smart grid

106 results back to index


Smart Grid Standards by Takuro Sato

business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, data acquisition, decarbonisation, demand response, distributed generation, energy security, factory automation, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Iridium satellite, iterative process, knowledge economy, life extension, linear programming, low earth orbit, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, performance metric, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, Thomas Davenport

Besides SDOs, there are also many technical consortia, forums, and panels, which are actively involved in promoting the standardization process of the Smart Grid. This chapter will provide an overview of the current status of the Smart Grid in both developed and developing countries. The organization of this chapter is as follows: Section 1.2 provides an overview of major Smart Grid-related organizations, including SDOs, regulatory organizations, technical consortia, forums, and panels, and marketing/advocacy organizations; Section 1.3 introduces the development of the Smart Grid in the United States; Section 1.4 introduces the development of the Smart Grid in the European Union; Section 1.5 introduces the development of the Smart Grid in Japan; Section 1.6 introduces the development of the Smart Grid in South Korea; Section 1.7 introduces the development of the Smart Grid in China; and Section 1.8 gives the conclusion. 1.2 An Overview of Smart Grid-Related Organizations In this subsection, we provide an overview of major Smart Grid-related organizations, including SDOs, regulatory organizations, technical consortia, forums and panels, and marketing/advocacy organizations [7].

. • Japan Smart Community Alliance (JSCA) (Japan): an alliance established by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) to promote collaboration of various stakeholders from electric power, gas, automobile, information and communications, electric machinery, construction and trading industries, public sector, academia, and so on. • Smart Grid Flanders (Belgium), Smart Grid Canada (Canada), Danish Intelligent Energy Alliance (Denmark), EDSO, European Distribution System Operator, for Smart Grids (EU), Smart Grid Great Britain (UK), Norwegian Smartgrid Centre (Norway), Smart Grid Ireland (Ireland), Israel Smart Energy Association (Israel), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), Korea Smart Grid Association (Korea), Smart Grid Australia (Australia). 1.2.3.6 National Institute of Science and Technology and Smart Grid Interoperability Panel NIST was found in 1901 as a nonregulatory federal agency and is one of the nation’s oldest physical science laboratories. Currently, NIST is part of the US Department of Commerce, with a mission to promote US innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technologies through the NIST laboratories, the Hollings Manufacturing Extension Partnership, the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program, and the Technology Innovation Program.

NEDO under METI has launched several projects to promote the development of the Japanese Smart Grid. One example is the Japan-US collaborative Smart Grid project in Los Alamos, New Mexico, which was launched in 2009 with an investment of $10 billion. NEDO has established the JSCA to promote cooperation among various stakeholders An Overview of the Smart Grid 27 to accelerate Smart Grid-related activities in Japan. In order for Japanese companies to participate in Smart Grid-related activities, Japan has become actively involved in expanding the Asian Smart Grid market. NEDO has conducted an investigation of the Smart Grid-related technology requirements in the industrial areas surrounding Jakarta, Indonesia in 2010. This is the first time that Japan launched investigations of the Smart Grid in Southeast Asia. NEDO has investigated the current situation of Java Island Power Company in Jakarta, electricity supply and demand, electricity quality, number of factories, conditions of power stations, and so on.


pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, American ideology, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

Dynamic pricing also will let local energy producers know the best time to sell electricity back to the grid, or to go off the grid altogether. The US government recently allocated funds to develop the smart grid across the country. The funds will be used to install digital electric meters, transmission grid sensors, and energy storage technologies to enable high-tech electricity distribution; this will transform the existing power grid into an Internet of energy. CPS Energy in San Antonio, Texas; Xcel Utility in Boulder, Colorado; and PG&E, Sempra, and Southern ConEdison in California will be laying down parts of the smart grid over the next several years. The smart grid is the backbone of the new economy. Just as the Internet created thousands of new businesses and millions of new jobs, so too will the intelligent electricity network—except “this network will be 100 or 1,000 times larger than the Internet,” says Marie Hattar, vice president of marketing in Cisco’s network systems solutions group.

When millions of buildings collect renewable energies on site, store surplus energy in the form of hydrogen, and share electricity with millions of others across intelligent intergrids, the resulting lateral power dwarfs what could be generated by centralized nuclear, coal, and gas-fired power plants. A study prepared by KEMA, a leading energy consulting firm, for the GridWise Alliance—the US smart grid coalition of IT companies, power and utility companies, academics, and venture capitalists—found that even a modest $16 billion in government incentives to smarten the nation’s power grid would catalyze $64 billion worth of projects and create 280,000 direct jobs.40 Because the smart grid is critical to the growth of the other four pillars, it will generate hundreds of thousands of additional jobs in the renewable energy sector, the construction and real estate markets, the hydrogen storage industry, and electric transportation, all of which rely on the smart grid as an enabling platform. These employment estimates are small, however, in comparison to the jobs that will be created with the €1 trillion the European Commission now projects is needed for public and private investment over the next ten years to bring the distributed smart grid network online across the world’s largest economy.41 Today’s idea of a distributed smart grid was not what most of the major ICT companies had in mind when they first began to talk about intelligent utility networks.

These employment estimates are small, however, in comparison to the jobs that will be created with the €1 trillion the European Commission now projects is needed for public and private investment over the next ten years to bring the distributed smart grid network online across the world’s largest economy.41 Today’s idea of a distributed smart grid was not what most of the major ICT companies had in mind when they first began to talk about intelligent utility networks. Their early vision was for a centralized smart grid. The companies foresaw digitalizing the existing power grid, with the placement of smart meters and censors, to allow utility companies to collect information remotely, including keeping up-to-the-minute information on electricity flows. The goal was to improve the efficiency of moving electricity across the grid, reduce the costs of maintenance, and keep more accurate records on customer usage.


pages: 327 words: 84,627

The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth by Jeremy Rifkin

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, failed state, ghettoisation, hydrogen economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, megacity, Network effects, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, renewable energy credits, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

., “100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World,” Joule 1 (September 6, 2017): 35. 33.  Richard J. Campbell, The Smart Grid: Status and Outlook, Congressional Research Service, April 10, 2018, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R45156.pdf, 8. 34.  Electric Power Research Institute, Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid: A Preliminary Estimate of the Investment Requirements and the Resultant Benefits of a Fully Functioning Smart Grid, March 2011, https://www.smartgrid.gov/files/Estimating_Costs_Benefits_Smart_Grid_Preliminary_Estimate_In_201103.pdf (accessed March 24, 2019), 1–2. 35.  Electric Power Research Institute, Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid, 4; Electric Power Research Institute, The Power to Reduce CO2 Emissions: The Full Portfolio, October 2009, https://www.smartgrid.gov/files/The_Power_to_Reduce_CO2_Emission_Full_Portfolio_Technical_R_200912.pdf (accessed March 23, 2019), 2–1. 36.  

KEMA, The U.S. Smart Grid Revolution: KEMA’s Perspectives for Job Creation, January 13, 2009, https://www.smartgrid.gov/files/The_US_Smart_Grid_Revolution_KEMA_Perspectives_for_Job_Cre_200907.pdf (accessed April 3, 2019), 1. 13.  U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration, “Why President Dwight D. Eisenhower Understood We Needed the Interstate System,” updated July 24, 2017, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/interstate/brainiacs/eisenhowerinterstate.cfm (accessed April 3, 2019). 14.  Electric Power Research Institute, Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid: A Preliminary Estimate of the Investment Requirements and the Resultant Benefits of a Fully Functioning Smart Grid, March 2011, https://www.smartgrid.gov/files/Estimating_Costs_Benefits_Smart_Grid_Preliminary_Estimate_In_201103.pdf (accessed March 24, 2019), 1–4. 15.  

.… The Smart Grid still depends on the support of large central-station generation, but it includes a substantial number of installations of electric energy storage and of renewable energy generation facilities, both at the bulk power system level and distributed throughout. In addition, the Smart Grid has greatly enhanced sensory and control capability configured to accommodate these distributed resources as well as electric vehicles, direct consumer participation in energy management and efficient communicating appliances. This Smart Grid is hardened against cyber security while assuring long-term operations of an extremely complex system of millions of nodes.34 Back in 2011, EPRI estimated that the national smart grid and accompanying storage technology would cost upwards of $476 billion over a twenty-year period to construct but that the grid would create between $1.3 trillion and $2 trillion in overall economic benefits. EPRI also estimated that the installation of a national smart grid could cut emissions by “58 percent relative to 2005 emissions.”35 But that study was done in the very early years of the transformation of the electricity sector from fossil fuels to renewable energies and at the onset of the decoupling of electric utilities, transportation, and the building sector from fossil fuels and the recoupling to renewable sources of energy for electricity.


pages: 433 words: 127,171

The Grid: The Fraying Wires Between Americans and Our Energy Future by Gretchen Bakke

addicted to oil, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, demand response, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, full employment, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Menlo Park, Negawatt, new economy, off grid, post-oil, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, the built environment, too big to fail, washing machines reduced drudgery, Whole Earth Catalog

This shifting of when everyday devices do their work from the time somebody is home to turn them on to the time that electricity is cheapest is not just appealing to Val; it is at the heart of why the smart grid is valuable to utilities. The reason companies would pay to outfit a house along the line of the Petersons’—and why they would dream of also including all the smart appliances the Petersons did not get—is because the smart grid makes it possible to shift consumption around the clock. It doesn’t reduce consumption; in fact, quite the opposite: the utilities would be pleased if everyone used more electricity than they currently do. Rather, what the smart grid does is change the time at which consumption takes place. Instead of most of the nation vacuuming, washing and drying laundry, cooking dinner, watching TV, charging their car, and turning up their air-conditioning (or heat, depending upon the season) at the same time of day, some people, like Val, will let the house decide.

And Katie Fehrenbacher, “This Startup Just Scored a Deal to Install a Massive Number of Tesla Grid Batteries,” Fortune, June 4, 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/06/04/advanced-microgrid-solutions/. “Effect Hits Santa Cruz”: Gary L. Hunt, “The Bakersfield Effect Hits Santa Cruz,” Tech & Creative Labs, August 29, 2010, http://www.tclabz.com/2010/08/29/the-bakersfield-effect-hits-santa-cruz/. like a cash grab: Jack Danahy, “Smart Grid Fallout: Lessons to Learn from PG&E’s Smart Meter Lawsuit,” Smart Grid News, November 13, 2009, http://www.smartgridnews.com/story/smart-grid-fallout-lessons-learn-pge-s-smart-meter-lawsuit/2009-11-13, for individual customer complaints see: https://sites.google.com/site/nocelltowerinourneighborhood/home/wireless-smart-meter-concerns/smart-meter-consumers-anger-grows-over-higher-utility-bills. digital smart meters: Jesse Wray-McCann, “Householders Shielding Homes from Smart Meter Radiation,” Herald Sun, April 9, 2012, http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ipad/householders-shielding-homes-from-smart-meter-radiation/story-fn6bfm6w-1226321653862.

But it’s extremely labor-intensive; more akin—but far less work—to putting in fiber optic to a home than in overlaying data onto cable or telephone wires.” would not use again: Mark Jaffe, “Xcel’s SmartGridCity Plan Fails to Connect with Boulder,” The Denver Post, October 28, 2012, http://www.denverpost.com/ci_21871552/xcels-smartgridcity-plan-fails-connect-boulder. “Give me a blinking break”: April Nowicki, “Boulder’s Smart Grid Leaves Citizens in the Dark,” Greentech Media, March 18, 2013, http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/Boulders-Smart-Grid-Leaves-Citizens-in-the-Dark. “ ‘Stupid Customer’ pilot”: Jesse Berst, “SmartGridCity Meltdown: How Bad Is It?” Smart Grid News, August 8, 2010, http://www.smartgridnews.com/story/smartgridcity-meltdown-how-bad-it/2010-08-03. positions on the matter: Randy Houson, business technology executive for Xcel Energy, public speech, Washington, D.C., September 22, 2009. “very hot outside”: Stephen Fairfax wrote this online comment in response to Jesse Berst’s “SmartGridCity Meltdown: How Bad Is It?”


pages: 49 words: 12,968

Industrial Internet by Jon Bruner

autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, commoditize, computer vision, data acquisition, demand response, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, job automation, loose coupling, natural language processing, performance metric, Silicon Valley, slashdot, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, web application

In one configuration, the Tesla S electric sedan can draw 20,000 watts and its battery can store 85 kilowatt-hours of electricity.[15] Handling these new demands will involve both physical changes to the grid (especially the construction of small fast-dispatch power plants that can start in as little as 30 minutes when the wind stops blowing) as well as better controls based on software intelligence — the so-called “smart grid.” Any improvement in these controls can substitute directly for new physical capacity. The smart grid will require pervasive network connections to everything from coal turbines to clothes dryers, and an interoperable software stack to go with it. The core function of the smart grid will be dynamic electricity pricing that reflects supply and demand on a minute-by-minute basis. Fully dynamic pricing hasn’t arrived yet, but peak-use surcharges are common in some markets today, and the sorts of responsive, intelligent controls that will work with it are useful even in the absence of dynamic pricing.

Industry Focus Following is a handful of studies drawn from industries that will be particularly affected by the rise of the industrial internet. The accessibility of these examples varies; building the smart grid, with dynamic electricity prices calculated instantaneously as electricity supply and demand shift, will take years of stack development, entailing careful collaboration between power plant operators, distributors, independent system operators, and local utilities, and drawing in the seasoned engineering bases of all those participants. Even so, some elements of the smart grid stack have been standardized and are now open to innovators from any background. Modularity means that an innovator doesn’t need access to the mechanism of pricing in order to to build a responsive electric-car charger; she just needs to anticipate that dynamic pricing will eventually emerge as a service to which her machine can connect.

Chief Technology Officer Aneesh Chopra wrote, “With this information at their fingertips, consumers would be enabled to make more informed decisions about their energy use and, when coupled with opportunities to take action, empowered to actively manage their energy use.”[23] It’s effectively an effort to reduce consumption not by edict, but by making markets more transparent and giving consumers the tools they need to react quickly to market conditions. As promising as these initiatives are, the full “smart grid” as futurists imagine it will take years of careful collaboration between utilities, independent system operators, regulators, and software and hardware developers. Proposals for smart-grid standards abound, and big investments by any individual utility won’t reach their full potential until every adjacent component is also modernized and connected. “There are some dangerous conceptual ideas coming out of Internet companies saying the power system is like the Internet,” says Dan Zimmerle, who runs a power-systems lab at Colorado State University[24] and directs research on grid technologies there.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Smart Grid to Cost Billions, Save Trillions,” Reuters, May 24, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/24/us-utilities-smartgrid-epri-idUSTRE74N7O420110524 (accessed June 7, 2013); “Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid: A Preliminary Estimate.” Electric Power Research Institute, March 2011, 21. 24. “Growing International Co-Operation Driving the Spread of Smart Grids,” GlobalData (June, 2012): 1–7. 25. Katie Fehrenbacher, “For the Smart Grid, the Wireless Debates Are Over,” Gigaom, January 23, 2012, http://gigaom.com/2012/01/23/for-the-smart-grid-the-wireless-debates-are-over/ (accessed July 5, 2013). 26. Dave Karpinski, “Making the ‘Smart Grid’ Smarter with Broadband Wireless Networks and the Internet,” Crain’s Cleveland Business, September 11, 2012, http://www.crainscleveland.com /article/20120911/BLOGS05/309119999 (accessed July 7, 2013). 27.

Ibid. 16. Ibid. 17. “Smart Grid Investment Grant Program: Progress Report,” U.S. Department of Energy, July, 2012, ii, http://www.smartgrid.gov/sites/default/files/doc/files/sgig-progress-report-final-submit ted-07-16-12.pdf (accessed February 3, 2014). 18. Litos Strategic Communication, “The Smart Grid: An Introduction,” U.S. Department of Energy, 2008, 5, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/oeprod/DocumentsandMedia/DOE_SG_Book_Single _Pages.pdf (accessed September 3, 2013). 19. “Technology,” Transphorm, Inc., http://www.transphormusa.com/technology (accessed June 6, 2013). 20. “Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid: A Preliminary Estimate of the Investment Requirements and the Resultant Benefits of a Fully Functioning Smart Grid,” Electric Power Research Institute, March 2011, 4, http://ipu.msu.edu/programs/MIGrid2011/presentations/pdfs /Reference Material - Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid.pdf (accessed February 3, 2014). 21.

Lordan of the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) said that the nation’s power sector is beginning to ask how many transformers need to be stockpiled and stored and how best to transport and deploy them to critically exposed regions in the aftermath of a concerted cyberattack on the nation’s power grid.69 Although the Congress, EPRI, the National Academy of Sciences, governmental commissions, and private sector groups are to be praised for drawing attention to the level of the threats, their responses come up short because their various “what if” scenarios continue to assume a business-as-usual power grid that relies on fossil fuels and nuclear power to generate electricity that is then distributed across power lines that are designed to transmit it only from a centralized power station to millions of end users. If a centralized smart grid were brought online, it would only exacerbate the potential vulnerability to a cyberattack on the grid. Unfortunately, the United States is playing directly into the hands of cyberterrorists by championing a centralized smart grid. The European Union and other governments, by contrast, are deploying a distributed smart grid—or Energy Internet—that lessens the potential threat and damage that can be inflicted by a massive cyberattack. Even if the electrical transformers were to flame out, if a fully functioning Energy Internet were operational across every region of the country, local communities could go off-grid and continue to generate their own green electricity, sharing it with their neighbors and businesses on microgrids, keeping the power and lights on, at least long enough to keep society functioning.


pages: 458 words: 135,206

CTOs at Work by Scott Donaldson, Stanley Siegel, Gary Donaldson

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, centre right, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, distributed generation, domain-specific language, glass ceiling, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, pattern recognition, Pluto: dwarf planet, QR code, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, thinkpad, web application, zero day, zero-sum game

That's true in the ISR realm, where there's a lot more data being generated than people can look at very carefully. But it's true in every other realm, as well. It's true in the health world. As we transition to electronic medical records, that will cause a data tsunami in the medical community. This will be a good thing in the end, but first our customers are going to have to learn how to deal with that data deluge. The same thing is happening in the energy domain. Think about the smart grid. I call the smart grid “social networking for the power grid” because it's got a lot of distributed sensors networked together, it's going to be information-aware, sending a lot of data back and forth, it's going to use real-time data to make decisions, whether at a central command and control level about which assets and resources to bring online or offline or decisions made by consumers about when to turn on their appliances, whether to buy an electric vehicle, and if so, when and where they recharge it, and so on.

It's a new company under a different legal form, with different ownership, but is building ultra-high-end optical scanners. The company doesn't have the scale to produce a mass-produced product for volume. So it's constantly about inventing the next frontier and selling people a concept and then building it for them. S. Donaldson: Okay. Miller: We're doing that now and, in fact, this afternoon I'm working on software for that. I'm doing that, not a full-time gig, and along comes the smart grid investment grants and the smart grid demonstration program—huge stimulus projects from the DoE [Department of Energy], multiple billions. S. Donaldson: Right. Miller: NRECA, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, invited me over to help them win grants and demonstrations. Because of my experience at SAIC and elsewhere, I'd become a bit of an elephant hunter, you know, learning how to win big gigs. It's more than just having a technical vision.

They came here to learn about NRECA. What is the Cooperative Research Network? What is the smart grid? I did some work the night before talking with them and I said, “How can I impress some of these kids that this is a cool thing to do?” This is bigger than the Apollo program. It has more parts, it has a bigger budget, it has more people involved, and it's going to have a greater effect on the welfare and economy of our nation. This is the Apollo program of the 21st century, or at least the first half. S. Donaldson: Interesting comparison. Miller: I hope, for the people at the end of the century, we have it solved and that there's another cool problem to solve. But for 2011, the coolest problem there is right now is building the smart grid. Everybody thinks of it in terms of meters. “I'm going to give this person a meter, and they're going to walk in, and they're going to see an in-home display, and they're going to sit there every night, managing their energy.”


pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

The consumer, on the other hand, has little to no idea of how much their power consumption is until provided with a bill, nor any idea of which type of energy source—renewable or non-renewable—was used to generate the power they consume; the only power the consumer has over the system is to notify the utility in case of a power cut. Greening India’s power sector: Smart grids and renewable energy Increasing the efficiency and transparency of our power grids is possible only when they become smart grids, incorporating the power of technology and digital processes to change the energy landscape of our country. Such smart grids are two-way channels of communication, allowing energy utilities to integrate renewable energy sources into the system and monitor their networks more effectively while providing more information to consumers about their energy usage. By promoting the use of alternative energy sources as well as the more efficient usage of fossil fuels, smart grids can cut down the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and help to rein in the runaway problem of climate change.

By promoting the use of alternative energy sources as well as the more efficient usage of fossil fuels, smart grids can cut down the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases and help to rein in the runaway problem of climate change. From Italy to the USA, countries around the world are embracing the smart-grid model with the dual goals of increasing operational efficiency and reducing the impact on the environment.8 While comprehensive data is not available, a 2011 study by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) suggests that while the net investment needed to realize the vision of a smart grid will be nearly $500 million (over a twenty-year period), the benefits from such a power system will run into trillions, with a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.8 to 6.9 What goes into the building of a smart grid? For power companies, sensors installed on power lines provide real-time information on the health of the network, allowing utilities to detect loads, congestion and shortfall, and marshal their resources more effectively to ensure a smooth and uninterrupted power supply.

Italy has been a pioneer in the smart meter field; over 30 million smart meters have been brought into service since 2001, and 85 per cent of all Italian households now use smart meters to manage their electricity.12 The ability to monitor power sources in real time allows utilities to respond to demand-and-supply forces rapidly and with much greater accuracy. This makes it possible to integrate smaller and intermittent sources of power, such as wind turbines and rooftop solar panels, into the power supply system. In the future, smart grids can also accommodate the draw on energy by electric cars being recharged. Power utilities can use smart grids to improve their operational efficiency for maximal utilization of existing energy sources, as well as the integration of renewable energy sources into the system. Energy efficiency has in fact been dubbed the ‘fifth fuel’, and Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute has coined the term ‘negawatt’ to describe power saved through efficiency or conservation.13 Energy efficiency is being driven by innovations across multiple areas.14 Renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy, have boosted the available energy supply, and consumers can now act as small producers and storers, in effect ‘decentralizing’ the power grid.15 Storage is getting cheaper—the batteries that power Tesla’s electric cars may soon be made available for the home as well.16 Smart systems are managing power consumption more efficiently.


pages: 265 words: 70,788

The Wide Lens: What Successful Innovators See That Others Miss by Ron Adner

barriers to entry, call centre, Clayton Christensen, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, minimum viable product, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, RFID, smart grid, smart meter, spectrum auction, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs

The good news here is that around the world governments and utilities are investing to deploy smart-grid technologies to help circumvent this problem. “Smart grid” is a catchall term for a host of technologies that can respond to, and even predict, the individual demands placed on the electric system and adjust load and distribution accordingly. These include smart meters that adjust the price charged for electricity in real time, smart automation that can turn electric equipment and appliances on or off depending on the load on the grid, and smart distribution that can help ensure that local power lines are not overloaded. The better news is that this technology is already available. But the harsh reality is that it is expensive to acquire and time intensive to deploy. The smart grid is coming but on its own schedule. Whether it will be ready in time for the mass adoption of electric vehicles is an open question.

Using this information, Better Place can selectively charge different EVs on the system, delaying the power feed to those cars with batteries that are already quite full and which are going to be parked for a while, prioritizing charge to those cars whose batteries are low or whose drivers have signaled a desire for a full recharge. By exploiting the intelligence in the system and its visibility into the car, Better Place has provided a smart-grid solution for utilities without the need for utilities to deploy a smart grid. Beyond intelligence in pulling power from the grid, the Better Place solution can use electricity stored in idle batteries to deliver power back to the grid when electricity demand threatens to exceed supply (for example, during peak hours on hot days when utilities are reaching their generation limits). While the idea of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) charging has been discussed for decades, two key obstacles stood in its way. First was the need for smart-grid technology that would allow for such signaling and two-way transfers. Second was the degradation in battery life that is caused by V2G charging.

Finally, adding a service dimension to what had been a pure product sale allowed Better Place to address the final roadblock to mass adoption of electric cars: the generation and distribution of electricity itself. Better Place’s model, which had the firm intermediating in real-time between utilities and drivers, allowed it to control the battery-charging load that would be placed on the system at any given moment, essentially creating a smart grid solution without needing utilities to deploy a smart grid. The mainstream success of the electric car hinges on solving the three problems of range, resale value, and grid capacity. And for this reason, it requires the successful alignment of the entire electric car ecosystem. Better Place’s model is the only one to date to address all three and so remains the holistic blueprint against which other EV strategies and investment should be judged.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

The first Siemens company, Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske, strung Germany’s first inter-city telegraph line between Berlin and Frankfurt in 1848.44 Since then, the firm has long dominated infrastructure markets that depend on electricity—not just power grids but also electric trains, an industry it leads to this day. While Siemens still builds smart systems for telecommunications and transportation, the smart grid plays a special role in its vision for cities because, writes Jeff St. John on the GigaOM blog, it’s “one of the few corporations out there that can lay claim to almost every share of the world’s current grid infrastructure, building everything from gas and wind turbines to high-voltage transmission cables to sensors and controls that monitor and manage the delivery of power to homes and businesses.”45 Targeting nearly $8.5 billion (€6 billion) in annual smart grid business by 2014, CEO Peter Löscher boasted, “We’re on the threshold of a new electric age.”46 As consumers, we think of the smart grid mostly through our growing experience with smart meters. Smart meters are to your old electric meter what a smartphone is to your grandmother’s Bakelite 1950s rotary phone.

During the 1990s, demand for electricity grew by 35 percent in the United States, but generating capacity increased by only 18 percent.49 According to Siemens, smart grids will help utility engineers sleep at night, since load shedding and load shifting could reduce national electricity needs by up to 10 percent. 50 Environmentalists will cheer because improved demand management removes a key obstacle to greater reliance on renewable generating sources, which are notoriously unreliable base capacity—the sun doesn’t always shine and the wind doesn’t always blow. Even hydropower generated at dams depends on reliable seasonal rains to fill up rivers. Greater ability to reduce demand when the supply of green power falters will reduce the need for fossil-fuel powered backup plants. But beyond just keeping the lights on, the smart grid could finally unleash the kind of innovation in energy services that we’ve become accustomed to in telecommunications.

In a world where Siemens forecasts that electricity prices could change as often as every fifteen minutes, we’ll be relieved to have a piece of tracking software automate the process.51 By allowing us to account for all of the power we put in and take out of the system, the smart grid will also allow us to add a social layer to the production, distribution, and consumption of electricity. Imagine connecting your smart meter to Facebook. You might dare your neighbors to cut back as much as you do, in a game to save the earth played out on the smart grid of your neighborhood. Or, as Eric Paulos of the University of California, Berkeley, proposes, we can decommodify energy by creating sensors to document how, where, and by whom it was generated and making this information available during transactions. “Is it fresh energy?


pages: 469 words: 132,438

Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet by Varun Sivaram

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, demand response, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, financial innovation, fixed income, global supply chain, global village, Google Earth, hive mind, hydrogen economy, index fund, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, M-Pesa, market clearing, market design, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Negawatt, off grid, oil shock, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, renewable energy transition, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, time value of money, undersea cable, wikimedia commons

Such a hybrid grid might rely on a backbone of long-distance transmission lines to link faraway regions and deliver renewable energy from the most sun-drenched, windswept regions. Supplementing these clean energy highways would be decentralized microgrids serving, for example, neighborhoods, military bases, or schools, all networked together into a smart grid. Retiring much of the expensive, overbuilt infrastructure of today’s grid could pay for both supergrids and asset-light microgrids. This hybrid grid model could weather the volatility of renewable energy both through the wide reach of its long-distance transmission backbone and the precise responsiveness of the decentralized smart grid. Although the supergrid and decentralized grid models are each radical departures in opposite directions from today’s power system, they might actually coexist in a truly advanced hybrid grid. Perhaps such a future is no more improbable than the partnership between Masa and Liu—two men with little in common except dreams of a future powered by clean energy.

Conor Kelly, John Ging, Aman Kansal, and Michael Walsh, “Balancing Power Systems with Datacenters Using a Virtual Interconnector,” IEEE Power and Energy Technology Systems Journal 3, no. 2 (2016): 51–59, doi:10.1109/jpets.2016.2519611. 51.  Massoud Amin, “Power of Microgrids,” IEEE Smart Grid (2016): 48–53, http://smartgrid.ieee.org/images/files/pdf/power_of_microgrids.pdf. 52.  Dushan Boroyevich, Igor Cvetkovic, Rolando Burgos, and Dong Dong, “Intergrid: A Future Electronic Energy Network?” IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics 1, no. 3 (2013): 127–138, doi:10.1109/jestpe.2013.2276937. 53.  Robert Hebner, “The Power Grid in 2030,” IEEE Spectrum, April 2017, doi: 10.1109/MSPEC.2017.7880459. 54.  Brian Patterson, The ENERNET, Emerge Alliance, October 26–27, 2015, http://www.emergealliance.org/portals/0/documents/events/lvdc/IEC_LVDC_India_2015_Enernet-_FINAL[1].pdf. 55.  Hassan Farhangi, “The Path of the Smart Grid,” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 8, no. 1 (2010): 18–28, doi:10.1109/mpe.2009.934876.

As more and more solar and wind generators have come online, their output has upended power markets, crashing the price at which power companies can sell electricity to the grid and putting financial strain on those firms that own fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants. To compensate for the rise in fluctuating renewable energy, Germany has invested in a fleet of expensive backup plants to maintain grid reliability.7 Over the next five years, consumers will foot the bill as Germany invests $20 billion in building transmission lines, upgrading local distribution grids, and installing smart grid technology, partly to accommodate even more renewable energy.8 Given the sophistication of its grid and its ability to invest in grid upgrades, Germany is better equipped than less wealthy countries, such as India, to confront the challenges inherent in rapidly adding solar capacity. Still, rich or poor, countries will confront dizzying costs and complexity if they seek to ramp up their levels of solar power.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

See Nick Land, “Lure of the Void, pt. 1,” August 2012, http://www.scribd.com/doc/242684419/Nick-Land-Lure-of-the-Void#scribd. 60.  See Pete Foster, “Cloud Computing—a Green Opportunity or Climate Change Risk?” Guardian, August 18, 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/cloud-computing-climate-change. 61.  On smart grids and data ownership, see Jon Bruner, “Two Crucial Questions for the Smart Grid,” O’Reilly Radar, November 5, 2012, http://radar.oreilly.com/2012/11/two-crucial-questions-for-the-smart-grid.html. 62.  See Sally Daultrey, “Adaptation on the Roof of the World,” December 30, 2010, http://designgeopolitics.org/blog/2010/12/adapatation-on-the-roof-of-the-world/. 63.  On the Chinese embassy air monitoring issue, see Steven Jiang and Alexis Lai, “China: Haze Isn't Foreign Embassies’ Business,” CNN, June 6, 2012. http://www.cnn.com/2012/06/06/world/asia/china-foreign-embassy-pollution-monitor/index.html. 64. 

Absent a radical relaxation of energy scarcity by renewable sources, the finely grained electron sorting between points of production and consumption must be realized at global scale or the growth of planetary-scale computation will hit physical energy limits and will stall.54 A more scalable grid of electrons needs to be wrapped inside and around The Stack's Earth layer. In short, planetary-scale computation needs smart grids to grow, and for smart grids to grow, they need more ubiquitous computation. The computational future of energy and the infrastructural program of computation form such a coil, one end feeding on the other like Ouroboros, the ancient symbol of a snake eating its own tail. Whether or not the risks associated with the energy costs of Stack infrastructure will outpace the efficiencies provided by calculative technologies as they become pervasive across industrial sectors is unknown, and probably unknowable at the moment.

A Google Grossraum? Platform and Stack, Model and Machine 9. Platforms 10. How Platforms Work 11. Stack as Model 12. Stack as Political Machine 13. Stacks That Were and Might Have Been 14. The Stack We Have 15. The Layers of The Stack II The LayersEarth Layer 16. Discovering or Inventing Computation? 17. Digestion 18. Geo-graphy and Geoaesthetics 19. From Global Surface to Planetary Skin 20. Smart Grid: Ouroboros 21. Sensing and Sovereignty; Polities of Supply and Effect 22. Designing for versus Designing with Emergencies 23. Designing the Earth Layer Cloud Layer 24. Platform Geography 25. The First Sino-Google War of 2009 26. Cloud Infrastructure 27. Cloud Polis 28. Platform Wars 29. Facebook 30. Apple 31. Amazon 32. Google 33. Future Cloud Polis and Platforms City Layer 34. 


pages: 1,373 words: 300,577

The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World by Daniel Yergin

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial innovation, flex fuel, global supply chain, global village, high net worth, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, market design, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norman Macrae, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, technology bubble, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

What this involves is modernizing the system of moving electricity all the way from generation to its final use in home, office, or factory. This entire effort goes by the shorthand of “smart grid.” The term has become almost ubiquitous, wildly popular, and the subject of considerable enthusiasm. After all, who wants to be against a “smart grid” or in favor of a “dumb grid”? But the concept has many definitions. As the head of one of the world’s largest utilities put it, “the concept of a smart grid is rich, complex, and confusing.” After all, it is not a single technology but a host of technologies. Yet in one form or another, it largely comes down to the application of digital technology, two-way communication, monitoring, sensors, information technology, and the Internet. The smart grid is also something of a movement, and as such it is the recipient of substantial and increasing investment from the federal government, utilities, industry, and investors.

That is the urgent challenge that Germany faces with its target of doubling renewables’ share of its electricity to 35 percent by 2020. The smart grid movement has one other very important objective—increasing reliability. The smart grid can enhance reliability with a “self-healing” capability. It is impossible to ensure that weather-related events, such as an ice storm or a hurricane, do not cause outages. However, what should be a minor operational problem can, on rare occasions, have a domino effect and create a blackout over a large area. Currently utilities often find out about outages only after receiving a torrent of phone calls from angry customers who suddenly find themselves stranded in the dark, groping to find a flashlight. That would change with the smart grid. A self-healing grid includes sensors that enable real-time monitoring, and computers that would assess trouble and present options for fixing it to human operators.

This would be facilitated by two-way communications between outposts along the grid and technicians back in control rooms. Increasing situational awareness for the utility could go a long way toward reducing the duration of power outages and limiting their effects. It would also help limit the fallout from an external assault—a terrorist attack on the electricity infrastructure. Overall, this part of the smart grid could speed up response to any disruptions and reduce traditional “truck roll”—the dispatch of emergency repair teams—by solving problems in the control room.20 The smart grid, in its entirety, could have what has been described as a “transformational impact on how utilities operate their system, interact with their customers, and conduct their businesses.” It could also be a major step forward in applying technology to promote much greater energy efficiency in buildings. However, introducing a set of new technologies, which have to be integrated into an existing system, is not only complex, it also comes with risks and setbacks.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

They should carry information. And once the grid carries information, there are few reasons, if any, why it shouldn’t benefit from all of the rich possibilities for innovation, collaboration, and wealth creation that the Internet has fostered in other sectors of the economy. In many ways, the argument for a smart grid based on open standards parallels the argument for an open Internet. The old power grid is analogous to broadcast media with its bias toward centralized, one-way, one-to-many, one-size-fits-all communication. A smart grid, if it could be built, would leverage the Internet’s connective tissue to weave millions, and eventually billions, of household appliances, substations, and power generators around the planet into an intelligent and programmable network. And, just as open standards and “edge intelligence” helped unleash unparalleled creativity on the Internet, a similar ethos of openness will ensure that the new energy grid becomes a platform for a vast array of new energy services, not just a computerized pipeline for delivering cleaner electricity.

“The only way we will change our driving habits is when we’re paying the real cost of driving: including the full cost of carbon, the cost of congestion, the cost of building and maintaining the roads,” says Chase. “And the easiest way to be able to pay the real cost of transportation would be if we had ubiquitous wireless data connections. It’s the same thing that we talk about with the smart grid: dynamically priced power consumption, with the real price of what it’s costing.” In other words, the intelligent network we need for electricity can also turn cars into nodes. She sees automobiles as just another network device, one that, like the smart grid, should be open and net-based. “Cars are network nodes,” she says. “They have GPS and Bluetooth and tollbooth transponders, and we’re all on our cell phones and lots of cars have OnStar support services.” That’s five networks. Automakers and academics will bring us more.

Leonard Gross, Hydro One, quoted in “Utilities, government charged up about high-tech power distribution systems,” CBC News (March 12, 2009). 12. Jeff St. John, “8.3M Smart Meters and Counting in U.S.,” greentechgrid (July 17, 2009). 13. Maria Hattar, Cisco, quoted in “Cisco: Smart grid will eclipse size of Internet,” cnet News (May 18, 2009). 14. The Digital Environment Home Energy Management System (DEHEMS). See: http://www.dehems.eu/about. 15. David Miliband, U.K. Secretary of State for Environment, quoted in “Carbon emissions: Now it’s getting personal,” New York Times (June 20, 2007). 16. Richard MacManus, “IBM and the Internet of Things,” ReadWriteWeb (July 22, 2009). 17. “World electricity: The smart grid era,” Economist (June 5, 2009). 18. “SMART 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age,” The Climate Group (2008). 19. The argument in favor of radically decentralizing energy production is also subject to the specifics of geography.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

As infrastructure networks like power grids are digitized—i.e., made “smart”—and the number of entry points expands exponentially, entire systems will become more susceptible to cyberattack. Don’t misunderstand the stakes: The vulnerability and the potential value are enormous. The worldwide market value of smart grids is expected to rise from nearly $70 billion in 2009 to $170 billion by 2014. The United States and the European Union are leading the way in the deployment of smart grid technologies to link users to power plants, even as guidelines for regulating them are still being written. The U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology has identified 137 data-exchange interfaces, each of which poses a potential entry point for a cyberintruder. The decentralized structure of the U.S. power sector would probably limit the scope of possible attacks, but a growing number of industry experts believe this threat is underappreciated, especially given the speed at which offensive capabilities are evolving.

Cyberthreats The most underrated arena for conflict in a G-Zero world, especially one in which the United States will remain the world’s only global military superpower, is cyberspace. Over the past decade, the threats that increasingly skilled individual hackers and organized criminals pose for businesses have grown, but the risks have been commercial and social, not political. Two factors are changing that. First is the convergence of systems onto the Internet—of power and utility systems (with the move by so many countries to the use of smart grids to manage electricity generation), and information systems more broadly for major sectors of the economy (with the shift to cloud or network-based computing). These trends provide attackers looking to strike at governments or large populations with plenty of tempting and accessible targets. Second, governments themselves are moving aggressively into cyberspace. International politics and cybersecurity have begun to collide.

., 164 convertability of, 43, 49, 50 devaluations of, 49 dominance of, 81–82 exchange rates tied to, 39, 43 as international reserve currency, 55 oil priced in, 81–82 Domain Name System, 87 droughts, 101, 106 drug trafficking, 183 Durban, South Africa, 94–95 Eastern Europe, 187 E. coli, 169 Ecuador, 177 Egypt, 48, 69, 113, 169, 179 food riots in, 98 revolution in, 112, 117, 175, 192–93 unrest in, 89 water supply of, 106 elections, 2009, Iranian, 192 elections, 2012, Russian, 182 emerging nations, 3, 16, 21, 26, 27, 29–30, 34–35, 44, 54, 59, 88, 119, 120, 179, 187 communication standards and, 84 exports from, 111 growing influence of, 76–77 rising middle class in, 98 environment, 68 equity funds, 127 Erdogan, Recep, 55 Estonia, 72 ethanol, 100 Ethiopia, 72, 106 euro, 17, 38, 54–55, 71, 155, 164, 165, 155, 181 as reserve currency, 55, 83 Europe, 16, 148–49, 170 aging population of, 120 budget crises in, 188 China’s trade with, 143 cooperation in, 174 debt and credit crisis in, 3, 17, 45, 181 defense budgets in, 134 intellectual property laws and, 84 Internet protocol in, 89 possible fragmentation in, 181 post–World War II reconstruction needed in, 38–39, 44–45 privacy laws in, 68 reduced role of, 194 European Central Bank, 71, 176 European Commission, 71 European Union, 54, 71, 117, 122, 123, 126, 132, 138, 155, 169 border controls in, 19 middle class in, 55 possible collapse of, 181 smart grids in, 73 Export-Import Bank of China, 29, 118, 135 exposed states, 135–36 ExxonMobil, 97, 127 Facebook, 91, 92–93 Ferguson, Niall, 158 “Fight the Debt Limit Extension,” 162 financial crisis, 2008, 2, 4, 11–12, 25–26, 62, 63, 65, 143, 152, 167 Finland, in Arctic Council, 96–97 food, 68, 69 security of, 3, 5, 97–104, 107, 133, 147, 152, 155, 168–69, 183 Fourcade, Jean-Pierre, 47 4G mobile phone standard, 86 France, 19, 25, 28, 39, 44, 45, 47, 166, 167 government intervention in economy in, 78 nuclear program of, 57 possible fragmentation of, 181 post–World War II reconstruction needed in, 39–40 freedom of speech, 89 French Revolution, 167 G2, 21, 35, 156 U.S.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

As the daily water needs for a planet of 7 billion are between 350 and 400 million gallons a day, using technologies like Skysource to tap the more than 12 quadrillion gallons contained in the atmosphere at any one time might be the only way to quench that thirst. Or consider the “smart grid for water,” which is what happens when exponential technologies converge on the farm. The smart grid allows for everything from precise soil monitoring and crop watering to the early detection of insects and disease. Estimates vary, but most studies find the smart grid capable of saving us trillions of gallons a year—which is the point. We’re not lacking in technological know-how. We are water-wise, but execution dumb, attacking a biosphere-wide problem with a piecemeal approach. Yet this is also the typical developmental curve for exponentials.

See: https://techcrunch.com/2018/10/22/water-abundance-xprizes-1-5m-winner-shows-how-to-source-fresh-water-from-the-air/. 350 and 400 million gallons a day: Adele Peters, “A Device That Can Pull Drinking Water from the Air Just Won the Latest XPrize” Fast Company, October 20, 2018. See: https://www.fastcompany.com/90253718/a-device-that-can-pull-drinking-water-from-the-air-just-won-the-latest-x-prize. “smart grid for water”: Trevor Hill, The Smart Grid for Water: How Data Will Save Our Water and Your Utility (Advantage, 2013). saving us trillions of gallons a year: Ibid. In the US alone, we lose at least an estimated 1.7 trillion gallons of water per year to water main breaks. Climate Change for Optimists Forty billion tons of CO2: According to Maxwell Rosner’s Our World in Data, 35.46 billion tons of CO2 were emitted in 2017.

Materials science is further aiding the cause. Researchers at MIT are using carbon nanotubes to create “ultra-capacitors” that increase battery capacity by as much as 50 percent. And there’s much more to come. So the challenge isn’t generating energy from renewables or storing the energy that gets generated, it’s doing all this worldwide. This isn’t just about building Ramez Naam’s continent-wide smart grid, it’s about building one of them on every continent. It’s resource management on a global level, because, like it or not, when it comes to the environment, we really are in this together. Electric Cars Are Gaining Speed The final piece in the energy puzzle is transportation. In America, fueling our cars and trucks accounts for one-fifth of our total energy budget. Adding in planes, trains, and ships produces 30 percent of US greenhouse gas emissions.


pages: 525 words: 142,027

CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon

8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Donald Knuth, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar

And the last thing—and this is probably different than all the other CIOs that you’re going to encounter, because of the nature of the utility industry and the moment in time where we find ourselves with all the smart grid and smart grid money and expansion of the grid and the cyber security threats—I spend a significant amount of my time actually talking to the Department of Energy, the Utilities Telecom Council, lobbyists, [and] political people, working with the other CIOs in our industry about what positions we’re going to take. [I] also have a technical Congressional appointment, … I’m on the Smart Grid Advisory Committee for the next three years, so I’m spending a lot of my time on large industry issues with a lot of political overtones, and God knows, nobody would have ever accused me of being a politician.

Ellyn as one of the 100 Most Influential Women Business Leaders in the metropolitan Detroit area. In 2003, the Association for Women in Computing named her as one of the Top Michigan Women in Computing. In August 2004, CORP! Magazine named her as one of Michigan’s Top Business Women. She is a member of IBM’s Board of Advisors and the DTE Energy Foundation Board of Directors, as well as an appointee to the Smart Grid Advisory Committee of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and a fellow of the Cutter Business Technology Council. Lynne Ellyn: Hello. Ed Yourdon: Hi, Lynne. Ellyn: I’m sitting outside in Ocala, Florida. Yourdon: Aha. So you’re not in Detroit. I very much appreciate your taking the time. I can start you at the beginning in terms of how you got to where you are today.

Becky Blalock from Southern Company and I collaborated to do some policy discussions with the lawyers at the Department of Energy. I have another one coming up and we strategized around those things. Yourdon: Let me switch gears to another question area that I imagine you would enjoy talking about. What are some of the new trends that you see coming down the line that you think are going to influence the IT industry in your world of utilities in the next few years? Ellyn: Well, the big one, of course, is the “smart grid.” The problem with that title is that it implies that there is a stupid grid. Yourdon: [laughter] Ellyn: The grid is highly automated now. This is a re-automation of the grid. For example, at one time (this predates me) Detroit Edison had 140 engineers that just operated it. Today it’s done with just a dozen or fewer. As we go into more grid automation and smart meters and we can debate how smart they are, but meters to the extent that homeowners adopt a lot of home automation, and that remains to be seen, but there are a lot of people who are juiced about it.


pages: 282 words: 92,998

Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It by Richard A. Clarke, Robert Knake

barriers to entry, complexity theory, data acquisition, Just-in-time delivery, MITM: man-in-the-middle, nuclear winter, packet switching, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, trade route, undersea cable, Y2K, zero day

Department of Energy, however, has hired two cyber security experts to determine if the $3.4 billion in Smart Grid grants are going to new programs that are adequately secured. Smart Grid is the Obama Administration’s idea to make the power grid even more integrated and digitized. Power companies can ask for some of that money by submitting proposals to the Energy Department. When they do, the two experts will read the proposals to see if there is a section somewhere that says “cyber security.” The Energy Department refuses to say who the two experts are or what they will be looking for in the “cyber security” section of the grant proposal. There are no publicly available standards. One idea for a standard might be that the taxpayers don’t give any of the $3.4 billion in Smart Grid money to companies that haven’t secured their current systems.

Fortunately, the Federal Electric Regulatory Agency in 2008 finally required electric companies to adopt some specific cyber security measures and warned that it would fine companies for noncompliance up to one million dollars a day. No one has been fined yet. The companies have until sometime in 2010 to comply. Then the commission promises it will begin to inspect some facilities to determine if they are compliant. Unfortunately, President Obama’s “Smart Grid” initiative will cause the electric grid to become even more wired, even more dependent upon computer network technology. The same way that a hand can reach out from cyberspace and destroy an electric transmission line or generator, computer commands can derail a train or send freight cars to the wrong place, or cause a gas pipeline to burst. Computer commands to a weapon system may cause it to malfunction or shut off.

One idea for a standard might be that the taxpayers don’t give any of the $3.4 billion in Smart Grid money to companies that haven’t secured their current systems. Don’t expect the Energy Department to use that standard anytime soon, because that would mean taking advantage of this unique federal giveaway program to incentivize people to make things more secure. That smacks of regulation, which, of course, is just like socialism, which is un-American. So, we will soon have a more digital Smart Grid, which will also be a Less Secure Grid. How could we make the U.S. national electrical system a Smart and Secure Grid? The first step in that direction would be issuing and enforcing serious regulations to require electric companies to make it next to impossible to obtain unauthorized access to the control network for the power grid. That would mean no pathway at all from the Internet to the control system. In addition, the same kind of deep-packet inspection boxes I proposed placing on the Internet backbone could be placed on the points where the control systems link to the power companies’ intranets.


pages: 382 words: 92,138

The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, endogenous growth, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, G4S, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, intangible asset, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, Philip Mirowski, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

To be successful they must address the uncertainty and cost behind the innovations that are required to meet the targets.2 Supply-side policies are important for putting money ‘where the mouth is’, by financing firms directly or indirectly through the subsidy of long-term market growth, in the hope that it will accelerate the formation of innovative companies that can deliver a green industrial revolution. Given the success of these policies, and in addition, the success and spread of renewable energy sources like wind and solar power, the opportunity for ‘smart grids’ to digitize energy supply networks is both created and stabilized. I say created, because the intermittent nature of renewable power will have to be more closely managed. I say stabilized, because the need (‘demand’) for smart grid technology will be greatest in the countries that go farthest towards integrating renewable energy into their grids. Success in transforming our energy system is as full of collective and complementary industrial changes, in other words, but getting serious about renewable energy is a necessary and critical step towards bringing energy technology into the twenty-first century.

As characteristically ‘intermittent’ and ‘diffuse’ sources of energy, wind and solar power have benefitted from what Madrigal (2011, 263) describes as ‘throwing software at the problem’: increasing the productivity and reliability of wind and solar projects with advanced computer modelling, management of power production and remote monitoring. Investments in a ‘smart grid’ are meant to digitize modern energy systems to optimize the flexibility, performance and efficiency of clean technologies while providing advanced management options to grid operators and end users. Such flexibility and control is not unlike the sort that emerged with digitized communication networks. The ICT revolution that created digitized communications not only created new commercial opportunities (such as through the medium of the Internet), but has provided an invaluable platform for the generation, collection, access and dissemination of knowledge of all forms. Given time and broad deployment, the smart grid could change the way we think about energy, create new commercial opportunities and improve the economics of renewable energy by establishing new tools for optimal energy supply management and demand response.

‘me too’ 64–7; see also pharmaceutical companies (‘pharma’); specific drugs Duhigg, Charles 173–4 DuPont 178–9 economic crisis: boosting clean technologies 142–3; causes of 12, 182; public sector blamed for 15, 17; varied impact of in EU 41 Economist, view on State and enterprise 16 ‘ecosystems’: see innovation ecosystems electric cars/vehicles 108, 123, 124, 133 Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 151 Elias, John 102–3 email 104 End of Laissez Faire, The (Keynes) 4, 194 endogenous growth theory: see ‘new growth’ theory energy crisis 137, 144–5; see also green industrial revolution Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) 133 Enron 148 ‘enterprise zones’ 54 ‘entrepreneurial’ State: building of 54, 196–7; growth and inequality in 183; risk assumption and vision of 24; role of 6, 10, 21, 23; see also State Entrepreneurial State, The (report) 2, 3 entrepreneurs: DARPA’s brokering role with 77; financing of 57; investment choices of 136; myth of in Silicon Valley 63; risk types and 58–9; SBIR funding to 80, 188 EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 150 equitable growth 13, 177, 185 European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) 101 ‘European Paradox’ 53 European Union: approach to green initiatives 124; ‘Big State’ behind innovation in 166; feed-in tariffs in 153; ‘fiscal compact’ of 42, 197; green transition targets in 115n2; gross R&D spending as percentage of GDP 43; growth producing spending in 196; investment in renewable energy 120, 121; public sectors in 17–18; R&D targets of 41; weaknesses of countries in 52–3 Evans, Peter 4 Evergreen Solar 151–2, 162 Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, An (Nelson and Winter) 34–5 ‘evolutionary theory’ of production 34–5 ‘exogenous growth theory’ 34 externalities 4, 7, 21, 168; see also Apple Fadell, Tony 100n8; see also Apple Fairchild Semiconductor 76 fast Fourier transform (FDT) algorithm 109 feed-in tariffs: in energy technology 114; in European markets 153; German 122, 138, 149, 156; policy changes in 125n7; UK 124 Fert, Albert 96 Fiegerman, Seth 171n3 finance firms 182 financialization 25–8 FingerWorks 103 Finland 120n4, 121, 190 First Solar (formerly Solar Cells Inc.) 128–9, 151, 159–60; see also green industrial revolution Fiscal Investment Loan Program (Japan) 40 flat panel display (FPD) industry 106 Florida, Richard 107 Forbes on WuxiSuntech 153 ‘Fordist’ model of production in 38–9 Foxconn 170–71 France 61, 120, 120n4, 121 Freeman, Chris 193 Fuchs, Erica 133 Funding a Revolution: Government Support for Computing Research 63 G4S, security company 16 game theory 36 GDP, balance in categories of 30 Gedser turbine 145 Genentech Inc. 57, 69, 81 General Electric (GE) 125, 137, 147–8, 160–61, 174n5 general purpose technologies (GPTs) 62, 83 Genzyme 81, 181 Germany: feed-in tariffs 122, 138, 149, 156; government energy R&D spending 121; green revolution in 115n2, 116, 120, 122; long-term support provided by 158; public R&D spending in 61, 144–6; solar resources of 144; State investment bank 190; systems of innovation in 37; wind energy and R&D projects in 144–6, 149, 156 Ghosh, Shikhar 127 giant magnetoresistance (GMR) 96–7 GlaxoSmithKline 66–7, 82 Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) 138–9 Goldwind 149 Goodenough, John B. 108 Google 20, 174–5 government energy R&D spending 121, 121 GPS (global positioning system) 105, 105n12 Great Transformation, The (Polanyi) 194–5 Greece, R&D/GDP 52 Green, Martin 152 green industrial revolution: ARPA-E 133–5; ‘carbon lock-in’ 117; China’s ‘green’ 5 year plan 122–4; climate change 117, 123, 135; development banks funding of 139–40, 139n14; DoE role in 132–3; Economist on 16; financial commitment for 116; funding of 116–19; global new investment in renewable energy 120; government energy R&D spending 121; government support to 114–15, 119, 129, 141–2; hurdles to 138, 156, 160; leaders in 11–12, 126; national approaches to 119–22; ‘No More Solyndras Act’ 130–31n12; patient capital 138–40; policies impacting 113–15, 119; pushing green development 136–7; renewable energy credits (RECs) 115n1; smart grid technology in 115, 118; sustainability 117, 119, 123; UK’s approach to 124–6; US approach to 126–35; venture capital in 127–9, 128n9; venture capital subsectors in 128; see also clean technology; solar power; wind power Green Investment Bank 125n7 Gronet, Chris 151 growth: economy-wide 62; effect of venture capital on 49; of firms and R&D benefit 44; firm size relationship to 45–6; ‘inclusive’ 167, 183, 195; inequality and 31, 54, 177; innovation as key source of 9, 177; measures of 33; myths about innovation and 10; national debt relationship to 18; ‘smart’ 167, 183; and technology 33–4; theories of 33–4; variables important for 18; see also equitable growth Grünberg, Peter 96, 97 Grunwald, Michael 113, 136 Haltiwanger, J 45 Hamilton, Alexander 73 Hanwha Group 157 hard disk drives (HDD) 96–7, 109 Harrison, Brian 154 Harrod, Roy F. 33 Haslam, Karen 171n3 Heymann, Matthias 145 Hoffman Electronics 150, 150n4 Hopkins, Matt 129n10, 160 House of Commons Energy and Climate Change Committee 125 Hsieh, Chang-Tai 46 HTTP/HTML 103–5, 109 Hughes, Alan 45 Hurst, Samuel 101 IBM 50, 97, 104, 107 ‘iGesture Numpad’ 103 Ill Fares the Land (Judt) 1 Immelt, Jeffrey 126 income-contingent loans and equity 189–90 income distribution 30n1 India 45–6, 120 industrial policy: challenges to 13; decentralized 78; in ‘rebalancing’ of economies 27; recent US history of 10, 21; redistributive tools needed in 167; State led 40; see also ‘picking winners’ inequality: as debilitating economic issue 177; growth impacted by 31; reducing 166, 186; shareholders as source of 183; tax cut impact on 54 information and communications technology (ICT) 50, 118 Information Processing Techniques Office (DARPA’s) 76 Innovalight 158 innovation: collective character of 183–7, 193; ‘culture’ of 87; as cumulative 167, 187; Death Valley stage of 47, 48, 122; development banks fostering 139–40; development of 3, 41–2; and distribution 186; economic growth driven by 9; firms resisting pressure for 77; global process of 155; government support for 31; in Japan 37–8; macro models on 44; myths about 10, 22; myths of R&D being about 44; ‘open innovation’ model of 25, 27; patent increase relationship to 50–51; process in energy technology 114; Schumpeterian innovation economics 5; State as a force in 5, 166; State leading in risky 62–4; stock market speculation and 49–50; tax policy impact on 51; threatened in US 24; undermining of in US 53, 183, 187; US 24; see also ‘systems of innovation’ approach innovation ecosystems: cumulative innovation curve in 167–8; open systems 193; socioeconomic prosperity dependence on 179; symbiotic vs. parasitic 23–5, 155, 162–3, 179; types of 2; see also actors ‘innovation fund’ 189 innovation networks 36, 40 innovation policy 22–3, 44, 46, 54, 167 Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, An (Smith) 1; see also ‘Invisible Hand’ Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS) 51–2 institutional change, assessment of 36 integrated circuits 98, 98n6 Intel 130n11 intellectual property protection 110 intellectual property rights 174 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 5 Internet: Apple’s use of 109; commercialization of 22; DARPA’s role in 76; and HTTP/HTML 103–5, 109; origin of 63; public funding behind 105 interventionist policy 83 investment returns, social vs. private 3–4 ‘Invisible Hand’ 30 iOS mobile operating system 89–90 iPad 102, 105, 109, 111n14 iPhone 101–3, 105–6, 109 iPlayer 16 iPod 95–6, 100–102, 105, 109, 110 Ireland 120n4, 121, 121 IRS 529 plans 111, 111n15 Italy 17, 39, 41, 52, 121 Jacobs 149 Janeway, William H. 49–50 Japan: Apple entering market of 110; computer electronics competition by 97, 98, 98n7, 106–7; economic growth of 37–8; finance system coordination by 40; flat panel display (FPD) industry of 106; government energy R&D spending 121; lithium-ion battery perfection by 108; MITI 37–8, 40; public R&D spending in 61; systems of innovation in vs.


pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, creative destruction, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, different worldview, digital map, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

As much as thirty seconds can pass between SCADA observing and transmitting data—an eternity on an electrical grid, where problems beget other problems very quickly. An alternative, developed in the late 1980s by two Virginia Tech professors, was already a fixture in China and a few other countries. Phasor measurement units (PMU), also known as Synchrophasors, gained traction in the years after these blackouts, and have shown a huge surge of popularity in recent years. A network of Synchrophasors—a “smart grid”—is like a hyperactive steroidal SCADA. Once every second, a Synchrophasor gathers 120 different types of data about the power at its node and transmits them instantly. Operators monitoring the grid can see the data displayed on a map, providing a real-time overview of power flow. Electrical grids are complex organisms that obey no national borders, with power flowing in different directions across large distances.

Around one-third of the total are part of the continent’s largest Synchrophasor project, the Western Interconnection Synchrophasor Program, with ninety-seven participating power providers. Synchrophasors are popping up around the globe. Although India’s Synchrophasors were in too much of a nascent state to prevent the crippling 2012 blackouts that left 700 million people without power, the country’s state-owned utility company had already hailed the technology as a “revelation.” For a smart grid to have value, its Synchrophasors must observe and report at exactly the same moment. Because they are spread over a large area, the easiest way to synchronize them is by connecting them to high-precision clocks sourced to GPS. If someone were to introduce a bogus GPS signal that disrupted the clocks and broke the synchrony, causing an distorted and possibly alarming overall view of power flow on the grid, what might happen?

If someone were to introduce a bogus GPS signal that disrupted the clocks and broke the synchrony, causing an distorted and possibly alarming overall view of power flow on the grid, what might happen? For now, probably not much. The technology is at an intermediate stage, not yet considered a “critical cyber asset,” a classification used for hardware, software, data streams, and networks whose disruption could bring key parts of the critical infrastructure to the brink of disaster within fifteen minutes. But the next step is to make these smart grids smarter, giving them the ability to take direct action. They could redirect power to allocate it more efficiently or safely, and even shut the whole mess down, killing the power for thousands of users to isolate a problem before it spreads. If a spoofed GPS signal distorted Synchrophasor data, human operators might sense something was askew before taking action. Left to its own devices, the grid itself might not.


pages: 219 words: 61,720

American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

Figure 7.1 Definitions of “Green Jobs” Source: “Industries Where Green Goods and Services Are Classified,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 24, 2010, http://www.bls.gov/green/final_green_def_8242010_pub.pdf. Sunil Sharan, the former director of General Electric’s Smart Grid Initiative, wrote in the Washington Post in 2010 that the belief that green jobs could make a serious dent in the U.S. unemployment rate was always far-fetched. Sharan noted how the Obama administration allocated a little over $4 billion in stimulus money to building the smart grid, which is an important piece of infrastructure for our future. The plan was to install 20 million “smart meters” over five years. Smart meters are simply digital versions of the old spinning electric meter. Power companies nationwide employ tens of thousands of people who do nothing but read the meters.

Rebuilding America’s urban wastewater systems, water infrastructure, and pipelines, along with schools and public buildings, could create as many as 825,000 direct and indirect jobs for construction workers and related support industries. Initial investment: $33 billion. Adopting an “all-of-the-above” energy policy that includes coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear, wind, and solar could create 2 million direct and indirect jobs as we build new smart grids, run transmission lines, and construct power plants and distribution facilities. Initial investment: $102 billion.16 In total, a revitalized infrastructure agenda can create nearly 10 million jobs for Americans who sorely need them. And beyond the jobs, what sort of benefits would that investment provide? Figures from the American Society of Civil Engineers and the FAA suggest the following: Better roads will cut the estimated $78 billion drag on the U.S. economy that results from commuters wasting 4.2 billion hours a year idling in traffic.


pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

A few years ago the folks at Volkswagen told the Chattanooga city fathers that they would like to build a high-tech auto plant in their city. There was only one problem: the city sits in the middle of Tornado Alley, and the electricity goes out several times a year during big storms. Since the plant was going to be highly roboticized, electrical outages would be particularly problematic. So the EPB promised to build a smart grid so that when a tree fell on the wires on Flynn Street, only Flynn Street would go dark, because the smart grid would route power around the trouble. So they built the smart grid, Volkswagen built its plant, and the plant hasn’t had any downtime. But once EPB had strung fiber-optic cable on every lamppost in town, it realized that each of these posts stood less than one hundred feet from a home to which the company could sell broadband service—and there were at least fifty thousand of these homes.


pages: 118 words: 35,663

Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing (Columbia Business School Publishing) by John E. Kelly Iii

AI winter, call centre, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, demand response, discovery of DNA, disruptive innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, global supply chain, Internet of things, John von Neumann, Mars Rover, natural language processing, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Feynman, smart grid, smart meter, speech recognition, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

By combining optical and electrical elements on a single chip, the researchers hope to make it possible for manufacturers to produce large quantities of such devices through production processes that are already in use. Their work has now advanced beyond the pure science stage into product development, with a goal of reaching the market within the next few years. This melding of light and electricity will help computers move data around with a speed and energy efficiency that is impossible using today’s technologies. SCENARIO: ADDING INTELLIGENCE TO THE ELECTRIC GRID Today’s “smart grids” aren’t actually very bright. Most electric utility systems that claim the “smart” label use advanced metering systems that enable customers to monitor their electricity use and enable two-way communications between the meter and the utility provider. The systems make it possible for utility companies to set pricing that varies by the season and the time of day, providing discounts to customers who shift energy use to off-peak periods.

To avoid power outages, intelligent devices in the transformer and homes will detect sudden increases in demand for vehicle charging and will coordinate with one another to schedule charging sessions for the various EVs at different times during the night.7 Putting intelligence in the network has the potential to transform the way energy is generated and used. This will make it easier for new sources of energy to be integrated into the system. It will provide strong incentives for conservation, hasten repairs after power outages, and make it possible for societies to expand electricity services without needing to make massive investments in new generation plants. When all of this comes about, smart grids will begin to truly deserve the name. JOURNEY OF DISCOVERY: RETHINKING HOW COMPUTERS ARE DESIGNED How much does it cost to move a single bit of data from point of origin to point of computation? Apparently, until recently, nobody bothered to try to answer that question—perhaps because it didn’t seem consequential. But now, in the era of big data, computer scientists see that when you move a massive amount of data over long distances—or even over short distances many times—the costs quickly add up.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

Figure 11.4: Autonomous modular transportation systems like the Next pod will replace conventional public transport and vehicles. (Credit: NEXT Future Transportation) Does this sound like science fiction? In 20 years, we believe that this type of smart transportation network will be the expectation of citizens living in a smart city. Not just because it will provide better transport for citizens, but because it will cost a fraction of what public transportation systems cost today to maintain and run. Smart Grids and Energy Systems Smart energy encompasses a wide range of technologies and initiatives, including the improved distribution and monitoring of electric power as well as better insulation of homes and offices. Renewable energy (RE) is important to the citizens of a smart city for a number of critical reasons: • reduced air and water pollution for better health and productivity • decreased costs (as solar energy and other RE costs come down) • resilience, with power availability even in case of network disturbances due to overloads, natural disasters or terrorist acts The benefits of using renewable energy to population health can be dramatic, with thousands saved from illness or death.

Transforming our cities into the smart cities of the future will encompass incorporating technologies and key digital developments all linked by machine-to-machine solutions and real-time data analytics. Smart cities, however, must be underpinned by the appropriate infrastructure based on fibre-optic and high-speed wireless technologies. This infrastructure allows for the development of smart communities, supporting connected homes, intelligent transport systems, mHealth, eGovernment and massive open online courses/education (MOOC/E), smart grids and smart energy solutions, etc. Central to this will be infrastructure that starts to run itself, responding in real time. Automated UAVs, autonomous emergency vehicles and robots, and sensor nets giving feedback loops to the right algorithms or AIs to dispatch those resources. Artificial intelligence will not only be an underpinning of smart cities, it will also be necessary simply to process all of the sensor data coming into smart city operations centres.

Yes, they’ll be idealists—I hope we don’t destroy that passion in them. Employment and Business in the Augmented Age—Winners and Losers Large human-dominant or process-based industries will be decimated by the AI, experience design and smart infrastructure disruptions that underpin the Augmented Age. The losers will be: 1. Big Energy. Four key forces will challenge any fossil fuel producer or incumbent energy system: • ultra-cheap renewables • smart grids • electric vehicles • energy storage systems (batteries like the Tesla Powerwall, fuel cells, etc.) Droves of gas (or service) stations will go out of business, wired electricity poles will fall into disrepair as whole cities and regions become net energy producers and mining will shift away from extracting fuels to extracting resources to power the new smart world. 2. Big Health Care and Pharma.


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

However, a group of researchers decided to work with 33,000 drivers and, using a combination of dashboard-mounted GPS monitors and cloud-computing technology, were able to create an intelligent, real-time traffic service. Studying congestion on all 106,579 roads within the city, a distance of over 5,500 kilometres, they created a smart grid forming a digital map of the city. This was also integrated with weather and public-transit information. As a result, in testing, the new smart grid improved 60–70 per cent of all taxi trips and made them significantly faster. The smart city is being built from a combination of big city-hall projects alongside major software companies as well as more humble schemes that can be found on the 3 or 4G mobile in your pocket or the sat nav on the dashboard. Yet the city of the future, however connected it may be, is only ever going to be as smart as the people who use it.

The whole city will operate from a hub that functions as Songdo’s ‘brain stem’.19 Here, for example, cameras will report on the flow of pedestrians on the street, and brighten or dim the pavement lamps accordingly; ‘radio frequency identification tags’ will be attached to car number plates to watch traffic and reaction to congestion; monitors on buildings and roads will report on conditions to avoid costly works or unnecessary delays; there will be real-time weather forecasts that can prepare the power grid for surges in demand when it gets suddenly cold; at other times, the smart energy grid will monitor usage and flows and predict demand as well as search for efficiencies; there will also be a smart grid for water and waste. Each home will also become smarter: there will be touchpads in each apartment so that one can control temperature and lighting and track energy use. Smart architecture will help the sustainable city – there will be roof gardens planted with vegetation to reduce the ‘heat island’ effect, and reduce storm-water run-off. There will be no waste collection as everything will be processed by a centralised system that sucks all the rubbish away.

From theorists prophesying their visions, architects with their design innovations, management consultants who wish to sell their solutions, software companies who have developed the proprietary code to run the new world, making and marketing the smart city is big business. Big players such as IBM, Cisco, Siemans, Accenture, McKinsey and BoozAllen are all entering the debate on the intelligent city, the smart-grid, next-generation buildings, developing the tools to bring efficiency, sustainability and a connected metropolis. These big companies are talking to city halls, offering end-to-end solutions, the complete package to retrofit the everyday city for the twenty-first century with a very hard sell. How Smart Is Your City, produced by the IBM Institute of Business Value, supplies tools for assessing the connectedness of any city and offers a road map: Develop your city’s long-term strategy and short-term goals Prioritise and invest in a few select systems that will have the greatest impact Integrate across systems to improve citizen experiences and efficiencies Optimise your services and operations Discover new opportunities for growth and optimisation.21 In a corresponding document from the same team, A Vision of Smarter Cities, the researchers go into more detail on how ‘smartness’ can be achieved.


pages: 138 words: 40,525

This Is Not a Drill: An Extinction Rebellion Handbook by Extinction Rebellion

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, feminist movement, full employment, gig economy, global pandemic, ice-free Arctic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, mass immigration, Peter Thiel, place-making, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, Sam Altman, smart grid, supply-chain management, the scientific method, union organizing, urban sprawl, wealth creators

In their place, we need to unlock a civic-energy revolution of distributed energy networks, local smart grids, municipally owned energy and zero-emissions, community-led developments. This involves new planning ordinances and mass national retrofit programmes to ensure that every single building is zero carbon; municipal energy companies modelled on the German Stadtwerke, which generate from 100 per cent renewable sources and undercut corporate energy giants; and people’s energy action to ensure a 100 per cent moratorium on fossil fuels and fracking. A vast transfer of subsidies underpins all this. Civic innovations, such as those developed by Repower London, are flourishing, especially in Combined Heat and Power (CHP), onshore wind, solar photovoltaics, anaerobic digestion, local smart grids, energy-storage technologies and the new skills that will underpin these.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor, Saul Singer

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Overcoming the price barrier was the biggest breakthrough, but it wasn’t sufficient for electric vehicles to become, as Agassi called it, the “Car 2.0” that would replace the transportation model introduced by Henry Ford almost a century ago. A five-minute fill-up will last a gas car three hundred miles. How, Ghosn wondered, can an electric car compete with that? Agassi’s solution was infrastructure: wire thousands of parking spots, build battery swap stations, and coordinate it all over a new “smart grid.” In most cases, charging the car at home and the office would easily be enough to get you through the day. On longer drives, you could pull into a swap station and be off with a fully charged battery in the time it takes to fill a tank of gas. He’d recruited a former Israeli army general—a man skilled at managing complex military logistics—to become the company’s local Israeli CEO and lead the planning for the grid and the national network of charging/parking spots.

Second, Israelis understand not only the financial and environmental costs of being dependent on oil but also the security costs of pumping money into the coffers of less-than-savory regimes. Third, Israelis are natural early adopters—they were recently number one in the world in time spent on the Internet and have a cell phone penetration of 125 percent, meaning lots of people have more than one. No less importantly, Agassi knew that in Israel he would find the resources he needed to tackle the tricky software challenge of creating a “smart grid” that could direct cars to open charging spots and manage the charging of millions of cars without overloading the system. Israel, the country with the highest concentration of engineers and research and development spending in the world, was a natural place to attempt this. Agassi actually wanted to go even further. After all, if Intel could mass-produce its most sophisticated chips in Israel, why couldn’t Renault-Nissan build cars there?

He needed a country, a car company, and the money, but to get any one of them he first needed the other two. For example, when Peres and Agassi had gone to then prime minister Ehud Olmert to secure his commitment to make Israel the first country to free itself from oil, the premier had set two conditions: Agassi had to sign on a top-five carmaker and raise the $200 million needed to develop the smart grid, turning half a million parking spaces into charging spots, and building swap stations. Now Agassi had the carmaker, and it was time to fulfill Olmert’s second condition: money. Still, Agassi had heard enough to believe that his idea could take off. Stunning the tech world, he quit his job at SAP to found Better Place. (It took four conversations to convince the SAP management that he was serious about quitting.)


pages: 294 words: 81,292

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat

AI winter, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Automated Insights, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, drone strike, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

On the other hand, a lot of them are connected to the Internet, so they can be remotely operated. The ongoing implementation of the “smart grid” means that soon all the regional grids and all our homes’ energy systems will be connected to the Internet. In brief, the smart grid is a fully automated electricity system that’s supposed to improve the efficiency of electric power. It brings together old power sources like coal- and fuel-burning electrical plants with newer solar and wind farms. Regional control centers will monitor and distribute energy to your home. Some 50 million home systems across the country are already “smart.” The trouble is, the new smart grid will be more vulnerable to catastrophic blackouts than the not-so-dumb old grid. That’s the gist of a recent study from the MIT, entitled “The Future of the Electric Grid”: The highly interconnected grid communications networks of the future will have vulnerabilities that may not be present in today’s grid.


pages: 440 words: 128,813

Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg

carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty

One industry report estimates that, in 2009, research-and-development investments made by all US electrical-power utilities amounted to at most $700 million, compared with $6.3 billion by IBM and $9.1 billion by Pfizer. In 2009, however, the Department of Energy issued $3.4 billion in stimulus grants to a hundred smart-grid projects across the United States, including many in areas that are prone to heat waves and hurricanes. The previous year, Hurricane Ike had knocked out power to two million customers in Houston, and full restoration took nearly a month. When the city received $200 million in federal funds to install smart-grid technology, it quickly put crews to work. Nearly all Houston households have been upgraded to the new network, one that should be more reliable when the next storm arrives. Smart grids are in the early stages, but already they have several advantages over the old power systems. Digital meters, which are installed in households and at key transmission points, automatically generate real-time information about both consumers and suppliers, allowing utility providers to detect failures immediately, and sometimes also to identify the cause.

Digital meters, which are installed in households and at key transmission points, automatically generate real-time information about both consumers and suppliers, allowing utility providers to detect failures immediately, and sometimes also to identify the cause. This means that, after an outage, operators don’t need to wait for calls from angry customers or field reports from crews. Moreover, smart grids are flexible, capable of being fed by disparate sources of energy, including systems powered by the sun and the wind. When the energy industry develops better technologies for storing power from these renewable resources, the new networks should be capable of integrating them. Re-engineered grids will ultimately offer other benefits. “The situational awareness of the system might allow operators to reconfigure the system, either before or after the event, to maintain service,” Leonardo Dueñas-Osorio, an engineering professor at Rice University who is developing resilience metrics for critical infrastructure systems, told me.


pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell

addicted to oil, Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, WikiLeaks, working poor

“If we are going to rebuild, restore, modernize or replace everything we inherited in just 30 years,” we need “the skill and effort of all of us.” Trumka recognized that this would not happen simply through current market forces: “By themselves, capital markets will not properly incorporate climate risk and reward into pricing investment opportunities.” Investors need “government policies to make sure that critical investments get made— investments in building retrofits, in high speed rail and the smart grid, in carbon capture and sequestration.”17 Clean, renewable energy and energy conservation are cheaper than extreme fossil fuels and nuclear power. They are available right now. Many studies have shown that dollar for dollar, they produce far more jobs. If labour is to use its political clout to secure more jobs, the best way to do so is to fight for a new energy economy that rapidly phases out carbon-emitting fossil fuels and even more rapidly replaces them with renewable energy and conservation.

Within our cultural teachings lie these Indigenous Economic Principles: intergenerational thinking and equity (thinking for the seventh generation); inter- and intra-species equity (respect); and valuing those spiritual and intangible facets of the natural world and cultural practice (not all values and things can be monetized). Consider what may be one of the largest follies in economic thinking from fossil fuel supporters: the opportunity forgone costs. What this means is that we waste $200 billion or so on tar sands oil and infrastructure, and do not create weatherized and energy-efficient houses, a smart grid, energy-efficient vehicles, a relocalized food system, and renewable energy. And, ten years from now, we will in fact be in worse economic shape. Frankly, if we put that much money into weatherization, efficiency, relocalizing power production, and an energy-efficient grid powered by new renewables, as well as localized food and energy-efficient mass transportation systems, we would build a stronger economy and we would have a shot at lasting much longer than another fifty years.

Since the economic crisis, this “institutional ecology” project is associated with the idea of a “Green New Deal,” as part of a Keynesian stimulus package to tackle economic stagnation.11 Government stimulus funds, for example, could be mobilized to build the infrastructure for a transition to renewable—solar, wind, biofuels—energy and other “green” sectors rather than further lock in a high-carbon infrastructure. The Green New Deal also commonly includes: support for research and development into energy- and resource-efficient technologies; upgrading public infrastructure and building “smart grids”; retrofitting buildings; and expanding public transportation. Such “green” sectors, moreover, will tend to be relatively labour intensive and thus create more jobs than investment in “traditional” sectors. The basic idea is encouraging “green jobs” via “green growth” (as with the “market ecology” project of the neo-liberals) as a central means of transitioning to a low-carbon economy. These policies certainly modify some of the most ecologically abusive features of capitalist production.


pages: 193 words: 51,445

On the Future: Prospects for Humanity by Martin J. Rees

23andMe, 3D printing, air freight, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, blockchain, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic transition, distributed ledger, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, global village, Hyperloop, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, life extension, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, quantitative hedge fund, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanislav Petrov, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

This is only now being reversed because they emit polluting microparticles that endanger healthy living in cities.) But the third measure is the most crucial. Nations should expand Research and Development (R&D) into all forms of low-carbon energy generation (renewables, fourth-generation nuclear, fusion, and the rest), and into other technologies where parallel progress is crucial—especially storage and smart grids. That is why an encouraging outcome of the 2015 Paris conference was an initiative called Mission Innovation. It was launched by President Obama and by the Indian prime minister, Narendra Modi, and endorsed by the countries of the G7 plus India, China, and eleven other nations. It is hoped they’ll pledge to double their publicly funded R&D into clean energy by 2020 and to coordinate efforts. This target is a modest one.

See also consciousness self-driving vehicles, 92–95, 102–3 sensor technology, 88, 102–3, 143 SETI (search for extraterrestrial intelligence), 156–64. See also aliens, intelligent; planets Shockley, William, 68–69 Shogi, 87 short-termism, 28–29, 32, 45, 225, 226. See also timescales silicon chip, complexity of, 173 Silicon Valley, push for eternal youth in, 80–81 Simpson, John, 222 the singularity, Kurzweil on, 108 The Skeptical Environmentalist (Lomborg), 42 smallpox virus, 73 smart grids, 48 smartphones, 6–7, 83, 84, 91, 104, 216 Smith, F. E., 12 social media: globally pervasive, 27, 84; SETI enthusiasts on, 157; spreading panic and rumour, 109; used by global organisations, 219 SolarCity, 49 solar energy, 49, 50, 51 solar energy collectors in space, 143 solar flares, disrupting communications, 16 solar system: artefacts of extraterrestrials in, 161–62; origin of, 122, 123; origin of elements in, 122; this century’s exploration of, 143.


pages: 197 words: 49,296

The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac

3D printing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, trade route, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

There is some nuclear energy in those countries that can afford the expensive technology,6 but most of our energy now comes from renewable sources like wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro. All homes and buildings produce their own electricity—every available surface is covered with solar paint that contains millions of nanoparticles, which harvest energy from the sunlight,7 and every windy spot has a wind turbine. If you live on a particularly sunny or windy hill, your house might harvest more energy than it can use, in which case the energy will simply flow back to the smart grid. Because there is no combustion cost, energy is basically free. It is also more abundant and more efficiently used than ever. Smart tech prevents unnecessary energy consumption, as artificial intelligence units switch off appliances and machines when not in use. The efficiency of the system means that, with a few exceptions, our quality of life has not suffered. In many respects, it has improved.

First, it restricted their sale, and then it banned them from certain parts of cities—Ultra Low Emission Zones.16 Then came the breakthrough in the battery storage capacity of electric vehicles,17 the cost reductions that came from finding alternative materials for manufacture, and finally the complete overhaul of the charging and parking infrastructure.18 This allowed people easier access to cheap power for their electric vehicles. Even better, car batteries are now bidirectionally connected with the electric grid, so they can either charge from the grid or provide power to the grid when they aren’t being driven. This helps back up the smart grid that is running on renewable energy. The ubiquity and ease of electric vehicles were alluring, but satisfaction of our appetite for speed finally did the trick.19 Supposedly, to stop a bad habit you have to replace it with one that is more salubrious or at least as enjoyable. At first China dominated the manufacture of electric vehicles, but soon U.S. companies started making vehicles that were more desirable than ever before.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hedonic treadmill, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, scientific worldview, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

We call these energies distributed because unlike the conventional elite energies—coal, oil, natural gas, and uranium—that are only found in limited geographic regions, the renewable energies are found in various proportions everywhere. Today the information and communications technologies that gave rise to the Internet are being used to reconfigure the world’s power grids, enabling millions of people to collect and produce their own renewable energy in their homes, offices, retail stores, factories, and technology parks and share it peer-to-peer across smart grids, just as they now produce and share their own information in cyberspace. Companies are already beginning to establish the beginnings of an infrastructure and market for what business leaders call “distributed capitalism.” Renewable forms of energy—solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean waves, and biomass—make up the first of the four pillars of the Third Industrial Revolution. While these sunrise energies still account for a small percentage of the global energy mix, they are growing rapidly as governments mandate targets and benchmarks for their widespread introduction into the market and their falling costs make them increasingly competitive.

Mini-grids allow homeowners, small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), and large-scale economic enterprises to produce renewable energy locally—through solar cells, wind power, small hydropower, animal and agricultural waste, and garbage—and use it off-grid for their own electricity needs. Smart metering technology allows local producers to more effectively sell their energy back to the main power grid, as well as accept electricity from the grid, making the flow of electricity bidirectional. The next phase in smart grid technology is embedding sensing devices and chips throughout the grid system, connecting every electrical appliance. Software allows the entire power grid to know how much energy is being used, at any time, anywhere on the grid. This interconnectivity can be used to redirect energy uses and flows during peaks and lulls, and even to adjust to the price changes of electricity from moment to moment.

The smart intergrid will not only give end users more power over their energy choices, but it also creates new energy efficiencies in the distribution of electricity. The intergrid makes possible a broad redistribution of power. Today’s centralized, top-down flow of energy becomes increasingly obsolete. In the new era, businesses, municipalities, and homeowners become the producers as well as the consumers of their own energy—what is referred to as “distributed generation.” The distributed smart grid also provides the essential infrastructure for making the transition from the oil-powered internal combustion engine to electric and hydrogen fuel-cell plug-in vehicles. Electric plug-in and hydrogen-powered fuel-cell vehicles are also “power stations on wheels” with a generating capacity of twenty or more kilowatts. Since the average car, bus, and truck is parked much of the time, it can be plugged in during nonuse hours to the home, office, or main interactive electricity network, providing premium electricity back to the grid.


pages: 493 words: 98,982

The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good? by Michael J. Sandel

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, global supply chain, helicopter parent, High speed trading, immigration reform, income inequality, Khan Academy, laissez-faire capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Washington Consensus

For Obama, “smart” was the ultimate term of praise: “smart diplomacy,” “smart foreign policy,” “smart regulations,” “smart growth,” “smart spending cuts,” “smart investments in education,” “smart immigration policy,” “smart infrastructure projects,” “smart law enforcement,” “smart government,” “smart trade policy,” “smart energy policy,” “smart climate policy,” “smart entitlement reform,” “smart market reforms,” “smart environmental regulations,” “smart counterterrorism policy,” “climate-smart agriculture,” “smart development,” “smart market-oriented innovation,” and above all, “smart grids.” During his presidency, Obama spoke in praise of “smart grids” or “smart grid technologies” on more than one hundred occasions. Overall, he used the adjective “smart” in connection with policies and programs more than nine hundred times. 77 One of the defects of the technocratic approach to politics is that it places decision-making in the hands of elites, and so disempowers ordinary citizens. Another is that it abandons the project of political persuasion.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Others are employed by the government, which means that the platform data they generate are accessible to the government but not to others. Still others are privately employed, which means that the platform data they produce are extremely fragmented. Until financial incentives are aligned to encourage universal sharing of patient services and data, the growth of platforms within health care may be slow. Helping to bring about this alignment should be a key focus of regulators and industry leaders. ENERGY: FROM SMART GRID TO MULTIDIRECTIONAL PLATFORM In a world driven by vast amounts of energy—and in which the supply and usage of energy are intimately linked to such crucial factors as global climate change and international geopolitical conflict—we can’t afford to squander the energy supplies we have or use them in ways that harm the natural environment. That’s where platform technologies can make a big difference.

The more fully we can convert this network into an intelligent, interactive ecosystem of participants who can produce, share, conserve, store, and manage energy wisely together, the greater the value we can extract from our energy resources—and the healthier the world we’ll pass on to future generations. Today, energy companies and government authorities around the world are working with scientists and engineers to implement “smart grid” technologies that are improving the use and control of energy through digital systems for measuring, communicating, analyzing, and responding to vast amounts of data. Enhanced electrical metering tools are making it easier to implement variable pricing systems that improve the responsiveness of the system to variations in demand, encourage conservation, and smooth out fluctuations in energy availability and use.

, 275 side switching, 26, 198, 299 Siemens, 76, 204, 247, 284 signal-to-noise ratio, 199, 200 sign-up methods, 66, 81–85, 190 Silicon Valley, 16, 76–77, 112, 252–53, 281–82 siloed industries, 176, 178 Singapore, 160–61, 179 single-side strategy, 95–96, 105 single-user feedback loop, 45–46, 100–101 Siri, 147 Sittercity, 47, 122 Skillshare, 4, 96, 111, 122, 124, 212, 265, 266 Skullcandy, 162 Skype, 200–201 small businesses, 72, 276–77 smart grids, 272–74 smart metrics, 201–2 smartphones, 64, 66, 92, 113, 131, 140 Smith, Adam, 280 Snapchat, 217 social losses, 238, 239 social networks, 3, 11, 36, 41–42, 45, 51, 58, 71, 72, 90–91, 92, 95–104, 113–15, 120–21, 131–33, 152, 163, 185, 198, 204, 217, 218, 221, 226, 245, 251–52 software, 33, 52–54, 57, 62–63, 67, 91–92, 95, 125, 136, 137, 143, 151–53, 159, 170, 173–75, 216–17, 219, 254–55, 267, 295 SolarCity, 273 solar panels, 69, 273 Sollecito, Raffaele, 129–30 Sony, 61, 75, 94, 124, 137, 138–39, 178, 211, 240, 246, 259, 270–71 Sony Corp. of America v.


Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport

Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, commoditize, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining, Thomas Davenport

These included: • Telecom firms, which had lots of data, but for some reason did not take advantage of it (perhaps because they had historically been a regulated monopoly or because they were busy with mergers and acquisitions) Chapter_02.indd 43 03/12/13 11:42 AM 44 big data @ work • Media and entertainment firms, which underachieved because they had decision cultures based on intuition and gut feel, and didn’t know how to assess whether people were looking at their content or not • Retailers had great data from point-of-sale systems, but most have underachieved with it until recently; Tesco and to some degree Walmart have been higher achievers • Traditional banks have massive amounts of data on the money their customers consume and save, but for the most part they have been underachievers in helping those customers make sense of it all and presenting targeted marketing offers to them • Electric utilities have been talking about the “smart grid” for a while, but are still a long way from achieving it; apart from some limited rollouts of smart metering devices and time-of-day ­pricing, very little thus far has happened in the United States This environment has changed dramatically with the advent of big data. Many of the also-ran industries in the previous generation of analytics can be leaders in the big data race, although in order to do so they need to change their behaviors and attitudes.

Neustar, “Solution Sheet” for AccountLink service, http://www.neustar.biz/ information/docs/pdfs/solutionsheets/accountlink-solutionsheet.pdf. 6. David Carr, “Giving Viewers What They Want,” New York Times, February 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/25/business/media/for-house-of-cardsusing-big-data-to-guarantee-its-popularity.html. 7. GTM Research, The Soft Grid 2013–2020, study sponsored by SAS Institute, 2013, http://www.sas.com/news/analysts/Soft_Grid_2013_2020_Big_Data_­Utility_ Analytics_Smart_Grid.pdf. 8. Wes Nichols, “Advertising Analytics 2.0,” Harvard Business Review, March 2013, 60–68. 9. John Brockman interview with Alex (Sandy) Pentland, “Reinventing Society in the Wake of Big Data,” Edge, August 30, 2012, http://www.edge.org/conversation/ reinventing-society-in-the-wake-of-big-data. 10. Full disclosure: I am an adviser to Signals Intelligence Group. Chapter 3 1. Clint Boulton, “GameStop CIO: Hadoop Isn’t for Everyone,” Wall Street Journal CIO Journal site, December 10, 2012, http://blogs.wsj.com/cio/2012/12/10/ gamestop-cio-hadoop-isnt-for-everyone/. 2.


pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

Greenhouse gas comes from the exploitation of natural resources, which in turn tracks the global economy, which in turn relates partly to population dynamics, and so on. A fifth force twining through the first four is technology. Fast global communications facilitate global financial markets and trade. Modern health care and pharmacology are shifting population age structures in the developing world. Advances in biotech, nanotech, and materials science affect demand for different resource stocks. Smart grids, solar panels, and geoengineering might combat climate change, and so on. Under our “No Silver Bullets” rule, technological advances like these are evaluated as enablers or brake pads on the four global forces, rather than as an independent force of its own. The thought experiment is begun. Its assumptions and ground rules are stated, its four overarching themes defined. Let us turn now to the first subject of scrutiny for the year 2050—ourselves.

Too much capacity wastes money as power plants make unused electricity; too little capacity triggers brownouts or rolling power outages. It’s hard enough to predict fluctuations on the demand side. Solar and wind sources—because they wither or die on calm days, cloudy days, and at night—add new volatility on the supply side. In a world powered substantially from wind and solar sources, avoiding brownouts will require vast “smart grids,” meaning highly interconnected and communicative transmission networks, plenty of backup capacity from conventional power plants,162 and new ways to store excess electricity for times of deficit. Storing excess electricity is challenging. One way is “pumped storage” using water. If excess electricity becomes available, it is used to pump water uphill, from a reservoir or tank, to another one at higher elevation.

See specific river names Road of Bones Rodriguez, Ernesto Roosevelt, Franklin Russia and the Russian Federation: and aboriginal peoples; and aging populations; and the Arctic Council; and Arctic islands; and Arctic resources; and Arctic transportation; and climate distribution; and coal resources; and crop yields; and demographic trends; and economic growth models; and endangered species; and the Far East; and fertility rates; and gas and oil reserves; and global warming; and human settlement patterns; and immigration policy; and infrastructure development; and natural gas resources; and the “New North,” and North Pole expeditions; and population declines; and prospects for NORCs; and shifting economic power; and the Siberian Curse; and territorial boundaries; and UNCLOS; and water resources; and West Siberian Lowlands; and winter roads; and xenophobia Sahara Desert Sakha Republic Sakhalin Island Salazar, Ken Salisbury, Joe Sámi people Sanikiluaq, Canada sanitation satellite technology Saudi Arabia Scandinavia Schlesinger, James Schwarzenegger, Arnold Science Scott, Allen Scripps Institute of Oceanography sea ice: and albedo effect; and Antarctica; decline of; and global warming; multiyear ice; and ocean currents; and sea levels; and shipping sea levels: at-risk cities; and climate change; and glaciers; and sea ice; and urbanization Sea of Okhotsk sea surface temperatures (SST) Seager, Richard Serreze, Mark Sheutiapik, Elisapee Shiklomanov, Igor Alexander Shiklomanov, Nikolay shipping Shishmaref, Alaska Sibaral Siberia Siberian Curse Silent Spring (Carson) Simmons, Matt Simon, Julian Singapore Singh, Harnarayan Singh, Parminder slum cities smart grids Smith, Adam snowpack solar power Somalia Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland Sonoran Desert South Africa South America. See also specific countries South Kara Sea South Korea South Ossetia South-to-North Water Diversion project Soviet Union. See also Russia and the Russian Federation Spain Stalin, Joseph State Water Project Stern Report Stirling, Ian storm surges Straits of Hormuz Streletskiy, Dmitry Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan Suez Canal sugarcane ethanol sulfur dioxide super-regions surface water Swaziland Sweden: and aboriginal peoples; and the Arctic Council; and Arctic resources; and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS); culture of; and demographic trends; and human settlement patterns; and melting permafrost; and natural resource consumption; and the “New North,” and NORC collaborations; and North Pole expeditions; and nuclear power; and territorial boundaries; and UNCLOS; and winter roads synthetic natural gas (SNG) Syria Taiwan Tajikistan technology: arctic sea ice mapping; and ethanol production; as global force; and global warming; and hydrogen fuel cells; and nuclear power; and satellites; and smart power grids; and solar power; and tar sand extraction; and urbanization; and water resources; and wind power terrorism Thailand Thatcher, Margaret thermal expansion of water thermohaline circulation Thompson, Lonnie Three Mile Island Tibet Tibetan Plateau tidal power Tigris-Euphrates River system Tolko Industries trade Trans-Siberian Railroad transboundary rivers transmission of power Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Tromso, Norway tropical storms troposphere Truman, Harry tundra.


Innovation and Its Enemies by Calestous Juma

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deskilling, disruptive innovation, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, global value chain, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, smart grid, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick

Public debates over new technologies engendering tensions between innovation and incumbency can rage for decades if not centuries. For example, debates over coffee spanned the Old World from Mecca through London to Stockholm and lasted nearly three hundred years. Echoes of the margarine controversy can still be heard in countries such as Canada today. New technologies such as genetic engineering and smart grids have triggered debates over a variety of concerns. Similarly, efforts to address climate change by introducing renewable energy sources such as wind power have generated intense public concern in many parts of the world. Many of these debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. But behind these genuine concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations.

The situation was compounded by the fact that a few firms reaped most of the benefits, while the risks were more widely distributed. Technological innovation in this regard stimulated complementary adjustments in the political arena. Echoes of the debate can be heard today in world energy markets, which are experiencing major ecological challenges. The push for renewable energy and conservation has generated debates that mirror some aspects of the tensions over electrification as illustrated by attempts to introduce smart grid systems to promote energy conservation. The tensions revolve around issues such as privacy, security, pricing, and access to energy.69 Much of the debate is about the health impacts of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation and parallels earlier debates related to cell phone towers. For example, the advocacy group Stop Smart Meters says that because of the installation of smart meters, “bills are skyrocketing, health effects and safety violations are being reported, and privacy in our homes is being violated.”

Tom McNichol, AC/DC: The Savage Tale of the First Standards War (San Francisco: Jossey-Boss, 2006). 68. For a discussion of the complexities surrounding such issues, see Shelley McKellar, “Negotiating Risk: The Failed Development of Atomic Hearts in America, 1967–1977,” Technology and Culture 54, no. 1 (2013): 1–39. 69. Timothy Kostyk and Joseph Herkert, “Societal Implications of the Emerging Smart Grid,” Communication of the ACM 55, no. 11 (2012): 34–36. 70. David J. Hesse and Jonathan S. Coley, “Wireless Smart Meters and Public Acceptance: The Environment, Limited Choices, and Precautionary Politics,” Public Understanding of Science 23, no. 6 (2014): 688–702. Chapter 7 1. For a comprehensive review of the technical history of the industry, see Roger Thévenot, A History of Refrigeration throughout the World, trans.


pages: 304 words: 82,395

Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think by Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Kenneth Cukier

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Black Swan, book scanning, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, Erik Brynjolfsson, game design, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, obamacare, optical character recognition, PageRank, paypal mafia, performance metric, Peter Thiel, post-materialism, random walk, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

On data used by Nazis in the Netherlands—William Seltzer and Margo Anderson, “The Dark Side of Numbers: The Role of Population Data Systems in Human Rights Abuses,” Social Research 68 (2001), pp. 481–513. [>] On IBM and the Holocaust—Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust (Crown, 2003). On the amount of data smart meters collect—See Elias Leake Quinn, “Smart Metering and Privacy: Existing Law and Competing Policies; A Report for the Colorado Public Utility Commission,” Spring 2009 (http://www.w4ar.com/Danger_of_Smart_Meters_Colorado_Report.pdf). See also Joel M. Margolis, “When Smart Grids Grow Smart Enough to Solve Crimes,” Neustar, March 18, 2010 (http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/gc prod/documents/Neustar_Comments_DataExhibitA.pdf) [>] Fred Cate on notice and consent—Fred H. Cate, “The Failure of Fair Information Practice Principles,” in Jane K. Winn, ed., Consumer Protection in the Age of the “Information Economy” (Ashgate, 2006), p. 341 et seq. [>] On the AOL data release—Michael Barbaro and Tom Zeller Jr., “A Face Is Exposed for AOL Searcher No. 4417749,” New York Times, August 9, 2006.

Cambridge University Press, 2008. Manyika, James, et al. “Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity.” McKinsey Global Institute, May 2011 (http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/mgi/research/technology_and_innovation/big_data_the_next_frontier_for_innovation). Marcus, James. Amazonia: Five Years at the Epicenter of the Dot.Com Juggernaut. The New Press, 2004. Margolis, Joel M. “When Smart Grids Grow Smart Enough to Solve Crimes.” Neustar, March 18, 2010 (http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/gcprod/documents/Neustar_Comments_DataExhibitA.pdf). Maury, Matthew Fontaine. The Physical Geography of the Sea. Harper, 1855. Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor. “Beyond Privacy, Beyond Rights: Towards a ‘Systems’ Theory of Information Governance.” 98 California Law Review 1853 (2010). ———. Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

a smart air conditioner: Ry Crist (8 Jan 2014), “Haier’s new air conditioner is the first Apple-certified home appliance,” CNET, http://ces.cnet.com/8301-35306_1-57616915/haiers-new-air-conditioner-is-the-first-apple-certified-home-appliance. smart smoke and carbon monoxide detector: Heather Kelley (15 Jan 2014), “Google wants to run your home with Nest,” CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2014/01/15/tech/innovation/google-connect-home-nest. the smart power grid: US Department of Energy (2008), “The smart grid: An introduction,” http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/oeprod/DocumentsandMedia/DOE_SG_Book_Single_Pages(1).pdf. US Department of Energy (2014), “What is the smart grid?” https://www.smartgrid.gov/the_smart_grid. when you’re having sex: Gregory Ferenstein, “How health trackers could reduce sexual infidelity,” Tech Crunch, http://techcrunch.com/2013/07/05/how-health-trackers-could-reduce-sexual-infidelity. Give the device more information: Fitabase (3 Dec 2013), “Privacy policy,” http://www.fitabase.com/Privacy.


pages: 492 words: 153,565

Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

They took control of the system in just a day, and Maiffret said it would have taken just a couple of additional steps to dump chemicals into the water to make it potentially undrinkable.38 Making critical systems remotely accessible from the internet creates obvious security risks. But if Stuxnet proved anything, it’s that an attacker doesn’t need remote access to attack a system—instead, an autonomous worm can be delivered via USB flash drive or via the project files that engineers use to program PLCs. In 2012, Telvent Canada, a maker of control software used in the smart grid, was hacked by intruders linked to the Chinese military, who accessed project files for the SCADA system the company produced—a system installed in oil and gas pipelines in the United States as well as in water systems. Telvent used the project files to manage the systems of customers. Though the company never indicated whether the attackers modified the project files, the breach demonstrated how easily an attacker might target oil and gas pipelines by infecting the project files of a company like Telvent.39 Direct computer network intrusions aren’t the only concern when it comes to critical infrastructure, however.

Emergency generators would kick in at some critical facilities, but generators aren’t a viable solution for a prolonged outage, and in the case of nuclear power plants, a switch to generator power triggers an automatic, gradual shutdown of the plant, per regulations. One way to target electricity is to go after the smart meters electric utilities have been installing in US homes and businesses by the thousands, thanks in part to a $3 billion government smart-grid program, which has accelerated the push of smart meters without first ensuring that the technology is secure. One of the main problems security researchers have found with the system is that smart meters have a remote-disconnect feature that allows utility companies to initiate or cut off power to a building without having to send a technician. But by using this feature an attacker could seize control of the meters to disconnect power to thousands of customers in a way that would not be easily recoverable.

Roberts, “Hacker Says Texas Town Used Three Character Password to Secure Internet Facing SCADA System,” Threatpost blog, November 20, 2011, available at threatpost.com/blogs/hacker-says-texas-town-used-three-character-password-secure-internet-facing-scada-system-11201/75914. 37 His statements appeared on the Pastebin site on November 18, 2011. See Pastebin.com/Wx90LLum. 38 Ken Dilanian, “Virtual War a Real Threat,” Los Angeles Times, March 28, 2011. 39 Kim Zetter, “Chinese Military Linked to Hacks of More Than 100 Companies,” Wired.com, February 19, 2013, available at wired.com/2013/02/chinese-army-linked-to-hacks. For more information on the specifics of the Telvent hack, see also Kim Zetter, “Maker of Smart-Grid Control Software Hacked,” Wired.com, September 26, 2012, available at wired.com/2012/09/scada-vendor-telvent-hacked. 40 “Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack,” April 2008, available at empcommission.org/docs/A2473-EMP_Commission-7MB.pdf. See also footnote 25 for a description of an intentional electromagnetic pulse attack plan. 41 A 1996 RAND study titled “The Day After … in Cyberspace” was one of the first to imagine the consequences of a multipronged attack that targeted planes, trains, phone systems, and ATMs on a number of continents.


pages: 505 words: 147,916

Adventures in the Anthropocene: A Journey to the Heart of the Planet We Made by Gaia Vince

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, bank run, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, mobile money, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, supervolcano, sustainable-tourism

Decentralised and renewable energy production, which is often erratic or (in the case of solar or tidal) depends on the time of day, require a smart grid that is far more flexible than the twentieth-century ones used in most cities today. A smart grid relies on sensors and feedback mechanisms to detect customer demand and adjust the load accordingly. For example, at peak demand – 7 a.m. when people switch their kettles on – standby generators or storage devices can be brought online, while some gadgets, such as refrigerators or air-conditioning systems can be automatically dialled down or switched off for a short time. Most countries are looking to adopt smart grids in the coming years, partly because they are far more efficient and so use less energy, but also because they allow for renewable energy integration – monitoring and sensing demand and supply in real time and balancing loads accordingly – and for individual householders to feed their excess electricity back to the grid.


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

We talk about their failures as failures of management, coordination, governance. We think we could have “better” cities if we could only tune the machine to make it more “efficient.” The machine model is implicit in the popular language around “smart cities.” The promise is that shiny, smart boxes will figure out how to make our cities tick by smoothing traffic flow, monitoring crime, and allocating power through smart grids. Cities will be run by supersized versions of 2001: A Space Odyssey’s HAL crunching continuous streams of big data. As Donald Fagen of Steely Dan sang, “A just machine to make big decisions / Programmed by fellows with compassion and vision.” We need to think again. In reality, these deterministic paradigms are dwarfed by the scale and complexity of our cities. Urban centers are evolving organisms, not engineering problems.


pages: 92

The Liberal Moment by Nick Clegg, Demos (organization : London, England)

banking crisis, credit crunch, failed state, housing crisis, income inequality, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Right to Buy, smart grid, too big to fail, Winter of Discontent

A strong renewables model is different: dispersed, diverse, local. Instead of just a few dozen giant power stations, millions of rooftops, street corners, rivers, tides and hilltops would be making a contribution, with technology ranging from wind and wave power to combined heat and power installations in industrial sites and micro-generation in every community. Homes become both receivers and generators of electricity, playing their part in a ‘smart’ grid that moves energy between us all. It is a lot more complicated and cannot be controlled from the centre, but it is also a lot more sustainable. All the technology is available, and if combined with a truly ambitious approach to energy efficiency and conservation, this model is entirely realistic as a way of meeting our future energy needs. Yet Labour is disregarding this evidence and pushing, instead, for a new generation of nuclear power stations and even coal-fired generation.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

The reason was the same for power generation as for transportation: since electric utilities could measure power demand only in limited ways, they had to over-engineer the system. Now, though, what is known as a “smart grid” has the ability to collect huge amounts of data from devices like automatic meters that provide continuous real-time information. With access to so much information that it is measured in exabytes,h and the computer capacity to analyze it instantaneously, the system becomes highly dynamic. Some devices, like air conditioners, now have the ability to adjust their cycles when the grid is working its hardest. Like the old-fashioned grid, a modern smart grid can shunt power to different portions of the network automatically, but it can also manage consumption. There are dozens of analogies for this kind of data collection and management in a smart city’s transportation grid.


pages: 297 words: 95,518

Ten Technologies to Save the Planet: Energy Options for a Low-Carbon Future by Chris Goodall

barriers to entry, carbon footprint, congestion charging, decarbonisation, energy security, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, land tenure, load shedding, New Urbanism, oil shock, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, undersea cable

Second, we can store electricity. Third, we can introduce systems to manage electricity demand at short notice so that it matches the available supply. Every country in the world that relies on increasing amounts of wind, marine, or solar power will probably need to use all three of these mechanisms to align short-term supply and demand. In the U.S., this three-pronged approach is appropriately called the “smart grid.” The construction and operation of this new kind of grid are fascinating challenges to engineers and also to the mathematicians who will use statistical modeling to minimize the risk of not having enough power or, perhaps even more expensively, having grossly excessive power production for many hours a week. Elsewhere, the standard approach, which we might call the “twentieth-century model,” simply tries to predict changes in demand and then adjusts supply to meet these variations.

For example, an advertising break in a popular television program produces a sudden surge in demand as lights are turned on and kettles are boiled. Just before this happens, a large power station needs to be warmed up so that it is ready to start producing electricity the moment demand begins to surge. Supply simply aims to match moment-to-moment demand. This model is both costly and carbon intensive, because power stations have to be held in reserve, burning large amounts of fuel even when they are not supplying power to the grid. The smart grid is more efficient—and it’s also compatible with the incorporation of large amounts of power from wind and other unreliable energy sources. Let’s look in a little more detail at its three main approaches. Importing remote power If the wind suddenly drops on the Atlantic coast of Spain, it is statistically extremely improbable that Denmark will suffer at the same time. So if the electricity grid connected Spain in southern Europe and Denmark, far to the north, spare power could flow southward at very short notice.


pages: 400 words: 88,647

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

And in the sharing economy, firms such as Airbnb (sharing homes), RelayRides (sharing cars) and ParkatmyHouse (sharing parking spaces) are taking advantage of the internet and social media to enable ordinary people to monetise their idle household assets. Many of these disruptive digital ventures are being launched by millennials (popularly known as generation recession), who can raise capital on crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter, KissKissBankBank and MedStartr. Digital disrupters are not all young bootstrap entrepreneurs. Technology heavyweights including Apple, Google, Cisco and IBM are investing heavily in driverless cars, smart grids, connected homes and consumer medical devices. A massive shakeout in the automotive, construction, energy, health-care and other mature industries seems imminent. When asked who her company’s main competitor would be in five years’ time, a senior executive at a large US industrial firm answered: “Google.” Ingenious “prosumers” Deterred by high prices for commercial products and services, and empowered by new tools, many Western consumers are becoming “prosumers”; that is, producing the goods and services they need themselves, thereby unleashing a DIY revolution.

It can also be used in B2B industries. For instance, IBM has a programme called First of a Kind (FOAK) that brings together pioneering clients and IBM’s R&D teams to co-invent breakthrough business solutions with cutting-edge technologies. To date, IBM has completed over 150 FOAK projects, ranging from improving access to health-care data without violating patient privacy to reducing the cost of electricity using smart grids. FOAK is a frugal way for IBM to test the market viability of new technologies with a leading client before commercialising them on a larger scale. As stated earlier, however, customers – especially millennials – want not only to co-create branded products and services, but also to solve larger social problems. This is why Jez Frampton, CEO of Interbrand, a global branding consultancy, encourages brands to work with consumers to create shared value that helps society.


pages: 309 words: 93,958

22 Days in May: The birth of the Lib Dem - Conservative coalition by Laws, David

first-past-the-post, income inequality, pension reform, smart grid, smart meter

The priority is to increase bank lending to small businesses to create and protect jobs and boost the recovery, with discussion between our two parties to identify the most effective way of achieving this; other measures will include a bank levy; an independent commission on structural reform of the banking system reporting within a year; and over the longer term efforts to recover the taxpayer money that has been invested in the banks. • Specific measures to fulfil our joint ambitions for a low carbon and carbon friendly economy, including: the establishment of a smart grid and the roll-out of smart meters; the full establishment of feed-in tariff systems in electricity – as well as maintenance of banded ROCs; measures to promote a huge increase in energy from waste through anaerobic digestion; the creation of a green investment bank; the provision of home energy improvement paid for by the savings from lower energy bills; retention of energy performance certificates while scrapping HIPs; measures to encourage marine energy; the establishment of an emissions performance standard that will prevent coal-fired power stations being built unless they are equipped with sufficient CCS to meet the emissions performance standard; the establishment of a high-speed rail network; the cancellation of the third runway at Heathrow; the refusal of additional runways at Gatwick and Stansted; and the replacement of the Air Passenger Duty with a per flight duty; the provision of a floor price for carbon, as well as efforts to persuade the EU to move towards full auctioning of ETS permits; measures to make the import or possession of illegal timber a criminal offence; measures to promote green spaces and wildlife corridors in order to halt the loss of habitats and restore biodiversity; mandating a national recharging network for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles; continuation of the present Government’s proposals for public sector investment in CCS technology for four coal-fired power stations; and a specific commitment to reduce central government carbon emissions by 10 per cent within 12 months.

• Safeguards against the misuse of anti-terrorism legislation. • Further regulation of CCTV. • Ending of storage of internet and email records without good reason. • A new mechanism to prevent the proliferation of unnecessary new criminal offences. 11. Environment The parties agree to implement a full programme of measures to fulfil our joint ambitions for a low carbon and eco-friendly economy, including: • The establishment of a smart grid and the roll-out of smart meters. • The full establishment of feed-in tariff systems in electricity – as well as the maintenance of banded ROCs. • Measures to promote a huge increase in energy from waste through anaerobic digestion. • The creation of a green investment bank. • The provision of home energy improvement paid for by the savings from lower energy bills. • Retention of energy performance certificates while scrapping HIPs


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

Think about the automated “customer service” systems of major companies that make you provide the same information four times before you’re connected to a real person—that’s how system-centric feels. Mass production and mass consumption penetrate all aspects of society. Finally, the fourth wave of technological innovation is about to give rise to another Industrial Revolution that blends ICT (information communication technologies) with renewable energy, the smart grid, and awareness-based social technologies: a more human-centric turn in production and use. Just as 2.0 machines changed the dominance of 1.0 tools by being powered through energy, and 3.0 automated systems changed the dominance of 2.0 machines through the application of mathematical algorithms, we now see 4.0 technologies beginning to change the dominance of the old system-centric technologies.

The real disruptive change has little to do with cloud computing or faster data processing, but is the shift from optimizing abstract systemic functions or “systemic imperatives,” in the words of Habermas, to creating a shared field of human awareness that facilitates a new quality of entrepreneurship that sources action from the emerging whole.45 We refer to this transformative journey as the U process. Jeremy Rifkin refers to the convergence of ICT, biotech, nanotech, renewable energy, and the smart grid as the third Industrial Revolution.46 Just as the earlier waves of technology created an economic sphere that mirrors and amplifies the mechanical (1.0), motoric (2.0), and systemic (3.0) functions of the human being, the focus of our current technological innovations seems to duplicate and amplify the cognitive and communicative functions (4.0). As we see connections strengthen between humans and machines and between machines and machines, a question arises: Where is this journey taking us?


pages: 98 words: 25,753

Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning

We live in an age when the amount of data we expect to be generated in the world is measured in exabytes and zettabytes. By 2025, the forecast is that the Internet will exceed the brain capacity of everyone living on the entire planet. Additionally, the variety of sources and data types being generated expands as fast as new technology can be created. Performance metrics from in-car monitors, manufacturing floor yield measurements, all manner of healthcare devices, and the growing number of Smart Grid energy appliances all generate data. More importantly, they generate data at a rapid pace. The velocity of data generation, acquisition, processing, and output increases exponentially as the number of sources and increasingly wider variety of formats grows over time. It is widely reported that some 90% of the world’s data has been created in the last two years (http://www.economist.com/node/21537967).


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

“The baseload power era is over,” he says, noting that in Europe a lot of baseload power capacity stands idle for part of the day. “The modern grid is part baseload, part medium load, and part low load. It is about smoothing the push of supply, so that eventually we get to the era of the virtual power station.” But he acknowledges that the electricity distribution grid is not yet up to speed. “A smart grid is the key to the energy market,” he says.4 GWEC Secretary General Steve Sawyer concurs, while pointing out that Spain is now 60 percent renewable and Denmark is close to 100 percent. “Connectivity and the smart grid is always the key. It is not so much about baseload as supply-demand management.”5 As well, the goal of cost parity—where generating power from renewable sources costs the same as fossil fuels such as coal and gas—is getting closer in Europe. By 2014 to 2015, there is likely to be parity in much of northern Europe.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Turning our attention to automation—which is essentially the process of gathering all the data collected by the IoT, turning it into a series of next actions, and then, without human intervention, executing those actions. Already, we’ve seen the first wave of this in the smart assembly lines and supply chains (what’s technically called process optimization) that have enabled things like just-in-time delivery. With the smart grid for energy and the smart grid for water—what’s technically called resource consumption optimization—we’re seeing the second wave. Next up is the automation and control of far more complex autonomous systems—such as self-driving cars. There are even further opportunities in finding simpler ways to connect decision makers to sensor data in real time. The aforementioned plants that tweet their owners when they need watering were an early (2010) iteration of this sector.


pages: 1,034 words: 241,773

Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

Some fourth-generation nuclear technologies are shovel-ready, but are trussed in regulatory green tape and may never see the light of day, at least not in the United States.95 China, Russia, India, and Indonesia, which are hungry for energy, sick of smog, and free from American squeamishness and political gridlock, may take the lead. Whoever does it, and whichever fuel they use, the success of deep decarbonization will hinge on technological progress. Why assume that the know-how of 2018 is the best the world can do? Decarbonization will need breakthroughs not just in nuclear power but on other technological frontiers: batteries to store the intermittent energy from renewables; Internet-like smart grids that distribute electricity from scattered sources to scattered users at scattered times; technologies that electrify and decarbonize industrial processes such as the production of cement, fertilizer, and steel; liquid biofuels for heavy trucks and planes that need dense, portable energy; and methods of capturing and storing CO2. * * * The last of these is critical for a simple reason.

As we saw in chapter 10, fourth-generation nuclear power in the form of small modular reactors can be passively safe, proliferation-proof, waste-free, mass-produced, low-maintenance, indefinitely fueled, and cheaper than coal. Solar panels made with carbon nanotubes can be a hundred times as efficient as current photovoltaics, continuing Moore’s Law for solar energy. Their energy can be stored in liquid metal batteries: in theory, a battery the size of a shipping container could power a neighborhood; one the size of a Walmart could power a small city. A smart grid could collect the energy where and when it’s generated and distribute it where and when it’s needed. Technology could even breathe new life into fossil fuels: a new design for a zero-emissions gas-fired plant uses the exhaust to drive a turbine directly, rather than wastefully boiling water, and then sequesters the CO2 underground.18 Digital manufacturing, combining nanotechnology, 3-D printing, and rapid prototyping, can produce composites that are stronger and cheaper than steel and concrete and that can be printed on site for construction of houses and factories in the developing world.

Technology could even breathe new life into fossil fuels: a new design for a zero-emissions gas-fired plant uses the exhaust to drive a turbine directly, rather than wastefully boiling water, and then sequesters the CO2 underground.18 Digital manufacturing, combining nanotechnology, 3-D printing, and rapid prototyping, can produce composites that are stronger and cheaper than steel and concrete and that can be printed on site for construction of houses and factories in the developing world. Nanofiltration can purify water of pathogens, metals, even salt. High-tech outhouses require no hookups and turn human waste into fertilizer, drinking water, and energy. Precision irrigation and smart grids for water, using cheap sensors and AI in chips, could reduce water usage by a third to a half. Rice that is genetically modified to replace its inefficient C3 photosynthesis pathway with the C4 pathway of corn and sugarcane has a 50 percent greater yield, uses half the water and far less fertilizer, and tolerates warmer temperatures.19 Genetically modified algae can pull carbon out of the air and secrete biofuels.


pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

Says Glen Allmendinger: Once people started to understand how much value was locked up in just understanding asset information, they realized how much money could be made. Awareness is kind of a consumer thing — the smartphone and the physical B2B [business-to-business] space, big asset management. I think those two worlds finally met and everybody kind of said, “Oh, I can do a lot with this.” The more it seeps into stories like smart grids or health care, the more the subject becomes grounded in the context where people can imagine that there really are tangible advantages to trying to figure out what to do with all that data. Once the smartphone came into existence, all these sort of asset device stories that were roaming around got nearer to the consumer or user value, and all of a sudden, any person on the street could see that there are lots of things to be derived from location-based service: asset information, things in real time, essentially, and things that are state-based.


pages: 154 words: 48,340

What We Need to Do Now: A Green Deal to Ensure a Habitable Earth by Chris Goodall

blockchain, carbon footprint, decarbonisation, energy transition, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, smart grid, smart meter

What the local Orkney groups are doing is trying to use their own energy resources, rather than buying from the mainland. Among the many beneficial consequences, the cost of living on the islands will fall. More money will be retained in the local community. The economy will be able to diversify away from pastoral agriculture. Skilled jobs in such occupations as wind turbine maintenance and running the local ‘smart’ grid will multiply. Before starting work at the local council, Adele Lidderdale specialised in sustainable development for rural areas and she tells me the work on Orkney is an extraordinary chance to show that the transition to a 100 per cent clean energy system can benefit groups at the periphery, geographic and financial, of today’s economy. The UK and the rest of the world should watch this experiment closely and benefit from the knowledge gained in the next months and years.


pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The project is expected to reduce the eight-decade-old skyscraper’s energy use by nearly 40 percent and cut energy costs by about $4.4 million per year.22 Energy efficiency is the one energy policy issue upon which both Republicans and Democrats can agree. That bipartisan support is providing momentum to upgrades of the U.S. electric grid. Although there’s been a lot of hype around the phrase “smart grid,” there are significant gains to be had by providing consumers with more information about their usage and by giving utilities better information about the amount of voltage they are pumping into their wires. For instance, if a utility has reliable data showing that it is providing enough voltage to its most-distant customers on a given section of the grid, it can reduce the voltage on its generators and thereby reap energy savings of as much as 4 percent.23 In July 2009, the consulting firm McKinsey & Company released a report that predicted that if the United States adopted aggressive efficiency policies it could reduce primary energy consumption by about 20 percent when compared to a “business as usual” scenario.24 The consulting firm determined that there are big gains to be had from efficiency upgrades in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors.

(approximately August 3, 2008), http://www.barackobama.com/pdf/factsheet_energy_speech_080308.pdf. 18 PBS, “In Iowa, Questions Arise on Impact of Ethanol Production,” January 28, 2009, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/environment/jan-june09/mixedyield_01-28.html. 19 Steven Chu, “Pulling the Plug on Oil,” Newsweek, April 4, 2009, http://www.newsweek.com/id/192481. 20 See transcripts of two Obama speeches from October 23 and October 27, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-challenging-americans-lead-global-economy-clean-energy and http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-recovery-act-funding-smart-grid-technology. 21 Jan F. Kreider and Peter S. Curtiss, Kreider and Associates, “Comprehensive Life Cycle Analysis of Future, Liquid Fuels for Light Vehicles,” September 2008, http://www.fuelsandenergy.com/presentations/Kreider_LCA.pdf, 36. 22 Jesse Ausubel, in his article in “The Future Environment for the Energy Business,” APPEA Journal (2007), http://phe.rockefeller.edu/docs/ausubelappea.pdf, 8, uses 0.4 W/m2.


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

Eurasian needs in this realm are massive—recent ADB estimates suggest US$26 trillion in new infrastructure is required over the 2016 –2030 period.26 Despite massive infrastructural spending across the continent already since the crisis of 2008 –2009, particularly in China, the process of building the requisite superhighways, high-speed rail lines, electric power grids, electric power generators, dams, ports, airports, and communications systems across Eurasia has just begun. Electric power transmission systems are growing capable of conveying greater and greater volumes of power over longer and longer distances, due to technical improvements in grid management as well as the progress of superconductivity.27 Increasingly sophisticated electric power grids (smart grids) are becoming ever more capable of managing energy usage at the grassroots level, including inside the home, drawing on technical and financial support from both ends of the Eurasian continent. In electric power, telecommunications, and other areas, there is a new digital dimension that greatly intensifies potential for efficient interaction across long distances. The new transcontinental infrastructure, once in progress, sets in motion expectations of deepening economic interdependence between the powerful European and Chinese poles of Eurasia, placing fierce pressure in turn on national regulatory barriers while marginalizing the influence of protectionist forces in between.

See also China Perestroika (restructuring), 55 Perincek, Doğu: and Turkish Eurasianism, 41 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), 128, 158 Persian Gulf: exports from, 81, 82, 98; growth of, 2 –3; oil reserves, 78, 80t, 81, 98; sea lanes between Strait of Malacca and, 246 Peter the Great, 32 Pharmaceuticals, 4, 130 Philippines, 12, 118, 128, 129, 186, 189 Piketty, Thomas, 190 –191 Pipelines, 79m, 144m; Central Asia-China (West-East Pipeline), 34, 57, 58 –59, 78 – 81, 83 – 84; Central-Asia-India (Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India, 321 TAPI), 61, 94; Central Asia-Turkey, 59; China-Myanmar, 135; China-Pakistan, 193; geopolitics of, 43, 143, 197, 213; proposals, 39, 83, 93, 258n15; Russia-China (Power of Siberia), 34, 83, 84, 144 –145, 153; Russia-Europe (Nord Stream I, Nord Stream II), 83, 265n29; Russia-Turkey (Blue Stream, TurkStream), 41; the United States, 241 Piraeus, 44, 88, 112, 177, 202, 217, 229, 245 “Pivot to Asia” (US policy), 46, 151, 152 Poland, 68, 83, 92, 113, 165, 172, 201, 215 Policy decisions, functional categories of, 18 –19 Polo, Marco, 24, 26, 47, 161 Populism, 205; and international relations, 200 –202 Port Arthur, 31, 142 Postal savings: and Chinese capital mobilization, 105 Pound sterling, 220, 302n39 Power grids: geopolitical implications of, 21, 43, 213, 216, 229; infrastructure projects, 93–94, 258n15; “Northeast Asian Super Grid,” 38, 84, 197; “smart grids,” 216 Power of Siberia project, 34, 83, 143, 153, 269n37 Prairie Road Program, 258n15 Pribumi, 124, 125 Production chains. See supply chains Production networks. See supply chains Prospects and policy implications, 232 –252 Public-private partnerships (PPPs), 250 Putin, Vladimir: foreign policy toward Asia, 33 –35; relationship with Xi, 84, 151–154; Ukraine crisis, 66 – 68 Qatar, 78, 82, 192 Qing China, 31, 141 Qinzhou Industrial Park, 130 Qualcomm, 113 Qualified majority voting (QMV), 242 Quesnay, Francois, 162 Rajapaksa, Mahinda, 193 Rajaratnam, S., 137 Razak, Najib, 132 Reagan, Ronald, 151 Redistributive policies, 18 Refugees, 191, 201 322 Index Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure, 238 Regional development banks, 207 Regionalist integrators, roles of, 16 –17 Regulatory policies, 18, 226 Renewable energy, 84 Renminbi (RMB), role of, 221–222 Ren Xiao, 225 Resources: insecurities, 223; quest for, 197–198 Ricci, Matteo, 161–162 Richtofen, Ferdinand von: and Silk Road, 24 Roh Moo-hyun, 37 Roh Tae-woo, 33, 35 –36, 37 Roman Empire, 26, 47 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 18 Roosevelt, Theodore, xvi, 251 Rosneft, 147, 283n15 Rousseau, 163, 164 Russia: and the Arctic, 93, 145 –147; arms export, 154 –147; and Central Asia, 57–58; and China, 68, 84, 106, 140 –159, 223, 227; collapse of the Soviet Union, 54 – 61; continentalism, 32 –35; demography, 150, 189 –190; energy, 77–78, 82 – 84, 143 –145, 150, 198; and Europe, 82, 165 –166, 167– 168, 171–172; maritime access, 75m; as a transit state, 42, 89 –91; and the Ukraine crisis, 65 – 68; and the United States, 244.


pages: 236 words: 50,763

The Golden Ticket: P, NP, and the Search for the Impossible by Lance Fortnow

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, complexity theory, Donald Knuth, Erdős number, four colour theorem, Gerolamo Cardano, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, linear programming, new economy, NP-complete, Occam's razor, P = NP, Paul Erdős, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, smart grid, Stephen Hawking, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William of Occam

Machine learning works by training algorithms on data sets. The more data you have, the better your algorithm. Usually having more data trumps finding a better algorithm. Google does a reasonable job with spam detection, voice recognition, and language translation because it has large numbers of examples to work with. In the near future, we will have data that should help us better analyze individual health, create smart grids that use electricity more efficiently, drive cars autonomously, and lead to new understandings of the basic nature of our universe. How we understand data to enrich our lives is a great challenge for computer scientists. The Networking of Everything Roughly two billion people are connected through the Internet in some way, via email or social networks. The Internet has allowed us to communicate, collaborate, learn, and play in ways unimaginable in the twentieth century.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Automatic Markets and Tradenets An automatic market is the idea that unitized, packetized, quantized resources (initially like electricity, gas, bandwidth, and in the deeply speculative future, units of synaptic potentiation in brains) are automatically transacted based on dynamically evolving conditions and preprogrammed user profiles, permissions, and bidding functions.73 Algorithmic stock market trading and real-time bidding (RTB) advertising networks are the closest existing examples of automatic markets. In the future, automatic markets could be applied in the sense of having limit orders and program trading for physical-world resource allocation. Truly smart grids (e.g., energy, highway, and traffic grids) could have automatic bidding functions on both the cost and revenue side of their operations—for both inputs (resources) and outputs (customers) and participation in automatic clearing mechanisms. A related concept is tradenets: in the future there could be self-operating, self-owned assets like a self-driving, self-owning car.74 Self-directing assets would employ themselves for trade based on being continuously connected to information from the Internet to be able to assess dynamic demand for themselves, contract with potential customers like Uber does now, hedge against oil price increases with their own predictive resource planning, and ultimately self-retire at the end of their useful life—in short, executing all aspects of autonomous self-operation.


pages: 209 words: 53,236

The Scandal of Money by George Gilder

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, Donald Trump, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, secular stagnation, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, winner-take-all economy, yield curve, zero-sum game

With transactional overhead dominated by offline financial infrastructure, micropayments are uneconomic, and the Internet fills with mendacious free goods, bogus contracts, and pop-up hustles. Some 36 percent of web pages are spurious, emitted by bots to snare information from unwary surfers.3 At the same time, Silicon Valley moves toward an “internet of things,” sensors and devices—from heart monitors and “smart grid” gauges to automated cars and heating systems—linked across the net and needing secure automated transactions without offline intermediaries. Reform of world money is less a far-fetched dream than a rising imperative. Gold and digital currencies converge to provide a new solution to the enigma of money. Although there are many potential rivals, bitcoin is the most complete and tested form of digital currency that does not require centralized management.


pages: 181 words: 52,147

The Driver in the Driverless Car: How Our Technology Choices Will Create the Future by Vivek Wadhwa, Alex Salkever

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Google bus, Hyperloop, income inequality, Internet of things, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, life extension, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Menlo Park, microbiome, mobile money, new economy, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Thomas Davenport, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

It reduces energy bills, perhaps by as much as 10 percent, and makes your home more comfortable. The Nest also ties into utility programs that ask users to cut back on power usage at times when energy consumption is at a peak, to relieve pressure on the electrical grid. Nest users who live where such programs are in place can save 5 percent or more on power bills by participating. That’s an early but effective instance of the smart grid, a sub-sector of the Internet of Things focusing on energy and our giant, antiquated, and inefficient power-generation and transmission system. You can install the Nest application on your phone and control your home environment remotely. So, say, if you want to start cooling down your house fifteen minutes before you arrive home, you can send a message to the Nest. That’s handy if you are coming home earlier than planned on a hot summer day in Phoenix, for example.


pages: 178 words: 52,637

Quality Investing: Owning the Best Companies for the Long Term by Torkell T. Eide, Lawrence A. Cunningham, Patrick Hargreaves

air freight, Albert Einstein, backtesting, barriers to entry, buy and hold, cashless society, cloud computing, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, discovery of penicillin, endowment effect, global pandemic, haute couture, hindsight bias, low cost airline, mass affluent, Network effects, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, shareholder value, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management

The illusion of predictability also seems to recur in companies that are organizationally complex, such as industrial conglomerates or diversified financial institutions. Such companies may well be accessible to the student of industry or finance and even manifest features associated with quality companies, but their sheer scale and inherent opacity can lead even experts to perceive predictability that is partial at best. For example, Siemens operates through 19 divisions ranging from smart grid, to medical diagnostics and industry automation. While it is tempting to evaluate whether Siemens is a quality company, its enormity and intricacy presents considerable risks of mistake. Insisting on a firm basis of knowledge about a company and its industry, and being alert to the risks of straying into unfamiliar territory, is important. When this sound foundation exists, interpreting and responding to surprise events or disruptions is more likely to be done rationally.


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

Pragmatic and visionary businesspeople and governments understand this, and are reorienting themselves accordingly. The companies, cities, and countries that get there first will define business success in the early twenty-first century. That’s why the so-called clean tech and renewable energy sectors are hot on several continents. Or why policy experts are debating the best way to develop a “smart grid” that will transform the way energy is generated and shared. Finally, world population growth has sped up the trend toward greater urban density, which favors Mesh businesses. A car- or bike- or tool-sharing business can offer a greater depth and variety of products and services in neighborhoods where there are more people nearby to take advantage of them. As an entrepreneur, I’m excited to have a new platform to rein-vent markets and create thriving, customer-loving businesses.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, G4S, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, ubercab, urban planning, Zipcar

Philips is developing disposable sensors that can detect spoilage in your refrigerator, or when it’s time to clean carpets, towels or clothing. GE’s Grid IQ is an “insight tool” that mines social media for geo-tagged mentions of electrical outages, allowing utility companies to respond faster. Data is fed to hot maps where patterns alert crews and first responders to power outages, floods, tornadoes or fires. Could such smart grids prevent such tragedies as the one caused by the massive forest fire that took the lives of 19 Arizona firefighters in June 2013? Perhaps not quite yet. But they are coming closer all the time. Robotic Household Assistants Another category of personal assistants for the home steps out of the pages of science fiction and perhaps meanders over the freaky line. Robots have long existed as characters in books and movies.


The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs by Nicolas Pineault

Albert Einstein, en.wikipedia.org, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter

The short version: Everything That’s Wrong With Smart Meters Privacy Civil rights Cybersecurity 483 484 Smart meters gather information from all your smart appliances, and transmits this information — how frequently you open the fridge, what’s plugged into your walls outlets, etc. — to the utility company. Then, utility companies are allowed to sell your information to 3rd parties and make a ton of money with it. When your home is connected to a smart meter, the utility company can shut down your power usage for any reason, at any time. Creating a “smart grid” where every household’s electricity use is monitored online means that it can be hacked into. A lot of people way smarter than me when it comes to cybersecurity — including a former CIA director484 — have said this is a really, really bad idea. I highly suggest renting it for $4 on the official website: takebackyourpower.net/ youtube.com © 2017 N&G Media Inc. 180 Everything That’s Wrong With Smart Meters Environment Smart meters need to be replaced every 5 to 7 years, compared to every 20 to 30 years for analog meters485 — and you’re the one paying the bill.


The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz

airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, different worldview, facts on the ground, friendly fire, industrial cluster, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, source of truth, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

A mechanical politician explained, as we passed, how his constituency was adopting virtual office technology so they could avoid unnecessary vehicle travel during peak congestion periods. We watched a major scientific conference being held in a virtual-reality environment; the physicist running it was a pulsing purple fuzzball, but otherwise it looked as boring as usual. A buzzing exhibit that took up a whole room, an impressive model of the electric grid of North America, explained how smart grid technology was enabling smooth integration of many different sources of power, and adaptation to demand spikes caused by substitution of electricity for dispersed uses of fossil fuel. We were feeling a lot better, with the gentle refrain of "As ye muddle, so shall ye reap" caressing our ears as we headed for the exit. But on our way out, a guy with a pocket protector in his wrinkle-free white short-sleeve shirt handed us a brochure with some alarming data about carbon dioxide leakage from underground storage sites, and the Lost Species Meter ticked over yet another thousand species.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

A few additions have been announced since, none of which were ideal: warehouses, a hotel, a cancer radiation lab (since shelved), and an organic produce nursery. That’s all well and good for the tax rolls, but if Detroit is going to win this war of all against all that’s raging, it again begs the question: What is the aerotropolis for? The answer, given by everyone from Ficano on down, is anything and everything: batteries, biofuels, windmills, and smart grid-building software consultancies. Two years ago, Ficano announced Wayne County would build a Stem Cell Commercialization Center—adding genetic engineering to the list. When we met, practically the first word off his lips was The Graduate’s punch line, plastics—but in this case a biodegradable kind derived from wheat. Imagine the Big Three supplanted by Big Green. That may sound desperate, but they’re being pragmatic.

In June 2009, General Electric announced it would build an Advanced Manufacturing & Software Technology Center in the aerotropolis footprint—at Visteon Village, no less, moving in as the campus bled out from round after round of layoffs. The center would be one of only five worldwide, joining a network of skunk works in Bangalore, Shanghai, Munich, and Schenectady, New York (where the lightbulb had been perfected). GE promised to hire more than a thousand engineers at six-figure salaries. The lucky ones would tinker with the next generation of wind turbines, smart grids, CAT scanners, and jet engines, applying their know-how in composites, casting, and machining. It was knowledge work in its most tangible form: they wouldn’t build jet engines there; they would discover how to build better, cleaner ones. It was a startling validation of Ficano’s vision and a down payment on the jobs and wages he’d promised to create. GE chose Detroit because too much brainpower was being wasted; it chose the aerotropolis because it wanted to sit between the airport and the University of Michigan.


HBase: The Definitive Guide by Lars George

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, create, read, update, delete, Debian, distributed revision control, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, Google Earth, Kickstarter, place-making, revision control, smart grid, web application

If we were to take 140 bytes per message, as used by Twitter, it would total more than 17 TB every month. Even before the transition to HBase, the existing system had to handle more than 25 TB a month.[12] In addition, less web-oriented companies from across all major industries are collecting an ever-increasing amount of data. For example: Financial Such as data generated by stock tickers Bioinformatics Such as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (http://www.gbif.org/) Smart grid Such as the OpenPDC (http://openpdc.codeplex.com/) project Sales Such as the data generated by point-of-sale (POS) or stock/inventory systems Genomics Such as the Crossbow (http://bowtie-bio.sourceforge.net/crossbow/index.shtml) project Cellular services, military, environmental Which all collect a tremendous amount of data as well Storing petabytes of data efficiently so that updates and retrieval are still performed well is no easy feat.

ServerName class, Cluster Status Information servers, Servers, Servers, Servers, Cluster Status Information, Cluster Status Information, Cluster Status Information, Adding Servers, Adding a region server (see also master server; region servers) adding, Adding Servers, Adding a region server requirements for, Servers, Servers status information for, Cluster Status Information status of, Cluster Status Information, Cluster Status Information setAutoFlush() method, HTable class, Client-side write buffer, Client API: Best Practices setBatch() method, Scan class, Caching Versus Batching setBlockCacheEnabled() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setBlockSize() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setBloomFilterType() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setCacheBlocks() method, Get class, Single Gets setCacheBlocks() method, Scan class, Introduction, Client API: Best Practices setCaching() method, Scan class, Caching Versus Batching, Client API: Best Practices setCompactionCompressionType() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setCompressionType() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setDeferredLogFlush() method, HTableDescriptor class, Table Properties setFamilyMap() method, Scan class, Introduction setFilter() method, Get class, Single Gets setFilter() method, Get or Scan class, The filter hierarchy setFilter() method, Scan class, Client API: Best Practices setInMemory() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setMaxFileSize() method, HTableDescriptor class, Table Properties setMaxVersions() method, Get class, Single Gets setMaxVersions() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setMaxVersions() method, Scan class, Introduction setMemStoreFlushSize() method, HTableDescriptor class, Table Properties setReadOnly() method, HTableDescriptor class, Table Properties setRegionCachePrefetch() method, HTable class, The HTable Utility Methods setScannerCaching() method, HTable class, Caching Versus Batching setScope() method, HColumnDescriptor class, Column Families setters, Table Properties setTimeRange() method, Get class, Single Gets setTimeRange() method, Increment class, Multiple Counters setTimeRange() method, Scan class, Introduction setTimeStamp() method, Delete class, Single Deletes setTimeStamp() method, Get class, Single Gets setTimeStamp() method, Scan class, Introduction setValue() method, HTableDescriptor class, Loading from the table descriptor, Table Properties setWriteToWAL() method, Increment class, Multiple Counters setWriteToWAL() method, Put class, Single Puts sharding, The Problem with Relational Database Systems, Scalability, Auto-Sharding, Auto-Sharding Shell, HBase, Shell (see HBase Shell) shouldBypass() method, ObserverContext class, The ObserverContext class shouldComplete() method, ObserverContext class, The ObserverContext class shutdown() method, HBaseAdmin class, Cluster Operations Simple Object Access Protocol, Introduction to REST, Thrift, and Avro (see SOAP) Simple Storage Service, S3 (see S3) SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter class, Filters Summary SingleColumnValueFilter class, SingleColumnValueFilter, SingleColumnValueFilter, SingleColumnValueExcludeFilter, Filters Summary size() method, Put class, Single Puts size() method, Result class, The Result class SkipFilter class, SkipFilter, SkipFilter, Filters Summary slave servers, The Problem with Relational Database Systems, Servers, Servers (see also region servers) smart grid, data requirements of, The Dawn of Big Data Snappy algorithm, Available Codecs, Snappy SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), Introduction to REST, Thrift, and Avro, Introduction to REST, Thrift, and Avro Socorro, Mozilla, Time Series Data software requirements, Software, Windows, Building from Source Solaris, Operating system Solr, Search Integration sort and merge operations, compared to seek operations, Log-Structured Merge-Trees speculative execution mode, MapReduce, Table Splits split command, HBase Shell, Tools, Managed Splitting split() method, HBaseAdmin class, Cluster Operations, Managed Splitting split/compaction storms, Managed Splitting SplitAlgorithm interface, Presplitting Regions splitlog directory, Root-level files, Region-level files, Log splitting splits directory, Region-level files, Region splits src directory, Apache Binary Release SSH, requirements for, SSH standalone mode, Quick-Start Guide, Run Modes, Standalone Mode for HBase, Quick-Start Guide start key, for partial key scans, Partial Key Scans start() method, Coprocessor interface, The Coprocessor Class start_replication command, HBase Shell, Replication static provisioning, for MapReduce, Static Provisioning, Static Provisioning status command, HBase Shell, Quick-Start Guide, General stop key, for partial key scans, Partial Key Scans stop() method, Coprocessor interface, The Coprocessor Class stopMaster() method, HBaseAdmin class, Cluster Operations stopRegionServer() method, HBaseAdmin class, Cluster Operations stop_replication command, HBase Shell, Replication storage API, Storage API (see client API) storage architecture, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Storage, KeyValue Format, Overview, Write Path, Write Path, Files, Compactions, HFile Format, HFile Format, KeyValue Format, KeyValue Format, Write-Ahead Log, Durability, Read Path, Read Path, Concepts, Concepts, Tall-Narrow Versus Flat-Wide Tables accessing data, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Overview column families, Concepts, Concepts deleting data, Log-Structured Merge-Trees files in, Files, Compactions HFile format, HFile Format, HFile Format KeyValue format, KeyValue Format, KeyValue Format LSM-trees for, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Log-Structured Merge-Trees read path, Read Path, Read Path tables, Tall-Narrow Versus Flat-Wide Tables WAL (write-ahead log), Write-Ahead Log, Durability writing data, Log-Structured Merge-Trees writing path, Write Path, Write Path storage models, Dimensions store files (HFiles), Tables, Rows, Columns, and Cells, Implementation, Implementation, Cluster Status Information, Cluster Status Information, Log-Structured Merge-Trees, Overview, Region Server Metrics, Enabling Compression, Enabling Compression, HBase Configuration Properties, HBase Configuration Properties (see also storage architecture) compaction of, Enabling Compression (see compaction) compression of, Enabling Compression (see compression) creation of, Overview in LSM-trees, Log-Structured Merge-Trees metrics for, Region Server Metrics properties for, HBase Configuration Properties, HBase Configuration Properties status information about, Cluster Status Information, Cluster Status Information stored procedures, The Problem with Relational Database Systems StoreScanner class, Read Path strict consistency, Nonrelational Database Systems, Not-Only SQL or NoSQL?


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

., averages a water line break: Ibid. 34 “We have about two million miles of pipe …”: “Liquid Assets: The Story of Our Water Infrastructure,” 19 Oct. 2009, www.infrastructureusa.org. 35 Even now, our tap water is becoming: Testimony of Judy Treml, House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 15 Oct. 2009, www.transportation.house.gov. 36 “Older systems are plagued by chronic overflows …”: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Wastewater,” 2009, www.infrastructurereportcard.org. 37 While demand for electricity has risen: Thomas J. Donohue, “Rebuilding America—the Time Is Now,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 10 Aug. 2007, www.uschamber.com. 38 Since we need all the power: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Energy,” 2009, www.infrastructurereportcard.org. 39 These ongoing brownouts and blackouts: U.S. Department of Energy, “Smart Grid System Report,” Jul. 2009, www.energy.gov. 40 The ASCE estimates that it could take: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Energy,” 2009, www.infrastructurereportcard.org. 41 On August 14, 2003, we got a glimpse: Allan J. DeBlasio et al., “Learning from the 2003 Blackout,” U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Sep.


pages: 381 words: 78,467

100 Plus: How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family And by Sonia Arrison

23andMe, 8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, attribution theory, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, dark matter, disruptive innovation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, Googley, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, post scarcity, Ray Kurzweil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Singularitarianism, smart grid, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, X Prize

So salt-tolerant crops will require less irrigation—thus it’s simultaneously a quality and quantity issue.” E-mail interview, September 2, 2009. 31 University of California, Davis, “Genetically Engineered Tomato Plant Grows in Salty Water,” press release, July 25, 2001, www.news.ucdavis.edu/search/news_detail.lasso?id=5840. 32 See “Drought-Tolerant Wheat: ‘Promising Results,’” GMO Safety, August 2008, www.gmo-safety.eu/en/news/654.docu.html. 33 Martin LaMonica, “IBM Plunges into the ‘Smart Grid for Water,’” Cnet News, September 4, 2009, http://news.cnet.com/8301–11128_3-10345122-54.html?tag=newsCategoryArea.1 . 34 Peter Huber, “Wealth Is Green,” Speakout.com, March 23, 2000, http://speakout.com/activism/opinions/5039-1.html. 35 Don Coursey, “The Demand for Environmental Quality,” University of Chicago, December 1992, as discussed in Matthew Brown and Jane S. Shaw, “Prosperity and Environment: Does Prosperity Protect The Environment?”


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

Most people are counting on technology to pull off that trick. Even non-Cornucopian economists, who tend to see technological change more as a tortoise than a hare, are getting upbeat about clean energy. The new conventional view is that climate change can be solved by innovative technologies and market incentives such as a price for (or tax on) carbon. There’s palpable excitement about plug-in hybrids, smart grids and smart homes, renewable energy, and reflective roofs, as well as a significant government role for turning these ideas into realities. There’s reason for optimism, and not just on energy. The last few decades have witnessed enormous progress in the first stage of a sustainability revolution employing ideas such as zero waste, eco-efficiency, and biomimicry (the practice of applying nature’s own parsimonious and evolutionary wonders to manufacturing and design).


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

If hybrid cars powered by biofuels, batteries, and hydrogen can flourish, oil will lose its captive transportation market. In tackling both financial and energy crises simultaneously, the Obama administration is planning everything from a “green bank” to a clean energy development agency to provide more than $100 billion to fund clean-tech research and create jobs in solar cell installation (which takes more hands than running a power plant), to build commuter railways and smart grids, to expand the country’s natural gas infrastructure, and to reinsulate houses and buildings. The United States has at least 250,000 square miles of land in the Southwest alone that are suitable for solar plants. America’s high-tech and clean-tech communities are now coming together to design green infrastructures for the common man. Shai Agassi’s company Better Place has been designing an electric car infrastructure since well before Obama was elected, while local entrepreneurs and utilities are combining to make a thirty-foot-tall windmill with seven-foot blades the new must-have backyard accessory in as many as fifteen million homes.


pages: 267 words: 72,552

Reinventing Capitalism in the Age of Big Data by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Thomas Ramge

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, banking crisis, basic income, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, gig economy, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, land reform, lone genius, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, universal basic income, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

Spurred by “smart meter” technology, for example, energy markets will become data-rich, transitioning from their inefficient and fragile current state, in which a limited number of large producers provide energy for many, toward a much thicker market in which a huge number of diverse participants, including home-based producers of energy (think solar) and storage (think batteries), can better coordinate with each other. Not only will we waste less energy, this will enable us to more efficiently use the smart grid, an advanced energy distribution infrastructure. Shipping logistics will benefit from data-rich markets as well. About one in four trucks drive empty because there is no efficient way for them to get freight for a particular leg of a trip. Self-driving trucks alone will not change this situation, but data-rich markets can provide better matches of trucks and freight. The effect of such enhanced coordination would translate into lower emissions and improved sustainability.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Using a wireless traffic-detection system commonly deployed in cities throughout the world, an Argentinean hacker, Cesar Cerrudo, was able to control traffic lights in Manhattan by hacking the underlying sensors embedded in the roadways, a technique that enabled him to reroute traffic and cause traffic jams at will. Hacking buildings and a city’s operating system can compromise physical safety as well as allow attackers to gain control of elevators, air ducts, door locks, lighting, bridges, tunnels, water treatment facilities, and other vital systems. If smart meters can be hacked, so too can smart grids, and the ability of a hacktivist collective, organized crime group, or rogue nation to shut off power to the masses now becomes a reality. In July 2014, a security researcher was able to seize control of the power supply to Ettlingen, a town of forty thousand people in southern Germany. A hacker using the same exploit could have switched off all municipal utilities, including power, water, and gas.

Chamber,” Wall Street Journal, Dec. 21, 2011. 77 As the Chinese premier: Goodman, “Power of Moore’s Law in a World of Geotechnology.” 78 “means of electric media”: Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New York: Routledge, 2001), rev. ed. 79 “Fitbit for the city”: Elizabeth Dwoskin, “They’re Tracking When You Turn Off the Lights,” Wall Street Journal, October 20, 2014. 80 Better sensors in our streetlights: “Outdoor Lighting,” Echelon, https:/​/​www.​echelon.​com/​applications/​street-​lighting/. 81 Using a wireless traffic-detection system: Mark Prigg, “New York’s Traffic Lights HACKED,” Mail Online, April 30, 2014. 82 If smart meters: Erica Naone, “Hacking the Smart Grid,” MIT Technology Review, Aug. 2, 2010. 83 A hacker using the same exploit: Reuters, “ ‘Smart’ Technology Could Make Utilities More Vulnerable to Hackers,” Raw Story, July 16, 2014. Chapter 14: Hacking You 1 “We Are All Cyborgs Now”: Amber Case, “We Are All Cyborgs Now,” TED Talk, Dec. 2010. 2 Over 90 percent: “Text Message/Mobile Marketing,” WebWorld2000, http://​www.​webworld2000.​com/. 3 Over 100 million: Marcelo Ballve, “Wearable Gadgets Are Still Not Getting the Attention They Deserve—Here’s Why They Will Create a Massive New Market,” Business Insider, Aug. 29, 2013. 4 Most wearable devices: “How Safe Is Your Quantified Self?


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Every day people are using Collaborative Consumption—traditional sharing, bartering, lending, trading, renting, gifting, and swapping, redefined through technology and peer communities. Collaborative Consumption is enabling people to realize the enormous benefits of access to products and services over ownership, and at the same time save money, space, and time; make new friends; and become active citizens once again. Social networks, smart grids, and real-time technologies are also making it possible to leapfrog over outdated modes of hyper-consumption and create innovative systems based on shared usage such as bike or car sharing. These systems provide significant environmental benefits by increasing use efficiency, reducing waste, encouraging the development of better products, and mopping up the surplus created by over-production and -consumption.


pages: 281 words: 83,505

Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional

If, through some unfathomable invention, scientists managed to stop all greenhouse gas emissions tomorrow, the process of global warming would continue for centuries, and sea levels would keep rising for thousands of years. We must mitigate, but we also have no choice but to adapt. In coming decades, the world’s most affluent societies will invest trillions of dollars on new infrastructure—seawalls, smart grids, basins for capturing rainwater—that can withstand twenty-first-century challenges, including megastorms like Harvey and Irma. But no investment in hard infrastructure will be sufficient to “climate-proof” the densely populated cities and suburbs that modern societies have built in coastal areas, river deltas, deserts, and plains. Engineered systems can be more or less responsive to the emerging climate, but history shows that they are never infallible.


pages: 286 words: 87,401

Blitzscaling: The Lightning-Fast Path to Building Massively Valuable Companies by Reid Hoffman, Chris Yeh

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business intelligence, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, database schema, discounted cash flows, Elon Musk, Firefox, forensic accounting, George Gilder, global pandemic, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, transaction costs, transport as a service, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, web application, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, yellow journalism

Today, multiple major waves seem to be arriving simultaneously—technologies like the cloud, AI, AR/VR, not to mention more esoteric projects like supersonic planes and hyperloops. What’s more, rather than being concentrated narrowly in a personal computer industry that was essentially a niche market, today’s new technologies impact nearly every part of the economy, creating many new opportunities. This trend holds tremendous promise. Precision medicine will use computing power to revolutionize health care. Smart grids use software to dramatically improve power efficiency and enable the spread of renewable energy sources like solar roofs. And computational biology might allow us to improve life itself. Blitzscaling can help these advances spread and magnify their sorely needed impact. THE TYPES OF SCALING Blitzscaling isn’t simply a matter of rapid growth. Every company is obsessed with growth. In any industry, you live and die by the numbers—user acquisition, margins, growth rate, and so on.


The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

They have also proposed: individuals entering into partnerships with developers wherein they can more proactively select what data they are willing to release, to whom, and under what circumstances; companies providing users access to their own data in a usable format for their own benefit; and that companies ‘share the wealth’ in the monetisation of personal data (Tene and Polonetsky 2012; Rubinstein 2013). An example of such a co-beneficial sharing of the wealth of data are smart grids where data generated by smart meters concerning household electricity consumption are used by the power company to produce supply efficiencies, with households supplied with apps that enable them to monitor their own use and adapt behaviour to save money. Industry, by and large, wants either the present provisions to continue or to be relaxed, with privacy administered through market-led regulation that does not stifle the economic leveraging of data.


pages: 317 words: 98,745

Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

Indeed, Stuxnet has been described as a “Frankenstein” of existing cybercrime methods and tradecraft, and many now see cyber crime as a strategic vector for state-based and corporate espionage. Hidden in the shadows of low-level thuggery and cyber crime for cash, in other words, are more serious and potentially devastating operations, like acts of sabotage against critical infrastructure. Now perilously networked together, such infrastructure is especially vulnerable to cyber attacks: our smart grids, financial sectors, nuclear enrichment facilities, power plants, hospitals, and government agencies are all there for the taking. And this is happening at a time when militaries, criminal organizations, militants, and any individual with an axe to grind are refining capabilities to target and disrupt those networks. Cyberspace has become a battleground, a ground zero, for geopolitical contests and armed struggle.


The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good by Robert H. Frank

carbon footprint, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, congestion charging, corporate governance, deliberate practice, full employment, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, smart grid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, winner-take-all economy

Jenny Anderson and Andrew Ross Sorkin, “Bill Is Offered to Increase Tax on Private Equity,” New York Times, June 23, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/23/ business/23tax.html. 10. Robert D. Yaro, “An Investment We Have to Make,” New York Times, October 14, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/10/13/will-we-ever-have-highspeed-trains/an-investment-we-have-to-make. 11. U.S. Department of Energy, “The Smart Grid: An Introduction,” 2008, http:// www.oe.energy.gov/1165.htm. Chapter Eleven: Taxing Harmful Activities 1. A. C. Pigou, in The Economics of Welfare, 4th ed., London: Macmillan, 1932, http://www.econlib.org/library/NPDBooks/Pigou/pgEW.html. 2. For an excellent case study, see Gary W. Dorris, “Redesigning Regulatory Policy: A Case Study in Urban Smog,” PhD dissertation, Department of Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University, 1996. 3.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

/Industries/industrie4.0-smart-manufacturing-forthe-futu.. http://motherboard.vice.com/read/life-after-the-fourthindustrial-revolution 215 CHAPTER 14 Smart Factories The heart of Industry 4.0 in conceptual terms is the Smart Factory (Figure 14-1) and everything revolves around this central entity that makes up the business model. If we look at how Industry 4.0 will work in theory, we can see that everything from the supply chain, business models, and processes are there to provide the Smart Factory. Similarly, all the external interfaces from supply chain partners, smart grids, and even social media conceptually have the smart factory at the hub—it is the sun around which other processes orbit. Figure 14-1. Smart Factory So what is a Smart Factory and why is it so important to the future of manufacturing? © Alasdair Gilchrist 2016 A. Gilchrist, Industry 4.0, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4842-2047-4_14 218 Chapter 14 | Smart Factories Introducing the Smart Factory A Smart Factory hosts smart manufacturing processes, which we have explained previously.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

The complex algorithms that move vehicles safely through space will be done by the Inc; the vehicles will be owned and maintained by smaller peers around the world. Education will be Peers Inc. We already see the movement in higher education toward MOOCs—massive open online courses—where the best teachers in the world will provide instruction through videotaped lectures watched at home, while in-person class time is reserved for personal and intimate group instruction. The energy sector will be mostly converted to Peers Inc. A smart grid will be supplied by millions of distributed small solar- and wind-powered plants—co-generation. Communications will include a significant Peers Inc component. In addition to fiber, satellites, and cell towers, individuals’ devices (cellphones, laptops, cars) will be receiving and forwarding wireless data, acting like mini cell towers—infrastructure built and owned not by big companies but by the peers themselves.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Small-scale organic farms or industrial food systems? There is, however, no scenario in which we can avoid wartime levels of spending in the public sector—not if we are serious about preventing catastrophic levels of warming, and minimizing the destructive potential of the coming storms. It’s no mystery where that public money needs to be spent. Much of it should go to the kinds of ambitious emission-reducing projects already discussed—the smart grids, the light rail, the citywide composting systems, the building retrofits, the visionary transit systems, the urban redesigns to keep us from spending half our lives in traffic jams. The private sector is ill suited to taking on most of these large infrastructure investments: if the services are to be accessible, which they must be in order to be effective, the profit margins that attract private players simply aren’t there.

Imagine, for a moment, if his administration had been willing to invoke its newly minted democratic mandate to build the new economy promised on the campaign trail—to treat the stimulus bill, the broken banks, and the shattered car companies as the building blocks of that green future. Imagine if there had been a powerful social movement—a robust coalition of trade unions, immigrants, students, environmentalists, and everyone else whose dreams were getting crushed by the crashing economic model—demanding that Obama do no less. The stimulus package could have been used to build the best public transit systems and smart grids in the world. The auto industry could have been dramatically reengineered so that its factories built the machinery to power that transition—not just a few token electric cars (though those too) but also vast streetcar and high-speed rail systems across an underserved nation. Just as a shuttered auto parts factory in Ontario had reopened as the Silfab solar plant, similar transitions could have been made in closed and closing factories across the continent.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

In the rush to create so-called ‘smart cities’, wherein core city services and infrastructures become digitally mediated and data-driven – generating, processing and acting on data in real-time to algorithmically manage systems and calibrate performance – much of the attention has been on how to technically create and implement suitable smart city technologies, and associated institutional and infrastructural supports such as data standards, protocols, policies, and a variety of telecom networks. Such data-driven technologies include: urban control rooms, e-government systems, city operating systems, coordinated emergency 2 R. Kitchin, T. P. Lauriault and G. McArdle response systems, intelligent transport systems, integrated ticketing, real-time passenger information, smart parking, fleet and logistics management, city dashboards, predictive policing, digital surveillance, energy smart grids, smart meters, smart lighting, sensor networks, building management systems and a wide plethora of locative and spatial media. Collectively these technologies are generating an ever-growing tsunami of indexical data (uniquely linked to people, objects, territories, transactions) that can be repurposed in diverse ways – for example, in predictive profiling and social sorting of citizens and neighbourhoods, creating urban models and simulations, for policing and security purposes, etc.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

This is a world where farmers in the extensive irrigation systems of the Indus plains of Pakistan or the Australian Murray-Darling basin can find out online, in real time, how much water they are allocated and thus plan their agricultural activities; where conservation programs for tropical forests in Brazil or Indonesia (critical components of our global strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions) are planned using global mapping technologies; where we can use networked platforms to coordinate millions of individual decisions on consumption and production of energy through smart grids (information-laden networks for power transmission); where weather data can be acted upon across the globe. And where, for the first time, large-scale interventions in Earth’s climate, such as attempts to increase carbon capture by the ocean, are being considered by ventures that already assume a fully networked world. There used to be an edifice of data and theories inaccessible to all except for the few whose job it was to study Earth.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

Their thinness and flexibility allows them to be used in lighter portable electronic devices and integrated into clothing and packaging. The result could be an athletic jersey or flak jacket that monitors vital signs or motorcycle visors that automatically adjust to bright light.27 NorTech also supports Northeast Ohio’s advanced energy and water technology clusters. The advanced energy industry encompasses a wide range of subspecialties such as energy storage, smart grids, biomass, wind energy, and fuel cells. This cluster arose out of the interactions between NASA’s top advanced energy research center, which is in Cleveland, and the companies and people in the region who know how to make big, complicated mechanical things like wind turbines and generators. There’s also a bit of geographic felicity at work: the Great Lakes are a superb source of wind energy. The region’s water technology cluster develops anticorrosion technologies used in oil and gas drilling, materials known as sorbents that soak up pollutants in water, and automation and controls that manage industrial water–processing systems.


pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, business cycle, butter production in bangladesh, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, intangible asset, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, negative equity, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra, your tax dollars at work

GridPoint in Arlington, Virginia, is the lead dog firm in this space. It was selected as a technology pioneer by the heavies at the Davos World Economic Forum in 2007, as a top innovator by MIT’s Technology Review, and by the Department of Energy for its model energy-efficient homes. What Apple is to music players, GridPoint is to smart meters. An overview for the controller is shown in Figure 14.3. Figure 14.3 GridPoint’s smart grid platform is designed to align the interests of electric utilities, consumers, and the environment through an intelligent network of distributed energy resources that controls load, stores energy, and produces power. Algo trading for electrons is coming. Source: GridPoint (www.gridpoint.com). 334 Nerds on Wall Str eet GridPoint explains how its simple blue box on the wall addresses all the key issues in our electricity future: The platform applies information technology to the electric grid to enable distributed energy resources to perform the same as central-station generation.


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

According to a report in 2007 by the infrastructure consultants Booz Allen Hamilton, “Over the next 25 years, modernizing and expanding the water, electricity, and transportation systems of the cities of the world will require approximately $40 trillion.” What would infrastructure totally rethought in Green terms look like? China is currently building 170 new mass transit systems. High-speed rail is finally coming to the United States. With the coming of “smart grids” and microgrids, the distribution of electricity will be reshaped toward greater adaptability as well as efficiency. As climate change unfolds, cities will be on the frontier of human response. Taking the danger zone as 30 feet above sea level, a Columbia University study reported in Science says that two thirds of all cities with a population over 5 million are “especially vulnerable” to rising sea levels and “weather oscillations.”


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

It cast more than 50 million people into darkness for more than 30 hours, at a cost of some $6–$10 billion.73 Until that moment, few in government or the utilities believed that a single outage on that scale was even possible. But US power consumption had jumped almost 30 percent in a decade, not least due to the lighting up of the Internet. Deregulation and privatization begun in the early 1990s had increased the number of parties plugged into the grid from hundreds to thousands. Emerging smart grid devices alongside aging power stations had complicated control systems. And greater use of renewable generation (which stops and starts according to the vagaries of sunshine and wind) had complicated load-balancing on the grid. Not surprisingly, a joint US-Canada task force concluded in the aftermath that the top two causes of the blackout were “inadequate system understanding” and “inadequate situational awareness.”74 Clearly, these episodes from our recent past have begun to sensitize us to systemic infrastructure risks.


pages: 573 words: 115,489

Prosperity Without Growth: Foundations for the Economy of Tomorrow by Tim Jackson

"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hans Rosling, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, Philip Mirowski, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, secular stagnation, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, universal basic income, Works Progress Administration, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

‘The question is whether they go into the old extractive short-term economy of yesterday, or a new green economy that will deal with multiple challenges while generating multiple economic opportunities for the poor and the well-off alike.’42 In a report published just after the crisis, the Deutsche Bank identified a ‘green sweet spot’ for stimulus spending, consisting of investment in energy-efficient buildings, the electricity grid, renewable energy and public transportation. ‘One of the reasons that the green sweet spot is an attractive focus for an economic stimulus is the labor-intensity of many of its sectors’, claimed the Bank.43 A study by the University of Massachusetts’ Political Economy Research Institute supported that view. It identified six priority areas for investment: retrofitting buildings, mass transit/freight rail, smart grid, wind power, solar power and next generation biofuels. The authors calculated that spending $100 billion on these interventions over a two-year period would create two million new jobs. By contrast, the same money directed at household spending would generate fewer jobs; and directed at conventional sectors like the oil industry fewer still.44 The proposal briefly held real political traction.


pages: 428 words: 121,717

Warnings by Richard A. Clarke

active measures, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bernie Madoff, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Elon Musk, failed state, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forensic accounting, friendly AI, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge worker, Maui Hawaii, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, mouse model, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y2K

Can you imagine doing a cyber assessment of your IT systems and being told, ‘Do not address telecom’?” Weiss fumes. “It simply doesn’t make any sense.” The exclusions, he contends, the things the industry doesn’t want regulated, are precisely the areas that need standards. “NERC said almost 70 percent of power plants in U.S. were not considered critical. Almost 30 percent of transmission assets were not considered critical. All of the distribution assets, which are the heart of the smart grid, are not considered critical because distribution is explicitly excluded.”1 Even after the Ukrainian blackout, the electric power industry continued to disagree with Weiss about the significance of that event and the vulnerability of the U.S. grid. Kimberly Mielcarek, a spokeswoman for the Electricity Information Sharing and Analysis Center (E-ISAC), flatly rejected that it could happen here.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

In contrast to the clear liability of credit card processors for fraudulent transactions, for instance, the electricity sector is a mess when it comes to cybersecurity organization. Generation, transmission, and distribution are governed by separate entities. This leads to both overlapping regulations and gaps in coverage. Both NIST and the North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) are responsible for developing Smart Grid standards, but neither has an explicit responsibility to lead security initiatives. Furthermore, the distribution layer of the power grid is not covered by either entity, creating a situation where two agencies simultaneously have and do not have the ability to set security standards. Absent a uniform strategy, the dominant approach has been for each regulatory agency to look after its own industry.


The Future of Technology by Tom Standage

air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, creative destruction, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, Marc Andreessen, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K

Instead, essential bits of energy infrastructure are built to shut down at the first sign of trouble, spreading blackouts and increasing their economic impact. The North American blackout, for example, cost power users around $7 billion. Engineers have to spend hours or even days restarting power plants. The good news is that technologies are now being developed in four areas that point the way towards the smart grid of the future. First, util- 286 ENERGY ities are experimenting with ways to measure the behaviour of the grid in real time. Second, they are looking for ways to use that information to control the flow of power fast enough to avoid blackouts. Third, they are upgrading their networks in order to pump more juice through the grid safely. Last, they are looking for ways to produce and store power close to consumers, to reduce the need to send so much power down those ageing transmission lines in the first place.


Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler

Airbnb, Airbus A320, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar

The vision for future 5G networks is: 1 millisecond delay end-to-end + 10 gigabits per second speed + 99.9999% reliability + E2E security + 10 years lifespan for embedded M2M devices with one battery + capacity for about 500 billion devices + lower costs. We will see the first deployments of 5G in 2020. There would be a big demand for this kind of infrastructure because of the increase in digitisation. Cyber security is one of the most important pillars for the automated car ecosystem as well as for applications in smart cities, smart homes or smart grids. This is a very important element of 5G standardisation and of developing this new, future-proof technology. Autonomous Driving 132 Box 12.2. Statement by Telecommunications Experts Experts from a Telecommunications Company A very high service quality can be achieved with 5G networks, so autonomous driving will become possible. 5G networks will form the basis for communication between road users.


pages: 326 words: 48,727

Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard

addicted to oil, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning

Kennedy's pledge in 1961 to land a man on the moon within ten years, which NASA's Apollo project duly accomplished, a Green Apollo project would aim to shift the world's major economies to low-carbon technologies within ten years' time. Schellnhuber said Germany already had put in place a package of measures that would reduce its emissions by 40 percent by 2020, but much more needed to be done, especially in the United States. "We have the technologies needed to decarbonize our societies," he told the conference, citing improved energy efficiency, thermal solar power, a smart grid, and others. But governments had to provide leadership, in particular by shifting incentive structures and market regulations to send a price signal that would drive private capital and consumers to respond accordingly. "It will be very difficult, but technically it can be done," he added. "The laws of nature are not against us, but they will be if we wait another ten years." Revkin spoke up to say, "Maybe the laws of physical nature aren't against us, but the laws of human nature seem to be."


pages: 692 words: 127,032

Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, global pandemic, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor, yellow journalism, zero-sum game

It should be about what you get, not what you might lose. This is a basic sales tactic. “Actually, I have been doing that a lot more lately,” says Pierrehumbert, “and it works. Imagine how wonderful it would be if you could get on a shiny new high-speed train in Chicago and visit your relatives in Madison without having to go to the airport, and all the hassle. What if we had a robust energy-supply system with a smart grid, so that someone with a bright idea about putting energy into the grid could hook up and make money on that. Think of the possibilities! All the ways we can make life better, easier, and cheaper by doing things that also happen to reduce our carbon footprint.” What climate scientists, politicians, economists, and engineers should be talking about is the problem and the concrete solutions: How do we plan communities and energy supply in ways that work better for people, that give them more choices—that increase their liberty.


pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

Again, we could imagine a different architecture: each car might first register with the grid before it got on the highway (the way airlines file flight plans before they fly). But these systems don't require this sort of registration, likely because, when they were built, such registration was simply impracticable. The electronics of a power grid couldn't handle the registration of different devices; roads were built stupid because smart roads were impossible. Things are different now; smart grids, and smart roads, are certainly possible. Control is now feasible. So we should ask, would control be better? In at least some cases, it certainly would be better. But from the perspective of innovation, in some cases it would not. In particular, when the future is uncertain—or more precisely, when future uses of a technology cannot be predicted—then leaving the technology uncontrolled is a better way of helping it find the right sort of innovation.


pages: 469 words: 142,230

The Planet Remade: How Geoengineering Could Change the World by Oliver Morton

Albert Einstein, Asilomar, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, decarbonisation, demographic transition, Elon Musk, energy transition, Ernest Rutherford, germ theory of disease, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, late capitalism, Louis Pasteur, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, renewable energy transition, Scramble for Africa, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus

Renewables have constraints that go beyond their current costs. Wind and solar energy are intermittent. They become unavailable in ways both easily predictable – there is no solar energy at night – and less so. Sometimes the wind will fail to blow over quite large areas for days or weeks at a time. This need not be as much of a problem in the future as it would have been in the past; information technology will make it easier for ‘smart grids’, smart appliances and, indeed, smart people to cope with such fluctuations by managing demand; consumers will probably consent to such management if it lowers bills. But intermittency still drives up the costs and complexity of power supply if you want to get most or all of your electricity from renewables and you don’t have access to a great deal of hydro-electric capacity – a largely zero-carbon source that can be ramped up or down very quickly to balance out the intermittencies of other supplies.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Currently, we’re losing about fifteen million acres per year to desertification, the worst losses in sub-Saharan Africa where, unlike the Munroes of the outback, people can’t afford water pumps, air-conditioning, or migration.8 We need our utility grids and our engines not to leach energy and carbon into our atmosphere. While the utilities are looking at IoT benefits to their existing infrastructure (“smart grid”), connecting microgrids could lead to entirely new energy models. Utility companies, their unions, regulators, and policy makers, as well as innovative new entrants such as LO3, are exploring these new models for generating, distributing, and using electricity first at the neighborhood level and then around the world. THE EVOLUTION OF COMPUTING: FROM MAINFRAMES TO SMART PILLS Unlike our energy grid, computing power has evolved through several paradigms.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Antonio Tajani, the buffoon appointed by Silvio Berlusconi to the European Commission, wants to craft a European industrial policy which – surprise, surprise – favours his chums in Italian industry. His six priorities are: new manufacturing technologies in areas such as robotics and 3D printing; basic “enabling technology” such as optical electronics and new materials linked to novel products; biotech-based production techniques; low-carbon and other low-pollution manufacturing techniques; “clean” vehicles, such as cars using new forms of hybrid engines; and equipment needed for new “smart grids” to facilitate more efficient energy use. Tajani wants the EU’s manufacturing output to rise from 15.5 per cent of GDP in 2011 to 20 per cent in 2020.645 That is an absurd target, given that manufacturing is shrinking as a share of the economy even in China. Even if his priorities turn out to be correct – a big if – any support he provides is unlikely to be well-directed. But one area where governments could make a big contribution to innovation is in the public sector itself.


Mastering Blockchain, Second Edition by Imran Bashir

3D printing, altcoin, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, connected car, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, Debian, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, full stack developer, general-purpose programming language, gravity well, interest rate swap, Internet of things, litecoin, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, Network effects, new economy, node package manager, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, prediction markets, QR code, RAND corporation, Real Time Gross Settlement, reversible computing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, single page application, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, web application, x509 certificate

IoT can be defined as a network of computationally intelligent physical objects (any object such as cars, fridges, industrial sensors, and so on) that are capable of connecting to the internet, sensing real-world events or environments, reacting to those events, collecting relevant data, and communicating it over the internet. This simple definition has enormous implications and has led to exciting concepts, such as wearables, smart homes, smart grids, smart connected cars, and smart cities, that are all based on this basic concept of an IoT device. After dissecting the definition of IoT, four functions come to light as being performed by an IoT device. These include sensing, reacting, collecting, and communicating. All these functions are performed by using various components on the IoT device. Sensing is performed by sensors. Reacting or controlling is performed by actuators, the collection is a function of various sensors, and communication is performed by chips that provide network connectivity.


pages: 482 words: 149,351

The Finance Curse: How Global Finance Is Making Us All Poorer by Nicholas Shaxson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, airline deregulation, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Blythe Masters, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, falling living standards, family office, financial deregulation, financial innovation, forensic accounting, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, land value tax, late capitalism, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, wealth creators, white picket fence, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

When Theresa May became prime minister in July 2016, she briefly paused the nuclear deals on security grounds but gave the final go-ahead two months later under pressure from the City of London, and after the Chinese gave ‘a series of warnings’ that rejection would damage the ‘golden era of relations’. In economic terms, the Hinkley C project is ‘a dreadful deal, laughable’, as one expert put it: not just financially and technically risky, but also likely to be obsolete once it comes on stream in 2025 or later, as renewable energies and ‘smart grid’ technologies provide ever cheaper and safer alternatives. British consumers are expected to pay tens of billions, over and above the normal price of electricity, to subsidise this project if it goes ahead as planned.2 Britain is pursuing an economically unviable nuclear industry for many complex and varied reasons, including lobbying by big-money interests and genuine disagreements about the future price of electricity.


pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game

In Perriello’s district, the recession was so severe that local officials were faced with a choice between closing schools and raising property taxes, and at first there was hardly any opposition to taking federal funds. A Republican banker in Danville, who had been the president of the Virginia Bankers Association, wondered why there was no money in the stimulus bill for public works, like overhauling the Depression-era post office downtown—that was how desperate things were. Perriello himself regarded the stimulus as “fairly milquetoast stuff”—he wanted something bigger and more visionary, like a “national smart grid”—but the Recovery Act did bring three hundred million dollars into his district, money that kept teachers in classrooms and paved roads that needed paving. But over time, as the months went by and the slump continued, and there was no sign of work starting on the stimulus project to rebuild the decrepit Robertson Bridge over the Dan River, and the Republicans in Washington and the Glenn Becks on the airwaves denounced everything the government did, endlessly repeating the lie that the stimulus hadn’t created a single job, public opinion in the Fifth District began to turn against Obama and Perriello.


pages: 526 words: 160,601

A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America by Bruce Cannon Gibney

1960s counterculture, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate personhood, Corrections Corporation of America, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, failed state, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Menlo Park, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school choice, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Snapchat, source of truth, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Given the budgets passed since the 2013 Report Card (allocating about 55 percent of the required amount) and emerging news about lead-tainted water in various municipalities, it would be almost impossible to achieve an “adequate” grade by 2020 even if the Boomer machine wanted to, which it does not. For sociopaths, indifference to infrastructure has a certain logic. Bridges and waterworks take years to complete and often decades to return investments. What little interest the Boomers had in infrastructure therefore dwindles with age, especially if such investments risk the entitlements budget. As long as Boomers control government, there will be no smart grid, no public hyperloop, no wholesale move to clean power, not even appropriate maintenance. The Selfless and Selfish Cases for Public Goods The argument for infrastructure reduces to two facts: (1) we need it, and (2) it generates a significant and positive return on investment. That we require roads and sewers demands no further comment. That infrastructure generates net positive returns has long been understood by experts (including American governments of the midcentury), though not the present political class.


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

dj This vision of decentralized energy is hardly a radical one and goes all the way back to Thomas Edison, who strongly favored electricity supply through a decentralized DC network. His DC “micropower” systems failed because the technology was unreliable and expensive. Edison had to watch a couple of his DC plants literally go up in flames before he gave up on the idea. dk I have chaired two committees on IT in the power sector, and the second one recommended having such “Smart Grids” that can deal with distributed generation and multiple renewable sources.