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Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System by Nick Montfort, Ian Bogost
Racing the Beam Platform Studies Ian Bogost and Nick Montfort, editors Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System, Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost, 2009 Racing the Beam The Atari Video Computer System Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England © 2009 Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher. For information about special quantity discounts, please email email@example.com This book was set in Filosoﬁa and Helvetica Neue by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong.
For information about special quantity discounts, please email firstname.lastname@example.org This book was set in Filosoﬁa and Helvetica Neue by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong. Printed and bound in the United States of America. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Montfort, Nick. Racing the beam : the Atari video computer system / Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost. p. cm — (Platform studies) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-262-01257-7 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Video games—Equipment and supplies. 2. Atari 2600 (Video game console) 3. Computer games—Programming. 4. Video games— United States—History. I. Bogost, Ian. II. Title. TK6681.M65 2009 794.8—dc22 2008029410 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Contents Series Foreword vii Acknowledgments ix Timeline xi 1 Stella 1 2 Combat 3 Adventure 4 Pac-Man 65 5 Yars’ Revenge 81 6 Pitfall!
Kirschenbaum, Jane McGonigal, Jill Walker Rettberg, and Jim Whitehead. We greatly appreciate the work that Roger Bellin and Dexter Palmer did in organizing the Form, Culture, and Video Game Criticism conference at Princeton University on 6 March 2004. This conference prompted the ﬁrst scholarship leading to this book. Thanks also to students in Ian Bogost’s Videogame Design and Analysis class on the Atari VCS (Georgia Tech, Spring 2007): Michael Biggs, Sarah Clark, Rob Fitzpatrick, Mark Nelson, Nirmal Patel, Wes St. John, and Josh Teitelbaum. Thanks as well to Peter Stallybrass and the participants in his History of Material Texts Workshop at the University of Pennsylvania.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic bias, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler
., Kindle location 2018–2019. 333 Sociologist Anthony Giddens distinguishes: see chapter 2 of Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986). 334 As game theorists Ian Bogost has shown: Ian Bogost, Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007). 334 “But who cares about deliberation”: Ian Bogost, “Persuasive Games: Shell Games,” Gamasutra, March 3, 2010, http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/132682/persuasive_games_shell_games.php. 334 Zamzee is a game: see https://www.zamzee.com. 334 a fourteen-year-old who got two hundred points for walking his dog: Madison Park, “Gaming Reality,” CNN.com, August 2012, http://www.cnn.com/interactive/2012/08/tech/gaming.series/obesity.html. 335 a game like Fatworld: see http://www.persuasivegames.com/games/game.aspx?
., 10. 312 “the makeover London commuting has been waiting for”: Jemima Kiss, “Chromaroma: The Makeover London Commuting Has Been Waiting For,” The Guardian, November 30, 2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2010/nov/30/chromaroma-oyster-transport-gaming. 312 “actually, the makeover London commuting has been waiting for”: Steve Poole, “Nil Point,” Edge Magazine, March 25, 2011, http://www.edge-online.com/features/nil-point. 313 “Factory competitions could blend fuzzily”: Mark Nelson, “Soviet and American Precursors to the Gamification of Work,” Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference, pp. 23–26. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2115483. 313 “A despot in a sorcerer’s hat”: Ian Bogost, “Shit Crayons,” Ian Bogost’s blog, undated, http://www.bogost.com/writing/shit_crayons.shtml. 314 “Behind the allure of the quantified self”: Gary Wolf, “The Data-Driven Life,” New York Times, April 28, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/02/magazine/02self-measurement-t.html. 314 “We don’t have a pedometer in our feet”: ibid. 315 “the social web can’t exist”: quoted in Julianne Pepitone, “Facebook Is Now Too Big to Buy,” CNNMoney, November 8, 2011, http://money.cnn.com/2011/11/08/technology/zuckerberg_charlie_rose/index.htm. 315 “MySpace is about being someone fake”: quoted in Holman Jenkins, “Technology = Salvation,” Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704696304575537882643165738.html. 315 “Expressing our authentic identity”: “United States: Sharing to the Power of 2012,” The Economist, November 17, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21537000. 315 “Profiles will no longer be outlines”: ibid. 315 as Lionel Trilling showed: Lionel Trilling, Sincerity and Authenticity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972). 315 as Trilling correctly noted: Trilling et al., “Sincerity and Authenticity: A Symposium,” Salmagundi 41 (1978): 87–110. 315 “of proving ourselves not merely good”: ibid., 98. 316 “with a kind of dress, with faded denims”: ibid., 96. 316 “in the name of contemporary authenticity”: Theodor Adorno, The Jargon of Authenticity (Oxford: Psychology Press, 2006), 102. 316 “What is crucial about authenticity”: Charles Guignon, On Being Authentic (Oxford: Psychology Press, 2004), 81. 317 “the unique American individual”: Abigail Cheever, Real Phonies: Cultures of Authenticity in Post–World War II America.
What is the connection between gamification and games? Some critics of gamification point out that the best video games are not exhausted by their reward systems. Virtual points do not produce experiences “of interest, enlightenment, terror, fascination, hope, or any number of other sensations,” as game theorist Ian Bogost puts it; rather, those are produced by the content of the game and various narrative strategies adopted by game designers. In other words, one doesn’t have to hate games to hate gamification; that process doesn’t, strictly speaking, turn everything into a game—it turns everything into limited (and often completely unimportant) factors that we sometimes associate with games.
What Algorithms Want: Imagination in the Age of Computing by Ed Finn
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Claude Shannon: information theory, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, game design, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Conference 1984, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Ian Bogost, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Lyft, Mother of all demos, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, software studies, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, wage slave
A cathedral is a space for collective belief, a structure that embodies a framework of understandings about the world, some visible and some not. This is a useful metaphor for understanding the relationship we have with algorithms today. Writing in The Atlantic in early 2015, digital culture critic and game designer Ian Bogost called out our increasingly mythological relationship with software in an article titled “The Cathedral of Computation.” Bogost argues that we have fallen into a “computational theocracy” that replaces God with the algorithm: Our supposedly algorithmic culture is not a material phenomenon so much as a devotional one, a supplication made to the computers people have allowed to replace gods in their minds, even as they simultaneously claim that science has made us impervious to religion.8 We have, he argues, adopted a faith-based relationship with the algorithmic culture machines that navigate us through city streets, recommend movies to us, and provide us with answers to search queries.
As algorithms become more adept at reading cultural data and performing real-time arbitrage (used here in the sense of financial pricing arbitrage but also cultural arbitrage as described in the previous chapter), they are taking on new forms of intellectual labor. They are authoring and creating, but they are also simplifying and abstracting, creating an interface layer between consumers and the messy process of, say, getting a cab or hiring a housekeeper. Chapter 4 begins with Ian Bogost’s satirical Facebook game Cow Clicker and its send-up of the “gamification” movement to add quantification and algorithmic thinking to many facets of everyday life. Such games trouble the boundaries between work and play, as do much more serious forms of gamification like Uber and the high-tech warehouse workers whose every second and step are measured for efficiency.
Even the engineers behind some of the most successful and ubiquitous algorithmic systems in the world—executives at Google and Netflix, for example—admit that they understand only some of the behaviors their systems exhibit. But their rhetoric is still transcendent and emancipatory, striking many of the same techno-utopian notes as the mythos of code as magic when they equate computation with transformational justice and freedom. The theology of computation that Ian Bogost identified is a faith militant, bringing the gospel of big data and disruption to huge swaths of society. This is the context in which we use algorithms today: as pieces of quotidian technical magic that we entrust with booking vacations, suggesting potential mates, evaluating standardized test essays, and performing many other kinds of cultural work.
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal
Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, IKEA effect, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator
We call these people users and even if we don’t say it aloud, we secretly wish every one of them would become fiendishly hooked to whatever we’re making. I’m guessing that’s likely why you started reading this book. Users take their technologies with them to bed.2 When they wake up, they check for notifications, tweets, and updates, sometimes even before saying “Good morning” to their loved ones. Ian Bogost, the famed game creator and professor, calls the wave of habit-forming technologies the “cigarette of this century” and warns of their equally addictive and potentially destructive side effects.3 You may be asking, “When is it wrong to manipulate users?” Manipulation is an experience crafted to change behavior—we all know what it feels like.
Certainly, there is money to be made addicting users to behaviors that do little more than extract cash; and where there is cash, there will be someone willing to take it. The question is: Is that someone you? Casinos and drug dealers offer users a good time, but when the addiction takes hold, the fun stops. In a satirical take on Zynga’s FarmVille franchise, Ian Bogost created Cow Clicker, a Facebook game in which users did nothing but incessantly click on virtual cows to hear a satisfying moo.11 Bogost intended to lampoon FarmVille by blatantly implementing the same game mechanics and viral hacks he thought would be laughably obvious to users. But after the app’s usage exploded and some people became frighteningly obsessed with the game, Bogost shut it down, bringing on what he called the “Cowpocalypse.”12 Bogost rightfully compared addictive technology to cigarettes.
Balz, “Choice Architecture” (SSRN Scholarly Paper, Rochester, New York), Social Science Research Network, (April 2, 2010), http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1583509. 2. Charlie White, “Survey: Cellphones vs. Sex—Which Wins?,” Mashable (accessed), http://mashable.com/2011/08/03/telenav-cellphone-infographic. 3. Ian Bogost, “The Cigarette of This Century,” Atlantic (June 6, 2012), http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/06/the-cigarette-of-this-century/258092/. 4. David H. Freedman, “The Perfected Self,” Atlantic (June 2012), http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/06/the-perfected-self/308970/. 5.
Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman
algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, Chekhov's gun, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, digital map, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Ian Bogost, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K
Haldane, Possible Worlds and Other Essays (London: Chatto & Windus, 1928), 286. limitations to what we can know: For a further discussion on scientific humility, see Marcelo Gleiser, The Island of Knowledge: The Limits of Science and the Search for Meaning (New York: Basic Books, 2014). video game designer and writer Ian Bogost: Ian Bogost, “The Cathedral of Computation,” The Atlantic, January 15, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/the-cathedral-of-computation/384300/. a perfect and immaculate process: This is discussed further in Bogost, “Cathedral of Computation.” the “humble programmer”: Edsger Dijkstra, “The Humble Programmer.”
As mentioned in the introduction, as our technologies become more complicated, and we lose the ability to understand them, our responses tend toward two extremes: fear and awe. Contemplating a fantastically intricate technological system, some of us are overwhelmed by its power and complexity, and respond with fear of the unknown. Others tend toward an almost religious reverence when faced with technology’s beauty and power. The video game designer and writer Ian Bogost has even suggested that replacing the term “algorithm” with the word “God” changes little of what is being said about technology in today’s discourse. But technology, while it suffuses our society, is not the product of a perfect and immaculate process. Technologies are kluges. They are messes cobbled together over time from many pieces, and while they are indubitably exciting, they do not merit unquestioning wonder or profound existential concern.
Will Oremus, “Who Controls Your Facebook Feed,” Slate, January 3, 2016, http://www.slate.stfi.re/articles/technology/cover_story/2016/01/how_facebook_s_news_feed_algorithm_works.html. because of its creation by some perfect, infinite mind: “The worship of the algorithm” is discussed further in Ian Bogost, “The Cathedral of Computation,” The Atlantic, January 15, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/the-cathedral-of-computation/384300/. CHAPTER 1: WELCOME TO THE ENTANGLEMENT the Challenger disaster: James Gleick, “Richard Feynman Dead at 69; Leading Theoretical Physicist,” The New York Times, February 17, 1988, http://www.nytimes.com/books/97/09/21/reviews/feynman-obit.html.
Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean
4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Conference 1984, Ian Bogost, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler
As a noun, “program” is a description of a future event and a set of instructions used to execute a specified task. As a verb, it describes the process of the arrangement of the program as the expression but also the operation of the computer or machine in executing the instructions. The procedure is also ideological, as computational processes operate like other rhetorical strategies, something that Ian Bogost’s phrase “procedural rhetoric” makes clear in describing how computational processes (like good speeches) model persuasion in systems involving the interpretation of any symbolic system that governs thinking and action7—between sender and receiver, speaker and listener, writer and reader, programmer and user.
Georges Bataille, The Accursed Share, vol. 1, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Zone Books, 1991). Excess is elementary to Bataille’s notion of “general economy” where expenditure (waste, sacrifice, or destruction) is considered more fundamental than the economies of production and utilities. 44. Ian Bogost, Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004), making reference to the work of Graham Harman in particular and what has become known as “speculative realism,” also associated with Ray Brassier, Iain Hamilton Grant, and Quentin Meillassoux. 45. Alain Badiou, Number and Numbers (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2008), 1.
See Karl Marx, “Fragment on Machines,” in Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft) (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981), 705–706. Notes to Pages 41–43 119 6. Hannah Arendt, “Labor, Work, Action” (1964), in The Portable Hannah Arendt (New York: Penguin 2000), 167–181. 7. Ian Bogost, “Procedural Rhetoric,” in Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007), 5. Bogost develops the idea of “unit operations” from this to describe an object-oriented approach (object-oriented ontology, in terms of both programming and philosophy), but the main issue here is to stress that computational representation and other cultural processes are bound together. 8.
We Are Data: Algorithms and the Making of Our Digital Selves by John Cheney-Lippold
algorithmic bias, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer vision, dark matter, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Ian Bogost, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mercator projection, meta-analysis, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, price discrimination, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software studies, statistical model, Steven Levy, technological singularity, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Turing machine, uber lyft, web application, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
In our internetworked world, our datafied selves are tethered together, pattern analyzed, and assigned identities like ‘terrorist’ without attention to our own, historical particularities. As media scholar Mark Andrejevic writes, “such logic, like the signature strike, isn’t interested in biographical profiles and backstories, it does not deal in desires or motivations: it is post-narratival in the sense conjured up by [Ian] Bogost as one of the virtues of Object Oriented Ontology: ‘the abandonment of anthropocentric narrative coherence in favor of worldly detail.’”9 Yet even without an anthropocentric narrative, we are still narrativized when our data is algorithmically spoken for. We are strategically fictionalized, as philosopher Hans Vaihinger writes in his 1911 book The Philosophy of “As If”: “the purpose of the world of ideas as a whole is not the portrayal of reality . . . but to provide us with an instrument for finding our way about more easily in this world.”10 Importantly, those who use our data to create these ideas have the power to tell our “as if” stories for us.
Vaidhyanathan, Googlization of Everything, 84. 90. Friedrich Kittler, Discourse Networks, 1800/1900 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992). 91. Evgeny Dantsin, Thomas Eiter, Georg Gottlob, and Andrei Voronkov, “Complexity and Expressive Power of Logic Programming,” ACM Computing Surveys 33, no. 3 (2001): 374–425; Ian Bogost, Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007); Noah Wardrip-Fruin, Expressive Processing: Digital Fictions, Computer Games, and Software Studies (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2009). 92. Kevin Kelly and Derrick de Kerckhove, “4.10: What Would McLuhan Say?
Tom Engelhardt, Shadow Government: Surveillance, Secret Wars, and a Global Security State in a Single-Superpower World (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2014), 76. 8. Jo Becker and Scott Shane, “Secret ‘Kill List’ Proves a Test of Obama’s Principles and Will,” New York Times, May 29, 2012, www.nytimes.com. 9. Mark Andrejevic, “FCJ-187: The Droning of Experience,” Fibreculture Journal 25 (2015): 206; Ian Bogost, Alien Phenomenology, or, What It Is Like to Be a Thing (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012), 41–42. 10. Hans Vaihinger, The Philosophy of “As If”: A System of the Theoretical, Practical and Religious Fictions of Mankind (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1924). See also Curtis White, We, Robots: Staying Human in the Age of Big Data (New York: Melville House, 2015).
Coders: The Making of a New Tribe and the Remaking of the World by Clive Thompson
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 4chan, 8-hour work day, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, backpropagation, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, call centre, cellular automata, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, disinformation, don't be evil, don't repeat yourself, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hockey-stick growth, HyperCard, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, ImageNet competition, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, lone genius, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, microservices, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Nicholas Carr, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, planetary scale, profit motive, ransomware, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, the High Line, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WeWork, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zimmermann PGP, éminence grise
Hence the approval of universal health care—or even universal basic income, something that’s a warmly approved talking point at tech conferences. They’re happy to share some of the wealth via taxation but want to ensure nothing stops them in their process of how they amass their wealth. They believe that, fundamentally, they know what’s best for society: Their view is “trust us,” as the philosopher and technologist Ian Bogost says. And of course, it’s a redistributionist view that leaves their political power intact. Workers getting handouts from a small coterie of stratospherically wealthy 1 percenters are not liable to form any sort of strong counterweight to the power of tech giants. The vision is, in essence, that of a digital-age version of the robber baron.
Minecraft, these kids found, was a world where being able to build cool things out of logic was fun and made them impressive to the outside world. For these kids, Minecraft wasn’t just a game. It was this generation’s “personal computer,” their Commodore 64, as my friend the philosopher and game designer Ian Bogost once noted. It was the machine that let them peel back the curtain, see how digital stuff was really made, and start making it themselves. And since redstone creations often don’t work right the first time, you wind up learning the pain and pleasure of debugging, too. I’ve never seen any data on how many kids made the transition from redstone to actual programming.
Not all of them wound up in these pages, but each of their thoughts, observations, and stories helped inform all of my writing here. Along the way to writing Coders, I’ve been fortunate to talk to many brilliant folks who offered invaluable feedback and conversation. That includes Max Whitney, Fred Benenson, Tom Igoe, Michelle Tepper, Saron Yitbarek, Katrina Owens, Cathy Pearl, Tim O’Reilly, Caroline Sinders, Heather Gold, Ian Bogost, Marie Hicks, Anil Dash, Robin Sloan, danah boyd, Bret Dawson, Evan Selinger, Gary Marcus, Gabriella Coleman, Greg Baugues, Holden Karau, Jessica Lam, Karla Starr, Mike Matas, Paul Ford, Ray Ozzie, Ross Goodwin, Scott Goodson, Zeynep Tufekci, Steve Silberman, Tim Omernick, Emily Pakulski, Darius Kazemi, Cyan Banister, Craig Silverman, Chris Coyier, Chet Murthy, Chad Folwer, Brendan Eich, Lauren McCarthy, Annette Bowman, Allison Parrish, Dan Sullivan, Grant Paul, Guido van Rossum, Jens Bergensten, Mark Otto, Mitch Altman, Peter Skomoroch, Jimoh Ovbiagele and all the hackers at Ross Intelligence, Rob Graham, Steve Klabnik, Rob Liguori, Adam D’Angelo, Belle Cooper, Dug Song, Kim Zetter, David Silva, Sam Lang, Ron Jeffries, Susan Tan, and John Reisig.
Evil by Design: Interaction Design to Lead Us Into Temptation by Chris Nodder
4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, game design, haute couture, Ian Bogost, jimmy wales, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, late fees, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Monty Hall problem, Netflix Prize, Nick Leeson, Occupy movement, pets.com, price anchoring, recommendation engine, Rory Sutherland, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, sunk-cost fallacy, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile
(answers.yahoo.com) Obviously, online games such as World of Warcraft also encourage closure through leveling up and collection of in-game items, but the real trick lies in turning nongame tasks into a type of game (often referred to as gamification). Cow Clicker is the ultimate abstraction of this mechanism to its basic elements. Ian Bogost, a professor at Georgia Tech, created the Cow Clicker game within Facebook as a form of social commentary on gamification, the social gaming genre (of which he is not a fan) and the reward culture that it engenders. You get a cow. You can click it. In six hours, you can click it again. Clicking earns you clicks.
(Image from bogost.com) If this doesn’t make much sense to you, you probably aren’t a Farmville, Castleville, or Cityville fan. These games, all living inside Facebook and all created by one company, Zynga, combined to produce 12 percent of Facebook’s revenue in 2011. That’s $445 million funded entirely by Facebook users clicking on things. Obviously these games have slightly more content than Cow Clicker, but to Ian Bogost’s point, they are fundamentally designed to get users to click on things, and to worry about those things sufficiently that they come back and click some more, time and time again. An added twist is that users can reduce their level of worry (about whether their crops need watering, their cows need milking, and so on) by paying for in-game items to make their lives easier.
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Electronic Commerce. ACM, 2009. McAfee 12 percent claim: McAfee SECURE Service page (mcafeesecure.com). Retrieved November 2012. Help people complete a set Codecademy coding challenge: codeyear.com/stats. Retrieved February 2012. Cow Clicker: Ian Bogost. “Cow Clicker, The Making of Obsession” (bogost.com). July 21, 2012. Retrieved November 2012. Zynga 12% of Facebook’s 2011 revenue: Facebook S1 (Initial Public Offering) filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, February 1 2012. Desire for order Light switches: “AWARE project.”
Irresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked by Adam L. Alter
Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bluma Zeigarnik, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, easy for humans, difficult for computers, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, game design, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, IKEA effect, Inbox Zero, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Richard Thaler, Robert Durst, side project, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, telemarketer
In January 2016, the FTC fined Lumos Labs, one of the largest and most successful brain-training companies, $2 million. According to the FTC, Lumos had engaged in “deceptive advertising” of its software. It was possible that Lumos’ games warded off cognitive decline, but the evidence was scant, and Lumos had overclaimed. Even if gamification works, some critics believe it should be abandoned. Ian Bogost, a game designer at Georgia Tech, spearheads this movement. In 2011, he delivered a talk at a gamification symposium at Wharton. He titled his talk “Gamification Is Bullshit.” Bogost suggested that gamification “was invented by consultants as a means to capture the wild, coveted beast that is video games and to domesticate it.”
It gives medical patients respite from pain, schoolkids relief from boredom, and gamers an excuse to donate to the needy. By merely raising the number of good outcomes in the world, gamification has value. It’s a worthwhile alternative to traditional medical care, education, and charitable giving because, in many respects, those approaches are tone-deaf to the drivers of human motivation. But Ian Bogost was also wise to illuminate the dangers of gamification. Games like FarmVille and Kim Kardashian’s Hollywood are designed to exploit human motivation for financial gain. They pit the wielder of gamification in opposition to the gamer, who becomes ensnared in the game’s irresistible net. But, as I mentioned early in this book, tech is not inherently good or bad.
Federal Trade Commission Calls Brain-Training Claims Inflated,” January 8, 2016, ALZforum, www.alzforum.org/news/community-news/game-over-federal-trade-commission-calls-brain-training-claims-inflated; but note this statement from detractors: Stanford Center on Longevity and the Max Planck Institute for Human Development, “A Consensus on the Brain Training Industry from the Scientific Community,” October 20, 2014, longevity3.stanford.edu/blog/2014/10/15/the-consensus-on-the-brain-training-industry-from-the-scientific-community; a classic paper that explains why gamification may rob people of the intrinsic drive to behave in ways that benefit them: Uri Gneezy and Aldo Rustichini, “A Fine Is a Price,” Journal of Legal Studies 29 (January 2000): 1–18. Bogost demonstrated the: On Ian Bogost and Cow Clicker: The game’s site: cowclicker.com; Bogost’s own description of the game: bogost.com/writing/blog/cow_clicker_1/; see also: Jason Tanz, “The Curse of Cow Clicker: How a Cheeky Satire Became a Hit Game,” Wired, December 20, 2011, www.wired.com/2011/12/ff_cowclicker/all/1; interview with Bogost: NPR, “Cow Clicker Founder: If You Can’t Ruin It, Destroy It,” November 18, 2011, www.npr.org/2011/11/18/142518949/cow-clicker-founder-if-you-cant-ruin-it-destroy-it.
Marx at the Arcade: Consoles, Controllers, and Class Struggle by Jamie Woodcock
4chan, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, anti-work, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, butterfly effect, call centre, collective bargaining, Columbine, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, John Conway, Kickstarter, Landlord’s Game, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microaggression, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Oculus Rift, pink-collar, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Steve Bannon, union organizing, unpaid internship, V2 rocket
In terms of console games, this means understanding the determining effects of the “console game’s platform-dependent nature,” including the limitations of the hardware, software, game controllers, and graphical user interfaces. These standardize the game production process, closing down possibilities of the kinds of games that are commissioned and made. As Ian Bogost has explained, “These confines both facilitate and limit discursive production, just as the rules of natural languages bound poetry and the rules of optics bound photography.”50 The result is “two clearly discernible, complementary formatting strategies” for AAA games. The first is franchising, with regular serialization tied into publishing frameworks to maximize revenue.
They discovered that “more boys were playing video games than girls,” and as a result, “video games were about to be reinvented.”6 Videogame marketing and advertising became increasingly gendered—one obvious example is Nintendo’s decision to name its handheld videogame console the “Game Boy.” It was also evident in the way videogame protagonists and characters were advertised. Ian Bogost argues that Nintendo’s shift in the 1980s was a first key step that set the stage for “what we now call ‘dude-bro’ games happening in the early ’90s.”7 A 1998 ad that Sony ran for the PlayStation serves as an example of this second phase: A grown man sits in a movie theater with his girlfriend.
How to Do Nothing by Jenny Odell
Airbnb, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Burning Man, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Filter Bubble, full employment, gig economy, Google Earth, Ian Bogost, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Minecraft, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Port of Oakland, Results Only Work Environment, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, source of truth, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration
As Oliver Leistert puts it in “The Revolution Will Not Be Liked,” for social media companies, “the public sphere is an historically elapsed phase from the twentieth century they now exploit for their own interests by simulating it.”16 * * * — WRITING IN THE ATLANTIC about a nascent decentralized network called Scuttlebutt, Ian Bogost gives us an image for this absurd situation: “Facebook and Twitter are only like water coolers if there were one, giant, global water cooler for all workplaces everywhere.”17 Dissatisfaction with this standard-issue water cooler has fueled the movement toward a decentralized web, which instead of private companies and servers makes use of peer-to-peer networks and open-source software.
Nextdoor, “Advertising on Nextdoor”: https://ads.nextdoor.com/. 16. Oliver Leistert, “The Revolution Will Not Be Liked: On the Systemic Constraints of Corporate Social Media Platforms for Protests,” in Critical Perspectives on Social Media and Protest: Between Control and Emancipation (London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015), 41. 17. Ian Bogost, “Meet the Nomad Who’s Exploding the Internet Into Pieces,” The Atlantic, May 22, 2017: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2017/05/meet-the-counterantidisintermediationists/527553/. 18. Sudo Room, “Sudo Mesh”: https://sudoroom.org/wiki/Mesh. 19. People’s Open, “About”: https://peoplesopen.net/about/. 20.
Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman
23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, disinformation, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, you are the product, Zipcar
Facebook is a literal manifestation of the social factory. We do the work, by clicking, writing, posting, giving over our content, data, and attention. This work is diffused throughout our society, through our day jobs and entertainment and most basic communications. We might not even realize it’s work. The writer and game designer Ian Bogost describes this form of always-on but rarely acknowledged labor as “hyperemployment”: “We do tiny bits of work for Google, for Tumblr, for Twitter, all day and every day.” It’s enough to make one think that platform owners don’t do much at all. In digital serfdom, the digital lords appear to be little more than caretakers fattening themselves on our data production.
We’ve learned to deal with information overload by denying its existence or adopting it as a sociocultural value, sprinkled with a bit of the martyrdom of the Protestant work ethic. It’s a badge of honor now to be too busy, always flooded with to-do items. It’s a problem that comes with success, which is why we’re willing to spend so much time online, engaging in, as Ian Bogost called it, hyperemployment. There’s an inherent dissonance to all this, a dialectic that becomes part of how we enact the informational appetite. We ping-pong between binge-watching television and swearing off new media for rustic retreats. We lament our overflowing in-boxes but strive for “in-box zero”—temporary mastery over tools that usually threaten to overwhelm us.
“Craigslist Revenue, Profits Soar.” Aim Group. April 30, 2010. aimgroup.com/2010/04/30/craigslist-revenue-profits-soar. 264 “social factory”: Mark Andrejevic. “Estranged Free Labor.” In Digital Labor: The Internet as Playground and Factory. Trebor Scholz, ed. New York: Routledge, 2013, 159. 264 “We do tiny bits of work”: Ian Bogost. “Hyperemployment, or the Exhausting Work of the Technology User.” Atlantic. Nov. 8, 2013. theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/11/hyperemployment-or-the-exhausting-work-of-the-technology-user/281149. 265 “We do the work”: Will Oremus. “Facebookers of the World, Unite!” Slate. May 3, 2013. slate.com/articles/technology/books/2013/05/jaron_lanier_s_who_owns_the_future_review_facebookers_of_the_world_unite.single.html. 268 Resurgence of flânerie: Evgeny Morozov.
The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing Extremism by David Golumbia
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, currency peg, distributed ledger, Dogecoin, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Ian Bogost, jimmy wales, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Modern Monetary Theory, Money creation, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart contracts, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks
Written between fresh ideas and finished books, Forerunners draws on scholarly work initiated in notable blogs, social media, conference plenaries, journal articles, and the synergy of academic exchange. This is gray literature publishing: where intense thinking, change, and speculation take place in scholarship. Ian Bogost The Geek’s Chihuahua: Living with Apple Andrew Culp Dark Deleuze Grant Farred Martin Heidegger Saved My Life David Golumbia The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing Extremism Gary Hall The Uberfication of the University John Hartigan Aesop’s Anthropology: A Multispecies Approach Mark Jarzombek Digital Stockholm Syndrome in the Post-Ontological Age Nicholas A.
The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game
Robin Wauters, “Google Flags Whole Internet as Malware,” TechCrunch, January 31, 2009, www.techcrunch.com; “Search Is Too Important to Leave to One Company—Even Google,” www.guardian.co.uk, June 1, 2009; Liz Robbins, “Google Error Sends Warning Worldwide,” New York Times, January 31, 2009; Ian Bogost, “Cascading Failure: The Unseen Power of Google’s Malware Detection,” Ian Bogost, blog, June 12, 2009, www.bogost.com/blog; Jonathan Zittrain, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008). 7. Barry Schwartz, “First Google Image Result for Michelle Obama Pure Racist,” Search Engine Round Table, November 13, 2009, www.seroundtable.com/ archives/021162.html; David Colker, “Google Won’t Exclude Distorted Michelle Obama Image from Its Site,” Los Angeles Times, November 25, 2009; Judit BarIlan, “Web Links and Search Engine Ranking: The Case of Google and the Query ‘Jew’,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 57, no. 12 (2006): 1581. 8.
The Smart Wife: Why Siri, Alexa, and Other Smart Home Devices Need a Feminist Reboot by Yolande Strengers, Jenny Kennedy
"side hustle", active measures, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, game design, gender pay gap, Grace Hopper, hive mind, Ian Bogost, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, Milgram experiment, Minecraft, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Turing test, Wall-E, women in the workforce
Apple’s guidelines for Siri’s programming saw her responses explicitly rewritten to ensure she would say that she is in favor of “equality,” while never directly taking a stance on feminism. Explaining the decision, the guidelines state that “Siri should be guarded when dealing with potentially controversial content.”82 Feminism is indeed a controversial topic, especially when smart wives are involved. As professor of interactive computing and game designer Ian Bogost observes in his critique of Alexa’s feminist declaration, “It’s disingenuous to celebrate building ‘feminism’ into a product after giving a robot servant a woman’s voice.”83 Bergen makes a similar point about Siri, who she argues is “programmed to play the part of a neoliberal commodity.” Siri regularly reassures her users that she’s “not at all oppressed.”
Emily Chang, Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys’ Club of Silicon Valley (New York: Portfolio, 2018); Sarah Myers West, Meredith Whittaker, and Kate Crawford, Discriminating Systems: Gender, Race, and Power in AI (New York: AI Now Institute, 2019), https://ainowinstitute.org/discriminatingsystems.pdf. 81. Ian Bogost, “Sorry, Alexa Is Not a Feminist,” Atlantic, January 24, 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/01/sorry-alexa-is-not-a-feminist/551291/. 82. Alex Hern, “Apple Made Siri Deflect Questions on Feminism, Leaked Papers Reveal,” Guardian, September 6, 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/sep/06/apple-rewrote-siri-to-deflect-questions-about-feminism. 83.
Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford
1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration
Sometimes, what you are doing when you drive your car isn’t very well captured by the term “transportation,” which suggests a simple point-to-point goal to be achieved with maximum efficiency. Such simplifications have always been the price paid for bringing new domains under technocratic control. Ian Bogost offers a convincing thought experiment about the terms on which the public will have access to roads as public infrastructure comes to be financed and planned by partnerships between municipalities and tech companies. “It’s easy to imagine that cross-town transit might soon require acceptance of non-negotiable terms of service that would allow your robocar provider to aggregate and sell where you go, when, with whom, and for what purpose.”
In November 2017 in Automotive News, Bob Lutz, the head of GM, suggested that driving will be outlawed in twenty years. Bob Lutz, “Kiss the Good Times Goodbye,” Automotive News, November 5, 2017, http://www.autonews.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20171105/INDUSTRY_REDESIGNED/171109944/industry-redesigned-bob-lutz. 7.Ian Bogost, “Will Robocars Kick Humans off City Streets?” Atlantic, June 23, 2016, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/06/robocars-only/488129/. 8.A. M. Glenberg and J. Hayes, “Contribution of Embodiment to Solving the Riddle of Infantile Amnesia,” Frontiers in Psychology 7 (2016), as characterized in M.
New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI by Frank Pasquale
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, decarbonisation, deskilling, digital twin, disinformation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, finite state, Flash crash, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, high net worth, hiring and firing, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, meta-analysis, Modern Monetary Theory, Money creation, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, obamacare, paradox of thrift, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, QR code, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart cities, smart contracts, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telepresence, telerobotics, The Future of Employment, Therac-25, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing test, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, wage slave, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero day
Authoritarian propaganda has flooded news feeds and search results.16 Facebook may disclaim responsibility for the spread of stories falsely claiming that the Pope endorsed Donald Trump or that Hillary Clinton is a Satanist.17 Yet it has only taken on more responsibility for running political campaigns since then. As Alexis Madrigal and Ian Bogost have reported, “The company encourages advertisers to hand over the reins entirely, letting Facebook allot spending among ads, audiences, schedules, and budgets.”18 It also experiments with the content and appearance of ads. At some point, the AI is less finding audiences than creating them, less the conduit of a message than a coauthor of the message itself.
Guardian, December 17, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/dec/17/holocaust-deniers-google-search-top-spot. 17. Sydney Schaedel, “Did the Pope Endorse Trump?” FactCheck.org, October 24, 2016, http://www.factcheck.org/2016/10/did-the-pope-endorse-trump/; Dan Evon, “Spirit Cooking,” Snopes, November 5, 2016, http://www.snopes.com/john-podesta-spirit-cooking/. 18. Ian Bogost and Alexis C. Madrigal, “How Facebook Works for Trump,” Atlantic, April 18, 2020, at https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2020/04/how-facebooks-ad-technology-helps-trump-win/606403/. For YouTube analysis by engineer Guillaume Chaslot, see Paul Lewis, “ ‘Fiction is Outperforming Reality’: How YouTube’s Algorithm Distorts Truth,” Guardian, February 2, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/feb/02/how-youtubes-algorithm-distorts-truth. 19.
What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman
agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, global pandemic, Google Glasses, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K
BART KOSKO Thinking Machines = Old Algorithms on Faster Computers JULIA CLARKE The Disadvantages of Metaphor MICHAEL MCCULLOUGH A Universal Basis for Human Dignity HAIM HARARI Thinking About People Who Think Like Machines HANS HALVORSON Metathinking CHRISTINE FINN The Value of Anticipation DIRK HELBING An Ecosystem of Ideas JOHN TOOBY The Iron Law of Intelligence MAXIMILIAN SCHICH Thought-Stealing Machines SATYAJIT DAS Unintended Consequences ROBERT SAPOLSKY It Depends ATHENA VOULOUMANOS Will Machines Do Our Thinking for Us? BRIAN CHRISTIAN Sorry to Bother You BENJAMIN K. BERGEN Moral Machines LAURENCE C. SMITH After the Plug Is Pulled GIULIO BOCCALETTI Monitoring and Managing the Planet IAN BOGOST Panexperientialism AUBREY DE GREY When Is a Minion Not a Minion? MICHAEL I. NORTON Not Buggy Enough THOMAS A. BASS More Funk, More Soul, More Poetry and Art HANS ULRICH OBRIST The Future Is Blocked to Us KOO JEONG-A An Immaterial Thinkable Machine RICHARD FOREMAN Baffled and Obsessed RICHARD H.
We have almost 7 billion thinking machines on this planet already, but for the most part they don’t seem terribly concerned with how sustainable their life on this planet actually is. Few can see the whole picture in ways that make sense to them, and those who do are often limited in their ability to respond. Adding cognitive capacity to figure out how we fundamentally alter our relationship with the planet is a problem worth thinking about. PANEXPERIENTIALISM IAN BOGOST Ivan Allen College Distinguished Chair in Media Studies and Professor of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology; founding partner, Persuasive Games LLC; author, Alien Phenomenology, or What It’s Like to Be a Thing The Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) names the globally distributed projects, people, and institutions searching the cosmos for signs of intelligent life.
Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow
3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, Ian Bogost, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog
We don’t assume, for example, that someone who is going to “read and write” the language of cinema should be concerned solely with shooting and editing their own films, never watching and critically interpreting existing films. Of course, there are those who have addressed, or at least identified, this gap. Michael Mateas’s call for “procedural literacy” is an early call for a critical literacy for computational media makers . Ian Bogost’s “procedural rhetoric” draws on the history of rhetoric for a model of critically understanding and making processes . And in recent years work on critical interpretation of computing, taking the technical level seriously, has blossomed. The MIT Press has been one of the leading supporters of this, initiating new book series in both software studies and platform studies.
Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost
Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional
Of the popular books on the video game industry, Steven Poole’s Trigger Happy (2000) and Scott Cohen’s Zap! The Rise and Fall of Atari (1984) offer good historical insights. Leonard Herman’s Phoenix: The Fall and Rise of Home Videogames (1997) contains a wealth of chronologically arranged data. Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost’s Racing the Beam (2009) represents the best of the emerging scholarship on video game platform studies. Page 206“simple enough to allow”: Kemeny and Kurtz 1968, p. 225. Page 208“That would leave, say, five years”: Licklider 1960, p. 132. Page 209“variously translated as”: Fano and Corbato 1966, p. 77.
McKenney, James L., with Duncan G. Copeland and Richard Mason. 1995. Waves of Change: Business Evolution Through Information Technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Mollenhoff, Clark R. 1988. Atanasoff: Forgotten Father of the Computer. Ames: Iowa State University Press. Montfort, Nick, and Ian Bogost. 2009. Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Moody, Glyn. 2001. Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution. New York: Perseus. Moore, Gordon E. 1965. “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits.” Electronics 38 (19 April): 114–117. Moritz, Michael. 1984.
Gamification by Design: Implementing Game Mechanics in Web and Mobile Apps by Gabe Zichermann, Christopher Cunningham
Acknowledgments We want to recognize the game-design writing and work of key thinkers, including Jesse Schell’s The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses (Morgan Kaufmann), Jon Radoff’s Game On (Wiley), and Ralph Koster’s A Theory of Fun for Game Design (Paraglyph Press). We are also lucky to have been able to access and distill the insights of Sebastian Deterding, Susan Bonds, Jane McGonigal, Amy Jo Kim, Ian Bogost, Nick Fortugno, Nicole Lazzaro, Rajat Paharia, Kris Duggan, Keith Smith, and Tim Chang. And a special thanks to the folks at Badgeville who sponsored Chapter 8, providing insight into their groundbreaking product, as well as practical coding and design tips that can be used in any implementation.
The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, Ian Bogost, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
Joshua Driggs aka ZapWizard, “The Real Wood iPod,” available at <http://www.macmod.com/content/view/363/101/>. 25 . There has long been a split in the literature on gaming between narratologists, who emphasize the “stories” that video games generate, and the ludologists, who concentrate on game play as primary. See Ian Bogost, Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006), 68. 26 . The sixth chapter of R. Buckminster Fuller’s Critical Path (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981) is devoted to the world game, and the Buckminster Fuller Institute maintains a page on its cite with numerous resources, available at <http://www.bﬁ.org/our_programs/who_is_buckminster_fuller/design_science/ world_game>.
Humankind: Solidarity With Nonhuman People by Timothy Morton
a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, David Brooks, Georg Cantor, gravity well, Ian Bogost, invisible hand, means of production, megacity, microbiome, phenotype, planetary scale, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, Turing test, wage slave, zero-sum game
Nicolas Shumway, Dean of Humanities at Rice, deserves a special mention for his untiring belief in what I do. I’m forever in his debt. So many people shared thoughts and suggestions, kindness and support. Among them were Blaise Agüera y Arcas, Heitham Al-Sayed, Ian Balfour, Andrew Battaglia, Anna Bernagozzi, Daniel Birnbaum, Ian Bogost, Tanya Bonakdar, Marcus Boon, Dominic Boyer, David Brooks, Alex Cecchetti, Stephen Cairns, Eric Cazdyn, Ian Cheng, Kari Conte, Carolyn Deby, Nigel Clark, Juliana Cope, Laura Copelin, Annie Culver, Sarah Ellenzweig, Olafur Eliasson, Anna Engberg, Jane Farver, Dirk Felleman, João Florêncio, Mark Foster Gage, Peter Gershon, Hazel Gibson, Jóga Jóhannsdóttir, Jón Gnarr, Kathelin Gray, Sofie Grettve, Lizzy Grindy, Björk Guðmundsdóttir, Zora Hamsa, Graham Harman, Rosemary Hennessy, Erich Hörl, Emily Houlik-Ritchey, Cymene Howe, Edouard Isar, Luke Jones, Toby Kamps, Greg Lindquist, Annie Lowe, Ingrid Luquet-Gad, Karsten Lund, Boyan Manchev, Kenric McDowell, Tracy Moore, Rick Muller, Jean-Luc Nancy, Judy Natal, Patricia Noxolo, Hans Ulrich Obrist, Genesis P-Orridge, Solveig Øvstebø, Andrea Pagnes, Albert Pope, Asad Raza, Alexander Regier, Ben Rivers, Judith Roof, David Ruy, Mark Schmanko, Sabrina Scott, Nicolas Shumway, Solveig Sigurðardóttir, Emilija Škarnulytė, Gayatri Spivak, Haim Steinbach, Verena Stenke, Samuel Stoeltje, Susan Sutton, Jeff VanderMeer, Lucas van der Velden, Teodora Vikstrom, Jennifer Walshe, Sarah Whiting, Clint Wilson, Tom Wiscombe, Susanne Witzgall, Cary Wolfe, Annette Wolfsberger, Hyesoo Woo, Martyn Woodward, Els Woudstra and Jonas Žukauskas.
Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet
augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, Ian Bogost, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons
Online: http://www.markbernstein.org/elements/atzenbeck.pdf (accessed March 2012). Bernstein, Mark, Jay David Bolter, Michael Joyce and Elli Mylonas. 1991. ‘Architectures for Volatile Hypertexts’. In Hypertext ’91 Proceedings, edited by John J. Leggett, 243–60. San Antonio: ACM. Bogost, Ian. 2010. ‘Cow Clicker: The Making of an Obsession’. Ian Bogost Blog, 21 July. Online: http://www.bogost.com/blog/cow_clicker_1.shtml (accessed March 2012). Bolter, Jay David. 1984. Turing’s Man: Western Culture in the Computer Age. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. . 1985. ‘The Idea of Literature in the Electronic Medium’. Topic 39: 23–34. . 1991.
The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Carvin, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Ian Bogost, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Seymour Hersh, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
My two long-suffering business partners, Joshua Wachs and Justin Pinder, have taken many risks to make this book happen, and for that I am grateful. And then there were all the people who took time out of their day to let me interview them, including but not limited to: Adrian Arroyo, Kieran Brenner, Ian Bogost, Rodney Cocks, Anthony DeRosa, Andy Eggers, Pete Forsyth, Katie Goodwin & Chris Francis, Neal Gorenflo, Brian Halligan, Ben Kaufman, Matt Macdonald, Nathaniel Pearlman, Bre Pettis, Hillary Rosen, Doc Searles, Michael Silberman, Maria Thomas, Mark Walsh, and David Weinberger. A preemptive thank you to Dick Auletta and his team at R.
An Ugly Truth: Inside Facebook's Battle for Domination by Sheera Frenkel, Cecilia Kang
affirmative action, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, immigration reform, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, QAnon, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Sam Altman, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social web, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, surveillance capitalism, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks
Stamos was Yahoo’s information security officer: Arik Hesseldahl, “Yahoo to Name TrustyCon Founder Alex Stamos as Next Chief Information Security Officer,” Vox, February 28, 2014. 7. he discovered that the vulnerability: Joseph Menn, “Yahoo Scanned Customer Emails for U.S. Intelligence,” Reuters, October 4, 2016. 8. “Russia, if you’re listening”: Michael S. Schmidt, “Trump Invited the Russians to Hack Clinton. Were They Listening?,” New York Times, July 13, 2018. 9. his campaign was busily buying up millions: Ian Bogost and Alexis C. Madrigal, “How Facebook Works for Trump,” Atlantic, April 17, 2020. 10. Over the last few years, the campaigns: Davey Alba, “How Duterte Used Facebook to Fuel the Philippine Drug War,” Buzzfeed News, September 4, 2018. 11. The Fancy Bear hackers had stolen: Ben Chapman, “George Soros Documents Published ‘by Russian Hackers’ say US Security Services,” Independent, August 15, 2016. 12. in November 2015, Russia’s Office of the Prosecutor-General: Jennifer Ablan, “Russia Bans George Soros Foundation as State Security ‘Threat’,” Reuters, November 30, 2015.
Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner
Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, creative destruction, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, different worldview, digital map, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Ian Bogost, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory
French, “Historical Overview of Automobile Navigation Technology,” Proceedings of the Thirty-Sixth IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1986), 350–8. 121 Nolan Bushnell: Alexis C. Madrigal, “Chuck E. Cheese’s, Silicon Valley Startup: The Origins of the Best Pizza Chain Ever,” Atlantic, July 17, 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/07/chuck-e-cheeses-silicon-valley-startup-the-origins-of-the-best-pizza-chain-ever/277869/; Ian Bogost, “Persuasion and Gamespace,” in Space Time Play: Computer Games, Architecture and Urbanism: The Next Level, edited by Friedrich von Boories, Steffen P. Walz, and Matthias Böttger, 304–11 (Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser, 2007). 124 If a team were building a robot: Benjamin J. Kuipers, “The Cognitive Map: Could It Have Been Any Other Way?”
All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How Fifty Years of Video Games Conquered Pop Culture by Harold Goldberg
activist lawyer, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple II, cellular automata, Columbine, Conway's Game of Life, G4S, game design, Ian Bogost, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Oldenburg, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning
Uncharted 2: Among Thieves, with its nineteenth-century penny dreadful influence on a story surrounding Marco Polo’s lost treasure, let you feel as though you were in a melodramatic movie with all the spills and thrills of an Indiana Jones adventure. So these are more than toys, as educator and game designer Ian Bogost suggests in his book Persuasive Games. Games can have their own kind of rhetoric—not oratory, but a procedural rhetoric that lures us into thinking and changing our points of view. So-called serious games with low budgets are used in politics, education, and medicine not to make money or to be played by millions.
Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee
4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Bill Atkinson, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, disinformation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, Ian Bogost, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The future is already here, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War
Even after the first salvo of press appearances by Zuck and Sheryl, the pressure on Facebook continued to grow. On March 21, a Facebook user filed a proposed class action lawsuit in San Jose, California. That same day, this showed up on Twitter: On March 22, a game designer by the name of Ian Bogost published a piece in The Atlantic titled, “My Cow Game Extracted Your Facebook Data.” For a spell during 2010 and 2011, I was a virtual rancher of clickable cattle on Facebook. . . . Facebook’s IPO hadn’t yet taken place, and its service was still fun to use—although it was littered with requests and demands from social games, like FarmVille and Pet Society.
Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language by Gretchen McCulloch
4chan, book scanning, British Empire, citation needed, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flynn Effect, Google Hangouts, Ian Bogost, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, moral panic, multicultural london english, natural language processing, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, the strength of weak ties, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2012/04/14/technology/instagram-founders-were-helped-by-bay-area-connections.html. a new format for posts: Robinson Meyer. August 3, 2016. “Why Instagram ‘Borrowed’ Stories from Snapchat.” The Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/08/cameras-with-constraints/494291/. Ian Bogost. May 3, 2018. “Why ‘Stories’ Took Over Your Smartphone.” The Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/05/smartphone-stories-snapchat-instagram-facebook/559517/. “Third place conversation”: Ray Oldenburg. 1989. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day.
Custodians of the Internet: Platforms, Content Moderation, and the Hidden Decisions That Shape Social Media by Tarleton Gillespie
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, borderless world, Burning Man, complexity theory, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, game design, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, Internet Archive, Jean Tirole, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Minecraft, moral panic, multi-sided market, Netflix Prize, Network effects, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, Rubik’s Cube, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, two-sided market, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler
; Reagle, Good Faith Collaboration. 63Greg Seals, “Facebook Tells Drag Queens to Use Their Legal Names or Risk Losing Their Profiles,” Daily Dot, September 11, 2014, http://www.dailydot.com/lifestyle/facebook-demands-drag-queens-change-names/; Lingel and Gillespie, “One Name to Rule Them All.” 64Chris Cox, Facebook, October 1, 2014, https://www.facebook.com/chris.cox/posts/10101301777354543. 65Ibid. 66Taylor Hatmaker, “RealNamePolice and the Real Story behind Facebook’s Name Policy Fumble,” Daily Dot, October 3, 2014, http://www.dailydot.com/technology/realnamepolice-facebook-real-names-policy/. 67https://twitter.com/RealNamesBack/status/514182271687852032 (account since suspended). 68https://twitter.com/RealNamesBack/status/514167671487602689 (account since suspended). 69This suggests that Facebook probably received more flags than just those from a single individual, contrary to its apology statement. 70Hatmaker, “RealNamePolice.” 71Ben Quinn, “YouTube Staff Too Swamped to Filter Out All Terror-Related Content,” Guardian, January 28, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jan/28/youtube-too-swamped-to-filter-terror-content. 72Sam Gustin, “How Google Beat Viacom in the Landmark YouTube Copyright Case—Again,” Time, April 19, 2013, http://business.time.com/2013/04/19/how-google-beat-viacom-in-the-landmark-youtube-copyright-case-again/. 73Josh Constine, “Facebook Spares Humans by Fighting Offensive Photos with AI,” TechCrunch, May 31, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/05/31/terminating-abuse/. 74Brian Barrett, “This Algorithm Wants to Find Who’s Naked on the Internet,” Wired, June 24, 2915, http://www.wired.com/2015/06/nude-recognition-algorithmia/. 75boyd, Levy, and Marwick, “The Networked Nature of Algorithmic Discrimination”; Citron and Pasquale, “The Scored Society”; O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction; Pasquale, The Black Box Society; Shorey and Howard, “Automation, Big Data and Politics”; Tufekci, “Algorithmic Harms beyond Facebook and Google”; Zarsky, “The Trouble with Algorithmic Decisions”; Lauren Kirchner, “When Discrimination Is Baked into Algorithms,” Atlantic, September 6, 2015, https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2015/09/discrimination-algorithms-disparate-impact/403969/. 76Gillespie, “Algorithm”; Ian Bogost, “The Cathedral of Computation,” Atlantic, January 1, 2015, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/01/the-cathedral-of-computation/384300/; Steve Lohr, “Algorithms Get a Human Hand in Steering Web,” New York Times, March 10, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/11/technology/computer-algorithms-rely-increasingly-on-human-helpers.html. 77Victoria Grand (YouTube), “Making YouTube a Safer Place,” Google Europe Blog, June 22, 2009, https://europe.googleblog.com/2009/06/making-youtube-safer-place.html. 78This feature was removed once YouTube’s Safety Mode was introduced, which hides all comments.
CRISPR People by Henry T. Greely
Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, bitcoin, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Ian Bogost, Isaac Newton, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, mouse model, New Journalism, phenotype, special economic zone, stem cell, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
A good source for an understandable description of CRISPR and a history of its discovery and development can be found in Jennifer A. Doudna and Samuel H. Sternberg, A Crack in Creation: Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolution (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2017). Doudna is widely accepted as one of the crucial (nonbacterial) inventors of CRISPR; Sternberg was her graduate student. 2. Ian Bogost, “CRISPR Has a Terrible Name,” The Atlantic, April 2017, https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/04/why-does-a-transformativebiotechnology-sound-like-a-cereal-bar/522639. 3. Y. Ishino, H. Shinagawa, K. Makino, et al., “Nucleotide Sequence of the iap Gene, Responsible for Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzyme Conversion in Escherichia coli, and Identification of the Gene Product,” Journal of Bacteriology 169, no. 12 (1987): 5429–5433, https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.169.12.5429-5433.1987. 4.
The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff
algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, disinformation, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, Ian Bogost, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck, Yochai Benkler, you are the product
Typically, this involves importing a few components, such as reward points and levels of advancement, in order to engineer behaviors that serve the company’s immediate interests, with programs such as customer loyalty schemes or internal sales competitions. One analyst compiled a survey of more than ninety such “gamification cases,” complete with return-on-investment statistics.35 Ian Bogost, a professor of interactive computing at Georgia Tech and a digital culture observer, insists that these systems should be called “exploitationware” rather than games because their sole aim is behavior manipulation and modification.36 Pokémon Go takes these capabilities in a wholly new direction, running game players through the real world, but not for the sake of the game they think they are playing.
., “Gamification for Behavior Change: Lessons from Developing a Social, Multiuser, Web-Tablet Based Prevention Game for Youths,” Journal of Technology in Human Services 31, no. 3 (2013): 197–217, https://doi.org/10.1080/15228835.2013.812512. 35. Yu-kai Chou, “A Comprehensive List of 90+ Gamification Cases with ROI Stats,” Yu-Kai Chou: Gamification & Behavioral Design, January 23, 2017, http://yukaichou.com/gamification-examples/gamification-stats-figures. 36. Ian Bogost, “Persuasive Games: Exploitationware,” Gamasutra, May 3, 2011, http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/134735/persuasive_games_exploita tionware.php; Adam Alter, Irresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked (New York: Penguin, 2017). 37. Jessica Conditt, “The Pokémon Go Plus Bracelet Is Great for Grinding,” Engadget, September 17, 2016, https://www.engadget.com/2016/09/17/pokemon-go-plus-hands-on; Sarah E.
Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andy Carvin, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, compensation consultant, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Ian Bogost, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The future is already here, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, the strength of weak ties, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise
That includes Tricia Wang, An Xiao Mina, Debbie Chachra, Liz Lawley, Zeynep Tufekci, Clay Shirky, Brooke Gladstone, Tom Igoe, Max Whitney, Terri Senft, Misha Tepper, Fred Kaplan, Howard Rheingold, danah boyd, Liz Lawley, Nick Bilton, Gary Marcus, Heidi Siwak, Ann Blair, Eli Pariser, Ethan Zuckerman, Ian Bogost, Fred Benenson, Heather Gold, Douglas Rushkoff, Rebecca MacKinnon, Cory Menscher, Mark Belinsky, Quinn Norton, Anil Dash, Cathy Marshall, Elizabeth Stock, Philip Howard, Denise Hand, Robin Sloan, Tim Carmody, Don Tapscott, Steven Johnson, Kevin Kelly, Nina Khosla, Laura Fitton, Jillian York, Hilary Mason, Craig Mod, Bre Pettis, Glenn Kelman, Susan Cain, Noah Schachtman, Irin Carmon, Matthew Battles, Cathy Davidson, Linda Stone, Jess Kimball, Phil Libin, Kati London, Jim Marggraff, Dan Zalewski, Sasha Nemecek, Laura Miller, Brian McNely, Duncan Watts, Kenyatta Cheese, Nora Abousteit, Deanna Zandt, David Wallis, Nick Denton, Alissa Quart, Stan James, Andrew Hearst, Gary Stager, Evan Selinger, Steven Demmler, and Vint Cerf.
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shenzhen special economic zone , Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, When a measure becomes a target, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
I’d also like to thank Mark Martin and his editorial team at Verso, for their good cheer, patience with my last-minute revisions, and indulgence of my more-than-occasional insistence on a particular way of wording things; designers Neil Donnelly and Ben Fehrman-Lee and typesetter Matt Gavan, for transforming those words into an aesthetically pleasing object; and publicists Jennifer Tighe and Wes House, for making sure people who might have an interest in that object know that it exists. Nothing is ever achieved alone, and to whatever degree that you’ve enjoyed this book, you have their labors to thank for it. I am grateful to the insight, solidarity, support and energy furnished, in various ways, by Ash Amin, Jon Ardern, Timo Arnall, John Bingham-Hall, Ian Bogost, Shumi Bose, Jaya Klara Brekke, Ricky and Mika Burdett, Alberto Corsín Jiménez, Aimee Meredith Cox, Ayona Datta, Sally Davies, Benjie de la Peña, Nicholas de Monchaux, Nigel Dodd, Nick Durrant, Warren Ellis, Nuno Ferreira da Cruz, David Faris, Daisy Froud, Andrei Goncharov, Stephen Graham, Suzi Hall, Alaina Harkness, Usman Haque, Chris Heathcote, Catarina Heeckt, Robin Howie, Sha Hwang, Tom Igoe, Anab Jain, Shanthi Kalathil, Sophia Kakembo, Michelle Kasprzak, Mike Kuniavsky, Laura Kurgan, Annie Kwon, Derek Lindner, David Madden, Adrian McEwen, Justin McGuirk, Ana Méndez de Andés, Michal Migurski, Dietmar Offenhuber, Frank Pasquale, Bre Pettis, Lucia Pietroiusti, Alison Powell, Pamela Puchalski, Jack Linchuan Qiu, Philipp Rode, Saskia Sassen, Gaia Scagnetti, Fred Scharmen, Jack Schulze, Susan Wile Schwarz, Brett Scott, Richard Sennett, Steven Shaviro, Jonathan Silver, Stavros Stavrides, Cordy Swope, Rena Tom, Shan Vahidy, Tricia Wang, Gill Wildman, Amanda Marisa Williams, Sarah Williams, Jillian C.
The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Ian Bogost, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, Savings and loan crisis, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game
Drone Strikes,” Mashable, February 7, 2014, http://mashable .com /2014 /02/07/apple-app-tracks-drone-strikes/. 248 NOTES TO PAGES 63–64 28. Benjamin Poynter, in an interview with GameScenes (transcript posted Oct. 2012). Available at http://www.gamescenes.org/2012/10/interview.html. On persuasive gaming generally, see Ian Bogost, Persuasive Games (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007). 29. Yves Smith, “Wired’s Embarrassing Whitewash of Foxconn,” Naked Capitalism (blog), February 8, 2012, http://www.nakedcapitalism.com /2012/02 /wireds-embarrassing-whitewash-of-foxconn.html. 30. There is a pattern here; “Sweatshop HD was removed from Apple’s store because it was uncomfortable with the re- creation of a sweatshop.”
Gamers at Work: Stories Behind the Games People Play by Morgan Ramsay, Peter Molyneux
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bill Atkinson, Bob Noyce, collective bargaining, Colossal Cave Adventure, game design, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, index card, Mark Zuckerberg, oil shock, pirate software, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Von Neumann architecture
I would recognize many people for their time, insight, and/or willingness to make introductions: Al Lowe, Alan Wasserman, Andy Schatz, Brenda Brathwaite, Casey Wardynski, Cathy Campos, Cory Ondrejka, David Edery, David Perry, Doug Whatley, Erin Hoffman, Gabe Newell, Genevieve Waldman, Greg Zeschuk, Greta Melinchuk, Guy Kawasaki, Hal Halpin, Ian Bogost, Jane Cavanagh, Jason Della Rocca, Jason Kay, Jeff Braun, Jim Buck, John Romero, Joseph Olin, Justin Berenbaum, Kellee Santiago, Ken Dopher, Kristina Kirk, Mark Friedler, Matt Shores, Megan Tiernan, Mike Capps, Mike Morhaime, Nancy Carlston, Pam Pearlman, Randy Pitchford, Raph Koster, Ray Muzyka, Richard Bartle, Rodolfo Rosini, Sam Ford, Shon Damron, Sue Coldwell, Suzanne Goodman, Tawnya Barrett, and Tim Schafer.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Biosphere 2, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, functional programming, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kim Stanley Robinson, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
Software Studies Matthew Fuller, Lev Manovich, and Noah Wardrip-Fruin, editors Expressive Processing: Digital Fictions, Computer Games, and Software Studies, Noah Wardrip-Fruin, 2009 Code/Space: Software and Everyday Life, Rob Kitchin and Martin Dodge, 2011 Programmed Visions: Software and Memory, Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, 2011 Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression, Geoff Cox and Alex McLean, 2012 10 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1));: GOTO 10, Nick Montfort, Patsy Baudoin, John Bell, Ian Bogost, Jeremy Douglass, Mark Marino, Michael Mateas, Casey Reas, Mark Sample, and Noah Vawter, 2012 The Imaginary App, Paul D. Miller and Svitlana Matviyenko, 2014 The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty, Benjamin H. Bratton, 2015 The Stack On Software and Sovereignty Benjamin H. Bratton The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts London, England © 2015 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved.