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Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
(Koolhaas) “Where the Neon Lights Are Bright—and Drivers Are No Longer Welcome” (Summers) “White Men’s Roads Through Black Men’s Homes” Slogan Whitman, Walt Whyte, William Williams, Robin Wilson, Charles Erwin Wolverine World Wide World War I Wynkoop Brewing Company Yale University Yamasaki, Minoru Yelp website Young, Brigham Zeilinski, Susan Zipcar zoning; inclusionary Zynga ALSO BY JEFF SPECK Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream (coauthor with Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk) The Smart Growth Manual (coauthor with Andres Duany) PRAISE FOR WALKABLE CITY “Brilliant and companionable … Walkable City is at once entertaining and enraging, its pages dotted with jaw-dropping statistics.” —Carlin Rosengarten, The Post and Courier (Charleston, S.C.) “Cities are the future of the human race, and Jeff Speck knows how to make them work.” —David Owen, staff writer at The New Yorker and author of Green Metropolis “It’s time to add a new name to the roll call of the city gang[,] Jeff Speck … It turns out to be exactly the right time for a down-and-dirty, step-by-step seminar on city repair—especially one conducted by as genial a presenter as Speck.” —Taras Grescoe, The Globe and Mail (Toronto) “Walkable City is an eloquent ode to the livable city and to the values behind it.”
—Paul Goldberger, Pulitzer Prize–winning architecture critic and author of Why Architecture Matters “Jeff Speck is one of the few practitioners and writers in the field who can make a 312-page book on a basic planning concept seem too short … For getting planning ideas into the thinking and the daily life of U.S. cities, this is the book.” —Planning magazine “If you’re a professional planner or advocate, Walkable City is a new, essential reference. If you’re new to the subject, there’s no better introduction.” —Angie Schmitt, Streetsblog “Jeff Speck’s brilliant and entertaining book reminds us that, in America, the exception could easily become the rule. Mayors, planners, and citizens need look no further for a powerful and achievable vision of how to make our ordinary cities great again.” —Joseph P. Riley, mayor of Charleston, S.C. “Walkable City … is a civic how-to for mayors, planners, architects, and anyone interested in the urban future … Full of insight, humor, and common sense.” —Martin C. Pedersen, Metropolis magazine “Companionable and disarmingly candid, Jeff Speck perches on your shoulder and gets you to see your community with fresh eyes.
Walking, the Urban Advantage Why Johnny Can’t Walk The Wrong Color Green II: THE TEN STEPS OF WALKABILITY The Useful Walk Step 1: Put Cars in Their Place Step 2: Mix the Uses Step 3: Get the Parking Right Step 4: Let Transit Work The Safe Walk Step 5: Protect the Pedestrian Step 6: Welcome Bikes The Comfortable Walk Step 7: Shape the Spaces Step 8: Plant Trees The Interesting Walk Step 9: Make Friendly and Unique Faces Step 10: Pick Your Winners Acknowledgments Notes Works Cited Geographic Index General Index Also by Jeff Speck Praise for Walkable City Copyright PROLOGUE This is not the next great book on American cities. That book is not needed. An intellectual revolution is no longer necessary. What characterizes the discussion on cities these days is not a wrongheadedness or a lack of awareness about what needs to be done, but rather a complete disconnect between that awareness and the actions of those responsible for the physical form of our communities.
Bulletproof Problem Solving by Charles Conn, Robert McLean
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, future of work, Hyperloop, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, iterative process, loss aversion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, nudge unit, Occam's razor, pattern recognition, pets.com, prediction markets, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, stem cell, the rule of 72, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, time value of money, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, WikiLeaks
This example is just a simple one to show how regression analysis can help you begin to understand the drivers of your problem, and perhaps to craft strategies for positive intervention at the city level. As useful as regression is in exploring our understanding, there are some pitfalls to consider: Be careful with correlation and causation. Walkable cities seem to almost always have far lower obesity rates than less walkable cities. However, we have no way of knowing from statistics alone whether city walkability is the true cause of lower obesity. Perhaps walkable cities are more expensive to live in and the real driver is higher socioeconomic status. Or perhaps healthier people move to more walkable communities. Regression models can be misleading if there are variables that we may not have accounted for in our model but that may be very important.
Cities like New York or Tokyo are good examples of walkable cities. We decided to look at walkability in 68 US cities: it is a statistically significant variable in explaining obesity differences. The relationship is that a 10% increase in walkability reduces obesity by 0.3%. For the UK, this would have impact similar to a 10% tax on high‐sugar, high‐fat products. While it is on the margin of highly cost‐effective interventions in the MGI report, it is possible that if it included higher property tax levies it could improve benefit/cost ratios. For example, in the top 30 metro areas in the United States, “walkable urban places (walkUPs) rent at a 74% higher premium/sq. ft. over drivable suburban areas,”9 suggesting that future property taxes could help fund the conversion to walkable cities. This isn't an impossible goal: The average Japanese citizen walks double the distance daily of their American counterpart.
Experiments give us a way to make our own data. There are lots of advantages to this—in particular, your competitors are sure not to have your data. Let's take a look at two types of experiments that have become popular in the corporate world. Randomized controlled experiments allow us to test a change in one variable while controlling for all other variables. As we saw in the obesity example above, maybe it's not a feature of walkable cities themselves that makes people less obese. Maybe people who are already healthy tend to move to cities that are walkable because they like to walk. Experiments avoid this kind of potential mistake in understanding causality. But they're often hard to execute in practice. We can't easily make a city more pedestrian friendly and compare it to another city. But when we can set up a good experiment, they can have great explanatory power.
City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar
And you will learn as well, tapping into the data you and your city are working together to collect. This collaboration will weave an intelligence into the urban experience that improves life in remarkable ways. The city will be not only smarter but also better. Thousands of people walk daily along La Rambla, the leafy three-quarter-mile pedestrian mall in Barcelona, Spain. Image: nito/Shutterstock Walkable cities Why redesigning our communities around walking is the best medicine By Jeff Speck The best day to be a city planner in America was July 9, 2004 — the day Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson published their book Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. Until that day, the main arguments for building more pedestrian-friendly cities were principally aesthetic and social.
This is due partly to diet but partly to planning: The methodical eradication from our communities of the useful walk — daily destinations reachable on foot — has helped to create the least-active generation in American history. This insult is compounded by the very real injuries that result from car crashes — the greatest killer of children and young adults nationwide — as well as an asthma epidemic tied directly to vehicle exhaust. Comparison of walkable cities versus auto-dependent suburbs yields some eye-opening statistics; for example, transit users are more than three times as likely as drivers to achieve their CDC-recommended 30 minutes of daily physical activity.1 Increasingly, it is becoming clear that the American health care crisis is largely an urban design crisis, with walkability at the heart of the cure. The obesity bomb In any discussion about American health (and health care), obesity has to be front and center.
Nate Berg is a Los Angeles-based writer covering cities, science, and design. He’s a former staff writer at the Atlantic Cities, and his work has appeared in publications such as the New York Times, Wired, Discover, Fast Company, and Domus. Find more of his work at nate-berg.com. Jeff Speck, former director of design at the National Endowment for the Arts, is a city planner based in Washington, D.C. His book, Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time, was published in 2012 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux. John Metcalfe is a staff writer at the Atlantic Cities who lives in San Francisco. He has written for the New York Times, Seattle Weekly, and Washington City Paper. Before taking on his current urban-affairs beat, he covered weather and climate change for a Virginia TV station. Rebecca Sanborn Stone works to connect citizens, practitioners, and leaders building stronger communities and to provide them with the ideas and resources they need to create change.
Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game
For my neighbors that work multiple part-time jobs at or near minimum wage – and I’ve now met many of them – even being late has ramifications. Jeff Speck, author of Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time, describes a good walk as one that is “useful, safe, comfortable, and interesting.” As I ponder how these four elements in what Jeff calls his “General Theory of Walkability” apply to my town, I recognize how despotic for people not in an automobile we have made this formerly walkable place. That the change has come at such a great cost to our financial health and prosperity only makes it more disturbing. Financial realities demand that we make our cities more walkable, but it seems more than possible that this act will also make our lives better in unpredictable ways. As Speck suggests in Walkable City: We must understand that the walkable city is not just a nice, idealistic notion. Rather, it is a simple, practical-minded solution to a host of complex problems that we face as a society, problems that daily undermine our nation’s economic competitiveness, public welfare, and environmental sustainability.2 In fairly simple and straightforward ways, we can improve the financial health of our cities while improving people’s lives.
Our cities are struggling financially, trapped in a system grinding them into decline. Working together in an intentional way, it is possible to make our places stronger financially while also improving the lives of people. That is the essence of a Strong Towns approach, the bottom-up revolution America desperately needs. Notes 1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5278644/. 2 Jeff Speck, Walkable City (New York: North Point Press, 2012). 3 Bill Bishop, The Big Sort (New York: Mariner Books, 2009). 4 Jonathan Haidt, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Religion and Politics (New York: Vintage Books, 2012). 5 Patrick J. Deneen, Why Liberalism Failed (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2018). 6 Jonathan Haidt, The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Religion and Politics (New York: Vintage Books, 2012). 7 Sebastian Junger, Tribe (New York: Hachette Book Group, 2016). 8 Ibid.
., 126–127 Urban3, 138, 140, 142, 161 U.S.dollar, as basis for trade, 90–91 Use-based codes, 193–194 V Value: of infrastructure, 70 Value capture approach, 76–77 Value per acre analysis, 135, 138–144 determining productivity with, 138–142 of high-productivity neighborhoods, 150–151 for Lafayette, Louisiana, 141–144 and personal preferences, 144–145 of small businesses, 162 W Walkability: “General Theory of Walkability,” 206 improving, in Shreveport, 220 Walkable City, How Downtown Can Save America One Step at a Time (Speck), 206 Walking: in communities, 203–206 finding gaps in cities by, 160 human habitats build around, 1, 2 in suburbs, 111–112 Walmart, financial productivity of, 139–140, 139t Walt Disney Corporation, 151 Washington, George, 108 Watches, 11 Wealth: growth vs., 102–104 illusion of, 57–60 Wealth creation, in place-oriented government, 176–180, 177t–179t White flight, 111 Why Liberalism Failed (Deneen), 211 Whyte, William “Holly,” 158 Wikipedia, 196 Women, in workplace, 95–96 The World Until Yesterday (Diamond), 58, 84 World War I, 86–87 World War II: confirmation bias of Pacific Islanders after, 183–185 economic stability following, 89–91 Z Zoning: and changes in building use, 137 as constraint on growth, 167–168 and neighborhoods, 21 neighborhoods atrophied by, 163 and urban renewal, 117 WILEY END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley’s ebook EULA.
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
The waterfront road along the Hudson River, the site of the former West Side Highway near where I lived, was a jumble of dilapidated piers and parking lots, and the way there was littered with broken glass and crack vials. There was little attention given to the way the streets looked or felt. New Yorkers were desperately hanging on, trying to survive, not thinking about how these streets—the greatest asset in one of the world’s most walkable cities—could be used. Even then I was certain New York’s streets had more to offer. I came to the job of commissioner twenty-six years after Robert Moses’s death in a city that Moses might still have recognized. Moses saw in New York a city struggling to modernize and weighed down by its past. And more than anyone before or since, Moses had the means, the power, and the motivation to do something about it.
They are the front yards for city dwellers, as important as any suburban lawn. Whether neighborhood sidewalks or commercial corridors like Fordham Road in the Bronx, Nostrand Avenue in Brooklyn, Victory Boulevard on Staten Island, Flatbush Avenue in Brooklyn, or the warren of narrow streets in Manhattan’s Chinatown and Little Italy—these in-between places are a stage for New Yorkers, the urban filament where people sense and connect to the city’s energy. In walkable cities, sidewalk design can encourage walking by creating opportunities for things to do and see along the way. This could be shopping, eating, or clustering services in a particular area, which can enhance connectivity and eliminate the need for cars to run multiple errands. And sidewalk life isn’t just about movement. In a kind of urban koan on New York City’s streets, people sitting on fire hydrants and leaning on light poles, buildings, and railings daily make a silent but profound statement: there is no place on our streets and sidewalks to stop and do nothing.
Many people see their private vehicles as a means of liberation, but the less romantic counterpart to our Jack Kerouac fantasy is that cars sit idle upwards of 95 percent of the time and don’t disappear when not actively used. They require real estate. And whether totally free or metered at far below market rates, city parking consumes as much real estate in many cities as sidewalks or parkland. “Parking covers more acres of urban America than any other one thing,” Jeff Speck writes in Walkable City, referring to a study that found 500 million parking spaces are empty in the nation at any given moment. Huge swaths of city centers in places like Buffalo, Detroit, Hartford, Tulsa, and St. Louis have as much, if not more, acreage turned over to parking lots than to human activity. In many cities, private parking itself is a countervailing force to development, with parking “craters”—massive tracts of open-air parking lots in downtown areas—sucking away density, eroding the streetscape, and making urban centers feel as lifeless as, well, an empty parking lot.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
I made the mistake of trading in my ’60 Chevy for a very cool ’64 Pontiac Grand Prix with white bucket seats. Turns out I wasn’t the only one who thought it was cool. Within a year, it was stolen off the streets of Bensonhurst and I was reduced to riding a bike: in 1969, the opposite of cool. My stupidity, by the way, wasn’t limited to making trade-in decisions. My embrace of driving—while I had a car to drive, that is—was contributing to the demise of something smart—walkable city streets—though I didn’t realize it for years. I did attend classes, too. In New York State high schools, students take standardized tests, known as Regents Exams, in a variety of subjects, and at Brooklyn Tech I had scored the highest grade in the school on the physics exam. I wasn’t particularly interested in physics, but I thought it was my calling, so when the time came to choose a major, physics was it.
It’s remarkable to me how many of my Millennial employees who grew up in suburbs subsequently opted out of a driving-dependent life. And, since they were the demographic cohort most likely to drive as adults—way more than city kids, anyway—their defection counted twice, the same way that a second-place team’s victory over the team they’re chasing adds a half game to the team behind and takes a half game away from the team ahead. By moving not to another suburb but to a walkable city, a suburban young adult electing not to drive isn’t quite a “man bites dog” newsflash, but it is certainly a snap at what had been a routine rite of passage since the end of World War II. After fifty years of mistaken decisions about America’s built environment, a lot of Millennials are looking for something different. It’s also not a coincidence that Millennials were far likelier to grow up with two parents commuting.
c For more about the importance of information-rich transportation systems for Millennials and everyone, see Chapter 7. d There’s something perverse about using bike riding to sell cars. e Actually, everyone likes the sound of that kind of place. Though the percentages are highest among the young, more than half of forty- and fifty-year-olds reported a preference for living in mixed-use communities. f One consequence is that supply and demand are increasingly out of whack in desirable—that is, walkable—cities and neighborhoods. This leads inevitably to higher housing costs, and more and more stratification among Millennials: as prices get bid up, fewer and fewer low-earning families stay, which leads to a self-reinforcing cycle. Prices that go up tend to keep going up. One perverse result is that the highest-earning families end up with the lowest transportation costs. Households in drivable suburban neighborhoods spend, on average, 20 percent of their family incomes on transportation.
Better Buses, Better Cities by Steven Higashide
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, business process, congestion charging, decarbonisation, Elon Musk, Hyperloop, income inequality, intermodal, jitney, Lyft, mass incarceration, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, place-making, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart cities, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
Property owners on streets without sidewalks can request them from the city, but this takes 3 to 5 years. The city’s budget for new sidewalks is $2.6 million, but as of December 2018 there was a backlog of 580 requests, costing $83 million.11 The city has no inventory of the condition of existing sidewalks. Fixing walkability is a problem large enough to be the subject of its own book (actually, it’s the subject of two: Jeff Speck’s Walkable City and Walkable City Rules). What, if anything, can transit agencies do to address the problem? How Transit Agencies Can Lead Transit agencies have to treat pedestrian access like the critical factor it is, not ignore it because it’s typically outside their jurisdiction. Where they can, they should pay for walking connections themselves. Measure M, which increased sales tax in the Los Angeles region in 2016 to fund transportation projects, includes a small portion dedicated to “first mile/last mile” improvements; Los Angeles Metro uses it to run a program aimed at fixing pedestrian connections to transit.
Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis
Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
., ‘Applicability of Bogotá’s Transmilenio BRT System to the United States’, National Bus Rapid Transit Institute, May 2006, pp. 41–2. 17. www.pps.org/articles/epenalosa-2 18. Thompson, C., ‘Why New Yorkers Last Longer’, 13 August 2007, nymag.com/news/features/35815/index1.html 19. www.walkonomics.com/blog/2011/04/getting-our-obese-cities-walking-again 20. Florida, R., ‘America’s Most Walkable Cities’, 10 December 2010, www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2010/12/americas-most-walkable-cities/67988/ 21. www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/7590210/Expressway-roads-along-Seine-to-be-closed-after-40-years.html 22. www.preservenet.com/freeways/FreewaysPompidou.html 23. www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/02/paris-seine-riverside-expressway-pedestrian Chapter 10: How Many Lightbulbs Does It Take To Change A City? 1. Corner, J., ‘Lifescape – Fresh Kills Parkland’, www.nyc.gov/freshkills park 2.
Between 2000 and 2009, the average vehicle miles travelled by this age group dropped by 23 per cent, and the number of young people who do not have driver’s licences has risen to 26 per cent.4 With improvements in bike lanes as well as public transport, more people are leaving their cars at home, or even at the dealership, when they travel into the city. In addition, as the promotion of more walkable cities gains momentum, they are also preferring to use the pavements, thus adding to the ballet of the streets. But this is not enough. Despite the advantages of urban living, we are still using too much energy, spewing out an unsustainable level of carbon emissions. We are producing too much waste, our cities create ‘heat islands’ that raise the atmospheric temperature, the materials – bricks, steel, plastic, glass – we use to build our houses and our streets are inefficient.
Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
In my own work and in this book, I apply my own materialist understanding of what tools are effective—and therefore called for—to land use and human behavior. And despite a major theme of the book—that transportation drives (or deter-mines) land use—I am a professional planning practitioner. Therefore I elaborate more thoroughly the details of urban design than the details of transportation engineering. I love healthy, walkable cities—their energy, vitality, and rich diversity. I wrote this book in large part because I have seen the equivalent of too many monuments like my neighborhood street marker toppled, and because I fear that we are allowing cars to destroy the joys of the traditional city by dissipating their energy, sapping their vitality, and homogenizing their fascinating diversity.If we are to have the full use of automobiles, cities must be remade.
For public retail and office buildings, a feature that plays an important role for walkers is an entrance on the street. Buildings that have only a rear or side entrance (usually, an entrance oriented toward a parking lot) not only make travel highly inconvenient for pedestrians and public transit users but also cut the building off from street life—the building turns its back on the public and reduces urban vibrancy.36 As walkers in a walkable city, we want not only convenient, welcoming entrances on the sidewalk but also windows. What is more boring, deadly, and impersonal than a long expanse of blank wall? Homogenized, banal “icon architecture“ (also known as “cookie cutter” or “franchise” architecture), which immediately conveys a corporate image to the passerby—McDonald’s golden arches, Kentucky Fried Chicken’s red-and-white stripes—diminishes a city’s unique identity and creates what Jim Kunstler calls the “geography of nowhere.”37 A WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING We should be on guard not to allow projects touted as New Urbanist that deliver New Urbanism‘s principles only in a skin-deep way, such as those that perpetuate car dependence, or that fail to provide a mix of housing affordability, even if the houses have front porches or other forms of window dressing.
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
When the buildings or houses that line the street are set far back and spaced wide apart, it creates an atmosphere of more open road—less “lateral friction,” in transportation engineerspeak—which encourages speed; when buildings or homes are built closer to the road and closer to one another, it creates a sense of “spatial enclosure” and encourages drivers to go slower. “The wider the street and the less lateral friction a motorist has, the faster a motorist is going to go,” says Dumbaugh. Jeff Speck, a renowned city planner and author of Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time, puts it another way: “Most motorists drive the speed at which they feel comfortable, which is the speed to which the road has been engineered.” Some of the most dangerous roads in all of suburbia are the arterial roads, the faster-moving commercial thoroughfares that connect suburbs to one another. Because these roads combine fast-moving through traffic—the cars whizzing from town to town at forty miles an hour or more—with slow-moving “access traffic”—the cars that slow down and put on their blinker to turn left or right into the Best Buy or Home Depot—they can easily cause pileup accidents.
Norton, 2011); John Pulcher, “Public Transportation,” in Susan Hanson and Genevieve Giuliano, The Geography of Urban Transportation, 3rd ed. (Guilford Press, 2004). We have the highest per capita: World Bank statistics. One study found a nearly 500 percent: Peter Swift, “Residential Street Typology and Injury Accident Frequency,” June 1997; updated 2002, 2006. Jeff Speck, a renowned city planner: Jeff Speck, Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012), p. 172. Specifically, Dumbaugh found: Eric Dumbaugh and Robert Rae, “Safe Urban Form: Revisiting the Relationship Between Community Design and Traffic Safety,” Journal of the American Planning Association 75, no. 3 (Summer 2009): 309–29. A recent report authored by experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found: Richard J.
Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
Sprawl’s big bang came in the late ‘50s, when construction of Phoenix’s first federally funded freeway began, and the IRS allowed homeowners to include central air-conditioning in their home mortgages. (These days, summertime cooling bills for a three-bedroom house can easily top $500 a month.) In a single year, 1959, more houses were built than in the three decades before the end of the Second World War. As late as 1940, Phoenix was a walkable city covering a mere 17 square miles; it even had a small, but popular, streetcar network. After half a century of freeway building and rampant growth, Phoenix is the sixth-most-populous city in the United States. Its metropolitan area, which includes Scottsdale, Tempe, and Mesa, has a population of 4.3 million and covers 17,000 square miles—making it larger than the entire nation of Switzerland.
On its own, transportation, even coupled with the most up-to-date urbanism, is never going to be enough to revive a place whose economy is in the doldrums. If there are no jobs for people to get to, the most advanced bus rapid transit and light rail in the world will be useless. But transit is going to be a crucial ingredient in the coming urban renaissance. In an era of rising energy prices, when people are realizing that livable, walkable city neighborhoods make for attractive places to raise families, cities like Philadelphia, with their legacy of good transit and excellent urban structure, will be well placed to thrive. The First City may never attain the international stature of a New York, Shanghai, or London, but my guess is that, pretty soon, Philadelphia will be one great place to live. It’s already well on the way. * Only the largesse of the federal government keeps the heavily subsidized aviation industry afloat.
Owen, David. Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are the Keys to Sustainability. New York: Riverhead Books, 2009. Rome, Adam. The Bulldozer in the Countryside: Suburban Sprawl and the Rise of American Environ-mentalism. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Smith, P.D. City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age. New York: Bloomsbury, 2012. Soderstrom, Mary. The Walkable City: From Haussmann’s Boulevards to Jane Jacobs’ Streets and Beyond. Montreal: Véhicule, 2008. Acknowledgments Every book is a voyage, but this one felt like a three-year train trip—on good days by bullet train, but more often by sparking, backsliding, Toonerville trolley. Fortunately, there were people at every station stop to show me the right track; without them, I never would have made it home.
Pocket Stockholm Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
Contents QuickStart Guide Welcome to Stockholm Top Sights Local Life Day Planner Need to Know Stockholm Neighbourhoods Explore Gamla Stan Norrmalm Djurgarden & Skeppsholmen Sodermalm Ostermalm Millesgarden Museums of Gardet & Ladugardsgardet Kungsholmen Drottningholm Vasastan Stockholm Archipelago Best The Best of Stockholm Gamla Stan & Around Water's Edge Walk Eating Cafes Museums & Galleries Nightlife Live Music Shopping Fashion Design With Kids For Free LGBT Architecture Parks Festivals & Events Survival Guide Survival Guide Before You Go Arriving in Stockholm Getting Around Essential Information Language Behind the Scenes Our Writers Welcome to Stockholm Stockholmers call their compact, walkable city 'Beauty on Water'. But despite the gorgeous old town centre, Gamla Stan, Stockholm is no museum piece: it's modern, dynamic and ever-changing. This is a city of food obsessives, with good design a given across all aspects of daily life: if something can be beautiful as well as functional, why not make it so? Gamla Stan | LEOKS/SHUTTERSTOCK © 1 StockholmTop Sights Skansen Excellent outdoor Swedish history museum.
Top 10 Brussels, Bruges, Antwerp & Ghent by Antony Mason
It remained a pocket-sized medieval city, its poverty alleviated by almshouses, pious institutions, and a cottage industry supplying Europe’s thirst for lace. In the late 19th century, antiquarians recognized Bruges as a historic gem, and began a campaign of preservation and restoration. The city has been a popular tourist destination ever since. In addition to its host of hotels, restaurants and bars, Bruges has internationally famous collections of art. It is also a wonderfully walkable city, with surprising views on every corner. View map Markt Markt The central marketplace of Bruges still retains much of its original outline and is the focal point of the city. It is the site of a market on Wednesday mornings, and a Christmas market (with an ice rink) in December. Discover what 15th-century Bruges was like at the Markt’s absorbing, multi-sensory Historium museum.
Lonely Planet's 2016 Best in Travel by Lonely Planet
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, David Attenborough, haute cuisine, Maui Hawaii, sharing economy, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, sustainable-tourism, urban planning, walkable city
This centenary is an occasion that will be marked not by cake and balloons, but by the fruition of billions of dollars of investment and ambitious initiatives that will prepare the NPS for a second century. These range from the physical: clearing trails, improving accessibility, and installing the latest technology, to the inspirational: hosting ‘discovery’ events, involving thousands of young people in volunteer programs, and promoting enjoyment of the parks to urban communities. What’s hot… Deep space, walkable cities, ‘small plate’ dining ___ What’s not… Spying, drones, oversized portions It’s serious work. Serious work that has the most wondrous end: discovery of the national parks themselves. Yosemite’s mighty granite cliffs and fairy-tale waterfalls, Zion’s claustrophobic slot canyons, the steamy swamps of the Everglades, howling wolves, soaring condors, glittering glaciers… There are 340,000 sq km (84.4 million acres) to choose from.
Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city
A study carried out with similar street layouts, but different ground floors—active (with door openings, niches, etc) versus inactive (without windows, door openings, etc)—demonstrated that seven times more people stop at the active ground floors compared to the inactive. Gehl, Jan. Kaefer, Lotte Johansen, Reigstad, Solvejg. “Close encounters with buildings” in Urban Design International (2006) 11, 29-47. Time of Your Life 11 John Lennon, Beautiful Boy (1980). Getting About and Getting On 12 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House 1961), 36-37. 13 ITDP, Pedestrians First. Tools for a Walkable City (ITDP, 2018). 14 See Jan Gehl. Cities for People (Washington D.C.: Island Press 2010). 15 Jan Gehl. Cities for People (Washington D.C.: Island Press 2010), 131-32. 16 Streets should make up for 30% of the area of a city according to UN Habitat: UN Habitat, Streets as Public Spaces and Drivers of Urban Prosperity (UN Habitat, Nairobi: 2013). 17 City of Perth: Two Way Streets (City of Perth 2014); more on the disadvantage of one way streets in Vikash V.
The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky
Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar
When there are more people nearby to easily access and share cars, clothes, or bikes, the service is more cost-effective and profitable. Partnerships are easier to find and execute. Share platforms such as restaurants, taxis, broadband wireless, apartment buildings, airports, and hotels are more profitable to expand in a denser municipal environment. No wonder that, even in the United States, walkable cities and neighborhoods designed along the lines of European “café society” have become more desirable. Real estate listings feature “walk scores.” There’s even a noticeable reverse migration from American suburbs back to the cities. Urban areas with greater density are also fertile ground for clusters of related Mesh businesses to take root and grow. Michael Porter at Harvard studies industry clusters, such as shoes in Milan, publishing in New York, film in Mumbai, and technology in Silicon Valley.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
addicted to oil, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
As an adult I have lived in a broad range of urban, suburban, and exurban locations. We first settled in cities and then in classic suburban locations P R E FAC E | x i when my children were born. As my children were growing, we moved to an exurban location with plenty of land, though the children’s grade school and the country store and post office were all across the road within walking distance. Today, as empty-nesters, my wife and I live in a dense walkable city, able to walk or take transit to just about everything. We use the one car in the household about once a week. My family has experienced just about all forms of metropolitan living possible and has enjoyed each one. Attempting to answer that question I first posed to myself on Market Street in Center City, Philadelphia eventually led me to my first career as a real estate consultant. As the managing director and co-owner of Robert Charles Lesser & Co., the nation’s largest independent real estate advisory firm, I focused on how metropolitan areas grew, writing extensively about this topic for national magazines, academic journals, and real estate industry publications.
The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
But one can choose at least some of them. In any case, the best designers know that the choice of who not to work with is as often more important than who one does choose (or is forced to accept, simply to pay the rent). In a moment when sustainability is gaining more and more traction in design discourse, this future-as-client model moves designers past the defaults of nontoxic inks, recyclable consumables, and walkable cities into deep issues of sustainability, or the very future of design as a human activity. This is all well and good, but how to adopt the future as a client, what methods are available, and how can these methods function beyond the scope of traditional design and interest those of us who are not designers? One methodology worth exploring is scenario planning, or as will be explained later, the crafting of bespoke futures.18 Remember that not only have corporations not forgotten the future, they have developed measures to plan for it.
How We Got to Now: Six Innovations That Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson
A. Roger Ekirch, Ada Lovelace, big-box store, British Empire, butterfly effect, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, germ theory of disease, Hans Lippershey, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jacquard loom, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Live Aid, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, planetary scale, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, walkable city, women in the workforce
You can make the argument—as it happens, I would probably make the argument—that the trade-off was worth it, and that the challenge from Google will ultimately unleash better forms of journalism, built around the unique opportunities of the Web instead of the printing press. But certainly there is a case to be made that the rise of Web advertising has been, all told, a negative development for the essential public resource of newspaper journalism. The same debate rages over just about every technological advance: Cars moved us more efficiently through space than did horses, but were they worth the cost to the environment or the walkable city? Air-conditioning allowed us to live in deserts, but at what cost to our water supplies? This book is resolutely agnostic on these questions of value. Figuring out whether we think the change is better for us in the long run is not the same as figuring out how the change came about in the first place. Both kinds of figuring are essential if we are to make sense of history and to map our path into the future.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
And yet if the grid doesn’t happen, Tysons may never be a vibrant city or any kind of city at all. It may just be a collection of tall buildings arranged a little more compactly than the ones that are there now. In the summer of 2010, Tysons Corner was a jumble of construction activity, but it was all subway. The residential, retail, and office developers had all delayed their plans for the new walkable city, a casualty of the national bank lending crunch and a glut of suburban office space. But the county board had just reaffirmed its support for the entire project, residential towers, gridded streets, and all. The developers insisted they remained committed to it. All seemed convinced that when the transit line opens, New Urbanist development fervor will rise again. Macerich said officially that it would continue to take its time and “would be guided by market demand.”
Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
The city, belatedly, is building an ultramodern, fully automated subway and rail system, called Dubai Metro, but this attempt to graft transit onto a city like Dubai, even though the project is backed by what occasionally appears to be all the money in the world, is an enterprise destined to disappoint. People who use the new trains will still face the challenge of getting themselves from their metro stop to their final destination, since Dubai must be one of the least walkable cities in the world. I stayed in one small hotel and two big ones—including the Burj Al Arab—and there was no plausible destination to which I could have traveled on foot from any of them. Going from virtually anywhere in Dubai to virtually anywhere else means getting into a car and plunging into the permanent traffic jam that hogties the central city. Traffic during my visit was snarled not only by the huge number of cars but also by Dubai’s Sisyphean efforts to make room for still more drivers: existing expressways and interchanges, whose concrete had scarcely had time to harden, were being torn apart and widened, necessitating detours and delays.
Capitalism Without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy by Jonathan Haskel, Stian Westlake
"Robert Solow", 23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, future of work, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mother of all demos, Network effects, new economy, open economy, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, place-making, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, quantitative hedge fund, rent-seeking, revision control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Vanguard fund, walkable city, X Prize, zero-sum game
On the one hand, the vast number of ways that ideas can combine usefully makes it hard to plan centrally. The accidental discovery of new properties of technologies—like how the magnetron became the microwave—seems to be a common phenomenon. Based on this logic, if we want to increase productive investment in ideas, we should encourage “interdisciplinarity,” casual exchanges between people working in different fields and diverse places. Where these exchanges will happen a lot is in large, walkable cities with plenty of public spaces and opportunities for social interaction. On the other hand, sustained research in a particular area matters too. At least some of the synergies between different ideas work best in a particular field. The microwave oven was a success not just because of the radical leap from military communications to cooking, but also because lots of researchers from Amana, Litton, and their Japanese competitors worked on the design and improved the technology of the magnetron.
Fresh Off the Boat by Eddie Huang
Jamaicans, when making oxtail, will soak them in a solution of water and vinegar to let the blood out, then also flash-boil them to “cook off the first.” At our home, we’d flash-boil everything before braising or stewing because it was bad form if the meat had a “stink.” Andy Ricker tells me that in Thailand they won’t even eat lamb because of the smell. § What up, Theo! #LVRS 10. SPECIAL HERBS Pittsburgh was my first time in a walkable city and I finally didn’t need that goddamn Benz. We sold the car and off I went. My Da A-Yi, First Aunt, lived in Monroeville, just outside of the city, and owned Quality Furniture out there. My cousins Allen and Phillip also went to Pittsburgh, and we were all excited to be reunited. It would be the first time in nine years we’d be living in the same place—I was suddenly back like cooked crack and that’s how they treated me.
City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast
big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional
Woodruff Foundations, Kaiser Permanente and Coca-Cola, and others, including individual wealthy donors such as Weeks or Delta Air Lines CEO Richard Anderson. Because of its low density, Atlanta has an inadequate tax base, and the state contributes little to the city coffers. Without the business elite’s support, few big public projects, including the BeltLine, could succeed. Ray Weeks is himself a late-life convert to walkable city living. Following his divorce and remarriage, he moved from his luxurious semi-rural Garraux Road address in Buckhead to a house near the Eastside Trail, and he has a home in Charleston, South Carolina. He boasts that he can walk virtually everywhere he needs to go in both locations. Still, Weeks is worried. “There is an illusion that the BeltLine is unstoppable. We played our part in making it appear inevitable.
How to Murder Your Life: A Memoir by Cat Marnell
The plane was nuts—even worse than the airport—with demented babies, canoodling teens, and a garrulous Italian pilot babbling on the intercom. I didn’t sleep the whole nine hours; when we landed, I was un disastro. Thank God for town cars. I practically fell into mine. I felt better when I got to the Hotel Eden, though. It sat atop a hill, and the view from my suite was just glorious. I had time before the Gucci party, so I decided to go for a stroll. I’d never been to Rome. It’s a rather walkable city—especially if one is on Vyvanse—and so I had a nice time navigating the winding streets in the rain. Plus, there was great shopping—rosaries everywhere! I had to bring a few back to Marco. I stopped at a Bancomat machine by the Fontana di Trevi to take out some cash. Tra la la. It was lovely to be in Europe; I hadn’t been there since high school, and gee, look at those pigeons— INSUFFICIENT FUNDS, YOU SPOILED IDIOT DRUG ADDICT FUCKING RETARD LOSER BRAT, the Bancomat screamed at me.
City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
According to the United Nations, ‘the battle for sustainable development, for delivering a more environmentally stable, just, and healthier world, is going to be largely won or lost in our cities’.25 With temperatures and population levels increasing, concentrating people in cities is a highly efficient way of bringing clean water, sanitation, healthcare and energy to large numbers of people, while minimising the per capita emissions of greenhouse gases. Public transport systems, the creation of walkable cities, as well as bicycle schemes such as those now operating in Paris, Montreal and London, can all help to reduce the reliance on individual cars in cities. By reducing our carbon footprint, urbanisation might just save the planet. One pioneering project that offers a glimpse of the sustainable cities of the future is Masdar City. This carbon-neutral eco-city is being built some twenty miles from Abu Dhabi, in the United Arab Emirates, which, ironically, is the world’s fifth largest exporter of oil.
To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton
affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, longitudinal study, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration
The mostly white forces against Wal-Mart saw their challenge to a subsidized big-box store as a stand for the common good. The data was in: Wal-Mart Â�didn’t add jobs, it cannibalized existing ones. It drove locally owned businesses under, homogenized communities, and degraded the landscape—and all with help from the public purse. With the government contracting out its public housing to for-Â�profit developers, the tenants became loss leaders in a slick real-estate deal. Did residents of this famously walkable city really want to hike across acres of hot asphalt as Red Lobsters and Home Depots followed in the big blue wake of Wal-Mart? Was nothing sacred, demanded preservationists?4 But many of the store’s backers understood the sacred somewhat differently, as several of the prominent African-American ministers in their ranks attested. Earlier in the year, they had taken part in a conference to train local congregations in the entrepreneurial arts of federal grantwriting, construction partnerships, and tax credits.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
This, he noted excitedly, was precisely the diameter of cities in antiquity—they were just wide enough to walk from the edge to the center and back in an hour’s time. Drawing on the empirical work of the economist Yakov Zahavi, he demonstrated that this pattern is fixed in history. The time we spend commuting has never changed, only our modes of transportation have. The Berlin of 1800 was a compact, walkable city. But as horse trams came along, followed by electric trams, then subways, and finally cars, the city’s periphery raced away from its Enlightenment-era core. Berlin’s diameter was effectively ten times wider in 1950 than it was 150 years earlier, yet it still took only an hour to traverse. The rule has since been dubbed Marchetti’s Constant. Marchetti contended that transportation, not communications, was the “unifying principle of the world.”
Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington
airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, low cost airline, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War
Worst-case scenario is a driver who decides to terminate the ride, in which case you can pick up the next black-and-white that comes along. All that has ever happened to me with this stunt is a somewhat sullen driver. 08_259290-ch05.qxp 80 7/22/08 12:29 AM Page 80 CHAPTER 5 . CAIRO ON FOOT At first glance, Cairo looks chaotic and terribly crowded with cars, donkeys, buses, and people, but it’s actually a surprisingly walkable city for the reasonably fit. Safety is a very minor concern in Cairo, with random violent crime virtually unheard of and pickpocketing rare. What is fairly common, however, is general hassling. In a car or on a bus, you’ll be cut off from the street, but walking through town there will be a lot of people who want to talk to you and get a tip. Downtown, particularly around the museum area, and out by the pyramids in Giza, this takes the form of touts (khertee in the local street Arabic) who will use any ploy to strike up a conversation and then try to entice you into a range of commercial transactions, all of which are designed to fleece you.
Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen
activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
Arnone, “Redevelopment in Boston,” 194–97; Nathan Leventhal, “Citizen Participation in Urban Renewal,” Columbia Law Review 66, no. 3 (March 1966): 578–79; Appleby, “Logue’s Record in Boston,” 11–12; Del Vecchio, interview. 90. “What’s Happening to Proper Old Boston?,” 78. Logue explains “planning with people” in “Logue on Boston: ‘Never Satisfied,’” CSM, April 20, 1962. 91. Del Vecchio, “Topical Notes,” 5. 92. Margaret Logue, email message to author, March 21, 2011. The BG reporter Martin Nolan also recalled how much Logue loved Beacon Hill and the “walkable city” it was a part of; Martin Nolan, interview by Lizabeth Cohen, May 24, 2007, Cambridge, MA. 93. Logue, interview by Kennedy, 2. Logue discussed Collins’s strengths on many occasions; see for example, Logue, “Boston, 1960–1967—Seven Years of Plenty,” 83. 94. Arnone, “Redevelopment in Boston,” 143. 95. Collins, interview by de Varon, March 24, 1977, 26; Del Vecchio, City Streets, 136.
The Rough Guide to Norway by Phil Lee
banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, car-free, centre right, glass ceiling, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, out of africa, place-making, sensible shoes, sustainable-tourism, trade route, walkable city, white picket fence
They begin with urbane, vivacious Oslo, one of the world’s most prettily sited capitals, with a flourishing café scene and a clutch of outstanding museums. Beyond Oslo, in roughly descending order of interest, are Trondheim, with its superb cathedral and charming, antique centre; the beguiling port of Bergen, gateway to the western fjords; gritty, bustling Stavanger in the southwest; and northern Tromsø. All are likeable, walkable cities worthy of time in themselves, as well as being within comfortable reach of some startlingly handsome scenery. Indeed, each can serve as a starting point for further explorations or as a weekend destination in their own right. And wherever you arrive, the trains, buses and ferries of Norway’s finely tuned public transport system will take you almost anywhere you want to go, although services are curtailed in winter.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
“If we are ever to cope with climate change in any fundamental way, radical solutions on the social side are where we must focus, though. The relative efficiency of the next generation of solar cells is trivial by comparison.”31 This book is about those radical changes on the social side, as well as on the political, economic, and cultural sides. What concerns me is less the mechanics of the transition—the shift from brown to green energy, from sole-rider cars to mass transit, from sprawling exurbs to dense and walkable cities—than the power and ideological roadblocks that have so far prevented any of these long understood solutions from taking hold on anything close to the scale required. It seems to me that our problem has a lot less to do with the mechanics of solar power than the politics of human power—specifically whether there can be a shift in who wields it, a shift away from corporations and toward communities, which in turn depends on whether or not the great many people who are getting a rotten deal under our current system can build a determined and diverse enough social force to change the balance of power.
Scandinavia by Andy Symington
call centre, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, connected car, edge city, full employment, glass ceiling, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, mass immigration, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, out of africa, period drama, Skype, the built environment, trade route, urban sprawl, walkable city, young professional
Four Days As above, but with a little detour out of town on the third day – if the weather’s nice, rent a bicycle and follow the bicycle path to Drottningholm Slott . Keep the Swedish-history theme going with a meal at Den Gyldene Freden . Next day, take a boat tour onto the archipelago, then dine at the Grand Hôtel’s Verandan restaurant and finish in style with a drink at Operan . Sights Stockholm is a compact, walkable city, with sights distributed across all central neighbourhoods. The modern city spreads out from its historic core, Gamla Stan, home to the Royal Palace. Two smaller, satellite islands are linked to it by bridges: Riddarholmen, whose church is home to the royal crypt, to the west, and Helgeandsholmen, home of the Swedish parliament building, to the north. The tourist office is just across the street from Centralstationen, on the main island.
Southwest USA Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Columbine, Donner party, El Camino Real, friendly fire, G4S, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), low earth orbit, off grid, place-making, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, walkable city, Works Progress Administration, X Prize
Metropolitan Tucson Sights 1 Aerospace Maintenance & Regeneration Center C3 2 Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum A3 3 Gates Pass Scenic Overlook B3 4 Mission San Xavier del Bac B4 5 Old Tucson Studios A3 6 Pima Air & Space Museum C4 7 Sabino Canyon C2 Activities, Courses & Tours 8 Mt Lemmon Ski Area D1 Sleeping 9 Desert Trails B&B D3 10 Gilbert Ray Campground A3 11 Hacienda del Sol C2 Eating Grill at Hacienda del Sol (see 11) 12 Janos C2 13 Tiny's Saloon & Steakhouse B3 DOWNTOWN TUCSON Downtown Tucson has a valid claim to being the oldest urban space in Arizona. Although spates of construction have marred the historical facade, this is still a reasonably walkable city center. Tucson Museum of Art & Historic Block MUSEUM (520-624-2333; www.tucsonmuseumofart.org; 140 Main Ave; adult/child/student/senior $8/free/3/6; 10am-4pm Tue-Sat, noon-4pm Sun) For a small city, Tucson boasts an impressive art museum. There’s a respectable collection of Western and contemporary art, and the permanent exhibition of pre-Columbian artifacts will awaken your inner Indiana Jones.
Eastern USA by Lonely Planet
1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Amtrak ( 414-271-0840; 433 W St Paul Ave) runs the Hiawatha train seven times a day to/from Chicago ($22, 1½ hours); catch it downtown (it shares the station with Greyhound) or at the airport. The Milwaukee County Transit System (www.ridemcts.com; fare $2.25) provides the local bus service. Bus 31 goes to Miller Brewery; bus 90 goes to Miller Park. For taxi service, try phoning Yellow Cab ( 414-271-1800). Madison Madison reaps a lot of kudos – most walkable city, best road-biking city, most vegetarian friendly, gay friendly, environmentally friendly and just plain all-round friendliest city in the USA. Ensconced on a narrow isthmus between Mendota and Monona Lakes, it’s a pretty combination of small, grassy state capital and liberal, bookish college town. An impressive foodie/locavore scene has been cooking here for years. Sights & Activities State St runs from the capitol west to the University of Wisconsin.
USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet
1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar
Amtrak ( 414-271-0840; 433 W St Paul Ave) runs the Hiawatha train seven times a day to/from Chicago ($22, 1½ hours); catch it downtown (it shares the station with Greyhound) or at the airport. The Milwaukee County Transit System (www.ridemcts.com; fare $2.25) provides the local bus service. Bus 31 goes to Miller Brewery; bus 90 goes to Miller Park. For taxi service, try phoning Yellow Cab ( 414-271-1800) . Madison Madison reaps a lot of kudos – most walkable city, best road-biking city, most vegetarian friendly, gay friendly, environmentally friendly and just plain all-round friendliest city in the USA. Ensconced on a narrow isthmus between Mendota and Monona Lakes, it’s a pretty combination of small, grassy state capital and liberal, bookish college town. An impressive foodie/locavore scene has been cooking here for years. Sights & Activities State St runs from the capitol west to the University of Wisconsin.