Galaxy Zoo

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pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart,, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

This discussion perhaps seems tangential to the main theme of the book, since it doesn’t directly relate to how scientists make discoveries. But over the long run these social changes may greatly alter the context in which science is done, and it’s worth exploring them in some depth. First, let’s return to examine Galaxy Zoo in more detail. Galaxy Zoo Revisited I can honestly say that Galaxy Zoo is the best thing I’ve ever done. . . . I don’t know quite what it is, but Galaxy Zoo does something to people. The contributions, both creative and academic, that people have made to the forum are as stunning as the sight of any spiral, and never fail to move me. —Alice Sheppard, volunteer Galaxy Zoo moderator Galaxy Zoo began in 2007, with two scientists at Oxford University, Kevin Schawinski and Chris Lintott. As part of his PhD work, Schawinski was looking at photos of galaxies. Galaxies come in many shapes and sizes, but most galaxies are either spiral galaxies, like our own Milky Way, or else elliptical galaxies, roughly spherical balls of stars and gas.

The internet is clearly the revolutionary technology of this generation of astronomer. . . . Galaxy Zoo is an amazing demonstration of how powerful this new tool can be [when] used to address new questions. Like a computer, Galaxy Zoo can find patterns in large data sets, data sets far beyond the comprehension of any single individual. But Galaxy Zoo can go beyond computers, because it can also apply human intelligence in the analysis, the kind of intelligence that recognizes that the voorwerp or a green pea galaxy is out of the ordinary, and deserves further investigation. Galaxy Zoo is thus a hybrid, able to do deep analyses of large data sets that are impossible in any other way. It’s a new way of turning data into knowledge. Time and again, the Zookeepers meet new astronomers who say that their work could be aided by Galaxy Zoo, and more than twenty astronomers are now using Galaxy Zoo as a way of studying a broad range of astronomical questions.

p 128: Planck’s comment “I really did not give it [the quantum theory] much thought” is from Helge Kragh’s article [112]. Chapter 7. Democratizing Science p 129: My account of Galaxy Zoo is based on the Galaxy Zoo blog,, the Galaxy Zoo forum,, and an article by Chris Lintott and Kate Land [127]. The material on Hanny’s Voorwerp draws also on Hanny van Arkel’s blog, and the original discussion thread started by Hanny van Arkel [67]. The first Galaxy Zoo paper on the voorwerp is [128]. p 131: The alternative explanation of the voorwerp is given in [105, 177]. Some comments on the alternative explanation by Galaxy Zoo cofounder and Zookeeper Chris Lintott may be found at [126]. p 135: Alice Sheppard’s account of the discovery of the green pea galaxies is in [193].

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Now, when people ask us for advice about how to do this, the first thing I say is prepare for success.” Two and a half years later, merely claiming success may be an understatement. Galaxy Zoo is thriving, with more than 275,000 users who have made nearly 75 million classifications of one million different images—far beyond Schawinski’s original 50,000. If Schawinski were still laboring on his own, it would take him 124 years to classify that many images! But Galaxy Zoo is about more than just looking at pretty pictures of galaxies. The project has resulted in real scientific discoveries, with several papers already published using the data and a dozen or so more on the way. The Galaxy Zoo team—which includes astronomers from Yale and Johns Hopkins universities in the United States, and the University of Oxford and the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom—has often been surprised by the results.

The Galaxy Zoo team—which includes astronomers from Yale and Johns Hopkins universities in the United States, and the University of Oxford and the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom—has often been surprised by the results. Bill Keel, an astronomy professor at the University of Alabama who studies overlapping galaxies, decided to ask Galaxy Zoo users to contact him if they came across an example of this rare phenomenon. Throughout his career, Keel had studied the dozen or so overlapping galaxies then known to astronomers. Within a day of posting his question on the Galaxy Zoo forum, he had more than one hundred responses from users who had indeed found such galaxies. Today, thousands have been identified. To be sure, Galaxy Zoo is only possible because Schawinski and his colleagues have eschewed the usual inclination to keep their discoveries private until they are ready to publish. “We count community members as colleagues, even peers, and we’re very open with everything that we find,” Schawinski says.

They might even end up challenging some of the core assumptions underlying today’s scientific institutions—like the assumption that ordinary people can’t participate meaningfully in scientific research, except as passive consumers of science journalism or as beneficiaries of scientific advances. So, with the aid of Lintott and several others, Schawinski cooked up a scheme whereby an army of armchair astronomers would help them sort through the millions of galactic images they had stored up in their databases. The result was Galaxy Zoo, a clever online citizen science project where anyone interested can peer at the wonders of outer space, while simultaneously helping advance an exciting new frontier in science. The premise of Galaxy Zoo was simple. Users would be shown an image of a galaxy and asked two basic questions: Is the galaxy an elliptical galaxy (a type of galaxy with no dust or gas, but many stars) or a spiral galaxy (with rotating arms, like our own Milky Way galaxy); and, if it’s a spiral, in which direction are the arms rotating?

pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk,, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Then we realized we’d hit upon an unmet need—people want to do this. They wanted to contribute. In fact, we teamed up with some social scientists and found that the number one reason why people do Galaxy Zoo is the desire to contribute to actual science. They want to do something that’s useful.” A lot of people had this want. Schawinski and his colleagues had hit on a massively transformative purpose. The first iteration of Galaxy Zoo (they’re now up to version five) drew 150,000 participants classifying—wait for it—50 million galaxies. Subsequent versions pulled in over 250,000 participants and pushed the total over 60 million. And then Galaxy Zoo became a smorgasbord of citizen-science projects, now hosted at Zooniverse. Want to explore the surface of the Moon? Join Planetary Resources and NASA to find near-Earth-approaching asteroids for potential mining?

But if you’re passionate about something and no one else is sating that desire, then you have first-mover advantage. Don’t underestimate this power. When Galaxy Zoo first started, they were pretty sure only a handful of people would sign up to catalogue galaxies—yet within a very short time, tens of thousands of people were involved. Why? There was a deep, unmet need in people to participate in astronomy, and Galaxy Zoo was the only game in town. We saw something similar with Asteroid Zoo—the Zooniverse-hosted collaboration between my company, Planetary Resources, and NASA to use humans to identify new, never-before-detected asteroids, which, in turn, will create a rigorous dataset from which we can train up AIs to do the same at scale. This is such a specific desire that we were not certain how people would react, but just as with Galaxy Zoo, the crowd wildly exceeded our expectations. In the first six days of the project, we saw more than one million images reviewed and more than 400,000 asteroids classified.

Directions you would have never considered, never even imagined. This happens so regularly you can almost count on it. I think this is the reason DIY communities are such a powerful tool for tackling bold challenges. You can go big because you don’t need to know how to pull something off ahead of time. The community shapes the path and accelerates the process. It’s a shocking amount of leverage.”8 Case Study 1: Galaxy Zoo—A DIY Community In early 2007, while working toward his PhD in astrophysics at Oxford, Kevin Schawinski was hunting blue ellipticals in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. A blue elliptical is a transitional galaxy, possibly the missing link between a galaxy engaged in active star formation and one long dead. The Sloan Survey, meanwhile, is one of the more ambitious endeavors in the history of astronomy.

pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix,, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

We’ve already seen examples of amateurs like John Davis solving engineering problems—how to pump oil up from the Exxon Valdez—via contests. But amateurs are contributing in yet more structured ways. For example: • Volunteers at Galaxy Zoo, a science crowdsourcing Web site, have created what it claims is “the world’s largest database of galaxy shapes.”24 Beginning in July 2007 it posted images of a million galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and asked people to do a simple categorization of each one: spiral-shaped or elliptical? And if spiral-shaped, clockwise or counter-clockwise? In a year, it received 50 million classifications, including multiple classifications of the same galaxies, enabling Galaxy Zoo to error-check the reports. Having proved that the process works, Galaxy Zoo started a second project that asked more detailed questions. This information—publicly available, of course—has already changed some assumptions common among professionals; for example, it turns out that red galaxies are not always elliptical

It is difficult and often impossible to become a specialist without being accepted into the scientific institutions that provide focused training and access to the necessary equipment. With that institutional access comes institutional credentials. But the contribution of amateurs becomes more substantial if we look not only at what individuals are doing but at what networks of amateurs are contributing. For example, Arfon Smith, the technical lead of Galaxy Zoo, told me about the discovery of “green peas.” It began as a joke in the discussion area of Galaxy Zoo about the green objects that showed up in some photos. After over a hundred posts on the topic, the amateurs at Galaxy Zoo realized that there was a type of astronomical object that the professionals had not noticed. “In mid-2008,” said Smith, “they put together a portfolio and delivered it to us, and insisted that we pay attention.” It turns out that “the green peas are important. We’re just beginning to understand how.”33 That insight, and its development, occurred within a network of amateurs; had it been only a single person’s observation, the importance of “green peas” would not have been noticed.

Embodied thought Emerson, Ralph Waldo Enders, John Engadget Environmental niche modeling Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Eureqa computer program Evolutionary science Experiments, scientific method and Expert Labs Expertise Challenger investigation crowdsourcing diversity in networking knowledge networks outperforming individuals professionalization of scaling knowledge and networking sub-networks Extremism: group polarization Exxon Valdez oil disaster Facebook Fact-based knowledge as foundation of knowledge British backlash against British chimney sweep reform Darwin’s work on barnacles international dispute settlement See also Data Fact-finding missions Facts Linked Data standard Malthusian theory of population growth networked Failed science Fear, information overload and Federal Advisory Committees (FACs) Federal Highway Administration Feminism Filters information overload as filter failure knowledge management FoldIt Food, extending shelf life of Foodies Ford Motors Forking Forscher, Bernard K. Fortune magazine Foucault, Michel Frauenfelder, Mark Future Shock (Toffler) The Futurist journal Galapagos Islands Galaxy Zoo Galen of Pergamum Garfield, Eugene Gartner Group (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) Geek news General Electric Gentzkow, Matthew Gillmor, Dan Gladwell, Malcolm Glazer, Nathan Global social problems Goals, shared Google abundance of knowledge amateur scientists’ use of books and filtering information physical books and e-books zettabyte Gore, Al Gray, Jim Greece, ancient Green peas Group polarization Groupthink The Guardian newspaper Gulf of Mexico oil spill The Gutenberg Elegies (Birkerts) Habermas, Jürgen Hacker ethic Hague conference Haiti Halberstam, David Hannay, Timo Hard Times (Dickens) Hargittai, Eszter Harrison, John Harvard Library Innovation Lab Haumea (planet) Hawaii Heidegger, Martin Heidegger Circle Henning, Victor Heywood, Stephen Hidary, Jack Hillis, Danny Hilscher, Emily H1N1 virus Holtzblatt, Les Home economics Homophily Howe, Jeff Human Genome Project Humors Hyperlinks linked knowledge providing data links IBM computers Impact factor of scientific journals In vitro fertilization An Inconvenient Truth (film) Information crowd-sourcing data and networking information for fund managers Open Government Initiative reliability of Information Anxiety (Wurman) Information cascades Information overload as filter failure consequences of metadata value of information Infrastructure of knowledge InnoCentive Institutions, Net response to Insularity of Net users Intelligence Internet increasing stupidity providing hooks for Intelligence agencies Intelligent Design International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration Internet abundance of knowledge amateur scientists challenging beliefs crowds and mobs cumulative nature of data sharing diversity of expertise echo chambers forking improving the knowledge environment increasing institutional use indefinite scaling information information filtering interpretations knowledge residing in the network LA Times wikitorial experiment linked knowledge loss of body of knowledge permission-free knowledge public nature of knowledge reliability of information scientific inquiry shaping knowledge shared experiences sub-networks The WELL conversation unresolved knowledge See also Networked knowledge Interpretations, knowledge as iPhone Iraq Jamming Jarvis, Jeff Jellies de Joinville, Jean Journals, scientific Kahn, Herman Kantor, Jodi Kelly, Kevin Kennedy, Ted Kennedy administration Kepler, Johannes Kindle Kitano, Hiroaki Knowledge abundance of as interpretation changing shape of crisis of echo chambers hiding enduring characteristics of environmental niche modeling fact-based and analogy-based human pursuit of hyperlinked context improving the Internet environment Internet challenging beliefs linked permission-free public reason as the path to social elements of stopping points unresolved Knowledge clubs Kuhn, Thomas Kundra, Vivek Kutcher, Ashton Lakhani, Karim Language games Latour, Bruno Leadership Debian network decision-making and Dickover’s social solutions network distribution Lebkowsky, Jon Leibniz, Gottfried Lessig, Lawrence Levy-Shoemaker comet Librarians Library of Congress Library use Lili’uokalani (Hawaiian queen) Linked Data standard Linked knowledge Links filters as See also Hyperlinks Linnean Society Linux Lipson, Hod Literacies Loganathan, G.V.

pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp,, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

“Encouraging discussion and questions”: “Contenders,” Web site, accessed March 24, 2013, Baker published the results: Firas Khatib et al., “Crystal Structure of a Monomeric Retroviral Protease Solved by Protein Folding Game Players,” Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 19, no. 3 (March 2012): 1175–77. the Galaxy Zoo: Tim Adams, “Galaxy Zoo and the New Dawn of Citizen Science,” The Observer (UK), March 17, 2012, accessed March 24, 2013, a one-million-dollar prize: Eliot Van Buskirk, “BellKor’s Pragmatic Chaos Wins $1 Million Netflix Prize by Mere Minutes,” Wired, September 21, 2009, accessed March 24, 2013,; I also previously reported on the Netflix Prize in “If You Liked This, You’re Sure to Love That,” The New York Times Magazine, November 21, 2008, accessed March 24, 2013,

People eagerly pitch in on projects they’re interested in, which is exactly why so many ad hoc collaborations erupt around amateur passions, like hobbies or pop culture. But as the guys found, science projects work well, too, because people enjoy feeling they’re contributing to global knowledge. Many other scientists have joined Baker in crafting successful group thinking projects, such as the Galaxy Zoo, founded by the Radcliffe Observatory in Oxford, England, which puts a deluge of space imagery online and lets everyday astrophiles classify the shapes of galaxies; like, it quickly evolved a community of contributors. Politics, too, is an area where many people are motivated to help, which is what drives the success of the Ushahidi maps or government 2.0 projects, where citizens compile information to improve their communities.

See also memory and ability to refind information, 127–28 artificial forgetting, 241–42 benefits of, 40–41 details versus meaning, 129, 133–34 Ebbinghaus curve, 25, 144–45 process of, 23–24 4chan, 241 Foursquare, 37–38 FoursquareAnd7YearsAgo, 38 Freedom app, 136 Friedel, Frederic, 17 Frye, Northrop, 132 Fuchsian functions, 132 Fujifilm Velvia film, 110 “Funes, the Memorius” (Borges), 39–40 Galaga (video game), 148 Galaxy Zoo, 169 Galileo, 59 Galton, Francis, 155–56 Gardner, Sue, 161 Gee, James Paul, 198 generation effect, 57, 75, 184 geography, learning through video games, 199–202 geolocation. See also mapping ambient awareness of, 242–43 geography, impact on message, 62–63 location-based sharing, 81 gerrymandering, 84–86 Ghonim, Wael, 255–57, 272 Gibson, William, 9 Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 225 Giovanni, Daniel, 38 Gladwell, Malcolm, 229 Glaeser, Edward, 15 Gleeson, Colleen, 186 Gleick, James, 259 Global Network Initiative, 277 Gmail mail as lifelog, 43–44 mail storage and ads, 28 as transactive memory tool, 131 Goffman, Erving, 238 Gold, Heather, 79–80, 226 Goodreads, 82, 243 Google collaborative projects, 171 collective knowledge as basis, 170–71 mail.

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Now, by redesigning research methods to focus computers on what they do best and inviting volunteer masses to donate human brainpower where it’s needed most, “citizen science” is starting to break through the analytic bottlenecks that plague a wide range of disciplines. In 2007, Chris Lintott and Kevin Schawinski co-founded Galaxy Zoo, inviting amateur stargazers to help them catalog and classify some 900,000 galaxies that had been photographed from the year 2000 onward. The task would have taken one devout graduate student three to five years of 24 × 7 × 365 labor to complete; twice as long if she double-checked her work. Instead, it took over 100,000 volunteers less than six months, and each galaxy was re-checked an average of 38 times. By mid-2014, several hundred thousand Galaxy Zoo volunteers had crunched through seven giant-scale data sets, compiled a catalog of galaxies ten times larger than any previous version, and produced 44 scientific papers’ worth of results.27 Along the way they spotted rare astronomical phenomena that had been conjectured for years but never detected, and found others, like Hanny’s Voorwerp, that were entirely unexpected.28 Hanny van Arkel, a Dutch schoolteacher, got an object in the sky named after her—an honor that even professional astronomers rarely receive.

By mid-2014, several hundred thousand Galaxy Zoo volunteers had crunched through seven giant-scale data sets, compiled a catalog of galaxies ten times larger than any previous version, and produced 44 scientific papers’ worth of results.27 Along the way they spotted rare astronomical phenomena that had been conjectured for years but never detected, and found others, like Hanny’s Voorwerp, that were entirely unexpected.28 Hanny van Arkel, a Dutch schoolteacher, got an object in the sky named after her—an honor that even professional astronomers rarely receive. Galaxy Zoo expanded into Zooniverse (—in 2015, the world’s largest citizen science portal with 1.1 million registered volunteers. Together they tackle oversized data sets in dozens of projects, spanning astronomy, biology, ecology, climate science and the humanities.29 A project called Planet Four enlists Mars enthusiasts to help map the surface of the Red Planet. In Chimp & See, animal lovers help spot leopards, elephants and chimpanzees as the animals walk, charge or swing past hundreds of cameras strewn across Africa’s forests.

Retrieved from 25. Langmead, Ben and Michael C. Schatz (2013). “The DNA Data Deluge.” IEEE Spectrum. Retrieved from 26. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2013, October 27). “Managing the Deluge of ‘Big Data’ from Space.” NASA. Retrieved from 27. SciTech Daily (2013, September 24). “Researchers Publish Galaxy Zoo 2 Catalog, Data on More Than 300,000 Nearby Galaxies.” SciTech Daily. Retrieved from 28. van Arkel, Hanny (2015). “Voorwerp Discovery.” Retrieved from 29. Smith, A., S. Lynn, et al. (2013, December). “Zooniverse-Web Scale Citizen Science with People and Machines.” AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts 1: 1424. 30. Bonney, Rick, Jennifer L. Shirk, et al. (2014).

pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

The computers possess staggering image recognition capabilities and they can create tables of the hundreds of visual and analytic features for every galaxy currently observable by the world’s telescopes. That was very inexpensive but did not yield perfect results. In the next version of the program, dubbed Galaxy Zoo 2, computers with machine-learning models would interpret the images of the galaxies in order to present accurate specimens to human classifiers, who could then catalog galaxies with much less effort than they had in the past. In yet another refinement, the system would add the ability to recognize the particular skills of different human participants and leverage them appropriately. Galaxy Zoo 2 was able to automatically categorize the problems it faced and knew which people could contribute to solving which problem most effectively. At a TED talk in 2013, Horvitz showed the reaction of a Microsoft intern to her first encounter with his robotic greeter.

As early as 2005, for example, two chess amateurs used a chess-playing software program to win a match against chess experts and individual chess-playing programs. Horvitz is continuing to deepen the human-machine interaction by researching ways to couple machine learning and computerized decision-making with human intelligence. For example, his researchers have worked closely with the designers of the crowd-sourced citizen science tool called Galaxy Zoo, harnessing armies of human Web surfers to categorize images of galaxies. Crowd-sourced labor is becoming a significant resource in scientific research: professional scientists can enlist amateurs, who often need to do little more than play elaborate games that exploit human perception, in order to help scientists map tricky problems like protein folding.19 In a number of documented cases teams of human experts have exceeded the capability of some of the most powerful supercomputers.

., 240–241 DARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency as precursor to, 30, 110, 111–112, 164, 171 ARPAnet, 164, 196 autonomous cars and Grand Challenge, 24, 26, 27–36, 40 CALO and, 31, 297, 302–304, 310, 311 Dugan and, 236 Engelbart and, 6 Licklider and, 11 LRASM, 26–27 Moravec and, 119 Pratt and, 235–236 Robotics Challenge, 227–230, 234, 236–238, 244–254, 249, 333–334 Rosen and, 102 Taylor and, 160 Darrach, Brad, 103–105 Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, 105, 107–109, 114, 143 DataLand, 307 Davis, Ruth, 102–103 “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A” (Barlow), 173 DeepMind Technologies, 91, 337–338 Defense Science Board, 27 de Forest, Lee, 98 “demons,” 190 Dendral, 113–114, 127 Diebold, John, 98 Diffie, Whitfield, 8, 112 Digital Equipment Corporation, 112, 285 direct manipulation, 187 Djerassi, Carl, 113 Doerr, John, 7 Dompier, Steve, 211–212 Dreyfus, Hubert, 177–178, 179 drone delivery research, 247–248 Dubinsky, Donna, 154 Duda, Richard, 128, 129 Dugan, Regina, 236 Duvall, Bill, 1–7 Earnest, Les, 120, 199 Earth Institute, 59 Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier (EG&G), 127 e-discovery software, 78 E-Groups, 259 elastic actuation, 236–237 electronic commerce, advent of, 289, 301–302 electronic stability control (ESC), 46 Elementary Perceiver and Memorizer (EPAM), 283 “Elephants Don’t Play Chess” (Brooks), 201 Eliza, 14, 113, 172–174, 221 email, advent of, 290, 310 End of Work, The (Rifkin), 76–77 Engelbart, Doug. see also SRI International on exponential power of computers, 118–119 IA versus AI debate and, 165–167 on intelligence augmentation (IA), xii, 5–7, 31 Minsky and, 17 “Mother of All Demos” (1968) by, 62 NLS, 5–7, 172, 197 Rosen and, 102 Siri and, 301, 316–317 Engineers and the Price System, The (Veblen), 343 Enterprise Integration Technologies, 289, 291 ethical issues, 324–344. see also intelligence augmentation (IA) versus AI; labor force of autonomous cars, 26–27, 60–61 decision making and control, 341–342 Google on, 91 human-in-the-loop debates, 158–165, 167–169, 335 of labor force, 68–73, 325–332 scientists’ responsibility and, 332–341, 342–344 “techno-religious” issues, 116–117 expert systems, defined, 134–141, 285 Facebook, 83, 156–158, 266–267 Fast-SLAM, 37 Feigenbaum, Ed, 113, 133–136, 167–169, 283, 287–288 Felsenstein, Lee, 208–215 Fernstedt, Anders, 71 “field robotics,” 233–234 Fishman, Charles, 81 Flextronics, 68 Flores, Fernando, 179–180, 188 Foot, Philippa, 60 Ford, Martin, 79 Ford Motor Company, 70 Forstall, Scott, 322 Foxconn, 93, 208, 248 Friedland, Peter, 292 Galaxy Zoo, 219–220 Gates, Bill, 305, 329–330 General Electric (GE), 68–69 General Magic, 240, 315 General Motors (GM), 32–35, 48–50, 52, 53, 60 Genetic Finance, 304 Genghis (robot), 202 Geometrics, 127 George, Dileep, 154 Geraci, Robert, 85, 116–117 Gerald (digital light field), 271 Giant Brains, or Machines That Think (Berkeley), 231 Gibson, William, 23–24 Go Corp., 141 God & Golem, Inc.

pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

By pairing a distorted known word with one that computers are unable to decipher, everyday users who can read these words are helping bring newspapers and books into digital formats. Scientists are beginning to use this sort of human computation. These researchers are relying on citizen scientists to help them look through large amounts of data, most of which is too difficult for a computer (or even a single person) to comb through. One example is Galaxy Zoo, in which scientists gave participants pictures of galaxies to help classify them. The participants weren’t experts; they were interested individuals who participated in a minutes-long tutorial and were simply interested in space, or wanted to help scientific progress. Several intrepid scientists turned a fiendishly difficult problem—how to predict what shapes proteins will fold into based on their chemical makeup—into a game.

.), 85 dinosaurs, 3, 79–82, 168–69, 194 discovery: long tail of, 38 multiple independent, 104–5 pace of, 9–25 discriminating power, 159–60 diseases, 52, 176–77 categorization of, 205 spread of, 62, 64 Dittmar, Jeremiah, 71, 73 Dixon, William Macneile, 8 DNA, 88, 90, 122, 163 drugs, 24, 111–12 repurposing of, 112 streptokinase, 108–9 Dunbar, Robin, 205 Dunbar’s Number, 205–6 Earth, curvature of, 35–36 education, 182–83, 195 Einstein, Albert, 36, 106, 186 Electronics, 42 Ellsworth, Henry, 54 e-mail, 41 Empedocles, 201 Encyclopaedia of Scientific Units, Weights, and Measures: Their SI Equivalences and Origins (Cardarelli), 146 EndNote, 117–18 energy, 55, 204 Eos, 148 Erdo˝s, Paul, 104 errors, 78–95 contrary to popular belief phrase and, 84–85 Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism, An (Green), 106 eurekometrics, 21, 22 Eureqa, 113–14 Everest, George, 140 evolution, 79, 187 evolutionary programming, 113 evolutionary psychology, 175 expertise, long tail of, 96, 102 experts, 96–97 exponential growth, 10–14, 44–45, 46–47, 54–55, 57, 59, 130, 204 extinct species, 26, 27–28 facts, see knowledge and facts factual inertia, 175, 179–83, 188, 190, 199 Fallows, James, 86 Fermat, Pierre de, 132 Feynman, Richard, 104 fish, 201 fishing, 173 fish oil, 99, 110 Florey, Lord, 163 Flory, Paul, 104 Foldit, 20 Franzen, Jonathan, 208–9 French Canadians, 193–94 frogs: boiling of, 86, 171 vision of, 171 Galaxy Zoo, 20 Galileo, 21, 143–44 Galton, Francis, 165–68 games, 51 generational knowledge, 183–85, 199 genetics, 87–90 genome sequencing, 48, 51 Gibrat’s Law, 103 Goddard, Robert H., 174 Godwin’s law, 105 Goldbach’s Conjecture, 112–13 Goodman, Steven, 107–8 Gould, Stephen Jay, 82 grammar: descriptive, 188–89 prescriptive, 188–89, 194 Granovetter, Mark, 76–78 Graves’ disease, 111 Great Vowel Shift, 191–93 Green, George, 105–6 growth: exponential, 10–14, 44–45, 46–47, 54–55, 57, 59, 130, 204 hyperbolic, 59 linear, 10, 11 Gumbel, Bryant, 41 Gutenberg, Johannes, 71–73, 78, 95 Hamblin, Terry, 83 Harrison, John, 102 Hawthorne effect, 55–56 helium, 104 Helmann, John, 162 Henrich, Joseph, 58 hepatitis, 28–30 hidden knowledge, 96–120 h-index, 17 Hirsch, Jorge, 17 History of the Modern Fact, A (Poovey), 200 Holmes, Sherlock, 206 homeoteleuton, 89 Hooke, Robert, 21, 94 Hull, David, 187–88 human anatomy, 23 human computation, 20 hydrogen, 151 hyperbolic growth rate, 59 idiolect, 190 impact factors, 16–17 inattentional blindness (change blindness), 177–79 India, 140–41 informational index funds, 197 information transformation, 43–44, 46 InnoCentive, 96–98, 101, 102 innovation, 204 population size and, 135–37, 202 prizes for, 102–3 simultaneous, 104–5 integrated circuits, 42, 43, 55, 203 Intel Corporation, 42 interdisciplinary research, 68–69 International Bureau of Weights and Measures, 47 Internet, 2, 40–41, 53, 198, 208, 211 Ioannidis, John, 156–61, 162 iPhone, 123 iron: magnetic properties of, 49–50 in spinach, 83–84 Ising, Ernst, 124, 125–26, 138 isotopes, 151 Jackson, John Hughlings, 30 Johnson, Steven, 119 Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 33–35 journals, 9, 12, 16–17, 32 Kahneman, Daniel, 177 Kay, Alan, 173 Kelly, Kevin, 38, 46 Kelly, Stuart, 115 Kelvin, Lord, 142–43 Kennaway, Kristian, 86 Keynes, John Maynard, 172 kidney stones, 52 kilogram, 147–48 Kiribati, 203 Kissinger, Henry, 190 Kleinberg, Jon, 92–93 knowledge and facts, 5, 54 cumulative, 56–57 erroneous, 78–95, 211–14 half-lives of, 1–8, 202 hidden, 96–120 phase transitions in, 121–39, 185 spread of, 66–95 Koh, Heebyung, 43, 45–46, 56 Kremer, Michael, 58–61 Kuhn, Thomas, 163, 186 Lambton, William, 140 land bridges, 57, 59–60 language, 188–94 French Canadians and, 193–94 grammar and, 188–89, 194 Great Vowel Shift and, 191–93 idiolect and, 190 situation-based dialect and, 190 verbs in, 189 voice onset time and, 190 Large Hadron Collider, 159 Laughlin, Gregory, 129–31 “Laws Underlying the Physics of Everyday Life Really Are Completely Understood, The” (Carroll), 36–37 Lazarus taxa, 27–28 Le Fanu, James, 23 LEGO, 184–85, 194 Lehman, Harvey, 13–14, 15 Leibniz, Gottfried, 67 Lenat, Doug, 112 Levan, Albert, 1–2 Liben-Nowell, David, 92–93 libraries, 31–32 life span, 53–54 Lincoln, Abraham, 70 linear growth, 10, 11 Linnaeus, Carl, 22, 204 Lippincott, Sara, 86 Lipson, Hod, 113 Little Science, Big Science (Price), 13 logistic curves, 44–46, 50, 116, 130, 203–4 longitude, 102 Long Now Foundation, 195 long tails: of discovery, 38 of expertise, 96, 102 of life, 38 of popularity, 103 Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS), 98, 100–101 machine intelligence, 207 Magee, Chris, 43, 45–46, 56, 207–8 magicians, 178–79 magnetic properties of iron, 49–50 Maldives, 203 Malthus, Thomas, 59 mammal species, 22, 23, 128 extinct, 28 manuscripts, 87–91, 114–16 Marchetti, Cesare, 64 Marsh, Othniel, 80–81, 169 mathematics, 19, 51, 112–14, 124–25, 132–35 Matthew effect, 103 Mauboussin, Michael, 84 Mayor, Michel, 122 McGovern, George, 66 McIntosh, J.

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Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together by Thomas W. Malone

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, clean water, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, gig economy, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Rulifson, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

But it seems unlikely that a system like this would be a lot worse than the representative democracies we have today, and it’s quite easy to imagine that it could be a lot better. VOTING AS A WAY OF FINDING WHAT’S TRUE In addition to aggregating people’s values and preferences, democracies can also be very useful as a way of aggregating people’s opinions about what is true. For instance, when lots of nonexperts vote on possible answers to a question, they often arrive at an answer that is just as good as one that an expert would give. In the Galaxy Zoo project, for instance, hundreds of thousands of online volunteers are helping astronomers by classifying the shapes and other characteristics of a million galaxies in distant parts of the universe that astronomers have previously observed through telescopes.6 Even though a single volunteer might mistakenly classify an astronomical object, when many volunteers look at that same object and vote on how to classify it, the results of the group’s votes are extremely accurate, allowing the classification to happen much faster than if it were being done by a handful of experts.

Sven Becker, “Web Platform Makes Professor Most Powerful Pirate,” Spiegel Online, March 2, 2012,; Wikipedia, s.v. “Pirate Party,” accessed February 20, 2017, 5. Steve Hardt and Lia C. R. Lopes, “Google Votes: A Liquid Democracy Experiment on a Corporate Social Network,” Technical Disclosure Commons, June 5, 2015, 6. “The Story So Far,” Galaxy Zoo, accessed October 21, 2017, 7. “About Eyewire, a Game to Map the Brain,” Eyewire, accessed February 20, 2017, 8. Barbara Mellers, Eric Stone, Pavel Atanasov, Nick Rohrbaugh, S. Emlen Metz, Lyle Ungar, Michael Metcalf Bishop, et al., “The Psychology of Intelligence Analysis: Drivers of Prediction Accuracy in World Politics,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 21, no. 1 (2015): 1; Barbara Mellers, Lyle Ungar, Jonathan Baron, Jamie Ramos, Burcu Gurcay, Katrina Fincher, Sydney E.

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

The carefully crafted and widely used Creative Commons licences, pioneered by Lawrence Lessig, give a clear set of rules, allowing several variants of free reproduction.42 uses one of them, a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence, which means that you are free to copy, distribute, display and perform the content of the site, and to make derivative works from it, provided you give credit to the original author of the content, do not use the content for commercial purposes and distribute any derivative work under the same kind of Creative Commons licence.43 Freely available digital library resources, such as the Digital Public Library of America, Europeana and the Internet Archive—to name but three—support this purpose.44 So does the scientific preprint site arXiv, which reportedly includes half of all the world’s physics papers.45 Second, open access can enhance not merely the dissemination but the production of knowledge. On occasion, crowdsourcing has generated scientific results that could not have been found by a single researcher, or only at vast expense of time and money. Two researchers sitting in an English pub had the crazy idea of asking the general public to help them scan tens of thousands of photos of galaxies. With mass participation, this Galaxy Zoo not only classified numerous previously unclassified galaxies but also identified a new kind of galaxy.46 A Cambridge mathematician put an open invitation on his blog for people to help him solve a difficult mathematical problem. He called this experiment the Polymath Project. Six weeks later, he announced that they had solved not just the original problem but also a harder one that included the original as a special case.47 When it comes to discussions not of what is but of what should be, of values and norms, the dialogue across frontiers, cultures, faiths and political camps is itself part of the research.

‘Copyright & Attribution’, Free Speech Debate, 44. on the Digital Public Library, see Darnton, ‘The National Digital Public Library Is Launched!’, New York Review of Books, 25 April 2013, Europeana, and the Internet Archive, 45. see Nielsen 2012, 161–63 46. Galaxy Zoo, 47. I take these examples from Nielsen 2012, 1–3, 133–42 48. see ‘Gottfrid Svartholm-Warg on Freedom of Speech 2007’, 20 May 2013, 49. see Gabrielle Guillemin, ‘Does ACTA Threaten Online Freedom of Expression & Privacy?’, Free Speech Debate, 50. see, for example, University of Exeter, ‘Green and Gold Open Access’, 51. internet live stats, Google Search Statistics,

See also Charlie Hebdo; Cohen, Patrick; Dieudonné; Dilhac, Marc-Antoine; Errera, Roger; French language; Ricoeur, Paul; Voltaire; Wackenheim, Manuel ‘Free-Born John’ (John Lilburne), 372–73, 374 freedom of information, 48, 78, 119, 123, 125, 127, 325, 328–34, 338, 358, 380 freedom of speech/expression, 152; Catch-22 of, 103–4; and Christianity, 272–73; clothing, tattoos as expression, 124; and Confucianism, 110; dangerous speech, 135–38; and dialogue between civilisations, 96–98, 110–11; European Convention on Human Rights, 34; four forces determining, 213; freedom from seeing/hearing, 125–27; how to implement, 79–81; and incitement to violence, 132–33; and individual sovereignty, 370–71; on the internet, 93–94; and Islam, 272–80; justifications for limiting, 86–95; law, norms, practices for, 81–86; and money, 367–69 (368f); press freedom, 183–89; rationale for, 73–79; ‘regardless of frontiers,’ 127–28; and religion, 208; threats to, 121; World Values Survey, 101 freedom of the press, 48, 183–89, 337–38 Freedom (software), 179 freedom to connect, 32, 2–3 (3f); assassin’s veto discussion, 130; blocked within China, 44; challenge principle, 320; civility discussion, 250–51; community standards of, 61; in Egypt, 278; legal hurdles to set up, 36; licence, 165–66; machine and human translation on, 95, 105, 176, 210; one-click-away principle, 126; pnyx on, 206; in Poland, 288; republication of cartoons, 143, 148; in Turkey, 278; use of pseudonyms on, 67, 316–17 French language, 47, 48, 85, 110, 123, 174, 175f, 176, 185, 210, 244, 278 Fry, Stephen, 136 Fujimori, Alberto, 190 Funes, Ireno, 305 Furedi, Frank, 90 Gaddafi, Muammar, 88 ‘Gafa, les,’ 48 Galaxy Zoo, 166 Galilei, Galileo, 152 Gandhi, Mohandas, 91, 98, 108, 148–49, 158, 251, 346, 378 Garcia, Cindy Lee, 71 Gates, Bill, 54 Gawker, 294–95 ‘Gay Girl in Damascus,’ 314 Gaza Strip, 140 Gazeta Wyborcza, 144 GCHQ (Government Communications Headquarters), 320, 329, 337, 343 Geller, Pamela, 134, 276 Gellner, Ernest, 223 George III, 22 Georgia, 349 German language, 76, 83, 140, 174, 205, 222, 309–10, 323 Germany, 18, 37, 55, 76, 79, 85, 125–26, 129, 140, 150, 156, 157–59, 161, 171, 175f, 189, 196–98, 198f, 201f, 203, 210, 212–13, 217, 227–28, 260, 287–89, 291, 302–3, 304–6, 308, 326, 330, 332, 334, 346, 355, 374.

pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Value and reputation would derive from quality of contribution, not status. If you were smart and hardworking in India, your merit would bring you reputation. The world would be flatter, more meritocratic, more flexible, and more fluid. Most important, technology would contribute to prosperity for everyone, not just wealth for the few. Some of this has come to pass. There have been mass collaborations like Wikipedia, Linux, and Galaxy Zoo. Outsourcing and networked business models have enabled people in the developing world to participate in the global economy better. Today two billion people collaborate as peers socially. We all have access to information in unprecedented ways. However, the Empire struck back. It has become clear that concentrated powers in business and government have bent the original democratic architecture of the Internet to their will.

See also Microfinance blockchain IPOs, 82–84 blockchain transformations of, 8, 18–19, 58–63, 64, 128 frameworks for accounting and corporate governance, 73–79 Golden Eight of, 61–63, 64, 86 identity issues, 61, 64, 78–79 paradoxes of traditional finance, 55–57 players in blockchain ecosystem, 285 prediction markets, 84–85 reputation and credit score, 79–82 retail services, 71–73 smart devices and IoT, 159 from stock exchanges to block exchanges, 63, 65–66 Financial stability, 295 Financial utility, 69–70 Firefox Web, 129 First era of the Internet, 3–4, 12–14, 15, 39, 49, 92, 95, 106, 124, 265, 281–82, 299–300 “Float,” 45 FNY Capital, 83 Food industry, 138–39, 157–58 Ford, Henry, 246 Forde, Brian, 247, 282, 286, 287, 305 Foreign aid, 20–21, 188–92 Formation costs, 179 Fragmenting public discourse, 212–13 Free agent nation, 110 Freedom of Information laws, 208–9 Free press, 243–46 Free speech, 243–46 Freitas, Miguel, 246 Funding, in financial services, 62–63, 64 Fund-raising, 179 Futarchy, 220 Future Crimes (Goodman), 276 Future-proofing, 152, 197 Galaxy Zoo, 12 Gauck, Joachim, 52 Gault, Mike, 199 Gemini, 284, 291 Gems, 94–95 Gender differences, in banking access, 178, 192 Germany, 27, 51–52 GetGems, 245 Gibson, William, 255 GitHub, 89, 138 Global solution networks (GSNs), 283, 300–307 Global standards networks, 304–6 “God Protocol, The” (Szabo), 4–5 Gold, 34, 95, 199, 254, 260 Goldcorp Challenge, 223 Golden Eight, 61–63, 64, 86 Goldman Sachs, 66, 70, 71, 284 Goodman, Marc, 276 Google, 13, 96, 118, 140, 143, 161, 180, 255, 270, 275 Gore, Al, 212 Governance, 24, 283, 288–89, 307 distributed power, 33–35, 273 in financial services, 73–79 new framework for blockchain, 298–307 regulations vs., 296–97 Government Digital Service, U.K., 205 Governments, 9, 13, 23, 197–225 alternative models of politics and justice, 218–21 Big Brother, 244, 274–75 blockchain voting, 215–17 design principles in, 201–3 empowering people to serve selves and others, 207–11 engaging citizens to solve big problems, 221–23 Estonia example, 197–99, 203, 204, 206–7 in financial services industry, 70 high-performance services and operations, 203–7 players in blockchain ecosystem, 286–87 second era of democracy, 211–15 stifling or twisting bitcoin, 263–65 tools of twenty-first-century, 223–25 Grande, Ariana, 228 Greifeld, Bob, 65, 66, 84 Guardtime, 199 Guez, Bruno, 238 Gun rights, 200–201, 276 Gupta, Vinay, 226, 227 Hacking, 39, 40, 41, 118–19, 138, 151–52, 243–44 boundary decisions, 112–14 business model innovation, 142–44 DAEs, 273–74 smart things, 168–69 Hagel, John, 94 Haiti earthquake of 2010, 20–21, 188–89 remittances, 183 Haldane, Andrew, 9 Hamel, Gary, 110 Hanks, Tom, 78 Hanson, Robin, 220 Hashcash, 34 Hash rate, 241, 260 Hash value, 32 Hawking, Stephen, 274 Health care, 151, 158 Heap, Imogen, 21, 226, 227–28, 229, 231–35 Hearn, Mike, 69, 164–65, 271, 282 HedgeStreet, 84 Hedgy, 105 Herstatt risk, 59–60 Hewlett-Packard, 150 Hierarchies, 12, 88, 93–101, 105–6 High latency, 256–57 Hill, Austin, 28 design principles, 38, 40–41, 43, 51 financial services, 63, 65–67, 76 implementation challenges, 262, 272 Holacracy, 48–49, 88 Hollywood Stock Exchange, 84 Home management, 161, 275 Homomorphic encryption, 28 Honduras, 193–95 Honesty, 10, 11 Horizontal search, 97 Humanitarian aid, 20–21, 188–92 Human Rights Watch, 200 Hyperledger Project, 69–70, 285, 305 IBM, 39, 111, 118, 129–30, 150, 153 IBM Connections, 139 IBM Institute for Business Value, 163 Ideagoras, 137, 138 Identity, 3–4, 14–16, 264–65.

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Shadow Work: The Unpaid, Unseen Jobs That Fill Your Day by Craig Lambert

airline deregulation, Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, big-box store, business cycle, carbon footprint, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, financial independence, Galaxy Zoo, ghettoisation, gig economy, global village, helicopter parent, IKEA effect, industrial robot, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, pattern recognition, plutocrats, Plutocrats, recommendation engine, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game, Zipcar

But only high-level executives now have underlings to help them through the daily routine. Receiving live human service has become a mark of the elite. Indeed, service from an actual person, whether in a fine-dining restaurant or on a customer-service phone call, is a twenty-first-century luxury. NONETHELESS, IF THE work is interesting, some organizations can attract support from unpaid shadow-working assistants. The burgeoning field of citizen science is a prime example. The Galaxy Zoo project is a joint venture of astronomers at Johns Hopkins University in the United States and Portsmouth and Oxford universities in England. It enlists lay astronomers in classifying galaxies from telescope images based on shape. In its first year, more than 150,000 participants contributed more than fifty million classifications, at times sending in 60,000 per hour. David Baker, a biochemistry professor at the University of Washington, developed an online game called FoldIt that welcomes citizen participants to contribute hypothetical ways of folding protein molecules; these shadow workers have resolved some problems that have baffled supercomputers.