global village

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pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Some leading business figures like Martin Sorrell and Peter Sutherland are also Global Villagers. Sutherland, the former chairman of Goldman Sachs and a former EU trade commissioner, told a House of Lords committee in 2012 that the EU should do its best to ‘undermine the homogeneity’ of its member states and that immigration was crucial for economic growth ‘however difficult it may be to explain to the citizens of those states.’18 The largest single group of committed Global Villagers is to be found in higher education and among creative people. As a visiting fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford for the past seven years I have lost count of the number of Global Villagers I have encountered, both among the international, post-graduate student body and among the other outside guests. And collectively the Global Villagers enrage the latent Somewhere authoritarians.

Though he also points out that the last few years has seen a slight increase in the number of Settlers and believes that the events of 2016 suggest that Pioneer liberalism has, for now, been ‘stopped in its tracks’. The Outriders Having established my two broad value tribes, I now want to pin-point the two sub-tribes—the Global Villagers (already identified) and the Hard Authoritarians—and take an educated guess at their size too. The following small groups I classify as Global Villagers. In the 2013 British Social Attitudes immigration survey 4.2 per cent of the public said that the number of immigrants should increase a little or a lot. In the same year just 3.1 per cent disagreed strongly with a statement designed to tease out how nationally or internationally minded people are: ‘Britain should follow its own interests even if this leads to conflicts with other nations.’

And 76 per cent of people do not think religious extremists should be allowed to hold public meetings (which includes a lot of Inbetweeners).40 For Global Villagers, three defining characteristics are putting global before national welfare, being indifferent to national identity, and not caring whether Muslims integrate or not. For Hard Authoritarians, my three characteristics are being a completely uncritical nationalist, having a highly restricted view of who can join the national club, and strongly opposing gay marriage. The number of people who strongly support putting global before national welfare, or do to some extent, is 10 per cent, slightly above my estimate of the Global Villager proportion of the population. For a measure of national indifference I chose those who disagree with the statement ‘I would rather be a citizen of Britain than any other country in the world’, which turns out to be 7.5 per cent of respondents.


pages: 304 words: 87,702

The 100 Best Vacations to Enrich Your Life by Pam Grout

Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, global village, Golden Gate Park, if you build it, they will come, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, supervolcano, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

No wonder more than ten million (or one out of every ten) Mexicans live in a house that can’t withstand wind or rain, much less a hurricane. Since 1988, Habitat for Humanity Mexico has been working to correct the disparity. In that time, its volunteers have built more than 16,000 homes in the country, many of these through the Global Village program. Global Village volunteers enlist for building blitzes lasting anywhere from one to three weeks in Habitat locations around the globe. They work hand in hand with future homeowners and volunteers from all backgrounds, races, and religions. Global Village volunteers often describe their experience as life changing. Every Global Village trip is different, but the itineraries are flexible and balanced between work, rest, and free time. Most teams spend a few days taking in the local culture. On an eight-day build in Isla, Mexico, for example, volunteers flew to Veracruz on a Saturday, toured the Catemaco Lake area on Sunday, built homes Monday through Friday, and then toured the Las Tuxtlas rain forests and Olmec ruins on the second Saturday before returning home Sunday.

Research projects range from two weeks to all summer, and prices range from $700 to $1,700. HOW TO GET IN TOUCH Wildlands Studies, 3 Mosswood Circle, Cazadero, CA 95421, 707-632-5665, www.unex.ucsb.edu/wildlands. HABITAT FOR HUMANITY’S GLOBAL VILLAGE PROGRAM build a house to replace a shack MEXICO & WORLDWIDE I’ve published books, been on national TV, flown planes, met celebrities, built a car from a kit, had my picture in the New York Times…but on my deathbed, I’m betting I’m going to say, “Boy, I wish I’d built more Habitat houses!” —Chris Goodrich, coleader of a Global Village build in Isla, Mexico 33 | Ever wonder why so many Mexicans try to cross the U.S. border? The average wage for more than half of Mexico’s working population is less than $30 a month. Try paying a mortgage on that. For that matter, try buying meals—even one—for a family of five.

After several years at Koinonia Farm, a Christian community near Americus, Georgia, Fuller moved to Zaire and began building homes. He came back to the United States in 1976 and started Habitat, whose mission is to eliminate poverty housing worldwide. The cost of Global Village trips depends on the area visited, the Habitat for Humanity host affiliate, and the length of the trip. Usually a 7- to 14-day trip (including everything except airfare) runs between $1,000 and $2,200. The trip to Mexico described above cost $1,210. HOW TO GET IN TOUCH Global Village, Habitat for Humanity International, 121 Habitat Street, P.O. Box 369, Americus, GA 31709, 800-422-4828 or 229-924-6935, www.habitat.org. MOUNT VERNON LADIES’ ASSOCIATION excavate george washington’s whiskey distillery MOUNT VERNON, VIRGINIA I learn something new about George Washington every time I volunteer with the archaeologists!


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

BACK IN THE 1960S, celebrity academic and cryptic cultural theorist Marshall McLuhan predicted that the coming age of electronic communications would lead to the breakdown of established structures and identities. The consequence, he asserted, would be a return to a more tribal society. He famously called this seamless web of information ‘the global village’.1 People at the time celebrated this idea. McLuhan remains a distant inspiration for Silicon Valley, one of the original thought leaders and intellectual rock stars of the tech revolution. His ‘global village’ still bounces around Palo Alto, Mountain View and Cupertino. Every time you hear talk of ‘global communities’ and ‘total connectivity’, it’s the ghost of McLuhan. ‘By enabling people from diverse backgrounds to easily connect and share their ideas,’ wrote Mark Zuckerberg back in the early days of his site, ‘we can decrease world conflict in the short-term and the long-term.’

Ebook ISBN 9781524744373 While the author has made every effort to provide accurate telephone numbers, Internet addresses, and other contact information at the time of publication, neither the publisher nor the author assumes any responsibility for errors or for changes that occur after publication. Further, the publisher does not have any control over and does not assume any responsibility for author or third-party websites or their content. Version_1 Contents Also by Jamie Bartlett Title Page Copyright Introduction Chapter 1: The New Panopticon Chapter 2: The Global Village Chapter 3: Software Wars Chapter 4: Driverless Democracy Chapter 5: The Everything Monopoly Chapter 6: Crypto-Anarchy Conclusion: Say Hello to the Future Epilogue: 20 Ideas to Save Democracy Notes Acknowledgements Introduction IN THE COMING FEW years either tech will destroy democracy and the social order as we know it, or politics will stamp its authority over the digital world.

As algorithms get faster and smarter, the pressure will grow to hand these inconveniences off for the sake of ease, speed or ignorance. To give in to this urge will be easy, but it would condemn us to losing the ability to think freely, and to spiral into ever greater reliance on machines. Given how bad we often are at making difficult decisions, the result might be a wiser and more humane society. But it would be difficult to call such a place a democracy. Chapter 2: The Global Village Why the Closer We Get, the Further We are Apart Information overload and connectivity has encouraged a divisive form of emotional tribal politics, in which loyalty to the group and anger outrank reason and compromise. While partisanship is necessary in politics, too much of it is dangerous. Political leaders are evolving to the new medium of information – hence the rise of populists who promise emotional, immediate and total answers.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Rather, Second Wave society comprised a set of institutions largely distinct from those that came before: nuclear families, for example, had replaced multigenerational households; corporations had become the standard way to organize a business; big bureaucracies, more rare in earlier eras, had become more typical.8 What the Tofflers most wanted was for their readers to appreciate the emergence of the Third Wave.9 During the 1970s and 1980s, they argued, an entirely new framework had developed, distinct from the rhythms of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Like its predecessors, Third Wave society, which was only beginning to come clear in the 1970s and 80s, engendered its own unique framework. The issue wasn’t just that new technologies like the fax machine were driving the information age, or that changes in the way we interacted were laying the foundation for what Marshall McLuhan had termed, contemporaneously, a “global village.”10 The Tofflers argued that certain distinctions that defined Second Wave society—between home and work, between consumer and producer, between mass production and specific customization—were being breached. Elements of life that simply looked like aberrations from the norm in Second Wave society, such as life in the suburbs, a broad aversion to naked bigotry, “no fault” divorces, longer lifespans—the list could go on—actually represented constituent parts of the Third Wave.

The kinds of bonds once limited to local communities, the Canadian had argued, would eventually be shared across a much broader landscape.2 The advances described in The Lexus and the Olive Tree make clear that McLuhan got a lot of the story right. As Friedman later wrote (in a book coauthored with Michael Mandelbaum), “in the span of a decade, people in Boston, Bangkok, and Bangalore, Mumbai, Manhattan and Moscow, all became virtual next-door neighbors.”3 Or, to use McLuhan’s famous phrase, they had all become residents of the same “global village.”4 It’s quite a claim. After all, as Robin Dunbar’s research into the lives of hunting and gathering societies made clear, relationships nurtured in villages—what I’ve identified as “middle-ring” relationships—aren’t mere acquaintances. People who inhabit the same township know a fair amount about one another. Even if they aren’t intimate friends, they’re more familiar than strangers nodding to one another across the street.

In the United States [however], it has been ubiquitous . . . keeping an eye on a house when its family is away, loaning a tool or the proverbial cup of sugar, taking care of a neighbor’s children while the mother was running errands, or driving a neighbor to the doctor’s office.5 What McLuhan predicted (and what Friedman later seemed to confirm) was that the sort of intimacy that had once been reserved for middle-ring contacts—to members of a local village or, say, within a city neighborhood—would eventually apply to a much wider circle of connections. Their view of modern life suggested that townships would simply expand to encompass many more contacts—that the miracle of modern technology would create a global village where we would all be able to connect with a much wider circle of friends. But as Dunbar’s research suggests, that’s definitionally impossible. The cerebral cortex only allows us to keep an average of 150 middle-ring contacts at any given time; beyond that, we lose any true sense of familiarity. Much as we might want to maintain the same level of intimacy with a wider group of people, there is no way for townships to accommodate so many more acquaintances.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Take, for example, the issue of network privacy, the most persistently corrosive aspect of the “big data” world that the Internet is inventing. If San Francisco is “dystopia by the Bay,” then the Internet is rapidly becoming dystopia on the network. “We are fans of the village pub where everyone knows everyone,” Michael Birch says. But our networked society—envisioned by Marshall McLuhan as a “global village” in which we return to the oral tradition of the preliterate age—has already become that claustrophobic village pub, a frighteningly transparent community where there are no longer either secrets or anonymity. Everyone, from the National Security Agency to Silicon Valley data companies, does indeed seem to know everything about us already. Internet companies like Google and Facebook know us particularly well—even more intimately, so they boast, than we know ourselves.

Every minute of every day in 2014, for example, the 3 billion Internet users in the world sent 204 million emails, uploaded 72 hours of new YouTube videos, made over 4 million Google searches, shared 2,460,000 pieces of Facebook content, downloaded 48,000 Apple apps, spent $83,000 on Amazon, tweeted 277,000 messages, and posted 216,000 new Instagram photos.7 We used to talk about a “New York minute,” but today’s “Internet minute” in Marshall McLuhan’s global village makes New York City seem like a sleepy village in which barely anything ever happens. It may be hard to imagine, especially for those so-called digital natives who have grown up taking the Internet’s networking tools for granted, but the world hasn’t always been a data-rich information system. Indeed, three-quarters of a century ago, back in May 1941, when those German bombers blew the British House of Commons to smithereens, nobody and nothing was connected on the network.

He has appropriated the ideals of openness and transparency to suit Facebook’s commercial interests, thereby making privacy increasingly obsolete. His narrative fallacy is to believe that the network, in the form of Facebook, is uniting us as a human race. We thus almost have a moral obligation to reveal our true selves on the network, to participate in the real-time confessional of our brightly lit global village. That’s why the socially autistic Zuckerberg believes that we only have “one identity,” telling Kirkpatrick that “having two identities for yourself is an example of a lack of integrity.”97 And it’s why Sheryl Sandberg, Facebook’s chief operating officer, says that “you can’t be on Facebook without being your authentic self.”98 But this, like so much else that Zuckerberg and Sandberg say, is entirely wrong.


pages: 791 words: 85,159

Social Life of Information by John Seely Brown, Paul Duguid

business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, cross-subsidies, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, Frank Gehry, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Gilder, George Santayana, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Y2K

It's another to argue that in the "third wave" there is no need for social institutions and organizations at all. The strong claim seems to be that in the new world individuals can hack it alone with only information by their side. Everyone will return to frontier life, living in the undifferentiated global village. 9 Here such things as organizations and institutions are only in the way. Consequently, where we see solutions to information's burdens, others see only burdens on information. Origin Myths From all the talk about electronic frontiers, global villages, and such things as electronic cottages, it's clear that the romanticism about the past we talked about earlier is not limited to technophobes.10 Villages and cottages, after all, are curious survivors from the old world applied to the conditions of the new. They remind us that the information age, highly rationalist though it seems, is easily trapped by its own myths.

Finally, firms are not merely taking power from one another. They are accumulating power that once lay elsewhere. The political scientist Saskia Sassen traces the decline of the nation-state not to the sweeping effects of demassification and disaggregation, but to the rise of powerful, concentrated transnational corporations. The new economic citizen of the world, in her view, is not the individual in the global village but the transnational corporation, often so formidable that it has "power over individual governments." 31 The state and the firm, then, are not falling together along a single trajectory. At least in some areas, one is rising at the other's expense. In sum, as people try to plot the effects of technology, it's important to understand that information technologies represent powerful forces at work in society.

Hence the quasi-rural talk of "televillages" and "electronic cottages."2 Somewhere in here, then, is that familiar hope that the road to the future will somehow take us back to the simplicities of the past. Yet other enthusiasts see no reason to stop at the village. The cyberguru and writer John Perry Barlow extols the nomadic life. He was a rancher in Wyoming, but now believes his laptop and cell phone, allowing him to work anywhere, free him from ties to place or community, making him an itinerant citizen of the global village of cyberspace (for which he issued a declaration of independence).3 In all of this, there is a mixture of hype and hope with some quite reasonable forecasting. The idea that technology can untie the unwanted ties that bind people together seems to have been around since those ties started to bind. The canal, the railway, the telephone, and rural electrification were all taken as signs of hope.


pages: 281 words: 71,242

World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer

artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism

His critique was actually a lament—he longed for the world before print, for oral culture, with its face-to-face interactions. The perfect technology would revive the spirit of that bygone culture, but on a planetary scale, transforming the world into one big, happy tribe. Or, it would become a “global village,” to use his other cliché-destined phrase—and the warmth of that village would counteract destructive individualism and all the other fragmentary forces in the world. Most promising of all the new technologies was the computer. It is true, McLuhan saw potential downsides to the invention and to the global village he described—rumors might travel fast, privacy might not survive all the new opportunities for surveillance. Still, his descriptions of the computer echoed Brand’s. McLuhan also passionately craved wholeness and then some, which he described rhapsodically: Today computers hold out the promise of a means of instant translation of any code or language into any other code or language.

• • • EVERY SIGNIFICANT technological development since has come wrapped in McLuhan’s aspiration: the desire for machines to usher in a new era of cooperation. That’s what J.C.R. Licklider meant when he explained how his invention of the Internet would erase social isolation: “Life will be happier for the on-line individual.” And how Tim Berners-Lee described the possibilities of the World Wide Web he created: “Hope in life comes from the interconnections among all the people in the world.” The dream of stitching the world into a global village has been embodied in the nomenclature of modern technology—the net is interconnected, the Web is worldwide, media is social. And the dream has fueled a succession of grand collaborative projects, cathedrals of knowledge built without any intention of profiting from the creation, from the virtual communities of the nineties to Linux to Wikipedia to the Creative Commons. It’s found in the very idea of open-source software.

They wanted nothing more than to belong, to subsume their brilliant selves in an even more incandescent whole, to lose themselves in the poetry of community. • • • BUT THERE WAS TENSION in the dream. Contradictions that wouldn’t easily melt away. On the one hand, the technologists aspired to create a world liberated from the control of mega-institutions. The old hatred for the likes of IBM never did fade. On the other hand, they created networks that were designed to be all-encompassing and unrivaled. There can be only one global village. These structures were the greatest business opportunities ever imagined—and only the innocence of faith could blind one to the possibility that they would fall into the hands of big firms. In the end, the technologists’ disdain for authority was really just a stance, an emotionally gratifying one, and it wasn’t the meat of the vision. The more important thing was the wholeness. That is the reason that the history of computing follows such a predictable pattern.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Tweets will not dissolve all of our national, cultural, and religious differences; they may actually accentuate them. The cyber-utopian belief that the Internet would turn us into uber-tolerant citizens of the world, all too eager to put our vile prejudices on hold and open up our minds to what we see on our monitors, has proved to be unfounded. In most cases, the only people who still believe in the ideal of an electronic global village are those who would have become tolerant cosmopolitans even without the Internet: the globe-trotting intellectual elite. The regular folk don’t read sites like Global Voices, an aggregator of the most interesting blog posts from all over the world; instead, they are much more likely to use the Internet to rediscover their own culture—and, dare we say it, their own national bigotry. The good news is that we are not rushing toward a globalized nirvana where everyone eats at MacDonald’s and watches the same Hollywood films, as feared by some early critics of globalization.

The movement was spearheaded by right-wing blogs and various groups on social networking sites (many of them featuring extremely graphic posters—or “political Molotov cocktails,” as Michael Kimmelman of the New York Times described them—suggesting Muslims are threatening Switzerland, including one that showed minarets rising from the Swiss flag like missiles), and even peace-loving Swiss voters could not resist succumbing to the populist networked discourse. Never underestimate the power of Twitter and Photoshop in the hands of people mobilized by prejudice. While Internet enthusiasts like to quote the optimistic global village reductionism of Marshall McLuhan, whom Wired magazine has chosen as its patron saint, few of them have much use for McLuhan’s darker reductionism, like this gem from 1964: “That Hitler came into political existence at all is directly owing to radio and the public-address system.” As usual, McLuhan was overstating the case, but we certainly do not want to discover that our overly optimistic rhetoric about the freedom to connect has deprived us of the ability to fix the inevitable negative consequences that such freedom produces.

chapter ten Making History (More Than a Browser Menu) In 1996, when a group of high-profile digerati took to the pages of Wired magazine and proclaimed that the “public square of the past” was being replaced by the Internet, a technology that “enables average citizens to participate in national discourse, publish a newspaper, distribute an electronic pamphlet to the world ... while simultaneously protecting their privacy,” many historians must have giggled. From the railways, which Karl Marx believed would dissolve India’s caste system, to television, that greatest liberator of the masses, there has hardly appeared a technology that wasn’t praised for its ability to raise the level of public debate, introduce more transparency into politics, reduce nationalism, and transport us to the mythical global village. In virtually all cases, such high hopes were crushed by the brutal forces of politics, culture, and economics. Technologies, it seems, tend to overpromise and under-deliver, at least on their initial promises. This is not to suggest that such inventions didn’t have any influence on public life or democracy. On the contrary, they often mattered far more than what their proponents could anticipate.


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Military historian Martin Van Creveld says that the distinctions between war and crime are going to blur and even break down as marauding bands of outlaws, some with vague political 216 THE P RIC E 0 F PRO G RES S goals, menace the global village with hit-and-run murders, car bombings, kidnappings, and high-profile massacresP In the new environment of low-intensity conflict, standing armies and national police forces will become increasingly powerless to quell or even contain the mayhem, and will likely give way to private security forces that will be paid to secure safe zones for the elite classes of the high-tech global village. The transition into a Third Industrial Revolution throws into question many of our most cherished notions about the meaning and direction of progress. For the optimists, the corporate CEOs, professional futurists, and avant garde political leaders, the dawn of the Information Age signals a golden era of unlimited production and rising consumption curves, of new and faster breakthroughs in science and technology, of integrated markets and instantaneous gratifications.

In Section I, "The Two Faces of Technology," we will present an overview of the current technology revolution with an eye toward understanding its effect on employment and the global economy. To better assess both the impacts and potential outcomes of the Third Industrial Revolution, we will examine the two competing visions of technological progress that have spurred the drive to an automated society and ask how each is likely to influence the ultimate course society takes as it makes its way into the high-tech global village. To provide some background on the current technology and employment debate, we will tum our attention in Section II, "The Third Industrial Revolution," to a look at how the early innovations in automation affected the livelihoods of African-American workers and trade unionists. Their experience could be a harbinger of what lies ahead for millions of service and white collar workers as well as a growing number of middle-class management and professional employees around the world.

The information and communications technologies and global market forces are fast polarizing the world's population into two irreconcilable and potentially warring forces-a new cosmopolitan elite of "symbolic analysts" who control the technologies and the forces of production, and the growing numbers of permanently displaced workers who have little hope and even fewer prospects for meaningful employment in the new high-tech global economy. We will assess the impact of the new technology revolution on both industrialized and developing nations. We will pay particular attention to the disturbing relationship between increased technological unemployment and the rising incidence of crime and violence around the world. Just outside the new high-tech global village lie a growing number of destitute and desperate human beings, many of whom are turning to a life of crime and creating a vast new criminal subculture. The new outlaw culture is beginning to pose a very real and serious threat to the ability of central governments to maintain order and provide security for their citizens. We will look at this new phenomenon in detail and at how the United States and other countries are attempting to cope with its societal implications and consequences.


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Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded by Simon Winchester

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, cable laying ship, global village, God and Mammon, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, lateral thinking, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route, undersea cable

Words and phrases that had hitherto been utterly unfamiliar – Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Strait, Batavia – became in one mighty flash of eruptive light part of the common currency of all. And in learning of these places and of the terrible events that occurred there, so the world's people suddenly became part of a new brotherhood of knowledge – in a sense it was that day in August 1883 that the modern phenomenon known as the global village was born, in part through the agency of this enormous explosion. The word Krakatoa, despite being a word misspelled and mangled by the imperfect arts of Victorian telegraphy and journalism, became in one awful ear-splitting moment a byname for cataclysm, paroxysm, death and disaster. And the disaster left a trail of practical consequences – political, religious, social, economic, psychological, scientific consequences among them.

But with the explosion of Krakatoa came a phenomenon that in time would come to be seen as more profound. This eruption was so enormous an event, and had so many worldwide implications and effects, that for humankind to be able to learn and know about it, in detail, within days or even hours of its very happening entirely changed the world's view of itself. It would not be stretching a point to suggest that the Global Village – the phrase is modern, and was coined by Marshall McLuhan in 1960, referring to the world-shrinking effects of television, even pre-satellite* – was essentially born with the worldwide apprehension of, and fascination with, the events in Java that began in the summer of 1883. And Agent Schuit's first telegram to London was one small indication of that revolution's beginnings. Although what The Times published was brief in the extreme, what Agent Schuit actually wrote by hand was considerably longer and more discursive, and started: On Sunday morning last, from six to ten o'clock, there was a tremendous eruption, with continuous earthquakes and heavy rain of ashes.

Millions of people hitherto unknown to each other began to involve themselves, for the first time ever, in looking beyond their hitherto limited horizons of self; they started to inhabit a new and outward-gazing world that these story-telling agencies, and this event they were relating, were unwittingly helping to create. The story of Krakatoa had a small beginning – seven newsworthy words, buried well down in the pages of a single London newspaper. As the summer of 1883 wore on, it was to become a very much greater story indeed. And when it was over, three months later, it was to have implications for society – for the laying of the foundations of McLuhan's Global Village – that have reverberated in a far more important way, and for far, far longer, than anyone at the time of the event could ever have supposed. 7 THE CURIOUS CASE OF THE TERRIFIED ELEPHANT Eau de Cologne: A perfumed spirit invented by an Italian chemist, Johann Maria Farina (1685–1766), who settled in Cologne in 1709. The usual recipe prescribes twelve drops of each of the essential oils, bergamot, citron, neroli, orange and rosemary, with one dram of Malabar cardamoms and a gallon of rectified spirits, which are distilled together


Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)

Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional

Lee. "Networked Worlds: Social Aspects of Multi-User Virtual Reality Technology." Sociological Research Online 2, no. 4 (1997): 59-69. Shapiro, Andrew L. "Street Corners in Cyberspace." The Nation (July 3, 1995): 10-14. Shapiro, Andrew L. "The Net That Binds: Using Cyberspace to Create Real Communities." The Nation (June 21, 1999). Silver, D. "Localizing the Global Village: Lessons from the Blacksburg Electronic Village" In The Global Village: Dead or Alive?, edited by Ray B. Browne and Marshall W. Fishwick. Bowling Green, OH: Popular Press, 1999: 79-92. Silver, D. "Margins in the Wires: Looking for Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Blacksburg Electronic Village." In Race in Cyberspace, edited by Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert B. Rodman. New York, Routledge, 2000: 133-150 Silver, D.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Wellman, B., P. Carrington, and A. Hall. Networks as Personal Communities. In Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by B. Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Wellman, B., and M. Gulia. Net Surfers Don't Ride Alone: Virtual Community as Community. Pp 331-67 in Networks in the Global Village, edited by B. Wellman. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999. Wellman, B., ed. Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999. Whittle, David B. Cyberspace: The Human Dimension. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co., 1997. Winner, Langdon. Autonomous Technology: Technics-Out-Of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1977. Wise, John M. Exploring Technology and Social Space (New Media Cultures).

captured the most important aspect of these growth rates, the obvious implication that this largely invisible subculture is likely to break the surface of the world's awareness, due to sheer size, soon: In two years, there will be more network users than residents of any state in the United States. In five years there will be more network users than citizens of any single country except India or China. What will happen when McLuhan's global village becomes one of the largest countries in the world? Using two-way communications, not broadcast? And crossing boundaries of space, time, and politics? By the early 1980s, the bureaucratic and financial demands of running ARPANET had outgrown ARPA. The Net was an intellectual resource now, and scholars and scientists were clamoring to get in on it, even if they weren't doing weaponsrelated research.


pages: 425 words: 117,334

City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast

big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

She and her husband, architect/developer Jack Honderd, later provided housing for four orphaned teens from Liberia, and when Burundi refugees began attending Quaker Meeting, she formed a support group for them there. In 2009, Eggers volunteered at the new Global Village Project school in donated space at the Decatur Presbyterian Church, where we met to begin my tour. I observed a first-year reading class and interviewed some of the staff. The school educates about forty refugee girls, ages eleven to eighteen, for up to three years, with the aim of launching them into a successful public high school experience. Why the focus on girls? They are often undereducated in African and Asian cultures. Some don’t know how to turn the pages of a book when they arrive at Global Village. Their parents are generally more comfortable with single-gender education, and daughters help their parents with bills, phone calls, and other matters. The girls at Global Village quickly gain confidence, learning to speak out and ask questions.

* The park was named after four-year-old Travon Wilson, killed by a stray bullet during a drug deal shoot-out in Riverdale in 2004. * There are positive economic developments in this area surrounding the Atlanta airport, with Porsche opening its US headquarters nearby in 2015. The “Aerotropolis Atlanta Alliance” pushes the area’s potential. * Betsy Eggers was a founding board member of Fugees Family, Inc., the umbrella organization, and was board chair of the Global Village Project from 2011 to 2014. * See Chapter 4. * Shannon Byrne’s videos captured a number of people with disabilities, or self-imposed handicaps, who clearly fascinated her. One black man, missing both legs, used his hands to swing his torso up the mountain. Another group crawled up to encourage a friend who couldn’t ascend any other way. Another man carried fifty pounds of chains as he climbed, while another hauled a heavy tire

BeltLine feasibility study, 51, 59 bike-sharing program, 141 Brian Leary and, 121–122 Ryan Gravel and, 13–14, 49, 121–122 Technology Square development, 239 Georgia Works!, 112, 113 (photo), 294 Georgians for Community Redevelopment, 93 Gervin, Rachel, 288 Gilbert, Jane, 221 Gilded Age, 66–71 Giornelli, Greg, 29, 45, 53–54, 57, 59 Glenn, Luther, 32 Glenwood Castle (old Atlanta Stockade), 194 Glenwood Park neighborhood, 4, 25, 160 Global Village Project school, 255 Glover, Dwight, 225–226, 284 Glover, Renee, 162 Goat Farm, 227–228, 265 Goatsville, 254 Godshalk, David, 75 Gone with the Wind (Mitchell), 78, 106 Good Hair (film), 234 Gordon, John, 294 Gordon, Lisa, 135, 155 Grady, Henry, 33–34, 67–69 Grady Homes, 192 Grady Hospital, 113, 148, 252 Grant, Lemuel, 35, 192 Grant Park neighborhood, 5, 35, 48, 76, 81, 126, 192–195 grassroots support, 22–26, 278–279 Gravel, Karen, 22, 29, 186 Gravel, Ryan, 4 (photo) Atlanta City Design Project, 277–278 on bickering, 164 Friends of the Belt Line, 28–29, 49, 91 on future of BeltLine, 283 Garvin and, 49 Inman Park and, 186–187 master’s thesis, 13–15, 18–22, 19 (fig.)


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Such mega-cities as Rio, Istanbul, Cairo, Mumbai, Nairobi, and Manila are the leading urban centers of their countries and regions, yet each teems with hundreds of thousands of new urban squatters each year. The migrant underclass lives not in chaos and “shadow economies” but often in functional, self-organizing ecosystems, the typical physical stratification of medieval cities. Whether rich or poor, cities, more than nations, are the building blocks of global activity today. Our world is more a network of villages than it is one global village. Alliances of these agile cities, like the medieval Hanseatic League of the Baltic Sea, are forming. They will use their sovereign wealth funds to acquire the latest technology from the West, buy up tracts of agricultural land in Africa to grow their food, and protect their investments through private armies and intelligence services. Hamburg and Dubai have forged a partnership to boost shipping links and life sciences research, while Abu Dhabi and Singapore have developed into a new commercial axis as well.

And forget nation building: Community building is nation building done right. In millions of small communities worldwide, micro-credit operations, new donors, diasporas, and social entrepreneurs are treating the causes, not just the symptoms, of social problems better than most of the world’s governments put together. They also prove the axiom that the best global governance is local governance. The global village would mean more if it helped these individual villages. Show Me the Money In 2008, twenty-five years of poverty-reduction efforts were wiped away through food and fuel price spikes. Riots broke out in Egypt, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nigeria, and Haiti. Now close to two billion people live below the World Bank’s $1.25-a-day poverty line. The number of hungry people also increased by forty million in 2008, bringing the estimated total number of people—especially women and children—suffering from malnutrition to about one billion.

Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. Esty, Daniel C., and Andrew S. Winston. Green to Gold: How Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008. Evans, Gareth. The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and for All. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2008. Falk, Richard. Law in an Emerging Global Village: A Post-Westphalian Perspective. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational Publishers, 1998. Fisman, Raymond, and Edward Miguel. Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2008. Florini, Ann. The Coming Democracy: New Rules for Running a New World. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005. ———, ed. The Right to Know: Transparency for an Open World.


Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

It includes many musical genres of foreign origin. AfricanAmerican blues, Italian opera, and the Beatles’ pop, for example, have thrilled generations of Americans and Canadians. Late-twentiethcentury immigration and globalization have brought music from Latin America, the Caribbean, China, India, the Middle East, and Southern Europe of both the folk and classical traditions. Musically, North America has become a global village. Our main interest here lies in the social consequences of the flourishing of ethnic and global music. A variety of music enriches the cultural and artistic life of a city. The fusion of different styles links together different groups and extends the common ground. A few examples of ethno-music that is being integrated into the North American repertoire include Mexican ranchera, Latin meringue, Bollywood Bhangra, Pakistani qawalli, African drum ensemble music, and FrenchAlgerian raï.

John Biles, Meyer Burstein, and James Frideres (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2008), 81. 41 Tariq Madood, “Multiculturalism, Ethnicity and Integration: Contemporary Challenges,” Canadian Diversity 5, no. 1 (2006), 120. 42 Gerard Bouchard and Charles Taylor, Building the Future. A Time for Reconciliation, Report of the Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles, (Quebec, 2008), 19. 43 Yasmeen Abu-Laban and Baha Abu-Laban, “Reasonable Accommodation in a Global Village,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 30. 44 Julius Grey, “The Paradox of Reasonable Accommodation,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 34–5. Notes to pages 36–44 279 45 Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), 6. 46 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 14. 47 Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2005), 62. 48 William Shakespeare, Coriolanus, act 3, scene 1. 49 Janet Abu-Lughod, Changing Cities: Urban Sociology (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 140. 50 James Holston and Arjun Appadurai, “Cities and Citizenship,” Public Culture 8 (1996),188–9. 51 Ibid., 200. 52 Ash Amin, “The Good City,” Urban Studies 43, nos. 5/6 (May 2006),1012. 53 Susan S, Fainstein, The Just City (Ithaca; Cornell University Press, 2010), 3. 54 Ibid., 43. 55 Leonie Sandercock, Mongreal Cities (London: Continuum, 2003), 87. 56 Henri Lefebvre, Writings on Cities, trans.

Sharifa Pitts, Harlem Is Nowhere (New York: Little, Brown and Co., 2011), 162–5. John McCarron, “Majoring in Development,” Planning, October 2011, 13. Leonie Sandercock, “Integrating Immigrants: The Challenge for Cities, City Governments and the City-Building Professions,” in The Intercultural City, ed. Phil Wood and Charles Landry (London: Earthscan, 2008), 258–72. Yasmeen Abu-Lahan and Baha Abu-Lahan, “Reasonable Accommodation in a Global Village,” Policy Options 28, no. 8 (2007), 30. Kathleen Weil, Minister of Justice, Province of Quebec, “Bill 94. An Act to Establish Guidelines Governing Accommodation Requests within the Notes to pages 236–54 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 305 Administration and Certain Institutions” (Quebec Official Publisher, 2010), 1–4. Also, “US legal definition, reasonable accommodation law and legal definition,” http://definitions.uslegal.com/r/reasonable -accomodation/.


pages: 410 words: 119,823

Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Indeed, given the increasing facility with which photovoltaics, Stirling engines, and wind-turbine components can be printed, there is a reasonable argument to be made that any properly equipped workshop can henceforth be self-powering. 23.See oshwa.org/definition/. 24.Alicia Gibb, “On Creative Commons and Open Source,” Open Source Hardware Association, May 21, 2014, oshwa.org; See also the discussion of the nuances here: Lenore Edman, “Open Discussion: Best Practice for Mislabeled Open Source Projects?,” Evil Mad Scientist Laboratories, June 18, 2014, evilmadscientist.com. 25.See 507movements.com. 26.OpenDesk, opendesk.cc. 27.Open Source Ecology. “Global Village Construction Set,” February 4, 2015, opensourceecology.org/wiki/Global_Village_Construction_Set; See also Autodesk, Inc., “Instructables,” 2016, instructables.com and Definition of Free Cultural Works, February 17, 2015, freedomdefined.org/Definition. 28.Pieter Van Lancker, “The Influence of IP on the 3D Printing Evolution,” Creax, August 12, 2015. 29.Zachary Smith, “MakerBot vs. Open Source—A Founder’s Perspective,” Hoektronics.com, September 21, 2012; See also MakerBot cofounder Bre Pettis’s response, “Fixing Misinformation with Information,” September 20, 2012, makerbot.com/blog/2012/09/20/fixing-misinformation-with-information. 30.Michele Boldrin and David K.

But you can also find working solar-powered Stirling engines and wind turbines, quadcopter drones and robotic manipulator arms, even a goodly number of the Five Hundred and Seven Mechanical Movements Victorianera engineer Henry T. Brown collected in his classic text of the same name.25 Beyond Thingiverse, there are initiatives like the OpenDesk project,26 which offers downloadable specifications for the most commonly needed elements of workplace furniture: tables, chairs, desks, dividers and storage lockers. Or the wildly ambitious Global Village Construction Set, which aims to furnish users with Creative Commons-licensed specifications for the fifty industrial machines they would need to build from scratch “a sustainable civilization with modern comforts,” from bakery ovens to cement mixers.27 Somewhere between Existenzminimum and frankly survivalist in its aesthetics, the GVCS envisions communities bootstrapping their way from smaller components to the stuff of collective self-reliance, whether those communities should happen to be rural, informal, poor or otherwise denied access to the full panoply of developed-world production technology.

., 237 dugnad, 170 Dunning-Kruger syndrome, 260 Dutch East India Company, the, 165 Easterbrook, Steve, 195 Edo, 69 Elemental Technologies, 281 Elephant and Castle Shopping Centre, 110 Eisenman, Peter, 70 Embassy of the United States, Beijing, 51 Eno, Brian, 238 Equal Credit Opportunity Rights, 248 Ethereum/Ether, 148–50, 152–4, 162–3, 168, 175–7, 179 Ethical Filament Foundation, 99 Ethiopia, 194 euro (currency), 100, 131, 136 “eventual consistency,” 134 Existenzminimum, 103 Expedia, 134 EZPass, 59 fablabs, 95, 100, 109–10 faceblindness, 67–8 Facebook, 69, 220–1, 227, 229, 232, 252, 275–9, 281, 284 Aquila autonomous aircraft, 278 Free Basics, 278 Instagram, 278 opacity of Trending News algorithm, 212, 252–3 Fadell, Tony, 276 false positive, truth value, 217, 235, 249 Family Assistance Plan, FAP, 204 Fan Hui, 268 feature engineering, 218 Federal Trade Commission, 248 FedEx, 278 Filabot, 98 Fillod, Odile, 107 Financial Times (newspaper), 177 FindFace software, 240–2 Firestone, Shulamith, 191 Fitbit Charge wearable device, 197 Five Hundred and Seven Mechanical Movements (Brown), 103 Flaxman, Seth, 250–1 foamed aluminum, 95 Ford Mustang, 216–17 Forrester, Jay, 56 Fortune Magazine, 257 Foucault, Michel, 35, 70, 160 Freakonomics (Levitt and Dubner), 237 Frey, Carl Benedikt, 194 Fully Automated Luxury Communism, 90, 111, 190, 289 gallium arsenide, 47 Galloway, Anne, 82 gambiarra, 291 Garrett, Matthew, 43 General Data Protection Regulation, 249 General Public License, 103 Genesis Block, 125, 139 genetic algorithms, 239, 253 gender of pedestrians, as determined by algorithm, 239 as performance, 239–40 of virtual assistants, 39 geofencing, 27 Gershenfeld, Neil, 95 Ghost Gunner, 108 Giger, H. R., 219 GitHub code repository, 242, 274, 281 “glassholes,” 84, 276 Global Village Construction Set, 103 go (game), 263–6 Goodhart’s Law, 247 Goodman, Bryce, 250–1 Google, 18, 24, 37–40, 46, 66, 69, 73–4, 76–8, 80, 84, 193, 212, 218–20, 247, 254, 264, 275, 276, 278, 281, 284 Boston Dynamics robotics division, 276 Chrome browser, 275 Daydream virtual reality headset, 275 Deep Dream, 80, 219 DeepMind, 264–5, 270, 276, 281 driverless cars, 193, 220 Glass augmented reality headset, 66, 73–4, 76–8, 80, 275 Home interface device, 38–40 Image Search, 218 Mail, 275 Maps, 24 Nest home automation division, 275–6 Nest thermostat, 275–6 Play, 18 Plus social network, 276 search results, 212 Sidewalk Labs, 276 Gladwell, Malcolm, 237 Glaser, Will, 220 Global Positioning System, 4, 16, 21, 26, 51, 67 Graeber, David, 205 Guangdong, 179 Guardian (newspaper), 276 Guattari, Félix, 148 Gu Li, 265 Hagakure, 267 Haldane, Andy, 194 Halo (game), 39 Hannah-Arendt-Strasse, 70 haptics, 16 Harman, Graham, 48 hash value, 123–4, 128–30 Hashcash, 121 hashing algorithm, 123 head-up displays, 66–7 Hearn, Mike, 179 Heat List, Chicago Police Department program, 230–1, 233, 235–6, 244 heroin, 228 heterotopias, 70 high-density polyethylene plastic filament, HDPE, 99 Hitachi Corporation, 197 Hollerith machines, 61 hooks, bell, 311 HR analytics, 199 Hungarian pengo, 120, 122 iaido, 266 iaijutsu, 266 IBM, 263 ideology of ease, 42 infrapolitics, 311 ING, bank, 262 input neurons, 215 Instagram.


pages: 165 words: 45,397

Speculative Everything: Design, Fiction, and Social Dreaming by Anthony Dunne, Fiona Raby

3D printing, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate governance, David Attenborough, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, life extension, Mark Zuckerberg, mouse model, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social software, technoutopianism, Wall-E

For more on this, see Joseph Voros, "A Primer on Futures Studies, Foresight and the Use of Scenarios," Prospect, the Foresight Bulletin, no. 6 (December 2001). Available at http://thinkingfutures.net/wp-content/ uploads/2010/10/A_Primer_on_Futures_Studiesl.pdf. Accessed December 21, 2012. 4. Michio Kaku, Physics of the Impossible (London: Penguin Books, 2008). 5. David Kirby, Lab Coats in Hollywood: Science, Scientists, and Cinema (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011), 145-168. 6. Richard Barbrook, Imaginary Futures: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village (London: Pluto Press, 2007). 7. This history is very well documented; for example, see Neil Spiller, Visionary Architecture: Blue prints of the Modern Imagination (London: Thames & Hudson, 2006) ; Felicity D.Scott, Architecture or Techno-utopia: Politics after Modernism (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007) ; Robert Klanten et al., eds., Beyond Architecture: Imaginative Buildings and Fictional Cities (Berlin: Die Gestalten Verlag, 2009) ; and Geoff Manaugh, The BLDG BLDG Book (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2009) ; see also http://bldgblog.blogspot.co. uk.

Baccolini, Raffaella, and Tom Moylan, eds. Dark Horizons: Science Fiction and the Dystopian Imagination. New York: Routledge, 2003. Baggini, Julian. The Pig That Wants to Be Eaten: And Ninety - Nine Other Thought Experiments. London: Granta, 2005. Ballard, J.G.Super-Cannes. London: Flamingo, 2000. Ballard, J.G.Millennium People. London: Flamingo, 2004. Barbrook, Richard. Imaginary Futures: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village. London: Pluto Press, 2007. Bateman, Chris. Imaginary Games. London: Zero Books, 2011. Bauman, Zygmunt. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2000. Beaver, Jacob, Tobie Kerridge, and Sarah Pennington, eds. Material Beliefs. London: Goldsmiths, University of London, 2009. Bel Geddes, Norman. Magic Motorways. Milton Keynes, UK: Lightning Sources, 2010. [c19401 Bell, Wendell. Foundations of Futures Studies.


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The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, endogenous growth, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

From this literature, the work of low- and middle-ranking intellectuals and propagandists, ranging from, say, the books of H. G. Wells to the press releases of NASA’s PR officials, we get a whole series of clichéd claims about technology and history. We should take them, not as well-grounded contributions to our understanding, for they rarely are that, but as the basis of questions. What have been the most significant technologies of the twentieth century? Has the world become a global village? Has culture lagged behind technology? Has technology had revolutionary or conservative social and political effects? Has new technology been responsible for the dramatic increase in economic output in the last hundred years? Has technology transformed war? Has the rate of technical change been ever increasing? These are some of the questions this book will try to answer, but they cannot be answered within the innovation-centric frame in which they are usually asked.

Particular technologies are associated with particular nations. Cotton textiles and steam power are seen as British, chemicals as German, mass production as American, consumer electronics as Japanese.10 This is despite the fact that all these countries were strong in all these technologies. On the other hand, we have techno-globalism, particularly focused on communications technologies, which endlessly repeats the idea that the world is becoming a ‘global village’. In this old-fashioned view nations are always about to disappear through the advance of globalising new technology. The steam ship, the aeroplane, the radio, and more recently television and the internet, it is argued, are forging a new global world economy and culture, and the nation is at best a temporary vehicle through which the forces of techno-globalism operate. Nations are important in ways techno-nationalism cannot capture, and the international and global dimension is crucial in ways which techno-globalism is ignorant of.

European slaughterhouses, often municipally owned, as in the case of La Villette in Paris, were spaces where many butchers could work, killing their own cattle on a small scale, for local consumption.25 British slaughterhouses were tiny, supplied local markets and were not known for humane treatment of animals.26 Even the new interwar municipal abattoir in Sheffield, which had a monopoly of killing in its area, dealt with only 600 cattle a week.27 The point was not that Britain was resistant to new killing technology, or did not have access to it. Far from it, for Britain owned and used such plant on a huge scale, but it was in Fray Bentos rather than Sheffield. The British worker lived in a global village – fed with beef from the River Plate and margarine derived from South Atlantic whales. Killing animals in the long boom and after In 1906 Sinclair described ‘a line of dangling hogs a hundred yards in length; and for every yard there was a man, working as if a demon was after him’.28 Here was a disassembly line that would within a few years inspire the assembly lines of another American town, Detroit.


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The taste for those spices compelled human beings to invent new forms of cartography and navigation, new ships, new corporate structures, not to mention new forms of exploitation—all in the service of shrinking the globe so that pepper raised in Sumatra might more efficiently be delivered to the kitchens of London or Amsterdam. The automata of Merlin’s Mechanical Museum demonstrated how the pursuit of leisure and play can be, on a conceptual level, exploratory, driving the creation of new social customs, materials, technologies, markets. But the pursuit of spice was literally exploratory: those strange new flavors propelled human beings around the globe like nothing that had ever come before them. Today’s global village has its roots in the frivolity of spice. Clove harvesting This still doesn’t answer the question of why Europeans had to travel so far, assuming we aren’t satisfied with Elizabeth’s providential explanation. Why weren’t the Spanish hills teeming with pepper vines? Here the ecosystems approach to human history, most famously presented in Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel, offers the most enlightening explanation.

The global reach of games is even more pronounced in virtual gameplay. Consider the epic success of Minecraft, an immense online universe populated by players logging in from around the world. In the case of Minecraft, of course, the world of the game itself—and the rules that govern it—are being created by that multinational community of players, in the form of mods and servers programmed and hosted by Minecraft fans. McLuhan coined the term “global village” as a metaphor for the electronic age, but if you watch a grade-schooler constructing a virtual town in Minecraft with the help of players from around the world, the phrase starts to sound more literal. The migratory history of chess, like that of most games, did not begin with some immaculate conception in the mind of some original genius game designer. As chess traveled across borders, new players in new cultures experimented with the rules.

See also Hughson’s tavern Green Dragon, 241, 243 as inns for travelers, 239–40 as a new kind of social space, 237–38, 245 rising standards of living, 239 Roman tabernae, 238, 239–40, 242 in the ruins of Pompeii, 239 technology. See also computer technology computer networks of the early 1990s, 170 digital simulations that trigger emotions, 184–85 frequency hopping, 100–101 global creation, 201–202 “global village” of Minecraft, 201 as illustrated in the work of Banu Masu and al-Jazari, 3–5, 4 multiplane camera, 179–81, 180 music’s role in developing, 91–92, 100–101 QWERTY keyboard, 86–87 textiles “Calico Madams,” 28 cotton, 26–28 East India Company, 28 economic fears regarding the import of, 28–29 French weaving industry, 79–83 inventions to aid in the production of fabric, 29, 30 Jacquard loom, 80–83, 81 vivid colors of chintz and calico, 26–27, 27 theft.


Victorian Internet by Tom Standage

British Empire, financial independence, global village, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jacquard loom, paper trading, QWERTY keyboard, technoutopianism, undersea cable

HE7631.S677 1998 384.i'o9—dc21 98-24959 CIP First published in the United States by Walker & Company in 1998 This paperback edition published 2007 eISBN: 978-0-802-71879-2 Visit Walker & Company's Web site at www.walkerbooks.com 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Typeset by Coghill Composition Company Printed in the United States of America by Quebecor World Fairfield To Dr. K CONTENTS Preface 1. The Mother of All Networks 2. Strange, Fierce Fire 3. Electric Skeptics 4. The Thrill Electric 5. Wiring the World 6. Steam-Powered Messages 7. Codes, Hackers, and Cheats 8. Love over the Wires 9. War and Peace in the Global Village 10. Information Overload 11. Decline and Fall 12. The Legacy of the Telegraph Epilogue Afterword Sources Acknowledgments PREFACE IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY there were no televisions, airplanes, computers, or spacecraft; nor were there antibiotics, credit cards, microwave ovens, compact discs, or mobile phones. There was, however, an Internet. During Queen Victoria's reign, a new communications technology was developed that allowed people to communicate almost instantly across great distances, in effect shrinking the world faster and further than ever before.

Admittedly, there was a rapid turnover of employees in major offices, and telegraphers often had to endure unsociable hours, long shifts, and stressful and unpleasant working conditions. But to become a telegrapher was to join a vast on-line community—and to seek a place among the thousands of men and women united via the worldwide web of wires that trussed up the entire planet. 9. WAR AND PEACE IN THE GLOBAL VILLAGE All the inhabitants of the earth would be brought into one intellectual neighborhood. —Alonzo Jackman, advocating an Atlantic telegraph in 1846 DESPITE THE WIDELY expressed optimism that the telegraphs would unite humanity, it was in fact only the telegraph operators who were able to communicate with each other directly. But thanks to the telegraph, the general public became participants in a continually unfolding global drama, courtesy of their newspapers, which were suddenly able to report on events on the other side of the world within hours of their occurrence.


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The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

Exhausted by trying to rebuild the classical Greek agora, we have set about trying to build a better coffeehouse.52 It’s no surprise, then, that as soon as the Internet entered public consciousness in the 1990s, cultural and communication theorists started asking whether it would enable the generation of a “global public sphere,” or, in the words of Yochai Benkler, a “networked public sphere.”53 Influenced perhaps too much by Marshall McLuhan’s model of a global village, scholars, journalists, and activists drove Habermasian terms into mainstream discussions of Internet policy and its political potential.54 Alas, the public sphere is not the best model to idealize when we think globally and dream democratically. Habermas’s public sphere is as temporally and geographically specific as Benedict Anderson’s notion of “imagined communities” and has been similarly misapplied to disparate experiences that don’t correspond to the specific historical situation examined by the original work.

For critical perspectives on Habermas and public-sphere theory, see Calhoun, Habermas and the Public Sphere; Bruce Robbins and the Social Text Collective, The Phantom Public Sphere (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993). 53. Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2006), 212–61. 54. Marshall McLuhan, The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). Some media theorists like Mark Poster and Jodi Dean are critical of efforts to associate a print-centered nostalgic phenomenon with the cacophony of cultural NOTES TO PAGES 137– 41 245 and political activities in global cyberspace. Others, like Yochai Benkler and Howard Rheingold, see the practice of “peer production” and the emergence of impressive and efficient organizational practices as a sign that Habermas’s dream could come true in the form of digital signals and democratic culture.

Jorge Borges, “Funes, His Memory,” in Collected Fictions (New York: Viking, 1998). 6. Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009). 7. Nicholas Carr, “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” Atlantic, July 2008, 56–63. 8. Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1965); Marshall McLuhan, The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New York: Routledge, 2008). 9. Jamais Cascio, “Get Smart,” Atlantic, July 2009, 94–100. 10. Lester Ward, Dynamic Sociology (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1883). 11. Steven Johnson, Everything Bad Is Good for You (New York: Penguin, 2006). 12.


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Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

As long as these Tweets, updates, and posts are limited to a few thousand a day, this remains a manageable proposition. But this approach is still a carryover from the days of broadcast media and easy, top-down control of communications. Back in the era of television and other electronic communications technologies, a “global media” meant satellite television capable of broadcasting video of the Olympics across the globe. This was the electronically mediated world Marshall McLuhan described as the “global village”; he was satirizing the hippy values so many thought would emerge from a world brought together by their TV sets, and in his way warning us about the impact of globalism, global markets, and global superpowers on our lives and cultures. With the rise of digital media, however, we see the possibility for a reversal of this trend. Unlike the broadcast networks of the electronic age, digital networks are biased toward peer-to-peer exchange and communication.

Jeffrey Rosen, “The Web Means the End of Forgetting,” New York Times, July 21, 2010. 17. Opera Solutions website, www.operasolutions.com/about-us. 18. Stephanie Clifford, “Thanksgiving as Day to Shop Meets Rejection,” New York Times, November 10, 2011. 19. Bill Gentner, senior vice president for marketing, quoted in Clifford, ibid. 20. Richard Barbrook, Imaginary Futures: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village (London: Pluto, 2007). 21. John Hagel, “The 2011 Shift Index: Measuring the Forces of Long-Term Change,” Deloitte & Touche—Edge Report, 2011, www.deloitte.com/us/shiftindex. 22. See my book Life Inc. (New York: Random House, 2009), 120. 23. Liz Moyer, “Fund Uses Behavioral Finance to Find Value Plays,” CBS MarketWatch, June 28, 2011, www.marketwatch.com. 24. Uttara Choudhury, “Behavioral Economics has Never Been Hotter,” Braingainmag.com. 25.

Norton, 1986). 9. See my book Program or Be Programmed (New York: Or Books, 2010). 10. For a great chronicle and analysis of the apocalypse meme, see John Michael Greer, Apocalypse Not (Berkeley, CA: Cleis Press, 2011). SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Axelrod, Robert. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books, 1984. Barbrook, Richard. Imaginary Futures: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village. London: Pluto, 2007. Boorstin, Daniel J. The Image: Or, What Happened to the American Dream. New York: Atheneum, 1962. Brand, Stewart. The Clock of the Long Now: Time and Responsibility. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Brockman, John. Afterwords: Explorations of the Mystical Limits of Contemporary Reality. New York: Anchor, 1973. Carr, Nicholas G. The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

For some time, idealists and dreamers have looked even further—beyond our known urban behemoths and linked megacities—in search of Marshall McLuhan’s global village, a mote in his prescient eye sixty years ago, but today an abstraction being realized not only in digital and virtual forms like the cloud, but in global economic markets and in the complex urban networks that are our focus here. Global village indeed! The urban philosopher Constantinos Doxiadis, pursuing his own science of human development he calls Ekistics, has predicted the emergence of a single planetary city—Ecumenopolis.21 Doxiadis gives a sociological and futurist spin to science fiction writers like Isaac Asimov and William Gibson who for decades have been imagining urban agglomerations on a planetary scale.22 Just beyond the global village, pushing out from the imagined Ecumenopolis, one can catch a glimpse of Gaia, that mythic organic entity that, in the hypothesis posited by James Lovelock, is as an evolving and self-regulating system in which biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere all work together on behalf of a sustainable and integral planet, though whether it is urban or not, or even includes humanity, remains a puzzle.

., 299 Garbage collection, 6, 13 “Garden City,” 35–36, 47, 365n21 Gary, Indiana, decline, 379–380n43 Gated community, 197 Gay marriage, 167 GDP (gross domestic product), 55–58 Gemeinschaft, 42, 58, 68, 69 Gender inequality in India, 181, 377n15 Gentle Parking, 230 Germany, electronic networks in, 264 Gesellschaft, 42, 63, 69 Ghettoization of suburbs, 189 Gibson, William (Bill), 241, 263 Gilligan, Carol, 282 Giuliani, Rudy, 92, 95, 107 Glaeser, Edward, 4, 14 Global Association of Cities, 356 Global cities, 16, 65–66, 116 Global Citizen, 312, 397n26 Global Citizen Network, 312, 398n27 Global civic infrastructure, 301–302, 319, 320–321 Global governance: by cities, 163–166; cities unimpeded by nation-states in, 163–171; failure of nation-states in, 153–163; implementation of, 348–350 Globalization, 4, 11–12, 65, 77, 169, 302, 304, 343, 358 Global markets, 12 Global Network on Safer Cities, 122–123 Global parliament of mayors, 336–359; and bottom-up democracy, 336–340; forms, 352–355; funding, 356; implementation, 348–350; and interdependence, 357–359; key principles, 355; and networks, 138–140; proposal for, 340–342; representation, 342–348; trial run, 355–356; and unique role of mayors, 350–352 Global village, 17 Global warming. See Climate change Glocal civil society, 299–332; autarky, 321–325; autonomy, 328–332; and city networks, 316–319; city visas, 325–328; confederalism and municipal authority, 301, 319, 320–321; infrastructure, 301–302, 319, 320–321; NGOs and MNCs, 310–315; participatory budgeting, 303–309 Glocality, 5, 21–22, 217, 320, 341 Goethe Haus, 291–292 Goldwyn, Sam, 272 Google, 253, 254, 256, 258 Grameen Bank, 229–230, 385–386n32 Gross domestic product (GDP), 55–58 Groupware, 392n50 Gun control, 6, 89, 112–113, 129–130, 148–149 Hackers, 259, 391n36 Hamburg in Hanseatic League, 109, 371n1 Handgun ban.


From Satori to Silicon Valley: San Francisco and the American Counterculture by Theodore Roszak

Buckminster Fuller, germ theory of disease, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Marshall McLuhan, megastructure, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog

But none of this seemed dome to matter to the enthusiasts; by virtue of Fuller's intoxicating rhetoric and boundless optimism, the dome was seen as an icon of our social salvation. Fuller nophiliac was not alone in extrapolating the tech- vision of postindustrial were others, each of whom became, countercultural secret of building a at There favorite. McLuhan, who saw history. the electronic new some was There point, a Marshall media as the "global village" that was 30 somehow cozy, participative, and yet at the same time technologically sophisticated. There was Paolo Soleri, who believed that the solution to the ecologi- modern world was the building of megastructural "arcologies" - beehive cities in cal crisis of the which the urban billions could tally environments. artificial who barnstormed O'Neill, be compacted into to- There was Gerard the country whipping enthusiasm for one of the zaniest schemes of all: up the launching of self-contained space colonies for the millions.


pages: 254 words: 68,133

The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks

The name commonly applied to the first such element was globalization, an elusive term with a myriad definitions depending on purpose or perspective. To some, globalization suggested “the compression of the world” and the emergence of a collective consciousness.4 According to this view, the passing of Cold War divisions and the proliferation of information technology pointed toward greater interdependence and enhanced human solidarity. Planet Earth was becoming a “global village.”5 Implicit in this formulation were expectations of those villagers sooner or later coalescing around Western notions of modernity, where Western meant American and modernity implied submission to the dictates of the marketplace. The adoption of globalization to describe this process implied that something unprecedented was afoot—something crying out for linguistic razzle-dazzle. The promotion of globalization included a generous element of hucksterism—the equivalent of labeling a large cup of strong coffee a “grande dark roast,” while referring to the server handing it to you as a “barista.”

Roland Robertson, Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture (Thousand Oaks, California, 1992), 8. 5. The phrase is attributed to Marshall McLuhan, reflecting in 1968 on the proliferation of electronic media. “Today electronics and automation make mandatory,” he wrote, “that everybody adjust to the vast global environment as if it were his little home town.” Marshall McLuhan and Quentin Fiore, War and Peace in the Global Village (New York, 1968), 12. 6. William Graham Sumner, The Forgotten Man and Other Essays (New Haven, Connecticut, 1879 [rpt. 1919]), 215. 7. On the former, see Alfred W. Crosby Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, Connecticut, 1972). 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “A Manifesto for a Fast World,” New York Times Magazine (March 28, 1999). 9. Alan Tooze, “Beyond the Crash,” Guardian (July 29, 2018). 10.


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Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Free Rise Make Others Pay for Entropy Bills Are Boring Coattails The Closing Act Stories Are Nothing Without Ideas FIFTH INTERLUDE: THE WISE OLD MAN IN THE CLOUDS The Limits of Emergence as an Explanation The Global Triumph of Turing’s Humor Digital and Pre-digital Theocracy What Is Experience? PART SIX Democracy 16. Complaint Is Not Enough Governments Are Learning the Tricks of Siren Servers Alienating the Global Village Electoral Siren Servers Maybe the Way We Complain Is Part of the Problem 17. Clout Must Underlie Rights, if Rights Are to Persist Melodramas Are Tenacious Emphasizing the Middle Class Is in the Interests of Everyone A Better Peak Waiting to Be Discovered SIXTH INTERLUDE: THE POCKET PROTECTOR IN THE SAFFRON ROBE The Most Ancient Marketing Monks and Nerds (or, Chip Monks) It’s All About I “Abundance” Evolves Childhood and Apocalypse PART SEVEN Ted Nelson 18.

Within a democracy, the resulting increased income concentration gradually enriches an elite, which is likely to promote candidates who will support yet further concentration. On the world stage, the same conundrum makes it harder for developing nations to sprout good jobs for educated people, because information flow is currently fated to be “free.” No one expects Twitter to help create jobs in Cairo. It’s impossible to divorce politics from economic reality. Alienating the Global Village Economic interdependence has lessened the chances of war between interconnected nations. This is the gift I thanked Wal-Mart for earlier. Unfortunately, by forcing more and more value off the books as the world economy turns into an information economy, the ideal of “free” information could erode economic interdependencies between nations. Nations have been far more willing to engage in cyber-attacks on each other than other kinds of attacks, because the information sphere is largely not on the books, which would otherwise reflect how globally interdependent it really is.

., 129–30, 261, 328 “Forum,” 214 Foucault, Michel, 308n 4chan, 335 4′33″ (Cage), 212 fractional reserve system, 33 Franco, Francisco, 159–60 freedom, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 freelancing, 253–54 Free Print Shop, 228 “free rise,” 182–89, 355 free speech, 223, 225 free will, 166–68 “friction,” 179, 225, 230, 235, 354 Friendster, 180, 181 Fukuyama, Francis, 165, 189 fundamentalism, 131, 193–94 future: chaos in, 165–66, 273n, 331 economic analysis of, 1–3, 15, 22, 37, 38, 40–41, 42, 67, 122, 143, 148–52, 153, 155–56, 204, 208, 209, 236, 259, 274, 288, 298–99, 311, 362n, 363 humanistic economy for, 194, 209, 233–351 361–367 “humors” of, 124–40, 230 modern conception of, 123–40, 193–94, 255 natural basis of, 125, 127, 128–29 optimism about, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 politics of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 technological trends in, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 utopian conception of, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 future-oriented money, 32–34, 35 Gadget, 186 Gallant, Jack, 111–12 games, 362, 363 Gates, Bill, 93 Gattaca, 130 Gawker, 118n Gelernter, David, 313 “general” machines, 158 General Motors, 56–57 general relativity theory, 167n Generation X, 346 genetic engineering, 130 genetics, 109–10, 130, 131, 146–47, 329, 366 genomics, 109–10, 146–47, 366 Germany, 45 Ghostery, 109 ghost suburbs, 296 Gibson, William, 137, 309 Gizmodo, 117–18 Global Business Network (GBN), 214–15 global climate change, 17, 32, 53, 132, 133, 134, 203, 266, 295, 296–97, 301–2, 331 global economy, 33n, 153–56, 173, 201, 214–15, 280 global village, 201 God, 29, 30–31, 139 Golden Goblet, 121, 121, 175, 328 golden rule, 335–36 gold standard, 34 Google, 14, 15, 19, 69, 74, 75–76, 90, 94, 106, 110, 120, 128, 153, 154, 170, 171, 174, 176, 180, 181–82, 188, 191, 192, 193, 199–200, 201, 209, 210, 217, 225, 227, 246, 249, 265, 267, 272, 278, 280, 286, 305n, 307, 309–10, 322, 325, 330, 344, 348, 352 Google Goggles, 309–10 Googleplex, 199–200 goops, 85–89, 99 Gore, Al, 80n Graeber, David, 30n granularity, 277 graph-shaped networks, 241, 242–43 Great Britain, 200 Great Depression, 69–70, 75, 135, 299 Great Recession, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 204, 311, 336–37 Greece, 22–25, 45, 125 Grigorov, Mario, 267 guitars, 154 guns, 310–11 Gurdjieff, George, 215, 216 gurus, 211–13 hackers, 14, 82, 265, 306–7, 345–46 Hardin, Garrett, 66n Hartmann, Thom, 33n Hayek, Friedrich, 204 health care, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 132–33, 153–54, 249, 253, 258, 337, 346 health insurance, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 153–54 Hearts and Minds, 353n heart surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 157–58 heat, 56 hedge funds, 69, 106, 137 Hephaestus, 22, 23 high-dimensional problems, 145 high-frequency trading, 56, 76–78, 154 highways, 79–80, 345 Hinduism, 214 Hippocrates, 124n Hiroshima bombing (1945), 127 Hollywood, 204, 206, 242 holographic radiation, 11 Homebrew Club, 228 homelessness, 151 homeopathy, 131–32 Homer, 23, 55 Honan, Mat, 82 housing market, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 HTML, 227, 230 Huffington Post, 176, 180, 189 human agency, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 humanistic information economy, 194, 209, 233–351 361–367 human reproduction, 131 humors (tropes), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 hunter-gatherer societies, 131, 261–62 hyperefficient markets, 39, 42–43 hypermedia, 224–30, 245 hyper-unemployment, 7–8 hypotheses, 113, 128, 151 IBM, 191 identity, 14–15, 82, 124, 173–74, 175, 248–51, 283–90, 305, 306, 307, 315–16, 319–21 identity theft, 82, 315–16 illusions, 55, 110n, 120–21, 135, 154–56, 195, 257 immigration, 91, 97, 346 immortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 imports, 70 income levels, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 incrementalism, 239–40 indentured servitude, 33n, 158 India, 54, 211–13 industrialization, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 infant mortality rates, 17, 134 infinity, 55–56 inflation, 32, 33–34 information: age of, 15–17, 42, 166, 241 ambiguity of, 41, 53–54, 155–56 asymmetry of, 54–55, 61–66, 118, 188, 203, 246–48, 285–88, 291–92, 310 behavior influenced by, 32, 121, 131, 173–74, 286–87 collection of, 61–62, 108–9 context of, 143–44, 178, 188–89, 223–24, 225, 245–46, 247, 248–51, 338, 356–57, 360 correlations in, 75–76, 114–15, 192, 274–75 for decision-making, 63–64, 184, 266, 269–75, 284n digital networks for, see digital networks duplication of, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 economic impact of, 1–3, 8–9, 15–17, 18, 19–20, 21, 35, 60–61, 92–97, 118, 185, 188, 201, 207, 209, 241–43, 245–46, 246–48, 256–58, 263, 283–87, 291–303, 331, 361–67 in education, 92–97 encrypted, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 false, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 filters for, 119–20, 200, 225, 356–57 free, 7–9, 15–16, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 214, 223–30, 239–40, 246, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 history of, 29–31 human agency in, 22–25, 69–70, 120–21, 122, 190–91 interpretation of, 29n, 114–15, 116, 120–21, 129–32, 154, 158, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 investment, 59–60, 179–85 life cycle of, 175–76 patterns in, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 privacy of, see privacy provenance of, 245–46, 247, 338 sampling of, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 shared, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 100, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 signals in, 76–78, 148, 293–94 storage of, 29, 167n, 184–85; see also cloud processors and storage; servers superior, 61–66, 114, 128, 143, 171, 246–48 technology of, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 transparency of, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 190–91, 306–7 two-way links in, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 value of, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 see also big data; data infrastructure, 79–80, 87, 179, 201, 290, 345 initial public offerings (IPOs), 103 ink, 87, 331 Inner Directeds, 215 Instagram, 2, 53 instant prices, 272, 275, 288, 320 insurance industry, 44, 56, 60, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 153–54, 203, 306 intellectual property, 44, 47, 49, 60, 61, 96, 102, 183, 204, 205–10, 223, 224–26, 236, 239–40, 246, 253–64 intelligence agencies, 56, 61, 199–200, 291, 346 intelligence tests, 39, 40 interest rates, 81 Internet: advertising on, 14, 20, 24, 42, 66, 81, 107, 109, 114, 129, 154, 169–74, 177, 182, 207, 227, 242, 266–67, 275, 286, 291, 322–24, 347–48, 354, 355 anonymity of, 172, 248–51, 283–90 culture of, 13–15, 25 development of, 69, 74, 79–80, 89, 129–30, 159, 162, 190–96, 223, 228 economic impact of, 1–2, 18, 19–20, 24, 31, 43, 60–66, 79–82, 117, 136–37, 169–74, 181, 186 employment and, 2, 7–8, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 117, 123, 135, 149, 178, 201, 257–58 file sharing on, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 100, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 free products and services of, 7n, 10, 60–61, 73, 81, 82, 90, 94–96, 97, 128, 154, 176, 183, 187, 201, 205–10, 234, 246–48, 253–64, 283–88, 289, 308–9, 317–24, 337–38, 348–50, 366 human contributions to, 19–21, 128, 129–30, 191–92, 253–64 identity in, 14–15, 82, 173–74, 175, 283–90, 315–16 investment in, 117–20, 181 legal issues in, 63, 79–82, 204, 206, 318–19 licensing agreements for, 79–82 as network, 2–3, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19–21, 31, 49, 50–51, 53, 54–55, 56, 57, 75, 92, 129–30, 143–48, 228–29, 259, 286–87, 308–9 political aspect of, 13–15, 205–10 search engines for, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293; see also Google security of, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 surveillance of, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 transparency of, 63–66, 176, 205–6, 278, 291, 308–9, 316, 336 websites on, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Internet2, 69 Internet service providers (ISPs), 171–72 Interstate Highway System, 79–80, 345 “In-valid,” 130 inventors, 117–20 investment, financial, 45, 50, 59–67, 74–80, 115, 116–20, 155, 179–85, 208, 218, 257, 258, 277–78, 298, 301, 348, 350 Invisible Hand humor, 126, 128 IP addresses, 248 iPads, 267 Iran, 199, 200 irony, 130 Islam, 184 Italy, 133 Jacquard programmable looms, 23n “jailbreaking,” 103–4 Japan, 85, 97, 98, 133 Jeopardy, 191 Jeremijenko, Natalie, 302 jingles, 267 jobs, see employment Jobs, Steve, 93, 166n, 192, 358 JOBS Act (2012), 117n journalism, 92, 94 Kapital, Das (Marx), 136 Keynesianism, 38, 151–52, 204, 209, 274, 288 Khan Academy, 94 Kickstarter, 117–20, 186–87, 343 Kindle, 352 Kinect, 89n, 265 “Kirk’s Wager,” 139 Klout, 365 Kodak, 2, 53 Kottke, Dan, 211 KPFA, 136 Kurzweil, Ray, 127, 325, 327 Kushner, Tony, 165, 189 LaBerge, Stephen, 162 labor, human, 85, 86, 87, 88, 99–100, 257–58, 292 labor unions, 44, 47–48, 49, 96, 239, 240 Laffer curve, 149–51, 150, 152 Las Vegas, Nev., 296, 298 lawyers, 98–99, 100, 136, 184, 318–19 leadership, 341–51 legacy prices, 272–75, 288 legal issues, 49, 63, 74–82, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 136, 184, 204, 206, 318–19 Lehman Brothers, 188 lemonade stands, 79–82 “lemons,” 118–19 Lennon, John, 211, 213 levees, economic, 43–45, 46, 47, 48, 49–50, 52, 92, 94, 96, 98, 108, 171, 176n, 224–25, 239–43, 253–54, 263, 345 leveraged mortgages, 49–50, 61, 227, 245, 289n, 296 liberal arts, 97 liberalism, 135–36, 148, 152, 202, 204, 208, 235, 236, 251, 253, 256, 265, 293, 350 libertarianism, 14, 34, 80, 202, 208, 210, 262, 321 liberty, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 licensing agreements, 79–82 “Lifestreams” (Gelernter), 313 Lights in the Tunnel, The (Ford), 56n Linux, 206, 253, 291, 344 litigation, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 184 loans, 32–33, 42, 43, 74, 151–52, 306 local advantages, 64, 94–95, 143–44, 153–56, 173, 203, 280 Local/Global Flip, 153–56, 173, 280 locked-in software, 172–73, 182, 273–74 logical copies, 223 Long-Term Capital Management, 49, 74–75 looms, 22, 23n, 24 loopholes, tax, 77 lotteries, 338–39 lucid dreaming, 162 Luddites, 135, 136 lyres, 22, 23n, 24 machines, 19–20, 86, 92, 123, 129–30, 158, 261, 309–11, 328 see also computers “Machine Stops, The” (Forster), 129–30, 261, 328 machine translations, 19–20 machine vision, 309–11 McMillen, Keith, 117 magic, 110, 115, 151, 178, 216, 338 Malthus, Thomas, 132, 134 Malthusian humor, 125, 127, 132–33 management, 49 manufacturing sector, 49, 85–89, 99, 123, 154, 343 market economies, see economies, market marketing, 211–13, 266–67, 306, 346 “Markets for Lemons” problem, 118–19 Markoff, John, 213 marriage, 167–68, 274–75, 286 Marxism, 15, 22, 37–38, 48, 136–37, 262 as humor, 126 mash-ups, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 Maslow, Abraham, 260, 315 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 75, 93, 94, 96–97, 157–58, 184 mass media, 7, 66, 86, 109, 120, 135, 136, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 material extinction, 125 materialism, 125n, 195 mathematics, 11, 20, 40–41, 70, 71–72, 75–78, 116, 148, 155, 161, 189n, 273n see also statistics Matrix, The, 130, 137, 155 Maxwell, James Clerk, 55 Maxwell’s Demon, 55–56 mechanicals, 49, 51n Mechanical Turk, 177–78, 185, 187, 349 Medicaid, 99 medicine, 11–13, 17, 18, 54, 66–67, 97–106, 131, 132–33, 134, 150, 157–58, 325, 346, 363, 366–67 Meetings with Remarkable Men (Gurdjieff), 215 mega-dossiers, 60 memes, 124 Memex, 221n memories, 131, 312–13, 314 meta-analysis, 112 metaphysics, 12, 127, 139, 193–95 Metcalf’s Law, 169n, 350 Mexico City, 159–62 microfilm, 221n microorganisms, 162 micropayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 Microsoft, 19, 89, 265 Middle Ages, 190 middle class, 2, 3, 9, 11, 16–17, 37–38, 40, 42–45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 74, 79, 91, 92, 95, 98, 171, 205, 208, 210, 224–25, 239–43, 246, 253–54, 259, 262, 263, 280, 291–94, 331, 341n, 344, 345, 347, 354 milling machines, 86 mind reading, 111 Minority Report, 130, 310 Minsky, Marvin, 94, 157–58, 217, 326, 330–31 mission statements, 154–55 Mixed (Augmented) Reality, 312–13, 314, 315 mobile phones, 34n, 39, 85, 87, 162, 172, 182n, 192, 229, 269n, 273, 314, 315, 331 models, economic, 40–41, 148–52, 153, 155–56 modernity, 123–40, 193–94, 255 molds, 86 monetization, 172, 176n, 185, 186, 207, 210, 241–43, 255–56, 258, 260–61, 263, 298, 331, 338, 344–45 money, 3, 21, 29–35, 86, 108, 124, 148, 152, 154, 155, 158, 172, 185, 241–43, 278–79, 284–85, 289, 364 monocultures, 94 monopolies, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 Moondust, 362n Moore’s Law, 9–18, 20, 153, 274–75, 288 morality, 29–34, 35, 42, 50–52, 54, 71–74, 188, 194–95, 252–64, 335–36 Morlocks, 137 morning-after pill, 104 morphing, 162 mortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 mortgages, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 300 motivation, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 motivational speakers, 216 movies, 111–12, 130, 137, 165, 192, 193, 204, 206, 256, 261–62, 277–78, 310 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 23n MRI, 111n music industry, 11, 18, 22, 23–24, 42, 47–51, 54, 61, 66, 74, 78, 86, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95–96, 97, 129, 132, 134–35, 154, 157, 159–62, 186–87, 192, 206–7, 224, 227, 239, 253, 266–67, 281, 318, 347, 353, 354, 355, 357 Myspace, 180 Nancarrow, Conlon, 159–62 Nancarrow, Yoko, 161 nanopayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 nanorobots, 11, 12, 17 nanotechnology, 11, 12, 17, 87, 162 Napster, 92 narcissism, 153–56, 188, 201 narratives, 165–66, 199 National Security Agency (NSA), 199–200 natural medicine, 131 Nelson, Ted, 128, 221, 228, 245, 349–50 Nelsonian systems, 221–30, 335 Nelson’s humor, 128 Netflix, 192, 223 “net neutrality,” 172 networked cameras, 309–11, 319 networks, see digital networks neutrinos, 110n New Age, 211–17 Newmark, Craig, 177n New Mexico, 159, 203 newspapers, 109, 135, 177n, 225, 284, 285n New York, N.Y., 75, 91, 266–67 New York Times, 109 Nobel Prize, 40, 118, 143n nodes, network, 156, 227, 230, 241–43, 350 “no free lunch” principle, 55–56, 59–60 nondeterministic music, 23n nonlinear solutions, 149–50 nonprofit share sites, 59n, 94–95 nostalgia, 129–32 NRO, 199–200 nuclear power, 133 nuclear weapons, 127, 296 nursing, 97–100, 123, 296n nursing homes, 97–100, 269 Obama, Barack, 79, 100 “Obamacare,” 100n obsolescence, 89, 95 oil resources, 43, 133 online stores, 171 Ono, Yoko, 212 ontologies, 124n, 196 open-source applications, 206, 207, 272, 310–11 optical illusions, 121 optimism, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 optimization, 144–47, 148, 153, 154–55, 167, 202, 203 Oracle, 265 Orbitz, 63, 64, 65 organ donors, 190, 191 ouroboros, 154 outcomes, economic, 40–41, 144–45 outsourcing, 177–78, 185 Owens, Buck, 256 packet switching, 228–29 Palmer, Amanda, 186–87 Pandora, 192 panopticons, 308 papacy, 190 paper money, 34n parallel computers, 147–48, 149, 151 paranoia, 309 Parrish, Maxfield, 214 particle interactions, 196 party machines, 202 Pascal, Blaise, 132, 139 Pascal’s Wager, 139 passwords, 307, 309 “past-oriented money,” 29–31, 35, 284–85 patterns, information, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 Paul, Ron, 33n Pauli exclusion principle, 181, 202 PayPal, 60, 93, 326 peasants, 565 pensions, 95, 99 Perestroika (Kushner), 165 “perfect investments,” 59–67, 77–78 performances, musical, 47–48, 51, 186–87, 253 perpetual motion, 55 Persian Gulf, 86 personal computers (PCs), 158, 182n, 214, 223, 229 personal information systems, 110, 312–16, 317 Pfizer, 265 pharmaceuticals industry, 66–67, 100–106, 123, 136, 203 philanthropy, 117 photography, 53, 89n, 92, 94, 309–11, 318, 319, 321 photo-sharing services, 53 physical trades, 292 physicians, 66–67 physics, 88, 153n, 167n Picasso, Pablo, 108 Pinterest, 180–81, 183 Pirate Party, 49, 199, 206, 226, 253, 284, 318 placebos, 112 placement fees, 184 player pianos, 160–61 plutocracy, 48, 291–94, 355 police, 246, 310, 311, 319–21, 335 politics, 13–18, 21, 22–25, 47–48, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 149–51, 155, 167, 199–234, 295–96, 342 see also conservatism; liberalism; libertarianism Ponzi schemes, 48 Popper, Karl, 189n popular culture, 111–12, 130, 137–38, 139, 159 “populating the stack,” 273 population, 17, 34n, 86, 97–100, 123, 125, 132, 133, 269, 296n, 325–26, 346 poverty, 37–38, 42, 44, 53–54, 93–94, 137, 148, 167, 190, 194, 253, 256, 263, 290, 291–92 power, personal, 13–15, 53, 60, 62–63, 86, 114, 116, 120, 122, 158, 166, 172–73, 175, 190, 199, 204, 207, 208, 278–79, 290, 291, 302–3, 308–9, 314, 319, 326, 344, 360 Presley, Elvis, 211 Priceline, 65 pricing strategies, 1–2, 43, 60–66, 72–74, 145, 147–48, 158, 169–74, 226, 261, 272–75, 289, 317–24, 331, 337–38 printers, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 privacy, 1–2, 11, 13–15, 25, 50–51, 64, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 204, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–13, 314, 315–16, 317, 319–24 privacy rights, 13–15, 25, 204, 305, 312–13, 314, 315–16, 321–22 product design and development, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 236 productivity, 7, 56–57, 134–35 profit margins, 59n, 71–72, 76–78, 94–95, 116, 177n, 178, 179, 207, 258, 274–75, 321–22 progress, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 promotions, 62 property values, 52 proprietary hardware, 172 provenance, 245–46, 247, 338 pseudo-asceticism, 211–12 public libraries, 293 public roads, 79–80 publishers, 62n, 92, 182, 277–78, 281, 347, 352–60 punishing vs. rewarding network effects, 169–74, 182, 183 quants, 75–76 quantum field theory, 167n, 195 QuNeo, 117, 118, 119 Rabois, Keith, 185 “race to the bottom,” 178 radiant risk, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 Ragnarok, 30 railroads, 43, 172 Rand, Ayn, 167, 204 randomness, 143 rationality, 144 Reagan, Ronald, 149 real estate, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 reality, 55–56, 59–60, 124n, 127–28, 154–56, 161, 165–68, 194–95, 203–4, 216–17, 295–303, 364–65 see also Virtual Reality (VR) reason, 195–96 recessions, economic, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 79, 151–52, 167, 204, 311, 336–37 record labels, 347 recycling, 88, 89 Reddit, 118n, 186, 254 reductionism, 184 regulation, economic, 37–38, 44, 45–46, 49–50, 54, 56, 69–70, 77–78, 266n, 274, 299–300, 311, 321–22, 350–51 relativity theory, 167n religion, 124–25, 126, 131, 139, 190, 193–95, 211–17, 293, 300n, 326 remote computers, 11–12 rents, 144 Republican Party, 79, 202 research and development, 40–45, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 215, 229–30, 236 retail sector, 69, 70–74, 95–96, 169–74, 272, 349–51, 355–56 retirement, 49, 150 revenue growth plans, 173n revenues, 149, 149, 150, 151, 173n, 225, 234–35, 242, 347–48 reversible computers, 143n revolutions, 199, 291, 331 rhythm, 159–62 Rich Dad, Poor Dad (Kiyosaki), 46 risk, 54, 55, 57, 59–63, 71–72, 85, 117, 118–19, 120, 156, 170–71, 179, 183–84, 188, 242, 277–81, 284, 337, 350 externalization of, 59n, 117, 277–81 risk aversion, 188 risk pools, 277–81, 284 risk radiation, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 robo call centers, 177n robotic cars, 90–92 robotics, robots, 11, 12, 17, 23, 42, 55, 85–86, 90–92, 97–100, 111, 129, 135–36, 155, 157, 162, 260, 261, 269, 296n, 342, 359–60 Roman Empire, 24–25 root nodes, 241 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 129 Rousseau humor, 126, 129, 130–31 routers, 171–72 royalties, 47, 240, 254, 263–64, 323, 338 Rubin, Edgar, 121 rupture, 66–67 salaries, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 sampling, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 San Francisco, University of, 190 satellites, 110 savings, 49, 72–74 scalable solutions, 47 scams, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 scanned books, 192, 193 SceneTap, 108n Schmidt, Eric, 305n, 352 Schwartz, Peter, 214 science fiction, 18, 126–27, 136, 137–38, 139, 193, 230n, 309, 356n search engines, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293 Second Life, 270, 343 Secret, The (Byrne), 216 securitization, 76–78, 99, 289n security, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 self-actualization, 211–17 self-driving vehicles, 90–92, 98, 311, 343, 367 servants, 22 servers, 12n, 15, 31, 53–57, 71–72, 95–96, 143–44, 171, 180, 183, 206, 245, 358 see also Siren Servers “Sexy Sadie,” 213 Shakur, Tupac, 329 Shelley, Mary, 327 Short History of Progress, A (Wright), 132 “shrinking markets,” 66–67 shuttles, 22, 23n, 24 signal-processing algorithms, 76–78, 148 silicon chips, 10, 86–87 Silicon Valley, 12, 13, 14, 21, 34n, 56, 59, 60, 66–67, 70, 71, 75–76, 80, 93, 96–97, 100, 102, 108n, 125n, 132, 136, 154, 157, 162, 170, 179–89, 192, 193, 200, 207, 210, 211–18, 228, 230, 233, 258, 275n, 294, 299–300, 325–31, 345, 349, 352, 354–58 singularity, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 Singularity University, 193, 325, 327–28 Sirenic Age, 66n, 354 Siren Servers, 53–57, 59, 61–64, 65, 66n, 69–78, 82, 91–99, 114–19, 143–48, 154–56, 166–89, 191, 200, 201, 203, 210n, 216, 235, 246–50, 258, 259, 269, 271, 272, 280, 285, 289, 293–94, 298, 301, 302–3, 307–10, 314–23, 326, 336–51, 354, 365, 366 Siri, 95 skilled labor, 99–100 Skout, 280n Skype, 95, 129 slavery, 22, 23, 33n Sleeper, 130 small businesses, 173 smartphones, 34n, 39, 162, 172, 192, 269n, 273 Smith, Adam, 121, 126 Smolin, Lee, 148n social contract, 20, 49, 247, 284, 288, 335, 336 social engineering, 112–13, 190–91 socialism, 14, 128, 254, 257, 341n social mobility, 66, 97, 292–94 social networks, 18, 51, 56, 60, 70, 81, 89, 107–9, 113, 114, 129, 167–68, 172–73, 179, 180, 190, 199, 200–201, 202, 204, 227, 241, 242–43, 259, 267, 269n, 274–75, 280n, 286, 307–8, 317, 336, 337, 343, 349, 358, 365–66 see also Facebook social safety nets, 10, 44, 54, 202, 251, 293 Social Security, 251, 345 software, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 68, 86, 99, 100–101, 128, 129, 147, 154, 155, 165, 172–73, 177–78, 182, 192, 234, 236, 241–42, 258, 262, 273–74, 283, 331, 347, 357 software-mediated technology, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 South Korea, 133 Soviet Union, 70 “space elevator pitch,” 233, 342, 361 space travel, 233, 266 Spain, 159–60 spam, 178, 275n spending levels, 287–88 spirituality, 126, 211–17, 325–31, 364 spreadsheet programs, 230 “spy data tax,” 234–35 Square, 185 Stalin, Joseph, 125n Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 215 Stanford University, 60, 75, 90, 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 162, 325 Starr, Ringo, 256 Star Trek, 138, 139, 230n startup companies, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 starvation, 123 Star Wars, 137 star (winner-take-all) system, 38–43, 50, 54–55, 204, 243, 256–57, 263, 329–30 statistics, 11, 20, 71–72, 75–78, 90–91, 93, 110n, 114–15, 186, 192 “stickiness,” 170, 171 stimulus, economic, 151–52 stoplights, 90 Strangelove humor, 127 student debt, 92, 95 “Study 27,” 160 “Study 36,” 160 Sumer, 29 supergoop, 85–89 supernatural phenomena, 55, 124–25, 127, 132, 192, 194–95, 300 supply chain, 70–72, 174, 187 Supreme Court, U.S., 104–5 surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 98, 157–58, 363 surveillance, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 Surviving Progress, 132 sustainable economies, 235–37, 285–87 Sutherland, Ivan, 221 swarms, 99, 109 synthesizers, 160 synthetic biology, 162 tablets, 85, 86, 87, 88, 113, 162, 229 Tahrir Square, 95 Tamagotchis, 98 target ads, 170 taxation, 44, 45, 49, 52, 60, 74–75, 77, 82, 149, 149, 150, 151, 202, 210, 234–35, 263, 273, 289–90 taxis, 44, 91–92, 239, 240, 266–67, 269, 273, 311 Teamsters, 91 TechCrunch, 189 tech fixes, 295–96 technical schools, 96–97 technologists (“techies”), 9–10, 15–16, 45, 47–48, 66–67, 88, 122, 124, 131–32, 134, 139–40, 157–62, 165–66, 178, 193–94, 295–98, 307, 309, 325–31, 341, 342, 356n technology: author’s experience in, 47–48, 62n, 69–72, 93–94, 114, 130, 131–32, 153, 158–62, 178, 206–7, 228, 265, 266–67, 309–10, 325, 328, 343, 352–53, 362n, 364, 365n, 366 bio-, 11–13, 17, 18, 109–10, 162, 330–31 chaos and, 165–66, 273n, 331 collusion in, 65–66, 72, 169–74, 255, 350–51 complexity of, 53–54 costs of, 8, 18, 72–74, 87n, 136–37, 170–71, 176–77, 184–85 creepiness of, 305–24 cultural impact of, 8–9, 21, 23–25, 53, 130, 135–40 development and emergence of, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 digital, 2–3, 7–8, 15–16, 18, 31, 40, 43, 50–51, 132, 208 economic impact of, 1–3, 15–18, 29–30, 37, 40, 53–54, 60–66, 71–74, 79–110, 124, 134–37, 161, 162, 169–77, 181–82, 183, 184–85, 218, 254, 277–78, 298, 335–39, 341–51, 357–58 educational, 92–97 efficiency of, 90, 118, 191 employment in, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 123, 135, 178 engineering for, 113–14, 123–24, 192, 194, 217, 218, 326 essential vs. worthless, 11–12 failure of, 188–89 fear of (technophobia), 129–32, 134–38 freedom as issue in, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 government influence in, 158, 199, 205–6, 234–35, 240, 246, 248–51, 307, 317, 341, 345–46, 350–51 human agency and, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 ideas for, 123, 124, 158, 188–89, 225, 245–46, 286–87, 299, 358–60 industrial, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 information, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 investment in, 66, 181, 183, 184, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 limitations of, 157–62, 196, 222 monopolies for, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 morality and, 50–51, 72, 73–74, 188, 194–95, 262, 335–36 motivation and, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 nano-, 11, 12, 17, 162 new vs. old, 20–21 obsolescence of, 89, 97 political impact of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 progress in, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 resources for, 55–56, 157–58 rupture as concept in, 66–67 scams in, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 singularity of, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 social impact of, 9–21, 124–40, 167n, 187, 280–81, 310–11 software-mediated, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 startup companies in, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 utopian, 13–18, 21, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 see also specific technologies technophobia, 129–32, 134–38 television, 86, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 temperature, 56, 145 Ten Commandments, 300n Terminator, The, 137 terrorism, 133, 200 Tesla, Nikola, 327 Texas, 203 text, 162, 352–60 textile industry, 22, 23n, 24, 135 theocracy, 194–95 Theocracy humor, 124–25 thermodynamics, 88, 143n Thiel, Peter, 60, 93, 326 thought experiments, 55, 139 thought schemas, 13 3D printers, 7, 85–89, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 Thrun, Sebastian, 94 Tibet, 214 Time Machine, The (Wells), 127, 137, 261, 331 topology, network, 241–43, 246 touchscreens, 86 tourism, 79 Toyota Prius, 302 tracking services, 109, 120–21, 122 trade, 29 traffic, 90–92, 314 “tragedy of the commons,” 66n Transformers, 98 translation services, 19–20, 182, 191, 195, 261, 262, 284, 338 transparency, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 176, 190–91, 205–6, 278, 291, 306–9, 316, 336 transportation, 79–80, 87, 90–92, 123, 258 travel agents, 64 Travelocity, 65 travel sites, 63, 64, 65, 181, 279–80 tree-shaped networks, 241–42, 243, 246 tribal dramas, 126 trickle-down effect, 148–49, 204 triumphalism, 128, 157–62 tropes (humors), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 trust, 32–34, 35, 42, 51–52 Turing, Alan, 127–28, 134 Turing’s humor, 127–28, 191–94 Turing Test, 330 Twitter, 128, 173n, 180, 182, 188, 199, 200n, 201, 204, 245, 258, 259, 349, 365n 2001: A Space Odyssey, 137 two-way links, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 underemployment, 257–58 unemployment, 7–8, 22, 79, 85–106, 117, 151–52, 234, 257–58, 321–22, 331, 343 “unintentional manipulation,” 144 United States, 25, 45, 54, 79–80, 86, 138, 199–204 universities, 92–97 upper class, 45, 48 used car market, 118–19 user interface, 362–63, 364 utopianism, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 value, economic, 21, 33–35, 52, 61, 64–67, 73n, 108, 283–90, 299–300, 321–22, 364 value, information, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles (VALS), 215 variables, 149–50 vendors, 71–74 venture capital, 66, 181, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 videos, 60, 100, 162, 185–86, 204, 223, 225, 226, 239, 240, 242, 245, 277, 287, 329, 335–36, 349, 354, 356 Vietnam War, 353n vinyl records, 89 viral videos, 185–86 Virtual Reality (VR), 12, 47–48, 127, 129, 132, 158, 162, 214, 283–85, 312–13, 314, 315, 325, 343, 356, 362n viruses, 132–33 visibility, 184, 185–86, 234, 355 visual cognition, 111–12 VitaBop, 100–106, 284n vitamins, 100–106 Voice, The, 185–86 “voodoo economics,” 149 voting, 122, 202–4, 249 Wachowski, Lana, 165 Wall Street, 49, 70, 76–77, 181, 184, 234, 317, 331, 350 Wal-Mart, 69, 70–74, 89, 174, 187, 201 Warhol, Andy, 108 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 137 water supplies, 17, 18 Watts, Alan, 211–12 Wave, 189 wealth: aggregate or concentration of, 9, 42–43, 53, 60, 61, 74–75, 96, 97, 108, 115, 148, 157–58, 166, 175, 201, 202, 208, 234, 278–79, 298, 305, 335, 355, 360 creation of, 32, 33–34, 46–47, 50–51, 57, 62–63, 79, 92, 96, 120, 148–49, 210, 241–43, 270–75, 291–94, 338–39, 349 inequalities and redistribution of, 20, 37–45, 65–66, 92, 97, 144, 254, 256–57, 274–75, 286–87, 290–94, 298, 299–300 see also income levels weather forecasting, 110, 120, 150 weaving, 22, 23n, 24 webcams, 99, 245 websites, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Wells, H.


pages: 443 words: 125,510

The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities by John J. Mearsheimer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, Clive Stafford Smith, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal world order, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Peace of Westphalia, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs

Sutton, and Robert Wuthnow, “Exploring the Social Sources of Denominationalism: Schisms in American Protestant Denominations, 1890–1980,” American Sociological Review 53, no. 3 (June 1988): 343–52. Also see James R. Lewis and Sarah M. Lewis, eds., Sacred Schisms: How Religions Divide (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009). 60. On the problem of projecting power in the modern world, see Patrick Porter, The Global Village Myth: Distance, War, and the Limits of Power (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2015). On the “stopping power of water,” see John J. Mearsheimer, The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, updated ed. (New York: Norton, 2014), pp. 114–28. 61. Schmitt writes: “One could test all theories of state and political ideas according to their anthropology and thereby classify these as to whether they consciously or unconsciously presuppose man to be by nature evil or by nature good.”

Bernard E. Harcourt, The Illusion of Free Markets: Punishment and the Myth of Natural Order (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2011). 68. See Daniel Deudney’s discussion of how nuclear weapons increase “violence interdependence” among states, which has significant effects on both domestic and international politics. Deudney, Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007). 69. Jennifer Mittelstadt, The Rise of the Military Welfare State (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2015). 70. Morris Janowitz, Social Control of the Welfare State (New York: Elsevier, 1976), pp. 37–38. Also see Ellis W. Hawley, The Great War and the Search for a Modern Order: A History of the American People and Their Institutions, 1917–1933 (New York: St.

Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983), pp. 1–3. Anderson turns to nationalism to help explain those conflicts between communist states. 63. See Luis Cabrera, Global Governance, Global Government: Institutional Visions for an Evolving World System (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011), chap. 2; Daniel Deudney, Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007); Alexander Wendt, “Why a World State Is Inevitable,” European Journal of International Relations 9, no. 4 (December 2003): 491–542. There has been considerable interest in the possibility of a world state in the United States at different points in the past. In fact, realists such as Hans Morgenthau and Reinhold Niebuhr maintained that the development of nuclear weapons necessitated a world state.


pages: 413 words: 128,093

On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey Into South Asia by Steve Coll

affirmative action, airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, yellow journalism

In Western Europe a version of this competition took place over a span of centuries—and even today the struggle to reconcile hierarchies remains unfinished. In South Asia the effort has been compressed into decades, not so much because the region’s internal social evolution demanded such acceleration, but because the subcontinent suddenly found itself sucked into a newly interdependent twentieth-century “global village,” where all sorts of ideas and identities splashed freely across national boundaries that were themselves artificial. Many new nations have had to cope with this tide and backwash since World War II and a few have been destroyed by the pressures. In South Asia, the result has been occasionally catastrophic but more often merely peculiar. You see this tension in the obscurantist leaders who tried to build their movements with the most modern Western technology, such as the turbaned Islamic radicals in Pakistan who traveled with cellular telephones or the saffron-robed Hindu revivalists in India who spread their message with mobile video vans.

At first I thought that he might have gotten fleeced by American businesses, and that it might be a good thing to help him. But when Rama and I arranged to see him at his splotched, fetid apartment in Bombay, the problem turned out to be nothing quite so straightforward as that. Shroff had fallen into the great sea of American junk mail and had been unable to climb out. His was a tale of confusion and crossed signals in the postmodern global village. For twenty years Shroff made a living buying and selling junk in Hyderabad, Rao’s city of statues. A brother had moved to Illinois and wrote that America was a land of splendor and opportunity, a place swirling with business deals and millionaires. He invited Shroff to visit. During two stays at his brother’s apartment between 1989 and 1991, Shroff found himself dazzled by the ethos of American capitalism.

See also British Empire English language Ershad, Hussein Mohammed ethnic conflict; Afghanistan; Sri Lanka family planning fascism feudalism; in Bihar; and Pakistan; South Asian Finch, Al Fineman, Mark fishing Freedom of Information Act (United States) French Revolution Frost, David Gandhi, Indira: assassination of ; political paranoia ; as prime minister ; Sikhs and Gandhi, Mohandas K.: assassination of ; on cities; influence of ; as politician Gandhi, Rahul Gandhi, Rajiv: assassination of ; funeral of; and Hindu-Muslim conflict; and Kashmir rebellion ; as prime minister ; Sikhs and; and Sri Lankan civil war Gandhi, Sanjay Gandhi, Sonia Garwalis (hill people) Germany Gill, K. P. S. Global 2000 “global village” Gobind Singh Godse, Nathuram Golden Temple (Amritsar) Goonateleke, Nilam goondas (thugs) Copal, P. Murali Gorbachev, Mikhail S. Goswami, Rajiv Gouhar, Humayan Grameen Bank Grand Trunk Road Gratsinsky, Valentin Grifters (film) guerrilla movements: Afghani mujaheddin ; Kashmiri Muslims ; as political parties; Punjabi Sikhs ; Sind, Pakistan; Sri Lankan Sinhalese; Sri Lankan Tamils Guevara, Emesto (‘Che’) Gujarat, India Gujral.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

Factor e Farm is a group dedicated to building the “world’s first self replicating self-sufficient, open source, decentralized, high-appropriate-tech resilient permaculture ecovillage.” (The e is a reference to the transcendent mathematical constant e and a play on the word factory). Working from a converted soybean field outside Kansas City, Factor e Farm combines innovations in small-scale manufacturing with knowledge-intensive agriculture. They’re using a fab lab to build what they call a Global Village Construction Set—a step-by-step guide for replicating a self-sufficient, completely sustainable community requiring minimal financial capital. With just scrap metal and plastics, the fab lab technology enables the machines to replicate themselves, obviating the purchase of costly capital equipment. They’ve already developed and built machines such as the Liberator 2, which makes the compressed earth bricks used to construct the buildings, and the Life Trac, a steam-powered multipurpose tractor.

full-cost pricing furniture import statistics for prices of reuse of gardening GDP, see gross domestic product General Motors (GM) genuine progress indicator genuine saving estimates geothermal energy Germany: eco-communities in ecological footprint in historical carbon emissions of hours worked in New Work movement and productivity growth in Gershenfeld, Neil glaciers gleaning Global Ecovillage Network globalization Global North Global South Global Village Construction Set global warming, see climate change gold GoLoco Goulder, Lawrence Greece Green for All greenhouse gases agriculture and emissions of GDP and taxation of see also specific gases Greenland ice sheet green technology Green Worker Cooperatives gross domestic product (GDP) aggregate growth and consumption as percentage of global, climate change and Kuznets curve and material flow and rebound effect and relative decoupling and gross national product (GNP) growth: business size and financialization and households and income inequality and intensive versus extensive forms of job creation and limits to living standards and technology and H&M Hansen, James Happy Planet Index Harvard University Hawken, Paul Hayden, Anders Heal, Geoffrey health care single-payer (universal), plans for health insurance heat waves Holdren, John household production housing bubble in market for ecovillages and energy use in innovations in materials consumption and passive solar design and rebound effect and renovations and self-provisioning and storage and Hudson River Human Development Index human nature, adaptability of hurricanes hybrid vehicles hydrogen cell vehicles Hypercar hypoxia IBM Iceland iCommons IKEA imported goods automobiles as component of weight of income economic growth and inequality of well-being and income effect India: Auroville eco-city in ecological footprint in greenhouse gas emissions and Kuznets model and natural assets growth in population and Indonesia industrial revolution information technology insulation insurance integrated assessment models (IAMs) intensive growth Interface Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) International DeGrowth Conference International Union for the Conservation of Nature Internet online community of invasive species IPAT formulation IShareStuff.com Italy: eco-communities in ecological footprint in flexible production in hours worked in Jakubowski, Marcin Japan: ecological footprint in historical carbon emissions of hours worked in well-being and Jevons, William Stanley jewelry Journal of Economic Perspectives Kahn, Herman Kahneman, Daniel Kasser, Tim Katrina, Hurricane Keynes, John Maynard Khazzoom, Daniel Klinenberg, Eric knowledge natural asset restoration and restriction of knowledge commons Krueger, Alan Krugman, Paul Kuznets, Simon Kyoto protocols labor health and hours worked trends in part-time component of stress and time wealth and value and see also unemployment; wages LaDuke, Winona land use Lappé, Anna Lappé, Frances Layard, Richard leather Lemire, Beverly Leonhardt, David Liberator 2 machine life expectancy Life Trac machine Limits to Growth, The (Meadows, et al.)


pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

The phrase “new enclosures” is used in these articles to indicate that the thrust of contemporary capitalism is to annihilate any guarantees of subsistence that were recognized by socialist, postcolonial or Keynesian states in the 1950s and 1960s. This process must be violent in order to succeed. 4. The immense existing literature on structural adjustment, globalization and neoliberalism has amply described this transfer of wealth. See: Jeremy Brecher and Tim Costello, Global Village or Global Pillage: Economic Reconstruction from the Bottom Up (Boston: South End Press, 1994); Walden Bello, Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment and Global Poverty (London: Pluto Press, 1994); Richard J. Barnet and John Cavanagh, Global Dreams: Imperial Corporations and the New World Order (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994). 5. The literature on structural adjustment in Africa is also immense.

Subverting the Present, Imagining the Future: Class, Struggle, Commons. Brooklyn: Autonomedia, 2008. Boris, Eileen, and Jennifer Klein. “We Were the Invisible Workforce: Unionizing Home Care.” In The Sex of Class: Women Transforming American Labor, edited by Dorothy Sue Cobble, 177-93. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2007. Boserup, Ester. Women’s Role in Economic Development. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1970. Brecher, Jeremy, and Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage: Economic Reconstruction from the Bottom Up. Boston: South End Press, 1994. Brody, Jane E. “When Families Take Care of Their Own.” New York Times. November 11, 2008. Brozn, Michelle Burton. “Women Garment Workers of Bangladesh Seek U.S. Support in Anti-Sweatshop Campaign.” Industrial Workers of the World. http://www.iww.org/unions/iu410/mlb/11-23-2004.shtml. Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.


pages: 454 words: 139,350

Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy by Benjamin Barber

airport security, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, computer age, Corn Laws, Corrections Corporation of America, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, global village, invisible hand, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, pirate software, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, young professional, zero-sum game

Satellite dishes the size of a dinner plate put a global ear at the disposal of peoples imprisoned in the most despotic regimes, and have proved their worth in places like China and Iran where, despite an official government ban, they continue to spread—and as they do, to spread unfettered images to information-starved consumers.2 In combination, these technologies potentially enhance lateral communication among citizens, open access to information by all, and furnish citizens with communication links across distances that once precluded direct democracy or, indeed, interaction of any kind. If the scale of ancient democracy was bounded by the territory a man could cross on foot in a day on his way to the assembly, telecommunications at the speed of light turn the entire globe into a wired town of potential neighbors—McLuhan’s global village. Of course, if democracy is to be understood as deliberative and participatory activity on the part of responsible citizens, it must resist the innovative forms of demagoguery that accompany innovative technology. Home voting via interactive television could further privatize politics and replace deliberative debate in public with the unconsidered instant expression of private prejudices. Democracy calls not only for votes but for good reasons, not only for an opinion but for a rational argument on its behalf.

An end to maritime subsidies in 1997, planned by the Clinton administration, will if it occurs mean the loss of twenty thousand maritime jobs. Don Phillips, “Pulling the Plug on American-Flag Ships,” The Washington Post, National Weekly Edition, May 24–30, 1993, p. 33. 18. Iraq acquired its capacity from countries such as the United States, Germany, France, Britain, and Saudi Arabia, all of which presumably had a vital national interest in preventing nuclear proliferation. Robert J. Samuelson, “The Global Village Revisited,” in Vital World Statistics, p. 4. 19. West Germany with 102 deals was the chief culprit, but the U.S., Switzerland, and Britain had nearly two dozen deals each, while Brazil, Italy, Austria, France, and Japan had five to fourteen deals each. Douglas Jehl, “The World: Who Armed Iraq? Answers the West Didn’t Want to Hear,” The New York Times, July 18, 1993, p. E 5. However, it is not the countries but the firms nominally flying country flags that are doing business; and as Middle East expert Anthony Cordesman has observed, “One major foreign order is incentive enough for some of these firms to turn a blind eye to the law,” as well as, one surmises, to the conflicting security interests of their “mother” nations.

Until recently, bikes outnumbered cars in China 250 to 1; however, although it continues to use bicycles as a primary transportation vehicle, reducing dependency on petroleum, steel, rubber, aluminum, and matériel and at the same time sparing the planet additional environmental pollution, it is now planning to expand automobile production radically. Vital Signs, p. 21. 20. C. A. S. Hall, C. J. Cleveland, and R. Kaufmann, Energy and Resource Quality: The Ecology of the Economic Process (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1986), p. 161. 21. The Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review: 1991 (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, 1991). 22. Figures from R. Samuelson, “The Global Village,” introductory essay to Vital World Statistics, no page. 23. The Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Reports (Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior, 1992). 24. In 1989, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Oman ranked, respectively, numbers one, two, three, eight, and nine in per capita energy consumption in the world; whatever else their bad consumption habits bred, dependency was not among them. 25.


pages: 455 words: 133,322

The Facebook Effect by David Kirkpatrick

Andy Kessler, Burning Man, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, Peter Thiel, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Whole Earth Review, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

It may help us to move back toward a kind of intimacy that the ever-quickening pace of modern life has drawn us away from. At the same time, Facebook’s global scale, combined with the quantity of personal information its users entrust to it, suggests a movement toward a form of universal connectivity that is truly new in human society. The social philosopher and media theorist Marshall McLuhan is a favorite at the company. He coined the term “the global village.” In his influential 1964 book, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, he predicted the development of a universal communications platform that would unite the planet. “Rapidly, we approach the final phase of the extensions of man—the technological simulation of consciousness,” he wrote, “when the creative process of knowing will be collectively and corporately extended to the whole of society.”

Does it really make sense to combine the original conception of Facebook with what Twitter and MySpace and a host of other, less-restrictive services do? Can a system based on trust ever evolve to become truly open? The answer to such questions will depend on decisions that Facebook makes as it refines and improves its service. Zuckerberg cares deeply about Facebook’s potential to serve as a bridge between people. He will work to turn it ever more into a town square for the global village. But as we have heard, he also has a conviction about the importance of helping people protect their most sensitive personal data. Maintaining the enthusiasm of hundreds of millions of people who joined originally to communicate with their friends will remain his ongoing challenge. Postscript By the time you read this book, Facebook will likely have exceeded half a billion active users.

., 49 Ellison, Nicole, 68 El-Maayirgy, Sherry, 280 email, 16, 67, 188, 274 engagement ads, 260–61 eUniverse, 75 Evans, Katherine, 211 Evite.com, 216 Evolution of God, The (Wright), 202 f8 event, 222–25, 226, 227, 228, 231, 245 Facebook: Accel’s meetings and deal with, 117–18, 119–20, 124–26, 129, 130, 143, 146–47, 170, 183, 318, 320, 322, 323 advertising on, 37–38, 42, 43, 44, 55, 60, 61–62, 101–3, 109–10, 111–12, 132, 139–43, 177–79, 221, 232, 235, 237, 246, 255, 256–68, 270–73, 307 American values and, 278–80 amount of content on, 11–12 board of, 125–26, 138, 146–48, 236, 320–21; see also specific board members capital of, 42, 62, 63, 86 chat on, 219 as circumscribed to university students, 84, 88, 91–92, 100, 149–50 company cars of, 57, 98 company “pages” on, 246 complaints about, 165–66, 189–195, 196, 197, 201, 249, 304, 308–10 conventional media and, 295–98 corporations and, 298–301 Courses application on, 226 customer support requests to, 132–33 data centers of, 225–26, 285 early college-based growth of, 32–33, 34–39, 88, 89, 92, 94, 100, 101, 110–11, 140, 149–51, 179 Emerson Street office of, 117–18, 121, 129, 130–31, 151 exhibitionism and, 13 in expansion beyond colleges, 98, 149–51 expenditures of, 55, 59 “fans” on, 246, 310 friending on, 12–13, 14, 30, 32, 33, 34, 61, 92, 100, 173, 181, 193–94, 297, 312–13 Frisson party for, 103–4 frivolous gatherings organized on, 8 games on, 9, 228–30, 283 glitches in code of, 132 Google’s advertising talks with, 238–39, 242 Google’s desire to buy, 54, 326 groups on, 3–6, 7, 8–9, 93, 151, 189–92, 211, 263–64, 288, 289, 290, 294 growth chart of, 111 hiring and recruitment by, 47, 105, 106, 116, 129, 130–31, 132–34, 135, 138, 157–58, 165–66, 175, 188, 251–54, 256 housing subsidy offered to employees of, 137 human resources rating system at, 255 imitations of, 101, 171, 282, 284–85, 334 immaturity at, 128, 133, 198 incorporations of, 41, 53, 62–63, 99 inspiration for, 28–29 intellectual property theft accusation and lawsuit against, 40–41, 65, 66, 80–85, 97, 173 internal communication issues in, 162–64 investments in, 9–10, 30, 38, 41, 42–44, 53–54, 59, 62, 63, 86, 87–88, 89, 94, 107–27, 129, 130, 183, 232, 236, 244, 246, 284–85, 318, 322–23 invitations on, 216–17 launch of, 29–33, 34, 77, 78, 79 logo of, 30, 145 marketing with, 9, 15, 116 Microsoft’s ad deal with, 178, 179, 235–37, 239, 242–46, 249, 255, 257–58, 261, 273, 326–27 Microsoft’s desire to purchase, 239–42, 285 Mini-Feed on, 189, 220, 303 on mobile devices, 316 MySpace’s interest in buying, 138–39, 153 name change of, 145 News Feed on, see News Feed number of members of, 9, 16, 17, 30–31, 34, 35, 39, 59, 64, 86, 90, 92, 103, 110–11, 131, 151, 153, 177, 196, 197, 227, 250, 261, 267, 270–71, 303, 309, 311, 320, 329, 334 offers to buy, 11, 41, 54, 182–87, 195–98, 239–42, 285, 326 office routine at, 49–54 open registration on, 172, 184, 185, 195, 196–98 ownership of, 9–10, 34, 40, 62–63, 87–90, 94, 95, 96, 112, 113, 124, 126, 147–48, 170, 184, 269, 321, 322 Palo Alto house of, 44, 51, 52, 54–56, 63, 64–65, 86, 94–95 photos on, 33, 99, 153–57, 180, 194, 205, 206, 210, 216–17, 220, 227, 280, 302 platform strategy for, 11, 215–16, 217–34, 262–63, 278, 302, 305–7 “poke” option on, 32, 91, 92, 138, 173 political activism on, 2–6, 7, 8, 15, 192, 288, 289–95 possible IPO of, 321–22 private messaging on, 324 purpose of, 12 rambunctious reputation of, 129 recession and, 272 redesign of, 303, 311 registering of, 26 relationship status on, 194, 205–6 as replacement for address book, 93–94 returning users of, 111, 118 revenue of, 11, 41, 42, 43, 62, 101–2, 110, 112, 159, 170, 178, 232, 262, 273 romantic options on, 32, 91 salaries at, 59, 106 sales offices of, 271 Saverin’s differences with team at, 59–63, 64, 65, 89, 126 in self-promotion to developers, 222–25 servers used for, 29–30, 38, 57–58, 59, 63, 86, 87, 94, 132, 156, 175, 225, 256, 285, 325 shopping on, 316–17 simplicity of, 11, 61, 64, 82, 100, 144–45, 153–54, 276 software used by, 58–59 speed of, 58 stock of, 89–90, 106, 112, 113, 124–25, 133, 147–48, 236, 269, 305, 321, 322 tagging photos on, 154, 155, 156, 157, 212 timing of, 39 translation of, 16, 243, 275, 277, 282, 286, 302 transparency of, 14–15, 200, 202–203, 204–6, 207, 210–11, 214, 287–88, 319, 323 as trusted company, 209, 329–30 unorthodox computer code of, 132 user time spent on, 92–93, 108, 274 as “utility,” 144, 159, 160 valuations of, 43, 89–90, 95, 110, 121, 124, 126, 161, 168, 170, 174, 183, 184, 236, 239, 240, 244, 256, 267, 319, 322–23 Viacom’s desire to purchase, 113, 125, 159–60, 162, 164, 166–67, 168–71, 182 work networks at, 172–74, 185 WTI’s loans to, 95–96, 112–13 Yahoo’s desire to purchase, 182–87, 195–98 see also privacy Facebook Ads, 247–48, 250, 255, 258–59 Facebook API, 219 Facebook Blog, 332 Facebook Connect, 234, 251, 305–7, 314, 328, 335 Facebook credits, 262–63, 329 Facebook Fridays, 299 Facebook Global Monitors, 16, 275, 283, 328 “Facebook Is … Fostering Political Engagement: A Study of Online Social Networking Groups and Offline Participation,” 293 Facebook Lite, 317 Facebook Open Stream API, 314–15 Facebook phone, 282 Facebook Principles, 309 Facelift project, 144–45 Facemash, 23–25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 80, 82, 158 Fake, Caterina, 213 Fanbase, 306 Fanning, Shawn, 46, 48 Farmville, 229–30, 283 Favreau, Jon, 204, 205 Federal Trade Commission, 208–9, 249 Fenton, Peter, 115, 116, 117 Fetterman, Dave, 175, 219, 220 50 Cent, 138 Fight Club, 143 Filo, Jeff, 216 FIOS, 297, 298 First Amendment, 211 Fleischer, Ari, 294 Flickr, 115–16, 153, 213 Fluff Friends, 228 flyers, 102–3, 111 Food Fight, 228 Fortune, 10, 11, 166, 199, 206, 222, 249 Foursquare, 306 Fox, 153 Fragodt, Anikka, 274, 283 France, 16 Freeloader, 48, 73 Freston, Tom, 160, 168, 169 Friedman, Thomas, 7 FriendFeed, 304, 317 Friendster, 28, 29, 31, 70–72, 73, 75–76, 84, 85, 92 in Asia, 282, 283 Facebook’s borrowing from, 27 investments in, 46, 51, 71, 72, 88, 112, 115 success as curse to, 52, 58, 71–72, 74, 79, 86, 130, 132, 144 Frisson, 103–4 Fuerza Latina, 24, 25 Funwall, 231 Future of the Internet, The—and How to Stop It (Zittrain), 310 Gadre, Rudy, 243 Gandhi, Mohandas, 135 Garden State, 143 Gates, Bill, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 320 Gawker, 306 Gay, Rowena, 213 Genachowski, Julius, 334 Geocities, 67 Germany, 171, 282–83 gift economy, 287, 288, 293, 295 Gladwell, Malcolm, 103 Glassman, James, 291, 292 Gleit, Naomi, 138, 182, 198 globalization, 9–10, 278 global village, 332 Gmail, 188, 259 Goldberg, Adam, 36 Goldberg, Dave, 253 Goldman Sachs, 43 Google, 16, 104, 151, 165, 209, 245, 256, 275, 291, 297, 318, 323, 325, 331 advertising and, 111, 139, 178, 216, 237, 251, 254, 255, 259 antitrust investigations against, 326, 327 as competitor with Facebook for talent, 129–30, 327 Dodgeball acquired by, 184 Facebook investment of, 126 Facebook purchase as desire of, 54, 326 Facebook’s advertising talks with, 238–39, 241, 242 Friendster purchase proposed by, 71 IPO of, 170, 321 MySpace’s deal with, 177 News Corporation’s deal with, 237–38 Orkut bought by, 78, 87 Sandberg at, 251, 252, 253, 255 Google Android, 316 Google Checkout, 231 Google Docs, 269 Google One, 254 Google Zeitgeist, 238 Gordon, Susan, 92 Gould, Alan, 267 Graffiti, 228 Graham, Don, 107–9, 114, 119, 120–21, 123–24, 136, 254, 320, 321 Great America Theme Park, 198 Green, Joe, 24–25, 30 Causes created by, 224–25, 231–32 Greenspan, Aaron, 79, 81–82, 84–85 Greylock Partners, 170, 319, 322 Grimmelmann, James, 212 Gross National Happiness Index, 332 Grove, Andy, 53 Grown Up Digital (Tapscott), 265 Guantanamo Bay, 290 Gustav, Hurricane, 294 Hagel, John, 203, 299 Haiti, 296 Halicioglu, Taner, 53, 64, 94 Halo, 56, 98 Hamel, Gary, 298 Harper, Julius, 308, 309 Harvard Connection, 26, 40–41, 80–81, 83, 85 launch of, 101 Harvard Crimson, 23, 24, 26, 28, 31, 33, 37–38, 40, 63, 80, 102, 108, 295 Harvard University, 6, 12, 14–15, 17, 19–41, 64, 90, 93, 108, 157, 209, 253, 331 endowment fund of, 114 “facebooks” at, 23, 28, 79, 90 shopping week at, 32 Hasbro, 229 Hi5, 152 Highlights, 311 Hills, The, 167 Hirsch, Doug, 154, 155, 163, 165 HIV, 295 Hoffman, Reid, 72–73, 87–88, 105, 116, 128, 172, 202, 322 “Hollaback Girl” (song), 141, 142, 247 Holtzbrinck publishing firm, 171 Hong Kong, 275, 282, 283 Hotmail, 188, 241–42 houseSYSTEM, 79, 81, 85 HTML, 53, 75 Huffington Post, 298, 306 Hughes, Chris, 14, 21, 30, 35, 45, 107, 293, 322 in departure from Facebook, 269–70 as Facebook spokesman, 40, 64, 103, 134 at Frisson party, 103 and open registration, 195 simplicity pushed by, 64 Hutchison Whampoa, 282 IBM, 67 Iceland, 275 impressions, of engagement ads, 261 InCircle, 78 India, 78, 282 Indonesia, 8, 16, 73, 282, 283, 286, 289–90 information overload, 14 Inside Facebook (Baloun), 137 InsideFacebook.com, 16 Inside Network, 230, 262 instant messaging, 16, 27, 29, 137, 144, 162, 187, 219 Intel, 53, 300, 313–14 Interactive Advertising Bureau, 264 Interpublic Group, 177, 179 Interscope Records, 141, 142 Investment Club, 30 IPC, 187 iPhones, 50, 226, 230, 306, 316 iPod, 218, 300 Iran, 6–7, 8 Israel, 275, 279 Italy, 16, 276, 279, 280 iTunes, 102 Iverson, Joshua, 43 James, Josh, 266 Janzer, Paul, 133 Japan, 276, 281, 282, 283 Jarvis, Jake, 226 JavaScript, 53 Jin, Kang-Xing, 26, 257 Jobs, Steve, 257, 320 Johnson, Kevin, 240, 242 Justice Department, U.S., 327 Kazakhstan, 265 Keep, Elmo, 213 Kelly, Chris, 13, 150, 201, 208 Kendall, Tim, 257 Kennedy, Ted, 294 KickMania, 232 Kirkpatrick, Clara, 219 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, 71, 112 Korea, 276 Koyi K Utho, 280 Kurds, 291 Lafley, A.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

COSMOPOLIS In a book called The Gutenberg Galaxy, published in 1962, the media guru Marshall McLuhan declared that ‘the new electronic interdependence recreates the world in the image of a global village’.37 This was an extraordinary seerlike insight, well ahead of its time, but McLuhan’s simile of ‘global village’ is inadequate, both as description and prescription. Villages are small, usually homogeneous and conformist places. Tolerance is not their hallmark. When things get rough, villagers who have been neighbours all their lives can end up murdering each other: Serb and Bosniak, Hutu and Tutsi. ‘Global village’ is neither where we are nor where we should want to be. Being electronic neighbours is more like living in a global city. Most of the time we encounter people from different cultures and backgrounds only superficially, in the subway, bus or shop.

Courage ‘We decide for ourselves and face the consequences’. Courage Two Spirits of Liberty Challenge Notes Bibliography Acknowledgements Index FREE SPEECH POST-GUTENBERG We are all neighbours now. There are more phones than there are human beings and close to half of humankind has access to the internet.1 In our cities, we rub shoulders with strangers from every country, culture and faith. The world is not a global village but a global city, a virtual cosmopolis. Most of us can also be publishers now. We can post our thoughts and photos online, where in theory any one of billions of other people might encounter them. Never in human history was there such a chance for freedom of expression as this. And never have the evils of unlimited free expression—death threats, paedophile images, sewage-tides of abuse—flowed so easily across frontiers.


pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, Donald Davies, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Each line represented a single cable, mere inches in diameter but thousands of miles in length. If you lifted one up from the ocean floor and sliced it crosswise, you’d find a hard plastic jacket surrounding an inner core of steel-encased strands of glass, each the width of a human hair and glowing faintly with red light. On the map it looked huge; on the ocean floor it would be a garden hose beneath the drifting sediment. It seemed to collapse the electronic global village upon the magnetic globe itself. Krisetya examined every inch of the test print, pointing out imperfections. The pressman responded by moving levers up and down on a huge control panel, like the soundboard at a rock concert. Every few minutes, the giant press would spool up and spit out a few copies of the newest version. Krisetya would then go back over it again, inch by inch until finally, he put down his magnifier and nodded quietly.

We all deal constantly with the abstraction of an Internet connection that’s “fast” or “slow.” But for Alston the acceleration came with the arrival of an unfathomably long and skinny thing, a singular path across the bottom of the sea. Undersea cables are the ultimate totems of our physical connections. If the Internet is a global phenomenon, it’s because there are tubes underneath the ocean. They are the fundamental medium of the global village. The fiber-optic technology is fantastically complex and dependent on the latest materials and computing technology. Yet the basic principle of the cables is shockingly simple: light goes in on one shore of the ocean and comes out on the other. Undersea cables are straightforward containers for light, as a subway tunnel is for trains. At each end of the cable is a landing station, around the size of a large house, often tucked away inconspicuously in a quiet seaside neighborhood.


pages: 265 words: 83,677

The Lonely City: Adventures in the Art of Being Alone by Olivia Laing

East Village, forensic accounting, global village, late capitalism, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Snapchat

AIDS colonised the imagination at the end of the last millennium, filling the atmosphere with dread, so that when the future rolled in it was thick with the fear of contamination, of sickening bodies and the shame of living inside them. A virtual world: why not, yes please, calling time on the tyranny of the physical, on the long rule of old age, sickness, loss and death. Then too, as Sontag points out, AIDS exposed the alarming realities of the global village, the world in which everything is in perpetual circulation, the goods and garbage, the plastic sucky-cup in London washing up in Japan, or trapped in the squalid gyre of the Pacific trash vortex, breaking down into pelagic plastics that are themselves eaten by sea turtles and albatross. Information, people, illnesses: everything is on the move. No one is separate, every element is constantly morphing into something else.

‘But now,’ Sontag writes at the close of her book, which was published in 1989: . . . that heightened modern interconnectedness in space, which is not only personal but social, structural, is the bearer of a health menace sometimes described as a threat to the species itself; and the fear of AIDS is of a piece with attention to other unfolding disasters that are the byproducts of advanced society, particularly those illustrating the degradation of the environment on a world scale. AIDS is one of the dystopian harbingers of the global village, that future which is already here and always before us, which no one knows how to refuse. To which the twenty-first-century citizen might add #overit or #tl;dr, the same emotion of despair compressed into the microlanguage we now seem compelled to confine ourselves inside. * One night, walking home at 2.30 in the morning, I saw a carriage horse bolting down a deserted 43rd Street. Another evening, I passed in the crowd on 42nd a man shouting to no one in particular New York!


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Though chronology does not prove causation, the laboratory studies showing that hearing or reading a first-person narrative can enhance people’s sympathy for the narrator at least make it plausible (chapter 9). FIGURE 10–5. How empathy and reason resolve the Pacifist’s Dilemma Literacy, urbanization, mobility, and access to mass media continued their rise in the 19th and 20th centuries, and in the second half of the 20th a Global Village began to emerge that made people even more aware of others unlike themselves (chapters 5 and 7). Just as the Republic of Letters and the Reading Revolution helped to kindle the Humanitarian Revolution of the 18th century, the Global Village and the electronics revolution may have helped along the Long Peace, New Peace, and Rights Revolutions of the 20th. Though we cannot prove the common observation that media coverage accelerated the civil rights movement, antiwar sentiment, and the fall of communism, the perspective-sympathy studies are suggestive, and we saw several statistical links between the cosmopolitan mixing of peoples and the endorsement of humanistic values (chapters 7 and 9).14 THE ESCALATOR OF REASON The expanding circle and the escalator of reason are powered by some of the same exogenous causes, particularly literacy, cosmopolitanism, and education.15 And their pacifying effect may be depicted by the same fusion of interests in the Pacifist’s Dilemma.

In chapter 4 I conjectured that the Humanitarian Revolution was accelerated by publishing, literacy, travel, science, and other cosmopolitan forces that broaden people’s intellectual and moral horizons. The second half of the 20th century has obvious parallels. It saw the dawn of television, computers, satellites, telecommunications, and jet travel, and an unprecedented expansion of science and higher education. The communications guru Marshall McLuhan called the postwar world a “global village.” In a village, the fortunes of other people are immediately felt. If the village is the natural size of our circle of sympathy, then perhaps when the village goes global, the villagers will experience greater concern for their fellow humans than when it embraced just the clan or tribe. A world in which a person can open the morning paper and meet the eyes of a naked, terrified little girl running toward him from a napalm attack nine thousand miles away is not a world in which a writer can opine that war is “the foundation of all the high virtues and faculties of man” or that it “enlarges the mind of a people and raises their character.”

They were the decades of the unprecedented growth in higher education and in the endless frontier of scientific research. Less well known is that they were also the decades of an explosion in book publishing. From 1960 to 2000, the annual number of books published in the United States increased almost fivefold. 305 I’ve mentioned the connection before. The Humanitarian Revolution came out of the Republic of Letters, and the Long Peace and New Peace were children of the Global Village. And remember what went wrong in the Islamic world: it may have been a rejection of the printing press and a resistance to the importation of books and the ideas they contain. Why should the spread of ideas and people result in reforms that lower violence? There are several pathways. The most obvious is a debunking of ignorance and superstition. A connected and educated populace, at least in aggregate and over the long run, is bound to be disabused of poisonous beliefs, such as that members of other races and ethnicities are innately avaricious or perfidious; that economic and military misfortunes are caused by the treachery of ethnic minorities; that women don’t mind being raped; that children must be beaten to be socialized; that people choose to be homosexual as part of a morally degenerate lifestyle; that animals are incapable of feeling pain.


pages: 479 words: 144,453

Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow by Yuval Noah Harari

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, drone strike, European colonialism, experimental subject, falling living standards, Flash crash, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, glass ceiling, global village, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mutually assured destruction, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, ultimatum game, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Even if we travel all over the globe and study each and every community, we would still cover only a limited part of the Sapiens mental spectrum. Nowadays, all humans have been touched by modernity, and we are all members of a single global village. Though Kalahari foragers are somewhat less modern than Harvard psychology students, they are not a time capsule from our distant past. They too have been influenced by Christian missionaries, European traders, wealthy eco-tourists and inquisitive anthropologists (the joke is that in the Kalahari Desert, the typical hunter-gatherer band consists of twenty hunters, twenty gatherers and fifty anthropologists). Before the emergence of the global village, the planet was a galaxy of isolated human cultures, which might have fostered mental states that are now extinct. Different socio-economic realities and daily routines nurtured different states of consciousness.

We often imagine that democracy and the free market won because they were ‘good’. In truth, they won because they improved the global data-processing system. So over the last 70,000 years humankind first spread out, then separated into distinct groups, and finally merged again. Yet the process of unification did not take us back to the beginning. When the different human groups fused into the global village of today, each brought along its unique legacy of thoughts, tools and behaviours, which it collected and developed along the way. Our modern larders are now stuffed with Middle Eastern wheat, Andean potatoes, New Guinean sugar and Ethiopian coffee. Similarly, our language, religion, music and politics are replete with heirlooms from across the planet.5 If humankind is indeed a single data-processing system, what is its output?


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

.), Reworking the World: Organizations, Technologies, and Cultures in Comparative Perspective, Berlin: Walter De Gruyter, pp. 95–124. Wellman, Barry (1979) “The community question”, American Journal of Sociology, 84: 1201–31. —— (1997) “An electronic group is virtually a social network”, in Kiesler (ed.) (1997): 179–205. —— (ed.) (1999) Networks in the Global Village, Boulder, CO: Westview Press. —— and Gulia, Milena (1999) “Netsurfers don’t ride alone: virtual communities as communities”, in Barry Wellman (ed.), Networks in the Global Village, Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 331–66. —— et al. (1996) “Computer networks as social networks: collaborative work, telework and virtual community”, Annual Reviews of Sociology, 22: 213–38. Wexler, Joanie (1994) “ATT preps service for video on demand”, Network World, 11(25): 6. Wheeler, James O. and Aoyama, Yuko (eds) (2000) Cities in the Telecommunications Age, London: Routledge.

Yet the fact that not everybody watches the same thing at the same time, and that each culture and social group has a specific relationship to the media system, does make a fundamental difference vis-à-vis the old system of standardized mass media. In addition, the widespread practice of “surfing” (simultaneously watching several programs) allows the audience to create its own visual mosaics. While the media have become indeed globally interconnected, and programs and messages circulate in the global network, we are not living in a global village, but in customized cottages globally produced and locally distributed. Figure 5.1 Media sales in 1998 for major media groups (in billions of US dollars) (Author’s note : In January 2000, Time Warner merged with the Internet service provider America On-Line, forming the largest multimedia group in the world) Sources : Company reports; Veronis, Suhler and Associates; Zenith Media; Warburg Dillon Read, elaborated by The Economist (1999c: 62) However, the diversification of the media, because of the conditions of their corporate and institutional control, did not transform the unidirectional logic of their message, nor truly allow the audience’s feedback except in the most primitive form of market reaction.

. —— (1993) Manufacturing Productivity, Washington, DC: McKinsey Global Institute. McLeod, Roger (1996) “Internet users abandoning TV, survey finds”, San Francisco Chronicle, January 12: 1, 17. McLuhan, Marshall (1962) The Gutenberg Galaxy: the Making of Typographic Man, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. —— (1964) Understanding Media: the Extensions of Man, New York: Macmillan. —— and Powers, Bruce R. (1989) The Global Village: Transformations in World Life and Media in the 21st Century, New York: Oxford University Press. McMillan, C. (1984) The Japanese Industrial System, Berlin: De Gruyter. McNeill, William H. (1977) Plagues and People, New York: Doubleday. Maddison, A. (1982) Phases of Capitalised Development, New York: Oxford University Press. —— (1984) “Comparative analysis of the productivity situation in the advanced capitalist countries”, in John W.


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Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America by Giles Slade

Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, global village, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, invention of radio, Joseph Schumpeter, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the market place, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, white picket fence, women in the workforce

In 1945, the time was exactly right to make such a pitch. Weeks before Germany capitulated, the United Nations Conference had convened in San Francisco, to enormous international interest and enthusiasm. Around the world, there was renewed determination to create an international forum stronger and more effective than the League of Nations had been between the wars. Decades before Marshall McLuhan coined the phrase “global village,” Cousins clearly understood the planetary implications of the previous years of confli t: “The world has at last become a geographic unit, if we measure geographic units not according to absolute size, but according to access and proximity. All peoples are members of this related group . . . The extent of this relationship need only be measured by the direct access nations have to each other for purposes of war.”57 Cousins’s essay included a personal journalistic manifesto that would serve him well for the next forty years.

For this reason, he wrote his books in a provocative, mosaic, nonlinear, and very difficul style that was “characteristic of electronic information movement” and that, he felt, was “the only relevant approach.”64 He borrowed the term “mosaic” from Naked Lunch (1959), mimicking William Burroughs’s novelistic technique because it best refle ted “the mosaic mesh of the TV image that compels so much active participation on the part of the viewer.”65 “Our planet,” McLuhan wrote in a famous phrase, had “been reduced to village size by new media.” A central characteristic of the global village created by television and computers was the “principle of simultaneous touch and interplay” whose chief characteristic is that “we are most at leisure when we are most intensely involved.” McLuhan’s attempt to understand human activity and progress during a crisis of social change was mirrored in the work of European social theorists who called themselves post-structuralists. The measure of McLuhan’s influ nce, however, was not in the robustness of his theories but in the unshakeable confi ence with which he approached his enormous task.


There Is No Planet B: A Handbook for the Make or Break Years by Mike Berners-Lee

air freight, autonomous vehicles, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, food miles, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Hans Rosling, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, neoliberal agenda, off grid, performance metric, profit motive, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban planning

One of the crunch questions for our species right now is ‘How can what we have feel like enough if it becomes unhealthy to want yet more of it?’. There is still plenty of room for ambition in life – we just need to direct it in positive ways. Evolution (of humans) Something we need to rebalance. We have developed the technology and the power. Now we need to complement that with new sets of thinking skills; global empathy, systems thinking, appreciation of what we have and values that allow life in the global village where all the eggs are in one basket, like it or not. Experts As the complexity of the issues goes up, so we need to get better at understanding what experts tell us. Experts need to get smarter in their specialisms but at the same time more joined up with other disciplines and better at communicating to anyone who is interested. It’s a challenging consequence of technology. Exponential growth A growth rate that is proportional to the amount that already exists.

Most of us think that our kids are smarter than average, that we will earn more than average and live longer than average. And for some this applies to human survival in the Anthropocene: ‘We will be fine because we always have been’. There are two problems with this line of argument. Firstly, humans have inflicted some very hard times on themselves in the past, sometimes wiping out whole communities. Now that we are a global village, like it or not, it would be a great shame if our community got into as much trouble as the people on Easter Island who chopped down the last tree. The second problem with this line of reasoning is that it actually says nothing at all, because every member of every species that ever lived could say, during their lifetime, that their species had always survived. Is it optimism bias that tells me we have everything to play for?


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The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, George Santayana, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McJob, microcredit, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population

This varied catalogue of doom-mongers is getting away with it, though, because the metaphor they are using for economic change, globalisation, is misleading. It is, equally, both nonsense and politically unsophisticated — just so much globaloney — to embrace the opposite point of view, that there are unlimited benefits to be reaped from globalisation if only everybody would stop grumbling. The idea that what is happening to the world is globalisation has become a cliché. It dates back to Marshall McLuhan’s ‘global village’, and has adhered to our mental processes through all the subsequent technological changes, resurfacing again most recently as the ‘death of distance’. But it does not capture the essential nature of the transformation we are living through. Consider the fashionable argument that the degree of trade and investment and migration between nations is no greater now than it was a century ago, and therefore there is nothing special (and nothing that governments cannot handle using conventional economic policies) about what is happening now.

Consider the fashionable argument that the degree of trade and investment and migration between nations is no greater now than it was a century ago, and therefore there is nothing special (and nothing that governments cannot handle using conventional economic policies) about what is happening now. This is faulty logic. If the degree of international linkage has barely returned to where it was at the start of the twentieth century, then globalisation is not what is special about today’s world economy. For things are different now. We live in a weightless world, not a global village. Introduction xix Viewing the world through the lens of a different metaphor, weightlessness, suggests a radically different approach to the policies needed to react to the genuine economic dislocations that are taking place. It is a more realistic vision, neither inevitably apocalyptic nor necessarily utopian. You do not have to become an extremist about weightlessness. It restores the possibility of normal political debate.


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No Rules Rules: Netflix and the Culture of Reinvention by Reed Hastings, Erin Meyer

Airbnb, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, global village, hiring and firing, job-hopping, late fees, loose coupling, loss aversion, out of africa, performance metric, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, subscription business

Yet Melissa believed that Netflix had a chance to differentiate itself, not just as a global brand, but as a truly global platform: Around the world most kids watch either content from their own country or shows and movies that originated in the US. But I felt that to be as international as Reed had outlined at QBR we could do better. I wanted the kids’ slate of shows on Netflix to be like a global village. When ten-year-old Kulap, who lives in a Bangkok high-rise, wakes up on Saturday morning and turns on Netflix, I wanted her to see not just characters from Thailand (those are already on her local television channels) or from the US (those are on the Disney cable station) but a variety of TV and movie friends from around the world. She should be able to choose from shows based in ice-covered cabins in Sweden and others set in rural Kenya.

We all came to an agreement. We would give it a try and learn along the way. During this meeting Melissa found alignment with her six direct reports. Dominique Bazay, the director whose team acquires preschool content, was one of them. DOMINIQUE BAZAY ON A MIDDLE-SIZE BRANCH— WITH ANIMATION AIM HIGH After that meeting with Melissa, Dominique thought a lot about how to make Melissa’s “global village” dream come true. To encourage Kulap to watch TV created in Sweden and Kenya, what types of shows should Netflix be offering? Dominique felt that animation was the best answer to this question. That led to the context she set with her own team: Cartoon Peppa Pig speaks Spanish like a Spaniard, Turkish like a Turk, and absolutely perfect Japanese. Animation provides an opportunity for international programming that live-action can’t.


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The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food by Lizzie Collingham

agricultural Revolution, American ideology, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial exploitation, distributed generation, European colonialism, fixed income, full employment, global village, indoor plumbing, labour mobility, land reform, mass immigration, means of production, profit motive, rising living standards, trade route, V2 rocket, women in the workforce

., p. 219. 28 Danbom, Born in the Country, p. 236. 29 Hurt, Problems of Plenty, p. 115. 30 Pollard, The Development of the British Economy, p. 167; Lamer, The World Fertilizer Economy, pp. 198–201, 214–16; Wilcox, The Farmer, pp. 53–7; Lonsdale, ‘The Depression’, p. 121. 31 Hurt, American Agriculture, p. 32; Bengelsdorf, Die Landwirtschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, p. 351. 32 Offer, The First World War, p. 151. 33 Bengelsdorf, Die Landwirtschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, p. 83; Jeffries, Wartime America, p. 45. 34 Hurt, Problems of Plenty, p. 74. 35 Jeffries, Wartime America, pp. 21, 52–3. 36 Hurt, Problems of Plenty, p. 90. 37 Bengelsdorf, Die Landwirtschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, p. 70. 38 Jeffries, Wartime America, p. 77. 39 Harrison, Growing a Global Village, pp. 3–4, 20. 40 Ibid., pp. 29, 32. 41 Cramp, ‘Food – the first munition of war’, p. 76. 42 Harrison, Growing a Global Village, pp. 6–7, 42–4. 43 Wilcox, The Farmer, pp. 51, 76. 44 Harrison, Growing a Global Village, pp. 47–8, 50. 45 Ibid., pp. 56–8, 71. 46 Ibid., p. 13. 47 Seabrook Farms, New Jersey, http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/state/seabrook_farms_nj.htm. 48 Danbom, Born in the Country, p. 234. 49 Hurt, Problems of Plenty, pp. 124–5; Hurt, American Agriculture, p. 306. 50 Hodgson, Few Eggs, p. 380. 51 Bayly and Harper, Forgotten Armies, p. 368. 52 Bengelsdorf, Die Landwirtschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, p. 107; Lawrence, Eat Your Heart Out, p. 255. 53 Wilcox, The Farmer, p. 198. 54 Gratzer, Terrors of the Table, pp. 105–6. 55 Lovin, ‘Agricultural reorganization’, p. 460; Wehler, Deutsche Gesellschafts-geschichte, p. 705; Von der Decken, ‘Die Ernährung in England und Deutschland’, p. 179. 56 Watters, Illinois in the Second World War, p. 348. 57 Campbell, Women at War, p. 181. 58 Watters, Illinois in the Second World War, pp. 348–9. 59 Bengelsdorf, Die Landwirtschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, pp. 107–8. 60 Lawrence, Eat Your Heart Out, p. 255. 61 Rankine, Soya, p. 1. 62 Pollan, In Defence of Food, p. 117. 63 Rankine, Soya, p. 9; Lawrence, Eat Your Heart Out, pp. 286–8. 64 Wilcox, The Farmer, p. 198. 65 Rankine, Soya, p. 3. 66 Bengelsdorf, Die Landwirtschaft der Vereinigten Staaten, p. 109. 67 Ibid., p. 301. 5 Feeding Britain 1 Cherrington, On the Smell of an Oily Rag, p. 161. 2 Calder, The People’s War, p. 418; Murray, Agriculture, p. 340. 3 Wilt, Food for War, p. 225. 4 Ibid., p. 187. 5 Brassley, ‘Wartime productivity’, pp. 37, 48, 54. 6 Wilt, Food for War, p. 224. 7 Vat, The Atlantic Campaign, p. 223; Hammond, Food and Agriculture, p. 49. 8 Ibid., p. 230. 9 Adams, Farm Problems, p. 12. 10 Pollard, British Economy, p. 67. 11 Hurd, A Farmer in Whitehall, p. 22. 12 Wilt, Food for War, p. 189. 13 Hammond, Food and Agriculture, p. 35. 14 Smith, Conflict over Convoys, pp. 45–6. 15 56,200 in 1939 to 203,000 tractors by 1946.

Harries, Meirion and Susie Harries, Soldiers of the Sun. The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army 1868–1945 (Heinemann, London, 1991). Harris, José, ‘Great Britain: The People’s War?’, in David Reynolds, Warren F. Kimball and A. O. Chubarian (eds), Allies at War. The Soviet, American and British Experience, 1939–1945 (Macmillan, London, 1994), pp. 233–60. Harrison, Charles H., Growing a Global Village. Making History at Seabrook Farms (Holmes & Meier, New York, 2003). Harrison, Mark, ‘The Second World War’, in R. W. Davies, Mark Harrison and S. G. Wheatcroft (eds), The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994), pp. 238–67. ——, Accounting for War. Soviet Production, Employment, and the Defence Burden 1940–1945 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996).


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The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life by Robert Wright

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, fault tolerance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, global village, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, invention of writing, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Norbert Wiener, planetary scale, pre–internet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, social web, Steven Pinker, talking drums, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, your tax dollars at work, zero-sum game

And Teilhard de Chardin, in particular, stressed a comparable tendency in human history: the evolution, over the millennia, of ever more vast and complex social structures. His extrapolations from this trend were prescient. Writing at the middle of this century, he dwelt on telecommunications, and the globalization it abets, before these subjects were all the rage. (Marshall McLuhan, coiner of “global village,” had read Teilhard.) With his concept of the “noosphere,” the “thinking envelope of the Earth,” Teilhard even anticipated in a vague way the Internet—more than a decade before the invention of the microchip. Can the trends rightly noted by Bergson and Teilhard—basic tendencies in biological evolution and in the technological and social evolution of the human species—be explained in scientific, physical terms?

Still, on balance, over the long run, non-zero-sum situations produce more positive sums than negative sums, and more mutual benefit than parasitism. As a result, people become embedded in larger and richer webs of interdependence. This basic sequence—the conversion of non-zero-sum situations into mostly positive sums—had started happening at least as early as 15,000 years ago. Then it happened again. And again. And again. Until—voilà!—here we are, riding in airplanes, sending e-mail, living in a global village. I don’t mean to minimize the interesting details that populate most history books: Sumerian kings, barbarian hordes, medieval knights, the Protestant Reformation, nascent nationalism, and so on. In fact, I try to give all of these their due (along with such too-often-neglected exemplars of the human experience as native American hunter-gatherers, Polynesian chiefdoms, Islamic commercial innovations, African kingdoms, Aztec justice, and precocious Chinese technology).

By the end of the thirteenth century, with the Mongols having brought China into direct contact with Europe, there existed a “world system that . . . had made prosperity pandemic.” The Mongol Empire’s transcontinental highway, paired with seagoing trade routes to the south, thus carried Eurasia’s invisible brain, and its invisible hand, to new evolutionary heights. They were still primitive organs by modern standards; goods and ideas traveled between east and west without east and west having a clear idea of each other. A global village it wasn’t. Still, mutual awareness was now higher than in ancient times, when the Chinese thought cotton coming from the west was fleece from “water sheep,” and Romans thought their imported silk grew on silk trees. In the mid-fourteenth century, a papal envoy to China even managed to convince some Europeans that Asia did not, in fact, contain whole nations of monsters (although, he conceded, “there may be an individual monster here and there”).


Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Nevertheless, if your current job can be done cheaper somewhere else, it might be worth looking at other employment opportunities. For example, if you are training to be a film editor you might want to bear in mind that editing can be done in India, and more cheaply. The same is true of tax returns, X-ray analysis and dealing with parking-fine disputes, all of which are currently being worked on in cities across Asia. However, there’s some good news too. The flip side of the global village is that if you’re really good at what you do, companies will compete globally for your skills as jobs become more mobile. X or Y? The second key driver of change is demographics. Most countries face a demographic double-whammy where an ageing workforce collides with a declining birth rate. According to the Herman Group, this will mean a shortage of 10 million workers in the US by 2010. There is even a labor shortage in China right now.

All brands will have an ethical component and all companies will seek further redemption by taking care of the wider welfare of their employees, customers and community. As for key risks, there are many to choose from. The tension between globalization and localization is one contender. On the one hand global connectivity and interdependence may herald the dawning of a new age of cooperation. However, things could play the other way too. People may grow tired of belonging to a global village and strive instead to communicate their regional and national differences. This would be a world where the individual still reigned supreme and patriotism and nationalism flourished along with economic protectionism. In a sense this is going backwards, but there may be no stopping it. As resources such as oil start to run out, countries will strive to protect what they have and global trade could easily become local trade as the cost of moving resources, workers and finished goods no longer adds up.


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Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell

1960s counterculture, American ideology, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, commoditize, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

The best political economy avoids guaranteed predictions, showing us instead how to read the past and the present as a prologue for shaping a more democratic future. Access Political economy reminds us that the power to communicate in marketbased societies is profoundly influenced by unequal access to the means of 197 Chad Raphael media production, distribution, and interpretation. Inequality of access is structured in part by the costs of using a medium. Despite paeans to the Web’s ability to lower communication costs and create an all-inclusive global village, it is probably the most expensive medium ever devised, and certainly the most costly available today. To those of us whose access is paid for by a university, corporate, or government employer, the Web seems to offer a cornucopia of free research, news, services, and diversions. But our ability to use the medium depends on long-term investments of time and money that are clearest if considered from the standpoint of the less-subsidized home user, and as compared with other media.

Its rapid obsolescence dooms it to the landfill in a hurry, where it will join an estimated 150 million others by 2005 in the United States alone, filling a space equal to a football field stacked a mile high.13 If projections of a billion PCs connected to the Web worldwide come true, those machines could demand electricity equal to the total capacity of today’s U.S. power grid.14 Undoubtedly a case could be made for numerous social costs of the Web, but it is probably too early to tell yet. We can cer202 The Web tainly speculate about the social-opportunity costs in a society where, in less than a year, a public debate over universal access to the Internet supplanted a debate over universal access to basic health care. Given the economics of the Web, it is not surprising that its development, although rapid, has been highly uneven. By the end of 2000, the “global village” of Internet users encompassed less than 7 percent of the world.15 The average netizen was wealthy, educated, young, urban, and male.16 The developed world dominated the content of the Web. In 1999, North America possessed 64 percent of Internet host computers, and Europe had another 24 percent; there were more hosts in New York than in all of Africa.17 Seventy percent of all Web sites originated in the United States.18 English, which may be spoken by only 15 percent of the world,19 remained the overriding language of the Web, accounting for 78 percent of all sites and 96 percent of E-commerce sites.20 Of course, the quarter of the world that was illiterate was unlikely to find much use for the Web.21 Poverty and low telecommunications subsidies in much of the less developed world made Internet access seem far out of reach for the foreseeable future.


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Age of Anger: A History of the Present by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, informal economy, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, Republic of Letters, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

In this new totality, Afghan deserts and caves could immediately connect with and short-circuit New York, America’s financial centre, obliterating old distinctions maintained even during the nuclear standoff of the Cold War between internal and external spaces, war and peace, and the West and its enemies. The 9/11 terrorists had been trained by Islamists once sponsored by the CIA and Middle-Eastern plutocrats, and they were armed with America’s own box-cutters and civilian aeroplanes. These ‘barbarians’ who struck at the heart of empire hinted that the ‘global village’ would manifest its contradictions through a state of permanent and uncontrolled crisis. But the shock to naive minds only further entrenched in them the intellectual habits of the Cold War – thinking through binary oppositions of ‘free’ and ‘unfree’ worlds, liberalism and totalitarianism – while reviving nineteenth-century Western clichés about the non-West. Once again the secular and democratic West, identified with the legacy of the Enlightenment (reason, individual autonomy, freedom of speech), seemed called upon to subdue its perennially backward other: in this case, Islam, marked by fear of criticism and blind allegiance to a tyrannical God and tribe.

Early in the twentieth century, communications technology was still confined to the telegraph, the telephone and the cinema; but Max Weber warned that, combined with the pressure of work and opaque political and economic forces, it would push modern individuals away from public life and into a ‘subjectivist culture’ – or what he called ‘sterile excitation’. In 1969, Marshall McLuhan claimed that the era of literacy had ended with the advent of radio and television; their multi-sensory experience in a ‘global village’ had returned humankind to tribal structures of feeling and ‘we begin again to live a myth’. Today’s colossal exodus of human lives into cyberspace is even more dramatically transforming old notions of time, space, knowledge, values, identities and social relations. The public sphere, the original creation of eighteenth-century commoners liberating themselves from feudal and aristocratic privilege, has radically expanded.


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Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joan Didion, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

The Gutenberg Galaxy, published in 1962, explored the cultural and personal consequences of the printing press, arguing that Gutenberg’s invention shaped the modern mind. Two years later, Understanding Media extended the analysis to the electric media of the twentieth century, which, McLuhan argued, were destroying the individualist ethos of print culture and turning the world into a tightly networked global village. The ideas in both books drew heavily on the works of other thinkers, including such contemporaries as Harold Innis, Albert Lord, and Wyndham Lewis, but McLuhan’s synthesis was, in content and tone, unlike anything that had come before. When you read McLuhan today, you find all sorts of reasons to be impressed by his insight into media’s far-reaching effects and by his anticipation of the course of technological progress.

Modern media needed its own medium, the voice that would explain its transformative power to the world, and he would take that role. The tension between McLuhan’s craving for earthly attention and his distaste for the material world would never be resolved. Even as he came to be worshipped as a techno-utopian seer in the mid-sixties, he had already, writes Coupland, lost all hope “that the world might become a better place with new technology.” He heralded the global village, and was genuinely excited by its imminence and its possibilities, but he also saw its arrival as the death knell for the literary culture he revered. The electronically connected society would be the setting not for the further flourishing of civilization but for the return of tribalism, if on a vast new scale. “And as our senses [go] outside us,” he wrote, “Big Brother goes inside.” Always on display, always broadcasting, always watched, we would become mediated, technologically and socially, as never before.


pages: 437 words: 105,934

#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

THE DAILY ME 1.See Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York: Vintage Books, 1995), 153. For a prescient discussion of “cyberbalkinization,” see also Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000), 177–79, which draws in turn on an illuminating earlier paper, Marshall Van Alstyne and Erik Brynjolfsson, “Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyberbalkans?” (working paper, MIT Sloan School, Cambridge, MA, 1996), http://web.mit.edu/marshall/www/papers/CyberBalkans.pdf (accessed August 23, 2016). 2.In a provocative 2011 book, Eli Pariser popularized a theory of “filter bubbles” in which he posited that due to the effects of algorithmic filtering, Internet users are likely to be provided with information that conforms to their existing interests and, in effect, is isolated from differing viewpoints.

Martin and Ali Yurukoglu, “Bias in Cable News: Persuasion and Polarization” (working paper no. 20798, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, December 2014), http://www.nber.org/papers/w20798.pdf (accessed September 2, 2016). 3.See Shanto Iyengar and Richard Morin, “Red Media, Blue Media,” Washington Post, May 3, 2006, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/03/AR2006050300865.html (accessed September 2, 2016). 4.Marshall Van Alstyne and Erik Brynjolfsson, “Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyberbalkans?” (working paper, MIT Sloan School, Cambridge, MA, 1996), http://web.mit.edu/marshall/www/papers/CyberBalkans.pdf (accessed September 2, 2016). 5.For a fascinating discussion, see Ronald Jacobs, Race, Media, and the Crisis of Civil Society: From Watts to Rodney King (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000). 6.David Schkade, Cass R. Sunstein, and Reid Hastie, “What Happened on Deliberation Day?”


pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, yield curve

Communities such as Facebook, MySpace, Second Life, and the Twitterscape, help connect millions of people in environments that are conducive for building relationships. They also offer the potential for new types of democratic processes, such as direct voting online, and the scope for alternate views to be put forward outside of the mainstream. The downside to Web communities is that they can cause people to become more cut off from the rest of society. In their paper “Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyber Balkans,” professors Marshal Van Alstyne and Erik Brynjolfsson said that “individuals empowered to screen out material that does not conform to their existing preferences may form virtual cliques, insulate themselves from opposing points of view, and reinforce their biases.… This voluntary Balkanisation and the loss of shared experiences and values may be harmful to the structure of democratic societies.”7 They warned that we should have no illusions that the Internet will create a greater sense of community.

Nassim N. Taleb, The Black Swan (New York: Random House, 2007). 4. Paul Kedrosky, “The First Disaster of the Internet Age,” Newsweek, October 27, 2008, http://www.newsweek.com/2008/10/17/the-first-disaster-of-the-internet-age.html. 5. Quoted in Nicholas D. Kristof, “The Daily Me,” New York Times, March 19, 2009. 6. Ibid. 7. Marshal Van Alstyne and Erik Brynjolfsson, “Electronic Communities: Global Village or Cyber Balkans,” Sloan School of Management Working Papers, MIT Sloan School, March 1997. 8. Nate Anderson, “Online Oligarchy: Old Guard Dominates ’Net News Coverage,” Ars Technica, March 17, 2008, http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2008/03/online-oligarchy-old-guard-dominates-net-news-coverage.ars (accessed on November 19, 2010); PBS, “Democracy on Deadline: Who Owns the Media?” http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/democracyondeadline/mediaownership.html (accessed on August 4, 2010). 9.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

But in the collaborative commons, millions of innovators are defying this received wisdom, co-creating and using free open-source software, known as FOSS, as well as free open-source hardware, or FOSH. It’s a spirit embodied by Marcin Jakubowski, physicist and Missourian farmer, who – frustrated by the extortionate cost of farm machinery that kept breaking down – decided to build his own, while sharing his ever-improving designs online for free. His idea soon grew into the Global Village Construction Set, which aims to demonstrate step-by-step how to build from scratch 50 universally useful machines, from tractors, brick makers and 3D printers to sawmills, bread ovens and wind turbines. The designs have so far been recreated by innovators in India, China, the US, Canada, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Italy and France. Based on these successes, Jakubowski and his collaborators have since launched the Open Building Institute, which aims to make open-source designs for ecological, off-grid, affordable housing available to all.81 ‘Our goal is decentralized production,’ he explains.

Page numbers in italics denote illustrations A Aalborg, Denmark, 290 Abbott, Anthony ‘Tony’, 31 ABCD group, 148 Abramovitz, Moses, 262 absolute decoupling, 260–61 Acemoglu, Daron, 86 advertising, 58, 106–7, 112, 281 Agbodjinou, Sénamé, 231 agriculture, 5, 46, 72–3, 148, 155, 178, 181, 183 Alaska, 9 Alaska Permanent Fund, 194 Alperovitz, Gar, 177 alternative enterprise designs, 190–91 altruism, 100, 104 Amazon, 192, 196, 276 Amazon rainforest, 105–6, 253 American Economic Association, 3 American Enterprise Institute, 67 American Tobacco Corporation, 107 Andes, 54 animal spirits, 110 Anthropocene epoch, 48, 253 anthropocentrism, 115 Apertuso, 230 Apple, 85, 192 Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), 148 Arendt, Hannah, 115–16 Argentina, 55, 274 Aristotle, 32, 272 Arrow, Kenneth, 134 Articles of Association and Memoranda, 233 Arusha, Tanzania, 202 Asia Wage Floor Alliance, 177 Asian financial crisis (1997), 90 Asknature.org, 232 Athens, 57 austerity, 163 Australia, 31, 103, 177, 180, 211, 224–6, 255, 260 Austria, 263, 274 availability bias, 112 AXIOM, 230 Axtell, Robert, 150 Ayres, Robert, 263 B B Corp, 241 Babylon, 13 Baker, Josephine, 157 balancing feedback loops, 138–41, 155, 271 Ballmer, Steve, 231 Bangla Pesa, 185–6, 293 Bangladesh, 10, 226 Bank for International Settlements, 256 Bank of America, 149 Bank of England, 145, 147, 256 banking, see under finance Barnes, Peter, 201 Barroso, José Manuel, 41 Bartlett, Albert Allen ‘Al’, 247 basic income, 177, 194, 199–201 basic personal values, 107–9 Basle, Switzerland, 80 Bauwens, Michel, 197 Beckerman, Wilfred, 258 Beckham, David, 171 Beech-Nut Packing Company, 107 behavioural economics, 11, 111–14 behavioural psychology, 103, 128 Beinhocker, Eric, 158 Belgium, 236, 252 Bentham, Jeremy, 98 Benyus, Janine, 116, 218, 223–4, 227, 232, 237, 241 Berger, John, 12, 281 Berlin Wall, 141 Bermuda, 277 Bernanke, Ben, 146 Bernays, Edward, 107, 112, 281–3 Bhopal gas disaster (1984), 9 Bible, 19, 114, 151 Big Bang (1986), 87 billionaires, 171, 200, 289 biodiversity, 10, 46, 48–9, 52, 85, 115, 155, 208, 210, 242, 299 as common pool resource, 201 and land conversion, 49 and inequality, 172 and reforesting, 50 biomass, 73, 118, 210, 212, 221 biomimicry, 116, 218, 227, 229 bioplastic, 224, 293 Birmingham, West Midlands, 10 Black, Fischer, 100–101 Blair, Anthony ‘Tony’, 171 Blockchain, 187, 192 blood donation, 104, 118 Body Shop, The, 232–4 Bogotá, Colombia, 119 Bolivia, 54 Boston, Massachusetts, 3 Bowen, Alex, 261 Bowles, Sam, 104 Box, George, 22 Boyce, James, 209 Brasselberg, Jacob, 187 Brazil, 124, 226, 281, 290 bread riots, 89 Brisbane, Australia, 31 Brown, Gordon, 146 Brynjolfsson, Erik, 193, 194, 258 Buddhism, 54 buen vivir, 54 Bullitt Center, Seattle, 217 Bunge, 148 Burkina Faso, 89 Burmark, Lynell, 13 business, 36, 43, 68, 88–9 automation, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 boom and bust, 246 and circular economy, 212, 215–19, 220, 224, 227–30, 232–4, 292 and complementary currencies, 184–5, 292 and core economy, 80 and creative destruction, 142 and feedback loops, 148 and finance, 183, 184 and green growth, 261, 265, 269 and households, 63, 68 living metrics, 241 and market, 68, 88 micro-businesses, 9 and neoliberalism, 67, 87 ownership, 190–91 and political funding, 91–2, 171–2 and taxation, 23, 276–7 workers’ rights, 88, 91, 269 butterfly economy, 220–42 C C–ROADS (Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support), 153 C40 network, 280 calculating man, 98 California, United States, 213, 224, 293 Cambodia, 254 Cameron, David, 41 Canada, 196, 255, 260, 281, 282 cancer, 124, 159, 196 Capital Institute, 236 carbon emissions, 49–50, 59, 75 and decoupling, 260, 266 and forests, 50, 52 and inequality, 58 reduction of, 184, 201, 213, 216–18, 223–7, 239–41, 260, 266 stock–flow dynamics, 152–4 taxation, 201, 213 Cargill, 148 Carney, Mark, 256 Caterpillar, 228 Catholic Church, 15, 19 Cato Institute, 67 Celts, 54 central banks, 6, 87, 145, 146, 147, 183, 184, 256 Chang, Ha-Joon, 82, 86, 90 Chaplin, Charlie, 157 Chiapas, Mexico, 121–2 Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE), 100–101 Chicago School, 34, 99 Chile, 7, 42 China, 1, 7, 48, 154, 289–90 automation, 193 billionaires, 200, 289 greenhouse gas emissions, 153 inequality, 164 Lake Erhai doughnut analysis, 56 open-source design, 196 poverty reduction, 151, 198 renewable energy, 239 tiered pricing, 213 Chinese Development Bank, 239 chrematistics, 32, 273 Christianity, 15, 19, 114, 151 cigarettes, 107, 124 circular economy, 220–42, 257 Circular Flow diagram, 19–20, 28, 62–7, 64, 70, 78, 87, 91, 92, 93, 262 Citigroup, 149 Citizen Reaction Study, 102 civil rights movement, 77 Cleveland, Ohio, 190 climate change, 1, 3, 5, 29, 41, 45–53, 63, 74, 75–6, 91, 141, 144, 201 circular economy, 239, 241–2 dynamics of, 152–5 and G20, 31 and GDP growth, 255, 256, 260, 280 and heuristics, 114 and human rights, 10 and values, 126 climate positive cities, 239 closed systems, 74 coffee, 221 cognitive bias, 112–14 Colander, David, 137 Colombia, 119 common-pool resources, 82–3, 181, 201–2 commons, 69, 82–4, 287 collaborative, 78, 83, 191, 195, 196, 264, 292 cultural, 83 digital, 82, 83, 192, 197, 281 and distribution, 164, 180, 181–2, 205, 267 Embedded Economy, 71, 73, 77–8, 82–4, 85, 92 knowledge, 197, 201–2, 204, 229, 231, 292 commons and money creation, see complementary currencies natural, 82, 83, 180, 181–2, 201, 265 and regeneration, 229, 242, 267, 292 and state, 85, 93, 197, 237 and systems, 160 tragedy of, 28, 62, 69, 82, 181 triumph of, 83 and values, 106, 108 Commons Trusts, 201 complementary currencies, 158, 182–8, 236, 292 complex systems, 28, 129–62 complexity science, 136–7 Consumer Reaction Study, 102 consumerism, 58, 102, 121, 280–84 cooking, 45, 80, 186 Coote, Anna, 278 Copenhagen, Denmark, 124 Copernicus, Nicolaus, 14–15 copyright, 195, 197, 204 core economy, 79–80 Corporate To Do List, 215–19 Costa Rica, 172 Council of Economic Advisers, US, 6, 37 Cox, Jo, 117 cradle to cradle, 224 creative destruction, 142 Cree, 282 Crompton, Tom, 125–6 cross-border flows, 89–90 crowdsourcing, 204 cuckoos, 32, 35, 36, 38, 40, 54, 60, 159, 244, 256, 271 currencies, 182–8, 236, 274, 292 D da Vinci, Leonardo, 13, 94–5 Dallas, Texas, 120 Daly, Herman, 74, 143, 271 Danish Nudging Network, 124 Darwin, Charles, 14 Debreu, Gerard, 134 debt, 37, 146–7, 172–3, 182–5, 247, 255, 269 decoupling, 193, 210, 258–62, 273 defeat device software, 216 deforestation, 49–50, 74, 208, 210 degenerative linear economy, 211–19, 222–3, 237 degrowth, 244 DeMartino, George, 161 democracy, 77, 171–2, 258 demurrage, 274 Denmark, 180, 275, 290 deregulation, 82, 87, 269 derivatives, 100–101, 149 Devas, Charles Stanton, 97 Dey, Suchitra, 178 Diamond, Jared, 154 diarrhoea, 5 differential calculus, 131, 132 digital revolution, 191–2, 264 diversify–select–amplify, 158 double spiral, 54 Doughnut model, 10–11, 11, 23–5, 44, 51 and aspiration, 58–9, 280–84 big picture, 28, 42, 61–93 distribution, 29, 52, 57, 58, 76, 93, 158, 163–205 ecological ceiling, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, 49, 51, 218, 254, 295, 298 goal, 25–8, 31–60 and governance, 57, 59 growth agnosticism, 29–30, 243–85 human nature, 28–9, 94–128 and population, 57–8 regeneration, 29, 158, 206–42 social foundation, 10, 11, 44, 45, 49, 51, 58, 77, 174, 200, 254, 295–6 systems, 28, 129–62 and technology, 57, 59 Douglas, Margaret, 78–9 Dreyfus, Louis, 148 ‘Dumb and Dumber in Macroeconomics’ (Solow), 135 Durban, South Africa, 214 E Earning by Learning, 120 Earth-system science, 44–53, 115, 216, 288, 298 Easter Island, 154 Easterlin, Richard, 265–6 eBay, 105, 192 eco-literacy, 115 ecological ceiling, 10, 11, 44, 45, 46, 49, 51, 218, 254, 295, 298 Ecological Performance Standards, 241 Econ 101 course, 8, 77 Economics (Lewis), 114 Economics (Samuelson), 19–20, 63–7, 70, 74, 78, 86, 91, 92, 93, 262 Economy for the Common Good, 241 ecosystem services, 7, 116, 269 Ecuador, 54 education, 9, 43, 45, 50–52, 85, 169–70, 176, 200, 249, 279 economic, 8, 11, 18, 22, 24, 36, 287–93 environmental, 115, 239–40 girls’, 57, 124, 178, 198 online, 83, 197, 264, 290 pricing, 118–19 efficient market hypothesis, 28, 62, 68, 87 Egypt, 48, 89 Eisenstein, Charles, 116 electricity, 9, 45, 236, 240 and Bangla Pesa, 186 cars, 231 Ethereum, 187–8 and MONIAC, 75, 262 pricing, 118, 213 see also renewable energy Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, 145 Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 220 Embedded Economy, 71–93, 263 business, 88–9 commons, 82–4 Earth, 72–6 economy, 77–8 finance, 86–8 household, 78–81 market, 81–2 power, 91–92 society, 76–7 state, 84–6 trade, 89–90 employment, 36, 37, 51, 142, 176 automation, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 labour ownership, 188–91 workers’ rights, 88, 90, 269 Empty World, 74 Engels, Friedrich, 88 environment and circular economy, 220–42, 257 conservation, 121–2 and degenerative linear economy, 211–19, 222–3 degradation, 5, 9, 10, 29, 44–53, 74, 154, 172, 196, 206–42 education on, 115, 239–40 externalities, 152 fair share, 216–17 and finance, 234–7 generosity, 218–19, 223–7 green growth, 41, 210, 243–85 nudging, 123–5 taxation and quotas, 213–14, 215 zero impact, 217–18, 238, 241 Environmental Dashboard, 240–41 environmental economics, 7, 11, 114–16 Environmental Kuznets Curve, 207–11, 241 environmental space, 54 Epstein, Joshua, 150 equilibrium theory, 134–62 Ethereum, 187–8 ethics, 160–62 Ethiopia, 9, 226, 254 Etsy, 105 Euclid, 13, 15 European Central Bank, 145, 275 European Commission, 41 European Union (EU), 92, 153, 210, 222, 255, 258 Evergreen Cooperatives, 190 Evergreen Direct Investing (EDI), 273 exogenous shocks, 141 exponential growth, 39, 246–85 externalities, 143, 152, 213 Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), 9 F Facebook, 192 fair share, 216–17 Fama, Eugene, 68, 87 fascism, 234, 277 Federal Reserve, US, 87, 145, 146, 271, 282 feedback loops, 138–41, 143, 148, 155, 250, 271 feminist economics, 11, 78–81, 160 Ferguson, Thomas, 91–2 finance animal spirits, 110 bank runs, 139 Black–Scholes model, 100–101 boom and bust, 28–9, 110, 144–7 and Circular Flow, 63–4, 87 and complex systems, 134, 138, 139, 140, 141, 145–7 cross-border flows, 89 deregulation, 87 derivatives, 100–101, 149 and distribution, 169, 170, 173, 182–4, 198–9, 201 and efficient market hypothesis, 63, 68 and Embedded Economy, 71, 86–8 and financial-instability hypothesis, 87, 146 and GDP growth, 38 and media, 7–8 mobile banking, 199–200 and money creation, 87, 182–5 and regeneration, 227, 229, 234–7 in service to life, 159, 234–7 stakeholder finance, 190 and sustainability, 216, 235–6, 239 financial crisis (2008), 1–4, 5, 40, 63, 86, 141, 144, 278, 290 and efficient market hypothesis, 87 and equilibrium theory, 134, 145 and financial-instability hypothesis, 87 and inequality, 90, 170, 172, 175 and money creation, 182 and worker’s rights, 278 financial flows, 89 Financial Times, 183, 266, 289 financial-instability hypothesis, 87, 146 First Green Bank, 236 First World War (1914–18), 166, 170 Fisher, Irving, 183 fluid values, 102, 106–9 food, 3, 43, 45, 50, 54, 58, 59, 89, 198 food banks, 165 food price crisis (2007–8), 89, 90, 180 Ford, 277–8 foreign direct investment, 89 forest conservation, 121–2 fossil fuels, 59, 73, 75, 92, 212, 260, 263 Foundations of Economic Analysis (Samuelson), 17–18 Foxconn, 193 framing, 22–3 France, 43, 165, 196, 238, 254, 256, 281, 290 Frank, Robert, 100 free market, 33, 37, 67, 68, 70, 81–2, 86, 90 free open-source hardware (FOSH), 196–7 free open-source software (FOSS), 196 free trade, 70, 90 Freeman, Ralph, 18–19 freshwater cycle, 48–9 Freud, Sigmund, 107, 281 Friedman, Benjamin, 258 Friedman, Milton, 34, 62, 66–9, 84–5, 88, 99, 183, 232 Friends of the Earth, 54 Full World, 75 Fuller, Buckminster, 4 Fullerton, John, 234–6, 273 G G20, 31, 56, 276, 279–80 G77, 55 Gal, Orit, 141 Gandhi, Mohandas, 42, 293 Gangnam Style, 145 Gardens of Democracy, The (Liu & Hanauer), 158 gender equality, 45, 51–2, 57, 78–9, 85, 88, 118–19, 124, 171, 198 generosity, 218–19, 223–9 geometry, 13, 15 George, Henry, 149, 179 Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas, 252 geothermal energy, 221 Gerhardt, Sue, 283 Germany, 2, 41, 100, 118, 165, 189, 211, 213, 254, 256, 260, 274 Gessel, Silvio, 274 Ghent, Belgium, 236 Gift Relationship, The (Titmuss), 118–19 Gigerenzer, Gerd, 112–14 Gintis, Herb, 104 GiveDirectly, 200 Glass–Steagall Act (1933), 87 Glennon, Roger, 214 Global Alliance for Tax Justice, 277 global material footprints, 210–11 Global Village Construction Set, 196 globalisation, 89 Goerner, Sally, 175–6 Goffmann, Erving, 22 Going for Growth, 255 golden rule, 91 Goldman Sachs, 149, 170 Gómez-Baggethun, Erik, 122 Goodall, Chris, 211 Goodwin, Neva, 79 Goody, Jade, 124 Google, 192 Gore, Albert ‘Al’, 172 Gorgons, 244, 256, 257, 266 graffiti, 15, 25, 287 Great Acceleration, 46, 253–4 Great Depression (1929–39), 37, 70, 170, 173, 183, 275, 277, 278 Great Moderation, 146 Greece, Ancient, 4, 13, 32, 48, 54, 56–7, 160, 244 green growth, 41, 210, 243–85 Greenham, Tony, 185 greenhouse gas emissions, 31, 46, 50, 75–6, 141, 152–4 and decoupling, 260, 266 and Environmental Kuznets Curve, 208, 210 and forests, 50, 52 and G20, 31 and inequality, 58 reduction of, 184, 201–2, 213, 216–18, 223–7, 239–41, 256, 259–60, 266, 298 stock–flow dynamics, 152–4 and taxation, 201, 213 Greenland, 141, 154 Greenpeace, 9 Greenspan, Alan, 87 Greenwich, London, 290 Grenoble, France, 281 Griffiths, Brian, 170 gross domestic product (GDP), 25, 31–2, 35–43, 57, 60, 84, 164 as cuckoo, 32, 35, 36, 38, 40, 54, 60, 159, 244, 256, 271 and Environmental Kuznets Curve, 207–11 and exponential growth, 39, 53, 246–85 and growth agnosticism, 29–30, 240, 243–85 and inequality, 173 and Kuznets Curve, 167, 173, 188–9 gross national product (GNP), 36–40 Gross World Product, 248 Grossman, Gene, 207–8, 210 ‘grow now, clean up later’, 207 Guatemala, 196 H Haifa, Israel, 120 Haldane, Andrew, 146 Han Dynasty, 154 Hanauer, Nick, 158 Hansen, Pelle, 124 Happy Planet Index, 280 Hardin, Garrett, 69, 83, 181 Harvard University, 2, 271, 290 von Hayek, Friedrich, 7–8, 62, 66, 67, 143, 156, 158 healthcare, 43, 50, 57, 85, 123, 125, 170, 176, 200, 269, 279 Heilbroner, Robert, 53 Henry VIII, King of England and Ireland, 180 Hepburn, Cameron, 261 Herbert Simon, 111 heuristics, 113–14, 118, 123 high-income countries growth, 30, 244–5, 254–72, 282 inequality, 165, 168, 169, 171 labour, 177, 188–9, 278 overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–9 resource intensive lifestyles, 46, 210–11 trade, 90 Hippocrates, 160 History of Economic Analysis (Schumpeter), 21 HIV/AIDS, 123 Holocene epoch, 46–8, 75, 115, 253 Homo economicus, 94–103, 109, 127–8 Homo sapiens, 38, 104, 130 Hong Kong, 180 household, 78 housing, 45, 59, 176, 182–3, 269 Howe, Geoffrey, 67 Hudson, Michael, 183 Human Development Index, 9, 279 human nature, 28 human rights, 10, 25, 45, 49, 50, 95, 214, 233 humanistic economics, 42 hydropower, 118, 260, 263 I Illinois, United States, 179–80 Imago Mundi, 13 immigration, 82, 199, 236, 266 In Defense of Economic Growth (Beckerman), 258 Inclusive Wealth Index, 280 income, 51, 79–80, 82, 88, 176–8, 188–91, 194, 199–201 India, 2, 9, 10, 42, 124, 164, 178, 196, 206–7, 242, 290 Indonesia, 90, 105–6, 164, 168, 200 Indus Valley civilisation, 48 inequality, 1, 5, 25, 41, 63, 81, 88, 91, 148–52, 209 and consumerism, 111 and democracy, 171 and digital revolution, 191–5 and distribution, 163–205 and environmental degradation, 172 and GDP growth, 173 and greenhouse gas emissions, 58 and intellectual property, 195–8 and Kuznets Curve, 29, 166–70, 173–4 and labour ownership, 188–91 and land ownership, 178–82 and money creation, 182–8 and social welfare, 171 Success to the Successful, 148, 149, 151, 166 inflation, 36, 248, 256, 275 insect pollination services, 7 Institute of Economic Affairs, 67 institutional economics, 11 intellectual property rights, 195–8, 204 interest, 36, 177, 182, 184, 275–6 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 25 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 170, 172, 173, 183, 255, 258, 271 Internet, 83–4, 89, 105, 192, 202, 264 Ireland, 277 Iroquois Onondaga Nation, 116 Israel, 100, 103, 120 Italy, 165, 196, 254 J Jackson, Tim, 58 Jakubowski, Marcin, 196 Jalisco, Mexico, 217 Japan, 168, 180, 211, 222, 254, 256, 263, 275 Jevons, William Stanley, 16, 97–8, 131, 132, 137, 142 John Lewis Partnership, 190 Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 37 Johnson, Mark, 38 Johnson, Todd, 191 JPMorgan Chase, 149, 234 K Kahneman, Daniel, 111 Kamkwamba, William, 202, 204 Kasser, Tim, 125–6 Keen, Steve, 146, 147 Kelly, Marjorie, 190–91, 233 Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 37, 250 Kennedy, Paul, 279 Kenya, 118, 123, 180, 185–6, 199–200, 226, 292 Keynes, John Maynard, 7–8, 22, 66, 69, 134, 184, 251, 277–8, 284, 288 Kick It Over movement, 3, 289 Kingston, London, 290 Knight, Frank, 66, 99 knowledge commons, 202–4, 229, 292 Kokstad, South Africa, 56 Kondratieff waves, 246 Korzybski, Alfred, 22 Krueger, Alan, 207–8, 210 Kuhn, Thomas, 22 Kumhof, Michael, 172 Kuwait, 255 Kuznets, Simon, 29, 36, 39–40, 166–70, 173, 174, 175, 204, 207 KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, 56 L labour ownership, 188–91 Lake Erhai, Yunnan, 56 Lakoff, George, 23, 38, 276 Lamelara, Indonesia, 105–6 land conversion, 49, 52, 299 land ownership, 178–82 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 Landesa, 178 Landlord’s Game, The, 149 law of demand, 16 laws of motion, 13, 16–17, 34, 129, 131 Lehman Brothers, 141 Leopold, Aldo, 115 Lesotho, 118, 199 leverage points, 159 Lewis, Fay, 178 Lewis, Justin, 102 Lewis, William Arthur, 114, 167 Lietaer, Bernard, 175, 236 Limits to Growth, 40, 154, 258 Linux, 231 Liu, Eric, 158 living metrics, 240–42 living purpose, 233–4 Lomé, Togo, 231 London School of Economics (LSE), 2, 34, 65, 290 London Underground, 12 loss aversion, 112 low-income countries, 90, 164–5, 168, 173, 180, 199, 201, 209, 226, 254, 259 Lucas, Robert, 171 Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio, 124 Luxembourg, 277 Lyle, John Tillman, 214 Lyons, Oren, 116 M M–PESA, 199–200 MacDonald, Tim, 273 Machiguenga, 105–6 MacKenzie, Donald, 101 macroeconomics, 36, 62–6, 76, 80, 134–5, 145, 147, 150, 244, 280 Magie, Elizabeth, 149, 153 Malala effect, 124 malaria, 5 Malawi, 118, 202, 204 Malaysia, 168 Mali, Taylor, 243 Malthus, Thomas, 252 Mamsera Rural Cooperative, 190 Manhattan, New York, 9, 41 Mani, Muthukumara, 206 Manitoba, 282 Mankiw, Gregory, 2, 34 Mannheim, Karl, 22 Maoris, 54 market, 81–2 and business, 88 circular flow, 64 and commons, 83, 93, 181, 200–201 efficiency of, 28, 62, 68, 87, 148, 181 and equilibrium theory, 131–5, 137, 143–7, 155, 156 free market, 33, 37, 67–70, 90, 208 and households, 63, 69, 78, 79 and maxi-max rule, 161 and pricing, 117–23, 131, 160 and rational economic man, 96, 100–101, 103, 104 and reciprocity, 105, 106 reflexivity of, 144–7 and society, 69–70 and state, 84–6, 200, 281 Marshall, Alfred, 17, 98, 133, 165, 253, 282 Marx, Karl, 88, 142, 165, 272 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 17–20, 152–5 massive open online courses (MOOCs), 290 Matthew Effect, 151 Max-Neef, Manfred, 42 maxi-max rule, 161 maximum wage, 177 Maya civilisation, 48, 154 Mazzucato, Mariana, 85, 195, 238 McAfee, Andrew, 194, 258 McDonough, William, 217 Meadows, Donella, 40, 141, 159, 271, 292 Medusa, 244, 257, 266 Merkel, Angela, 41 Messerli, Elspeth, 187 Metaphors We Live By (Lakoff & Johnson), 38 Mexico, 121–2, 217 Michaels, Flora S., 6 micro-businesses, 9, 173, 178 microeconomics, 132–4 microgrids, 187–8 Micronesia, 153 Microsoft, 231 middle class, 6, 46, 58 middle-income countries, 90, 164, 168, 173, 180, 226, 254 migration, 82, 89–90, 166, 195, 199, 236, 266, 286 Milanovic, Branko, 171 Mill, John Stuart, 33–4, 73, 97, 250, 251, 283, 284, 288 Millo, Yuval, 101 minimum wage, 82, 88, 176 Minsky, Hyman, 87, 146 Mises, Ludwig von, 66 mission zero, 217 mobile banking, 199–200 mobile phones, 222 Model T revolution, 277–8 Moldova, 199 Mombasa, Kenya, 185–6 Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 94 money creation, 87, 164, 177, 182–8, 205 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 Monoculture (Michaels), 6 Monopoly, 149 Mont Pelerin Society, 67, 93 Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, The (Friedman), 258 moral vacancy, 41 Morgan, Mary, 99 Morogoro, Tanzania, 121 Moyo, Dambisa, 258 Muirhead, Sam, 230, 231 MultiCapital Scorecard, 241 Murphy, David, 264 Murphy, Richard, 185 musical tastes, 110 Myriad Genetics, 196 N national basic income, 177 Native Americans, 115, 116, 282 natural capital, 7, 116, 269 Natural Economic Order, The (Gessel), 274 Nedbank, 216 negative externalities, 213 negative interest rates, 275–6 neoclassical economics, 134, 135 neoliberalism, 7, 62–3, 67–70, 81, 83, 84, 88, 93, 143, 170, 176 Nepal, 181, 199 Nestlé, 217 Netherlands, 211, 235, 224, 226, 238, 277 networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6, 174–6 neuroscience, 12–13 New Deal, 37 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 New Year’s Day, 124 New York, United States, 9, 41, 55 Newlight Technologies, 224, 226, 293 Newton, Isaac, 13, 15–17, 32–3, 95, 97, 129, 131, 135–7, 142, 145, 162 Nicaragua, 196 Nigeria, 164 nitrogen, 49, 52, 212–13, 216, 218, 221, 226, 298 ‘no pain, no gain’, 163, 167, 173, 204, 209 Nobel Prize, 6–7, 43, 83, 101, 167 Norway, 281 nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 O Obama, Barack, 41, 92 Oberlin, Ohio, 239, 240–41 Occupy movement, 40, 91 ocean acidification, 45, 46, 52, 155, 242, 298 Ohio, United States, 190, 239 Okun, Arthur, 37 onwards and upwards, 53 Open Building Institute, 196 Open Source Circular Economy (OSCE), 229–32 open systems, 74 open-source design, 158, 196–8, 265 open-source licensing, 204 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 38, 210, 255–6, 258 Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 14 Ormerod, Paul, 110, 111 Orr, David, 239 Ostrom, Elinor, 83, 84, 158, 160, 181–2 Ostry, Jonathan, 173 OSVehicle, 231 overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 ownership of wealth, 177–82 Oxfam, 9, 44 Oxford University, 1, 36 ozone layer, 9, 50, 115 P Pachamama, 54, 55 Pakistan, 124 Pareto, Vilfredo, 165–6, 175 Paris, France, 290 Park 20|20, Netherlands, 224, 226 Parker Brothers, 149 Patagonia, 56 patents, 195–6, 197, 204 patient capital, 235 Paypal, 192 Pearce, Joshua, 197, 203–4 peer-to-peer networks, 187, 192, 198, 203, 292 People’s QE, 184–5 Perseus, 244 Persia, 13 Peru, 2, 105–6 Phillips, Adam, 283 Phillips, William ‘Bill’, 64–6, 75, 142, 262 phosphorus, 49, 52, 212–13, 218, 298 Physiocrats, 73 Pickett, Kate, 171 pictures, 12–25 Piketty, Thomas, 169 Playfair, William, 16 Poincaré, Henri, 109, 127–8 Polanyi, Karl, 82, 272 political economy, 33–4, 42 political funding, 91–2, 171–2 political voice, 43, 45, 51–2, 77, 117 pollution, 29, 45, 52, 85, 143, 155, 206–17, 226, 238, 242, 254, 298 population, 5, 46, 57, 155, 199, 250, 252, 254 Portugal, 211 post-growth society, 250 poverty, 5, 9, 37, 41, 50, 88, 118, 148, 151 emotional, 283 and inequality, 164–5, 168–9, 178 and overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 and taxation, 277 power, 91–92 pre-analytic vision, 21–2 prescription medicines, 123 price-takers, 132 prices, 81, 118–23, 131, 160 Principles of Economics (Mankiw), 34 Principles of Economics (Marshall), 17, 98 Principles of Political Economy (Mill), 288 ProComposto, 226 Propaganda (Bernays), 107 public relations, 107, 281 public spending v. investment, 276 public–private patents, 195 Putnam, Robert, 76–7 Q quantitative easing (QE), 184–5 Quebec, 281 Quesnay, François, 16, 73 R Rabot, Ghent, 236 Rancière, Romain, 172 rating and review systems, 105 rational economic man, 94–103, 109, 111, 112, 126, 282 Reagan, Ronald, 67 reciprocity, 103–6, 117, 118, 123 reflexivity of markets, 144 reinforcing feedback loops, 138–41, 148, 250, 271 relative decoupling, 259 renewable energy biomass energy, 118, 221 and circular economy, 221, 224, 226, 235, 238–9, 274 and commons, 83, 85, 185, 187–8, 192, 203, 264 geothermal energy, 221 and green growth, 257, 260, 263, 264, 267 hydropower, 118, 260, 263 pricing, 118 solar energy, see solar energy wave energy, 221 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 rentier sector, 180, 183, 184 reregulation, 82, 87, 269 resource flows, 175 resource-intensive lifestyles, 46 Rethinking Economics, 289 Reynebeau, Guy, 237 Ricardo, David, 67, 68, 73, 89, 250 Richardson, Katherine, 53 Rifkin, Jeremy, 83, 264–5 Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, The (Kennedy), 279 risk, 112, 113–14 Robbins, Lionel, 34 Robinson, James, 86 Robinson, Joan, 142 robots, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 Rockefeller Foundation, 135 Rockford, Illinois, 179–80 Rockström, Johan, 48, 55 Roddick, Anita, 232–4 Rogoff, Kenneth, 271, 280 Roman Catholic Church, 15, 19 Rombo, Tanzania, 190 Rome, Ancient, 13, 48, 154 Romney, Mitt, 92 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 37 rooted membership, 190 Rostow, Walt, 248–50, 254, 257, 267–70, 284 Ruddick, Will, 185 rule of thumb, 113–14 Ruskin, John, 42, 223 Russia, 200 rust belt, 90, 239 S S curve, 251–6 Sainsbury’s, 56 Samuelson, Paul, 17–21, 24–5, 38, 62–7, 70, 74, 84, 91, 92, 93, 262, 290–91 Sandel, Michael, 41, 120–21 Sanergy, 226 sanitation, 5, 51, 59 Santa Fe, California, 213 Santinagar, West Bengal, 178 São Paolo, Brazil, 281 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 43 Saumweder, Philipp, 226 Scharmer, Otto, 115 Scholes, Myron, 100–101 Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich, 42, 142 Schumpeter, Joseph, 21 Schwartz, Shalom, 107–9 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 163, 167, 204 ‘Science and Complexity’ (Weaver), 136 Scotland, 57 Seaman, David, 187 Seattle, Washington, 217 second machine age, 258 Second World War (1939–45), 18, 37, 70, 170 secular stagnation, 256 self-interest, 28, 68, 96–7, 99–100, 102–3 Selfish Society, The (Gerhardt), 283 Sen, Amartya, 43 Shakespeare, William, 61–3, 67, 93 shale gas, 264, 269 Shang Dynasty, 48 shareholders, 82, 88, 189, 191, 227, 234, 273, 292 sharing economy, 264 Sheraton Hotel, Boston, 3 Siegen, Germany, 290 Silicon Valley, 231 Simon, Julian, 70 Sinclair, Upton, 255 Sismondi, Jean, 42 slavery, 33, 77, 161 Slovenia, 177 Small Is Beautiful (Schumacher), 42 smart phones, 85 Smith, Adam, 33, 57, 67, 68, 73, 78–9, 81, 96–7, 103–4, 128, 133, 160, 181, 250 social capital, 76–7, 122, 125, 172 social contract, 120, 125 social foundation, 10, 11, 44, 45, 49, 51, 58, 77, 174, 200, 254, 295–6 social media, 83, 281 Social Progress Index, 280 social pyramid, 166 society, 76–7 solar energy, 59, 75, 111, 118, 187–8, 190 circular economy, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226–7, 239 commons, 203 zero-energy buildings, 217 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84 Solow, Robert, 135, 150, 262–3 Soros, George, 144 South Africa, 56, 177, 214, 216 South Korea, 90, 168 South Sea Bubble (1720), 145 Soviet Union (1922–91), 37, 67, 161, 279 Spain, 211, 238, 256 Spirit Level, The (Wilkinson & Pickett), 171 Sraffa, Piero, 148 St Gallen, Switzerland, 186 Stages of Economic Growth, The (Rostow), 248–50, 254 stakeholder finance, 190 Standish, Russell, 147 state, 28, 33, 69–70, 78, 82, 160, 176, 180, 182–4, 188 and commons, 85, 93, 197, 237 and market, 84–6, 200, 281 partner state, 197, 237–9 and robots, 195 stationary state, 250 Steffen, Will, 46, 48 Sterman, John, 66, 143, 152–4 Steuart, James, 33 Stiglitz, Joseph, 43, 111, 196 stocks and flows, 138–41, 143, 144, 152 sub-prime mortgages, 141 Success to the Successful, 148, 149, 151, 166 Sugarscape, 150–51 Summers, Larry, 256 Sumner, Andy, 165 Sundrop Farms, 224–6 Sunstein, Cass, 112 supply and demand, 28, 132–6, 143, 253 supply chains, 10 Sweden, 6, 255, 275, 281 swishing, 264 Switzerland, 42, 66, 80, 131, 186–7, 275 T Tableau économique (Quesnay), 16 tabula rasa, 20, 25, 63, 291 takarangi, 54 Tanzania, 121, 190, 202 tar sands, 264, 269 taxation, 78, 111, 165, 170, 176, 177, 237–8, 276–9 annual wealth tax, 200 environment, 213–14, 215 global carbon tax, 201 global financial transactions tax, 201, 235 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 non-renewable resources, 193, 237–8, 278–9 People’s QE, 185 tax relief v. tax justice, 23, 276–7 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), 202, 258 Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 61, 63, 93 Texas, United States, 120 Thailand, 90, 200 Thaler, Richard, 112 Thatcher, Margaret, 67, 69, 76 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 96 Thompson, Edward Palmer, 180 3D printing, 83–4, 192, 198, 231, 264 thriving-in-balance, 54–7, 62 tiered pricing, 213–14 Tigray, Ethiopia, 226 time banking, 186 Titmuss, Richard, 118–19 Toffler, Alvin, 12, 80 Togo, 231, 292 Torekes, 236–7 Torras, Mariano, 209 Torvalds, Linus, 231 trade, 62, 68–9, 70, 89–90 trade unions, 82, 176, 189 trademarks, 195, 204 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 transport, 59 trickle-down economics, 111, 170 Triodos, 235 Turkey, 200 Tversky, Amos, 111 Twain, Mark, 178–9 U Uganda, 118, 125 Ulanowicz, Robert, 175 Ultimatum Game, 105, 117 unemployment, 36, 37, 276, 277–9 United Kingdom Big Bang (1986), 87 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 free trade, 90 global material footprints, 211 money creation, 182 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 poverty, 165, 166 prescription medicines, 123 wages, 188 United Nations, 55, 198, 204, 255, 258, 279 G77 bloc, 55 Human Development Index, 9, 279 Sustainable Development Goals, 24, 45 United States American Economic Association meeting (2015), 3 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 Congress, 36 Council of Economic Advisers, 6, 37 Earning by Learning, 120 Econ 101 course, 8, 77 Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), 9 Federal Reserve, 87, 145, 146, 271, 282 free trade, 90 Glass–Steagall Act (1933), 87 greenhouse gas emissions, 153 global material footprint, 211 gross national product (GNP), 36–40 inequality, 170, 171 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 political funding, 91–2, 171 poverty, 165, 166 productivity and employment, 193 rust belt, 90, 239 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 wages, 188 universal basic income, 200 University of Berkeley, 116 University of Denver, 160 urbanisation, 58–9 utility, 35, 98, 133 V values, 6, 23, 34, 35, 42, 117, 118, 121, 123–6 altruism, 100, 104 anthropocentric, 115 extrinsic, 115 fluid, 28, 102, 106–9 and networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6 and nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 and pricing, 81, 120–23 Veblen, Thorstein, 82, 109, 111, 142 Venice, 195 verbal framing, 23 Verhulst, Pierre, 252 Victor, Peter, 270 Viner, Jacob, 34 virtuous cycles, 138, 148 visual framing, 23 Vitruvian Man, 13–14 Volkswagen, 215–16 W Wacharia, John, 186 Wall Street, 149, 234, 273 Wallich, Henry, 282 Walras, Léon, 131, 132, 133–4, 137 Ward, Barbara, 53 Warr, Benjamin, 263 water, 5, 9, 45, 46, 51, 54, 59, 79, 213–14 wave energy, 221 Ways of Seeing (Berger), 12, 281 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 74, 78, 96, 104 wealth ownership, 177–82 Weaver, Warren, 135–6 weightless economy, 261–2 WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialised, rich, democratic), 103–5, 110, 112, 115, 117, 282 West Bengal, India, 124, 178 West, Darrell, 171–2 wetlands, 7 whale hunting, 106 Wiedmann, Tommy, 210 Wikipedia, 82, 223 Wilkinson, Richard, 171 win–win trade, 62, 68, 89 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 Wizard of Oz, The, 241 Woelab, 231, 293 Wolf, Martin, 183, 266 women’s rights, 33, 57, 107, 160, 201 and core economy, 69, 79–81 education, 57, 124, 178, 198 and land ownership, 178 see also gender equality workers’ rights, 88, 91, 269 World 3 model, 154–5 World Bank, 6, 41, 119, 164, 168, 171, 206, 255, 258 World No Tobacco Day, 124 World Trade Organization, 6, 89 worldview, 22, 54, 115 X xenophobia, 266, 277, 286 Xenophon, 4, 32, 56–7, 160 Y Yandle, Bruce, 208 Yang, Yuan, 1–3, 289–90 yin yang, 54 Yousafzai, Malala, 124 YouTube, 192 Yunnan, China, 56 Z Zambia, 10 Zanzibar, 9 Zara, 276 Zeitvorsoge, 186–7 zero environmental impact, 217–18, 238, 241 zero-hour contracts, 88 zero-humans-required production, 192 zero-interest loans, 183 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84, 191, 264 zero-waste manufacturing, 227 Zinn, Howard, 77 PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Illustrations are reproduced by kind permission of: archive.org


pages: 401 words: 115,959

Philanthrocapitalism by Matthew Bishop, Michael Green, Bill Clinton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, business process outsourcing, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, don't be evil, family office, financial innovation, full employment, global pandemic, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Live Aid, lone genius, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass affluent, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Singer: altruism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, working poor, World Values Survey, X Prize

One day, Branson recalls, his friend Peter Gabriel, a musician and human rights activist, gave him the germ of an idea when he said that “problems in African villages are resolved by the elders; the global village needs global elders.” To transform the idea into action, Branson quickly arranged a couple of strategy meetings on his Caribbean retreat, Necker Island, where he persuaded a group of wealthy philanthropists to fund a new group, the Elders. Some of these tycoons lost interest when they realized they had been invited for their money, not because they were going to be appointed Elders. The idea of creating elders for the global village is certainly imaginative and addresses a clear need—especially given the deficit of credibility in the existing institutions of global governance, not least because of the failings of the U.N.


pages: 239 words: 45,926

As the Future Catches You: How Genomics & Other Forces Are Changing Your Work, Health & Wealth by Juan Enriquez

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, creative destruction, double helix, global village, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, personalized medicine, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, spice trade, stem cell, the new new thing

This book focuses on technology, not institution-building, although this is clearly a key development component. But remember that there are many countries with great institutions that end up economic disasters … because they lack technology as an engine of growth. If you want to remind yourself of just how crucial institutions and governance are, take a look at Bruce Scott’s “The Great Divide in the Global Village,” Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2001. 2. Lee Kuan Yew provides a detailed road map in From Third World to First: The Singapore Story 1965–2000 (Singapore: Singapore Press, 2000). 3. Bruce Scott of the Harvard Business School has done extensive research on the perils of being resource-rich. This table uses data from the New York Times Almanac 2001. See also Entering the 21st Century: World Development Report 1999/2000 (World Bank/Oxford University Press, 2000).


pages: 257 words: 56,811

The Rough Guide to Toronto by Helen Lovekin, Phil Lee

airport security, British Empire, car-free, glass ceiling, global village, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, place-making, urban renewal, urban sprawl

A full-service hotel until fairly recently, this student residence still accepts paying guests from mid-May to late August. $84. Canadiana Backpackers Hostel 42 Widmer St, at Richmond St, Downtown T416/598-9090 or 1-877/215-1225, Wwww.canadianalodging .com. Streetcar: Queen (#501). For the price of an appetizer at some of the chichi bars nearby, you can crash at this hip, clean hostel. Located steps away from Queen Street West and within easy walking distance of all Downtown. Dorm bed $26; private double $70. Global Village Backpackers 460 King St W, at Spadina Ave, Downtown T416/703-8540 or 1-888/844-7875, Wwww.globalbackpackers .com. Streetcar: King (#504). This former hotel has four private/family rooms; everything else is dormitory-style with shared bathrooms. The above-standard amenities include laundry facilities, a kitchen and a games room, plus the staff is top notch. Close to the Richmond Street/Queen Street West action as well as the King Street West strip.

bb Toronto Island Ferry Terminal Centre Island Q U EE NS L OW E R YO NG E Queens Quay S C O O P E R S T. ST RE ET ST QU AY EA THE STR E ET SC A DD I NG AVE. STREET S T RE E T EAS T E S PLAN ADE LONGBOAT AVE. MILL STREET 47 Gooderham & Worts Distillery 2 ACCOMMODATION 89 Chestnut Ambassador Inn B&B Bond Place Cambridge Suites Hotel Canadiana Backpackers Hostel Cosmopolitan Hotel Delta Chelsea Inn Fairmont Royal York Global Village Backpackers Hilton Toronto Holiday Inn on King Hotel Le Germain Hotel Victoria InterContinental Toronto Centre Ward’s Island ON TA RI O ST. S T. Young People’s Theatre G A R D I N E R E X P R E S S W AY FREE LAND ST. R KING F R O NT ST. E. St Lawrence Market LAKE SHORE BOULEVARD Air Canada Centre HA RB OU 38 40 30 AD E LA I D E S TR EET EAST Hall R C O LB O R N E S T. North Trader’s Bank St Lawrence 43 Toronto Stock ST.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Putin, following a visit to the terrorist-targeted school in Beslan, railed against the "excesses" of democracy but also observed that people who are so poor that they have nothing to lose cannot be expected to accept their fate indefinitely. Mbeki attributed South Africa's AIDS epidemic to poverty rather than the virus that causes it; he was medically wrong (at great cost to his nation) but socially right. If the world is becoming a global village, Africa is its poorest neighborhood, and when a town's poorest neighborhood gets help, the whole community benefits. If the European Union can siphon funds from its wealthiest members to assist its less prosperous ones, then surely the world can find ways to help Africa's neediest peoples. African countries, unfortunately, rank high on the corruption ladder— none is a Finland or a New Zealand, or even a Chile.

In the rainforest of the northeastern Congo, workers paid a pittance for their labors are digging from the ground a raw material used in the manufacture of cell phones. From uranium in the atomic age to oil in the fossil-fuel era, Africa has always had what it takes—for the rest of the world. But concern for Africa's well-being should not focus on the relentless acquisition of its commodities. Africa's problems and the world's concerns coincide because the world is functionally shrinking, and when one of the neighborhoods of the "global village" suffers more than any other from a combination of maladies, the remedy benefits all. So assisting in the recovery of Subsaharan Africa is not mere altruism; it is a matter of self-interest for the rest of the world—and especially for the United States. In the first place, social stability in Africa (as elsewhere) is a precondition for progress. Recent events in West and Equatorial Africa gave rise to fears, prominently expressed by Robert Kaplan, that the civil wars in Sierra Leone and Liberia would spread widely, precipitating a "regional anarchy" (Kaplan, 2000).


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Computers and networking technology were ushering in the Information Age, where the human race would be freed at last, freed from overbearing governments and borders, freed even from its very identity.106 In 1996, the same year that the Telecommunications Act was passed, Louis Rossetto made a bold prediction: the Internet was going to change everything. It was even going to make the military obsolete. “I mean, everything—if you have a bunch of preconceived ideas about how the world works, you better reconsider them, because change is instantaneous out there,” he said.107 “And you don’t need, you know, lumbering armies in a global village, you need maybe a police force at the most and you need good will on the part of the inhabitants, but otherwise you don’t need these kinds of structures that have already been built.” Back in 1972, Stewart Brand tried to convince Rolling Stone readers that the young Pentagon contractors holed up in a Stanford lab, playing video games and building powerful computer tools for ARPA, were not really working in the service of war.

As Mark Maybury, who headed the US Air Force’s Social Radar project, explained in 2010: the physical “intercept” component of human radar systems would sometimes be direct physical action—like missile strikes—but at other times it would be social and psychological. Rather than force, it would be a nudge and a push that would guide people in the right direction. “While hard power will always play a key role in warfare, increasingly soft power, the ability to not coerce but to encourage or motivate behavior, will be necessary in the future of our increasingly connected and concentrated global village,” he wrote. Maybury, “Social Radar for Smart Power.” 17. George I. Seffers, “Decoding the Future for National Security,” Signal, December 1, 2015, http://www.afcea.org/content/?q=Article-decoding-future-national-security; “Anticipatory Intelligence,” IARPA, accessed April 16, 2017, https://www.iarpa.gov/index.php/about-iarpa/anticipatory-intelligence; Katie Drummond, “Spies Want to Stockpile Your YouTube Clips,” Wired, June 11, 2010. 18.


The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, colonial rule, Columbine, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

It was a strange political year in Washington, as the nation began to reflect on the end of a century named for American omnipotence. The greatest fear, given the weaponry, was still war. Since the first century, historians estimated that 149 million people had died in major war; 111 million of those deaths occurred in the twentieth century.60 Given the record, one could not help but wonder what the future held. World War I and World War II were epic events, and in the ‘‘global village’’ of worldwide communication and twenty-four-hour news cycles, a vigilant eye was supposed to be on everything that happened. But in 1994 a horrible tragedy went largely unnoticed. Don’t Stop Thinking About Tomorrow 159 Rwanda is one of the smallest countries in Central Africa, with just 7 million people comprised of two main ethnic groups: Hutu and Tutsi. Although the Hutu were the preponderant majority, the Tutsi minority were considered aristocracy during Belgian colonial rule.

As a result, key boundaries and separations that had historically separated people and countries were eroded. Nationalism was out of fashion, especially in Europe, where twelve nations signed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 to form the European Union. The new culture and global economy created a different order, one that a popular observer called ‘‘McWorld.’’9 Life in the new world order was a kind of global village, where everyone knew everyone else’s business. Americans watched nightly updates on Operation Desert Storm, followed by the election of Nelson Mandela in South Africa, and knew the intimate details behind the divorce of Princess Diana and Prince Charles. The decade was remembered as having moved slightly away from the more conservative 1980s, but keeping the same mindset. The world experienced a rapid progression of global capitalism following the collapse of the Soviet Union.


pages: 193 words: 51,445

On the Future: Prospects for Humanity by Martin J. Rees

23andMe, 3D printing, air freight, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, blockchain, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic transition, distributed ledger, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, global village, Hyperloop, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, life extension, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, quantitative hedge fund, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanislav Petrov, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

This could occur when those infected were still a fraction of 1 percent. The fatality rate would, however, probably be highest in the megacities of the developing world. Pandemics are an ever-present natural threat, but is it just scaremongering to raise concerns about human-induced risks from bio error or bio terror? Sadly, I don’t think it is. We know all too well that technical expertise doesn’t guarantee balanced rationality. The global village will have its village idiots and they’ll have global range. The spread of an artificially released pathogen can’t be predicted or controlled; this realisation inhibits the use of bioweapons by governments, or even by terrorist groups with specific well-defined aims (which is why I focused on nuclear and cyber threats in section 1.2). So, my worst nightmare would be an unbalanced ‘loner’, with biotech expertise, who believed, for instance, that there were too many humans on the planet and didn’t care who, or how many, were infected.


pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

In addition to engendering tribal 22 / THE COMING ANARCHY strife, scarcer resources will place a great strain on many peoples who never had much of a democratic or institutional tradition to begin with. Over the next fifty years the earth's pop­ ulation will soar from 5.5 billion to more than 9 billion. Though optimists have hopes for new resource technologies and freemarket development in the global village, they fail to note that, as the National Academy of Sciences has pointed out, 95 per­ cent of the population increase will be in the poorest regions of the world, where governments now—just look at Africa— show little ability to function, let alone to implement even mar­ ginal improvements. Homer-Dixon writes, ominously, "NeoMalthusians may underestimate human adaptability in today's environmental-social system, but as time passes their analysis may become ever more compelling."


Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

฀Doctors฀and฀medical฀ staff฀ in฀ the฀ British฀ Medical฀ Association’s฀ offices฀ near฀ Tavistock฀ Square฀ were฀ quick฀ to฀ help฀ the฀ bus฀ victims.฀ Slowly฀ the฀ dead฀ and฀ injured฀ were฀ brought฀ to฀ the฀ surface฀ and฀ moved฀ to฀ hospitals.฀ The฀ dead฀ numbered฀ ,฀ including฀ four฀ of฀ the฀ (alleged)฀ bombers;฀ ฀ were฀injured,฀some฀seriously.฀They฀were฀an฀eclectic฀mix฀of฀nationalities,฀religions,฀colours,฀ages.฀London฀is฀indeed฀a฀global฀village,฀a฀ tossed฀salad฀of฀diverse฀diasporas. Parliament฀met,฀since฀it฀was฀a฀scheduled฀day฀for฀it฀to฀meet.฀A฀ statement฀was฀read฀out฀by฀the฀Home฀Secretary,฀Charles฀Clarke,฀in฀ the฀House฀of฀Commons.฀As฀is฀the฀practice,฀it฀was฀repeated฀word฀for฀ word฀in฀the฀House฀of฀Lords฀by฀the฀Deputy฀Leader,฀Lord฀Rooker.฀ I฀heard฀it;฀I฀was฀there.฀I฀had฀left฀home฀in฀Denmark฀Hill฀in฀Southeast฀London฀upon฀getting฀a฀phone฀call฀from฀my฀sister฀in฀Mumbai,฀ who฀had฀seen฀a฀television฀report฀about฀London฀bombs.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

That is, he held type responsible in large part for the development of rationalization, bureaucracy, and industrial life. By contrast, he said, electronic technologies had begun to break down the barriers of bureaucracy, as well as those of time and space, and so had brought human beings to the brink of a new age. In The Gutenberg Galaxy McLuhan described the new age in tribal terms: electronic media had linked all of humanity into a single “global village.” In Understanding Media, McLuhan linked both the new tribalism and its promise of a return to a prebureaucratic humanism to a more cybernetic rhetoric of humanmachine entanglement as well. “Today,” he wrote, “we have extended our central nervous system itself in a global embrace, abolishing both space and time as far as our planet is concerned.”23 In McLuhan’s view, the individual human body and the species as a whole were linked by a single nervous system, an array of electronic signals fired across neurons in the human body and circulating from television set to television set, radio to radio, computer to computer, across the globe.24 [ 54 ] Chapter 2 This worldwide web of electronic signals carried a mystical charge for many.

Dobb’s Journal of Tiny BASIC Calisthenics and Orthodontia, 113 Draper, Hal, 12 Draper, John, 168 Draper, Ted, 136 Drop City, 74 –76, 94, 96, 119, 256 Droppings, 75 Durkee, Barbara, 75 Durkee, Steve, 46, 48, 50, 51, 75, 81, 97, 109 Dymax, 113 Dymaxion car, 55 Dynabook, 111, 117 Dyson, Esther, 88; chairman of ICANN, 227; and EFF, 218, 219, 220, 227; and Gingrich, 215, 219, 231–32; integration into Whole Earth network, 227; longing to return to an egalitarian world, 248; “Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age,” 228 –30; and PFF conferences, 227, 230; profile of, 226 –27; Release 2.0: A Design for Living in the Digital Age, 14; vision of Internet, 3, 16; and Wired, 222; work in Whole Earth Review, 195 Dyson, Freeman, 88, 226 [ 318 ] Index East-West bookstore, 70 ecology, as alternative politics, 43 – 45 Ecology Center, 110 e-commerce, 214 economic production, knowledge-based mode of, 240 – 42 ecosystems in nature, 203 Edwards, Paul, 17, 186 Ehrlich, Paul, 50; and coevolution, 121; population biology, 45; The Population Bomb, 43, 120; preoccupation with systems-oriented models, 44; The Process of Evolution, 44 Einstein, Albert, 122 Eisner, Michael, 211 Electric Word, 211 electronic fraud, 170 “electronic frontier,” 142, 172 Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), 7, 156, 172, 218, 219, 220, 227, 286n27 Electronic Information Exchange System (EIES), 129, 130, 131 electronics industry, dependent on network patterns of organization, 149 Ellul, Jacques, The Technological Society, 29 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 55 Engelbart, Douglas, 274n10; connections to various elements of the counterculture, 109; and Global Business Network, 189; philosophy of “bootstrapping,” 108; role in the development of the ARPANET, 274n12; understanding of the social potential of computers, 107– 8; work at Augmentation Research Center, 61, 106 English, Bill, 109, 111, 120, 274n12 Erewhon Trading Company, 185 Erhard, Werner, 109 Erhard Seminar Training (EST) movement, 109 Esalen Institute, 182 Essential Whole Earth Catalog, 131 Ethernet, 111 Evans, Dave, 81, 97, 101, 109 –10, 110 Explorations ( journal), 53 Fadiman, Jim, 61 Fairchild Semiconductor, 150 Farallones Institute, 70 Farm, the, 147, 159, 277n14 Fast Company (magazine), 207 FBI, 170 Feigelson, Naomi, 49, 50 Felsenstein, Lee: forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; on Hackers’ Conference, 137; and hacking community, 135; and the Homebrew Computer Club, 115; proselytizer for early computers, 133; and public peer-to-peer computing, 115; and the Tom Swift Terminal, 115; and Whole Earth Catalog, 114, 246 feminism, rise of, 152 Figallo, Cliff, 146, 147, 148, 277n1 Fisher, Scott, 163 flexible factory, 216 Fluegelman, Andrew, 137 Forrester, Jay, 27, 185 fractal formations, 203 Frank, Robert, 96 Frank, Thomas, 215 Freedom Conspiracy, 210 Free Speech Movement, 1–2, 11–13, 16, 17, 31, 34, 35, 63, 240, 242 – 43 Free University, 70 freeware, 137 French, Gordon, 102, 115 Fuller, Buckminster, 55 –56; Comprehensive Designer, 56 –57, 58, 244; Dymaxion principle, 113; geodesic dome, 65, 94; Ideas and Integrities, 56, 57, 83; imprint of cold war– era military-industrial information theory on, 58; key influence on Whole Earth community, 4, 43, 49, 80, 82, 89, 243; notion of the world as an information system, 57–58; “outlaw area,” 88; “pattern-complex,” 67, 256 Fuller, Margaret, 55 Galbraith, John Kenneth, The New Industrial State, 29 Galison, Peter, 19, 72, 264n27 game theory, 264n28, 265n43 Gans, David, 143, 166 Garcia, Jerry, 61, 66, 166 Gardner, Hugh, 119, 267n70 Garreau, Joel, 189 –90, 221 Gaskin, Stephen, 147 Gates, Bill, 7, 208 Gateway, 212 GEnie, 144 geodesic dome, 55, 65, 94 –96, 125 Ghamari-Tabrizi, Sharon, 186 Gibson, William, 164, 172, 195; Neuromancer, 162 – 63, 281n58 Index gift economy, 157–58, 279n42, 279n43 Gilder, George, 8; Bronson’s profile of, 225 –26; on the cover of Wired, 225; and deregulation, 208, 215, 216; interview with Kelly, 223 –25, 226; “Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age,” 228 –30; and Progress and Freedom Foundation, 227; promoter of telecommunications stocks, 224; relationship with Wired, 223; and Wired, 222 Gilmore, John, 172 Gingrich, Newt, 8; Contract with America, 231– 32; on the counterculture, 288n53; and deregulation, 208, 215, 216, 230, 287n49; and Dyson, 227; and Wired, 222, 223 Ginsberg, Allen, 62, 168 Gitlin, Todd, 32, 35, 119, 209; The Whole World Is Watching, 253 Gleick, James, 196 Global Business Network (GBN), 6, 7; blending of countercultural and techno-cultural organizational styles, 181– 82, 184, 248; building of, 181–94; clients of, 176; corporation as a site of revolutionary social change, 194; Garreau’s view of, 221; included former leaders of the cold war military-industrial complex, 188; lack of diversity at, 189; Learning Conferences as basis of, 181– 84; “Learning Journeys,” 190; linked formation of interpersonal networks and the modeling of network systems, 187– 88; members engaged in interpersonal and for-profit forms of interaction simultaneously, 189 – 90; metaphor of the network, 184, 189, 194; “network members,” 189; Rio Chama journey, 191–92; scenario-building workshops, 187, 192 –94; social affinity as a key element of network coherence, 205; WorldView Meetings, 190 –91 Global Crossing, 224 global marketplace, 216 “global village,” 53 Goffman, Ken (aka R. U. Sirius), 164 Goldstein, Emmanuel, 168, 169 Gore, Al, 219 Graham, Bill, 66 graphical user interface, 111 Grateful Dead, 13, 65, 66, 166 Great Society, 26 Greenblatt, Richard, 136 Greenspan, Alan, 215 Griesemer, James, 72 [ 319 ] Grooms, Red, 48 Gullichsen, Eric, 163 Gurdjieff, Georges Ivanovitch, Meetings with Remarkable Men, 187 hacker ethic, 134 –35, 136 hackers, 117, 132 –35, 133 Hackers’ Conference, 132, 137–38, 168, 169, 171, 219, 249, 254 hacking, as a free-speech issue, 169 Hafner, Katie, 143, 145, 221, 252 Hagel, John, Net Gain, 234 Haight-Ashbury, 32, 48, 66 – 67 Hapgood, Fred, 221–22 “happenings,” 48, 49, 67, 269n14 “hardware hackers,” 133 Harman, Willis, 61, 185, 274n12 Harper’s Magazine, 167 Hart, Pam, 117 Harvard Business Review, analysis of Out of Control, 204 –5 Harvey, David, 242 Hawken, Paul, 128, 185, 188 Hayles, Katherine, 26, 122 Hedgepeth, William, 77 Hefner, Christy, 211 Heims, Steve, 26, 122 Helmreich, Stefan, 198 Hermosillo, Carmen, 155 Herring, Susan, 152 Hertzfeld, Andy, 135 heterarchy, 156 Hewlett-Packard, 138 Hickman, Berry, 96 High Frontiers (’zine), 164 Hillis, Danny, 182, 183, 189 hippies, 32 Hiroshima, 16 Hitt, Jack, 167 Hofmann, Albert, 164 Hog Farm commune, 110 Holm, Richard, 44 Homebrew Computer Club, 70, 102, 106, 114 homeostat, 26, 146, 178 Horowitz, Ed, 208 Hoyt, Brad, 193 HTML code, 222 Hudson Institute, 186 Hudson Review, 47 human-machine collaboration, 108 –9, 111 hyperlinks, 213 [ 320 ] Index I Ching, 65, 82, 93 I.


pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker

airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

And it is divided by specialties: urban and rural with river, forest, camping and mountain specialties; families, senior citizens, youth, gays and the handicapped; sports, service and study; culture, wine and cuisine; and special events. The list is endless. Jean-Philippe Pérol heads the American division from his office in New York. He told me that France has evolved into a brand that appeals to what is known as the “global village” tourists. “They have a higher education, with the kind of lifestyle that means they travel a lot, expect luxury and look for the trendy hotel, the trendy exhibit. That is what we do well.” These marketing campaigns are done as if France were a commodity, a product. Officials said they have to protect their brand, or label, that tourists have to feel they receive high quality at a reasonable price—a goal more than a few might question when faced with the high prices in Paris.

Then Clinton spoke of the particular moment in history as a “very important time.” “This industry holds much promise for the future of America. It has a lot to teach us as Americans as we stand at the dawn of a new era, moving from an industrial age to one that will be dominated by technology and information and our ability to relate to one another,” he said. “We’ve moved at a breathtaking pace from the divided world of the cold war to a global village. And we know that trade and tourism and travel, all these things are tailor-made for what we do well and what the 21st Century will value.” He recited the impressive economic achievements of U.S. travel and tourism: the second-largest employer in the U.S.; adding $22 billion to the country’s trade surplus in 1994; and $78 billion spent by foreign visitors that same year. He took credit for his administration’s first projects to help tourism: a special commission that helped to revitalize the airline companies and an overhaul of the Federal Aviation Administration to modernize and update its equipment and technology.


pages: 554 words: 158,687

Profiting Without Producing: How Finance Exploits Us All by Costas Lapavitsas

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, full employment, global value chain, global village, High speed trading, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, open economy, pensions crisis, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Simon Kuznets, special drawing rights, Thales of Miletus, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, union organizing, value at risk, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

For a global perspective on the interaction between part-time employment and women’s entry into the labour force, see Guy Standing, ‘Global Feminization Through Flexible Labor’, World Development 17:7, 1989; and Guy Standing, ‘Global Feminization Through Flexible Labor: A Theme Revisited’, World Development 27:3, 1999. 7 There is sizeable mainstream literature arguing that new technology has altered the nature of work by adding intangible organizational assets to the production process; see Erik Brynjolfsson and Lorin Hitt, ‘Beyond Computation’, Journal of Economic Perspectives 14:4, 2000; Brynjolfsson and Hitt, ‘Computing Productivity’, MIT-Sloan Working Paper 4210–01, 2003; Brynjolfsson, Hitt, and Shinkyu Yang, ‘Intangible Assets’, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Macroeconomics, vol. 1, 2002; Timothy Bresnahan, Brynjolfsson, and Hitt, ‘Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence’, Quarterly Journal of Economics 117:1, 2002; Marshall Van Alstyne and Brynjolfsson, ‘Global Village or Cyber-Balkans’, Management Science, 2004. Others have examined the change in the skill composition implied by new technologies, including in banking; see David Autor, Frank Levy, and Richard Murnane, ‘The Skill Content of Recent Technological Innovation’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118:4, 2003. There is an evident overlap with the parallel, and even earlier, debate on the impact of new technology on productivity growth, summed up below; see, for instance, Paul A.

Usher, Abbott, ‘The Early History of Deposit Banking in Mediterranean Europe’, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1943. Usher, Abbott, ‘The Origins of Banking: The Primitive Bank of Deposit, 1200–1600’ in Enterprise and Secular Change, ed. Frederic Lane and Jelle Riemersma, Homewood, IL: Richard Irwin. Originally published in Economic History Review, 1934, IV, pp. 399–428, 1953. Van Alstyne, Marshall, and Erik Brynjolfsson, ‘Global Village or Cyber-Balkans: Modeling and Measuring the Integration of Electronic Communities’, Management Science, 2004. Van Els, Peter, Alberto Locarno, Julian Morgan, and Jean-Pierre Villetelle, ‘Monetary Policy Transmission in the Euro Area: What Do Aggregate and National Structural Models Tell Us?’, Working Paper No. 94, European Central Bank, December 2001. Van Werveke, Hans, ‘Monnaie de Compte et Monnaie Réelle’, Revue Belge de Philologie et d’Histoire 13: 1–2, 1934, pp. 123–52.


pages: 1,293 words: 357,735

The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance by Laurie Garrett

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, biofilm, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, discovery of penicillin, double helix, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, global village, indoor plumbing, invention of air conditioning, John Snow's cholera map, land reform, Live Aid, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, phenotype, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, South China Sea, the scientific method, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Zimmermann PGP

Citing the fossil evidence for five great extinction events in Earth’s ancient history, Wilson asked how much more environmental destruction at man’s hand the world could tolerate: “These figures should give pause to anyone who believes that what Homo sapiens destroys, Nature will redeem. Maybe so, but not within any length of time that has meaning for contemporary humanity.”4 As humanity approached the last decade of the twentieth century, the concept of a Global Village—first elucidated in the 1960s by Canadian philosopher Marshall McLuhan as a description of the sense of worldwide interconnectedness created by mass media technology—had clearly entered mass consciousness in the context of Earth’s ecology. Environmentalists were thinking on the macro level, plotting ways to change the whaling policies of places as disparate as Japan, Alaska, Russia, and Norway.

best summed up the predicament: “That is unknown and unknowable. The scale of the unknown is simply too vast to even permit speculation.” Thanks to changes in Homo sapiens activities, in the ways in which the human species lived and worked on the planet at the end of the twentieth century, microbes no longer remained confined to remote ecospheres or rare reservoir species: for them, the earth had truly become a Global Village. Between 1950 and 1990 the number of passengers aboard international commercial air flights soared from 2 million to 280 million. Domestic passengers flying within the United States reached 424 million in 1990.56 Infected human beings were moving rapidly about the planet, and the number of air passengers was expected to double by the year 2000, approaching 600 million on international flights.57 Once microbes reached new locales, increasing human population and urbanization ensured that even relatively poorly transmissible microbes faced ever-improving statistical odds of being spread from person to person.

Further, every microscopic pathogen is a parasite that survives by feeding off a higher organism. The parasites are themselves victims of parasitism. Like a Russian wooden doll-within-a-doll, the intestinal worm is infected with bacteria, which are infected with tiny phage viruses. The whale has a gut full of algae, which are infected with Vibrio cholerae. Each microparasite is another rivet in the Global Village airplane. Interlocked in sublimely complicated networks of webbed systems, they constantly adapt and change. Every individual alteration can change an entire system; each systemic shift can propel an interlaced network in a radical new direction. In this fluid complexity human beings stomp about with swagger, elbowing their way without concern into one ecosphere after another. The human race seems equally complacent about blazing a path into a rain forest with bulldozers and arson or using an antibiotic “scorched earth” policy to chase unwanted microbes across the duodenum.


Lonely Planet Ireland by Lonely Planet

bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bike sharing scheme, Bob Geldof, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, credit crunch, G4S, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jacquard loom, Kickstarter, land reform, reserve currency, sustainable-tourism, young professional

oVagabondsHOSTEL€ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %028-9023 3017; www.vagabondsbelfast.com; 9 University Rd; dm £15-17, d & tw £50; iW; gShaftesbury Sq) Comfy bunks, lockable luggage baskets, private shower cubicles, a beer garden, a pool table and a relaxed atmosphere are what you get at one of Belfast's best hostels, run by a couple of experienced travellers. It's conveniently located close to both Queen's and the city centre. Global Village BackpackersHOSTEL€ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %028-9031 3533; http://globalvillagebelfast.com; 87 University St; dm £14.50-16.50, d £44; iW; gBotanic Ave) In a 19th-century brick terrace house close to Queen's University, Global Village combines period fireplaces and stained-glass windows with bright wall murals and wall-mounted guitars. There's a sociable kitchen and dining area, a beer garden and a barbecue. Arnie's BackpackersHOSTEL€ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %028-9024 2867; http://arniesbackpackers.co.uk; 63 Fitzwilliam St; dm £12-16; iW; gCity Hospital) This long-established old-school hostel is set in a quiet terraced house in the university area.

Doyle'sSEAFOOD$$$ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %066-915 2674; http://doylesofdingle.ie; 4 John St; mains €20-33; h5-9.30pm) Cherry-red-painted Doyle's serves some of the best seafood in the area (which in these parts is really saying something). Starters such as Dingle Bay crab cakes or grilled oysters team up with mains like spicy Spanish fish stew, seafood linguine and lobster. Crispy chips are cooked in beef dripping. Global Village RestaurantINTERNATIONAL$$$ ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %066-915 2325; www.globalvillagedingle.com; Upper Main St; mains €19-33, 6-course tasting menu €60, with wine €90; h5.30-9.30pm Mar-Oct) With the sophisticated feel of a continental bistro, this restaurant offers a fusion of global recipes gathered by the well-travelled owner-chef, but utilises local produce, such as Kerry mountain lamb. The wine list is excellent, as are the Irish and international craft beers. 6Drinking & Entertainment Dingle has scores of pubs, many with live music.

AAugust brings good weather for walking and cycling, along with celebrations of Irish music and dance in West Belfast during Féile An Phobail, plus street parties and a carnival parade. AOctober can start to get chilly, but the Festival at Queen's, the UK's second-largest arts festival (after Edinburgh), warms things up during its three-week run. Best Places to Eat A Muddlers Club A Il Pirata A Holohan's at the Barge A Saphyre A Mourne Seafood Bar Best Places to Sleep A Bullitt Hotel A Rayanne House A Vagabonds A Merchant Hotel A Global Village Backpackers Belfast Highlights 1 Titanic Belfast Learning about the world's most famous ocean liner. 2 St George's Market Sampling the wares of some of Northern Ireland's top food producers at the Saturday food and craft market. 3 Crown Liquor Saloon Sipping a Guinness in Belfast's most beautiful Victorian pub. 4 Ulster Museum Discovering prehistoric treasures, an ancient Egyptian mummy and sunken Armada gold. 5 Cave Hill Enjoying panoramic city views from the North Belfast viewpoint. 6 Ulster Folk Museum Stepping back in time to wander among reconstructed farmhouses, forges and mills. 7 Lagan Towpath Cycling along the riverbank to the former linen town of Lisburn. 8 Botanic Gardens Visiting the birdcage-domed, iron-and-glass Palm House in the peaceful park. 9 Black taxi tour Taking in West Belfast's powerful political murals from the back of a cab.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

The majority of asylum seekers in 2002 were from Afghanistan, Iraq, and Iran, all of which were portrayed as havens for terrorists (McMaster 2001). These events coincide with continued attacks on Australian multiculturalism by conservative parties. Australia is not alone in adopting a tougher line on refugees. There is a hardening of attitudes toward refugees and asylum seekers globally. But sending asylum seekers back to their country is a regressive step for Australia, which sees itself as part of the global village and relies on immigration for both its population growth and its economy. Many Australians are protesting against detention centers and many were vocal about their antiwar sentiments when the Australian Prime Minister voiced his support for the United States in Iraq. Our home town, Newcastle, has been made a Welcome City for Refugees as a result of the success of the local refugee action group.

These endow China with a better competitive edge in attracting expertise and capital from around the globe. Thirdly, with ideological debates becoming secondary to economic development, the country has been politically stable since early 1990s. This offers both an environment conducive to economic development and stability to attract outsiders as residents. As China is now striving to integrate into the global village both economically and politically, it has put into the forefront international diplomacy. The result is a cooperative approach toward foreigners in China; preferential treatment also attracts more foreign talent. Finally, with more people entering and staying longer, interconnections between locals and outsiders become more substantive and substantial. Social networks are increasing and becoming more stable and intimate; more outsiders have been living in China long enough to develop their own families and establishing their career rooted in the country.

Of the utmost importance is, of course, the country’s ability to stay on the course, taking every effort to preserve the favorable conditions it now possesses. Apart from this, breakthrough has to be sought to overcome existing limitations and emerging problems. While it would be unrealistic to expect all problems be solved overnight, China must focus on keeping its competitive edge and become increasingly integrated into the global village where the world recognizes it as a highly prized destination. This will require the valuing of a more transparent government, openness in policies, a more responsible and accountable administration, and a legal system consistent with international standards that accompany economic development. More efforts must also focus on social problems such corruption, crime and environmental pollution. 361 Foreign immigrants are essential for the further development of China.


The Orbital Perspective: Lessons in Seeing the Big Picture From a Journey of 71 Million Miles by Astronaut Ron Garan, Muhammad Yunus

Airbnb, barriers to entry, book scanning, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, global village, Google Earth, Indoor air pollution, jimmy wales, low earth orbit, optical character recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber for X, web of trust

This is similar to Duolingo’s use of beginning language students to provide translations or ReÂ�CAPTCHA’s ability to crowdsource the accuracy of book scans. Community-Based Trust These examples relate to personal trust, but there are countless similar examples of communities that form online for a specific purpose and operate in a coordinated way for the greater good. Wikipedia, for instance, was built on the premise that people enjoy interacting within a community, which in the case of Wikipedia, is a global village documenting human knowledge. As is the case with hackathons, very few people work to add knowledge and keep Wikipedia updated out of a sense of charity. Instead, they do it because it’s interesting, fun, and community oriented. And like Uber and Airbnb, Wikipedia employs a model that engages the trust of the community to help keep postings accurate and up to date. There also is a community-based trust model that deals with geographic data, to help keep platforms like Google Maps up to date in the face of changing street names or geography.


pages: 204 words: 61,491

Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business by Neil Postman, Jeff Riggenbach Ph.

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, global village, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of the printing press, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, the medium is the message

Coleridge’s famous line about water everywhere without a drop to drink may serve as a metaphor of a decontextualized information environment: In a sea of information, there was very little of it to use. A man in Maine and a man in Texas could converse, but not about anything either of them knew or cared very much about. The telegraph may have made the country into “one neighborhood,” but it was a peculiar one, populated by strangers who knew nothing but the most superficial facts about each other. Since we live today in just such a neighborhood (now sometimes called a “global village”), you may get a sense of what is meant by context-free information by asking yourself the following question: How often does it occur that information provided you on morning radio or television, or in the morning newspaper, causes you to alter your plans for the day, or to take some action you would not otherwise have taken, or provides insight into some problem you are required to solve?


pages: 1,015 words: 170,908

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

European colonialism was continually plagued by contradictions between virtuous exchange and the danger of contagion, and hence it was characterized by a complex play of flows and hygienic boundaries between metropole and colony and among colonial territories. The contemporary processes of globalization have torn down many of the boundaries of the colonial world. Along with the common celebrations of the unbounded flows in our new global village, one can still sense also an anxiety about increased contact and a certain nostalgia for colonialist hygiene. The dark side of the consciousness of globalization is the fear of contagion. If we break down global boundaries and open universal contact in our global village, how will we prevent the spread of disease and corruption? This anxiety is most clearly revealed with respect to the AIDS pandemic.2 The lightning speed of the spread of AIDS in the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia demonstrated the new dangers of global contagion.


pages: 442 words: 39,064

Why Stock Markets Crash: Critical Events in Complex Financial Systems by Didier Sornette

Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, continuous double auction, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, diversified portfolio, Elliott wave, Erdős number, experimental economics, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, global village, implied volatility, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, law of one price, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, market fundamentalism, mental accounting, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, stochastic process, stocks for the long run, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, VA Linux, Y2K, yield curve

For general interactions, if a critical time appears in one market, it should also be present in other markets as a result of the nonlinear interactions existing between the markets [219]. This will be discussed further in chapter 10 in relation to the interaction between the world population, its global economic output, and global market indices. In sum, two lessons can be taken home from the Hong Kong October 1997 crash: the trend-setting power of the “global village” and the might of the general investor sentiment forged by forces of imitation and herding. CURRENCY CRASHES Currencies can also develop bubbles and crashes. The bubble on the dollar starting in the early 1980s and ending in 1985 is a remarkable example, as shown in Figure 7.15. 255 autopsy of major c r a s h e s 3.6 3.4 3.2 Exchange Rate 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 83.0 83.5 84.0 84.5 85.0 85.5 Date Fig. 7.15.

According to the rational expectation bubble models of chapter 5, the probability for a strong correction or a crash was increasing as tc was approached, with a rising susceptibility to “external” perturbations, such as news or financial difficulties occur- 261 autopsy of major c r a s h e s 18000 1400 1300 HK 16000 WS 1000 900 12000 S&P 500 1100 14000 Hang Seng 1200 800 10000 700 600 8000 500 6000 95.0 95.5 96.0 96.5 Date 97.0 97.5 98.0 98.5 400 Fig. 7.17. The Hang Seng index prior to the October 1997 crash on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange already shown in Figure 7.11 and the S&P 500 stock market index prior to the crash on Wall Street in August 1998. The fit to the S&P 500 index is equation (15) with A2 ≈ 1321, B2 ≈ −402, B2 C ≈ 197, m2 ≈ 060, tc ≈ 9872, ≈ 075, and ≈ 64. Reproduced from [221]. ring somewhere in the “global village.” The Russian meltdown was just such a perturbation. What is remarkable is that the U.S. market somehow contained the information of an upcoming instability through its unsustainable accelerated growth and structures! The financial world being an extremely complex system of interacting components, it is not farfetched to imagine that Russia was led to take actions against its unsustainable debt policy at the time of a strongly increasing concern by many about risks on investments made in developing countries.


pages: 592 words: 161,798

The Future of War by Lawrence Freedman

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Glasses, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Markoff, long peace, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, the scientific method, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. Pinker, Steven. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. London: Penguin Books, 2011. Plaw, Avery, Matthew S. Fricker, and Carlos R. Colon. The Drone Debate: A Primer on the U.S. Use of Unmanned Aircraft Outside Conventional Battlefields. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015. Plummer, Bradford. ‘Global Warring’. New Republic, 20 Nov. 2009. Porter, Patrick. The Global Village Myth: Distance, War, and the Limits of Power. London: Hurst, 2015. Posen, Barry R. ‘The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict’. Survival 35.1 (1993): 27–47. . ‘Urban Operations: Tactical Realities and Strategic Ambiguities’. Soldiers in Cities: Military Operations on Urban Terrain. Ed. Michael C. Desch. Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, 2001. Powell, Jonathan M., and Clayton L. Thyne. ‘Global Instances of Coups from 1950 to 2010: A New Dataset’.

For Obama, the moment of truth had come in Syria in 2013 when, despite the Assad regime having apparently crossed a ‘red line’ he had set when it used chemical weapons, he decided not to intervene in the conflict. Jeffrey Goldberg, ‘The Obama Doctrine’, The Atlantic Monthly, April 2016. Available: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2016/04/the-obama-doctrine/471525. 31. Patrick Porter, The Global Village Myth: Distance, War, and the Limits of Power (London: Hurst, 2015). 32. The classic analysis of raiding strategies is found in Archer Jones, The Art of War in the Western World (Urbana and Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2001). 33. Efraim Inbar and Eitan Shamir, ‘What after counter-insurgency?’ International Affairs 92.6 (2016): 1427–1441. 34. Bernard I. Finel, ‘An Alternative to COIN’, Armed Forces Journal, (February 2010) http://armedforcesjournal.com/an-alternative-to-coin. 35.


pages: 295 words: 66,824

A Mathematician Plays the Stock Market by John Allen Paulos

Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, business climate, business cycle, butter production in bangladesh, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, dogs of the Dow, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Elliott wave, endowment effect, Erdős number, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, four colour theorem, George Gilder, global village, greed is good, index fund, intangible asset, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Nash: game theory, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, mental accounting, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, Ralph Nelson Elliott, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, six sigma, Stephen Hawking, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vanguard fund, Yogi Berra

The inflationary universe hypothesis holds—very, very roughly—that shortly after the Big Bang the primordial universe inflated so fast that all of our visible universe derives from a tiny part of it; we can’t see the rest. The metaphor is strained (in fact I just developed carpal tunnel syndrome typing it), but it seems reminiscent of what happens when the business media (as well as the media in general) focus unrelentingly on some titillating but relatively inconsequential bit of news. Coverage of the item expands so fast as to distort the rest of the global village and render it invisible. Our responses to business news are only one of the ways in which we fail to be completely rational. More generally, we simply don’t always behave in ways that maximize our economic well-being. “Homo economicus” is not an ideal toward which many people strive. My late father, for example, was distinctly uneconimicus. I remember him sitting and chuckling on the steps outside our house one autumn night long ago.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

This talk has been watched more than 1.5 million times and it was translated in 41 languages.222 “I started a group called Open Source Ecology. We’ve identified the 50 most important machines that we think it takes for modern life to exist – things from tractors, bread ovens, circuit makers. Then we set out to create an Open Source, DIY, do it yourself version that anyone can build and maintain at a fraction of the cost. We call this the Global Village Construction Set. So let me tell you a story. I finished my 20s with a Ph.D. in fusion energy, and I discovered I was useless. I had no practical skills. The world presented me with options, and I took them. I guess you can call it the consumer lifestyle. So I started a farm in Missouri and learned about the economics of farming. I bought a tractor – then it broke. I paid to get it repaired – then it broke again.


pages: 237 words: 66,545

The Money Tree: A Story About Finding the Fortune in Your Own Backyard by Chris Guillebeau

"side hustle", Bernie Madoff, Ethereum, financial independence, global village, hiring and firing, housing crisis, passive income, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Steve Jobs, telemarketer

You could stalk your internet crush to see their fifth-grade photos and favorite inspirational quotes. Still, there were limits to these networks. Jake realized that he mostly used them to connect with the same people over and over, whenever he wasn’t watching urgent videos of cats on vacuum cleaners. It wasn’t until he went on the trip to Ethiopia that his eyes were opened to a world of new possibilities. There should be some kind of online global village, specifically for everyone who’s trying to pursue a Third Way project on their own. He pictured a message board of some kind, where anyone who registered could post on two lists. One list would be “I’m looking for . . .” and the other would be “I can offer . . .” It wasn’t a matter of one group “rescuing” the other. People on both sides had struggles and advantages of their own. The problem, and therefore the opportunity he saw, was in finding a way to bring both sides together


The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History by Greg Woolf

agricultural Revolution, capital controls, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, endogenous growth, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, global village, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, joint-stock company, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, social web, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl

Most agriculturalists lived close to their crops. Because agriculture has often allowed populations to rise, these settlements often became quite large. Finding a way to distinguish a large village from a small city is genuinely difficult. Size does not work as a criterion. Many Neolithic villages were much larger than some later cities. It is difficult to imagine a village of 100,000 or a million people, and when we write of a “global village” we understand that this is a paradox, a hyperbolic claim that distance has been so collapsed by modern communications that we are all close neighbours. But even if we could agree on an upper limit in size for a village, it is less easy to set the minimum size for a city. Over the course of this book it will emerge that most of the cities of the Roman world had populations smaller than the village of Çatalhöyük did in seventh millennium b.c.e.

But it is always risky for historians to take the present day as the benchmark, and recent experience should make us distrustful of narratives of progress. Perhaps we have not come so far as we hope. What Were Early Cities Like? Today’s greatest cities have come to resemble each other closely. Their major architects are international figures, their builders have access to the same materials, and they have been designed to suit societies increasingly alike in their needs and ambitions. Each urban outpost of our global village reaches up to the sky with ever more precarious ziggurats of glass and steel, their gracile skeletons animated by fibre-optic nerves through which they talk to each other by day, and by night light up the sky. Beneath them vast artificial rivers discreetly supply water and remove waste, while cavernous metro stations link the scintillating business districts with the far-flung residential districts where those who work in them live.


pages: 1,013 words: 302,015

A Classless Society: Britain in the 1990s by Alwyn W. Turner

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, centre right, deindustrialization, demand response, Desert Island Discs, endogenous growth, Etonian, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, global village, greed is good, inflation targeting, lateral thinking, means of production, millennium bug, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, period drama, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

They are called – Heseltine, Life in the Jungle p. 379 here For nearly two decades – Richards, Whatever It Takes p. 4 here only purpose of being – Rawnsley, Servants of the People p. 3 here Britain under Tony Blair – Observer 12 July 1998 14: Power here Too much power – Shore, Leading the Left p. 183 here Democracy is all very well – Chris Langham, Look at the State We’re In!, ‘Local Government’ here Honk if you hate – Sunday Times 21 August 1994 here It is now the turn – Sunday Times 4 December 1988 here those few words – Straw, Last Man Standing p. 275 here suffered a death – O’Farrell, Global Village Idiot p. 147 here You idiot – Blair, A Journey p. 516 here The United Kingdom – Major, The Autobiography p. 424 here undermine the unity – Times 21 February 1997 here The tactic was obvious – Blair op. cit. p. 252 here It’s Gordon’s passion – Naughtie, The Rivals p. 158 here Devolution seemed – Johnes, Wales Since 1939 p. 413 here I am particularly pleased – Routledge, Gordon Brown p. 153 here People should not underestimate – Young, The Hugo Young Papers p. 482 here in Scotland – Independent 27 January 1999 here It speaks volumes – Weight, Patriots p. 670 here Once the powers – Times 4 April 1997 here Walking in the Scottish highlands – Sunday Times 29 December 1996 here they view us – Campbell, The Blair Years p. 49 here unreconstructed wankers – Oborne & Walters, Alastair Campbell p. 141 here similar to the Militant – Sun 30 June 1998 here pure Australian shite – Weight op. cit. p. 700 here terrific – Routledge, Mandy p. 6 here We don’t kill people – West, Murder in the Commons p. 209 here The people of Wales – Johnes op. cit. p. 335 here was almost single-handedly – Hain, Outside In p. 194 here This is a loyalty vote – ibid. p. 201 here a bulwark against – Rhodri Morgan (pc) here We voted Labour – Johnes op. cit. p. 331 here short, fat, slimy – Times 21 December 1994 here Are you a minicab driver – Price, The Spin Doctor’s Diary p. 46 here the talismanic Rhodri – Hain op. cit. p. 192 here What sort of election – Johnes op. cit. p. 418 here Fucking Welsh – Guardian 19 September 2005 here Every day when I wake up – Powell/Richards/Jones/Matthews/Roberts, ‘International Velvet’ (Sony/ATV Music Publishing Ltd, 1998) here his greatest conflict – Blunkett, The Blunkett Tapes p. 125 here In the years since then – Independent 27 May 1999 here Ken Livingstone is a folk hero – Dexys Midnight Runners, ‘Reminisce (Part 1)’ (Rowland, EMI Music Publishing Ltd, 1983) here I think Ken – Independent on Sunday 24 August 1997 here I was put up – Times 24 April 1992 here caused an awful lot – Benn, Free at Last p. 250 here I’d love to be – Routledge, Mandy p. 230 here I didn’t feel visceral – Blair op. cit. p. 267 here It was going to be difficult – ibid. p. 267 here saw Ken Livingstone – Powell, The New Machiavelli p. 130 here He was one of the many – Blair op. cit. p. 263 here the Labour Party will elect – Naughtie op. cit. p. 297 here We had really fucked this – Campbell op. cit. p. 428 here We fucked it up – Mullin, A View from the Foothills p. 80 here The trouble is – Young op. cit. p. 641 here He was running rings – Campbell op. cit. p. 443 here THE MAN RUNNING RINGS – Daily Mail 16 May 1984 here I’ve been waiting – Guardian 5 April 2000 here following Blair – Benn op. cit. p. 602 here As I was saying – Daily Mirror 6 May 2000, Financial Times 5 July 1991 here an accident waiting – Wheatcroft, The Strange Death of Tory England p. 209 here there are the most – Financial Times 10 August 1999 here It wasn’t until – Clifford, Max Clifford p. 187 here I’m pretty confident – Walters, Tory Wars p. 51 here less compassionate – Daily Mirror 2 August 2000 here Margaret Thatcher was – Daily Mirror 9 February 2002 here People out there – Nadler, William Hague p. 227 here This is a day – Rawnsley, Servants of the People p. 206 here It was a perfectly – Blair op. cit. p. 251 here at a practical level – Shephard, Shephard’s Watch p. 253 here It doesn’t take a genius – Gorman, No, Prime Minister!

here he said we hit – Campbell op. cit. p. 347 here You’d better give – Mandelson, The Third Man p. 281 here to show me maps – Ashdown, The Ashdown Diaries p. 117 here the KLA were not – Campbell op. cit. p. 362 here essentially a moral issue – Blair, A Journey p. 228 here we breached – Blunkett, The Blunkett Tapes p. 122 here ‘bombing into submission’ – Campbell op. cit. p. 372 here This is obscene – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 276 here wonder why – Campbell op. cit. p. 408 here The only important thing – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 281 here This was the liberals’ war – Steel, Reasons to Be Cheerful p. 262 here Those loathsome – Clark, The Last Diaries p. 389 here There was no real – Campbell op. cit. p. 371 here in limbo – Short op. cit. p. 96 here the unresolved question – Patten, Not Quite the Diplomat p. 168 here just a military conflict – Sunday Telegraph 4 April 1999 here war can be necessary – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 288 here a new doctrine – Kampfner op. cit. p. 52 here Intervention to bring down – Blair op. cit. p. 248 here enforcement of – ibid. p. 225 here Success is the only exit – Kampfner op. cit. p. 52 here a huge change of mood – Clark op. cit. p. 390 here Human rights are – Times 22 April 1999 here was to help – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 180 here ostensibly to secure – Price op. cit. p. 219 here inexorable slide – Times 27 September 1994 here stoned bandits – Guardian 12 March 2005 here we asked for justice – Denim, ‘The Osmonds’ (Lawrence, Boys Own Recordings, 1992) here The conflict is over – Major op. cit. p. 431 here The cares of the world – Meyer, DC Confidential p. 19 here I don’t talk – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 129 here It is finished – Financial Times 2 March 1995 here The people of Northern Ireland – Major op. cit. p. 457 here I’m sick of answering – People 23 April 1995 here At worst, it has – Cole, As It Seemed To Me p. 418 here I could not have asked – Major op. cit. p. 493 here I was putting – Blair op. cit. p. 171 here losing the battle – Independent on Sunday 13 April 1997 here I am not in favour – Benn, Free at Last p. 550 here awful – Campbell op. cit. p. 375 here fuck off – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 125 here This is no time – Blair op. cit. p. 166 here I felt really – Campbell op. cit. p. 298 here Ullans is not – ibid. p. 298 here a new period – Daily Mirror 28 May 1998 here making at least – Blunkett op. cit. p. 92 here we are handing over – Benn op. cit. p. 592 here At least when we talk – ibid. p. 568 here a shitty job – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 347 here She is fed up – Blunkett op. cit. p. 161 here People did things – Blair op. cit. p. 156 16: Reality here Churchill got his lucky number – Blur, ‘It Could Be You’ (Albarn/Coxon/James/Rowntree, MCA Music Ltd, 1995) here The consorts, the lovers – Blacker, The Fame Hotel p. 46 here Flogging criminals – Daily Mirror 20 March 1995 here Someone told me – Lovesey, Upon a Dark Night p. 155 here a chance for the government – Baker, The Turbulent Years p. 462 here unlikely to attract – Major, The Autobiography p. 408 here within ten years – Independent 26 May 1998 here taken money out – Radice, Diaries 1980–2001 p. 344 here between £250 million – Financial Times 15 April 1996 here I did not think – Thatcher, The Downing Street Years p. 610 here It could be you – Kibble-White & Williams, The Encyclopaedia of Classic Saturday Night Telly p. 227 here In public spending – Adonis & Pollard, A Class Act p. 266 here The working class – Critchley & Halcrow, Collapse of Stout Party p. 147 here NEVER HAS SO MUCH – Daily Mirror 27 April 1995 here startling redistribution – Independent 27 April 1995 here The lottery is our only hope – Danziger, Danziger’s Britain p. 119 here the costs were huge – Independent 2 June 1997 here boasting of four-in-a-bed romps – Sun 29 May 1997 here I tell you what – Izzard, Dress to Kill p. 127 here did not find it – Daily Mail 30 July 2001 here unspeakably sick – Sunday Telegraph 29 June 2001 here sickest TV show ever – Daily Mail 28 June 2001 here looking chest swell – Observer 5 August 2001 here a deeply unpleasant piece – Guardian 31 July 2001 here The main news tonight – Sunday Times 27 December 1998 here macabre pair – Smith, I Think the Nurses Are Stealing My Clothes p. 316 here We got him – Harvey Hinsley (pc) here It is a shocking truth – Independent 18 September 2000 here Whether or not – ikon issue 1, September 1995 here We are in great haste – Henry David Thoreau, Walden, chapter 1: ‘Economy’ (1854) here The BNP’s cyberspace audience – Spearhead April 1999 here Our children have no doubt – Times 3 April 1995 here Opinion-making – Osborne, Damn You, England p. 199 here The success of popular reporting – Brookmyre, Quite Ugly One Morning p. 38 here from enfant terrible – Burchill, The Guardian Columns p. 49 here the tosser was at art school – ibid. p. 298 here working for the CIA – ibid. p. 183 here The internet is a subversive – Guardian 12 August 1999 here The internet is effectively – Daily Mail 18 May 1998 here We must find a way – Sunday Mirror 21 June 1998 here the internet is exciting – Forum Vol. 28 No. 8 1995 here people will stitch you up – Financial Times 19 August 2000 here his accent was too posh – Evening Standard 14 December 2000 here the media’s playground bully – Parsons, Big Mouth Strikes Again p. 243 here a shallow, bullying man-child – Haines, Bad Vibes p. 182 here The class war – Daily Mail 29 September 1999 here This election has shown – Times 10 October 1959 here in an old boiler suit – Daily Telegraph 24 October 2000 here I’ve never stood – Independent 24 October 2000 here an interview system – Beckett, Gordon Brown p. 133 here The chancellor really is – Sun 26 May 2000 here harsh and uninformed – Times 27 May 2000 here You might as well – Economist 3 June 2000 here hordes of upper-class – News of the World 28 May 2000 here the dirty little secret – Daily Mirror 9 June 2000 here went on and on – Young, The Hugo Young Papers p. 676 here NEW LABOUR, OLD CLASS ENVY – Daily Mail 27 May 2000 here The scenes of a hunt – Kochan, Ann Widdecombe p. 249 here The more I learned – Blair, A Journey p. 306 here to show that fox-hunting – Price, The Spin Doctor’s Diary p. 288 here the tolerance of minorities – Times 11 July 1997 here All country people – Nott, Mr Wonderful Takes a Cruise p. 139 here would get blocked – Campbell, The Blair Years p. 488 here A ban on hunting – Mullin, A View from the Foothills p. 186 here If we could get – Times 1 April 2000 here The liberal elite – Walters, Tory Wars p. 107 here It’s something – Times 17 September 1999 here We need to appear – Price op. cit. p. 214 here We’ve got the whole – Walters op. cit. p. 56 here execution, official or freelance – Guardian 27 April 2000 here Why do I share – Financial Times 10 October 1997 here a new low – Daily Telegraph 27 June 1998 here They think the party – Young op. cit. p. 667 here Never mind – Independent 4 December 1999 here The message is – Sun 26 September 1997 here We discussed – Independent 2 February 1999 here a sexual accessory – Observer 31 January 1999 here Of all sexual perversions – Independent 1 February 1999 here If his missus – Sun 2 February 1999 here It means zero tolerance – Daily Mail 5 October 2000 here Is she really serious – Daily Mail 5 October 2000 here a calculated bid – Sun 9 October 2000 here It was a spiteful attempt – Walters op. cit. p. 82 here I call it good manners – Savage, Time Travel p. 390 here ‘bastard’ and ‘twat’ – Independent 8 December 1994 here It may be that the era – Times 20 March 1998 here complemented by more – Times 23 March 1998 here the days of the old – Times 20 March 1998 here If I am wrong – Independent 3 March 1998 17: Millennium here What is the Dome for? – Cohen, Pretty Straight Guys p. 138 here When I look back – Blair, A Journey p. 312 here To all the people – O’Farrell, Global Village Idiot p. 200 here I knew a lot – Blair op. cit. p. 224 here not something – Bremner et al, You Are Here p. 43 here A thousand days of Labour – Barnett, This Time p. 29 here As a nation – Heseltine, Life in the Jungle p. 509 here I should really cancel it – Routledge, Mandy p. 183 here Euan test – Daily Mirror 20 June 1997 here I knew and they knew – Prescott, Prezza p. 236 here If the PM were here – Cohen op. cit. p. 141 here nobody believed – Blunkett, The Blunkett Tapes p. 24 here In retrospect – Powell, The New Machiavelli p. 40 here everyone under the age – Strange, Strange p. 244 here entirely inappropriate – Times 13 January 1998 here ideas merchants – Times 21 June 1997 here In 1851 and 1951 – Cohen op. cit. p. 142 here the People’s Show – Weight, Patriots p. 195 here my Dome – Independent on Sunday 18 January 1998 here bollocks – Routledge op. cit. p. 196 here a slight and demeaning – Young, The Hugo Young Papers p. 548 here It was like an orchestra – Rawnsley, Servants of the People p. 327 here a project that could – Bayley, Labour Camp p. 59 here typography – ibid. p. 63 here the most exciting – Mail on Sunday 1 March 1998 here the first paragraph – Financial Times 21 February 2000 here journalistic fantasy – Financial Times 28 February 2000 here see off cynics – Independent 18 December 1999 here Pushing to get out – Blair op. cit. p. 254 here between the forces – Guardian 29 September 1999 here such as the conservation – Sun 30 September 1999 here He spoke for Britain – Sun 8 October 1999 here a strategy to put himself – Campbell, The Blair Years p. 426 here Dear sir – Wener, Goodnight Steve McQueen p. 130 here Your home is suddenly – Sun 30 January 1998 here Bank vaults – Observer 13 December 1998 here the worst case scenario – Financial Times 29 August 1998 here That pissed them off – Prescott op. cit. p. 236 here the Queen had both – King, House Music p. 136 here I don’t think – Blair op. cit. p. 258 here everyone I know – O’Farrell op. cit. p. 162 here There is no single – Sunday Times 6 August 2000 here It was actually – Benn, Free at Last p. 585 here Governments shouldn’t run – Campbell op. cit. p. 441 here Hindsight is – Guardian 27 September 2000 here a symbol of New Labour – Times 7 September 2000 here ghastly little cunt – Price, The Spin Doctor’s Diary p. 280 here lost the plot – Spicer, The Spicer Diaries p. 411 here We must all work – ibid. p. 431 here a decade of motorcades – Clark, The Tories p. 494 here There’s a bit – Price op. cit. p. 69 here I know I am right – Campbell op. cit. p. 454 here It is bizarre – Guardian 17 July 2000 here It is remarkably shallow – Mullin, A View from the Foothills p. 117 here a modern man – Hernon, The Blair Decade p. 17 here David Miliband tried – Blair op. cit. p. 255 here we have made medical care – New Statesman 14 January 2000 here not a commitment – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 339 here Respect for the old – Times 8 June 2000 here What on earth – Rawnsley op. cit. p. 372 here We made the point – Express 8 June 2000 here there was no way – Campbell op. cit. p. 458 here we simply had to hold – ibid. p. 459 here It shook people – Blunkett op. cit. p. 186 here I would not say – Express 17 April 2000 here no mileage – Times 17 April 2000 here wouldn’t even dream – Times 17 April 2000 here BLAIR, YOU ARE A CUNT – Blair op. cit. p. 299 here I tell you now – Financial Times 27 September 2000 here Prime ministers aren’t meant – Dobbs, The Final Cut p. 317 here that the country – Young op. cit. p. 653 here I know it’s only been – Independent 7 July 2000 here Tried for three years – Tim Rice & Andrew Lloyd here Webber, ‘Gethsemane’ (Leeds Music, 1971) here no one took – Blair op. cit. p. 292 here We weren’t far off – Campbell, The Blair Years p. 471 here The public never realised – Powell, The New Machiavelli p. 44 here It is ironic – Times 12 September 2000 here The life of a nation – Times 14 September 2000 here or picket lines – Blunkett op. cit. p. 204 here These three men – Daily Mirror 13 September 2000 here I felt that a Tory – Blair op. cit. p. 294 here if this was Thatcher – Campbell op. cit. p. 469 here Although I don’t support – Benn, Free at Last pp. 625–6 here After years of creeping – Mullin, A View from the Foothills p. 127 here I had messed up – Blair op. cit. p. 293 here He is much more – Young op. cit. p. 705 here I should have realised – Blair op. cit. p. 293 here politically it was tone-deaf – Mandelson, The Third Man p. 305 here I don’t know why – Wyatt, Journals Volume 2 pp. 76–7 here mystified as to why – Young op. cit. p. 673 here The instinct to buy – Powell op. cit. p. 43 here RIOT YOBS – Sun 2 May 2000 here THIS WAS – Daily Mirror 2 May 2000 here mindless thugs – Independent 2 May 2000 here I’m not happy – Oborne & Walters, Alastair Campbell p. 208 here politically motivated – Routledge op. cit. p. 267 here At no time – Cohen op. cit. p. 169 here pretty much alone – Blair op. cit. p. 308 here a perceived cover-up – Price op. cit. p. 291 here It’s the end – Oborne & Walters op. cit. p. 263 here The truth is – Mullin op. cit. p. 157 here I spot Geoffrey Robinson – Radice, Diaries 1980–2001 p. 479 here It is an absolute tragedy – Oborne & Walters op. cit. p. 265 here GOODBYE – Sun 25 January 2001 here YOU WERE THE WEAKEST LINK – Daily Mirror 25 January 2001 here There must be more – Mandelson op. cit. p. 313 here the need for a Peter – O’Farrell op. cit. p. 272 here Thank the Lord – Blunkett op. cit. p. 20 here situated near – Blair op. cit. p. 310 here We’ve slaughtered – Mullin op. cit. p. 191 here PLAGUE – Daily Mirror 22 February 2001 here NO MEAT – Express 24 February 2001 here presidential style – Blair op. cit. p. 311 here We have to stop him – Powell op. cit. p. 117 here pretty much lost confidence – Campbell op. cit. p. 514 here All this export – Benn, Free at Last p. 658 here we had to play along – ibid. p. 520 here ten years of success – Routledge op. cit. p. 227 here independence for the Bank – Price op. cit. p. 118 here If I die tomorrow – Campbell op. cit. p. 606 here There’s our part – Independent 13 December 2000 here This government has done – Young op. cit. pp. 648–9 here I suspect that what will – Blunkett op. cit. p. 202 here many achievements – Short, An Honourable Deception?

Ruth Winstone), A View from the Foothills: The Diaries of Chris Mullin (Profile, London, 2009 – pbk edn: 2010) Jo-Anne Nadler, William Hague: In His Own Right (Politico’s, London, 2000) James Naughtie, The Rivals: The Intimate Story of a Political Marriage (Fourth Estate, London, 2001 – rev pbk edn: 2002) John Nott, Mr Wonderful Takes a Cruise: The Adventures of an Old Age Pensioner (Ebury Press, London, 2004) Lucy O’Brien, She Bop II (originally published as She Bop, Penguin, London, 1995 – new edn: Continuum, London, 2002) John O’Farrell, Things Can Only Get Better: Eighteen Miserable Years in the Life of a Labour Supporter (Doubleday, London, 1998 – pbk edn: Black Swan, London, 1999) John O’Farrell, Global Village Idiot: Dispatches from the Turn of a Century (Doubleday, London, 2001 – pbk edn: Black Swan, London, 2002) Peter Oborne, The Triumph of the Political Class (Simon & Schuster, London, 2007 – pbk edn: Pocket Books, London, 2008) Peter Oborne & Simon Walters, Alastair Campbell (Aurum, London, 2004) John Osborne, Damn You, England: Collected Prose (Faber & Faber, London, 1994 – pbk edn: 1999) Matthew Parris, Great Parliamentary Scandals: Four Centuries of Calumny, Smear and Innuendo (Robson Books, London, 1995 – rev pbk edn: 1997) Matthew Parris, Off-Message: New Labour, New Sketches (Robson, London, 2001) Tony Parsons, Big Mouth Strikes Again: A Further Collection of Two-Fisted Journalism (André Deutsch, London, 1998 – pbk edn: 1999) Anna Pasternak, Princess in Love (Bloomsbury, London, 1994) Chris Patten, Not Quite the Diplomat: Home Truths about World Affairs (Allen Lane, London, 2005 – pbk edn: Penguin, London, 2006) John Patten, Things to Come: The Tories in the 21st Century (Sinclair-Stevenson, London, 1995) Jeremy Paxman, The English: A Portrait of a People (Michael Joseph, London, 1998 – pbk edn: Penguin, London, 1999) Edward Pearce, The Senate of Lilliput (Faber & Faber, London, 1983) Peter Gerard Pearse & Nigel Matheson, Ken Livingstone, or The End of Civilization as We Know It: A Selection of Quotes, Quips and Quirks (Proteus Books, London, 1982) Harry Pearson, The Far Corner: A Mazy Dribble through North-East Football (Little, Brown, London, 1994 – pbk edn: Warner, London, 1996) Melanie Phillips, All Must Have Prizes (Little, Brown, London, 1996 – rev pbk edn: Warner, London, 1998) Jonathan Powell, The New Machiavelli: How to Wield Power in the Modern World (Bodley Head, London, 2010 – pbk edn: Vintage, London, 2011) John Prescott with Hunter Davies, Prezza: My Story (Headline Review, London, 2008 – pbk edn: Docks to Downing Street: My Story, 2009) Lance Price, The Spin Doctor’s Diary: Inside Number 10 with New Labour (Hodder & Stoughton, London, 2005) Sonia Purnell, Just Boris: The Irresistible Rise of a Political Celebrity (Aurum, London, 2011) Giles Radice, Diaries 1980–2001: From Political Disaster to Election Triumph (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 2004) Mac Randall, Exit Music: The Radiohead Story (Omnibus, London, 2000) Amy Raphael, Never Mind the Bollocks: Women Rewrite Rock (Virago, London, 1995) Andrew Rawnsley, Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour (Hamish Hamilton, London, 2000) John Redwood, The Death of Britain?


pages: 226 words: 75,783

In the Land of Invented Languages: Adventures in Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius by Arika Okrent

British Empire, centre right, global village, Johannes Kepler, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, software patent, Stephen Hawking

In the final few pages of the final chapter of his final book on Loglan, the revised grammar he published in 1989, we get a brief, illuminating glimpse of his unguarded ambitions when he launches into a breathless description of what might happen if the experiments showed that Loglan did indeed have a “mind-expanding, thought-facilitating” effect: Wouldn't the entire experimental program, in fact, now be seen as a successful assessment of a proposed new educational experience, one that was available to everyone? It might even be seen as a treatment of a disease we didn't know we had! LLL, the disease of “logical language limitation,” or UNM of “unnecessarily narrowed minds” … And wouldn't Loglan itself then be seen as the gentle new cure for that ancient human malady? … An antidote for the bigotry with which even “civilized people” tend to view their neighbors in the global village? … This is what is very likely to happen given what the journalists will call a “positive” outcome of our Whorfian experiment … Backed up by such a result, Loglan would probably be seen as ideal in the role of that international auxiliary, for example: the first language to be taught to the world's school children, the one slated to become everybody's second tongue … our engineered new second-language would be seen as the mind-expander, the instrument of thought, reason, invention, and exposition … and perhaps also the medium of intercultural mediation, a culture-spanning bridge to a more tolerant and peaceful world.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Writing at the height of the dot-com bubble, Tom Friedman declared that the Internet would “make us all next door neighbors.” In fact, this idea was the core of his thesis in The Lexus and the Olive Tree: “The Internet is going to be like a huge vise that takes the globalization system ... and keeps tightening and tightening that system around everyone, in ways that will only make the world smaller and smaller and faster and faster with each passing day.” Friedman seemed to have in mind a kind of global village in which kids in Africa and executives in New York would build a community together. But that’s not what’s happening: Our virtual next-door neighbors look more and more like our real-world neighbors, and our real-world neighbors look more and more like us. We’re getting a lot of bonding but very little bridging. And this is important because it’s bridging that creates our sense of the “public”—the space where we address the problems that transcend our niches and narrow self-interests.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, IKEA effect, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, private space industry, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

Every time I download some design from the Web and print something on my MakerBot without going to a store or otherwise engaging in any commercial transaction at all, I wonder how long it will take before more of the world of atoms becomes free, like most of the world of bits already has. (I wrote a book about this economic model, too, which now hardly needs explaining as we are awash in free digital goods.)54 Take, for instance, Open Source Ecology, which is an online community creating a “Global Village Construction Set.” These are open-source designs for the fifty machines necessary to “build a small civilization with modern comforts,” ranging from a small sawmill to a micro-combine for harvesting. This hearkens back to the Israeli kibbutz model of self-sufficiency, which was forged in a period of need and philosophical belief in collective action, or to Gandhi’s model of village industrial independence in India.


pages: 252 words: 74,167

Thinking Machines: The Inside Story of Artificial Intelligence and Our Race to Build the Future by Luke Dormehl

Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, borderless world, call centre, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, drone strike, Elon Musk, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Author Interviews (Conducted 2014–2016) David Ackley, Bandar Antabi, William Sims Bainbridge, Selmer Bringsjord, Adam Cheyer, Diane Cook, Gunnar Grímsson, Michael Grothaus, Ken Hayworth, Rob High, Geoff Hinton, John Hopfield, Ken Jennings, Ron Kaplan, Ross King, Carlos Laorden, Hugh Loebner, Jason Lohn, Dean Pomerleau, Mark Riedl, John Sculley, Terry Sejnowski, Lior Shamir, Richard Sutton, Marius Ursache, R. Jacob Vogelstein, Yorick Wilks. Endnotes Chapter 1: Whatever Happened to Good Old-Fashioned AI? 1 Spicer, Dag, ‘IBM and the 1964 World’s Fair’, Computer History Museum, 2014: computerhistory.org/atchm/ibm-and-1964-worlds-fair/ 2 Barbrook, Richard, Imaginary Future: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village (London: Pluto, 2007). 3 Shroff, Gautam, The Intelligent Web: Search, Smart Algorithms, and Big Data (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013). 4 Gilgen, Albert, American Psychology Since World War II: A Profile of the Discipline (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1982). 5 Crevier, Daniel, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (New York: Basic Books, 1993). 6 Brewster, Edwin, Natural Wonders Every Child Should Know (New York: Doubleday, 1912). 7 Copeland, Jack, Turing: Pioneer of the Information Age (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2012). 8 Nilsson, Nils, The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements (Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010). 9 Holehouse, Matthew, ‘Ed Miliband Proposes Turing’s Law to Pardon Convicted Gay Men’, Telegraph, 3 March 2015: telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/ed-miliband/11446543/Ed-Miliband-proposes-Turings-Law-to-pardon-convicted-gay-men.html 10 Kurzweil, Ray, The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (New York: Viking, 2005). 11 McCorduck, Pamela, Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence (San Francisco: W.


pages: 238 words: 73,121

Does Capitalism Have a Future? by Immanuel Wallerstein, Randall Collins, Michael Mann, Georgi Derluguian, Craig Calhoun, Stephen Hoye, Audible Studios

affirmative action, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, butterfly effect, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Isaac Newton, job automation, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, loose coupling, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Only after 1945 were the former peasants and working classes of the West and Soviet bloc factored into social security and prosperity by their national states. In total, this amounted to several hundred millions of people. But are there now the resources, let alone political will, to factor in several billion people from the global South? Enthusiasts of globalization hail our moving into a global village. This sanguine claim should be evaluated soberly. Cosmopolitanism is a longstanding project that has had its liberal and socialist versions.5 But it means something different as a complement to a world of stable states. And there exist other, more conservative projects for directing globalization that derive their energies from imperialist ambitions, nationalisms, anti-immigrant rejections, religious fundamentalism, and their combinations.


pages: 229 words: 72,431

Shadow Work: The Unpaid, Unseen Jobs That Fill Your Day by Craig Lambert

airline deregulation, Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, big-box store, business cycle, carbon footprint, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, financial independence, Galaxy Zoo, ghettoisation, gig economy, global village, helicopter parent, IKEA effect, industrial robot, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, pattern recognition, plutocrats, Plutocrats, recommendation engine, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game, Zipcar

If such jobs vanish, a throng of unemployed young people will find themselves with little money and too much spare time. This is a dangerous development in any society. Unrest and violence throughout the Arab world have erupted from streets teeming with young men lacking jobs—angry youths who congregate online through social media. Such mobs can become unruly. In 2003, the dissolution of the Iraqi army put 400,000 young men out of work, triggering a bloody insurgency that still continues. In today’s global village, where citizens network and congregate in political flashmobs, we cannot risk creating an immense underclass of idle youth. Yet this is exactly what we are doing. Young people aged fifteen to twenty-four make up 17 percent of the global population but 40 percent of the unemployed, according to the World Economic Forum. In 2013, their rate of joblessness (12.6 percent) was about triple the worldwide adult rate of 4.5 percent.


pages: 290 words: 76,216

What's Wrong with Economics? by Robert Skidelsky

"Robert Solow", additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, global supply chain, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, precariat, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, survivorship bias, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

A temporary escape only is offered by ‘charismatic’ leaders, who ‘set new goals and open up new paths for societies hampered by political stagnation and bureaucratic routine’.15 Since Weber’s time, the world of custom has shrunk relative to the world of ‘business’. Modern life has become increasingly ‘transactional’. The ideology of homo economicus together with digital technology suck people out of local communities, and even nations, into a ‘global village’. The student of economics needs to balance the economist’s enthusiasm for ever-widening markets against the sociological insight that this can be highly disruptive to settled ways of life. Without a sociological imagination, we cannot hope to understand the political revolt of today’s ‘left-behinds’. One type of hugely influential institution stands apart from the binary divide between custom and contract: this is the religious community, the community of believers.


pages: 284 words: 85,643

What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

It may have been the high-water mark for American liberal optimism as well. It confirmed my view of my birthplace as the center of the universe—the whole world came to us—and my family’s place in the center of New York. From the Uffizi in Florence came Michelangelo’s incomparable Pietà, the statue of the dead Jesus Christ on his mother’s lap, revered by devout Catholics and passionate art lovers alike. Disneyland left California for New York, with its schmaltzy global village pavilion “It’s a Small World After All.” My mother’s venerated old employer, General Motors, sponsored an exhibit called Futurama 2, updating Norman Bel Geddes’s vision of a glorious highway-linked American future that had stunned the 1939–1940 New York World’s Fair. In this new Futurama, the entire world is linked by global highways that cut through oceans, rain forests, mountains, polar ice caps, and even outer space (all traveled by presumably GM-made vehicles).


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

And companies can charge a service fee for providing that service and playing that role. Charles Leadbeater poses a provocative question in his book We-Think: “What will happen when the networks created by the geeks combine with the traditions and habits of millions of people who were until recently rural peasants?”23 New online and off-line marketplaces are forming where people can once again “meet” in a global village and form nonlocal trust. We have returned to a time when if you do something wrong or embarrassing, the whole community will know. Free riders, vandals, and abusers are easily weeded out, just as openness, trust, and reciprocity are encouraged and rewarded. As we shall show over the next few chapters, when personal relationships and social capital return to the center of the exchanges, peer-to-peer trust is relatively easy to create and manage, and most of the time the trust is strengthened, not broken.


White City, Black City: Architecture and War in Tel Aviv and Jaffa by Sharon Rotbard

British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, continuation of politics by other means, European colonialism, global village, housing crisis, illegal immigration, megastructure, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal

After truncating an urban continuity spanning thousands of years, it is Tel Aviv’s responsibility to instigate this project of repair even if it is the first of its kind. Even if such repair has yet to happen anywhere else. This is because what has happened in Ajami, and in Manshieh, and in the Old City of Jaffa, and even in Neve Sha’anan and Shapira, cannot be repaired by anyone else and would never be repaired anywhere else; because in today’s global village, Jaffa’s exiles are the poor of Tel Aviv, and because the Jaffa-Tel Aviv problem lies at the heart of the Middle East conflict. AFTERWORD Booming Tel Aviv: A Few Notes to the Non-Hebrew Reader I am not a historian, but in the problematic political contexts and difficult circumstances of any possible architectural practice anywhere, and especially in Israel, writing has always seemed to me one of the few decent and effective ways to be an architect.


pages: 403 words: 87,035

The New Geography of Jobs by Enrico Moretti

assortative mating, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business climate, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate raider, creative destruction, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, global village, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Wall-E, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

For apparel—and for traditional production in general—the design and marketing jobs that remain are few and are not growing in any appreciable way, while in the innovation sector the design and engineering jobs are numerous and growing fast. Until recently we did not import much from low-wage countries. As recently as 1991, these countries accounted for less than 3 percent of U.S. manufacturing imports, a number too small to affect a large number of jobs. But over the past two decades the world has become a global village of ever-expanding commerce. By 2000 the percentage of imports from low-income countries had doubled, and by 2007 it had doubled again, with China accounting for most of the increase. What happened was an enormous shift in the production of physical goods away from rich countries with high labor costs to poorer countries with low labor costs. As the iPhone illustrates, there are much better places on earth to make many physical goods, including fairly sophisticated ones.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

While it could be argued that these questions can be traced to Nikola Tesla’s discussion of global wireless “central nervous centers,” it is ultimately Marshall McLuhan who should be credited. In his 1964 book Understanding Media, McLuhan described an interconnected and interactive form of media that sounds shockingly similar to the Internet and, one might argue, virtual reality. Earlier, in The Gutenberg Galaxy, he had coined the term “global village,” which is still used to describe the Internet today. McLuhan also coined the phrase “The medium is the message,” meaning that the way information is conveyed in society has a more profound effect than the actual information. These concepts are starting to engage with the question of how culture would work in an electronically connected society, but McLuhan was primarily concerned with communication and media, not economics.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

‘Computing,’ he proclaimed, ‘will be part of the formulation of problems . . . it will mediate and facilitate communication among human beings.’ It would, he believed, help us to ‘make better collective decisions’. Computing in the 1960s and early 1970s was often endowed with a magical, mysterious power. Anarchists dreamt of a world in which humanity would be liberated from the drudge of labour, ‘all watched over by machines of loving grace’, while counter-cultural writers like Marshall McLuhan were predicting a ‘global village’ of connectedness as a result of modern media, and even a ‘psychic communal integration’ of all humankind. As the internet became a mainstream form of communication for millions of people there was a surge of techno-optimism. The early nineties were ablaze with utopian ideas about humanity’s imminent leap forward, spurred by connectivity and access to information. Harley Hahn, an influential technology expert, predicted in 1993 that we were about to evolve ‘a wonderful human culture that is really our birth-right’.


pages: 303 words: 83,564

Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game

It may drive the indigenous into “hunkering down”: the dismal sentiment, now often voiced within the indigenous English working class, that “times used to be good.” Such an uninspiring role for the indigenous is not the only one available to the cultural separation approach. It could instead be presented through a narrative in which the indigenous have a more positive role. For example, it might be that in cohabiting in the same territory, the many distinct formerly national communities are pioneers of the future “global village.” The indigenous, in choosing this strategy for their territory, are the vanguard of this future. Within this narrative, the nation embodies a set of ethical principles of intercommunity equity made manifest in a set of legal obligations and entitlements that apply to all equally. It is these globally appropriate values, rather than its culture, that the indigenous community shares with others.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

See Kris Wetterstrand, “DNA Sequencing Costs: Data from the NHGRI Genome Sequencing Program (GSP),” National Human Genome Research Institute, July 16, 2013, http://www.genome.gov/sequencingcosts/. 5. On gaming, see Nicholas Carr, The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2011); on cyberbalkanization, see Marshall van Alstyne and Erik Brynjolfsson, “Electronic Communities: Global Villages or Cyberbalkanization?” ICIS 1996 Proceedings, December 31, 1996, http://aisel.aisnet.org/icis1996/5; and Eli Pariser, The Filter Bubble: How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think (New York: Penguin, 2012); on social isolation see Sherry Turkle, Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other (New York: Basic Books, 2012); and Robert D.


pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

See also Julian Rademeyer, “SAPS ‘Full of Criminals,’” News24, May 12, 2008. http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/SAPS-full-of-criminals-20080509 (accessed November 8, 2010). 54.╯Interview, August 2002. 55.╯Wilfred Schärf, “Bombs, Bungles and Police Transformation: When Is the SAPS Going to Get Smarter?” in Crime Wave: The South African Underworld and Its Foes, ed. Jonny Steinberg (Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 2001), 58. 56.╯Ethan A. Nadelmann, “The Americanization of Global Law Enforcement: The Diffusion of American Tactics and Personnel,” in Crime and Law Enforcement in the Global Village, ed. W. F. McDonald (Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing, 1997). 57.╯Andy Duffy, “Police Linked to Cape War,” Mail and Guardian, October 4, 1997. 58.╯Interview, August 2002. 59.╯Ted Leggett, “The Sieve Effect,” SA Crime Quarterly 5 (September 2003). Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies. 60.╯Redpath, “Forfeiting Rights?” 61.╯Boyane Tshehla, Traditional Justice in Practice: A Limpopo Case Study, ISS Monograph 115 (Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies, 2005). 62.╯Gareth Newham, Tackling Police Corruption in South Africa (Johannesburg: Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation, June 2002) http://www.csvr. org.za/wits/papers/papoli14.htm (accessed November 8, 2010). 63.╯Eric Ntabazalila, “Union Vows to Fight Police Equity Plan in Court,” Cape Times, January 11, 2002. 64.╯Ibid. 65.╯Law Enforcement and the Criminal Justice System, Goedgedacht Forum for Social Reflection.


pages: 389 words: 87,758

No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar

The Economist, “Coming to a Beach Near You,” April 2014. http://www.economist.com/news/international/21601028-how-growing-chinese-middle-class-changing-global-tourism-industry-coming. 31. 2012 Open Doors Report, Institute of International Education, 2012. 32. Daniel Gross, “Myth of decline: US is stronger and faster than anywhere else,” Newsweek, April 30, 2012, www.newsweek.com/myth-decline-us-stronger-and-faster-anywhere-else-64093. 33. Facebook website, http://newsroom.fb.com/company-info/; Kishore Mahbubani, “The global village has arrived,” IMF, Finance & Development 49, no. 3, September 2012. 34. Manyika et al., “Global flows in a digital age.” 35. Matthieu Pélissié du Rausas, James Manyika, Eric Hazan, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Rémi Said, Internet matters: The Net’s sweeping impact on growth, jobs, and prosperity, McKinsey Global Institute, May 2011. 36. Olivia Nottebohm, James Manyika, Jacques Bughin, Michael Chui, and Abdur-Rahim Syed, Online and upcoming: The Internet’s impact on aspiring countries, McKinsey & Company, January 2012. 37. eTransform Africa: The transformational use of information and communication technologies in Africa, World Bank and African Development Bank, December 2012; International Telecommunication Union statistics, 2012. 38.


pages: 317 words: 98,745

Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

I first wrote about the importance of civil society taking seriously Internet design issues in “The Politics of Internet Design: Securing the Foundations for Global Civil Society Networks,” in ed. Stephen Coleman, The E-Connected World: Its Social and Political Implications (McGill University Press, 2003) and in “Deep Probe: The Evolution of Network Intelligence,” Intelligence and National Security, Volume 17, No 1, 2004. 5 “negarchy” as a structural alternative: For more on distributed security, see Daniel Deudney, Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007). 6 The first custodians of the Internet believed that it did: See http:​//www​.cyberdi​alogue.ca​/prev​ious-dialo​gues​/​2012​-about​/papers/ for a collection of essays on the topic of for a collection of essays on the topic of “Stewardship in Cyberspace,” commissioned for the University of Toronto’s second annual Cyber Dialogue, March 2012. 7 Universities have a special role to play: For a discussion of the evolution of the university education system from an elite to popular institution, see Peter Scott, The Meanings of Mass Higher Education (Buckingham, UK: Open University Press, 1995).


pages: 298 words: 89,287

Who Are We—And Should It Matter in the 21st Century? by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, David Brooks, equal pay for equal work, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, feminist movement, financial independence, glass ceiling, global village, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, Steven Levy, upwardly mobile, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey

You are less than three hours’ train ride away from four capitals (Paris, The Hague, Luxembourg, London) and five countries (France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, the United Kingdom and Germany). Both distinctly parochial (one of its main tourist attractions, the Mannekin Pis, is a small statue of a little boy urinating into a pool) and undeniably cosmopolitan, Brussels is the closest thing yet to a global village. But the city is not just a physical place but a political signifier. Brussels means Europe—not Europe the continent but Europe the project: the plan to save the continent from another bloody war. Or, depending on how you view it, the bureaucracy that has accrued substantial political power but little popular affection. The euro was conceived here. It is not surprising that this is where the coins keep coming back to from the disparate corners of the region.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

David Bolier, Think Like a Commoner: A Short Introduction to the Life of the Commons (Vancouver: New Society Publishers, 2014), 23. 78. Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 79. “Vandana Shiva on the Problem with Genetically Modified Seeds,” Moyers and Co., PBS, July 13, 2012. 80. opensourceecology.org/about-overview/. 81. “Machines: Global Village Construction Set,” opensourceecology.org/gvcs/. 82. opensourceecology.org/about-overview/. 83. David Bollier, “The FLOK Society Vision of a Post-Capitalist Economy,” bollier.org, March 2, 2014. 84. Bethany Horne, “How the FLOK Society Brings a Commons Approach to Ecuador’s Economy,” shareable.net, October 22, 2013. 85. Glyn Moody, “The FLOK Society Project: Making the Good Life Possible Through Good Knowledge,” techdirt.com, June 11, 2014. 86.


pages: 279 words: 90,888

The Lost Decade: 2010–2020, and What Lies Ahead for Britain by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, centre right, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Attenborough, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy transition, Etonian, first-past-the-post, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Dyson, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, moral panic, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Right to Buy, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, smart meter, Uber for X, urban renewal, working-age population

Those moving in are often in the direst need: the disabled, the sick, non-English-speaking new refugees and the very poorest – new residents who know nothing of the scheme that was. New, good-looking blocks have been built, but the worst of the 1930s blocks, which had been scheduled for demolition in the noughties, still stand. A parade of shops with a popular pub was closed and left derelict. Redevelopment is due to increase the 2,000 homes to 3,780, but all the new ones will be private or under shared ownership. The developer’s hoardings promise ‘a global village green’, which makes Donna smile wryly. The charity has kept going against the odds, teaching young people mechanical skills, the police giving them unclaimed stolen bikes to strip down, renovate and keep. It runs coffee mornings for the lonely, a lunch club for the elderly, support for community enterprises, support for volunteer gardeners in the small park and an advice centre, funds scraped up from any grant-maker they can find.


pages: 322 words: 89,523

Ecovillages: Lessons for Sustainable Community by Karen T. Litfin

active transport: walking or cycling, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative consumption, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, corporate social responsibility, glass ceiling, global village, hydraulic fracturing, megacity, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, publish or perish, Silicon Valley, the built environment, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, urban planning, Zipcar

“The problem comes when you don’t have relationships with the resources you’re acquiring or the people you’re dealing with. The beauty of the village model is that you have real relationships with the people and the resources.” The village model is nothing new and it’s not limited to ecovillages. Indeed, human cultures all over the world began to thrive in village-size groups. The image of “the global village” is appealing, but it does not replicate the benefits of small-scale economies. We may be able to travel and communicate globally, but our ability to engage in an authentic way with far-flung people and resources is necessarily limited. In a village, farmers know who mills their wheat, who eats it, and if these farmers dump sludge into the local river or burn off the stubble from their fields, it’s their neighbors who can no longer fish or who have trouble breathing.


pages: 111 words: 1

Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets by Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, availability heuristic, backtesting, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, commoditize, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate raider, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, endowment effect, equity premium, fixed income, global village, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Myron Scholes, Paul Samuelson, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, selection bias, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, survivorship bias, too big to fail, Turing test, Yogi Berra

These bonds traded for pennies when these governments were not doing well. Suddenly investors rushed into these markets in the early 1990s and pushed the envelope further and further by acquiring increasingly more exotic securities. All these countries were building hotels where United States cable news channels were available, with health clubs equipped with treadmills and large-screen television sets that made them join the global village. They all had access to the same gurus and financial entertainers. Bankers would come to invest in their bonds and the countries would use the proceeds to build nicer hotels so more investors would visit. At some point these bonds became the vogue and went from pennies to dollars; those who knew the slightest thing about them accumulated vast fortunes. Carlos supposedly comes from a patrician Latin-American family that was heavily impoverished by the economic troubles of the 1980s, but, again, I have rarely run into anyone from a ravaged country whose family did not at some juncture own an entire province or, say, supply the Russian czar with sets of dominoes.


pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, post-work, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

That night, the story about the allegations made against the man behind WikiLeaks leaked to the Swedish tabloid newspaper Expressen. Who leaked it? We don’t know. The prosecutor, who later got into trouble for confirming the allegation, says it was put to her by the newspaper, which had apparently been tipped off. As a result of this hectic Friday, when the following morning dawned, Saturday 21 August, allegations that Assange was wanted by police for “rape” had begun to be sprayed all over the world. In the electronic global village, anyone can become famous within 15 minutes. Assange was in an unexpected predicament and his conviction that he had not “raped” anyone is perhaps understandable. But Assange’s new status as an international celebrity, as “the world’s most famous man”, was proving to be a cruelly double-edged sword. Journalists were demanding a reaction. At 9.15am, he tweeted under the WikiLeaks name: “We were warned to expect ‘dirty tricks’.


pages: 411 words: 95,852

Britain Etc by Mark Easton

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, credit crunch, financial independence, garden city movement, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral panic, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, social software

Morris, ‘E-literacy and the Grey Digital Divide’, Journal of Information Literacy, 1 (2007) N. Nie and L. Erbring, Internet and Society (Stanford University, 2000) H. Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Addison Wesley, 1993) 5. R. D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (Simon & Schuster, 2000) 6. B. Wellman and K. Hampton, ‘The Not So Global Village of Netville’, in B. Wellman and C. Haythornthwaite, The Internet in Everyday Life (Wiley-Blackwell, 2002) 7. D. Devins, A. Darlow, A. Petrie et al., Connecting Communities to the Internet: Evaluation of the Wired Up Communities Programme (TSO, 2003) 8. Digital Britain, Final Report (DCMS & DBIS, 2009), www.official-documents.gov.uk 9. Commission of Inquiry into the Future of Civil Society in the UK and Ireland, Making Good Society (Carnegie UK Trust, 2010) X is for XXXX 1.


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Rather than teaching specialist knowledge such as software programs and computer functions, activities focused on critical technological citizenship forge links between people’s own knowledge of their everyday experience and the “social and political realities” that frame their understandings.14 Focusing on citizenship rather than on technical proficiency opened up The Real World of Information Technology 31 space for women in the YWCA community to learn computing skills to address concrete needs on their own terms, to understand and claim political identities, and to express core values such as justice, recognition, selfdetermination, and solidarity. Technology: Understanding Practice and Politics For the past twenty-five years, the social implications of IT have been a source of almost constant debate among social scientists and theorists. Their analyses have run the gamut from fanatical pronouncements of IT’s ability to sweep away social inequalities, reinvigorate government, and create a harmonious global village to strenuous warnings about Big Brother, people becoming robots, and scientists playing God. I have chosen to investigate actually existing technology rather than to track the crest and curve of such overblown claims.15 We have heard much about the end of work, the twilight of the nation-state, and the triumph of ideas and information over the material, but a critical examination of the role technology can play in fostering progressive social change is as relevant as ever.


pages: 398 words: 100,679

The Knowledge: How to Rebuild Our World From Scratch by Lewis Dartnell

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, clean water, Dava Sobel, decarbonisation, discovery of penicillin, Dmitri Mendeleev, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, invention of movable type, invention of radio, invention of writing, iterative process, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, lone genius, low earth orbit, mass immigration, nuclear winter, off grid, Richard Feynman, technology bubble, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

However, while glass can be melted and re-formed indefinitely, the quality of plastic products degrades with exposure to sunlight and the oxygen in the air, and they become weaker and more brittle each time they are recycled.* So while a post-apocalyptic society would be able to feed on our carcass of metal and glass, the age of plastics will inevitably draw to an end, until sufficient chemical proficiency can be relearned. With the fall of civilization and the collapse of long-distance communication networks and air travel, the global village will shatter back into a globe of villages. The Internet, despite being originally designed as a resilient computer network to survive nuclear attack and the loss of many of its nodes, will fare no better than any other modern technology with systemic failure of the electricity grids. Mobile phones will also last only a matter of days after grid-down, once the backup generators at the computer centers and cell towers run out of fuel.


pages: 335 words: 96,002

WEconomy: You Can Find Meaning, Make a Living, and Change the World by Craig Kielburger, Holly Branson, Marc Kielburger, Sir Richard Branson, Sheryl Sandberg

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, energy transition, family office, future of work, global village, inventory management, James Dyson, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, pre–internet, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, working poor, Y Combinator

So many of us are divided along racial, religious, and political lines that the rise of the individual and a “me first” mentality seems inevitable. It's enough to make even the most optimistic idealists furrow their brows. But progress happens in fits and starts; this too shall pass. We're firm believers that the “building walls” sentiment is a blip fostered by fear and misunderstanding, and that humankind is generally on a march toward a more open, interconnected world. Our global village is smaller than at any other time in human history. Individuals are connected and empowered by more knowledge, more information, and more tools, and can more easily mobilize around a cause. Across the globe, millions of individual volunteers and people in business, government, and nonprofits are committed to making the world a better place. WHEN PURPOSE AND PROFIT UNITE — AND WE WILL SHOW YOU THAT THEY DO — THE ECONOMY, THE INDIVIDUAL, AND THE COMMUNITY THRIVE.


pages: 317 words: 101,074

The Road Ahead by Bill Gates, Nathan Myhrvold, Peter Rinearson

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, California gold rush, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Donald Knuth, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, glass ceiling, global village, informal economy, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, medical malpractice, Mitch Kapor, new economy, packet switching, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture

"The fact that the same ad can appeal to someone in a New York apartment and an Iowa farm and an African village does not prove these situations are alike," commented Bill McKibben, a critic of what he sees as television's tendency to override local diversity with homogenized common experiences. "It is merely evidence that the people living in them have a few feelings in common, and it is these barest, most minimal commonalties that are the content of the global village." Yet if people choose to watch the ad, or the program the ad supports, should they be denied that privilege? This is a political question for every country to answer individually. It will not, however, be easy to filter a highway connection so that it selects and takes in only some elements. American popular culture is so potent that outside the United States some countries now attempt to ration it.


pages: 414 words: 101,285

The Butterfly Defect: How Globalization Creates Systemic Risks, and What to Do About It by Ian Goldin, Mike Mariathasan

"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, butterfly effect, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, connected car, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, John Snow's cholera map, Kenneth Rogoff, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, moral hazard, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open economy, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reshoring, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, transaction costs, uranium enrichment

We have argued that globalization is worth defending because it is the source of the greatest progress the world has known. But it needs to be carefully managed if it is not to be overwhelmed by the forces of systemic risk that it has unleashed. Our purpose has been to raise awareness of the issues and motivate our readers to engage on these issues. Our hope is that we have contributed to an understanding of the extent to which we increasingly live in a global village. With better management there is the potential for all citizens to share in our world’s magnificent achievements, the most impressive of which could be yet to come. Notes PREFACE 1. Edward N. Lorenz, 1963, “Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 20 (2): 130–141. The original metaphor referred to the flapping of a seagull’s wings. The term “butterfly effect” was coined later by a colleague, Phil Merilees, as the title for one of Lorenz’s talks.


Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, business cycle, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K

For two centuries, no one used Condorcet's system because it was too time-consuming to count ballots. Now software can tally electronic votes in nanoseconds. The Linux operating system deserves much credit for the revival of Condorcet voting. Linux is the collective work of hundreds of opinionated contributors who rarely meet face to face. The several Linux organiz.ations have styled themselves as global-village nation-states with "constitutions," "social contracts," and democratically elected leaders. There are often many candidates for a leadership post, and there are no political parties to vet them. The Linux community appreciated that plurality voting is particularly troublesome under these conditions. In that watershed year 2000, the Debian Project, one of the Linux groups, commissioned a study to determine the best system to use for its internal voting.


pages: 350 words: 103,988

Reinventing the Bazaar: A Natural History of Markets by John McMillan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, Deng Xiaoping, experimental economics, experimental subject, fear of failure, first-price auction, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, George Gilder, global village, Hernando de Soto, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job-hopping, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, lone genius, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market friction, market microstructure, means of production, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, ought to be enough for anybody, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, proxy bid, purchasing power parity, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Stewart Brand, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, yield management

It is a bustling, dusty, noisy scene. Snake charmers, musicians, gypsy dancers, jugglers, acrobats, and fire-eaters entertain the crowds. Women in vibrant saris sell food and handicrafts. There is camel racing and camel polo, with gamblers raucously urging on their favorites. All the while thousands of camels, meticulously groomed for the occasion, are being haggled over. The bazaars of today’s global village are on the internet. Quickly and cheaply connecting people anywhere in the world, the internet has transformed markets by allowing exchanges between buyers and sellers who might not otherwise find each other. By logging on to the global electronic shopping mall, you can purchase almost anything you might want. Governments overruled markets for much of the twentieth century, most notably in communist countries like the Soviet Union and China, replacing them with their antithesis, central planning.


pages: 364 words: 103,162

The English by Jeremy Paxman

back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, George Santayana, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Right to Buy, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

I should still make the same judgements.1 The reasons for this unity are obvious enough – the country had just come though a terrible war, which had required shared sacrifice. The population of England was still relatively homogeneous, used to accepting the inconvenience of discipline and unaffected by mass immigration. It was still insular, not merely in a physical sense but because the mass media had yet to create the global village. It is the world of today’s grandparents. It is the world of Queen Elizabeth and her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh. The young Princess Elizabeth married the naval lieutenant, Philip Mountbatten, in 1947. In an age of austerity (potatoes rationed to 3 lb per person per week and bacon to one ounce) the wedding brought a breath of spectacle and magic to a drab country. Philip wore his naval uniform for the occasion, Elizabeth had abandoned the forage cap she had been seen in during the war for a satin dress embroidered with 10,000 seed pearls.


pages: 293 words: 97,431

You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard

A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl

But, just like rapid transit, the influence of electronic media on our perception of space is more complex than this. Spaces are connected to one another using sets of rules that have more to do with politics, power, and preference than with physics. When Marshall McLuhan, a pioneering Canadian thinker in media studies and author of the influential slogan “the medium is the message,” described the impact of new media as having converted the world into a kind of “global village,” this is precisely the kind of transformation in the use of space that he meant. Like villagers, we form allegiances, links, and unions with other individuals, but the far reach of invisible waves makes physical distance irrelevant to the formation of these connections. The mind-warping power of television has in some ways worked in concert with other space-devouring developments of the past century.


The Winner-Take-All Society: Why the Few at the Top Get So Much More Than the Rest of Us by Robert H. Frank, Philip J. Cook

accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Alvin Roth, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business cycle, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, global village, haute couture, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, positional goods, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Shoshana Zuboff, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy

The number of fax machines, for example, grew from just 300,000 worldwide in 1983 to more than 8 million in 1992. 1 1 From 1985 to April 1994 the Internet grew from some 200 networks to well over 30,000. During the same period the number of people wired into the Internet worldwide grew from roughly 1 ,00012 to over 25 million.13 In mid-1994 the number of Internet users and traffic flow over the net­ work were each growing from 10 to 15 percent per month. 1 4 By forg­ ing closer communications between people, these networks push us ever closer to Marshall McLuhan's vision of the global village. The growing influence of American television, films, and other media has created international cultural and fashion networks of a more diffuse sort. And these networks, in tum, support a variety of growing international markets, each of which serves to extend the reach of the most talented performers. The Growing Role of English Not even the most advanced electronic technologies can facilitate communication if people do not share a common language.


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

The images of the tragedy confirm the world’s paranoia as they are instantly beamed back to the crowds in San Francisco, Beijing, and London. Desensitized viewers are delivered their daily dose of fear; the horrific stats scroll across the bottom of our flickering screens. There is no time for context as the network cuts to commercials. Technology was supposed to make us feel more connected. A “global village,” they said. Yet the crowd feels lonelier than ever. But this is just how it looks on the surface. Back in Bogotá, a ragtag battalion is moving quickly toward the burning shell of the Nogal, brandishing rifles and AK-47s. They have never known peace; their resolve is ironclad. After this horrific attack, they sound like the last thing this tragedy needs. But this is just how it looks on the surface.


pages: 372 words: 107,587

The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game

However, it is by no means essential or even important that the entities envisioned adopt this suggested title. Some communities may prefer slightly different names for political reasons: a Local Enterprise Laboratory, for example, might fare better in red states. 15. Colleen Kimmet, “Better Than A Food Bank,” Energy Bulletin, posted November 5, 2010; Mission Mountain Food Enterprise Center, mmfec.org. 16. Marcin Jakubowski, “Global Village Construction Set,” Make, Green Project Contest, makezine.com/tagyourgreen/detail.csp?id=95. 17. “The JAK Members Bank,” JAK Medlemsbank, jak.aventus.nu/22.php. 18. “Sustainable Commercial Urban Farm Incubator (SCUFI) Program,” VirtuallyGreen.com. 19. John Michael Greer, The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society, 2009), p. 76. 20. Dancing Rabbit Ecovillage, dancingrabbit.org. 21.


pages: 387 words: 110,820

Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ellen Ruppel Shell

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, loss aversion, market design, means of production, mental accounting, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, washing machines reduced drudgery, working poor, yield management, zero-sum game

Globalism is our reality and our future, and it brings with it a sober responsibility. Free markets are important—essential—but they are only free if we make them so. We are consumers, certainly, but also citizens of the world whose needs and wants are linked to—and dependent on—the needs and wants of others. Our practice of scouring the world for cheap resources and cheap labor is not sustainable. It is a great relief to know that in a true global village we can love a bargain without compromising our standards or values. The next consumer revolution will be bloodless, requiring neither bullets nor even bullhorns. We have the power to enact change and to chart a pragmatic course. That power resides not only in the voting booth but in our wallets. Bargain hunting is a national pastime and a pleasure that I, for one, will not relinquish. But knowing that our purchases have consequences, we can begin to enact change.


pages: 363 words: 109,374

50 Psychology Classics by Tom Butler-Bowdon

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, delayed gratification, fear of failure, feminist movement, global village, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lateral thinking, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Necker cube, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Because more choices bring more opportunities for comparison, the recipe for happiness is simple and twofold: make your decisions irreversible; and constantly appreciate the life you do have. Final comments An abundance of choice is one of the main sources of psychological pain, since it involves the anxiety of missed opportunities and the regret of paths not taken. Yet this peculiar sort of misery, which was once experienced by a relative few, has been turned into almost an epidemic with rising wealth and increased choice. In a global village, we can’t help but wonder why we are not as famous as Madonna or as rich as Bill Gates, and how banal or restricted our own life seems by comparison. If you are a maximizer, The Paradox of Choice could be a life-changing book. If you have put yourself into agonies over “if only,” it could make you see that how satisfied you are with life depends not on the actual quality of your experiences, but whether or not you perceive a gap between how things are and how they might be.


pages: 397 words: 102,910

The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters

4chan, activist lawyer, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Bayesian statistics, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Lean Startup, moral panic, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Herbert Putnam, 1861–1955: A Memorial Tribute. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1956. Licklider, J. C. R. Libraries of the Future. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965. Ludlow, Peter, ed. High Noon on the Electronic Frontier: Conceptual Issues in Cyberspace. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Malamud, Carl. Exploring the Internet: A Technical Travelogue. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993. ———. A World’s Fair for the Global Village. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997. Markoff, John. What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry. New York: Viking Penguin, 2005. Marryat, Florence. Life and Letters of Captain Marryat. 2 vols. New York: D. Appleton, 1872. Marryat, Frederick. Second Series of a Diary in America, with Remarks on Its Institutions. Philadelphia: T. K. and P. G. Collins, 1840. ———.


pages: 426 words: 105,423

The 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New Rich by Timothy Ferriss

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, call centre, clean water, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, fixed income, follow your passion, game design, global village, Iridium satellite, knowledge worker, late fees, lateral thinking, Maui Hawaii, oil shock, paper trading, Parkinson's law, passive income, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, William of Occam

These are just two of the dozens of foreign relocation and volunteering case studies in each issue of Verge Magazine (www.vergemagazine.com). Reader-tested resources include: Hands on Disaster Response: www.hodr.org Project Hope: www.projecthope.org Relief International: www.ri.org International Relief Teams: www.irteams.org Airline Ambassadors International: www.airlineamb.org Ambassadors for Children: www.ambassadorsforchildren.org Relief Riders International: www.reliefridersinternational.com Habitat for Humanity Global Village Program: www.habitat.org Planeta: Global Listings for Practical Ecotourism: www.planeta.com 4. Revisit and reset dreamlines. Following the mini-retirement, revisit the dreamlines set in Definition and reset them as needed. The following questions will help: What are you good at? What could you be the best at? What makes you happy? What excites you? What makes you feel accomplished and good about yourself?


pages: 370 words: 111,129

Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India by Shashi Tharoor

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate raider, deindustrialization, European colonialism, global village, informal economy, joint-stock company, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Parkinson's law, trade route

Advancing underdevelopment in many countries of the South, which are faring poorly in their desperate struggle to remain players in the game of global capitalism, has created conditions of desperate poverty, ecological collapse and rootless, unemployed populations beyond the control of atrophying state systems—a portrait vividly painted by Robert Kaplan in his book The Coming Anarchy, which suggests the real danger of perpetual violence on the peripheries of our global village. As we embark upon the twenty-first century, it seems ironically clear that tomorrow’s anarchy might still be due, in no small part, to yesterday’s colonial attempts at order. I have no wish to give those politicians in postcolonial countries whose leadership has been found wanting in the present, any reason to find excuses for their failures in the past. But in looking to understand the forces that have made us and nearly unmade us, and in hoping to recognize possible future sources of conflict in the new millennium, we have to realize that sometimes the best crystal ball is a rear-view mirror.


The Global Citizen: A Guide to Creating an International Life and Career by Elizabeth Kruempelmann

Berlin Wall, business climate, corporate governance, different worldview, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, global village, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, money market fund, Nelson Mandela, young professional

The minimum age requirement is twenty-one, and knowledge of or a willingness to learn Spanish or Portuguese is required. H ABITAT FOR H UMANITY I NTERNATIONAL (HFHI) www.habitat.org Partner Service Center 121 Habitat Street Americus, GA 31709 Phone: 229-924-6935, Ext. 2551 or 2552 Fax: 229-924-6935 Habitat for Humanity is a Christian organization with affiliates in over sixty countries devoted to providing decent, affordable housing for families worldwide. Habitat for Humanity’s Global Village Program is a series of one- to three-week mission trips designed to provide an educational and spiritual experience within a cross-cultural environment, in locations such as Nepal and New Zealand. By living and working with a host community, Habitat participants have an opportunity to personally witness and contribute to HFHI’s worldwide projects. As you learn about poverty housing, international economics, and world affairs, you immerse yourself in the host community’s culture, language, and social environment.


Fortunes of Change: The Rise of the Liberal Rich and the Remaking of America by David Callahan

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, automated trading system, Bernie Sanders, Bonfire of the Vanities, carbon footprint, carried interest, clean water, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Thorp, financial deregulation, financial independence, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, income inequality, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, medical malpractice, mega-rich, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, NetJets, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, working poor, World Values Survey

“I’m going to travel around to every foreign country and get the head of the country to show me things he’s proudest of about his country. And send it all back by satellite,” Turner said. Although that never happened, something else did, which was the “democratization of information,” in Turner’s words. “For the first time in the history of the world, every world leader, and everybody in the world, had access to the same information at the same time.”11 Time magazine would call Turner the “Prince of the Global Village” in naming him Man of the Year in 1991. In 1985, Turner tapped his cable television fortune to create the Better World Fund, which supported the production of liberal documentaries. These included Are We Winning, Mommy? a film sharply critical of U.S. cold war policies, and Chico Mendes: Voice of the Amazon, an early exposé of the destruction of the world’s largest rain forest. Turner—who once said that every time he sees a Vietnamese person, “I apologize for what we did to their country”—also put on the Goodwill Games in 1986 in an idealistic effort to defuse the cold war with an athletic contest in Moscow after two successive Olympics that either the United States or the Soviet Union had boycotted.12 After the end of the cold war, Turner focused his attention on environmental causes and started the Turner Foundation, which quickly emerged as one of the biggest funders of activist groups working on climate change, rain forest preservation, and other issues.


Discover Great Britain by Lonely Planet

British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, G4S, global village, Haight Ashbury, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, New Urbanism, Stephen Hawking

Many people come in search of Welsh ancestry, while musical fringe events featuring local bands lend a slight Glastonbury-style atmosphere. It’s generally held in early August, and the venue swings annually between North and South Wales. Most famous of all is the International Musical Eisteddfod (www.llangollen2010.co.uk) , established after WWII to promote international harmony. Held in early July, it attracts participants from more than 40 countries, transforming the town into a global village. In addition to daily folk music and dancing competitions, gala concerts feature international stars. It was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004. Sleeping & Eating Cornerstones Guesthouse B&B ££ ( 01978-861569; www.cornerstones-guesthouse.co.uk; 15 Bridge St; r £80-100; ) This converted 16th-century house, all sloping floorboards and oak beams, has charm and history. The River Room is the cosiest of the five rooms, with the gentle lapping of the River Dee to send you off to sleep.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

If every street-smart flier complains about the TSA, isn't that just because some people enjoy complaining? The ritual of checking papers is a comedy that makes many people feel a little better. I think when we lived small lives, our secrets were more precious. At some level, we knew that privacy was a luxury and a relatively recent one. People used to live, and still do in many places, in cramped, smelly villages where everyone knew everything about everyone else. So today we're in the global village, and all the walls are grass again. The Naked Future In this chapter, I've documented how the Spider, those faceless alphabet agencies of the state, is spying on us. Our current web architecture, built on centralized servers, accessed through commercial broadband links, is trivial to tap. I've explained how the cost of storing everything interesting about us is falling down to zero. As to the "why," we see the Para-state -- a paranoid global political elite fighting to hold onto power -- prodded by a military-industrial complex that was running out of enemies before the terrorists, drug cartels, and on-line pedophiles conveniently came along.


pages: 396 words: 117,149

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World by Pedro Domingos

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, off grid, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, scientific worldview, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, zero-sum game

Everything we need is right there in a child’s mind, if only we can somehow capture its essence in computer code. Some researchers even argue that the way to create intelligent machines is to build a robot baby and let him experience the world as a human baby does. We, the researchers, would be his parents (perhaps even with an assist from crowdsourcing, giving a whole new meaning to the term global village). Little Robby—let’s call him that, in honor of the chubby but much taller robot in Forbidden Planet—is the only robot baby we’ll ever have to build. Once he has learned everything a three-year-old knows, the AI problem is solved. We can copy the contents of his mind into as many other robots as we like, and they’ll take it from there, the hardest part already accomplished. The question, of course, is what algorithm should be running in Robby’s brain at birth.


The Frayed Atlantic Edge: A Historian’s Journey From Shetland to the Channel by David Gange

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, British Empire, garden city movement, global village, Scientific racism, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile

West-coast settlements have now yielded to excavators a wealth of Valencian lustre vessels, Saintonge ware from western France, south Dutch maiolica and even Chinese Ming, showing wealth and global reach long before the seventeenth century when English wares begin to proliferate. More than any other place on my journey, Ireland and Irish innovations were lynchpins of Atlantic worlds bigger than those my kayak could reach. The Irish brought modernity to the water: it was an Irish master mariner, Robert Halpin, who created the modern global village of instantaneous communication by laying 26,000 miles of ocean cable that ‘tied up the world’; another, Francis Beaufort, gave the world the scale of windspeeds crucial to modern seafarers. They were inheritors of a vast tradition. Ancient Irish kings and corsairs colonised Brittany, died at the mouth of the Loire or the foot of the Alps, and made peace or war with the kingdoms of Iberia and beyond.


pages: 409 words: 112,055

The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

Somehow, no one is too sure how, irate farmers learned that hackers in Ukraine could help them “jailbreak” their tractors, meaning allow them to get around the factory-installed systems to prevent owners from getting at the innards, figuring out what the problem is, and repairing things themselves. For a small fee paid to a website in Ukraine, farmers were able to download a software tool to hack their own tractors. Wyatt, meet Ivan, and welcome to the global village, in which there are IoT devices arriving everywhere and hackers right behind them. You Say IT and I Say OT, SCADA, Potato . . . Part of the problem with understanding the IoT problem, what it is, and how to fix it is the terminology. As is often the case in technology, there are a lot of terms thrown around without precision or commonly accepted and widely understood definitions. In the case of IoT, there are a few adjacent technologies and terms that often get confused with it.


pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Whether your skill is tooth enamel or fabric swatches, if you make it into the superstar league you can benefit from the concentration of wealth in the hands of a small, global business elite. And whether you got your start in western Siberia or the American Midwest, once you join the super-elite you patronize the same dentist, interior designer, art curator. That’s how, from the inside, the plutonomy becomes a cozy global village. SHERWIN ROSEN IS VINDICATED, TOO Providing superstar services to the plutocrats is one way to join them. But an even more powerful driver of twenty-first-century superstar economics is the way that globalization and technology have allowed some superstars—the Mrs. Billingtons—to achieve global scale and earn the commensurate global fortunes. This is the superstar effect that Sherwin Rosen was most interested in, and it is both the most visible and the easiest to understand.


pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

addicted to oil, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Reclaiming Public Water: Achievements, Struggles and Visions from Around the World, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: Transnational Institute and Corporate Europe Observatory, March 2005. Bello, Walden. Deglobalization: Ideas for a New World Economy. London: Zed, 2004. Black, Maggie. The No-Nonsense Guide to International Development. London: Verso/New Internationalist, 2004. Brecher, Jeremy, and Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage: Economic Reconstruction from the Bottom Up. Boston: South End, 1998. Chang, Ha-Joon, and Ilene Grabel, Reclaiming Development: An Alternative Economic Policy Manual. London: Zed, 2004. Engler, Mark. “A Movement Looks Forward.” Foreign Policy in Focus, May 19, 2005. For additional work by Mark Engler, see his Democracy Uprising Web site, www.democracyuprising.com/. Folbre, Nancy.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

tid=90&pid=45&aid=8&cid=regions&syid=2006&eyid=2010&unit=MMTCD. ———. (2014a). International energy statistics, www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=5&pid=5&aid=2&cid=CG5,&syid=2009&eyid=2013&unit=TBPD. ———. (2014b). Electricity monthly update with data for September 2014, Nov. 25, 2014, www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/update/. Van Alstyne, Marshall, and Erik Brynjolfsson. (2005). Global village or cyber-Balkans? Modeling and measuring the integration of electronic communities. Management Science 51:(6):851–868, http://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/abs/10.1287/mnsc.1050.0363. Veeraraghavan, Rajesh. (2013). Dealing with the digital panopticon: The use and subversion of ICT in an Indian Bureaucracy. Pp. 248–255 in International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2516604.2516631.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

We should eschew the simplistic view that better long-distance communication will reduce our desire and need to be near one another. Above all, we must free ourselves from our tendency to see cities as their buildings, and remember that the real city is made of flesh, not concrete. CHAPTER 1 What Do They Make in Bangalore? A high fence of trees and shrubs surrounds the MindTree campus in Bangalore’s aptly named office park, Global Village. Outside that leafy barrier, the streets churn with hawkers and auto rickshaws and the energy of messy urban life. Inside the wall, elegant buildings rise from manicured gardens, and peace reigns amid palm trees, glass, and cool gray stone. MindTree is one of Bangalore’s many successful information technology companies, cofounded by Subroto Bagchi, who bounds around its campus in immaculate ivory sneakers and a polo shirt.


pages: 666 words: 131,148

Frommer's Seattle 2010 by Karl Samson

airport security, British Empire, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, place-making, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence

You might also be able to catch a performance at the Seattle Children’s Theatre ( 20 6/441-3322;www.sct.org), in Seattle Center (see below); or at the Northwest Puppet Center, 9123 15th Ave. NE ( 20 6/523-2579; www.nwpuppet.org). Children’s Museum The Children’s Museum is in the basement of the Center House at Seattle Center, which is partly why Seattle Center is such a great place to spend a day with the kids. The museum includes plenty of hands-on cultural exhibits, a child-size neighborhood, a Discovery Bay for toddlers, a mountain wilderness area, a global village, and other special exhibits to keep the little ones busy learning and playing for hours. Seattle Center, Center House, 305 Harrison St. 20 6/441-1768.www.thechildrensmuseum.org. Admission $7.50 adults and children, $6.50 seniors, free for children under 1. Mon–Fri 10am–5pm; Sat–Sun 10am–6pm. Closed New Year’s Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. Bus: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 24, 26, 28, 30, 33, 81, or 82.


City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

But the map of its diversity is constantly changing shape and colour, as national and global pressures create waves of migration that flow through cities like a blush across a cheek. To use the phrase coined by Israel Zangwill in his 1909 play of the same name, the modern city is in some senses a ‘melting pot’ of nationalities. And as international travel has become easier, the city has increasingly turned into a microcosm of the planet: the city of nations has become a reflection of the global village. By the beginning of the twentieth century, New York City was home to more Italians than were living in Genoa, Florence and Venice combined. Most of the 5.3 million Italians who emigrated to the United States came through New York City (via Ellis Island). Today this is still where the greatest concentration of Americans of Italian descent live. Indeed, New York has been described as ‘the Italian-American capital of the United States’, and has been the inspiration for countless novels and films, such as Mario Puzo’s The Godfather (1969) and Sergio Leone’s Once Upon a Time in America (1984), as well as the TV series The Sopranos (1999-2007).44 Manhattan’s Little Italy dates back to the second half of the nineteenth century.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

My research comes principally from Charles Woolsey Cole, Colbert and a Century of French Mercantilism, vols. I–II (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939). 94 “With our taste” Stuart Ewen, All Consuming Images: The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture, rev. ed. (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 30. 96 The Great Exhibition’s primary Richard Barbrook, Imaginary Futures: From Thinking Machines to the Global Village (London: Pluto Press, 2007), 22-28. 96 The Great Exhibition was designed Jeffrey A. Auerbach, The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999), 119. 98 On his tour of America “De Tocqueville: Jared Sparks’s Correspondence About the United States,” The New York Times, January 21, 1899, Review of Books and Art section, BR41. 101 “angry sense of the limited” Ira Steward, Annual Report on the Statistics of Labor by Massachusetts Dept. of Labor and Industries, Division of Statistics, Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor (1873), 414. 101 “relentless exposure” Theodore Roosevelt, The Autobiography of Theodore Roosevelt, Condensed from the Original Edition, Supplemented by Letters, Speeches, and Other Writings, Centennial edition, 1958, ed.


pages: 447 words: 141,811

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Graeber, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, global village, greed is good, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, personalized medicine, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, zero-sum game

It is common nowadays to believe that the market always prevails, and that the dams erected by kings, priests and communities cannot long hold back the tides of money. This is naïve. Brutal warriors, religious fanatics and concerned citizens have repeatedly managed to trounce calculating merchants, and even to reshape the economy. It is therefore impossible to understand the unification of humankind as a purely economic process. In order to understand how thousands of isolated cultures coalesced over time to form the global village of today, we must take into account the role of gold and silver, but we cannot disregard the equally crucial role of steel. II Imperial Visions THE ANCIENT ROMANS WERE USED TO being defeated. Like the rulers of most of history’s great empires, they could lose battle after battle but still win the war. An empire that cannot sustain a blow and remain standing is not really an empire.


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

The Road to Emancipation One of my intellectual and visionary heroes is Marshall McLuhan, the original media guru, whom you will note has been widely quoted in this book. Back in 1962, he published The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man.64 He provided remarkable insights on the impact of the printing press and subsequent forms of mass communication. This led him to propose, way ahead of their time, the concepts of a “global village” and “surfing” related to the accumulated body of recorded works of human art and knowledge. Even though it would be many decades before the Web existed, he foresaw the ability to rapidly and mutidirectionally move from one document to another in the electric age. He realized that it wasn’t about the technology per se, but that the people and their culture were reinvented by books and printed materials.


pages: 469 words: 132,438

Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet by Varun Sivaram

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, demand response, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, financial innovation, fixed income, global supply chain, global village, Google Earth, hive mind, hydrogen economy, index fund, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, M-Pesa, market clearing, market design, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Negawatt, off grid, oil shock, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, renewable energy transition, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, time value of money, undersea cable, wikimedia commons

Liu appears to find his creative muse in the last chapter, entitled “Global Energy Interconnection Changes the World,” where the previously staid textbook starts to veer off the rails with increasingly wishful subsections entitled “Creating a New Energy Scenario,” “Infusing New Vigor into Economic Growth,” “Creating a Wonderful New Social Life,” and “Turning a New Chapter of Civilization.” In a similar vein, in a speech at the United Nations, Liu predicted that “the world will turn into a peaceful and harmonious global village with sufficient energy, green lands, and blue sky.”7 But Liu’s predictions about international relations are at odds with how the world actually works. First, getting countries to pony up $50 trillion, as the plan requires, will be a tall order (“politically impossible,” as Masa’s advisors have warned him). Also, many countries might worry about importing power from abroad. Peter Littlewood, professor of physics at the University of Chicago, is skeptical of Liu’s grand vision, invoking Europe’s tumultuous experience depending on Russia for natural gas.


pages: 501 words: 134,867