandria’s old quarters.
1989 The Berlin Wall: My Part in Its Downfall by Peter Millar
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, urban sprawl, working-age population
But Teltow had a Brandenburg rather than a Berlin postcode, so in August 1963 it suddenly found itself on the other side of the Wall. To the inhabitants of such fringe suburbs the sudden severing of their lifelines to the city they thought they belonged to was unbelievable. Teltow was little more than a straggle of streets where the Greater Berlin that had grown up in the nineteenth century sprawled out into the countryside. On its own it was nothing, yet now, literally overnight, this little overflow of urban sprawl had been designated a rural village. It was an anomaly on a par with the ‘walled garden’ allotments I had seen from my helicopter tour when I first arrived. It was true that Pieps and his neighbours could still drive into ‘Berlin’ – at least the eastern half of it – but now it was a journey of some forty kilometres just to reach the edge of the city and when they did it was a part they were completely unfamiliar with.
The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin
Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
CHAPTER 6: THE DANISH RESPONSE this page: Information about Denmark’s environmental track record, including its level of carbon dioxide emissions since 1990, comes from figures available through the State of Green, a government-backed initiative to raise international awareness of the country’s green credentials (www.stateofgreen.com). this page: The argument for the relationship between urban population density and vibrant cities is well documented. Jane Jacobs, for one, argued convincingly against urban sprawl in her seminal work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which has influenced thoughts on urban planning since its publication in 1961. CHAPTER 7: ZERO-SUM WORLD this page: The figures for Venezuela’s oil exports to the United States come from the EIA. US oil imports from Venezuela reached a high of 1.77 million barrels a day in 1997. (www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mttimusve2&f=a) this page: The figure for the number of licensed American drivers comes from the US Federal Highway Administration, an agency within the Department of Transportation (www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/onh2p4.htm).
The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
,” CNN, June 21, 2008; Richard Morrill, “The Geography of Class in Greater Seattle,” New Geography, June 16, 2009, http://www.newgeography.com/content/00857-the-geography-class-greater-seattle; interview with author. 89. Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends, “Suburbs Not Most Popular, But Suburbanites Most Content,” February 26, 2009, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2009/02/26/suburbs-not-most-popular-but-suburbanites-most-content; Jan K. Bruekner and Ann G. Largey, “Social Interaction and Urban Sprawl,” October 2006; Ed Braddy, “Smart Growth and the New Newspeak,” New Geography, April 4, 2012, http://www.newgeography.com/content/002740-smart-growth-and-the-new-newspeak; Brookings Institution Metropolitan Policy Program, “State of Metropolitan America: On the Front Lines of Demographic Transformation,” report, 2010, http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/Programs/Metro/state_of_metro_america/metro_america_report.pdf; Elizabeth Kneebone and Jane Williams, “New Census Data Underscore Metro Poverty’s Persistence in 2012,” Brookings, September 19, 2013, http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2013/09/19-census-data-poverty-kneebone-williams. 90.
How Did We Get Into This Mess?: Politics, Equality, Nature by George Monbiot
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, dematerialisation, demographic transition, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, land reform, land value tax, market fundamentalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, peak oil, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, urban sprawl, wealth creators, World Values Survey
As Churchill, Adam Smith and many others have pointed out,13 those who own the land skim wealth from everyone else, without exertion or enterprise. They ‘levy a toll upon all other forms of wealth and every form of industry’.14 Land value tax recoups this toll. It has a number of other benefits.15 It stops the speculative land hoarding that prevents homes from being built. It ensures that the most valuable real estate – in city centres – is developed first, discouraging urban sprawl. It prevents speculative property bubbles, of the kind that have recently trashed the economies of Ireland, Spain and other nations and which make rents and first homes so hard to afford. Because it does not affect the supply of land (they stopped making it some time ago), it cannot cause the rents that people must pay to the landlords to be raised. It is easy to calculate and hard to avoid: you can’t hide your land in London in a secret account in the Cayman Islands.
DarkMarket: Cyberthieves, Cybercops and You by Misha Glenny
Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, BRICs, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, James Watt: steam engine, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pirate software, Potemkin village, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stuxnet, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, zero day
His successful work in South Africa was noticed further up the Anglican Church’s hierarchy and, after eight years, the Bishop of Bradford in the English county of West Yorkshire urged him to consider an equally challenging post in Manningham, a residential district on the edge of Bradford city centre. The Reverend John was reluctant – England had always struck him as a rather gloomy place, with its miserable weather and urban sprawl. Equally, he knew that Manningham was no bed of roses. Many Britons regarded Bradford, and Manningham in particular, as a symbol of their country’s failing attempts to integrate its many ethnic and confessional groups. More malignant types saw in Manningham an opportunity to ratchet up the mistrust between those communities. In July 2001 this district exploded into brief but violent riots that reflected a deepening division between the city’s large Asian constituency and its white population.
A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent
The Pentagon also argues that global warming might well in the long run be a more serious threat to the security of the US than terrorism.28 Interestingly, the two main culprits in the growth of carbon dioxide emissions these last few years have been the powerhouses of the global economy, the US and China (which increased its emissions by 45 per cent over the past decade). In the US, substantial progress has been made in increasing energy efficiency in industry and residential construction. The profligacy in this case largely derives from the kind of consumerism that continues to encourage high-energy-consuming suburban and ex-urban sprawl and a culture that opts to purchase gas-guzzling SUVs rather than the more energy-efficient cars that are available. Increasing US dependency on imported oil has obvious geopolitical ramifications. In the case of China, the rapidity of industrialization and of the growth of car ownership doubles the pressure on energy consumption. China has moved from self-sufficiency in oil production in the late 1980s to being the second largest global importer after the US.
Extreme Ownership: How U.S. Navy SEALs Lead and Win by Jocko Willink, Leif Babin
Army brigade task force operation, including a half dozen different U.S. Army and Marine Corps battalions and thousands of Soldiers and Marines on the ground, were operating on the same battle map, which was crucial. But matching the numbers and street names on the map to what we were seeing in front of us on the ground could be quite a challenge. Here there were no streets signs or address numbers. This was Ramadi. Amid the urban sprawl of trash-covered streets and alleyways were huge bomb craters and walls pockmarked by bullets and spray-painted with Arabic jihadist graffiti, which our interpreters translated for us, such as: “We will fight until we reach either of the two heavens: victory or martyrdom.” We were here to ensure it was the latter. Ahead of a huge Army force of U.S. Soldiers on foot, M1A2 Abrams Main Battle Tanks and M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicles, our SEAL platoon had foot-patrolled into the area in the early morning darkness.
Nomadland: Surviving America in the Twenty-First Century by Jessica Bruder
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, big-box store, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, full employment, game design, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Mars Rover, new economy, off grid, payday loans, Pepto Bismol, precariat, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, six sigma, supply-chain management, union organizing, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Y2K
I retrieved a long-handled BBQ lighter from the van, squeezed my hand in the crack and used it to pop the lock. And so the journey continued. The Squeeze Inn was waiting in storage on the outskirts of Perris, a town on the far side of the Santa Ana Mountains, one of the peninsular ranges that separate California’s coastal region from its harsher desert interior. Getting there meant traveling the Ortega Highway. This is one of the most dangerous roads in the state, “a place where urban sprawl, bad driving and obsolete road-building techniques collide head-on,” in the words of one Los Angeles Times reporter. The winding thoroughfare is often clogged with commuters shuttling between Orange County and the Inland Empire, but at midday, traffic was mercifully light. Before long, Linda was on the other side, driving past some of the half-dozen trailer parks that cling like barnacle colonies to the western edge of Lake Elsinore.
A Sting in the Tale by Dave Goulson
If the biota, in the course of aeons, has built something we like but do not understand, then who but a fool would discard seemingly useless parts? To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering. Aldo Leopold Prologue My interest in bumblebees and other insects dates back to the age of seven, when my family and I moved from a small semi-detached house on the edge of Birmingham’s urban sprawl to a little village called Edgmond in Shropshire. My father had been brought up close by in the market town of Newport and, being a schoolteacher, he was keen that his two sons should get a good education. Newport had, and still has, a fine grammar school, the school which my father had attended and to which he hoped my brother and I would go, provided we could pass the entrance exam. At seven I didn’t much care about school, but I loved our new house.
The Last Job: The Bad Grandpas and the Hatton Garden Heist by Dan Bilefsky
Nevertheless, Alok was confident that his longtime security guards, Kelvin Stockwell, a slow-moving and white-haired sixty-year-old who had worked for the company for twenty years, and Keefa Raymond Kamara, who had worked there more than a decade, had things under control. As the two security guards were preparing to leave for the night, Reader paid his bus fare with a special travel pass for senior citizens—registered to his longtime alias, Mr. T. McCarthy—and then began an eighty-minute journey to Hatton Garden. As the 96 bus edged its way through the city, the tree-lined streets of Kent soon gave way to the capital’s urban sprawl. If Reader and the gang could pull off the caper, his children and grandchildren would never have to work again. And he would go down among the London criminal fraternity as “the Master” his contemporaries grudgingly revered. The enormity of what he and the others were about to attempt must have been flashing through his mind as the streets of London rushed by the bus’s windows. There had been three years of due diligence; things had already been set in motion.
The Gospel of Food: Everything You Think You Know About Food Is Wrong by Barry Glassner
Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Gary Taubes, haute cuisine, income inequality, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Saturday Night Live, stem cell, twin studies, urban sprawl, working poor
For younger children, McDonald’s offers seesaws, slides, and climbing gyms at eight thousand of its restaurants. Failing to acknowledge how valuable these are for tens of thousands of families who don’t have access to safe and well-equipped playgrounds, Schlosser sees them only in a 158 The Gospel of Food marketing context, as lures to incite children to beg their parents to bring them in.30 Critics blame fast food for every modern-day ill from heart disease and cancer to crime and urban sprawl. According to an article in the Ecologist, “no corner of the Earth is safe from its presence and no aspect of life is unaffected.” Joe Kincheloe, a professor of education at Brooklyn College, actually suggests that McDonald’s is responsible for Japanese children’s losing their facility with chopsticks.31 McDonald’s engages in a “cultural pedagogy” that produces “disciplined subjects” with “colonized desires” and a “commodiﬁed identity,” Kincheloe explains in a book published by Temple University Press that is part of a large body of writing by academics who use rareﬁed language from social and literary theory to discuss “the McDonaldization of society,” as the title of a much discussed book put it.
The 100 Best Vacations to Enrich Your Life by Pam Grout
Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, global village, Golden Gate Park, if you build it, they will come, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, supervolcano, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
“America is based on pilgrims coming over here and knocking together log cabins,” says Patrice Hennin, founder of the Shelter Institute. “Everyone, deep down in his heart, knows he can build a house. It’s not as if we’re sending rockets to the moon here; we’re just building houses.” Arcosanti. This experimental town in the high desert of Arizona offers workshops in building throughout the year that focus on eliminating urban sprawl and lessening our impact on Mother Earth. A one-week workshop, including meals and dorm- or apartment-style accommodations, is $475 and includes seminars explaining the concept of “arcology” (architecture with an eye toward ecology), tours around the alternative urban site, and a silt-casting workshop. Collective work projects and in-depth studies of the departments at Arcosanti begin in the second week and cost an extra $250.
The Buy Side: A Wall Street Trader's Tale of Spectacular Excess by Turney Duff
He carries a sign that reads MR. TURNEY. “Turney is my first name,” I say by way of introduction. “Bill’s mine,” he says as he reaches for my bags. “I got ’em,” I say. I must look weaker than I thought. Bill and I walk across the airport parking lot to a maroon van. It’s about a thirty-minute drive to the facility. I spend the first part just looking out the window at the sights, the usual just-outside-the-airport urban sprawl of highway cloverleafs and chain stores. I can’t believe I’m going to rehab. “What’s your drug of choice?” Bill asks, breaking the silence. “Cocaine and alcohol, I guess. Do you work for the rehab?” “I’m retired but I work for the center a few days a week doing whatever they need. I like to be around it. It helps me remember why I can’t drink today.” “How long’s it been?” I ask. “Clean?”
The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce
Making sure that the world’s oil supplies are open for exploitation has drawn the US into conflict in the Middle East and elsewhere and energy politics, just to take one example of a crucial relation to nature, has often emerged as a dominant issue within the state apparatus and in inter-state relations. But on the other hand the politics of cheap oil have posed problems of excessive depletion, as well as global warming and a host of other air quality issues (ground level ozone, smog, particulate matter in the atmosphere, and the like) that pose increasing risks to human populations. High-energy-consuming urban sprawl has produced chronic land use degradation conducive to flooding, the siting of waterways and the production of urban ‘heat islands’. These environmental impacts complement the depletion of the natural resources required to support an automobile industry which played such a pivotal role in capital surplus absorption from the 1930s onwards. Some Marxists, led by the Californian economist Jim O’Connor, who founded the journal Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, refer to the barriers in nature as ‘the second contradiction of capitalism’ (the first being, of course, the capital–labour relation).
No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar
Emerging-market megacities such as Shanghai and Mumbai are already home to some of the priciest commercial real estate in the world. In built-up areas, infrastructure can get congested easily, further raising the cost and unpredictability of doing business. Some Latin American and Asian cities are beginning to lose their power as engines of prosperity because they are clogged with traffic, scarred by urban sprawl, polluted, and crime ridden. Any visitor to Jakarta is familiar with the traffic gridlock that results from 1.5 million vehicles using roads designed for 1 million. Traffic congestion alone costs Indonesia’s capital city an estimated $1 billion a year in lost productivity.33 In Mercer’s Annual Cost of Living survey, the most expensive city for business isn’t San Francisco or Tokyo. Rather, it’s Luanda, Angola, where a dearth of quality office space and living quarters, poor public services and supply chains, and underdeveloped business and physical infrastructure impose huge costs on corporations.34 On top of land costs, businesses face other challenges, such as stringent zoning rules, land-use regulations, and environmental rules—in emerging and developed cities alike.
The Fields Beneath: The History of One London Village by Gillian Tindall
Temperate, sunny eras have deposited elaborate fanlights, stucco mouldings, cornices and parapets; colder eras have peeled stucco and rotted trimmings, making facings porous. Successive ice ages have left piles of masonry like great rocks standing out above the more delicate roofscape of slates – piano factories, engine sheds, model dwellings, greyly serviceable blocks with stone dressings, post-War follies in roughcast concrete. In the ‘urban sprawl’ the petrified tide-marks of earlier building waves are still clearly visible: here the airy stuccoed facades give way to heavier, mid-Victorian ones with porticoes, here these in turn lie alongside late-Victorian debased Scottish baronial style. Here is an untouched segment of Edwardian red-brick and hung tile, here a slice is missing and in its place (brought hither by a glacier from a distant suburb?)
Insane Mode: How Elon Musk's Tesla Sparked an Electric Revolution to End the Age of Oil by Hamish McKenzie
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, business climate, car-free, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, connected car, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, Nikolai Kondratiev, oil shale / tar sands, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, South China Sea, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Zipcar
Or, knowing that it’s cheaper for their cars to simply drive themselves around the city than to pay for parking, car owners could let their empty vehicles roam while not in use, creating a nightmarish scenario of what Robin Chase calls “zombie cars” crowding the streets uselessly. Perhaps the suburbs will become so attractive as commutes become easier that instead of resource-efficient, high-density cities, we’ll have endless urban sprawl. But it doesn’t have to be that way. Almost everything I know about the Renaissance, the period in European history from the fourteenth to the seventeenth century, comes from an eighteen-minute YouTube video produced by the author and philosophy guru Alain de Botton’s School of Life. De Botton dedicates a few minutes of the video to educating viewers about the Renaissance leaders’ zeal for building beautiful cities.
The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community by Chris Scotthanson, Kelly Scotthanson
. • It costs more initially to insulate well, build tightly, and use high-performance windows. • Many alternative materials and systems cost more. Do now what you can’t do later • Detail your foundation for radon pre-mitigation. ☞ ENVIRONMENT The decision between a rural or urban location is a difficult one. If everyone chose to move out into the country and build new, what we would have would be more urban sprawl. With the sprawl we have suburbia, and the complete destruction of the natural environment. It seems to me that true environmentalists would choose to live in the high density of the city, doing their part to protect the natural environment from further development. It is possible for your community to choose an urban location, even a tiny site, or a few of fioors in a high-rise, and then buy some rural agricultural land to be owned and managed by the community.
The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Parents’ competitive energies could be channeled toward signing up early or improving their children’s qualifications for a certain school, not bankrupting themselves to buy homes they cannot afford. If a meaningful public school voucher system were instituted, the U.S. housing market would change forever. These changes might dampen, and perhaps even depress, housing prices in some of today’s most competitive neighborhoods. But these losses would be offset by other gains. Owners of older homes in urban centers might find more willing buyers, and the urge to flee the cities might abate. Urban sprawl might slow down as families recalculate the costs of living so far from work. At any rate, the change would cause a one-time readjustment. The housing market would normalize, with supply and demand more balanced and families freed from ruinous mortgages. The Price of Education Even with that perfect house in a swanky school district, parents still are not covered when it comes to educating their kids—not by a long shot.
Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom
autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl
If asked, most natives would tell you that if they closed their eyes and shut out any nearby landmarks, or local signage, they could be almost anywhere in the United States. The sameness of everything has a numbing effect, just as it did for the Norwegian writer Karl Ove Knausgaard who, assigned to take a road trip across North America for the New York Times Magazine last year, wrote, “Ever since I landed in Cleveland the previous day, the landscape had been the same, a sort of centerless, semi-urban sprawl of highways, subdivisions, shopping malls, warehouses, gas stations and factories.”1 Nothing in the landscape, he wrote, felt surprising or natural. Concluded Knausgaard, “I was supposed to write something about this trip, and not only that, I was supposed to use this trip to grasp something essential about the United States, perceive something with my foreign gaze that Americans couldn’t see for themselves.
Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard
augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen
Mark Rosenzweig described the effects of experience on brain chemistry in anatomy in a book written with Michael Renner titled Enriched and Impoverished Environments: Effects on Brain and Behavior (Springer, New York, 1987). 9Stuart Grassian has written a lengthy report on the psychiatric effects of solitary confinement for the Washington University Journal of Law and Policy (2006, Volume 22), available at: http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/law_journal_law_policy/vol22/iss1/24. 10Aisling Mulligan and colleagues described the influence of the home environment on the development of ADHD in an article titled “Home Environment: Association with Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Children with ADHD and their Non-ADHD Siblings,” in the journal Child: Care, Health and Development (2013, Volume 39, pages 202–212). 11Robert Venturi and colleagues Denise Brown and Steven Izenour described the iconography of urban sprawl in Las Vegas in their controversial book Learning From Las Vegas (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1972). 12Sarah Goldhagen laments the multiple failures of architectural education in an article titled “Our Degraded Public Realm: Multiple Failures of Architecture Education,” in the January 10, 2003 issue of the Chronicle Review, available on her website (along with many other interesting articles): http://www.sarahwilliamsgoldhagen.com/articles/multiple_failures_of_architecture_education.pdf 13Janette Sadik-Khan, New York City’s Department of Transportation Commissioner, has made numerous improvements to pedestrian life in the city.
Eastern USA by Lonely Planet
1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
For a look at America across cultural divides – north-south, urban-rural, Baptist-bohemian – this is the road trip to make. Why Go You’ll be awed by the sweeping scenery as you meander alongside America’s longest river, from the rolling plains of the north down to the sun-baked cotton fields of the Mississippi Delta. Wind-hewn bluffs, dense forests, flower-filled meadows and steamy swamps are all part of the backdrop – along with smokestacks, riverboat casinos and urban sprawl: this is the good, the bad and the ugly of life on the Mississippi. The portrait though isn’t complete without mentioning the great music, lip-smacking food and down-home welcome at towns well off the beaten path along this waterfront itinerary. Small towns provide a glimpse into varying facets of American culture: there’s Brainerd, MN, as seen in the Coen Brothers’ film Fargo; La Crosse, WI, where the world’s largest six-pack pops its top; and Nauvoo, IL, a pilgrimage site for Mormons, complete with gleaming white temple.
Dillon’s Bus (www.dillonbus.com; tickets $5) has 26 weekday-only commuter buses between Annapolis and Washington, DC, connecting with various DC Metro lines. Annapolis Transit ( 410-263-7964) provides local transport. Inexpensive bikes (per day $5; 9am-8pm) are available for hire from the Harbormaster’s office at the City Dock. Eastern Shore Just across the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, a short drive from the urban sprawl of the Baltimore–Washington corridor, Maryland’s landscape makes a dramatic about-face. Nondescript suburbs and jammed highways give way to unbroken miles of bird-dotted wetlands, serene waterscapes, endless cornfields, sandy beaches and friendly little villages. The coastal flat plains are ideal for cycling. For the most part, the Eastern Shore retains its charm despite the growing influx of city-dwelling yuppies and day-trippers.
Kayaking and hiking are popular activities, especially the 7-mile trek to the Valley of the Giants, a mystical stand of cedar trees on South Manitou. Ferries (round-trip adult/child $32/18, 1½hr) sail from Leland two to seven times per week from May to mid-October. TRAVERSE CITY Michigan’s ‘cherry capital’ is the largest city in the northern half of the Lower Peninsula. It’s got a bit of urban sprawl, but it’s still a happenin’ base from which to see the Sleeping Bear Dunes, Mission Peninsula wineries, U-pick orchards and other area attractions. Stop at the downtown visitor center ( 231-947-1120; www.traversecity.com; 101 W Grandview Pkwy; 9am-5pm Mon-Fri, 9am-3pm Sat) for maps and the do-it-yourself foodie tour brochure (also available online; click ‘Things to Do’ on the website). Or see what Learn Great Foods ( 866-240-1650; www.learngreatfoods.com; tours $50-125) has on its guided tour schedule; there’s usually a weekly jaunt to farms and fisheries on the Leelanau Peninsula, including alfresco dinner among the greens.
Costa Rica by Matthew Firestone, Carolina Miranda, César G. Soriano
airport security, Berlin Wall, centre right, desegregation, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Pepto Bismol, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, sustainable-tourism, the payments system, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, young professional
A vintage house might conceal a cutting-edge contemporary art space. An unremarkable-looking hotel may have been the place where presidents once slept. It is a place rife with history. San José, after all, is where forward-thinking leaders once gathered to decide that this would be a country without an army. Over the last century, the transformation from prewar agrarian coffee town to 21st-century urban sprawl has been unkind to the city’s physical form. But regardless of what it may look like, San José is the beating heart of Costa Rica – home to its most influential thinkers, its finest museums and its most sophisticated restaurants. In a country that has been culturally transformed by vast amounts of tourism, there’s nowhere better to begin to understand what it means to be Tico. For to truly love Costa Rica, you must first learn to love its capital.
There’s a 20% surcharge after 10pm that may not appear on the maría. You can hire a taxi and a driver for half a day or longer if you want to do some touring around the area, but rates vary greatly depending on the destination and the condition of the roads. For these trips, it is best to negotiate a flat fee in advance. Return to beginning of chapter AROUND SAN JOSÉ * * * Over the years, as San José’s urban sprawl has crawled up the hillsides of the Central Valley, the boundary lines have blurred between the heart of the city and the villages that encircle it. Here you will find a little bit of everything: from crowded slums filled with immigrant workers to stylish residential neighborhoods where modernist houses hide behind 3m-high walls. Within this belt, there are a number of areas that offer an appealing alternative to staying in the city proper.
If you’re lucky enough to have a rental car (or a good bicycle), you’re in for a treat, though it’s still possible to navigate most of the loop via public buses. The loop road starts 8km southeast of Cartago in Paraíso, and then heads south to Orosi. At this point you can either continue south into Parque Nacional Tapantí-Macizo Cerro de la Muerte or loop back to Paraíso via Ujarrás. Return to beginning of chapter Paraíso Area This busy town has been engulfed by the urban sprawl of Cartago, only 8km away. The village itself is not terribly picturesque (rows of concrete houses generally aren’t), but the wonderful Orosi Valley emerges just outside of it. A few kilometers along the road to Orosi is the Mirador Orosi, which is the official scenic overlook, complete with toilets, a parking lot and plenty of great photo opportunities. There are also two noteworthy sights near Paraíso that are definitely worth exploring.
Pandora's Star by Peter F. Hamilton
carbon-based life, clean water, corporate governance, Magellanic Cloud, megacity, nuclear winter, plutocrats, Plutocrats, random walk, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, the scientific method, trade route, urban sprawl
Manhattan’s buildings looked a lot more slender now, though that was mainly because they were so much taller. There was also a trend toward architecture with a more elaborate or artistic profile. Sometimes it worked splendidly, as with the contemporary crystal Gothic of the Stoet Building; or else it looked downright mundane like the twisting Illeva. He didn’t actually mind the failures too much; they added to the personality of the place, so different from most of the flat urban sprawls on most of the settled worlds. Rafael Columbia was the second committee member to arrive, the chief of the Intersolar Serious Crimes Directorate. Nigel knew of him, of course, although the two had never met in the flesh. “Pleasure to meet you at last,” Nigel said as they shook hands. “Your name keeps cropping up on reports from our security division.” Rafael Columbia chuckled. “In a good context, I trust?”
It became the first of what eventually were known as the Big15. There was no culture to speak of on Augusta, no nationalist identity. It was devoted solely to commerce, the manufacture of products, large or small, which were shipped out across the Commonwealth. New Costa sprang up along the subtropical coast of the Sineba continent, the only city on the planet. In 2380 it was home to just over a billion people, a centerless urban sprawl of factories and residential districts stretching for more than six hundred kilometers along the shore and up to three hundred inland. For all its crass existence, the megacity had a sense of purpose upon which all its inhabitants thrived. They were here for one thing: to work. There were no native citizens, everyone was technically a transient, earning money as they passed through. A lot of money.
Larger civic buildings stood high among them, sometimes as much as four or five stories tall, made from a dark gray stone. There were no churches of any kind, but then they didn’t have any religion here, this was a world where everyone knew they had been created by man, not God. Even when the train moved through the center of the city, the buildings were all the same uniform size; neat houses interspaced by the commercial buildings, and plenty of large parks to break up the urban sprawl. It was unlike other cities in the Commonwealth, where money and political power collected at the center, and the architecture reflected that concentration. Here, equality reigned supreme. Alphaway, the main station, was probably the biggest single structure in the city after the original Foundation clinic, with three long arched roofs of iron and glass, tall enough that the clouds of smoke from the steam engines dissipated upward through the ridge vents.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
Meanwhile, Sam Rawlings Walton, grandson of Walmart founder Sam Walton, sits on the EDF’s board of trustees (identified merely as “Boatman, Philanthropist, Entrepreneur” on the organization’s website).40 The EDF claims that it “holds Walmart to the same standards we would any other company.” Which, judging by Walmart’s rather dismal environmental record since this partnership began—from its central role in fueling urban sprawl to its steadily increasing emissions—is not a very high standard at all.41 Nor is the Environmental Defense Fund the only environmental organization to have benefited from the Walton family’s largesse. Their foundation is one of the top green funders, handing out more than $71 million in grants for environmental causes in 2011, with about half of the money going to the EDF, Conservation International, and the Marine Stewardship Council.
., 15 Thoreau, Henry David, 184, 286 350.org, 140, 156, 233n, 353, 356 tidal power, 127 Tiger Management, 208 tight-rock formations, 311; see also shale, fracking of Tillerson, Rex, 111, 314 Time magazine, Planet Earth on cover of, 74, 204 Tiputini oil field, 410 Tjelmeland, Aaron, 192, 195 Tongue River, 389, 390 Tongue River Railroad (proposed), 389 tornados, 406 Toronto, 55, 65, 67, 73, 126 Total, 246 Totnes, England, 364 Toyota, 196 trade, see free trade agreements; international trade trade unions, 81, 83, 177, 204, 454 job creation and, 126–27 job protection by, 126, 178 NAFTA opposed by, 84 transaction tax, 418 TransCanada, 149, 346, 359, 361, 362 see also Keystone XL pipeline Transition Town movement, 364 Transocean, 330 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 78 transportation infrastructure, 85, 90, 127 travel, wealth and, 113 Treaty 6, 372 tree farms, 222 Trenberth, Kevin, 272, 275 Trent River, 300 trickle-down economics, 19 Trinity nuclear test, 277 triumphalism, 205, 465 Tropic of Chaos (Parenti), 49 tropics, techno-fixes and risk to, 49 Trump, Donald, 3 Tschakert, Petra, 269 Tsilhqot’in First Nation, 345 Tsipras, Alexis, 181–82, 466 Tsleil-Waututh First Nation, 323 Tutu, Desmond, 464 Tuvalu, 13 2 degrees Celsius boundary, 87–88, 89, 150, 354, 456 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, 13, 21, 56, 86–87, 214, 283 typhoons, 107, 175, 406, 465 Uganda, 222 ultra-deepwater “subsalt” drilling, 145 Undesirables (Isaacs), 167 unemployment, 180 unemployment insurance, 454 Unified Campesino Movement of Aguán, 222 Union of Concerned Scientists, 201 Clean Vehicles Program at, 237 United Kingdom, 13, 149, 170, 224, 225 compensation of slave-owners in, 415–16, 457 “dash for cash” in, 299 divestment movement in, 354 flooding in, 7, 54, 106–7 fracking in, 299–300, 313 Industrial Revolution in, 172–73, 410 negatives of privatization in, 128 politics of climate change in, 36, 150 supports for renewable energy cut in, 110 Thatcher government of, 39 World War II rationing in, 115–16 United Nations, 7, 18, 64, 87, 114 Bloomberg as special envoy for cities and climate change of, 236 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 219–20, 224, 226 climate governance and, 280 climate summits of, 5, 11, 65, 150, 165, 200; see also specific summits Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 110 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) international agreements and, 17 Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, 135 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment of 1972, 202 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 377, 383 United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 180 United Nations Environmental Modification Convention, 278 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 272 United Nations Framework on Climate Change, 200, 410 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 76, 77, 78–79 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 167 United Nations Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992), 55, 293 United Policyholders, 109 United States, 19, 67, 68, 143 carbon emissions from, 409 coal exports from, 320, 322, 346, 349, 374, 376 Copenhagen agreement signed by, 12, 150 energy privatization reversals in, 98 environmental legislation in, 201–2 failure of climate legislation in, 226–27 Kyoto Protocol and, 218–19, 225–26 oil and gas export restrictions in, 71 opposition movement in, 9 solar energy market in, 72 WTO challenges brought against, 65 WTO challenges brought by, 64–65, 68 United States Climate Action Partnership (USCAP), 226–28 University College London, 415–16 uranium, 176 urban planning, green, 16 urban sprawl, 90, 91 US Airways, 1–2 U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 227 utilities, alternative models for, 130–33 U’wa, 376–77 Vagt, Robert F., 217 van Beurden, Ben, 358, 376 Vancouver, Canada, 13 Var, France, 317–18 Vassiliou, Anni, 347 vegetation, carbon and, 14 Venezuela, 179–80 Venkataraman, R., 75 venture capitalists, 252 Vermont: anti-fracking movement in, 348 local agriculture in, 404–5 Vernon, Caitlyn, 365 victory gardens, 16, 17 Vidal, John, 244 Vietnam War, 261 Virgin Earth Challenge, 257, 284–85 Virgin Green Fund, 238, 239, 253 Virgin Group, 230, 237 Virgin Airlines, 231, 238, 241–44, 249–52 Virgin Fuels, 238 Virgin Racing, 243 Virgin Trains, 231, 238, 252–53 Viteri, Franco, 388 volcanic eruptions: droughts and, 272–73 global impact of, 274 weather patterns and, 259, 270, 271–74 Volney, Constantin-François, 273 Vonnegut, Kurt, 286, 287 Vowel, Chelsea, 371 Voynet, Dominique, 218 wage controls, 125 Wallach, Lori, 359–60 Wall Street, 206, 208 in financial crisis of 2008, 9, 44 Wall Street Journal, 207, 312 Walmart, 196, 208–10 Walton, Sam, 209 Walton, Sam Rawlings, 209 Walton Family Foundation, 209 Wang Wenlin, 300 Wania, Frank, 328n Ward, Barbara, 286 Warsaw climate change summit (2013), 200–201, 276 Washington, D.C.: Keystone XL protest in, 139, 301–2 record temperatures in, 73 Washington Consensus, 81 Washington State, 319 Indigenous land rights in, 323, 374–75, 380–81 proposed coal export terminals in, 320, 322, 346, 349, 374, 380–81 Washington, Tracie, 419 water: disruption to supplies of, 14, 165 First Nations and, 384 privatization of, 133 as public utility, 7 water pollution: extractive industry and, 83, 94, 295, 296, 332, 344–47 from fracking, 328–29, 332, 344, 346 water power, 16, 101, 215 of factories, 171 steam engine vs., 171–72 Waters, Donny, 431, 432 Watt, James, 171–75, 204, 266, 394, 410 Waxman-Markey, 227 wealth: concentration of, 154, 155 decentralization of, 131 greenhouse gas emissions and, 113–14 inequality of, 123, 454–55 redistribution of, 40, 42, 453 transfers of, 5 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 173, 462 weapons, climate change and, 9 weather, extreme, 35, 102–10 weather futures, 8–9 weatherization, 93 weather patterns: global warming and, 269 historical record of, 271–76 Pinatubo eruption and, 259, 270, 271–72, 274 variations in, 269 weather patterns, intentional modification of: as weapon, 261, 278 see also Pinatubo Option; Solar Radiation Management Weintrobe, Sally, 12 Werner, Brad, 449–50, 451, 460 West Antarctic ice sheet, 13, 14, 15 West Burton, England, 300 Western Australia, 376 West, Thomas, 365 West Virginia, 332, 357n, 367 wetlands, extractive industry damage to, 425–26 Weyerhaeuser, 369 Where Do We Go from Here (King), 453 Whitehead, Andrew, 432 Whitehorn, Will, 230–31 Whitehouse, Mark, 428 Whiteman, Phillip, Jr., 386 Whole Earth Catalogue, 288 WikiLeaks, 78, 165 wilderness system, federal, 203 wildfires, 14, 52, 108, 446 Wildlife Conservation Society, 221–22 Wildlife Society, 192 Willemse, Oom Johannes, 347 Willett Advisors, 216, 235 Williams, Eric, 415 Willis, Rebecca, 90 wind farms, 110, 223, 287 “Window for Thermal Coal Investment Is Closing” (Goldman Sachs), 352 wind power, 16, 67, 70, 97, 102, 118, 122, 124, 127, 131–32, 147, 215, 237 in combined-cycle plant, 129 fracking’s negative impact on, 129, 144n large offshore, 131 manufacturers in, 68 private sector and, 100–101 Wood, Lowell, 268n, 271, 280, 288 Woolsey, R.
The politics of London: governing an ungovernable city by Tony Travers
About a third of workplaces have their main market elsewhere in the UK, and a small but sizeable proportion of workplaces rely mainly on international markets (London TEC Council, 1998). Three quarters of workplaces in London employ ten people or fewer, but a third of all jobs are provided by large workplaces (more than 200 employees). Within Britain, and particularly in southern England, concern has developed about the problems of urban sprawl. Although London has been hemmed in since 1939 by a highly effective Green Belt, the prosperity of the southern part of the country has led to major and continuous development in virtually all of the counties surrounding London. Towns such as Reading, Bracknell, Crawley and Watford have been subjected to enormous planning pressure for many years. During the 1960s, migration from London to the South East region ran at a rate of up to 100,000 per year (Greater London Council, 1969, Table 2.5).
The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows
agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), longitudinal study, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review
But for several decades the output of the industry and service sectors remains sufficiently high to maintain acceptable living standards, despite the need for capital investment in agriculture and, later, for pollution control. In the last third of the twenty-first century, the pollution level has fallen so much that land fertility recovers. But the population pressure is large, and the amount of arable land declines due to urban sprawl and erosion. Furthermore, after the middle of the century industrial output falls rapidly, because so much capital has been pulled into the agricultural and pollution sectors that there is no longer enough investment to offset depreciation. The economy declines, and a collapse sets in, exacerbated late in the century by an increasing scarcity of nonrenewable resources. The society in Scenario 3 greatly reduces its pollution level and succeeds in maintaining a high human welfare index for a long time.
Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
Many of these slums would ultimately be cleared forcefully by the police and the residents dumped in far-flung neighbourhoods, with even worse sanitation and poorer road access, to make way for new apartment blocks for the ever-growing middle class. If the poor could not get out of the new slums fast enough (though getting out of the slums was at least possible, given the rapid growth of the economy and the creation of new jobs), the urban sprawl would catch up with them and see them rounded up once again and dumped in an even more remote place. Some people ended up scavenging in the city’s main rubbish dump, Nanji Island. Few people outside Korea were aware that the beautiful public parks surrounding the impressive Seoul Football Stadium they saw during the 2002 World Cup were built literally on top of the old rubbish dump on the island (which nowadays has an ultra-modern eco-friendly methane-burning power station, which taps into the organic material dumped there).
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
PIRG Education Fund, 2015), 11, accessed August 5, 2015, http://www.uspirg.org/sites/pirg/files/reports/Who%20Pays%20for%20Roads%20vUS.pdf. $69 billion in highway spending: Ibid., 17. only about half: Ibid., 6. 10 percent from municipal bonds: Ibid., 8. pays more than $1,100: Ibid., 2. transit, walking, and biking combined: Ibid. $1 trillion a year drag: Todd Litman, An Analysis of Public Policies That Unintentionally Encourage and Subsidize Urban Sprawl (Victoria, BC, Canada: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, LSE Cities, 2015), 40, accessed August 5, 2014, http://static.newclimateeconomy.report/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/public-policies-encourage-sprawl-nce-report.pdf. nearly 33,000 people can lose their lives: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “U.S. Department of Transportation Announces Decline in Traffic Fatalities in 2013,” December 19, 2014, accessed August 5, 2015, http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/2014/traffic-deaths-decline-in-2013. 2.6 million miles of paved roads: U.S.
Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? by Bill McKibben
23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Flynn Effect, Google Earth, Hyperloop, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, life extension, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart meter, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, supervolcano, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Y2K, yield curve
It may not be quite game-ending, but it seems set, at the very least, to utterly change the board on which the game is played, and in more profound ways than almost anyone now imagines. The habitable planet has literally begun to shrink, a novel development that will be the great story of our century. * * * Climate change has become such a familiar term that we tend to read past it—it’s part of our mental furniture, like urban sprawl or gun violence. So, let’s remember exactly what we’ve been up to, because it should fill us with awe; it’s by far the biggest thing humans have ever done. Those of us in the fossil fuel–consuming classes have, over the last two hundred years, dug up immense quantities of coal and gas and oil, and burned them: in car motors, basement furnaces, power plants, steel mills. When we burn them, the carbon atoms combine with oxygen atoms in the air to produce carbon dioxide.
Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood
Maybe that’s the real him, the last Homo sapiens – a white illusion of a man, here today, gone tomorrow, so easily shoved over, left to melt in the sun, getting thinner and thinner until he liquefies and trickles away altogether. As Snowman is doing now. He pauses, wipes the sweat off his face, drinks half of his bottle of water. He hopes there will be more somewhere, soon. Up ahead, the houses thin out and vanish. There’s an interval of parking lots and warehouses, then barbed wire strung between cement posts, an elaborate gate off its hinges. End of urban sprawl and pleeb city limits, beginning of Compound turfdom. Here’s the last station of the sealed-tunnel bullet train, with its plastic jungle-gym colours. No risks here, the colours are saying. Just kiddie fun. But this is the dangerous part. Up to here he’s always had something he could climb or scramble up or dodge around in case of a flank attack, but now comes an open space with no shelter and few verticals.
The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin Who Brought the World to War by Tim Butcher
CHAPTER 10 Arming the Trigger The only known photograph of Princip, right, during his time in Belgrade, 1914 Police sketch of the Drina River crossing used by the assassination team covertly entering Bosnia from Serbia, May-June 1914 Two days of hitch-hiking took me across the Drina River frontier from Bosnia into Serbia, the landscape easing all the time as the mountains on the western side of the river gave way to a plain that was tabletop-flat reaching east all the way to Belgrade. Travellers in the early twentieth century knew from afar when they were approaching the city from the sight of the great fortress built on the high rocky promontory that towers over the junction of the Sava and Danube Rivers. It would have been visible from miles away, dominating unchallenged what was otherwise a classic central-European flatland of forest, field and marsh. The urban sprawl of modern Belgrade, with its ranks of electricity pylons, tower blocks and red-and-white-chequered factory chimneys, rather diffused the sense of drama when my last lift dropped me in the city. But soon enough I was back on the trail of my quarry, as the road I found myself walking up near Belgrade’s railway station was named Gavrilo Princip Street. The capital city reached by Princip in 1912 was new and still very small, although growing rapidly in a rush of nationalist awakening.
Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity by Ha-Joon Chang
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey
Many of these slums would ultimately be cleared forcefully by the police and the residents dumped in far-flung neighbourhoods, with even worse sanitation and poorer road access, to make way for new apartment blocks for the ever-growing middle class. If the poor could not get out of the new slums fast enough (but getting out of the slums was at least possible, given the rapid growth of the economy and the creation of new jobs), the urban sprawl would catch up with them and see them rounded up once again and dumped in an even more remote place. Some people ended up scavenging in the city’s main rubbish dump, Nanji Island. Few people outside Korea were aware that the beautiful public parks surrounding the impressive Seoul Football Stadium they saw during the 2002 World Cup were built literally on top of the old rubbish dump on the island (which nowadays has an ultra-modern eco-friendly methane-burning power station, which taps into the organic material dumped there).
The English by Jeremy Paxman
back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, George Santayana, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Right to Buy, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
By 1930, there were a million cars on the roads and a torrent of books began to appear celebrating the English countryside as a place to visit or to dream about. Batsford’s Face of Britain series was phenomenally successful. Arthur Mee, inventor of the Children’s Encyclopaedia and the Children’s Newspaper, produced forty-one volumes describing The King’s England. The Shell Oil company invited John Betjeman to edit its series of Shell Guides to the counties of England. Recognizing the way that urban sprawl was gorging upon the countryside, the Council for the Preservation of Rural England was founded in 1926 to protest against the spread of tar. Putting footwear upon this interest, the Ramblers Association was established in 1935, a crusade to allow urban walkers to stroll where they pleased across the countryside. They could find cheap and wholesome accommodation with the Youth Hostel Association, which had been founded in 1930 and within five years had nearly 50,000 members.
The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason
"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog
Former Radio London and Caroline DJs such as Jimmy Savile, John Peel, and Tony Blackburn were hired by BBC Radio 1, and went on to become household names in the United Kingdom. And as the ﬁrst generation crossed over and went legit, a new underground was forming in cities across the Continent. Instead of exposing themselves on the open seas, this new breed of pirates began to operate cloaked in the anonymity of urban sprawl. Switching over to the FM band, pirates in the 1980s and ’90s serviced a new generation of radio listeners in London, Paris, and beyond, lis*There were worse repercussions than legislation. Radio Nordsee, a pirate transmitting to the Netherlands, was closed down by air and sea attack from the Dutch armed forces in 1964. Not to be discouraged, the pirate became TROS, now one of the Netherlands’s largest broadcasting corporations. 44 | THE PIRATE’S DILEMMA teners more interested in sounds such as soul, hip-hop, house, garage, and techno drifting over from the United States.
Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application
Offenhuber Simmon, R. (2011) ‘Crafting the blue marble’, Elegant Figures, NASA Earth Observatory. Available from: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/elegantfigures/2011/10/06/ crafting-the-blue-marble/ [accessed 10 February 2017]. Sutton, P. (1997) ‘Modeling population density with night-time satellite imagery and GIS’, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 21(3): 227–244. Sutton, P. (2003) ‘A scale-adjusted measure of “urban sprawl” using night-time satellite imagery’, Remote Sensing of Environment 86(3): 353–369. Wakamiya, S., Lee, R. and Sumiya, K. (2013) ‘Social-urban neighborhood search based on crowd footprints network’, in International Conference on Social Informatics, pp. 429–442. Wang, Q. and Taylor, J.E. (2016) ‘Patterns and limitations of urban human mobility resilience under the influence of multiple types of natural disaster’, PloS One 11(1): e0147299.
USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet
1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar
For a look at America across cultural divides – north-south, urban-rural, Baptist-bohemian – this is the road trip to make. Why Go? You’ll be awed by the sweeping scenery as you meander alongside North America’s second-longest river, from the rolling plains of Iowa down to the sunbaked cotton fields of the Mississippi Delta. Limestone cliffs, dense forests, flower-filled meadows and steamy swamps are all part of the backdrop – along with smokestacks, riverboat casinos and urban sprawl: this is the good, the bad and the ugly of life on the Mississippi. The portrait though isn’t complete without mentioning the great music, lip-smacking food and down-home welcome at towns well off the beaten path on this waterfront itinerary. Small towns provide a glimpse into American culture: there’s Hibbing, MN, where folk rocker Bob Dylan grew up; Brainerd, MN, as seen in the Coen Brothers’ film Fargo; Spring Green, WI, where architect Frank Lloyd Wright cut his teeth; pastoral Hannibal, MO, boyhood home of Mark Twain; and Metropolis, IL, where you’ll find Superman’s quick-change phone booth.
Dillon’s Bus (www.dillonbus.com; tickets $5) has 26 weekday-only commuter buses between Annapolis and Washington, DC, connecting with various DC Metro lines. Annapolis Transit ( 410-263-7964) provides local transport. Inexpensive bikes (per day $5; 9am-8pm) are available for hire from the Harbormaster’s office at the City Dock. Eastern Shore Just across the Chesapeake Bay Bridge, a short drive from the urban sprawl of the Baltimore–Washington corridor, Maryland’s landscape makes a dramatic about-face. Nondescript suburbs and jammed highways give way to unbroken miles of bird-dotted wetlands, serene waterscapes, endless cornfields, sandy beaches and friendly little villages. The coastal flat plains are ideal for cycling. For the most part, the Eastern Shore retains its charm despite the growing influx of city-dwelling yuppies and day-trippers.
Kayaking and hiking are popular activities, especially the 7-mile trek to the Valley of the Giants, a mystical stand of cedar trees on South Manitou. Ferries (round-trip adult/child $32/18, 1½hr) sail from Leland two to seven times per week from May to mid-October. TRAVERSE CITY Michigan’s ‘cherry capital’ is the largest city in the northern half of the Lower Peninsula. It’s got a bit of urban sprawl, but it’s still a happenin’ base from which to see the Sleeping Bear Dunes, Mission Peninsula wineries, U-pick orchards and other area attractions. Stop at the downtown visitor center ( 231-947-1120; www.traversecity.com; 101 W Grandview Pkwy; 9am-5pm Mon-Fri, 9am-3pm Sat) for maps and the do-it-yourself foodie tour brochure (also available online; click ‘Things to Do’ on the website). Or see what Learn Great Foods ( 866-240-1650; www.learngreatfoods.com; tours $50-125) has on its guided tour schedule; there’s usually a weekly jaunt to farms and fisheries on the Leelanau Peninsula, including alfresco dinner among the greens.
Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities by Vaclav Smil
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, complexity theory, coronavirus, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, endogenous growth, energy transition, epigenetics, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Law of Accelerating Returns, longitudinal study, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, megastructure, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, optical character recognition, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Republic of Letters, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, technoutopianism, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, yield curve
China, due to its delayed urbanization, has seen the most intensive wave of this new construction and, rather than quoting statistics about the number of newly completed houses or about annual additions of living area, the intensity of that urbanization effort is perhaps best illustrated by the astonishing fact that China has been recently emplacing every three years more concrete than the United States used in construction of its infrastructure, housing, and transportation during the entire 20th century (Smil 2014b). Inevitably, urbanization demanding concentrated higher levels of per capita resource consumption creates commensurate environmental burdens. Urban growth has resulted in the inevitable urban sprawl, a universal phenomenon whose progress can be profitably studied (now virtually in real time) from satellite imagery (Bhatta 2010) and whose impact takes places mostly in ecosystems that we can least afford to lose. The very beginnings of settled human existence aside, a disproportional share of large cities has been always in coastal areas, and the advantages of such locations have been only strengthened with the rise of modern inexpensive mass-scale marine transportation.
In 2017, 14 of the 20 largest megacities were in coastal lowlands, and McGranahan et al. (2005) calculated that at the beginning of the 21st century cities in coastal ecosystems housed nearly 15% of all urban dwellers even though such ecosystems accounted for only about 3% of the continental area. The highest share of the urban population (more than a third) is living in cities surrounded by cultivated ecosystems where their expansion reduces the area of arable land. Urban sprawl causes extensive loss of natural plant cover, erases biodiversity, fragments habitats, reduces the area of high-quality arable land, and disrupts streams (as they are forced into concrete troughs or even disappear), and in arid areas results in overuse of groundwater. Beijing’s growth has been a particularly worrisome example of a city that had an inadequate water supply even a generation ago but whose population more than doubled between 1990 and 2015, further straining its groundwater resources (Zhou et al. 2012).
Greece by Korina Miller
car-free, carbon footprint, credit crunch, Google Earth, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, invention of the printing press, pension reform, period drama, sensible shoes, too big to fail, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Illegal development of mainly coastal areas and building in forested or protected areas has gained momentum in Greece since the 1970s. Despite attempts at introducing laws to stop the land-grab and protests by locals and environmental groups, corruption and the lack of an infrastructure to enforce the laws means little is done to abate the problem. The issue is complicated by population growth and increased urban sprawl, as upwardly mobile residents from inner Athens head to the outskirts. The developments often put a severe strain on the environment, including water supplies and endangered wildlife. A few spectacularly outrageous, purely-for-profit developments have been torn down in recent years, however in more cases, the illegal buildings have been legalised. Often this is deemed necessary due to social need, whereby demolition would leave residents with no alternative affordable housing
Return to beginning of chapter PIRAEUS ΠΕΙΡΑΙΑΣ pop 175,697 Piraeus is Greece’s main port and the biggest in the Mediterranean, with more than 20 million passengers annually. It is the hub of the Aegean ferry network, the centre of Greece’s maritime trade and the base for its large merchant navy. While Piraeus was once a separate city, nowadays it virtually melds imperceptibly into the expanded urban sprawl of Athens. Piraeus can be as bustling and traffic-congested as Athens. Its waterfront was tarted up before the Olympics, creating a tree-lined promenade along the ancient walls surrounding the harbour. Central Piraeus is not a place where many visitors linger; most come only to catch a ferry from the intimidating expanse of terminals. Beyond its facade of smart new shipping offices, banks and grand public buildings, much of Piraeus is an interesting hotchpotch of rejuvenated pedestrian precincts, shopping strips, restaurants and cafes, and more grungy industrial and run-down areas.
Getting There & Away From Iraklio, five daily buses serve Matala (€7.20, 2½ hours). Buses also run between Matala and Phaestos (€1.80, 30 minutes). Return to beginning of chapter RETHYMNO ΡΕΘΥΜΝΟ pop 27,870 Delightful Rethymno (reth-im-no) is Crete’s third largest town, noted for its picturesque old town running down to a lively harbour overlooked by a massive Venetian fortress. Although Rethymno is showing signs of urban sprawl, travellers seem to miss it (except when looking for parking), such is the attraction of the lovely old Venetian-Turkish quarter, with its maze of narrow streets, graceful wood-balconied houses and ornate Venetian monuments; minarets add an Ottoman flourish. Rethymno has a softer, more feminine feel than Iraklio, partly due to architecture, but also because Rethymno’s University of Crete campus specialises in the humanities, which attracts more female students here than males.
The Driver: My Dangerous Pursuit of Speed and Truth in the Outlaw Racing World by Alexander Roy
Within hours I’d learned that racing legend Dan Gurney (whose control of a Ferrari Daytona was described by copilot Yates as that of “a virtuoso playing…a fine instrument,”) set the inaugural 1971 Cannonball record of 35:54, and that this was later shattered when David Heinz and David Yarborough, civilians nowhere as skilled as the F1 legend, set the final 32:51 Cannonball record in 1979. “Laser and radar jammers remain unproven,” Yates wrote, calling the CB network “raggedly unpredictable.” But Maher and I had had a 99 percent success rate in mapping, spotting, and avoiding police, and our two traffic stops occurred only because we’d failed to heed our V1. “The time for Cannonball-style races is over,” Yates wrote, citing increased law enforcement, liability, traffic, and urban sprawl. But I was among several Gumballers, all in stickered cars far more conspicuous than the stealthy Cannonballers’, who finished with but two tickets—par with several top-five Cannonball finishers. As for traffic and sprawl, in 1999 Yates drove cross-country—through a snowstorm, with his son, in a stock Chrysler 300M—in 38 hours, then said 36 hours remained “within the realm of possibility.” There had to be a secret race out there.
Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks
The first metropolis was Rome, founded in 753 BC, which eventually grew to over a million by the 2nd century ad. Rome provided benefits such as clean water from aqueducts, large-scale public entertainment in open forums and shopping malls (one was four storeys tall and had 150 shops). The largest pre-industrial city is actually thought to have been Angkor, Cambodia,2 with an elaborate system of infrastructure connecting an urban sprawl of at least 1,000 square kilometres (390 square miles) to the well-known temples at its core. Angkor served as the seat of the Khmer Empire, which flourished from the 9th to 15th centuries, but even at the height of its popularity the city is thought to have only supported around 0.1 per cent of the globe’s population. If you want to find the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world, you have to go to Syria.
Team of Teams: New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World by General Stanley McChrystal, Tantum Collins, David Silverman, Chris Fussell
Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, Black Swan, butterfly effect, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chelsea Manning, clockwork universe, crew resource management, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, job automation, job satisfaction, John Nash: game theory, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Pierre-Simon Laplace, RAND corporation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game
By adapting, the Greeks found their way home. A true story, 860 miles to the east of Pharos, three thousand years later . . . CHAPTER 1 SONS OF PROTEUS Five muscled silhouettes, midnight blue against the sand-colored sunrise, moved down an otherwise empty street on the outskirts of the El Amel neighborhood in Baghdad. The morning call to prayer had just ricocheted through the urban sprawl and faded into the thick heat. A few blinds opened, then quickly closed; residents knew when to stay hidden. The door of a small house on the corner swung open and the men shuffled inside. It was September 30, 2004, and one of the biggest operations they would ever conduct was about to begin. The building appeared unremarkable—another ripple in the pixelated waves of tan cinder block that extended to the horizon.
Hell's Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga by Hunter S. Thompson
My own feeling is that he should have stayed in Asunción and gotten a job. ‡ The Rattlers are generally older. The club dates back to the days of the Booze Fighters. “The Rattlers had a lot of class in the old days,” one of the Oakland Angels lamented. “But all they do now is sit around their bar and play dominoes.” ‡ Oakland’s official population is nearly four hundred thousand, but it is the center of a vastly urban sprawl called the East Bay, with a population of about two million—more than twice the size of San Francisco ‡ Eisenhower ‡ At one press conference in Oakland, held at the downtown office of the Angels’ bondswoman, I counted forty-two reporters on hand and thirteen microphones massed in front of Barger while he spoke—and five TV cameras. 22 He who makes a beast of himself gets rid of the pain of being a man.
B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional
A year later, Koolhaas, very sensibly as it turned out, refused to take part in the Ground Zero competition, fulminating against America’s attempt to create a massive monument to self-pity on a Stalinist scale. The subtext to all his words is that Koolhaas, once more following in the unsentimental austerity of Le Corbusier, is the toughest kid on the block. While most of his fellow professionals wring their hands in horror about theme parks and urban sprawl, he suggests that he looks the world in the eye and deals with it on its own terms. Talking of the chaos of Lagos, Koolhaas says: ‘What I thought would be depressing was powerful, inspiring and brutal.’ ‘Brutal’, in Koolhaas’s vocabulary, is a term of enthusiasm. Koolhaas is trying to prove that the well-intentioned architects who tried to tame the contemporary city with pedestrian precincts and conservation got it all disastrously wrong.
Coastal California by Lonely Planet
1960s counterculture, airport security, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Mason jar, McMansion, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Wozniak, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar
A cluster of isolated and supremely scenic HI hostels, at Point Montara (22 miles south of San Francisco) and Pigeon Point (36 miles), make this an interesting route for cyclists, though narrow Hwy 1 itself can be stressful, if not downright dangerous, for the inexperienced. PACIFICA & DEVIL’S SLIDE Pacifica and Point San Pedro, 15 miles from downtown San Francisco, signal the end of the urban sprawl. South of Pacifica is Devil’s Slide, an unstable cliff area through which Hwy 1 winds and curves. Drive carefully, especially at night and when it is raining, as rock and mud slides are frequent. Heavy winter storms often lead to the road’s temporary closure. A tunnel will soon bypass this dramatic stretch of the highway. In Pacifica, collecting a suntan or catching a wave are the main attractions at Rockaway Beach and the more popular Pacifica State Beach (also known as Linda Mar Beach), where the nearby Nor-Cal Surf Shop ( 650-738-9283; 5460 Coast Hwy) rents surfboards ($18 per day) and wet suits ($16).
This cauldron of counter-culture is the place to get your hair braided or a qi gong back massage, or pick up cheap sunglasses or a woven bracelet. Encounters with bodybuilders, hoop dreamers, a Speedo-clad snake charmer or an in-line-skating Sikh minstrel are pretty much guaranteed, especially on hot summer afternoons. Alas, the vibe gets a bit creepy after dark. Horseback Riding Leave the urban sprawl behind on the forested bridle trails of Griffith Park or Topanga Canyon. All rides are accompanied by an experienced equestrian wrangler. Rates vary, and a 20% tip is customary. Los Angeles Horseback Riding HORSEBACK RIDING ( 818-591-2032; www.losangeleshorsebackriding.com; 2661 Old Topanga Canyon Rd, Topanga Canyon) Sunset, day and full-moon rides in the Santa Monica Mountains with fabulous views all around.
Arrival City by Doug Saunders
agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population
The Poles and eastern Europeans of the 2000s have made what scholars call a “J-turn”: They used migration to urbanize themselves in the cities of the Atlantic, then returned not to the village but to the major cities of their own countries, bringing savings and entrepreneurial knowledge with them. Their arrival ended the drought of skilled labor in Poland, and these arrival-city returnees contributed to economic revivals in Gdansk, Warsaw, and the “Polish silicon valley” of Wrocław, Cracow, and Upper Silesia. The Polish capital was by now experiencing genuine urban sprawl, and former rural areas around Warsaw’s perimeter were turning into new enclaves for ex-villagers who had arrived by way of the West. In large part as a result of this, Poland was the one of the few places in Europe that escaped the worst of the global economic downturn, experiencing economic growth (albeit at reduced levels) and maintaining exports. At long last, and in spite of its best efforts to the contrary, Poland was getting its arrival cities.
The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce
activist lawyer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate raider, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, undersea cable, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks
See also “Territorial Affairs: Turning Battlefields into Marketplaces in Postwar Laos,” http://erg.berkeley.edu/ (2010). Ziegler’s account, “The Rubber Juggernaut,” is available at http://www.sciencemag.org (2009). Also see “China Rubber Demand Stretches Laos,” http://www.atimes.com (2007), and “Rubber: Costs or Benefits to the Lao PDR,” http://www.sumernet.org (2009). Doan Nguyen Duc is profiled in “Condo Boss,” at http://www.forbes.com (2009). “Farmland Grabs by Urban Sprawl and Their Impacts on Peasants’ Livelihood in China” is from the Brighton conference. Complant’s Jamaica deal is described in “Gov’t Seals Sugar Deal with Complant,” http://www.jamaicaobserver.com (2011). Beidahuang’s grabs are detailed in “China Ups Argentine Farmland Purchases,” http://www.lab.org.uk (2011) and “China Land Deal Causes Unease in Argentina,” http://www.guardian.co.uk (2011). See also “New Agricultural Agreement in Argentina: A Land Grabbers’ Instruction Manual,” http://www.grain.org (2011), and “Goldman Sachs Buys Chinese Poultry Farms,” at http://www.thepoultrysite.com (2008).
Commuter City: How the Railways Shaped London by David Wragg
Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, British Empire, financial independence, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Louis Blériot, North Sea oil, railway mania, Right to Buy, South Sea Bubble, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Winter of Discontent, yield management
The track consisted of cast-iron plates of L-section fixed to stone blocks, with a gauge of 4ft 2in. Traction was provided by horses, which, because of the lack of any substantial gradient, could move five or six wagons, each weighing 3½ tons fully loaded, at around 2½ mph. The line was supported by the many mills and factories spread along its route, showing that some, at least, of London’s urban sprawl pre-dated the arrival of the railways. Not realising its shortcomings, so obvious to us today with the benefit of hindsight (always 20:20 vision, of course) the promoters of the line had ambitions and were keen to see it extended to Portsmouth, but only succeeded in extending the tracks as far as the quarry at Merstham, a further 8½ miles. All was not lost, however, as part of its route was later to be used by the London Brighton & South Coast Railway.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism
The little white church functions as a sign as well as a miniature office building. In symbolic shorthand it says, "We sell traditional real estate here ! We sell the coherence and stability, the enduring community, of traditional New England town life !" Saratoga is not a traditional New England town and never was. At the present time, Saratoga is the remnant of a Victorian gambling resort overlayed by an urban sprawl scape, with all the disconnectedness and loss of traditional values that implies. Why should this matter? Why not just accept the little fake church as a playful, harmless, adorable architectural oddity, as the lovers of kitsch do ? Because it's a bad building, cheaply cute, out-of-scale, symbolically false, and stuck in the middle of a parking lot, a little noplace that contributes to the greater noplace.
Alistair Cooke's America by Alistair Cooke
Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, interchangeable parts, joint-stock company, Maui Hawaii, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl, wage slave, Works Progress Administration
Maybe this is the ultimate hope, the next stage in the human family. But the people of Honolulu are in the same stew as the rest of us, Eighty percent of the islanders have chosen to jam into this city. Planters burn sugar cane for real estate and fill the air with smoke and ash. Surf riders, noticing the signs – ‘Warning: Polluted Water’ – pick out the clean waves. There is choking traffic and urban sprawl and suburban density, and towering skyscrapers, and – ‘Stop For Guard Check’ – the new fear of one’s neighbor. Hawaiians had a strong original culture and now preserve a microcosm of it on the east coast of Oahu as a poor Hawaiian’s Williamsburg. The more entertaining elements – the music, the flower festivals, the hula, the native drinks – have been diluted and bottled for the tourists who invade the islands in order to feel carefree and safe in the last of the states.
The Next Great Migration by Sonia Shah
Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, open borders, out of africa, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, trade route, urban sprawl
Wind or rain would send them clambering with their thin spindly legs to the base of their dwarf plantagos, settling as low to the ground as possible to prevent their delicate bodies from being inadvertently swept away in a gust. They were widely known, in the field, as “sedentary,” the entomological equivalent of homebodies. Meanwhile they were getting squeezed. The dwarf plantagos they preferred were drying out in the southern part of their range, as the carbon-torched climate in northern Mexico grew hotter and drier. The urban sprawl of growing cities such as Los Angeles and San Francisco, meanwhile, swallowed up the gentle, sun-drenched slopes of the northern end of their range. Trapped between climate change on one end and urban expansion on the other, the checkerspot, most butterfly experts believed, was doomed. It was a pretty simple story, being told in a range of variations across the globe. Parmesan had no illusions about changing the basic plotline, but she thought she might be able to document the specific ways in which the butterfly responded to the pressures it faced.
Lonely Planet Cape Town & the Garden Route (Travel Guide) by Lucy Corne
Berlin Wall, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, haute couture, haute cuisine, load shedding, Mark Shuttleworth, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Robert Gordon, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl
The Cape's most famous birds are the African penguins (formerly called jackass penguins for their donkey-like squawk). You’ll find some 3000 of the friendly penguins at Boulders Beach. Scoring Cape Town's Environment In 2014, Cape Town scored highly on Siemens' African Green Cities Index (www.siemens.co.za/sustainable-development), and was praised for its comprehensive Energy and Climate Change Action Plan and policies to contain urban sprawl and protect green space. Areas for improvement include having the highest carbon-dioxide emissions per capita from electricity consumption in the index (which covers 15 major African cities), and the second highest generation of waste. That said, the report notes city initiatives to tackle waste generation, including schemes to separate recyclables before collection and an Integrated Waste Exchange program to facilitate the exchange of potentially useful materials.
The Rough Guide to Toronto by Helen Lovekin, Phil Lee
airport security, British Empire, car-free, glass ceiling, global village, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, place-making, urban renewal, urban sprawl
THE WATE RF RON T AN D THE TORONTO I S L A N D S Hanlan’s Point 97 THE S UBURBS The suburbs | V enturing outside the city centre is certainly worth your while, especially since many major attractions – like the Toronto Zoo, the Ontario Science Centre and Black Creek Pioneer Village – are found in the suburbs, notably Scarborough and North York. Large swaths of undeveloped, natural parkland ring the suburbs and provide opportunities for outdoor sporting activities usually associated with the hinterlands rather than major cities. Additionally, far from being monochromatic stretches of urban sprawl, Toronto’s suburbs echo the cultural diversity so prevalent downtown. In particular, they are great places to experience ethnic cuisines, such as regional classics from China as well as Persian dishes served during long, multi-coursed feasts. Toronto’s extensive transit system takes passengers to the city’s perimeters for the single (adult) ﬂat rate of $2.50. In most cases it is better to take public transport than to drive, as the fares are always cheaper than parking, and the arterial roadways can be a scary prospect during rush hour trafﬁc if you are unfamiliar with them.
The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter by Peter Singer, Jim Mason
agricultural Revolution, air freight, clean water, collective bargaining, dumpster diving, food miles, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, means of production, rent control, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review
Yet even without the industry's cooperation, we were able to discover a great deal about how these families' foods were produced, and this can help food consumers-that is, all of us-make better, more ethical food choices for ourselves and for our families. EATING THE STANDARD AMERICAN DIET JAKE AND LEE here is no downtown, no bustling public square, no quaint historic district in Mabelvale, Arkansas. The "main drag" is Baseline Roadfour lanes of traffic running through a corridor of gas stations, convenience stores, and strip malls in the urban sprawl southwest of Little Rock, to which it was annexed in 1980. Sixty percent of Mabelvale's 5,000 inhabitants are white, 25 percent are African-American, and 10 percent are Latino; they live in homes worth around $75,000 and earn about $30,000 annually. Among the residents of Mabelvale is the family of Jake Hillard, 36, and Lee Nierstheimer, 26. We chose them for their basic meat-andpotatoes diet-sometimes called the Standard American Diet, or SAD.
The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them by Joseph E. Stiglitz
"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of DNA, Doha Development Round, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population
Schools in poorer districts get worse, parents with means move out to richer districts, and the divisions between the haves and have-nots—not only in this generation, but also in the next—grow ever larger. Residential segregation along economic lines amplifies inequality for adults, too. The poor have to somehow manage to get from their neighborhoods to part-time, low-paying, and increasingly scarce jobs at distant work sites. Combine this urban sprawl with inadequate public transportation systems and you have a blueprint for transforming working-class communities into depopulated ghettos. Adding to the problems that would inevitably arise from such poorly designed urban agglomerations is the fact that the Detroit metropolitan area is divided into separate political jurisdictions. The poor are thus not only geographically isolated, but politically ghettoized as well.
Confronting Gun Violence in America by Thomas Gabor
., union membership, ties with coworkers); • informal social connections (e.g., meals involving the entire family, visits with friends); • philanthropy; and • honesty and trust of fellow citizens. Putnam attributes the disengagement of Americans from community life to television and electronic communications, generational change (the replacement of the civic-minded generation born before 1946 by their less involved offspring and grandchildren), urban sprawl, and, to a lesser extent, time and money pressures. He states that electronic communications and entertainment have rendered our leisure activities more passive and private. We spend more time watching things and less time doing things with others. Bowling Alone was published in 2000. One can only imagine the level of community disengagement and impersonality of communications Putnam would find today with the advent of smart phones and the emergence of social media.
The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever by Christian Wolmar
The LT’s dominance also allowed it to set fares which were not as expensive, per mile, as stations which were further away from central London, and this increased the competitive advantage of the more distant suburbs in relation to the ones closer to town. Given that land prices were somewhat cheaper in those areas, LT’s policy meant that these suburbs grew much more quickly than would otherwise have been the case. How much, ultimately, that benefited London and Londoners is debatable. It could be argued that this policy ensured even more urban sprawl and, moreover, the faster dispersal of the tightly knit communities characteristic of crowded inner-city life. Nevertheless, Charles Pearson would have been pleased. The gradual climb out of the Depression also provided the ideal economic conditions for the rapid growth of the suburbs. The stock market crash, and the low returns on government securities, meant the building societies were awash with cash and eager to lend to house purchasers.
In the Company of Heroes by Michael J. Durant, Steven Hartov
Ray and I were flying by rote, heads alternating inside and outside the cockpit, tuning radios, reviewing maps, doing our pre-assault checks, miniguns armed, shoulder harnesses locked, and all the while orienting ourselves on the city below and keeping our spot in the flight. It wasn’t even a five-minute hop and we were over the thick of the city, if you could call it that. It was more like an urban sprawl of concrete and plaster huts, corrugated roofs, frameless windows, jagged holes punched into everything. I remembered how when I’d first come into Mogadishu a month earlier aboard a C-5A, from a distance the pastel Indian Ocean and sugar cube town looked like the French Riviera. And then you got up close and the Mog’s bad haircut and acne scars came into focus. Every single thing that couldn’t be bolted down had been snatched up by the poverty-riddled populace.
Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce
additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
The Shenzhen plant feeds off dozens of local component manufacturers, like Delta, which employs 20,000 young workers in nearby Dongguan and is the world’s largest manufacturer of adaptors and capacitors for computers and mobile phones. And Hua Tong in nearby Huizhou, which makes Nokia’s circuit boards. Like Foxconn, both are Taiwanese companies. Shenzhen is a city literally made by mobile phones. Twenty-five years ago it was a fishing village surrounded by rice paddy. Today it is an urban sprawl of 12 million people – twice the size of Hong Kong – and stretches for 100 kilometres along the east bank of the Pearl River to Dongguan. I met a man who had been resident for eighteen years in Shenzhen. He claimed he knew nobody who had been there longer. I certainly felt, and quite possibly was, the oldest person in the city. But this is no bargain-basement metropolis. The city’s gleaming new central business district has five-star hotels, a stock exchange, concert hall, huge exhibition centre – and a profusion of Starbucks.
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
The more audacious observers of technical advancement dare to speculate that the point is not far off at which molecular nanotechnology and the “effectively complete control over the structure of matter” it affords finally bring the age of material scarcity to its close.25 In places where Green Plenty has broken out, most large-scale interventions in the built environment are intended to democratize access to the last major resource truly subject to conditions of scarcity: the land itself. Placeless urban sprawl is overwritten by high-density megastructures woven of recovered garbage by fleets of swarming robots.26 Equal parts habitat and ecosystem, they bear the signature aesthetic of computationally generated forms no human architect or engineer would ever spontaneously devise, and are threaded into the existing built fabric in peculiar and counterintuitive ways. But they afford everyone who wants to live in one of the planet’s great urban cores safe and decent space in which to do so, and come to be loved for their own virtues.
Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right by Arlie Russell Hochschild
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, Deep Water Horizon, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, full employment, greed is good, guest worker program, invisible hand, knowledge economy, McMansion, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, obamacare, oil shock, payday loans, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, working poor, Yogi Berra
Many members we met had grown up in small towns in the Midwest and felt deeply disoriented in California’s anomic suburbs, an unease they transformed into a belief that American society was at risk of being taken over by communists. Looking around, we could well understand why they felt “taken over”—in a few years, entire orange groves had disappeared into parking lots and shopping malls, a case of wildly unplanned urban sprawl. We too felt taken over by something, but it wasn’t communism. I have lived most of my life in the progressive camp but in recent years I began to want to better understand those on the right. How did they come to hold their views? Could we make common cause on some issues? These questions led me to drive, one day, from plant to plant in the bleak industrial outskirts of Lake Charles, Louisiana, with Sharon Galicia, a warm, petite, white single mother, a blond beauty, on her rounds selling medical insurance.
On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey Into South Asia by Steve Coll
affirmative action, airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, yellow journalism
On polling day the question was whether or not the vote would be stolen by the government, so those foreigners who were around fanned out to the cities and the countryside looking for malfeasance. As it turned out, what malfeasance occurred was generally difficult to see, so mostly we scurried from polling place to polling place and watched large numbers of Pakistanis stand in line. Late in the day, in Rawalpindi, a gray-brown urban sprawl just south of the capital of Islamabad, I wound up in an elementary school that was being used as a polling booth. The lone classroom was dim and bare. A single naked lightbulb glared above concrete floors and chipped green walls. Anatomy posters of human skeletons and organs loomed over rows of old wooden desks, the kind with holes for ink pots. Bored with the voting, which was proceeding smoothly, I wandered around the classroom and looked carefully at the teaching materials, some of them in Urdu, some in English.
England by David Else
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Taking in a play or concert in the beautiful landscaped gardens is a real summer pleasure, weather permitting. Ragley is 2 miles southwest of Alcester off the A435/A46, or about 10 miles west of Stratford-upon-Avon. STAFFORDSHIRE Stoke-born novelist Arnold Bennett once wrote that Staffordshire was ‘unsung by searchers after the extreme’, but that doesn’t mean that it’s boring. Wedged between the urban sprawls of Birmingham and Manchester, the county is surprisingly beautiful, from rolling Cannock Chase, a magnet for walkers and cyclists, to the jagged backbone of the Peak District known as the Roaches. The stern might of Lichfield’s cathedral, the wild rides at Alton Towers, and the neoclassical mansion of Shugborough are among the county’s other charms. Orientation Staffordshire’s attractions are spread fairly evenly around the county: Stoke to the northwest; the Peak District and Leek northeast, with Alton Towers just south; Lichfield to the southeast; and Stafford just southwest of the centre.
Nudging a horseshoe loop in the river, Shrewsbury’s defensive potential was crucial in keeping the Welsh in line for many centuries. Then in medieval times the town grew fat on the wool trade. It is also the birthplace of Charles Darwin (1809–82), who rocked the world with his theory of evolution. Orientation Shrewsbury’s near-island status helps preserve the Tudor and Jacobean streetscapes of its centre and protects it from unattractive urban sprawl. The train station is a five-minute walk northeast of the centre and is as far as you’ll need to venture. Information Library ( 01743-255300; Castle Gates; 9.30am-5pm Mon, Wed, Fri & Sat, 9.30am-8pm Tue & Thu, 1-4pm Sun) Free internet access. Royal Shrewsbury Hospital ( 01743-261000; Mytton Oak Rd) Tourist office ( 01743-281200; www.visitshrewsbury.com; Music Hall, The Square; 9.30am-5.30pm Mon-Sat, 10am-4pm Sun May-Sep; 10am-5pm Mon-Sat Oct-Apr) Guided walking tours (adult/child £3.50/1.50 1½hr) leave the tourist office at 2.30pm Monday to Saturday, and 11am Sunday from May to September and at 2.30pm Saturday only from November to April.
The communities had to then rely on their own resources, gradually becoming reabsorbed into the war-band culture of the native Britons – for some generations soldiers had been recruited locally in any case. Orientation Hadrian’s Wall crosses beautiful, varied landscape. Starting in the lowlands of the Solway coast, it crosses the lush hills east of Carlisle to the bleak, windy ridge of basalt rock known as Whin Sill overlooking Northumberland National Park, and ends in the urban sprawl of Newcastle. The most spectacular section lies between Brampton and Corbridge. Carlisle, in the west, and Newcastle, in the east, are good starting points, but Brampton, Haltwhistle, Hexham and Corbridge all make good bases. The B6318 follows the course of the wall from the outskirts of Newcastle to Birdoswald; from Birdoswald to Carlisle it pays to have a detailed map. The main A69 road and the railway line follow 3 or 4 miles to the south.
Caribbean Islands by Lonely Planet
Bartolomé de las Casas, big-box store, British Empire, buttonwood tree, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, income inequality, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, microcredit, offshore financial centre, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, sustainable-tourism, urban planning, urban sprawl, white picket fence
The restaurant offers everything from sushi plates to the fresh lobsters it keeps in a small pool. The restaurant also rents simple studios from €65. For supermarkets, you’ll find a Leader Price and a Match on the southern outskirts of Plage de Malendure. LES SAINTES These tiny islands to the south of Basse-Terre are many people’s highlight of Guadeloupe, as they allow visitors to enjoy a slice of the old Caribbean, far from the development and urban sprawl that has affected much of the region. These tiny charmers are a real secret – many day-trippers come over from Basse-Terre, but very few people spend any real time here exploring these gems. Don’t miss your chance. Terre-de-Haut POP 1800 Lying 10km off Guadeloupe is Terre-de-Haut, the largest of the eight small islands that make up Les Saintes. Since the island was too hilly and dry for sugar plantations, slavery never took hold here.
This is great for Francophiles, although it can also give rise to Martinique’s – at times – distinctly un-Caribbean air. Volcanic in origin, the island is a mountainous stunner crowned by the still-smoldering Mont Pelée, which wiped out Martinique’s former capital of St-Pierre in 1902. Long luscious beaches, great diving and giant mountains covered in tropical forests are the main attractions here. Far more developed than much of the Caribbean, Martinique suffers from uncontrolled urban sprawl in some places, particularly in and around the busy capital, Fort-de-France. Those wanting to avoid the modern world’s encroachment should head to the beautiful beaches of the south or to the mountains of the island’s remote north. When to Go Martinique enjoys a year-round tropical climate, but it is most popular during the dry season, from December to May. This high season can see the island crowded with French holiday makers, and hotel costs are at a premium.
The most interesting sightseeing routes are the coastal road (N2) to St-Pierre and the Route de la Trace (N3), a truly scenic road that crosses the mountainous interior before hitting Morne Rouge and veering toward the northeast coast. The two routes can be combined to make a fine loop drive; if doing the whole loop, give yourself a full day. Fort-de-France to St-Pierre The mountainous and in parts spectacular coastal road from Fort-de-France to the old capital of St-Pierre runs through a succession of small towns, fishing villages and the odd bit of urban sprawl. The 21km trip takes around 45 minutes. It’s worth swinging off the highway at Case-Pilote to take a peek at the old village center. Turn west off the N2 at the Total gas station and you’ll come to a quaint stone church, one of Martinique’s oldest. Just 75m south of that is a charming town square with a water fountain, historic town hall, tourist office and moderately priced cafe. There’s also good diving nearby.
Egypt by Matthew Firestone
call centre, clean water, credit crunch, friendly fire, haute cuisine, Khartoum Gordon, Right to Buy, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, Thales and the olive presses, trade route, urban sprawl, young professional
Return to beginning of chapter Around Cairo * * * MEMPHIS & THE EARLY PYRAMIDS MEMPHIS PYRAMIDS OF ABU SIR SAQQARA DAHSHUR AL-FAYOUM OASIS MEDINAT AL-FAYOUM KARANIS PYRAMID OF MEIDUM PYRAMID OF HAWARA PYRAMID OF AL-LAHUN LAKE QARUN WADI RAYYAN & WADI AL-HITTAN THE ROAD TO ALEXANDRIA BIRQASH CAMEL MARKET WADI NATRUN THE NILE DELTA NILE BARRAGES ZAGAZIG & BUBASTIS TANIS TANTA AREA * * * Held hostage by Cairo’s endless charms (or perhaps desperate to flee in search of more relaxed locales), too few travellers explore the capital’s surrounding countryside. However, those who manage to escape from the urban sprawl discover a serene landscape of luscious green fields and palm groves that end abruptly at the edges of the vast desert. And importantly, the outskirts of Cairo are home to some of the oldest and most impressive ancient sites in Egypt. On the southern edge of the city limits lies the city of Memphis, which was once the mighty capital of the Old Kingdom. Unfortunately, little remains of this famed city of power and wealth, though the surrounding desert pays eloquent visual testimony to the early pharaohs’ dreams of eternal life.
To get to the old camel market, take a minibus from Midan Abdel Moniem Riad (Map) to Imbaba, from where you can catch a connecting microbus. Easier still, take a taxi from central Cairo all the way to the old site (about E£10); Imbaba airport (matar Imbaba) is the closest landmark. Once at Imbaba, ask a local to show you where to get the microbus (E£1) to Birqash. From Imbaba, the road winds through fields dotted with date palms, dusty villages, orange orchards and patches of encroaching urban sprawl before climbing the desert escarpment to the market. Microbuses from Birqash back to Imbaba leave when full: depending on the time of the day, you could wait up to two hours or so. The easiest way to get to and from the market is to hire a private taxi for the morning. The market is an easy half-day trip (one to 1½ hours) from Cairo, and one hour in the hot and dusty market is usually enough for most people.
Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader
agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Furthermore, ‘cakes of copper’ and other items bearing strong affinities with artefacts characteristic of Zambia, the Congo basin, and West Africa, invite the conclusion28 that Great Zimbabwe was on the eastern edge of a widespread and complex internal trading network which substantially pre-dated the external trade that was founded primarily on gold. At the time of its pre-eminence in the fifteenth century, at least 11,000 and possibly as many as 18,000 people are said to have lived at Great Zimbabwe.29 The massive stone-built enclosures were in fact only the central feature of an extensive urban sprawl of huts and living space30 that covered an area of about seven kilometres in circumference.31 Great Zimbabwe was large enough to be called a town, or even a city, but this was urban living at its most basic and unhealthy. The huts were so close together that their eaves nearly touched.32 Such a dense concentration of human activity imposed tremendous demands on the natural resources of the surrounding regions.
The land suffered from excessive cultivation and overgrazing; water supplies became inadequate or contaminated; and unrelenting demands for firewood cleared progressively more distant woodland. As the site grew larger, people were obliged to travel ever further to tend fields and gather firewood. Ultimately the system became unsustainable; the centre could not hold and political authority gravitated to the periphery. Great Zimbabwe flourished for little more than one hundred years. When the stone enclosures and surrounding urban sprawl were abandoned in the late fifteenth century, the ecological damage that just three or four generations of human inhabitants had inflicted upon the landscape was such that certain tree species will not grow in the area to this day.33 With the collapse of Great Zimbabwe two other Shona states rose to prominence on the plateau: Torwa, centred on Khami, about 250 km west of Great Zimbabwe; and Mutapa, 400 km north.
Northern California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Airbnb, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, McMansion, means of production, Port of Oakland, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, the built environment, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Otherwise, city-owned lots and garages downtown charge a $5 flat rate after 6pm on weekdays and all day on weekends. Check www.sjdowntownparking.com for details. Pacifica & Devil’s Slide One of the real surprises of the Bay Area is how fast the cityscape disappears along the rugged and largely undeveloped coast. The lazy beach town of Pacifica, just 15 miles from downtown San Francisco, signals the end of the urban sprawl. Most beaches along Hwy 1 are buffeted by wild and unpredictable surf, making them better suited to sunbathing (weather permitting) than swimming. Immediately south of Pacifica is the Devil’s Slide, a gorgeous coastal cliff area now bypassed by a car tunnel. Pacifica State BeachBEACH (Linda Mar Beach; GOOGLE MAP ; %650-738-7381; www.parks.ca.gov; 5000 Pacific Coast Hwy; per car $5-9; h5am-dusk; pc) In Pacifica, collecting a suntan or catching a wave are the main attractions at popular Pacifica State Beach, as well as Rockaway Beach just north.
Its Mediterranean climate – characterized by dry summers and mild, wet winters with snow only at high elevations – makes it an easy year-round destination. Though the north is more sparsely populated than the south, together they comprise the largest population of any US state, and have the nation’s highest projected growth rate. This puts tremendous strain on the natural environment, which is under constant threat from logging, drought, water diversion and urban sprawl. Lay of the Land The third-largest state after Alaska and Texas, California covers more than 155,000 sq miles, making it larger than 85 of the world’s smallest nations. California is bordered to the north by Oregon, the east by Nevada and Arizona, the south by Mexico, and the west by 3427 miles of Pacific coastline. Geology & Earthquakes As a whole, California is a complex geologic landscape formed from fragments of rock and earth crust scraped together as the North American continent drifted westward over hundreds of millions of years.
Frommer's Seattle 2010 by Karl Samson
Bremerton isn’t just about naval history; it’s also home to the Aurora Valentinetti Puppet Museum, 257 Fourth St. ( 36 0/373-2992;www.ectandpuppets.com), which has a large collection of puppets and marionettes and is sure to be a hit with your younger children. The museum is open Wednesday through Saturday from 11am to 4pm. Admission is by donation. 7 Snoqualmie Falls & the Snoqualmie Valley One of the reasons so many people put up with Seattle’s drawbacks—urban sprawl, congested highways, and high housing prices—is that less than an hour east lie mountains so vast and rugged you can hike for a week without crossing a road. Between the city and this wilderness lie the farmlands of the Snoqualmie Valley, the Seattle region’s last bit of bucolic countryside. Here you’ll find small towns, pastures full of spotted cows, “U-pick” farms, and a few unexpected attractions, including an impressive waterfall and a reproduction of a medieval village.
The Rough Guide to Amsterdam by Martin Dunford, Phil Lee, Karoline Thomas
banking crisis, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, low cost airline, Nelson Mandela, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, young professional
Day-trips from the city Amsterdammers always try to persuade you that there’s nothing remotely worth seeing outside their city, but the truth is very much the opposite – indeed, you’re spoilt for choice. The fast and efficient Dutch railway network puts a whole swathe of the Netherlands within easy reach, including all of the Randstad (literally “Ring City”), a sprawling conurbation that stretches south of Amsterdam to encompass the country’s other big cities, primarily The Hague, Utrecht and Rotterdam. Amid the urban sprawl, and very close to Amsterdam, is one especially appealing medium-sized town, Haarlem, whose attractive centre is home to the outstanding Frans Hals Museum. Further south – about 40km from Amsterdam and 15km from Haarlem – is another enticing attraction, the world–famous Keukenhof Gardens, the springtime showcase for the country’s flower growers, the land striped by long lines of brilliant blooms.
Canary Islands Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
See Click here for an itinerary of Manrique’s sites. On the grand scale, it was primarily Manrique’s persistent lobbying for maintaining traditional architecture and protecting the natural environment that prompted the cabildo (government) to pass laws restricting urban development. The growing wave of tourism since the early 1980s has, however, threatened to sweep away all before it. But Manrique’s ceaseless opposition to such unchecked urban sprawl touched a nerve with many locals and led to the creation of an environmental group known as El Guincho, which has had some success in revealing – and at times even reversing – abuses by developers. Manrique was posthumously made its honorary president. As you pass through villages across the island, you’ll see how traditional stylistic features remain the norm. The standard whitewashed houses are adorned with greenpainted doors, window shutters and strange onion-shaped chimney pots.
City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
Originally the city was envisaged as having a population of no more than 500,000. In recent years, although the population of the city has been falling, that of the Distrito Federal has risen: 1.8 million by 1996 and growing. 94. The word ‘conurbation’ was coined in 1915 by Patrick Geddes, a disciple of Ebenezer Howard, to describe how towns expand to form a continuous built-up area, the result of urban sprawl. 95. Cited from Jackson (1985), 12. 96. Jackson (1985), 15. 97. Jackson (1985), 16. 98. See Oxford English Dictionary, online (2nd, 1989); Carolyn Whitzman, Suburb, Slum, Urban Village: Transformations in Toronto’s Parkdale Neighbourhood, 1875–2002 (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2009), 34. 99. Cited from Rykwert (2004), 161. 100. Rykwert (2004), 16.
Iron Sunrise by Stross, Charles
blood diamonds, dumpster diving, gravity well, hiring and firing, industrial robot, life extension, loose coupling, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, RFID, side project, speech recognition, technological singularity, trade route, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
Rachel leaned back in her chair and watched George. Cho was a diplomat, and a polished and experienced gambler who liked nothing better than a game of three-stud poker — so the experience of seeing him actually looking angry and upset about something was a novelty in its own right. The wall behind him showed supporting evidence. Rippling fields of grain as far as the eyes could see, a city rising — if that was the word for an urban sprawl where only city hall was more than three stories high — from the feet of blue-tinted mountains, white-painted houses, huge automated factory complexes, wide empty roads stretching forever under a sky the color of bluebells. “Not everyone on Moscow was totally laid-back,” George continued, after taking a sip from his water glass. “They had a small military, mostly equipped for disaster relief work — and a deterrent.
Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution by Emma Griffin
agricultural Revolution, Corn Laws, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, full employment, informal economy, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, labour mobility, spinning jenny, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor
With nearly 350, it is possible to identify genuine developments in the extent and nature of work available in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.15 An idea of the scope of the autobiographies can be captured by looking at Edward Barlow’s ‘journal’, a handwritten memoir of the early eighteenth century which recounts his successful career as first sailor, then captain. Barlow was born in 1642 in Prestwich, then a village about five miles from Manchester, now a settlement physically connected to the city through urban sprawl and subsumed administratively by the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. Barlow was not the only autobiographer who ‘never had any great mind to country work’. Ploughing, sowing, haymaking, reaping, hedging, ditching, threshing and dunging amongst cattle were all, in his opinion, ‘drudgery’.16 But his prospects for quitting the plough in mid-seventeenth-century Lancashire were not bright.
Fire in the Valley: The Birth and Death of the Personal Computer by Michael Swaine, Paul Freiberger
1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Google Chrome, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Jony Ive, Loma Prieta earthquake, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog
Conceived at a Homebrew meeting and launched on April Fool’s Day, Apple would grow to be the most valuable company in the world. But it started with two bored teenagers playing with scavenged electronics. Jobs and Woz Woz was fortunate to hook up with an evangelist. —Regis McKenna, high-tech marketing guru There were still orchards in Santa Clara Valley. But by the 1960s it was no longer the largest fruit-producing area in the world. It was starting to transition to urban sprawl as the electronics and semiconductor companies began taking over, and for the son of an engineer in Sunnyvale it was easier to pick up a spare transistor than to find somewhere to pick an apple. The Prankster In 1962, an eighth-grade boy in Sunnyvale built an addition-subtraction machine out of a few transistors and some parts. He did all the work himself, soldering wires in the backyard of his suburban home in the heart of what became Silicon Valley.
Concretopia: A Journey Around the Rebuilding of Postwar Britain by John Grindrod
Berlin Wall, garden city movement, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, megastructure, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, Right to Buy, side project, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, young professional
New Addington has the lowest voter turnout of anywhere in the south of England, what politics it does have shifting over the years from staunch Labour to a recent flirtation with the far right. Flats on the Fieldway estate. The tree gives some idea of the high winds experienced in ‘Little Siberia’. This vast estate was built seven miles outside Croydon town centre, on top of a hill so chilly, windswept and isolated it has earned the nickname Little Siberia. In 1935, just as ‘green belt’ legislation was being introduced to protect the area around London from urban sprawl, the land was bought by developer Charles Boot, whose company had been responsible for building more interwar houses than any other. Not everyone was thrilled at the prospect of a new estate being built on this wooded hill. ‘We know people have got to live somewhere, but there are so many other spaces more suitable for building,’ opined the vicar of Addington Village, which sat at the foot of the hill.1 Relations between the two settlements, ancient village and new estate, have not improved over time. 1,000 red-brick semis were built by Charles Boot in the late thirties. © Croydon Local Studies Library and Archives Service Yet 1,000 red-brick semis and maisonettes were built before the war and a further 1,000 prefabricated council houses and flats joined them in the fifties and sixties.
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
Only a powerfully coordinated approach to planning, engineering and design between emerging groups of tall buildings similar to the integrated engineering that currently plugs them into ground and subterranean-level infrastructures might allow raised skybridge systems to emerge in the future. Were such towers built and the new, raised-access bridges fully public in terms of their accessibility, UK architectural researcher Antony Wood, for one, believes that there is considerable potential for addressing the overwhelmingly private cultures of vertical urban sprawl. ‘Could some of the retail, arts and leisure facilities that normally occur at ground level within the city’, he wonders, ‘be lifted up into the sky to occupy a new “public zone” at height?’61 Given the barriers to the successful implementation of a fully vertical and public skybridge system within vertically growing cities dominated by private real estate development, however, the sci-fi urban visions discussed at the start of this chapter will have readers waiting for a considerable while yet.
The New Enclosure: The Appropriation of Public Land in Neoliberal Britain by Brett Christophers
Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Corn Laws, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, estate planning, ghettoisation, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, late capitalism, market clearing, Martin Wolf, New Journalism, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, Right to Buy, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, wealth creators
It is’, says Peter Hetherington, ‘a great deception.’1 Lay bare that deception, and one of the principal justifications for selling ‘surplus’ public land in the nation’s cities – that, otherwise, Britain’s dwindling green land may be even further eroded – crumbles away. Indeed, plenty of commentators believe that the green belt is precisely where development should be taking place.2 Wiles is one of these. Not only, he observes, is Britain not being concreted over; the ‘green belt’, in fact, is not all green: Contrary to myth, the only function of the green belt is to stop urban sprawl (cities growing into one another). Green belt land has no inherent ecological or agricultural value, nor is it chosen because it has natural beauty or protected wildlife. Much of it is poor-quality scrubland or used for intensive farming, and defined as green belt purely to stop cities from growing. Most is privately owned and not accessible to the public. Furthermore, green belt land does not even perform its ascribed function particularly well.
The Gifted Adult: A Revolutionary Guide for Liberating Everyday Genius(tm) by Mary-Elaine Jacobsen
Albert Einstein, fear of failure, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, urban sprawl, Walter Mischel
When Jordan finally realized that neither the “meet until there’s consensus” nor the “do it all yourself” approach offered the right solution, he brought an “in-and-out” procedure to his team. Each member would retain ownership, credit, and accountability for his or her element of the research, while all were committed to the same goal and underlying principle: Save the venerable oaks of the Midwest’s Big Woods from extinction by oak wilt and urban sprawl. Even though at first the others were skeptical, thinking Jordan’s time- and ego-saving approach was too simple to be effective, they eventually found tremendous value in it. In large part this was because, just as in sports, Jordan had learned that timing was everything. Earlier in his career his sagacity had backfired because others distrusted and dismissed his ideas either when he revealed them too early in the process or if they required too great a leap of faith.
Do You Dream of Terra-Two? by Temi Oh
But this time, there hadn’t been much to do. It was the final half-term before their class graduated, and the high point of the summer when the air was thick and wet as tar. As always, Poppy had booked the long train home at the last minute, because it was always a miserable affair, leaving behind the sweet-smelling tree-lined avenues near Dalton and returning to her hometown on the outskirts of Liverpool. Part of an urban sprawl that had been condemned by the city’s mayor. She’d taken the coach a thousand times from Lime Street Station, and watched from the window as glass towers slumped down. It took about forty minutes for the bus to wind into ghost-streets of boarded-up shops, Victorian terraces destined to be demolished and post-WWII social housing screaming with spray-paint. It was downhill from the urine-scented bus shelter to her mother’s flat.
Creating a Life Together: Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional Communities by Diana Leafe Christian
As mentioned earlier, in the progressive areas where you’d think it would be easier to buy land for a community, it’s often worse. Many city planners in environmentally aware areas such as Boulder or Amherst are already advocates of sustainable development, and would love to see more clustered development with open space, shared housing, passive solar design, pedestrian pathways, and so on. Appalled by the urban sprawl and acres of parking lots, environmentally oriented citizens in such areas often elect officials who promise to enact and enforce stringent “no growth” or “slow growth” policies. While such policies effectively restrict commercial developers from churning out more housing subdivisions or strip malls, the same policies also stop community founders from creating the very kinds of sustainable developments local planners and officials would most like to see.
Surfaces and Essences by Douglas Hofstadter, Emmanuel Sander
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Ernest Rutherford, experimental subject, Flynn Effect, Georg Cantor, Gerolamo Cardano, Golden Gate Park, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, l'esprit de l'escalier, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, place-making, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, yellow journalism, zero-sum game
Then it served to represent causal links (“It fell and broke”). Then it linked combinations of abstract qualities (“hot and cold water”), as well as of relationships (“before and after my haircut”) and other abstract attributes (“a hot and healthy meal”). And then many more came, in an avalanche. Like any category, the category of and situations expands gradually and smoothly in each human mind — indeed, so smoothly that after the fact the resulting urban sprawl seems, albeit illusorily, monolithic and uniform, as if it had been constructed all at once, as if there were but one single elementary idea there, which had never needed any generalizing at all. There are no conscious traces left of the many concentric layers of outward expansion of and, just as there are no conscious traces left of how we acquired categories that give the impression of being considerably more complex, such as mother, stop, and much.
And in exactly the same year, 1932, the Dictionnaire de l’Académie française defined the word “bureau” (French for “desk”) as follows (the original was in French, of course): A piece of furniture having drawers in which one can store papers and having horizontal surfaces on which one can write or draw. By extension, a table on which one does written or other work. These definitions are based on the idea of a desk as a piece of furniture. That was the “downtown area” of the vintage-1932 concept of desk. To be sure, even back then, there was already a good deal of conceptual urban sprawl in various directions. But back in 1932, no one could have dreamt of the kind of desk that we information addicts now spend most of our workdays working “upon”. Let’s give the name “hard-desk” to the concept of the 1932-style piece of furniture. It has a physical existence, and it is heavy and rather awkward to move around. Today’s screen-based version of the concept — we’ll call it “soft-desk” — is immaterial, or in any case it is material only in a highly indirect fashion; it is transportable, instantly copyable, easily sharable, and fits handily on a flash drive, carryable in one’s pocket.
Broken Angels by Richard Morgan
It stuck up at the edge of the district like a burnished bronze conning tower, double the height of the surrounding blocks and utterly featureless from the outside. Like much of the architecture in Landfall, it was mirror-surfaced and the reflected sun made its edges difficult to look at directly. It wasn’t the tallest tower in Landfall, but the structure had a raw power to it that throbbed across the surrounding urban sprawl and spoke volumes about its designers. Testing the human frame to destruction The phrase flopped out of my memory like a corpse from a closet. “How close you want to get?” asked Schneider nervously. “A bit closer.” The Khumalo sleeve, like all Carrera’s Wedge custom, had a satdata locational display wired in as standard and reckoned to be quite user-friendly when not fucked up by the webs of jamming and counter-jamming that currently swathed most of Sanction IV.
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley
"Robert Solow", 23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
By 2025, it looks as if there will be five billion people living in cities (and rural populations will actually be falling fast), and there will be eight cities with more than twenty million people each: Tokyo, Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, São Paolo, Mexico City, New York and Calcutta. As far as the planet is concerned, this is good news because city dwellers take up less space, use less energy and have less impact on natural ecosystems than country dwellers. The world’s cities already contain half the world’s people, but they occupy less than 3 per cent of the world’s land area. ‘Urban sprawl’ may disgust some American environmentalists, but on a global scale, the very opposite is happening: as villages empty, people are living in denser and denser anthills. As Edward Glaeser put it, ‘Thoreau was wrong. Living in the country is not the right way to care for the Earth. The best thing that we can do for the planet is build more skyscrapers.’ After a ‘stinking hot’ evening in a taxi in central Delhi in the 1960s, the ecologist Paul Ehrlich had an epiphany.
San Francisco by Lonely Planet
airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, G4S, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Joan Didion, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar
The snappiest comeback in SF history was this saloon-goers’ retort after Hotaling’s 1866 whiskey warehouse survived the 1906 earthquake and fire. Many considered this divine retribution for Barbary Coast debauchery. A bronze plaque with this ditty still graces the resilient Italianate building. Embarcadero Center Notable Building Offline map Google map (www.embarcaderocenter.com; Sacramento St; 10am-5pm; & Embarcadero; California St) The skyscrapers of the Embarcadero Center, joined by overhead walkways, form an urban-sprawl mall and have little to recommend them beyond some good public art and the crowd-pleasing Embarcadero Center Cinema (Click here ). They connect to the north with Golden Gateway Center – a 1950s-designed modernist housing development on the site of the city’s former wholesale vegetable market – anchored by One Maritime Plaza (née the Alcoa Building, 300 Clay St), the city’s first skyscraper to use crisscrossing-steel seismic reinforcements.
The Rough Guide to Vienna by Humphreys, Rob
Schiele succumbed three days later at his mother-in-law’s house and is buried in the nearby Friedhof Ober-St-Veit, beneath a tombstone sculpted by the Hungarian Benjamin Ferenczy, commissioned by Schiele’s friends on the tenth anniversary of his death. 177 SCHÖNBRUNN, THE W I E NE RWAL D AND THE Z E N T R A L F R I E D H O F later; free), enclosed within a 25km-long wall by Emperor Josef II. It’s now the wildest of Vienna’s public parks, with virtually no traffic, and no formal gardens at all – head here if you want to leave the urban sprawl far behind. It may not boast the views of the Wienerwald, but you’re more likely to spot wildlife, including wild boar, mouﬂon, woodpecker, and, most easily, red squirrels and deer; in addition, the famous Lipizzaner horses of the Spanische Reitschule spend their summer holidays in the park. The main entrance is the Lainzer Tor, at the end of Hermesstrasse (tram #60 or #62 and then bus #60B), where a visitor centre can help you get your bearings.
Barcelona by Damien Simonis
Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, haute couture, haute cuisine, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, land reform, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, sustainable-tourism, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl
Return to beginning of chapter THE LAND Barcelona spreads along the Catalan coast in what is known as the Pla de Barcelona (Barcelona Plain), midway between the French border and the regional frontier with Valencia. The plain averages about 4m above sea level. Mont Tàber, the little elevation upon which the Romans built their town, is 16.9m above sea level. To the southwest, Montjuïc is 173m high. Urban sprawl tends to be channelled southwest and northeast along the coast, as the landwards side is effectively blocked off by the Serralada Litoral mountain chain, which between the Riu Besòs and Riu Llobregat is known as the Serra de Collserola. Tibidabo is the highest point of this chain at 512m, with commanding views across the whole city. Badalona to the northeast and L’Hospitalet to the southwest mark the municipal boundaries of the city – although, as you drive through them, you’d never know where they begin and end.
Model Thinker: What You Need to Know to Make Data Work for You by Scott E. Page
"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic trading, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Checklist Manifesto, computer age, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, deliberate practice, discrete time, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, first-price auction, Flash crash, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, High speed trading, impulse control, income inequality, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, Network effects, p-value, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, school choice, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, selection bias, six sigma, social graph, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the rule of 72, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, value at risk, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game
New York: Basic Books. Axelrod, David, Robert Axelrod, and Kenneth J. Pienta. 2006. “Evolution of Cooperation Among Tumor Cells.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, no. 36: 13474–13479. Axtell, Robert L. 2001. “Zipf Distribution of U.S. Firm Sizes.” Science 293: 1818–1820. Bajari, Patrick, and Matthew E. Kahn. 2008. “Estimating Hedonic Models of Consumer Demand with an Application to Urban Sprawl.” In Hedonic Methods in Housing Markets, 129–155. New York: Springer. Bak, Per. 1996. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. New York: Springer. Baldwin, Carliss Y., and Kim B. Clark. 2000. Design Rules. Vol. 1, The Power of Modularity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Ball, Eric, and Joseph LiPuma. 2012. Unlocking the Ivory Tower: How Management Research Can Transform Your Business.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Governments thus make tough demands on companies to transfer technology and train locals such that even when foreign capital moves on, the supply chain does not necessarily leave with it. * * * *1 On average across developing countries, participating in the intermediate stages of product creation represents 30 percent of GDP and far more if SEZs are used not just for specialization but also to diversify into more complex industries. *2 Hukou refers to the system of permits that regulates Chinese citizens’ residency rights in the countryside. *3 China’s urban sprawl has hastened due to cheap Japanese and Korean scooters, followed by even cheaper Chinese-made ones, which muscled over bicyclists while expanding the effective range of commuting. While China is now trying to encourage bicycling again, other cities have learned the lesson and are banning scooters, taxing automobiles, building more public transport, and designating more pedestrian zones. *4 The United States has woken up to the need for an infrastructure focus by setting up an interagency working group that links the National Security Council and the Millennium Challenge Corporation to set up special-purpose vehicles that give grants for infrastructure but monitor them like private equity investors through board seats and milestones before disbursing more funds.
Next Stop Execution: The Autobiography of Oleg Gordievsky by Oleg Gordievsky
active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban sprawl, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, working poor
But Heathrow was a shock: never in my life had I seen so many aircraft; never had I smelt such a stink of aviation fuel. After the modest proportions and cleanliness of Copenhagen, London seemed a colossal mess. A car from the Soviet Embassy met us, and our drive into the West End of the city was itself a revelation. I had frequently read that London was one of the richest cities in the world — but here was a vast, undistinguished urban sprawl, with street after street of grimy old houses, litter in the gutters, and appalling traffic. To some extent the squalor was redeemed by the little gardens in front of the houses, and by the immaculately kept public parks but, on the whole, I had imagined that everything would be much tidier and more attractive. Our flat, in Kensington High Street, was also a disappointment — small, dark, poorly equipped, and in every respect inferior to the one we had left in Moscow.
Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan
"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional
He made a career with Texas’s scrappy independent oil producers rather than with the local giants. In his early days he struck a deal with a Chicago bookmaker to buy rights to a piece of land known as “the wildcatter’s graveyard” and quickly drilled thirteen gushers. He also made a second career as an urban developer. In 1974, he built a planned community, the Woodlands, in the pine forests north of Houston, in a bid to tackle the problems of urban sprawl. It contains a mix of social housing and offices as well as million-dollar villas. His stubbornness was his most important quality. With the major oil companies scoffing and his investors ruing their foolishness, he spent two decades poking holes in the land around Fort Worth. “I never considered giving up,” he said, “even when everyone was saying, ‘George, you’re wasting your money.’” Then, in 1998, with Mitchell approaching his eighties, his team hit on the idea of substituting water for gunky drilling fluids.
If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
You may thus often see vast numbers of persons brought closely together, poor and rich, young and old, Jew and Gentile.”40 Such was Olmsted’s vision of an urban equality that depended on the public space made possible by parks. Olmsted was hardly alone. In 1947, contemplating the expansion of their transit system, planners in Copenhagen devised a “Finger Plan” that allowed the city to grow outward along transit fingers that would be separated by parks, woods, and other green spaces. By planning ahead, Copenhagen avoided the anarchy of urban sprawl and environmentally pernicious brown lands, and it ensured some measure of urban-country reconciliation in a quickly growing capital district. New towns with the luxury of starting fresh on a virgin map labor to integrate Olmsted’s and Copenhagen’s ideals into their planning. Daniel Kammen, the Nobel laureate energy scientist, recently sketched a vision of his own version of an Ecopolis responding to these ideals on his television series Ecopolis (2009).
Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems by Abhijit V. Banerjee, Esther Duflo
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, charter city, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, fear of failure, financial innovation, George Akerlof, high net worth, immigration reform, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, land reform, loss aversion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart meter, social graph, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K
Making matters worse, as Ed Glaeser has argued in his wonderful book Triumph of the City, are city planners who resist building dense neighborhoods of high-rises for the middle class, aiming instead for a “garden city.”56 India, for example, imposes draconian limits on how high buildings can be, much stricter than what is found in Paris, New York, or Singapore. These restrictions result in massive urban sprawl and long commutes in most Indian cities. The same problem also shows up in China and many other countries, albeit in a less extreme form.57 For the would-be low-income migrant, this set of bad policy choices creates an unenviable trade-off. He can crowd into a slum (if he is lucky), commute many hours a day, or resign himself to the daily misery of sleeping under a bridge, on the floor of the building where he works, in his rickshaw or under his truck, or on the pavement, protected perhaps by the awning of a shop.
The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria, and Hubris by Mark Honigsbaum
Asian financial crisis, biofilm, Black Swan, clean water, coronavirus, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, indoor plumbing, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, Pearl River Delta, Ronald Reagan, Skype, the built environment, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl
The first thing you do in that kind of overwhelming fear is you retreat, and they changed their behaviors in ways which suddenly slowed down and took the heat out of this thing. Similar behavioral shifts also occurred spontaneously in Sierra Leone around the same time, particularly in Kailahun and Kenema, the two districts that had been hit earliest and hardest by Ebola. Elsewhere, however, resistance to the Ebola control measures persisted. Noncompliance was a particular problem in the Western District, the area that includes Freetown and its extra urban sprawl, and Port Loko, a 2,000-square-mile district to the north of the capital scored with swamps and rivers. For instance, in March 2015, shortly before Liberia released its last Ebola patient from the hospital, a fisherman infected with Ebola evaded government contact tracers and persuaded three colleagues to ferry him to a remote island in the Rohmbe swamps within sight of Lungi airport. There, he consulted a traditional healer before continuing by sea to Aberdeen, a township on the outskirts of Freetown, where he alighted at Tamba Kula wharf, a stone’s throw from the Radisson Blu Yammy, the city’s premier luxury hotel.
Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann
Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
In London, with its fragmented administration, public takeover of water was also delayed until 1902.28 This movement is known as ‘municipal socialism’, though the driving force behind it had little to do with socialist parties, which were still in their infancy. The main pressure came from urban growth and the limits of nature. Unlike food and clothing, water became more, not less, expensive in the late nineteenth century. Urban sprawl meant longer pipes to suburbs and more distant, expensive sources. Private companies had maximum prices set by legislators early on, and so had little incentive to invest. Cities were forced to take over. Many businessmen were happy to swallow the pill of public ownership as long as it ensured enough water for their factories. In gas, the opposite logic was at work. Unlike water, gas was highly profitable, thanks to technological innovations.
No one illustrated this new-found equilibrium better than Jean Saint-Geours in his book Vive la société de consommation (1971). Saint-Geours was establishment pure. With a socialist background, he had served as chargé de mission under Pierre Mendès France in 1954–5, before becoming inspector-general of finances, a top-ranking civil servant. At the time of writing, he was director general of the bank Crédit Lyonnais. As a founding member of the Club of Rome, he recognized the dangers of pollution, poverty and urban sprawl. Growth needed to be slowed down and managed. Still, he argued, it was foolish to think any progress could be made by forsaking consumption. The world of goods had brought collective as well as individual freedoms. People found genuine satisfaction in the use of things, something an older ‘sacralization of labour’ had denied them. Rather than leading to alienation, as the Marxists Lefebvre and Marcuse had it, consumer society lifted individuals out of ignorance and their dependence on Church and elites.
Greece Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, capital controls, car-free, carbon footprint, credit crunch, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, pension reform, period drama, sensible shoes, trade route, urban sprawl
Athens Ports Piraeus Πειραιάς Pop 163,700 The highlights of Greece’s main port and ferry hub, Piraeus, are the otherworldly rows of ferries, ships and hydrofoils filling its seemingly endless quays. Piraeus, 10km southwest of central Athens, is the biggest port in the Mediterranean (with more than 20 million passengers passing through annually), the hub of the Aegean ferry network, the centre of Greece’s maritime trade and the base for its large merchant navy. While technically a separate city, these days Piraeus virtually melds into the urban sprawl of Athens. Central Piraeus is not a place where visitors choose to linger because it’s congested with traffic. Beyond its shipping offices, banks and public buildings are a jumble of pedestrian precincts, shopping strips and rather grungy areas. The most attractive quarter lies to the east around Zea Marina and touristy Mikrolimano harbour, which is lined with cafes, restaurants and bars. Piraeus has been the port of Athens since classical times, when Themistocles transferred his Athenian fleet from the exposed port of Phaleron (modern Faliro) to the security of Piraeus in the 5th century BC.
Live cultivation, goats, construction and industry have all taken their toll. Illegal development of mainly coastal areas, and building in forested or protected areas, has gained momentum in Greece since the 1970s. Despite attempts at introducing laws, and protests by locals and environmental groups, corruption and the lack of an infrastructure to enforce the laws means little is done to abate the land-grab. The issue is complicated by population growth and increased urban sprawl. Developments often put a severe strain on water supplies and endangered wildlife. While a few developments have been torn down, in more cases illegal buildings are legalised as they offer much needed, affordable housing. In 2014 NATO's plan to decommission 700 tonnes of Syria’s chemical weapons off the southern coast of Crete was protested by over 10,000 islanders concerned for the environment and their livelihood.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
It seems counterintuitive to suggest that a deliberate attempt to behave morally—even one that would require recruiting technology to help you with the mission—will somehow compromise your morality. Granted, you won’t have a chance to express your impeccable morality at every left turn, but you have still expressed it when, unsure of your own driving abilities, you surrendered control to the car itself. Of course, there may be other reasons to oppose automated and driverless cars; for instance, they might completely devastate whatever is left of public space in America, as urban sprawl might continue even more aggressively. But this is a very different type of critique from Kerr’s concerns about automating virtue. There are perhaps good arguments to be made as to why mastering how to drive an unautomated car might be as intellectually and aesthetically stimulating as repairing a motorcycle. Likewise, some have argued that relying on natural navigation—from wind patterns to tide heights—might be preferable to relying on GPS, much in the same way that cooking without detailed instructions might be preferable to having a robot dictate the next step.
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
The 600 million cars on the road today account for 10 percent of global CO2 emissions, not to mention the cocktail of noxious fumes that make cars one of the single largest sources of atmospheric pollution and a major contributor to respiratory problems and other public health challenges.2 Cars are also expensive for drivers, consuming 18 percent of the average American income, a figure that will surely increase as one factors in the rising costs of fuel, parking, tolls, car maintenance and insurance, not to mention the lost productivity resulting from increased traffic congestion.3 Of course, cars only work—that is, they only give us freedom of mobility—when we have roads to drive on. And this creates still more trauma to the planet. In the developed world, roads consume about 40 percent of land in urban areas and even more in North America.4 In 2008, the world’s expansive road network covered some 70 million kilometers—enough roadway to build 180 expressways to the moon.5 Urban planners have long known that high rates of car ownership encourage urban sprawl—sprawl that further entrenches our car dependency while increasing roadway congestion. Fewer people recognize that roads also disrupt ecosystems, interfere with species migration, and compromise natural drainage. Given that cars are one of the most popular forms of transportation in the developed world, cars inevitably become a nexus for death. In 2004, the World Health Organization reported that an estimated 1.2 million people die and that 50 million people are injured in road accidents each year, making car accidents the tenth leading cause of death worldwide.
Riding Rockets: The Outrageous Tales of a Space Shuttle Astronaut by Mike Mullane
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, feminist movement, financial independence, invisible hand, Magellanic Cloud, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Pepto Bismol, placebo effect, Potemkin village, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, space pen, Stephen Hawking, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent, your tax dollars at work
A passerby could easily think it was a university campus or a corporate headquarters. The architecture screamed “low bid.” Except for size, every building was identical, each featuring a façade of exposed aggregate concrete. The major buildings were positioned around a duck pond landscaped with pine and oak trees to relieve the otherwise flat, boring terrain of southeast coastal Texas. Johnson Space Center was located in the far south of Houston’s urban sprawl. It was nearly as close to Galveston as it was to Houston’s city center. The community in which many NASA employees lived was the suburb of Clear Lake City—implying a lake nearby, and a clear one at that. Wrong. Clear Lake was neither clear nor a lake, but rather a chocol