University of East Anglia

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pages: 239 words: 68,598

The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning by James E. Lovelock

Ada Lovelace, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, discovery of DNA, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Henri Poincaré, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, short selling, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia

Naturally, science thinks that it has reduced the problem by subdividing it, and that presumably is why we have the mainly biological Millennium Assessment Ecosystem Commission, separate from the IPCC. It would be wrong of me to suggest that climate modellers ignore the importance of the contribution of life on Earth to climate change. Climate modellers at the Hadley Centre and the University of East Anglia in the UK, at the National Centre for Atmospheric Research and other labs in the USA, and at Potsdam in Germany have all made or are making comprehensive dynamic climate models that do include the biota. I am familiar with the substantial contributions of Peter Cox, Chris Jones and Richard Betts of the Hadley Centre, of Tim Lenton, Andrew Watson and Peter Liss of the University of East Anglia, and of John Schellnhuber, Wernher Von Bloh and Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research. But I think they would all agree that their work is far from complete. Then there are the climatologists Ann Henderson‐Sellers, Kendal McGuffie and Robert Dickinson, who have tirelessly and often against strong opposition extended the competence of climate modelling by recognizing the need to include the biota in a dynamic role.

They were therefore proposing that a lifeless Earth could regulate its temperature at levels habitable for organisms. When I first heard Walker describe this mechanism at a Dahlem Conference in Berlin in the early 1980s it certainly sounded plausible, and afterwards in conversation he said that his motivation was mainly to show that Gaia was not needed for self‐regulation and that geochemistry could do it alone. At the time Andrew Watson, now a professor of biogeochemistry at the University of East Anglia, was working with me as a postgraduate student and it occurred to us that in real life rocks always have lichen and other organisms on their surfaces and, more importantly, the soil where fragments of the rocks exist is a rich ecosystem in its own right and has an internal atmosphere up to thirty times richer in carbon dioxide than the air. The rate of weathering in these circumstances could be much greater than on exposed bare rock.

This has been especially true of the research stimulated by the prediction of a link between the biological production of dimethyl sulphide in the ocean, clouds in the atmosphere, the Earth’s radiation balance and climate regulation. The paper on clouds, algae and climate by Charlson, Lovelock, Andrea and Warren was published in Nature in 1987, and its conclusions are usually referred to as the CLAW hypothesis. Since then hundreds if not thousands of papers have been published on researches it stimulated. Professor Liss of the University of East Anglia and I published a paper in 2007 in Environmental Chemistry summarizing the progress of the CLAW hypothesis, and concluded that the mechanism proposed was observable only in the unpolluted southern hemisphere. Sulphur pollution in the northern hemisphere is now as much as ten times greater than the natural output from algae, and obscures any effect the algae might have. Prediction Test Result Mars is lifeless (1968) Atmospheric compositional evidence shows lack of disequilibrium Strong confirmation, Viking mission 1975 That elements are transferred from ocean to land by biogenic gases (1971) Search for oceanic sources of dimethyl sulphide and methyl iodide Found 1973 Climate regulation through biologically enhanced rock weathering (1973) Analysis of ice‐core data linking temperature and CO2 abundance Confirmed 2008, by Zeebe and Caldeira That Gaia is aged and is not far from the end of its lifespan (1982) Calculation based on generally accepted solar evolution Generally accepted Climate regulation through cloud albedo control linked to algal gas emissions (1987) Many tests have been made but the excess of pollution interferes Probable for southern hemisphere Oxygen has not varied by more than 5 per cent from 21 per cent for the past 200 million years (1974) Ice‐core and sedimentary analysis Confirmed for up to 1 million years ago.

Norman Foster: A Life in Architecture by Deyan Sudjic

Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, low cost airline, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, Murano, Venice glass, Norman Mailer, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

For Foster, macrobiotics were not a success; within a month he had lost so much weight that his watch was hanging loose from his wrist. He abandoned the experiment after being taken aside by a doctor and told that his diet was threatening to do lasting damage to his health. In the end it was Lisa Sainsbury who helped to find the nurses to care for Wendy. Robert and Lisa Sainsbury had offered their collection to the University of East Anglia in 1973. One of their daughters had studied there, and in Sainsbury’s eyes it had the particular merit of not being Oxbridge – he saw no reason to become a benefactor to the already well-provided-for older universities. Sainsbury had a strong sense of social responsibility. A committed supporter of the Welfare State, he took the working conditions of his employees seriously. He also wanted to do something about the two-nations divide between the arts and the sciences identified by C.P.

Their campuses were conceived as self-contained worlds that demonstrated new ways to live and work, reflected in an architecture that was more adventurous than would be possible on the outside. Lasdun designed a remarkably powerful, even ruthless scheme that created a continuous wall of concrete structures, like a set of linked stepped pyramids, perhaps the most ambitious attempt at that feverish, half-dystopian, biggest-of-the-big architectural idea of the 1960s – building a megastructure in Britain. Tradition had been abolished. The University of East Anglia wall, backed by an elevated walkway, contains student residences, as well as laboratories, teaching spaces, and classrooms. It has the massive presence of an aircraft carrier beached in a wheat field. As an expression of a single, ruthless architectural will, it would have attracted attention anywhere. On the edge of the medieval cathedral city of Norwich, the impact was overwhelming.

Foster’s unbuilt scheme to relocate BBC Radio to the site of the Langham Hotel lingered on as a giant model, broken up in sections, and stacked up to the ceiling. There were scores of studies for high-rises in Japan, Germany, Lebanon, Australia and America. There were beautifully detailed designs for remodelling London’s South Kensington, for building a new airport in Shanghai, and universities in Malaysia. You could see the original structural model for the Sainsbury Centre at the University of East Anglia, discarded in favour of the even more beautiful version that was actually built when Foster had his last-minute brainwave. There are rough-and-ready foam models, made in the studio, as well as immaculately finished models that were intended to impress clients. The extensive use of modelling is a thread that has run through every incarnation of the practice. In his days as a student at Yale, Foster’s graduation city-of-the-future project stood out for the remarkable quality of the model that he had made.

pages: 258 words: 77,601

Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl

Let’s take a look at some of what we are now learning. Six independent investigations have found that the unimaginatively named Climategate was anything but the scandal or “nail in the coffin of anthropogenic global warming” that deniers claimed. After the illegal theft and release of emails from scientists at the University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit, some reports found that the scientists could have been more open about sharing data; however, their science was rigorous and sound. The University of East Anglia has since posted its research and data online, and all of the emails in question have also been posted. As for criticisms of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s global assessment of climate change, a review found that despite “a very small number of near-trivial errors in about five hundred pages,” the report contained “no errors that would undermine the main conclusions.”

Environmental Protection Agency over its ruling that carbon dioxide and other global warming gases are a threat to human health and welfare. Many Republicans, some of whom also reject the science of evolution and believe the earth was created six thousand years ago and that humans and dinosaurs walked together, have followed his lead. As for the so-called Climategate brouhaha (where more than one thousand emails between climate scientists at the University of East Anglia were stolen or leaked by hackers), a fifth investigation, this time led by Republicans in response to a request from one of their own, Senator James Inhofe of Oklahoma, again found no “evidence to question the ethics of our scientists or raise doubts about [the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s] understanding of climate change science.” Efforts in the U.S. to sow confusion about climate science appear to be having an effect: according to a 2011 poll, only 58 per cent of U.S. citizens believe in the science behind climate change, compared with 80 per cent of Canadians.

It’s time to listen to the people who continue to look at the facts in the face of baseless accusations, break-ins, and threats. We need to listen to those who are trying to do something about our predicament rather than wishing it away. Where’s the climate conspiracy? PEOPLE WHO DENY the reality of human-caused global warming were wetting their pants over the hacked emails brouhaha at the University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit. In their desperation, the deniers claimed the emails pointed to a global conspiracy by the world’s scientists and government leaders to... Well, it’s hard to say what they believed the conspiracy was about. A letter to a Vancouver newspaper on December 21, 2007, indicates the way many of them think. The writer claimed that people working to address global warming “are ideological zealots pursuing a quasi-religious socialist agenda to command and control western economies.”

pages: 226 words: 59,080

Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science by Dani Rodrik

airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Donald Davies, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, fudge factor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, loss aversion, low skilled workers, market design, market fundamentalism, minimum wage unemployment, oil shock, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, South Sea Bubble, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, unorthodox policies, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, white flight

‡ Ninety percent of economists reportedly agree with the following proposition: “Fiscal policy (for example, tax cut and/or government expenditure increase) has a significant stimulative impact on a less than fully employed economy.” Greg Mankiw, “News Flash: Economists Agree,” February 14, 2009, Greg Mankiw’s Blog, § As University of East Anglia economist Robert Sugden points out, “In economics . . . there seems to be a convention that modellers need not be explicit about what their models tell us about the real world.” Sugden, “Credible Worlds, Capacities and Mechanisms” (unpublished paper, School of Economics, University of East Anglia, August 2008), 18. CHAPTER 6 Economics and Its Critics An economist, a physician, and an architect are traveling on a train together, and they fall into a discussion as to which one of their professions is the most honorable. The physician points out that God created Eve out of Adam’s rib, so He must have been a surgeon.

David R. Cameron, “The Expansion of the Public Economy: A Comparative Analysis,” American Political Science Review 72, no. 4 (December 1978): 1243–61. 18. Dani Rodrik, “Why Do More Open Economies Have Bigger Governments?” Journal of Political Economy 106, no. 5 (October 1998): 997–1032. 19. Robert Sugden, “Credible Worlds, Capacities and Mechanisms” (unpublished paper, School of Economics, University of East Anglia, August 2008). CHAPTER 4: Models and Theories 1. Andrew Gelman, “Causality and Statistical Learning,” American Journal of Sociology 117 (2011): 955–66; Andrew Gelman and Guido Imbens, Why Ask Why? Forward Causal Inference and Reverse Causal Questions, NBER Working Paper 19614 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2013). 2. Dani Rodrik, “Democracies Pay Higher Wages,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 114, no. 3 (August 1999): 707–38. 3.

pages: 369 words: 98,776

The God Species: Saving the Planet in the Age of Humans by Mark Lynas

Airbus A320, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Haber-Bosch Process, ice-free Arctic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, planetary scale, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, Stewart Brand, undersea cable, University of East Anglia

Mass extinctions happen because changing circumstances outstrip the adaptability of existing species before evolution can work its magic. Over millions of years new species can appear, but only from the diminished gene pool of the survivors—and a return to true pre-extinction levels of biodiversity may take much longer, if it ever takes place at all. This time-lag effect was cleverly demonstrated in a modeling simulation undertaken by two British researchers, Hywell Williams and Tim Lenton (both at the University of East Anglia; Lenton is a member of the planetary boundaries expert group).2 In a computer-generated world—entirely populated by evolving microorganisms living in a closed flask—Williams and Lenton found that the closing of nutrient loops emerged as a robust property of the system nearly every time the model was run. As in the real world, the emergence of self-regulation came about because evolution allowed new species to appear that could use the waste of one species as food for themselves, recycling nutrients and leading to a stable state.

Indeed, climate denialists became so successful in 2009 that they managed to dominate the media agenda via a series of manufactured scandals that engulfed much of the climate-science community. Deniers promoting the so-called “Climategate” affair took a few out-of-context quotes and superficially embarrassing private slips by leading scientists from some leaked emails and nearly managed to publicly discredit not only the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia but several other leading institutes too. Vociferous promoters of a subsequent scandal took a single mistake about Himalayan glaciers, buried deep in the second weighty tome of the IPCC’s 2007 Fourth Assessment Report, and used it to attack the entire IPCC process, and the role of Chair Rajendra Pachauri in particular. None of this changed anything we knew—anything that mattered—about the reality of climate change, but the deniers succeeded in making climate science an ideological battleground, where the expert consensus was rejected by whole political parties and large sections of the media as itself partisan.

cadmium calcium carbonate Calcutta Cambrian explosion Canada Cancún, UN climate change meeting, 2010 “cap and trade” programs carbon: cycle; offsetting/markets capture and storage (CCS); price; politics of; black carbon dioxide emissions: planetary boundary for Carbon Trade Watch cars see vehicles Cartagena Dialogue Cato Institute CFCs Chernobyl Chesser, Robert China 21 coal power in; nuclear power in; dam construction; “night soil” industry; meat eating in; demand for fossil fuels; alternatives to high carbon aviation; hydroelectricity; virtual water and; pollution incidents; aerosol pollution; black carbon and; transport pollution; emissions standards; CFC production; Copenhagen summit and; population growth; vehicle ownership, growth in emissions; food production; investment in low-carbon technologies Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning Climate Action Network Climate Action Partnership climate change: carbon offsetting/markets and; deniers; extinction and; boundary see climate change boundary; tipping points; methane and; agreements/negotiations; nitrates worsen; solar radiation management and; see also carbon dioxide emissions, China, individual agreement/negotiation name, nuclear power, population, renewables under individual event and area name climate change boundary; 350: current evidence; 350: modeling evidence; 350: past evidence; toward a technofix?; technologies for new technologies for the future; politics of carbon; sea level rise; Arctic thaw and; destabilization of Atlantic Ocean circulation; models Climate Fix, The (Pielke Jnr) “Climategate”, 2009 Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia Clinton, Bill Club of Rome coal power Cochabamba, Bolivia Collapse (Diamond) Colorado River Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas Condit Dam Congo Basin Forest Fund Congress, US Convention on Biological Diversity, Nagoya, 2010 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, 1979 COP15 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change Copenhagen Accord Copenhagen climate summit, 2009 coral reefs Corporate Watch Costa Rica Costanza, Robert Cretaceous Period Crookes, William Crutzen, Paul Current Opinion in Plant Biology Cyclone Nargis Da Silva, Luiz Inácio Lula Dai, Aiguo Daly, Herman Dampier, William dams, removing unnecessary; hydroelectric; Chinese construction of; fishery collapse and; tidal barrages; block natural flow of water; threaten species; affects water temperature; water trapped behind loses most of its sediment load; current water use; where water is taken from Danish Committee on Scientific Dishonesty DDT Dead Sea dead zones deep-sea floating turbines deforestation Delta smelt “demographic transition” Dhaka Diamond, Jared diesel engines Dinorwig, Wales DuPont Earth: goldilocks state; self-regulating; “snowball”; ice-albedo feedback; see also carbon: cycle “earthshine” East Antarctic Ice Sheet Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity, The (TEEB) report, 2010 Economist Ecuador Edwards Dam Egypt electric vehicles Endangered Species Act, U.S.

pages: 436 words: 98,538

The Upside of Inequality by Edward Conard

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Cambridge, MA: New York City Charter Schools Evaluation Project September 2009, 16. Joshua Angrist, Parag Pathak, and Christopher Walters, “Explaining Charter School Effectiveness,” Institute for the Study of Labor, April 2012, 17. Ron Oxburgh et al., “Report of the International Panel Set up by the University of East Anglia to Examine the Research of the Climatic Research Unit,” University of East Anglia, April 14, 2010, 18. Joshua Angrist, Susan Dynarski, Thomas Kane, Parag Pathak, and Christopher Walters, “Who Benefits from KIPP?” IZA Discussion Paper No. 5690 (May 2011), 19. Mike Klonsky, “NAACP Resolution on Charter Schools,” National Education Policy Center, January 3, 2012, 20.

Hence, science demands randomized double-blind trials—where neither the subjects nor the researchers know which group is the experimental group and which group is the counterfactual control group. But the very thing scientific experiments endeavor to overcome—selection bias—fiercely drives real-world outcomes. If I sound too cynical, consider another research area in which natural results are seldom repeatable and where the conclusions are politically charged—climate change. In 2009 hackers revealed e-mails from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia that raised questions about the institution’s objectivity. The British government called upon the independent Science Assessment Panel to investigate these claims. While the panel absolved the university, it found it “very surprising that research in an area that depends so heavily on statistical methods has not been carried out in close collaboration with professional statisticians.”17 These findings are hardly reassuring of wholly unbiased research.

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The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, different worldview, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

For instance, it has been criticized for refusing to publish data, for failing to use appropriate statistical methods despite criticisms, and for failing to engage in standard scientific peer review processes or even publish the debates between the scientists involved in drafting its reports.11 In January 2010 the IPCC was forced to admit its latest report had been mistaken in its prediction of when the Himalayan glaciers were likely to melt. Subsequently the United Nations asked the InterAcademy Council, which represents national science academies, to review the IPCC’s methods, and a number of submissions to its experts listed numerous procedural and methodological weaknesses.12 One of the leading global centers of climate change research, at the UK’s University of East Anglia, was at the heart of an even more damaging scandal when hacked emails seemed to suggest that scientists had actively been rigging results and misleading people they regarded as hostile. Although a review cleared the scientists of the most damaging allegations, even prominent environmental campaigners concluded that climate scientists must engage more honestly and openly with their critics.13 Serious institutional failings of this sort play to political parties and industry lobbies opposed to various types of response to climate change.

Their focus is instead on the interpretations of the data, the methods used, and the conclusions governments and international agencies have drawn from those basic facts. These weaknesses mean the policies are being shaped inappropriately, they argue. While some of the criticism maps onto conventional left-right politics, there are obviously reasonable questions about the role and motivation of the IPCC and its related groups such as the scientists at the University of East Anglia. The climate change establishment has not had due regard to its own legitimacy and accountability, especially if it wants to change minds and votes in democracies. The dissenters argue further that the official forecasts are unduly alarmist and that the temperature rises against which governments need to take mitigating action are not likely to be as high as the IPCC predicts. David Henderson, a former chief economist at the OECD, is one of the people who has led the intellectual charge.14 Henderson argues that the IPCC is institutionally biased toward pessimism and also has insufficient knowledge of the proper methods for assessing the likely economic effects and necessary adjustments (not that economists have a terrific forecasting record of course—but at least we can’t fail to be aware of the fallibility of any prediction).

See also gross domestic product (GDP); measurement Stein, Herbert, 104 Stern, Nicholas, 29, 60–61, 68, 72–74, 82 Stevenson, Betsey, 41 stewardship, 78, 80, 275 Stiglitz, Joseph, 37, 82, 202, 274 stimulus packages, 91, 100–103, 111 Strumpf, Koleman, 197 suicide, 44, 51, 279 superstar effect, 134 sustainability: Brundtlandt Report and, 77; cradle-to-grave social systems and, 104; defining, 24, 77–78, 80; economic, 8, 85–86, 89–90, 98, 100, 102, 104–5, 108, 111, 113, 136, 177, 183–85, 203, 233–34, 240, 244, 248, 261, 293; environmental, 38, 56, 59, 62, 65, 69, 71, 76, 112–13, 233; fairness and, 115; government debt and, 102, 104–12; growth and, 53, 57, 80–86, 89–90, 98, 100; Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare (ISEW) and, 36; kinds of, 25; social, 54, 71, 79, 114–16, 143, 151, 233, 237 Sweden, 141, 143, 172, 251 Switzerland, 125 Tabellini, Guido, 136 tacit knowledge, 166 taxes, 3, 12, 15; business investment and, 295; fairness and, 123, 127–28, 131, 135–36, 144; Golden Rule for, 93; increased future, 286–87; happiness and, 22–25, 40, 43; inequality and, 115–16, 123, 127–28, 131, 135–36; infrastructure spending and, 93; luxury goods and, 23; Medicare and, 93–94; nature and, 62, 71; pension burden and, 92–95; policy recommendations for, 279, 282–86, 289–90, 293–97; posterity and, 85–91, 94, 99, 103–5, 111–13; Social Security and, 93–94; thrift education and, 294–95; trust and, 171–76, 182, 191, 203; values and, 229, 235, 245, 248, 258; wasteful spending and, 23; welfare burden and, 92–95 technology: access to, 36; Boskin Commission and, 37; call centers and, 131, 133, 161; cities and, 165–70; computers and, 156; consumer electronics and, 36–37; cultural suspicion of growth and, 26–29; data explosion and, 205, 291; decreased cost of, 254; electrification and, 155–56; electronic monitoring, 252–53; e-mail, 252; Enlightenment and, 7; fairness and, 116, 131–34, 137; faxes, 252; fractal character of, 134; general purpose, 157; globalization and, 7, 160–65; governance and, 173–77; growth and, 268, 270–77, 287–93, 297; Gutenberg press, 7; happiness and, 24–25, 35–37, 44, 53–54; impact of, 7–8, 24–25, 35, 37, 252–54; Industrial Revolution and, 27, 149, 290, 297; innovation and, 6–8 (see also innovation); institutions and, 244–46, 251–54, 257–63; Internet, 155, 195, 245, 260, 273, 287–89, 291, 296; labor and, 132; measurement and, 181–85, 188–91, 194–201, 204–6; Moore’s Law and, 156; music industry and, 194–98; nature and, 69–72, 76–77, 80, 84; new energy, 6; online empowerment and, 287–88, 296; policy recommendations for, 268, 270, 273–77, 287–93, 297; politics and, 7–8, 16–17, 288–89; posterity and, 107; productivity and, 107–8, 157–59, 268; public domain and, 196; reinvention and, 14; Renaissance and, 7; smart cards, 252–53; software, 253; steam power, 155–57; structural change and, 268; superstar effect and, 134; telephony, 252; trust and, 7–8, 151, 155–61, 165, 170, 173–77; values and, 212–13, 216, 218, 233–34, 237–38; voters and, 288–89 Thatcher, Margaret, 93, 121, 211, 240, 245, 247–48 Theory of Justice (Rawls), 31 Theory of Moral Sentiments, A (Smith), 120 Theory of the Leisure Class, The (Veblen), 22–23 Thomson, William (Lord Kelvin), 187 time: shortage of, 204–7; Slow Movement and, 27–28, 205 tragedy of the commons, 80 transparency, 83, 164, 288, 296 Treatise on Human Nature (Hume), 120 trilemmas, 13–14, 230–36, 275 Trivers, Robert, 118 Trollope, Anthony, 33 trust: bankers and, 88–89, 145–50, 158, 161–64, 174, 176, 257; causality and, 154; challenge of building, 170–73; cities and, 165–70; civic cooperation and, 154; decline in, 5, 139–44; democracy and, 175; diversity and, 170–73; doctors and, 247; economic importance of, 152–57; efficiency and, 158–59; face-to-face contact and, 7, 147, 165–68; fraud and, 146–47, 150, 248; General Social Survey and, 140; globalization and, 149–51, 157, 160–70; goodwill and, 150; governance and, 151, 162–65, 173–77, 255–58; government and, 150, 157, 162, 172, 175–76, 247; gross domestic product (GDP) and, 157, 160; growth and, 152–56, 160, 174; health issues and, 172; innovation and, 157; intangible assets and, 149–52, 157, 161; measurement of, 152–57; morals and, 149, 174; paradox of prosperity and, 174; Pew surveys and, 140; politics and, 154, 162–64, 173–77, 285–87; productivity and, 156–59, 162, 166–67, 170, 174; Putnam on, 140–41, 152–54; reform and, 162–64, 176–77; social capital and, 5, 151–57, 168–74, 177; specialization and, 160–61; statistics and, 154; teachers and, 247; technology and, 7–8, 151, 155–61, 165, 170, 173–77; voter turnout and, 175; weightless activities and, 150 Tullock, Gordon, 242 Turner, Ted, 33 Twitter, 289 Uganda, 147 ultimatum game, 116–17 unemployment, 3, 10, 43, 51, 56, 89, 107, 169, 207, 212–13, 243 unions, 15, 51, 224, 249 United Kingdom, 1, 4, 10, 66; bailouts and, 91; British Social Attitudes and, 140–41; Brown and, 93; debt of, 103–4; diversity and, 172; fairness and, 115–16, 122, 125–26, 130, 139–43; Glastonbury Festival and, 197; inequality in, 122, 125–30; institutions and, 240, 258, 260; measurement and, 198, 203, 206–7; National Health Service and, 285; National Statistics and, 203; negative savings rate in, 105; policy recommendations and, 280–88; posterity and, 93, 95, 103, 105, 111; public deliberation and, 258–59; public sector and, 248; retirement age and, 107; savings rate in, 280–82; Thatcher and, 93, 121, 211, 240, 245, 247–48; time surveys and, 206–8; trust and, 140–41, 146, 163, 168, 172; values and, 211, 223; Victorian Britain and, 28 United Nations, 297, 304n7; Brundtland Report and, 77; climate change and, 59, 62, 66, 77–78, 82–83; happiness and, 38; sustainable development and, 77; TEEB and, 78; trust and, 163–64, 176; values and, 219 United States, 4, 10, 16; additional growth in, 12; bifurcation of social norms and, 231–32; Boskin Commission and, 37; Bush and, 127–28; Cold War and, 93, 112, 147, 209, 213, 239; convergence and, 122; credibility and, 101; debt of, 101; defense budget of, 93; diversity and, 172; Easterlin Paradox and, 39–44; fairness and, 115–16, 121–22, 125–35, 140–43; Founding Fathers of, 31; happiness and, 37, 41–44; inequality in, 122, 125–31, 135, 276; institutions and, 240, 243, 251, 256, 258, 260; Kyoto Protocol and, 62; measurement and, 184, 191, 203, 206; nature and, 55, 62–63, 66; Obama and, 62, 87, 173, 260, 285, 288; policy recommendations and, 276–77, 280–88, 291; posterity and, 91–93, 97, 101, 105, 109; public deliberation and, 258–59; Reagan and, 93, 121, 127, 211, 240, 243, 247–48; savings rate in, 105, 280–82; small public sector of, 243; stimulus packages and, 91; time surveys and, 206–8; trust and, 140, 149, 171–75; values and, 209, 211, 223, 226; voter turnout and, 175; wage penalties and, 133 University of California, Berkeley, 205 University of East Anglia, 67 University of Sheffield, 224 Unto This Last (Ruskin), 27–28 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), 204, 274 Use of Knowledge in Society, The (von Hayek), 216 U.S. Treasury, 100 utiltarianism, 31–32, 78, 237 U2, 194–98 values, 18; anomie and, 48, 51; balance and, 12–17; bankers and, 211, 213, 217, 223, 226–28, 233; capitalism and, 209–13, 218, 226, 230–32, 235–36; capitalism and, 230–38 (see also capitalism); consumption and, 229, 236; culture and, 230–38; decentralization and, 275; democracy and, 230–38; efficiency and, 210, 215–16, 221–35; face-to-face contact and, 7, 147, 165–68; freedom and, 237–38; globalization and, 210–11, 235; governance and, 211, 217, 238; government and, 14, 210–11, 215–20, 225–26, 229–30, 234; gross domestic product (GDP) and, 212, 218, 232; growth and, 13, 210–13, 222, 231–36; innovation and, 210, 216, 220, 236; institutions and, 240–42, 246–47, 258–60; intangible assets and, 149–52, 157, 161, 199–201; market failure and, 226–30; measurement and, 209, 212–13; merits of markets and, 211–17; morals and, 185, 210, 213, 220–25, 230–33; philosophy and, 237–39; policy recommendations for, 275–84; politics and, 209–13, 217–18, 223–24, 231–34, 237–38; price chasm and, 207–8; productivity and, 212–13, 224; Protestant work ethic and, 13–14, 236; public choice theory and, 220; public deliberation and, 258–60; public service and, 295; rational calculation and, 214–15; reform and, 218, 233, 275–78, 295; revalorization and, 275; role of government and, 14–15; self-interest and, 214, 221; statistics and, 13; stewardship and, 78, 80, 275; technology and, 212–13, 216, 218, 233–34, 237–38; World Values Survey and, 139 Veblen, Thorsten, 22–23 Velvet Revolution, 239 volunteering, 46–49, 205–7, 214, 249, 269, 287 von Bismarck, Otto, 112 voters, 12, 16; declining turnout of, 175; happiness and, 23, 33, 43; increased turnout and, 260, 285; institutions and, 242, 251, 258, 260, 297; Internet and, 260; knowledge levels of, 288; legitimacy and, 297; measurement and, 190, 206; nature and, 57, 61, 68–69, 76; posterity and, 86, 96, 100, 106, 111; technological effects on, 288–89; trust and, 175, 286; values and, 224, 233–34, 258 Waal, Frans de, 119 Wall Street, 147, 221 Wall Street (film), 221 Warwick Commission on International Financial Reform, 164 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 119–20 Weber, Axel, 99 Weber, Max, 236 weightless activities, 150 welfare, 310n25; aging population and, 4, 94–95, 105–6, 109, 112–13, 206, 267, 280, 287, 296; fairness and, 116, 127, 131, 136–37; growth and, 9–12; happiness and, 9–12, 24–26, 29–32, 35–36, 39–42, 50–53; inequality and, 4–5, 11, 17 (see also inequality); institutions and, 239–43, 259; markets and, 211–25; measurement and, 181–86, 193, 207; nature and, 57–58, 61–62, 71–75, 78–84; policy recommendations for, 270–71, 275–77, 286, 290, 296; posterity and, 85, 89–100, 103, 106, 111–12; trust and, 171, 175; values and, 209, 211, 217, 228, 231–38 well-being, 137–43 Western culture, 2, 16, 18, 181–82, 235; aging populations in, 94–95; anomie and, 48, 51; anxiety and, 1, 25, 47–48, 136–38, 149, 174; corrosion of trust in, 150, 156, 171–75, 255–56; downshifting and, 11, 55; Easterlin Paradox and, 39–44; government debt and, 104 (see also government debt); happiness and, 22–23, 26, 40, 48, 50–51; hedonic treadmill and, 40; increased management complexities of, 244; Industrial Revolution and, 27, 149, 290, 297; institutions and, 243–44, 255–58; nature and, 57–66, 76; policy recommendations for, 268–69, 273, 275, 278, 284–85, 287; prosperity and, 86, 94–97, 104–9; Slow Movement and, 27–28, 205; voter turnout and, 175; weightless activities and, 150 Whitehall Studies, 139 Wikipedia, 205, 291 Wilkinson, Richard, 137–40 Willetts, David, 98–99 Williamson, Oliver, 17, 220, 242, 250, 254, 261 Wolf, Naomi, 34 Wolfers, Justin, 41 World Bank, 38, 81, 163–64, 176, 211 WorldCom, 145 World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge, and Policy, 38 World Trade Organization (WTO), 162–63, 215, 297 World Values Survey, 139 World War II era, 4, 91, 97, 106, 141, 164, 257, 270, 281, 283 zero–sum games, 118 Zimbabwe, 89, 110, 122

pages: 283 words: 87,166

Reaching for Utopia: Making Sense of an Age of Upheaval by Jason Cowley

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, liberal world order, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Right to Buy, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia

The early McEwan was no pornographer: he already wrote too well, his intentions were too serious, and his fictions, despite their splatter effects, were really about the disturbed imagination and about power – the power parents have over children, a brother has over a sister, a man over a woman, and the state has over the individual. Many of these early stories, which he wrote under the guidance of Malcolm Bradbury as the first student of creative writing at the University of East Anglia (UEA), were experiments in form: the interior monologue, the fractured or unreliable confession. Yet those stories, with their insistent linking of sex with death, were mostly chilling. Love was absent from them, as if their very bleakness were an expression of an entire, despairing world-view. McEwan’s cruellest book, the one in which the violence can seem most gratuitous and nasty, is The Comfort of Strangers (1981).

Each is searching for something or someone in ‘this land cursed by a mist of forgetfulness’. Even after you have finished the book, many days later, you find you can’t stop thinking about it so beguiling is its effect. * * * Born in Nagasaki in 1954, Kazuo Ishiguro came with his parents to live in England at the age of five. After working as a musician and then studying creative writing under Malcolm Bradbury at the University of East Anglia, he published his first novel, A Pale View of Hills (1982), which was set in England and a war-devastated Nagasaki, when he was twenty-eight. His second, the subtle and melancholy An Artist of the Floating World (again set in Japan, just after the war), won the Whitbread Book of the Year award in 1986. Three years later The Remains of the Day won the Booker Prize and made him famous. It became a critically acclaimed international bestseller and was adapted into a film by James Ivory and Ismail Merchant.

pages: 285 words: 86,174

Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, circulation of elites, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kenneth Arrow, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, mass incarceration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

A publication could devote itself entirely to reporting truthfully on, say, the allegations and charges of sexual assault against Assange, and yet it’s hard to imagine Assange would simply tip his cap to them for being “truthful.” If WikiLeaks’ exposure of the American security state shows the possibilities of Assange’s vision, its decision to post a massive trove of e-mails and documents from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia’s Climate Research Unit shows its limitation. The ten years’ worth of private e-mail correspondence between climate scientists within UEA and elsewhere revealed a group of academics who viewed themselves as under siege from well-funded and disingenuous critics, not to mention a group contemptuous and defensive toward their outside skeptics—not necessarily a flattering picture. But according to critics of global warming, the e-mails also showed the scientists to be guilty of genuine scientific fraud, plotting secretly to manipulate data to strengthen their case that the earth is warming as a result of increased carbon emissions.

“If your gut said, ‘Wait a minute, this global warming thing sounds like a scam,’ ” Beck told his audience, “well, I think you’re seeing it now. We told you this was going on, without proof, because we listened to our gut.” The frenzy in the conservative media occasioned mainstream outlets to also pick up the story, culminating with all three nightly network newscasts reporting the most damning snippets of the stolen e-mails. That attention then prompted no less than six official inquiries into the scientists’ conduct. The University of East Anglia, Penn State, the British House of Commons’ Science and Technology Committee, the British Royal Society, and even the U.S. Department of Commerce’s inspector general all sifted through the e-mails looking for evidence of malfeasance, deception, and misconduct. Every single one of the inquiries cleared the scientists of any scientific malpractice. Every one. All concluded that nothing revealed in the e-mails called into question either the conclusions of their published work or, more broadly, the robust consensus on anthropogenic global warming.

pages: 379 words: 99,340

The Revolt of the Public and the Crisis of Authority in the New Millennium by Martin Gurri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, business cycle, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, David Graeber, death of newspapers,, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, job-hopping, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, too big to fail, traveling salesman, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, young professional

Amateurs have swarmed into the precincts of science along many fronts. For the purpose of this chapter, it should be enough for me to touch, however lightly, on two revealing incidents. The first began with a familiar ritual: the public, in control of the information sphere, maneuvered in a fashion utterly surprising to authority. On November 19, 2009, someone who had hacked thousands of emails from the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia, Britain, released them to the public on an obscure Russian server. The names on the emails belonged to the most eminent climatologists involved in global warming research, and included many of the leading contributors to the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The release had a pointedly political purpose. A gathering of world leaders to coordinate policy on climate change was scheduled for December in Copenhagen.

I grant that this, too, is hard to prove: there are no measurements of public trust in science before and after Climategate that I am aware of. There is no data going back to 1919. Existing surveys show a significant decline in trust,[108] yet I suspect they understate the case: many people, when asked about science, still think of Einstein rather than the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia. They fondly recall the solitary seeker after truth and fail to see the master bureaucrat. Only when focused on specific issues does the public admit, even to itself, the full measure of its distrust. People on the left believe that science is a tool of Big Business, that scientists are willing to poison us with genetically modified food and torture laboratory animals to earn a bigger profit for their paymasters.

pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Meanwhile, more and more information is revealed about public figures, to the point where it becomes virtually impossible to judge them on the basis of their public words alone. Social media archives and email leaks allow the world to view and criticize their behavior, whether or not it is obviously relevant to their public status and credibility. The email hacking scandal known as “Climategate” saw thousands of emails being leaked from the University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit in 2009–11, aimed at undermining both the authority of climate science but also the neutrality and objectivity of climate scientists themselves. This form of trolling follows the logic of encryption and interception, and harnesses them as weapons of cultural war. The enemy is rendered as transparent as possible, while the perpetrator remains opaque. Forums that might traditionally have been viewed as civil spaces of reasoned dialogue become reconfigured as spaces of ad hominem attack.

., Roger, 24, 25 Piketty, Thomas, 74 Pinker, Stephen, 207 plagues, 56, 67–71, 75, 79–80, 81, 89, 95 pleasure principle, 70, 109, 110, 224 pneumonia, 37, 67 Podemos, 5, 202 Poland, 20, 34, 60 Polanyi, Michael, 163 political anatomy, 57 Political Arithmetick (Petty), 58, 59 political correctness, 20, 27, 145 Popper, Karl, 163, 171 populism xvii, 211–12, 214, 220, 225–6 and central banks, 33 and crowd-based politics, 12 and democracy, 202 and elites/experts, 26, 33, 50, 152, 197, 210, 215 and empathy, 118 and health, 99, 101–2, 224–5 and immediate action, 216 in Kansas (1880s), 220 and markets, 167 and private companies, 174 and promises, 221 and resentment, 145 and statistics, 90 and unemployment, 88 and war, 148, 212 Porter, Michael, 84 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 111–14, 117, 209 post-truth, 167, 224 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 power vs. violence, 19, 219 predictive policing, 151 presidential election, US (2016), xiv and climate change, 214 and data, 190 and education, 85 and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 79, 145 and inequality, 76–7 and Internet, 190, 197, 199 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and Russia, 199 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 prisoners of war, 43 promises, 25, 31, 39–42, 45–7, 51, 52, 217–18, 221–2 Propaganda (Bernays), 14–15 propaganda, 8, 14–16, 83, 124–5, 141, 142, 143 property rights, 158, 167 Protestantism, 34, 35, 45, 215 Prussia (1525–1947), 8, 127–30, 133–4, 135, 142 psychiatry, 107, 139 psychoanalysis, 107, 139 Psychology of Crowds, The (Le Bon), 9–12, 13, 15, 16, 20, 24, 25 psychosomatic, 103 public-spending cuts, 100–101 punishment, 90, 92–3, 94, 95, 108 Purdue, 105 Putin, Vladimir, 145, 183 al-Qaeda, 136 quality of life, 74, 104 quantitative easing, 31–2, 222 quants, 190 radical statistics, 74 RAND Corporation, 183 RBS, 29 Reagan, Ronald, 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 real-time knowledge, xvi, 112, 131, 134, 153, 154, 165–70 Reason Foundation, 158 Red Vienna, 154, 155 Rees-Mogg, Jacob, 33, 61 refugee crisis (2015–), 60, 225 relative deprivation, 88 representative democracy, 7, 12, 14–15, 25–8, 61, 202 Republican Party, 77, 79, 85, 154, 160, 163, 166, 172 research and development (R&D), 133 Research Triangle, North Carolina, 84 resentment, 5, 226 of elites/experts, 32, 52, 61, 86, 88–9, 161, 186, 201 and nationalism/populism, 5, 144–6, 148, 197, 198 and pain, 94 Ridley, Matt, 209 right to remain silent, 44 Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 160, 166 Robinson, Tommy, ix Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 52 Royal Exchange, 67 Royal Society, 48–52, 56, 68, 86, 133, 137, 186, 208, 218 Rumsfeld, Donald, 132 Russian Empire (1721–1917), 128, 133 Russian Federation (1991–) and artificial intelligence, 183 Gerasimov Doctrine, 43, 123, 125, 126 and information war, 196 life expectancy, 100, 115 and national humiliation, 145 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 and social media, 15, 18, 199 troll farms, 199 Russian Revolution (1917), 155 Russian SFSR (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 155, 177, 180, 182–3 safe spaces, 22, 208 Sands, Robert “Bobby,” 43 Saxony, 90 scarlet fever, 67 Scarry, Elaine, 102–3 scenting, 135, 180 Schneier, Bruce, 185 Schumpeter, Joseph, 156–7, 162 Scientific Revolution, 48–52, 62, 66, 95, 204, 207, 218 scientist, coining of term, 133 SCL, 175 Scotland, 64, 85, 172 search engines, xvi Second World War, see World War II securitization of loans, 218 seismology, 135 self-employment, 82 self-esteem, 88–90, 175, 212 self-harm, 44, 114–15, 117, 146, 225 self-help, 107 self-interest, 26, 41, 44, 61, 114, 141, 146 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 sentiment analysis, xiii, 12–13, 140, 188 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 shell shock, 109–10 Shrecker, Ted, 226 Silicon Fen, Cambridgeshire, 84 Silicon Valley, California, xvi, 219 and data, 55, 151, 185–93, 199–201 and disruption, 149–51, 175, 226 and entrepreneurship, 149–51 and fascism, 203 and immortality, 149, 183–4, 224, 226 and monopolies, 174, 220 and singularity, 183–4 and telepathy, 176–8, 181, 185, 186, 221 and weaponization, 18, 219 singularity, 184 Siri, 187 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 slavery, 59, 224 smallpox, 67 smart cities, 190, 199 smartphone addiction, 112, 186–7 snowflakes, 22, 113 social indicators, 74 social justice warriors (SJWs), 131 social media and crowd psychology, 6 emotional artificial intelligence, 12–13, 140–41 and engagement, 7 filter bubbles, 66 and propaganda, 15, 18, 81, 124 and PTSD, 113 and sentiment analysis, 12 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 weaponization of, 18, 19, 22, 194–5 socialism, 8, 20, 154–6, 158, 160 calculation debate, 154–6, 158, 160 Socialism (Mises), 160 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 South Africa, 103 sovereignty, 34, 53 Soviet Russia (1917–91), 132, 133, 135–8, 177, 180, 182–3 Spain, 5, 34, 84, 128, 202 speed of knowledge, xvi, 112, 124, 131, 134, 136, 153, 154, 165–70 Spicer, Sean, 3, 5 spy planes, 136, 152 Stalin, Joseph, 138 Stanford University, 179 statactivism, 74 statistics, 62–91, 161, 186 status, 88–90 Stoermer, Eugene, 206 strong man leaders, 16 suicide, 100, 101, 115 suicide bombing, 44, 146 superbugs, 205 surveillance, 185–93, 219 Sweden, 34 Switzerland, 164 Sydenham, Thomas, 96 Syriza, 5 tacit knowledge, 162 talking cure, 107 taxation, 158 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 technocracy, 53–8, 59, 60, 61, 78, 87, 89, 90, 211 teenage girls, 113, 114 telepathy, 39, 176–9, 181, 185, 186 terrorism, 17–18, 151, 185 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 emergency powers, 42 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 suicide bombing, 44, 146 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Thames Valley, England, 85 Thatcher, Margaret, 154, 160, 163, 166 Thiel, Peter, 26, 149–51, 153, 156, 174, 190 Thirty Years War (1618–48), 34, 45, 53, 126 Tokyo, Japan, x torture, 92–3 total wars, 129, 142–3 Treaty of Westphalia (1648), 34, 53 trends, xvi, 168 trigger warnings, 22, 113 trolls, 18, 20–22, 27, 40, 123, 146, 148, 194–8, 199, 209 Trump, Donald, xiv and Bannon, 21, 60–61 and climate change, 207 and education, 85 election campaign (2016), see under presidential election, US and free trade, 79 and health, 92, 99 and immigration, 145 inauguration (2017), 3–5, 6, 9, 10 and inequality, 76–7 “Make America Great Again,” 76, 145 and March for Science (2017), 23, 24, 210 and media, 27 and opinion polling, 65, 80 and Paris climate accord, 207 and promises, 221 and relative deprivation, 88 and statistics, 63 and Yellen, 33 Tsipras, Alexis, 5 Turing, Alan, 181, 183 Twitter and Corbyn’s rallies, 6 and JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x and Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x and Russia, 18 and sentiment analysis, 188 and trends, xvi and trolls, 194, 195 Uber, 49, 185, 186, 187, 188, 191, 192 UK Independence Party, 65, 92, 202 underemployment, 82 unemployment, 61, 62, 72, 78, 81–3, 87, 88, 203 United Kingdom austerity, 100 Bank of England, 32, 33, 64 Blitz (1940–41), 119, 143, 180 Brexit (2016–), see under Brexit Cameron government (2010–16), 33, 73, 100 Center for Policy Studies, 164 Civil Service, 33 climate-gate (2009), 195 Corbyn’s rallies, 5, 6 Dunkirk evacuation (1940), 119 education, 85 financial crisis (2007–9), 29–32, 100 first past the post, 13 general election (2015), 80, 81 general election (2017), 6, 65, 80, 81, 221 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 10 gross domestic product (GDP), 77, 79 immigration, 63, 65 Irish hunger strike (1981), 43 life expectancy, 100 National Audit Office (NAO), 29 National Health Service (NHS), 30, 93 Office for National Statistics, 63, 133 and opiates, 105 Oxford Circus terror scare (2017), ix–x, xiii, 41 and pain, 102, 105 Palantir, 151 Potsdam Conference (1945), 138 quantitative easing, 31–2 Royal Society, 138 Scottish independence referendum (2014), 64 Skripal poisoning (2018), 43 Society for Freedom in Science, 163 Thatcher government (1979–90), 154, 160, 163, 166 and torture, 92 Treasury, 61, 64 unemployment, 83 Unite for Europe march (2017), 23 World War II (1939–45), 114, 119, 138, 143, 180 see also England United Nations, 72, 222 United States Bayh–Dole Act (1980), 152 Black Lives Matter, 10, 225 BP oil spill (2010), 89 Bush Jr. administration (2001–9), 77, 136 Bush Sr administration (1989–93), 77 Bureau of Labor, 74 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 3, 136, 151, 199 Charlottesville attack (2017), 20 Civil War (1861–5), 105, 142 and climate change, 207, 214 Clinton administration (1993–2001), 77 Cold War, see Cold War Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 176, 178 Defense Intelligence Agency, 177 drug abuse, 43, 100, 105, 115–16, 131, 172–3 education, 85 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 137 Federal Reserve, 33 Fifth Amendment (1789), 44 financial crisis (2007–9), 31–2, 82, 158 first past the post, 13 Government Accountability Office, 29 gross domestic product (GDP), 75–7, 82 health, 92, 99–100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 115–16, 158, 172–3 Heritage Foundation, 164, 214 Iraq War (2003–11), 74, 132 JFK Airport terror scare (2016), x, xiii, 41 Kansas populists (1880s), 220 libertarianism, 15, 151, 154, 158, 164, 173 life expectancy, 100, 101 March For Our Lives (2018), 21 March for Science (2017), 23–5, 27, 28, 210 McCarthyism (1947–56), 137 Million-Man March (1995), 4 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 23, 175 National Defense Research Committee, 180 National Park Service, 4 National Security Agency (NSA), 152 Obama administration (2009–17), 3, 24, 76, 77, 79, 158 Occupy Wall Street (2011), 5, 10, 61 and opiates, 105, 172–3 and pain, 103, 105, 107, 172–3 Palantir, 151, 152, 175, 190 Paris climate accord (2015), 205, 207 Parkland attack (2018), 21 Patriot Act (2001), 137 Pentagon, 130, 132, 135, 136, 214, 216 presidential election (2016), see under presidential election, US psychiatry, 107, 111 quantitative easing, 31–2 Reagan administration (1981–9), 15, 77, 154, 160, 163, 166 Rumsfeld’s “unknown unknowns” speech (2002), 132 Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE), 180, 182, 200 September 11 attacks (2001), 17, 18 Tea Party, 32, 50, 61, 221 and torture, 93 Trump administration (2017–), see under Trump, Donald unemployment, 83 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 World War I (1914–18), 137 World War II (1939–45), 137, 180 universal basic income, 221 universities, 151–2, 164, 169–70 University of Cambridge, 84, 151 University of Chicago, 160 University of East Anglia, 195 University of Oxford, 56, 151 University of Vienna, 160 University of Washington, 188 unknown knowns, 132, 133, 136, 138, 141, 192, 212 unknown unknowns, 132, 133, 138 “Use of Knowledge in Society, The” (Hayek), 161 V2 flying bomb, 137 vaccines, 23, 95 de Vauban, Sébastien Le Prestre, Marquis de Vauban, 73 vehicle-ramming attacks, 17 Vesalius, Andreas, 96 Vienna, Austria, 153–5, 159 Vietnam War (1955–75), 111, 130, 136, 138, 143, 205 violence vs. power, 19, 219 viral marketing, 12 virtual reality, 183 virtue signaling, 194 voice recognition, 187 Vote Leave, 50, 93 Wainright, Joel, 214 Wales, 77, 90 Wall Street, New York, 33, 190 War College, Berlin, 128 “War Economy” (Neurath), 153–4 war on drugs, 43, 131 war on terror, 131, 136, 196 Watts, Jay, 115 weaponization, 18–20, 22, 26, 75, 118, 123, 194, 219, 223 weapons of mass destruction, 132 wearable technology, 173 weather control, 204 “What Is An Emotion?”

Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomsky, Laray Polk

American Legislative Exchange Council, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

On August 18, 2011, Huntsman tweeted, “To be clear. I believe in evolution and trust scientists on global warming. Call me crazy.” At the Heritage Foundation on December 6, 2011, he asserted, “there are questions about the validity of the science, evidenced by one university over in Scotland [sic] recently.” Huntsman’s remarks also coincided with an anonymous hacker’s release of stolen e-mails from the University of East Anglia and COP17 proceedings in Durban, South Africa. Evan McMorris-Santoro, “Jon Huntsman’s Climate Change Flip Flop Explained,”, December 6, 2011; Justin Gillis and Leslie Kaufman, “New Trove of Stolen E-mails from Climate Scientists is Released,” New York Times, November 22, 2011. On influence of Tea Party on Republican campaigns, see note 3, chap. 6. 9 At a rally in Florida, after Hurricane Irene narrowly bypassed the state, Michele Bachmann told the audience: “I don’t know how much God has to do to get the attention of the politicians.

pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

Labour invested at least £800 million in supporting technology transfer up to 2007, and a further £429 million was scheduled for the years to 2011 – paying for innovation funds, seed corn for start-ups and a Cambridge–MIT programme. If Labour’s generosity went unthanked by arts and science, the reason was ministers’ insistence on a pro quo for the many quids they put in. What scientists, academics, clinicians and theatre directors like is freedom – to spend as the muse or the fire of knowledge leads them. Scientific autonomy, a precious principle, took a heavy hit when emails among climate scientists at the University of East Anglia were hacked, and the price of their knowledge was shown to be a clubby arrogance about letting opponents see unhelpful evidence. Self-regard in clubs was not confined to science. Here was something that ought to have concerned Lord Triesman – the Labour Party apparatchik and minister turned chair of the Football Association – but he stayed quiet before departing in disgrace in 2010. Labour’s role, as big money washed into sport, was that of an ineffectual assistant referee, fated to wave the yellow flag and be ignored by everyone on the field.

., 1 Rosetta Stone, 1 Rosyth, 1 Rotherham, 1, 2, 3 Royal Opera House, 1 Royal Shakespeare Company, 1 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, 1 Rugby, 1 rugby union, 1 Rumsfeld, Donald, 1 rural affairs, 1, 2 Rushdie, Salman, 1 Russia, 1, 2 Rwanda, 1 Ryanair, 1, 2 Sainsbury, Lord David, 1 St Austell, 1 St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1, 2 St Pancras International station, 1 Salford, 1, 2, 3, 4 Sanchez, Tia, 1 Sandwell, 1 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 1, 2 Savill, Superintendent Paul, 1 Saville, Lord, 1 savings ratio, 1 Scandinavia, 1, 2, 3 Scholar, Sir Michael, 1 school meals, 1, 2 school uniforms, 1 school-leaving age, 1 schools academies, 1, 2, 3, 4 building, 1 class sizes, 1 comprehensive schools, 1, 2 faith schools, 1, 2, 3, 4 grammar schools, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 nursery schools, 1 and PFI, 1, 2, 3 police in, 1, 2, 3 primary schools, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 private schools, 1, 2 secondary schools, 1, 2, 3 in special measures, 1 special schools, 1 specialist schools, 1 and sport, 1 science, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scotland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 electricity generation, 1 and health, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scottish parliament, 1, 2 Section 1, 2 security services, 1 MI5, 1, 2, 3 Sedley, Stephen, 1 segregation, 1 self-employment, 1 Sellafield, 1 Serious Organized Crime Agency, 1 sex crimes, 1 Sex Discrimination Act, 1 Shankly, Bill, 1 Sharkey, Feargal, 1 Shaw, Liz, 1 Sheen, Michael, 1 Sheffield, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Sheringham, 1 Shetty, Shilpa, 1 Shipman, Harold, 1 shopping, 1 Short, Clare, 1 Siemens, 1 Siena, 1 Sierra Leone, 1, 2 Skeet, Mavis, 1 skills councils, 1 slavery, 1 Slough, 1 Smith, Adam, 1 Smith, Chris, 1 Smith, Jacqui, 1, 2 Smith, John, 1, 2 Smithers, Professor Alan, 1, 2 smoking ban, 1, 2 Snowden, Philip, 1 social care, 1, 2, 3 Social Chapter opt-out, 1 social exclusion, 1, 2 Social Fund, 1 social mobility, 1, 2 social sciences, 1 social workers, 1 Soham murders, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solihull, 1, 2 Somalia, 1, 2 Souter, Brian, 1 South Africa, 1 South Downs, 1 Spain, 1, 2, 3 special advisers, 1 speed cameras, 1 Speenhamland, 1 Spelman, Caroline, 1 Spence, Laura, 1 sport, 1, 2 see also football; Olympic Games Sri Lanka, 1, 2 Stafford Hospital, 1 Staffordshire University, 1 Standard Assessment Tests (Sats), 1, 2, 3 Standards Board for England, 1 statins, 1, 2, 3 stem cell research, 1 STEM subjects, 1 Stephenson, Sir Paul, 1 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 1, 2 Stevenson, Lord (Dennis), 1 Stevenson, Wilf, 1 Steyn, Lord, 1 Stiglitz, Joseph, 1 Stockport, 1 Stonehenge, 1 Stoppard, Tom, 1 Straw, Jack, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 student fees, 1 Stuff Happens, 1 Sudan, 1, 2 Sugar, Alan, 1 suicide bombing, 1 suicides, 1 Sun, 1, 2 Sunday Times, 1, 2 Sunderland, 1, 2 supermarkets, 1, 2 Supreme Court, 1, 2 Sure Start, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 surveillance, 1, 2 Sutherland, Lord (Stewart), 1 Swansea, 1 Sweden, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Swindon, 1 Taliban, 1, 2 Tallinn, 1 Tanzania, 1 Tate Modern, 1 Taunton, 1 tax avoidance, 1, 2, 3 tax credits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 council tax credit, 1 pension credit, 1, 2, 3 R&D credits, 1 taxation, 1, 2 10p tax rate, 1 capital gains tax, 1, 2 corporation tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 council tax, 1, 2 fuel duty, 1, 2, 3 green taxes, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 income tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 inheritance tax, 1, 2 poll tax, 1 stamp duty, 1, 2, 3 vehicle excise duty, 1 windfall tax, 1, 2, 3 see also National Insurance; VAT Taylor, Damilola, 1 Taylor, Robert, 1 teachers, 1, 2, 3 head teachers, 1, 2 salaries, 1, 2 teaching assistants, 1, 2 teenage pregnancy, 1, 2, 3 Teesside University, 1 television and crime, 1 and gambling, 1 talent shows, 1 television licence, 1, 2, 3 Territorial Army, 1 terrorism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Terry, John, 1 Tesco, 1, 2, 3, 4 Tewkesbury, 1 Thames Gateway, 1 Thameswey, 1 Thatcher, Margaret, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Thatcherism, 1, 2, 3 theatre, 1 Thornhill, Dorothy, 1 Thorp, John, 1 Tibet, 1 Tilbury, 1 Times, The, 1 Times Educational Supplement, 1, 2 Timmins, Nick, 1 Titanic, 1 Tomlinson, Mike, 1 Topman, Simon, 1, 2 torture, 1, 2 trade unions, 1, 2, 3 Trades Union Congress (TUC), 1, 2, 3 tramways, 1 transport policies, 1, 2 Trident missiles, 1, 2, 3 Triesman, Lord, 1 Turkey, 1, 2 Turnbull, Lord (Andrew), 1 Turner, Lord (Adair), 1, 2, 3 Tweedy, Colin, 1 Tyneside Metro, 1 Uganda, 1 UK Film Council, 1 UK Sport, 1 UK Statistics Authority, 1 unemployment, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 United Nations, 1, 2, 3 United States of America, 1, 2 Anglo-American relationship, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and child poverty, 1 and clean technologies, 1 economy and business, 1, 2, 3 and education, 1, 2, 3 and healthcare, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 and internet gambling, 1 and minimum wage, 1 universities, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and migration, 1 and terrorism, 1 tuition fees, 1 University College London Hospitals, 1 University for Industry, 1 University of East Anglia, 1 University of Lincoln, 1 Urban Splash, 1, 2 Vanity Fair, 1 VAT, 1, 2, 3 Vauxhall, 1 Venables, Jon, 1 Vestas wind turbines, 1 Victoria and Albert Museum, 1 Waitrose, 1 Waldfogel, Jane, 1 Wales, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 Walker, Sir David, 1 walking, 1, 2 Walsall, 1 Wanless, Sir Derek, 1 Wanstead, 1 Warm Front scheme, 1 Warner, Lord Norman, 1 Warsaw, 1 Warwick accord, 1 water utilities, 1 Watford, 1 welfare benefits child benefit, 1, 2 Employment Support Allowance, 1 and fraud, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing benefit, 1 incapacity benefit, 1, 2 Income Support, 1 Jobseeker’s Allowance, 1, 2, 3 and work, 1, 2 Welsh assembly, 1, 2 Wembley Stadium, 1 Westfield shopping mall, 1 Wetherspoons, 1 White, Marco Pierre, 1 Whittington Hospital, 1 Wiles, Paul, 1 Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Pickett, 1 Williams, Professor Karel, 1 Williams, Raymond, 1 Williams, Rowan, 1 Wilson, Harold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Wilson, Sir Richard, 1 wind turbines, 1, 2 Winslet, Kate, 1 winter fuel payments, 1 Wire, The, 1 Woking, 1, 2 Wolverhampton, 1 Woolf, Lord, 1 Wootton Bassett, 1, 2 working-class culture, 1 working hours, 1, 2 World Bank, 1 Wrexham, 1 Wright Robinson School, 1, 2, 3 xenophobia, 1 Y2K millennium bug, 1 Yarlswood detention centre, 1 Yeovil, 1 Yiewsley, 1 York, 1, 2, 3, 4 Young Person’s Guarantee, 1 Youth Justice Board, 1 Zimbabwe, 1, 2 About the Author Polly Toynbee is the Guardian’s social and political commentator.

pages: 335 words: 111,405

B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

Fashion cycles are the natural means for one generation to be edged out of the way to make room for another, but they don’t always make for the most reliable of critical judgements. When I began writing about architecture for newspapers in the 1980s, the politely provincial British architectural world of the time was evidently running out of steam. A thrusting fifty-year-old Norman Foster had just ushered in the gleaming aluminium-skinned face of the future with the Sainsbury Centre at the University of East Anglia, which looked more like an aircraft hangar than a museum. But there wasn’t much else of interest being built, and that meant it was a free-fire zone on almost everybody else. Blueprint set out to be iconoclastic, disposable, and tried to root architecture, design, graphics, fashion and the visual world in the popular culture of the time. There was an undeniable frisson to be enjoyed from the slaughter of so many sacred cows.

Krier also put together a monograph of Stirling’s complete works, in a style closely modelled on Le Corbusier’s own Oeuvre complète. Clearly Krier’s change of heart did not come at once. Indeed, in the 1970s, he even confessed himself to have been moved more than he had expected by a visit to Norman Foster’s intricate steel-and-aluminium aircraft-hangar-cum-Greek-temple that is the Sainsbury Centre at the University of East Anglia. After Krier had left Stirling, he started teaching at the Architectural Association, the private design school in London that during the 1970s served as a kind of unofficial opposition to the lacklustre world of mainstream British architecture. He developed a contempt for his chosen profession, which came close to that of Rem Koolhaas – another architect with a Le Corbusier fixation, who also happened to be teaching at the AA at the time.

pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley,, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

I thank Christian Pfister and Martin Parry for sharing with me their recollections of the 1979 conference. Sanderson, The history, 285, notes BP and Shell sponsorship of the Climatic Research Unit, founded in 1971 as part of the University of East Anglia's School of Environmental Sciences. The Cambridge University Press volume was Wigley, Climate and history. 3. Report of the World Food Conference, Rome, 5–16 November 1974 (New York, 1975), 6–8 (at FAORLC-41001WorldFoodConference doc, accessed 9 Mar. 2012. Note that in 1981, two years after the University of East Anglia conference, Amartya Sen published his influential Poverty and famines, arguing that famine reflected faulty distribution rather than defective production: see page 108 above. 4. Houghton, Climate, xi (‘Executive summary’) 5. Speech by Senator Inhofe in the US Senate, 4 Jan. 2005 quoting with approval his speech on 28 July 2003.

At certain revolutions all the damned Are brought: and feel by turns the bitter change Of fierce extremes, extremes by change more fierce, From beds of raging fire to starve in ice Their soft ethereal warmth, and there to pine Immovable, infixed, and frozen round Periods of time; thence hurried back to fire.45 Epilogue: ‘It's the climate, stupid’1 ONCE UPON A TIME, THE HISTORY OF CLIMATE WAS A ‘HOT TOPIC’. IN 1979 the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environment Programme, the National Science Foundation, the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation paid for 250 historians, geographers, archaeologists and climatologists from 30 countries to attend the first international ‘Conference on Climate and History’, hosted by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (England) – a unit sponsored by (among others) British Petroleum and Royal Dutch Shell. Cambridge University Press later published a volume containing the most innovative of the conference papers. That same year, the World Meteorological Organization created the ‘World Climate Program’ with a mandate to ‘insert climatic considerations into the formulation of rational policy alternatives’.

Die Niederrheinisch-Westfälische Reichskreis, 1635–1650 (Münster, 1990: Schriftenreihe der Vereinigung zur Erforschung der neueren Geschichte, XVI) Salmon, J. H. M., The French religious wars in English political thought (Oxford, 1959) Sanabre, J., La acción de Francia en Cataluña en la pugna por la hegemonía de Europa (1640–1659) (Barcelona, 1956) Sandberg, B., Warrior pursuits: Noble culture and civil conflict in early modern France (Baltimore, 2010) Sanderson, M., The history of the University of East Anglia 1918–2000 (London, 2002) Sansom, G., A history of Japan, 1615–1867 (Stanford, 1963) Santoro, M., Le secentine napoletane della Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli (Rome, 1986) Sanz Camañes, P., Política, hacienda y milicia en el Aragón de los últimos Austrias entre 1640 y 1680 (Zaragoza, 1997). Sargent, T. J. and F. R. Velde, The big problem of small change (Princeton, 2002) Sasaki Junnosuke, Daimyô to hyakushô (Tokyo, 1966) Sasaki Junnosuke and R.

pages: 159 words: 45,073

GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, double entry bookkeeping,, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial intermediation, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, mutually assured destruction, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, new economy, Occupy movement, purchasing power parity, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, University of East Anglia, working-age population

I would like to thank the following people for their suggestions and comments on drafts of the book: Simon Briscoe, Wendy Carlin, Brett Christophers, Tony Clayton, Bob Hahn, Andrew Haldane, Jonathan Haskel, Harold James, Andrew Kelly, Stephen King, Rob Metcalfe, Peter Sinclair, Paola Subacchi, and Romesh Vaitilingam. I have also benefited from comments from faculty and students attending a lecture I gave at the University of East Anglia in February 2013, and from attendees at a roundtable at the Legatum Institute in June 2012. As ever, I’m immensely grateful to my agent, Sara Menguc, and owe huge thanks to my long-suffering family, Rory, Adam, and Rufus. And to Cabbage the dog, who contributes not at all to GDP but greatly to welfare. NOTES INTRODUCTION 1. “Greece’s Statistics Chief Faces Criminal Probe,” Financial Times, 27 November 2011; “Greek Statistics Chief Faces Charges over Claims of Inflated 2009 Deficit Figure,”, 22 January 2013,; “Numbers Game Turns Nasty for Greek Stats Chief,” Reuters, 14 March 2013,

pages: 692 words: 127,032

Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, global pandemic, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor, yellow journalism, zero-sum game

Anti-cap-and-trade opponents were gearing up for a “civil war” and the “greatest part of that battlefield is the global warming battle,” according to energy-industry-shill Lord Christopher Monckton, a British journalist with no particular expertise in climate science who travels America eruditely calling global warming “bullshit.”53 Obama’s delay gave opponents the time and ammunition they needed to regroup. CLIMATEGATE On November 17, 2009, the battle was rejoined. Days before the start of the Copenhagen climate summit, an unidentified hacker posted on a Russian FTP server a sixty-one-megabyte file containing e-mails stolen from servers at England’s University of East Anglia Climatic Research Unit (CRU). The hacker then posted a link to the file on the climate skeptic blogs The Air Vent54 and Watts Up with That?55 as well as the blog RealClimate, which is run by several leading climate scientists, including Michael Mann.56 The CRU is one of the world’s leading centers for climate research and a hub of global climate science communication. The file contained thousands of private e-mails exchanged by top climate scientists over more than thirteen years.

Mike’s series got the annual land and marine values while the other two got April-Sept for NH land N of 20N. The latter two are real for 1999, while the estimate for 1999 for NH combined is +0.44C wrt 61-90. The Global estimate for 1999 with data through Oct is +0.35C cf. 0.57 for 1998. Thanks for the comments, Ray. Cheers Phil Prof. Phi l Jones Climatic Research Unit Telephone +44 (0) 1603 592090 School of Environmental Sciences Fax +44 (0) 1603 507784 University of East Anglia Norwich Email NR4 7TJ UK As in the polar bear case, a five-prong propaganda attack was employed: phony science; canned stories via bloggers for the press; AM talk radio and partisan cable news reaction and outrage; government intervention; and hand-wringing by the real actors, our much-maligned and patriotic heroes. Suddenly, scientists found themselves not just fending off junk science, but directly in the crosshairs.

pages: 502 words: 128,126

Rule Britannia: Brexit and the End of Empire by Danny Dorling, Sally Tomlinson

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden,, epigenetics, Etonian, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, housing crisis, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, wealth creators

In other words, there was very little evidence that the more deprived an area was, the more likely its residents were to vote Leave. There are many other interesting analyses as to who voted in the referendum and why. One theory that hit the headlines suggested that fat people were responsible. Peter Ormosi, an Associate Professor of Competition Economics at the Norwich Business School (University of East Anglia), posted a blog on the London School of Economics website at the very end of June 2016 entitled: ‘The weight of Brexit: Leave vote is higher in areas of higher obesity’.17 Peter reported correlations of 0.80 (very high in comparison to the deprivation correlation of 0.037). He then speculated that because ‘neurotic people are more likely to have [eating] disorders’, then it is possible that the correlation he found reflects those neuroses.

His views on the state’s responsibilities were revealed in an article that he, as the newly created Minister for Decentralisation, wrote for the Catholic Herald in 2010 entitled ‘It’s time for Government to stop getting in your way: the Coalition wants to release the philanthropic energies of believers’.31 He has never rebelled against his party in the current government, even at the very extremes, when they cut the most important of the rights of the poorest and most vulnerable in Britain while passing laws to reduce the taxation of the wealthy. Michael Gove, Secretary of State for Environment, is widely regarded as excessively polite. However, as Secretary of State for Education from 2010, he was described in 2013 by Ralph Manning, lecturer in primary education, University of East Anglia, as having a ‘blinkered, almost messianic, self-belief, which appears to have continually ignored the expertise and wisdom of teachers, head-teachers, advisers and academics, whom he often claims to have consulted’. Gove’s reforms to the primary-level national curriculum were described as ‘neo Victorian’. The 2013 conference of the National Union of Teachers (NUT) unanimously passed a vote of no confidence in Gove, the first time in its history that it had performed such an action, and then called for his resignation.

Science Fictions: How Fraud, Bias, Negligence, and Hype Undermine the Search for Truth by Stuart Ritchie

Albert Einstein, anesthesia awareness, Bayesian statistics, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, COVID-19, Covid-19, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, double helix,, epigenetics, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, Growth in a Time of Debt, Kenneth Rogoff, l'esprit de l'escalier, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, mouse model, New Journalism, p-value, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, publication bias, publish or perish, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Thomas Bayes, twin studies, University of East Anglia

The science historian Alex Csiszar discusses the case of climate change, where skeptics have invoked a fairy-tale image of scientific publishing as the bedrock of legitimate consensus only to profess outrage when it turns out not to live up to this fantasy. This reaction was exemplified by the reaction to the leak of thousands of emails and documents from the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia in November 2009. The emails seemed to reveal climate scientists engaging in secretive behavior and politicking with peer review. Evidence that scientific life behind the printed pages of journals was not a precise reflection of its better-behaved public face was seized upon by commentators to argue that the bottom had fallen out.18 Climate science, as it happens, is an apt example.

ABC News abortion Abu Ghraib prison abuse (2003) accidental discoveries Acta Crystallographica Section E acupuncture Afghan hounds Agence France-Presse AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) Alchemist, The (Bega) Alexander, Benita Alexander, Scott algorithms allergies Alzheimer, Aloysius Alzheimer’s Disease Amazon American Journal of Potato Research Amgen amygdala amyloid cascade hypothesis anaesthesia awareness Fujii affair (2012) outcome switching Anaesthesia & Analgesia animal studies antidepressants antipsychotics archaeology Arnold, Frances arsenic artificial tracheas asthma austerity Australia Austria autism aviation Babbage, Charles Bacon, Francis bacteria Bargh, John Bayer Bayes, Thomas Bayesian statistics BDNF gene Before You Know It (Bargh) Bega, Cornelis Begley, Sharon Belgium Bell Labs Bem, Daryl benzodiazepines bias blinding and conflict of interest De Vries’ study (2018) funding and groupthink and meaning well bias Morton’s skull studies p-hacking politics and publication bias randomisation and sexism and Bik, Elisabeth Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Biomaterials biology amyloid cascade hypothesis Bik’s fake images study (2016) Boldt affair (2010) cell lines China, misconduct in Hwang affair (2005–6) Macchiarini affair (2015–16) meta-scientific research microbiome studies Morton’s skull studies Obokata affair (2014) outcome switching preprints publication bias replication crisis Reuben affair (2009) spin and statistical power and Summerlin affair (1974) Wakefield affair (1998–2010) biomedical papers bird flu bispectral index monitor black holes Black Lives Matter blinding blotting BMJ, The Boldt, Joachim books Borges, Jorge Luis Boulez, Pierre Boyle, Robert brain imaging Brass Eye vii British Medical Journal Brock, Jon bronchoscopy Broockman, David Brown, Nick Bush, George Walker business studies BuzzFeed News California Walnut Commission California wildfires (2017) Canada cancer cell lines collaborative projects faecal transplants food and publication bias and replication crisis and sleep and spin and candidate genes carbon-based transistors Cardiff University cardiovascular disease Carlisle, John Carlsmith, James Carney, Dana cash-for-publication schemes cataracts Cell cell lines Cell Transplantation Center for Open Science CERN (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) chi-squared tests childbirth China cash-for-publication schemes cell line mix-ups in Great Famine (1959–1961) misconduct cases in randomisation fraud in chrysalis effect Churchill, Winston churnalism Cifu, Adam citations clickbait climate change cloning Clostridium difficile cochlear implants Cochrane Collaboration coercive citation coffee cognitive dissonance cognitive psychology cognitive tests coin flipping Colbert Report, The Cold War collaborative projects colonic irrigation communality COMPare Trials COMT gene confidence interval conflict of interest Conservative Party conspicuous consumption Cooperative Campaign Analysis Project (CCAP) ‘Coping with Chaos’ (Stapel) Cornell University coronavirus (COVID-19) Corps of Engineers correlation versus causation corticosteroids Cotton, Charles Caleb creationism Crowe, Russell Csiszar, Alex Cuddy, Amy CV (curriculum vitae) cyber-bullying cystic fibrosis Daily Mail Daily Telegraph Darwin Memorial, The’ (Huxley) Darwin, Charles Das, Dipak datasets fraudulent Observational publication bias Davies, Phil Dawkins, Richard De Niro, Robert De Vries, Ymkje Anna debt-to-GDP ratio Deer, Brian democratic peace theory Denmark Department of Agriculture, US depression desk rejections Deutsche Bank disabilities discontinuous mind disinterestedness DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) domestication syndrome doveryai, no proveryai Duarte, José Duke University duloxetine Dutch Golden Age Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research Dweck, Carol economics austerity preprints statistical power and effect size Einstein, Albert Elmo Elsevier engineering epigenetics euthanasia evolutionary biology exaggeration exercise Experiment, The exploratory analyses extrasensory perception faecal transplants false-positive errors Fanelli, Daniele Festinger, Leon file-drawer problem financial crisis (2007–8) Fine, Cordelia Fisher, Ronald 5 sigma evidence 5-HT2a gene 5-HTTLPR gene fixed mindset Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Frequency Questionnaires food psychology Formosus, Pope foxes France Francis, Pope Franco, Annie fraud images investigation of motives for numbers Open Science and peer review randomisation Freedom of Information Acts French, Chris Fryer, Roland Fujii, Yoshitaka funding bias and fraud and hype and long-term funding perverse incentive and replication crisis and statistical power and taxpayer money funnel plots Future of Science, The (Nielsen) gay marriage Gelman, Andrew genetically modified crops genetics autocorrect errors candidate genes collaborative projects gene therapy genome-wide association studies (GWASs) hype in salami-slicing in Geneva, Switzerland geoscience 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Hwang, Woo-Suk hydroxyethyl starch hype arsenic life affair (2010) books correlation versus causation cross-species leap language and microbiome studies news stories nutrition and press releases spin unwarranted advice hypotheses Ig Nobel Prize images, fraudulent impact factor India insomnia International Journal of Advanced Computer Technology Ioannidis, John IQ tests Iraq War (2003–11) Italy Japan John, Elton Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology Journal of Environmental Quality Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine Journal of Personality and Social Psychology journals conflict of interest disclosure fraud and hype and impact factor language in mega-journals negligence and Open Science and peer review, see peer review predatory journals preprints publication bias rent-seeking replication studies retraction salami slicing subscription fees Jupiter Kahneman, Daniel Kalla, Joshua Karolinska Institute Krasnodar, Russia Krugman, Paul Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words (Cotton) LaCour, Michael Lancet Fine’s ‘feminist science’ article (2018) Macchiarini affair (2015–16) Wakefield affair (1998–2010) language Large Hadron Collider Le Texier, Thibault Lewis, Jason Lexington Herald-Leader Leyser, Ottoline Lilienfeld, Scott Loken, Eric Lost in Math (Hossenfelder) low-fat diet low-powered studies Lumley, Thomas Lysenko, Trofim Macbeth (Shakespeare) Macbeth effect Macchiarini, Paolo MacDonald, Norman machine learning Macleod, Malcolm Macroeconomics major depressive disorder Malaysia Mao Zedong MARCH1 Marcus, Adam marine biology Markowetz, Florian Matthew Effect Maxims and Moral Reflections (MacDonald) McCartney, Gerry McCloskey, Deirdre McElreath, Richard meaning well bias Measles, Mumps & Rubella (MMR) measurement errors Medawar, Peter medical research amyloid cascade hypothesis Boldt affair (2010) cell lines China, misconduct in collaborative projects Fujii affair (2012) Hwang affair (2005–6) Macchiarini affair (2015–16) meta-scientific research Obokata affair (2014) outcome switching pharmaceutical companies preprints pre-registration publication bias replication crisis Reuben affair (2009) spin and statistical power and Summerlin affair (1974) Wakefield affair (1998–2010) medical reversal Medical Science Monitor Mediterranean Diet Merton, Robert Mertonian Norms communality disinterestedness organised scepticism universalism meta-science Boldt affair (2010) chrysalis effect De Vries’ study (2018) Fanelli’s study (2010) Ioannidis’ article (2005) Macleod’s studies mindset studies (2018) saturated fats studies spin and stereotype threat studies mice microbiome Microsoft Excel Milgram, Stanley Mill, John Stuart Mindset (Dweck) mindset concept Mismeasure of Man, The (Gould) Modi, Narendra money priming Mono Lake, California Moon, Hyung-In Morton, Samuel Motyl, Matt multiverse analysis nanotechnology National Academy of Sciences National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) National Institutes of Health National Science Foundation 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acidification oesophagus ‘Of Essay-Writing’ (Hume) Office for Research Integrity, US Oldenburg, Henry Open Access Open Science OPERA experiment (2011) Oransky, Ivan Orben, Amy Organic Syntheses organised scepticism Osborne, George outcome-switching overfitting Oxford University p-value/hacking alternatives to Fine and low-powered studies and microbiome studies and nutritional studies and Open Science and outcome-switching perverse incentive and pre-registration and screen time studies and spin and statcheck and papers abstracts citations growth rates h-index introductions method sections results sections salami slicing self-plagiarism university ranks and Parkinson’s disease particle-accelerator experiments peanut allergies peer review coercive citation fraudulent groupthink and LaCour affair (2014–15) Preprints productivity incentives and randomisation and toxoplasma gondii scandal (1961) volunteer Wakefield affair (1998–2010) penicillin Peoria, Illinois Perspectives in Psychological Science perverse incentive cash for publications competition CVs and evolutionary analogy funding impact factor predatory journals salami slicing self-plagiarism Pett, Joel pharmaceutical companies PhDs Philosophical Transactions phlogiston phosphorus Photoshop Physical Review physics placebos plagiarism Plan S Planck, Max plane crashes PLOS ONE pluripotency Poehlman, Eric politics polygenes polyunsaturated fatty acids Popper, Karl populism pornography positive feedback loops positive versus null results, see publication bias post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) power posing Prasad, Vinay pre-registration preclinical studies predatory journals preprints Presence (Cuddy) press releases Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) priming Princeton University Private Eye probiotics Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences prosthetic limbs Przybylski, Andrew psychic precognition Psychological Medicine psychology Bargh’s priming study (1996) Bem’s precognition studies books Carney and Cuddy’s power posing studies collaborative projects data sharing study (2006) Dweck’s mindset concept Festinger and Carlsmith’s cognitive dissonance studies Kahneman’s priming studies LaCour’s gay marriage experiment politics and preprints publication bias in Shanks’ priming studies Stanford Prison Experiment Stapel’s racism studies statistical power and Wansink’s food studies publication bias publish or perish Pubpeer Pythagoras’s theorem Qatar quantum entanglement racism Bargh’s priming studies Morton’s skull studies Stapel’s environmental studies randomisation Randy Schekman Reagan, Ronald recommendation algorithms red grapes Redfield, Rosemary Reflections on the Decline of Science in England (Babbage) Reinhart, Carmen Rennie, Drummond rent-seeking replication; replication crisis Bargh’s priming study Bem’s precognition studies biology and Carney and Cuddy’s power posing studies chemistry and economics and engineering and geoscience and journals and Kahneman’s priming studies marine biology and medical research and neuroscience and physics and Schön’s carbon-based transistor Stanford Prison Experiment Stapel’s racism studies Wolfe-Simon’s arsenic life study reproducibility Republican Party research grants research parasites resveratrol retraction Arnold Boldt Fujii LaCour Macchiarini Moon Obokata Reuben Schön Stapel Wakefield Wansink Retraction Watch Reuben, Scott Reuters RIKEN Rogoff, Kenneth romantic priming Royal Society Rundgren, Todd Russia doveryai, no proveryai foxes, domestication of Macchiarini affair (2015–16) plagiarism in salami slicing same-sex marriage sample size sampling errors Sanna, Lawrence Sasai, Yoshiki saturated fats Saturn Saudi Arabia schizophrenia Schoenfeld, Jonathan Schön, Jan Hendrik School Psychology International Schopenhauer, Arthur Science acceptance rate Arnold affair (2020) arsenic life affair (2010) cash-for-publication and Hwang affair (2005) impact factor LaCour affair (2014–15) language in Macbeth effect study (2006) Open Access and pre-registration investigation (2020) replication research Schön affair (2002) Stapel affair (2011) toxoplasma gondii scandal (1961) Science Europe Science Media Centre scientific journals, see journals scientific papers, see papers Scientific World Journal, The Scotland Scottish Socialist Party screen time self-citation self-correction self-plagiarism self-sustaining systems Seoul National University SEPT2 Sesame Street sexism sexual selection Shakespeare, William Shanks, David Shansky, Rebecca Simmons, Joseph Simonsohn, Uri Simpsons, The skin grafts Slate Star Codex Sloan-Kettering Cancer Institute Smaldino, Paul Smeesters, Dirk Smith, Richard Snuppy social media South Korea Southern blot Southern, Edwin Soviet Union space science special relativity specification-curve analysis speed-accuracy trade-off Spies, Jeffrey spin Springer Srivastava, Sanjay Stalin, Joseph Stanford University Dweck’s mindset concept file-drawer project (2014) Prison Experiment (1971) Schön affair (2002) STAP (Stimulus-Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency) Stapel, Diederik statcheck statistical flukes statistical power statistical significance statistical tests Status Quo stem cells Stephen VI, Pope stereotype threat Sternberg, Robert strokes subscription fees Summerlin, William Sweden Swift, Jonathan Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Sydney Morning Herald Symphony of Sorrowful Songs (Górecki) t-tests Taiwan tax policies team science TED (Technology, Entertainment, and Design) Texas sharpshooter analogy Thatcher, Margaret theory of special relativity Thinking, Fast and Slow (Kahneman) Thomson Reuters Tilburg University Titan totalitarianism toxoplasma gondii trachea translational research transparency Tribeca Film Festival triplepay system Trump, Donald trust in science ‘trust, but verify’ Tumor Biology Turkey Tuulik, Julia Twitter typos UK Reproducibility Network Ulysses pact United Kingdom austerity cash-for-publication schemes image duplication in multiverse analysis study (2019) National Institute for Health Research pre-registration in Royal Society submarines trust in science university ranks in Wakefield affair (1998–2010) United States Arnold affair (2020) arsenic life affair (2010) austerity Bargh’s priming study (1996) Bem’s precognition studies California wildfires (2017) Carney and Cuddy’s power posing studies Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion climate science in creationism in Das affair (2012) De Vries’ drug study (2018) Department of Agriculture Dweck’s mindset concept Fryer’s police brutality study (2016) image duplication in Kahneman’s priming studies LaCour affair (2014–15) Morton’s skull studies Office for Research Integrity Poehlman affair (2006) pre-registration in public domain laws Reuben affair (2009) Stanford Prison Experiment Summerlin affair (1974) tenure Walker’s sleep studies Wansink affair (2016) universalism universities cash-for-publication schemes fraud and subscription fees and team science University College London University of British Columbia University of California Berkeley Los Angeles University of Connecticut University of East Anglia University of Edinburgh University of Hertfordshire University of London University of Pennsylvania unsaturated fats unwarranted advice vaccines Vamplew, Peter Vanity Fair Vatican Vaxxed Viagra vibration-of-effects analysis virology Wakefield, Andrew Walker, Matthew Wansink, Brian Washington Post weasel wording Weisberg, Michael Wellcome Trust western blots Westfall, Jake ‘Why Most Published Research Findings Are False’ (Ioannidis) Why We Sleep (Walker) Wiley Wiseman, Richard Wolfe-Simon, Felisa World as Will and Presentation, The (Schopenhauer) World Health Organisation (WHO) Yale University Yarkoni, Tal Yes Men Yezhov, Nikolai Z-tests Ziliak, Stephen Zimbardo, Philip Zola, Émile About the Author Stuart Ritchie is a lecturer in the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre at King’s College London.

The Rough Guide to England by Rough Guides

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bike sharing scheme, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, Columbine, congestion charging, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Downton Abbey, Edmond Halley, Etonian, food miles, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, period drama, plutocrats, Plutocrats, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl

Founded in 1803, and in existence for just thirty years, this school of landscape painters produced – for the most part – richly coloured, formally composed land- and seascapes in oil and watercolour, paintings whose realism harked back to the Dutch landscape painters of the seventeenth century. The leading figures were John Crome (1768–1821) – aka “Old Crome” – and John Sell Cotman (1782–1842). University of East Anglia Earlham Rd, NR4 7TJ • UEA Campus Open access • Free • 01603 456161, • Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts Tues–Fri 10am–6pm, Sat & Sun 10am–5pm • Free, but admission charged for some exhibitions • 01603 593199, • Among several services, bus #25 runs to the UEA campus from the train station and Castle Meadow The University of East Anglia (UEA) occupies a sprawling campus on the western outskirts of the city beside the B1108. Its buildings are resolutely modern, an assortment of concrete-and-glass blocks of varying designs, some quite ordinary, others, like the prize-winning “ziggurat” halls of residence, designed by Denys Lasdun, eminently memorable.

Many are no longer in regular use and are now in the care of the Norwich Historic Churches Trust (, whose website describes each in precise detail. Norwich’s relative isolation has also meant that the population has never swelled to any great extent and today, with just 220,000 inhabitants, it remains an easy and enjoyable city to negotiate. Yet Norwich is no provincial backwater. In the 1960s, the foundation of the University of East Anglia (UEA) made it much more cosmopolitan and bolstered its arts scene, while in the 1980s it attracted new high-tech companies, who created something of a mini-boom, making the city one of England’s wealthiest. As East Anglia’s unofficial capital, Norwich also lies at the hub of the region’s transport network, serving as a useful base for visiting the Broads and as a springboard for the north Norfolk coast.

As if that wasn’t enough, speed of reconstruction – rather than quality – was often the key criterion and, convinced that the car was the future, roads were ploughed through a host of English cities almost willy-nilly. Nevertheless, there were some noteworthy architectural achievements in the 1950s and 1960s, including Basil Spence’s (1907–76) startling replacement of the bombed Coventry Cathedral (1951–59); Denys Lasdun’s (1914–2001) ziggurats at the University of East Anglia in Norwich (1963); and the Royal Festival Hall (1949–51), a triumphant Modernist departure from the traditional model for classical music venues. 1980 to 2000 In the late twentieth century, English architecture was stranded between a popular dislike for the modern and a general reluctance among its practitioners to return to the past. In this climate, a string of leading architects adjusted to the new state of play by adopting a more fluent, sinuous or even whimsical style in their new commissions – and the public responded well.

pages: 217 words: 61,407

Twilight of Abundance: Why the 21st Century Will Be Nasty, Brutish, and Short by David Archibald

Bakken shale, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), means of production, mutually assured destruction, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, peak oil, price discovery process, rising living standards, sceptred isle, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

One good analysis of the malfeasance of the climate scientists is The Delinquent Teenager Who Was Mistaken for the World’s Top Climate Expert, published by Canadian investigative journalist Donna Laframboise in 2011.18 One of the earliest Climategate emails shows how the results of research were tailored to a political agenda. On July 29, 1999, Adam Markham of WWF (a non-government organization formerly known as the World Wildlife Fund) wrote to University of East Anglia climate scientists Mike Hulme and Nicola Sheard about a paper that Hulme and Sheard had written about climate change in Australasia: “I’m sure you will get some comments direct from Mike Rae in WWF Australia, but I wanted to pass on the gist of what they’ve said to me so far. They are worried that this may present a slightly more conservative approach to the risks than they are hearing from Australian scientists.

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

From decisions about whether to regulate a new technology, to the ongoing need to assess the impacts of urban development on the local ecology, objective scientific analysis is often central to the formulation of effective public policies. As the intermingling of science and public policy intensifies in an era of new global risks, questions about how scientists relate to the public and how the public relates to science are becoming critical. Nothing illustrates the challenges better than the recent “climategate” scandal in which a large stash of e-mails from and to investigators at the Climatic Research Unit of the University of East Anglia provided more than enough evidence for concern about the way some climate science is done. The science discussed in the e-mails is mostly from one small area of climate research—the taking of raw temperature data from thermometers, satellites, and proxy measures of historical climate such as tree rings and turning it into usable information on temperature trends. Under director Phil Jones’s management, the CRU assembled the most comprehensive thermometer data record in the world, much of it under contract to the U.S.

In turn, they accuse their attackers of conflating McIntyre’s legitimate technical criticism of their methods with “unsupported, unjustified and unverified accusations of scientific mal-conduct that confused the public.” They were partially vindicated when the U.S. House of Representatives’ Science and Technology Committee concluded in March 2010 that there was, in fact, no evidence to support charges that the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit or its director, Phil Jones, had tampered with data or perverted the peer review process to exaggerate the threat of global warming. Moreover, the committee noted that nothing in the more than one thousand stolen e-mails challenged the scientific consensus that “global warming is happening and that it is induced by human activity.” Still, that doesn’t mean that Jones and colleagues are off the hook.

Inside British Intelligence by Gordon Thomas

active measures, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, lateral thinking, license plate recognition, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Ignoring the protests of his minders that the visit should be “properly arranged,” Dr. Kelly led his team there. Waiting for them was Dr. Rihab Taha, the director of the facility. In her early thirties with a broad forehead, pointy chin, and bouffant hairstyle, Taha “vacillated between nervous wariness and prickly defensiveness. She had good English, having acquired a PhD in toxicology from the University of East Anglia. Dr. Taha had maintained that the biological research work at Salman Pak had been in its infancy and had been destroyed by the precision bombing in the first stage of the war. She had waved her hands and shouted, “The evidence for you to see is all around you.” For five days, meeting growing hostility from the Iraqi minders, Dr. Kelly and his team picked over the bomb rubble, noting that what could have been an aerosolization chamber, signs of animal cages, the remains at chemical storage areas, shreds of protective clothing, and pieces of filters indicated the research had been far more advanced than Rihab Taha had claimed.

Though he lived in a busy apartment block, no one had seen or heard anything. His wallet was intact, and no attempt had been made to open his front door with the key. The police had removed all his work files and concluded Korshunov had been the victim of a “hit-and-run” thief. Another unexplained death that came to Dr. Kelly’s attention was that of Dr. Ian Longford, a senior fellow at the University of East Anglia. The campus was where Dr. Rihab Taha had spent five years studying before returning to Iraq to run the country’s biological research program, and Dr. Kelly had met Longford during his inquiries into her background. Dr. Longford had been found dead on February 19, 2002, in his home in Norwich, where he lived alone. The Times reported that all the outside doors to the house had been locked from the inside.

pages: 264 words: 71,821

How Bad Are Bananas?: The Carbon Footprint of Everything by Mike Berners-Lee

air freight, carbon footprint,, energy security, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, sustainable-tourism, University of East Anglia

The skeptics point out that there may be potential for group-think and mass hysteria. These are warnings that should be taken seriously. Furthermore, there have been occasional errors in the IPCC’s work, and even the hint of the odd deliberate misrepresentation. However, the standard of integrity that is demanded of the climate change believers is on a different plane altogether from that demanded of the skeptics. Some scientists at the University of East Anglia have been in world in headline-hitting trouble for allegedly “sexing up” their work in a way that the some of the skeptics would consider quite normal. The resulting scandal, which turned out to be about not all that much, has been hugely damaging to popular understanding of climate science. It’s worth bearing in mind that it would also be possible to criticize the IPCC for its caution.

pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, break the buck, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, disruptive innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve, zero-sum game

Janet Yellen, “Monetary Policy and Financial Stability,” speech at the 2014 Michel Camdessus Central Banking Lecture at the International Monetary Fund in Washington, D.C., Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, July 2, 2014, CHAPTER 4: HOW AND WHY THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED 1. Andrew G. Haldane, “Growing, Fast and Slow,” speech at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, England, February 17, 2015, 2. Mohamed A. El-Erian, When Markets Collide: Investment Strategies for the Age of Global Economic Change (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008). PART II: CONTEXT: THE RISE, COLLAPSE, AND RESURRECTION OF CENTRAL BANKING 1. Martin Wolf, “We Are Trapped in a Cycle of Credit Booms,” Financial Times, October 8, 2014,

pages: 245 words: 72,391

Alan Partridge: Nomad: Nomad by Alan Partridge

cuban missile crisis, glass ceiling, Neil Kinnock, rolodex, Skype, University of East Anglia

EPILOGUE *** BUT QUESTIONS REMAINED. Why had my father failed to make it to his Dungeness interview? What had befallen him that day? These questions still hung in the air like the smell of sausage fat, long after the cooked breakfast has been eaten and the dishwasher stacked. And so, using the money that I refused to pay to my branding consultant, I hired a team of investigators, diligent students from the University of East Anglia, who trawled visitor records and official correspondence from the power station. They learnt that my father had actually made it to the interview but performed exceptionally badly and hadn’t made it to the next round. It seems he fabricated the letter concerning his failure to attend because he didn’t want his family and friends to realise how thick he was. And he took this dark secret to the grave with him (along with an envelope of his premium bonds – never known why).

pages: 829 words: 186,976

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail-But Some Don't by Nate Silver

"Robert Solow", airport security, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, Claude Shannon: information theory, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory,, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freestyle chess, fudge factor, George Akerlof, global pandemic, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, housing crisis, income per capita, index fund, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Laplace demon, locking in a profit, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition,, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, security theater, short selling, Skype, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Climate scientists have reacted to this challenge in a variety of ways, some involving themselves more in the political debate and others keeping it at arm’s length. Michael Mann, who is director of the Earth System Science Center at Penn State University, was once at the center of a controversy. “Climategate” concerned the hacking of a server at the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia,103 which produces the temperature record that the UK’s Met Office uses. Skeptics alleged that Mann and other scientists had conspired to manipulate the CRU’s temperature record. The pertinent facts are that the scientists were cleared of wrongdoing by a panel of their peers,104 and that the CRU’s temperature record is quite consistent with the others105—but Mann and other scientists in the hacked e-mails demonstrated a clear concern with the public relations elements of how the science would be perceived.

Some scientists express a preference for the NASA/GISS record because it does a better job of accounting for the Arctic and a few other areas where temperature stations are sparse. This is potentially important because there has been more warming in the Arctic than in any other part of the globe. 64. Global Temperature Anomalies, National Atmospheric and Oceanic Association. 65. Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia. 66. Japan Meteorological Agency. 67. Note that the two satellite records use some of the same underlying data. 68. Some analyses have mistakenly used the satellite temperature records for the upper atmosphere rather than the lower atmosphere.

pages: 279 words: 87,910

How Much Is Enough?: Money and the Good Life by Robert Skidelsky, Edward Skidelsky

"Robert Solow", banking crisis, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, union organizing, University of East Anglia, Veblen good, wage slave, wealth creators, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Thus, for instance, it was the bleakest of the IPCC’s six scenarios that became the basis of the influential 2006 Stern Review, which in turn inspired Tony Blair’s statement, in an open letter to EU heads of state, that “we have a window of only 10–15 years to take the steps we need to avoid crossing a catastrophic tipping-point.”11 (That was in 2006. We now have only five to ten years left.) The idea of a catastrophic “tipping point” or “point of no return” is rejected by most serious scientists as lacking sufficient empirical foundation. “The language of catastrophe is not the language of science,” writes Mike Hulme, former director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Research at the University of East Anglia.12 But that has not stopped its use by some who should know better. Veteran geochemist James Lovelock (of whom more later) sees the world approaching a state “that could easily be described as Hell: so hot, so deadly that only a handful of the teeming billions now alive will survive.”13 Passages like this present us with a secular version of Pascal’s famous wager: they conjure an evil so fearful that its avoidance is worth any sacrifice, however great.

Bedsit Disco Queen: How I Grew Up and Tried to Be a Pop Star by Tracey Thorn

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, East Village, greed is good, Live Aid, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, University of East Anglia, young professional

‘something in the media’? – was too good an opportunity to turn down. In those days, it was a readily available opportunity. My A-level results were scarcely brilliant by any standards – an A for English, which I was proud of, but then only a C for history and a disappointing E for economics – but were still good enough to get me into Hull. Not my first choice, admittedly; I’d been rejected by the University of East Anglia after a disastrous interview where I suddenly couldn’t think of anything insightful to say about 1984, but the course at Hull had the distinct advantage of beginning with twentieth-century literature, instead of the study of Beowulf, and that appealed to me, so the choice was made. I’d be leaving home and going up to Hull. My last night at home was spent out at a party, and afterwards I sat up talking to him till 4.30 a.m.

Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory, Policy and Practice by Molly Scott Cato

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, carbon footprint, central bank independence, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, energy security, food miles, Food sovereignty, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job satisfaction, land reform, land value tax, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, mortgage debt, passive income, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, the built environment, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

Greco (1999) ‘Towards an economy in the hands of the people: Parallel currencies in the majority world: Study of the Tianguis Tlaloc local currency system in Mexico City’, available online at the Appropriate Economics website. 22 North, Money and Liberation. 23 G. Seyfang (2007) ‘Bartering for a better future? Community currencies and sustainable consumption’, CSERGE Working Paper, EDM 04–10, University of East Anglia, p. 17. 24 H. Primavera (2002) ‘Wealth, money and power: the ephemeral “Argentinean miracle” of the exchange networks’, presentation made at the 2nd panel of the National Journey on Exchange and the Economy of Solidarity, Buenos Aires, 6 September; available at: 543_ENG.rtf; M. S. Cato (2006) ‘Argentina in the red: What can the UK’s regional economies learn from the Argentinian banking crisis?’

pages: 301 words: 85,263

New Dark Age: Technology and the End of the Future by James Bridle

AI winter, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, congestion charging, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Snowden, fear of failure, Flash crash, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, late capitalism, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, oil shock, p-value, pattern recognition, peak oil, recommendation engine, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stem cell, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, Uber for X, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

An advisory circular on preventing turbulence-related injuries, published by the US Federal Aviation Administration in 2006, states that the frequency of turbulence accidents has increased steadily for more than a decade, from 0.3 accidents per million departures in 1989, to 1.7 in 2003.29 These figures are already severely out of date. The reason for the increase in turbulence is rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In a paper published in Nature Climate Change in 2013, Paul Williams of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science at the University of Reading and Manoj Joshi from the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia lay out the implications of a warming atmosphere on transatlantic aviation: Here we show using climate model simulations that clear-air turbulence changes significantly within the transatlantic flight corridor when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled. At cruise altitudes within 50–75°N and 10–60°W in winter, most clear-air turbulence measures show a 10–40 per cent increase in the median strength of turbulence and a 40–170 per cent increase in the frequency of occurrence of moderate-or-greater turbulence.

pages: 303 words: 83,564

Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game

Rethinking Crime and Immigration. Contexts 7(1), 28–33. Sandel, M. J. 2012. What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets. London: Allen Lane. Saunders, D. 2010. Arrival City: How the Largest Migration in History Is Reshaping Our World. New York: Pantheon. Serra, D., Serneels, P., and Barr, A. 2010. Intrinsic Motivations and the Non-profit Health Sector: Evidence from Ethiopia. Working Paper Series, University of East Anglia, Centre for Behavioural and Experimental Social Science (CBESS) 10-01. Schiff, M. 2012. Education Policy, Brain Drain and Heterogeneous Ability: The Impact of Alternative Migration Policies. Mimeo, World Bank. Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. L., and Ambady, N. 1999. Stereotype Susceptibility: Shifts in Quantitative Performance from Socio-cultural Identification. Psychological Science 10, 81–84.

How to Write Like Tolstoy: A Journey Into the Minds of Our Greatest Writers by Richard Cohen

Anton Chekhov, Bonfire of the Vanities, colonial rule, Honoré de Balzac, index card, Joan Didion, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia

Possibly Kafka changed from first person to avoid being too closely identified with his protagonist; just as Evelyn Waugh felt it necessary to add this epigraph to a first-person account in Brideshead Revisited: “I am not I; thou are not he or she; they are not they.”*5 — In February 2014 I traveled to Norwich, in East Anglia, to talk with Rose Tremain, whose prize-winning novel Restoration (1989) is told in the first person. During the eleventh century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, but now has just over 210,000 inhabitants, including the University of East Anglia, of which Rose is the current chancellor. We met in her light-filled home a few minutes’ drive from the university. Back in 1987, she was over fifty pages into Restoration, writing in the third person, when she concluded that “it felt very underpowered and lifeless,” and decided to start again, but in the first person. “I am, I discover, a very untidy man,” the novel begins. The year is 1664, the voice that of Robert Merivel, a pleasure-seeking, ambitious doctor in the court of Charles II.

pages: 302 words: 92,507

Cold: Adventures in the World's Frozen Places by Bill Streever

Albert Einstein, carbon footprint, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Exxon Valdez, Mason jar, refrigerator car, South China Sea, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, University of East Anglia

What had been frozen peat was becoming a landscape of mud and lakes. An area the size of Germany and France combined could be poised to release seventy billion tons of methane. More would come from Alaska and Canada and various mountain peaks. Sergei Kirpotin at Tomsk State University in western Siberia called the situation “an ecological landslide.” David Viner, a senior scientist at the University of East Anglia in England and part of the Russian permafrost project, said, “There are no brakes you can apply.” It is June twentieth, the eve of the summer solstice, on Alaska’s North Slope and 60 degrees Fahrenheit, or 16 degrees Celsius, or 289 Kelvin. Said another way, it is 520 degrees Fahrenheit above absolute zero. A man tells me of a musk ox frozen in the sea ice, standing up, thirty miles west of here.

pages: 309 words: 96,434

Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional

., ‘How the West End was Won: The Struggle to Remove Street Barriers in Victorian London’, Journal of Historical Geography, vol. 19, 1993 Atkinson, Rowland & Blandy, Sarah, ‘Panic Rooms: The Rise of Defensive Home Ownership’, Housing Studies, vol. 22 (4), 2007 Banham, Reyner, Barker, Paul, Hall, Peter & Price, Cedric, ‘Non-Plan: An Experiment in Freedom’, New Society, 20/3/69 Blackmore, Lisa, ‘Different Experiences of the Anti-Social Behaviour Process’, Social Work Monographs 226, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies, University of East Anglia, 2007 Blandy, Sarah & Lister, Diane, ‘Gated Communities: (Ne) gating Community Development?’ Housing Studies, vol. 20 (2), 2005 Boland, Philip, ‘Unpacking the Theory-Policy Interface of Local Economic Development: An Analysis of Cardiff and Liverpool’, Urban Studies, vol. 44 (5/6), 2007 Cameron, Stuart, ‘From Low Demand Housing to Rising Aspirations: Housing Market Renewal within Regional and Neighbourhood Regeneration Policy’, Housing Studies, vol. 21 (1), 2006 Coleman, Roy, ‘Reclaiming the Streets: Closed Circuit TV, Neoliberalism and the Mystification of Social Divisions in the UK’, Cook, Ian R., ‘Mobilizing Urban Policies: The Policy Transfer of US Business Improvement Districts to England and Wales’, Urban Studies, vol. 45 (4), 2008 Cozens, Paul, Hillier, David & Prescott, Gwyn, ‘Crime and the Design of Residential Property: Exploring the Theoretical Background’, Property Management, vol. 19 (2), 2001 Dear, M. & Flusty, S., ‘Postmodern Urbanism’, Annals of the Association of Urban Geographers, vol. 88 (1), 1998 Ditton, Jason, ‘Crime and the City: Public Attitudes Towards Open Street CCTV in Glasgow’, British Journal of Criminology, vol. 40 (4), 2000 Dixon, John & Durrheim, Kevin, ‘Displacing Place-Identity: A Discursive Approach to Locating Self and Other’, British Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 39 (1), 2000 Furbey, Robert, ‘Urban Regeneration: Reflections on a Metaphor’, Critical Social Policy, vol. 19 (4), 1999 Gray, Emily, Jackson, Jonathan & Farrell, Stephen, ‘Reassessing the Fear of Crime’, European Journal of Criminology, vol. 5 (3), 2008 Hamilton-Baillie, Ben, ‘Shared Space: Reconciling People, Places and Traffic’, Built Environment, vol. 34 (2), 2008 Harcourt, Bernard E., ‘The Broken Windows Myth’, New York Times, 11/9/01 Hillier, Bill, ‘Can Streets be Made Safe?’

I, Partridge: We Need to Talk About Alan by Steve Coogan

call centre, Celtic Tiger, citation needed, cuban missile crisis, late fees, means of production, negative equity, University of East Anglia, young professional

And with that, I picked up my coat and left the building, the warm applause of my colleagues still ringing in my ears like a big church bell. Sadly, circumstance has meant that I’ve not been able to get back to the hospital in the intervening 31 years. In the main that’s down to me – work commitments have made it simply unfeasible. But for the record I’d like to point out that the hospital is not entirely blameless itself. In 2001 it moved to a new site around the corner from the University of East Anglia. The studios from where I used to broadcast my show were reduced to rubble. And I think most reasonable people would agree that by allowing that to happen the NHS Trust effectively voided my promise. 42 School trip to Heston Farm, 1964. I maintain it was self-defence. 43 Press play on Track 9. 44 If he was particularly unlucky it would have been a Bouncing Betty. These horrible little devices are designed to spring three feet into the air before exploding and inflicting the maximum number of casualties on an enemy.

pages: 826 words: 231,966

GCHQ by Richard Aldrich

belly landing, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, index card, lateral thinking, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, New Journalism, packet switching, private military company, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, South China Sea, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Lewis (GCHQ) to Todd (RAE), ‘Sideways Looking System’, M/1332/ 9000/11C, 10.05.63, ibid. 34 Air Staff Requirement No 817, ‘Sideways Looking Airborne Search Reviewing System’, 05.08.64, ibid. 35 LSIC/10/64, ‘Airborne Sigint Collection’, 12.03.64, AIR 40/2820. 36 JCG/S/24, Operational Requirements Committee, 19.07.67, AIR 20/11747. 37 LSIB/12/66 (Final) 20.10.66, discussed in WD 86/87 ‘Air Staff Requirement No.389 (HS801(R))’, 07.12.67, DEFE 68/76. 38 Within NATO Britain had full cooperation on elint with Norway, Denmark, Germany and Turkey. There was limited cooperation with Italy on naval tactical elint. Holland did naval elint but there was ‘no cooperation’, and with France there was also ‘no exchange’. DCDS (I) Maguire memo, ‘Elint Collection in NATO’, and annex, 27.11.67, AIR 20/11747. 39 Britain’s cooperation with the BND Technical Sub-Committee is discussed in SZ/CSA/116/4 A.G. Touch, 1961, Zuckerman papers, University of East Anglia Library. 40 DCDS (I) Maguire memo, ‘Elint Collection in NATO’, 27.11.67, AIR 20/11747. See also DASB Brief for mtg with CDS, 22.11.67, ibid. 41 Ibid. 42 Johnson, American Cryptology, Vol.2, p.359. 43 LSIB/1/67, 16.02.67, discussed in WD 86/87 ‘Air Staff Requirement No. 389 (HS801(R))’, 07.12.67, DEFE 68/76. 44 Aiken (AC(I)) memo, ‘Replacement Aircraft – No 51 Squadron’, 01.08.67, AIR20/12072.

Hurley (RNSM) General Sir Hastings Ismay (LHCMA) Admiral Louis Le Bailly (CCC) Selwyn Lloyd (CCC) Stuart Milner-Barry (CCC) Sir Walter Monckton (BOD) Field Marshal Lord Montgomery of Alamein (IWM) Admiral Lord Mountbatten (HL) Admiral William Parry (IWM) Major General Sir William Penney (LHCMA) Commander Alfred Roake (RNSM) Vice Admiral Gerard Rushbrooke (IWM) Duncan Sandys (CCC) Air Commodore Colin Simpson (LHCMA) Lord Strang (CCC) George Strauss (CCC) Lord Swinton (CCC) Lord Weatherill (Templeman Library, University of Kent at Canterbury) Solly Zuckerman (University of East Anglia) II. United States Stewart Alsop (HGARC) Henry Brandon (LC) William Bundy (PU) General Charles Cabell (BAFB) William Colby (PU) Charles H. Donnelly (USMHI) Allen Dulles (PU) Dwight D. Eisenhower (DDEL) Foreign Affairs Oral History Program (LL) General A.M. Gruenther (DDEL) C.D. Jackson (DDEL) Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJL) Philip M. Kaiser (HSTL) George Lardner (LC) Admiral William D.

pages: 337 words: 103,273

The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

Naomi Oreskes, “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change,” Science 306, no. 5702 (December 2004): 1686, doi:10.1126/science.1103618. 6. William R. L. Anderegg et al., “Expert Credibility in Climate Change,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 21 (June 2010), doi:10.1073/pnas.1003187107. 7. These reports include those by the U.K. House of Commons Science and Technology Select Committee, an independent international panel set up by the University of East Anglia, and the Independent Climate Change Email Review. All concluded that the e-mails did not undermine the findings of climate science or the “rigour and honesty” of the scientists involved. The reports are available at; 8. The full reports and summaries are available online at 9.

pages: 357 words: 100,718

The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows

agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), longitudinal study, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

., Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Geneva, Switzerland: IPCC, 2001). Also available along with numerous illustrations 92. For a colorful presentation of the skeptic's view on climate and all other environmental issues, see Lomborg, Environmentalist. 93. See the vastly informative Web site of the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, 94. See, for example, "Global Warming. Stormy Weather," Time, November 13, 2000, 35-40, with regional weather forecasts for Europe to 2050. 95. Watson et al., Climate Change 2001. 96. These data come from ice cores drilled deep into the Antarctic ice sheet. The polar ice has accumulated over thousands of years, layer after layer, and in each layer are trapped tiny air bubbles, preserved from prehistoric times.

pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart,, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

This is a natural consequence of the fact that while our attention doesn’t scale, sharing knowledge does. In an open-but-filtered world there is no problem with people such as Grothendieck pursuing their own solitary program. Won’t open science sometimes be used for ends that many scientists find distasteful? In November of 2009, hackers broke into a computer system in one of the world’s leading centers for climate research, the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The hackers downloaded more than 1,000 email messages sent between climate scientists. They then leaked the emails (and many other documents) to bloggers and journalists. The incident received worldwide media attention, as many climate change skeptics seized upon the emails, claiming that they contained evidence to prove that the notion of human-caused climate change was a conspiracy among climate scientists.

pages: 324 words: 96,491

Messing With the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers, Terrorists, Russians, and Fake News by Clint Watts

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Chelsea Manning, Climatic Research Unit, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden,, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Julian Assange, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Internet hosting providers waxed and waned as Western governments, particularly the United States, placed enormous pressure on WikiLeaks’ technical backbone, seeking to take the outlet offline. Until the U.S. presidential election of 2016, surprisingly few questioned the validity of Assange’s attacks on the West and particularly on the United States. Most overlooked a curious bit of WikiLeaks history, the first glimpse of which occurred on November 17, 2009. WikiLeaks posted email messages between climate scientists at the University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit (CRU). The emails in the raw were used by climate change skeptics to show global warming to be a conspiracy. The CRU claimed that the emails were nothing more than healthy dialogue between researchers. Some investigating the CRU’s breach thought the leaks may have come from Russia, noting signatures that could have been tracked back to “a small web server in the formerly closed city of Tomsk in Siberia.”5 The source of the hacks remains an unsolved puzzle but the suggestion of a connection between Russia and WikiLeaks, curiously, would surface again less than a year later.

pages: 343 words: 101,563

The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, cognitive bias, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, endowment effect, energy transition, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, failed state, fiat currency, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Whole Earth Catalog, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

National Science Foundation, a dead zone the size of Florida: Bastien Y. Queste et al., “Physical Controls on Oxygen Distribution and Denitrification Potential in the North West Arabian Sea,” Geophysical Research Letters 45, no. 9 (May 2018). See also “Growing ‘Dead Zone’ Confirmed by Underwater Robots” (press release), University of East Anglia, April 27, 2018, Dramatic declines in ocean oxygen: Peter Brannen, “A Foreboding Similarity in Today’s Oceans and a 94-Million-Year-Old Catastrophe,” The Atlantic, January 12, 2018. See also Dana Nuccitelli, “Burning Coal May Have Caused Earth’s Worst Mass Extinction,” The Guardian, March 12, 2018.

pages: 411 words: 108,119

The Irrational Economist: Making Decisions in a Dangerous World by Erwann Michel-Kerjan, Paul Slovic

"Robert Solow", Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, bank run, Black Swan, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kenneth Arrow, Loma Prieta earthquake, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, market clearing, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, source of truth, statistical model, stochastic process, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

He writes two regular columns: “Finance in the 21st Century” for Project Syndicate and “Economic View” for the New York Times. Paul Slovic, University of Oregon Paul Slovic is a professor of psychology at the University of Oregon and a founder and president of Decision Research. He holds both an MA (1962) and a PhD (1964) from the University of Michigan. He has received honorary doctorates from the Stockholm School of Economics (1996) and the University of East Anglia (2005). He studies human judgment, decision making, and risk analysis. He and his colleagues worldwide have developed methods to describe risk perceptions and measure their impacts on individuals, industry, and society. He publishes extensively and serves as a consultant to industry and government. His most recent books include The Perception of Risk (Earthscan, 2000), The Social Amplification of Risk, with N.

pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

For example, in January 2015 the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) reported that there is 38 percent chance that 2014 was warmer than 2010 or 2005, the next two warmest years in the NOAA records. The independent climate research group Berkeley Earth also concluded that 2014 was nominally the warmest since the global instrumental record began in 1850 while noting, however, that within the margin of error, it is tied with 2005 and 2010. The UK Met Office and the Climatic Research Unit at University of East Anglia ranked 2014 as tied with 2010 for the warmest year in the record, but added that the uncertainty ranges mean it’s not possible to definitively say which of several recent years was the warmest. Climatologists at the University of Alabama in Huntsville have been tracking global temperatures for the past thirty-six years using satellite data that measure the bottom five miles of the atmosphere.

pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

Of course history that has moved on from what I described in 2009 should be indicated. And books have come along that expound some of my topics better than I; I wish I’d had them in hand before. Start, as the book does, with climate. In December 2009, the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen was undermined by a suspiciously sophisticated hack of emails among climatologists at the University of East Anglia, England. Once again, climate change deniers dominated the public discourse and prevented action on greenhouse gases. I responded with a New York Times op-ed titled “Four Sides to Every Story,” suggesting that it helps to distinguish four kinds of views about global warming according to whether they are driven mainly by ideology or by evidence. “Denialists” and “Skeptics” both have doubts about climate change, but only the science-based Skeptics change their opinions with changing evidence.

pages: 504 words: 126,835

The Innovation Illusion: How So Little Is Created by So Many Working So Hard by Fredrik Erixon, Bjorn Weigel

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Albert Einstein, American ideology, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, BRICs, Burning Man, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, fear of failure, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Martin Wolf, mass affluent, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, pensions crisis, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, University of East Anglia, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Yogi Berra

Gulen, Huseyin, and Mihai Ion, “Policy Uncertainty and Corporate Investment.” Review of Financial Studies, 29.3 (2016): 523–64. Gulfo, Joseph V., Innovation Breakdown: How the FDA and Wall Street Cripple Medical Advances. Post Hill Press, 2014. Gwartney, James, Robert Lawson, and Joshua Hall, “Economic Freedom of the World: 2015 Annual Report.” Fraser Institute, 2015. Haldane, Andrew G., “Growing, Fast and Slow.” Speech, University of East Anglia, Feb. 17, 2015. Haldane, Andrew, “Patience and Finance.” Speech, Oxford China Business Forum, Beijing, Sept. 9, 2010. BIS Review 114/2010. Haldane, Andrew G., and Richard Davies, “The Short Long.” Presentation, 29th Société Universitaire Européenne de Recherches Financières Colloquium: New Paradigms in Money and Finance? Brussels, May 11, 2011. Hall, Robert E., and Charles I. Jones, “Why Do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output per Worker Than Others?”

pages: 326 words: 48,727

Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard

addicted to oil, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning

By late 2009, key parts of the media in the United States and internationally had reverted to their long-standing posture of scientific illiteracy and de facto complicity with the deniers' disinformation campaign. As the Copenhagen climate summit began in December 2009, almost every major news organization in the world gave front-page coverage to the deniers' unfounded accusations of widespread fraud on the part of leading climate scientists. Quoting people out of context and cherry-picking data, the deniers accused scientists at the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia in Britain of falsifying results and then lying about it, and of conspiring to suppress dissenting views. The only news organization that took the time to investigate rather than merely echo these charges was the Associated Press. A team of AP reporters read and analyzed each of the 1,073 stolen e-mails, a total of about 1 million words of text. The AP found that some of the East Anglia scientists had said nasty things about deniers—hardly a surprise, considering all the nasty things deniers had said about them.

pages: 474 words: 136,787

The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Bonfire of the Vanities, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, feminist movement, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, phenotype, rent control, theory of mind, twin studies, University of East Anglia, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The Chinese, deprived of the chance to have more than one child, killed more than 250,000 girls after birth between 1979 and 1984.65 In some age groups in China, there are 122 boys for every 100 girls. In one recent study of clinics in Bombay, of 8,000 abortions, 7,997 were of female foetuses.66 It is possible that selective spontaneous abortion also explains much of the animal data. In the case of the coypu, studied by Morris Gosling of the University of East Anglia, females in good condition miscarry whole litters if they are too female-biased, and start again. Magnus Nordborg of Stanford University, who has studied the implications of sex-selective infanticide in China, believes that such biased miscarriage could explain the baboon data. But it seems a wasteful way to proceed.67 There are many well-established natural factors that bias the sex ratio of human offspring, proving that it is at least possible.

pages: 487 words: 132,252

The Fry Chronicles: An Autobiography by Stephen Fry

Alistair Cooke, back-to-the-land, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Isaac Newton, Live Aid, loadsamoney, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Winter of Discontent

The other two, Paul and Charlie, were more than competent at the rendering, skimming, bonding, sanding, painting and other ancillary skills that might be expected from a general builder, but they had another quality. They were quite extraordinarily funny. I brought them coffee, as you do when you have the builders in, and I chatted with them in what I hoped was a friendly and unpatronizing manner but just couldn’t get over how much they made me laugh. They had been at the University of East Anglia in Norwich, which seat of higher education they had quickly vacated, dropping out and moving to London, working in the building trade and wondering if comedy might ever be an attainable goal. Charlie was the lead singer in a punk outfit which apparently had a cult following. Paul entertained our household with impressions of London types, the especial favourite being a Greek cockney who had an eccentric way with very cockneyfied English.

pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

True, the consequences of the ongoing increase in the global temperature could turn out to be more benign than the forecasts of most climate scientists. Let’s hope that they do. But they could also turn out to be worse—much worse. You would not know that, though, from reading the newspapers in 2010. Climate skeptics, many funded by the fossil-fuel industries, seized on a few leaked e-mails among climate scientists working with Great Britain’s University of East Anglia’s Climatic Research Unit to gin up a controversy about the conduct of some of its scientific investigators. Whatever one thinks of this specific case, it hardly invalidates the scientific consensus on global warming based on independent research conducted all over the world, nor do a few minor mistakes in the UN’s massive Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report. But for a public too busy to take the time to study these issues, without the background to appreciate fully how little these errors touched on the larger scientific certainties and disinclined to ask why and how climate scientists all over the world could organize a vast conspiracy to get people to believe this problem was more serious than it is, these news stories created doubt and confusion about the issue and helped to stall any U.S. climate legislation.

Liberty's Dawn: A People's History of the Industrial Revolution by Emma Griffin

agricultural Revolution, Corn Laws, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, full employment, informal economy, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, labour mobility, spinning jenny, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor

I have had the opportunity to present ideas to seminar audiences at the Cambridge Group for Population History; the Local Population Studies Society; Robinson College, Cambridge; Southampton University; Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge; the Institute of Historical Research, London; All Souls College, Oxford; and St Anne’s College, Oxford. I must thank the organisers of these events for their invitations and the audiences for invaluable criticism, advice and encouragement. What follows is certainly the better for its engagement with so many critical listeners. The actual completion of this book was made possible only by a research fellowship from the Arts and Humanity Research Council and a year’s study leave from the University of East Anglia. My thanks are due to both institutions for these much valued periods of research leave. 4017.indd 9 25/01/13 8:21 PM x a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s  My greatest debt goes to my husband, David Milne, who discussed the big ideas of the project and pored over the smallest details of countless draft chapters, all the while sharing equally in the running of a home and the raising of our two small children.

Not Working by Blanchflower, David G.

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clapham omnibus, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, job satisfaction, John Bercow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shock, open borders, Own Your Own Home, p-value, Panamax, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, quantitative easing, rent control, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, urban planning, working poor, working-age population, yield curve

Bank of England Inflation Report, February 2018,, p. 20. 11. David Goodman, “Carney Says More BOE Rate Hikes Ahead, Stays Vague on Timing,” Bloomberg, February 21, 2018. 12. Anurag Kotoky and Lucy Meakin, “BOE’s Haldane Sees U.K. Wage Growth Starting to Strengthen,” Bloomberg, October 10, 2018; Andy Haldane, “Growing, Fast and Slow” (Speech given at the University of East Anglia, February 17, 2015). 13. Silvana Tenreyro, “Models in Macroeconomics” (Speech given at Surrey University, June 4, 2018). 14. Larry Summers, “Only Raise US Rates When Whites of Inflation’s Eyes Are Visible,” Financial Times, February 8, 2015. 15. Quoted in Carolynn Look, “It’s Hard to Lift Wages When Phillips Curve Is as Flat as Kansas,” Bloomberg, November 3, 2017. 16. Gertjan Vlieghe, “From Asymmetry to Symmetry: Changing Risks to the Economic Outlook” (Speech given at the Confederation of British Industry, March 23, 2018). 17.

pages: 614 words: 176,458

Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Boris Johnson, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization,, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, sexual politics, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Center for Global Issues, 48 Popper, D E and F J (1999), ‘The Buffalo Commons: Metaphor as Method’, Geographical Review, 89(4), 1999, pp 491-510, draft available at 49 Clauss, Marcus and Hummel, Jürgen (2005), ‘The Digestive Performance of Mammalian Herbivores: Why Big may not be Better’, Mammal Review, Vol 35, 2005, pp 174-87. 50 Subak, Susan (2004), Methane from the House of Tudor and the Ming Dynasty, CSERGE/ University of East Anglia, 51 Westing, Arthur H (1976), ‘A World in Balance’, Environmental Conservation, 8 (3), pp 177-83; cited in Coppinger, R and Smith, C (1985) The Domestication of Evolution, Environmental Conservation, 10 (4), pp 283-92. 52 Savory, Allan with Butter field, Jody (1999), Holistic Management, Island Press, p 198. 53 Keppler, F et al (2006), ‘Methane Emissions from Terrestrial Plants under Aerobic Conditions’, Nature, 439, 187-91. 54 Crutzen, P J et al (2006), ‘Methane Production from Mixed Tropical Savanna and Forest Vegetation in Venezuela, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 6, 3093-7, 2006. 55 Houweling, S et al (2006), ‘Atmospheric Constraints on Methane Emissions from Vegetation’, Geophysical Research Letters, 33 Art No L15821 .

pages: 558 words: 168,179

Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right by Jane Mayer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bakken shale, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, energy security, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Gilder, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mont Pelerin Society, More Guns, Less Crime, Nate Silver, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working poor

Previously, the United States had declined to join other developed nations in agreeing to limit greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol. Given Obama’s position, time seemed to be running out for the fossil fuel forces and their free-market allies. Then, on November 17, 2009, an anonymous commenter on a contrarian Web site declared, “A miracle has happened.” With lethal timing, an unidentified saboteur had hacked expertly into the University of East Anglia’s Web site and uploaded thousands of internal e-mails detailing the private communications of the scientists working in its famed Climatic Research Unit. The climatologists at the British university had been in constant communication with those in America, and now all of their unguarded professional doubts, along with their unguarded and sometimes contemptuous asides about their opponents, stretching all the way back to 1996, were visible for the entire world to read.

Frommer's England 2011: With Wales by Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince

airport security, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, congestion charging, double helix, Edmond Halley, George Santayana, haute couture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Murano, Venice glass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Sloane Ranger, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, sustainable-tourism, the market place, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts The center was the gift of Sir Robert and Lady Sainsbury, who, in 1973, contributed their private collection to the University of East Anglia, 5km (3 miles) west of Norwich on Earlham Road. Together with their son David, they gave an endowment to house the collection. Designed by Sir Norman Foster, the center was opened in 1978 and has since won many national and international awards. The prominent features of the structure are its flexibility, allowing solid and glass areas to be interchanged, and the superb quality of light, which permits optimum viewing of the works of art. Special exhibitions are often presented in the 1991 Crescent Wing extension. The Sainsbury Collection is one of the foremost in the country, including modern, ancient, classical, and ethnographic art. Its most prominent works are those by Francis Bacon, Alberto Giacometti, and Henry Moore. University of East Anglia, Earlham Rd. & 01603/593199.

pages: 694 words: 197,804

The Pot Book: A Complete Guide to Cannabis by Julie Holland

Berlin Wall, Burning Man, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, mandatory minimum, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, publication bias, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Stephen Hawking, University of East Anglia, zero-sum game

Described by Rolling Stone as “the point man” for drug policy reform efforts, he is widely regarded as the outstanding proponent of drug policy reform both in the United States and abroad. He can be contacted at William Notcutt, M.D., F.R.C.A., F.F.P.M.R.C.A., is a consultant in pain medicine at the James Paget University Hospital, Great Yarmouth, UK, and a senior lecturer at the University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. He has been researching the clinical use of cannabinoids for the last fifteen years and has participated in about eighteen studies. He can be contacted at Denis J. Petro, M.D., is a board-certified neurologist in private practice in Pennsylvania. He has also served as a clinical drug researcher. He supports the medicinal use of cannabis and has written widely on the subject.

pages: 778 words: 227,196

The Age of Wonder by Richard Holmes

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, British Empire, Copley Medal, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Etonian, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Harrison: Longitude, music of the spheres, placebo effect, polynesian navigation, Richard Feynman, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unbiased observer, University of East Anglia, éminence grise

I am also hugely grateful to Professor Amartya Sen, then Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, and the Fellows of Trinity, for giving me two wonderful summers as Visiting Fellow Commoner (2000, 2002), and enabling me (among much else) to spend long evenings talking with mathematicians, chemists, astronomers and astrophysicists-several of them Nobel Prize-winners-which gave me some sense of what science is really about. My warmest personal thanks are due to my old friend and colleague Professor Jon Cook, to whom this book is dedicated; to Professor Kathryn Hughes and Dr Druin Burch (my medical postgraduate) at the University of East Anglia; William St Clair, Richard Serjeantson and Priya Natarajan (our beautiful astrophysicist) at Trinity College, Cambridge; Professor Christoph Bode at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich; Roderick Winstrop at the Cambridge Observatory; Jim Saulter (pharmacist) and John Allen at Penzance; Debbie James, Curator at the Herschel Museum, Bath; Lenore Symons, the Archivist at the Royal Institution, London; Celia Joicey and Pallavi Vadhia at the National Portrait Gallery; Pierre Lombarde, Directeur, Centre de Documentation, Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace, Le Bourget; Dr Paul Baronek, then of GlaxoSmithKline, for his advice on drugs and medical procedures; Alan Judd for late-night intelligence at The Reform; Patricia Duncker for discussing the fact and fiction of telescopes; Tim Dee of the BBC for producing our three drama-documentaries, The Frankenstein Experiment (Radio 3, 2002), A Cloud in a Paper Bag (Radio 3, 2007) and Anaesthesia (Radio 4, 2009); my brother Adrian Holmes of Young & Rubicam, and my sister Tessa Holmes of the London College of Printing, for their shrewd help with questions of presentation and design; my late uncle, Squadron Leader David Gordon (RAF Bomber Command), who taught me to build short-wave radios, to understand the principles of flight, and once smuggled me into the cockpit of his Vulcan V bomber (not armed); the West Kent Gliding Club and the Norfolk Hot Air Balloon Co. for some highly instructive airborne moments; Eleanor Tremain for finding Andromeda; Dr Percy Harrison, Head of Science, Eton College, for patiently trying to save me from at least some of my scientific howlers; Mr Glasgow, Department of Orthopaedics, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, for discussing anaesthetics in the few seconds before he put me under; Richard Fortey, FRS, for swift, exacting and helpful observations at proof stage; and finally Sir Michael Holroyd, for simply being such an inspiration to an entire generation of biographers (Romantic or otherwise).

pages: 1,396 words: 245,647

The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom by Graham Farmelo

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, gravity well, Henri Poincaré, invention of radio, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Murray Gell-Mann, period drama, Richard Feynman, Simon Singh, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, strikebreaker, University of East Anglia

BOD Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, UK. BRISTU Bristol University archive, UK. BRISTRO Bristol Records Office, UK. CALTECH California Institute of Technology, archive, USA. CHRIST’S Old Library, Christ’s College, Cambridge University, UK. CHURCHILL Churchill Archives Centre, Churchill College, Cambridge University, UK. DDOCS Dirac letters and papers, property of Monica Dirac. EANGLIA Tots and Quots archive, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. FSU Paul A. M. Dirac Papers, Florida State University Libraries, Tallahassee, Florida, USA. All of the letters Dirac’s mother wrote to him are in this archive. IAS Institute for Advanced Study, archive, USA. KING’S King’s College, Cambridge; unpublished writings of J. M. Keynes. LC Library of Congress, Collections of the Manuscript Division. LINDAU Archive of Lindau meetings, Germany.

pages: 1,034 words: 241,773

Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk,, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

Nuclear Threat Initiative. Brown, D. E. 1991. Human universals. New York: McGraw-Hill. Brown, D. E. 2000. Human universals and their implications. In N. Roughley, ed., Being humans: Anthropological universality and particularity in transdisciplinary perspectives. New York: Walter de Gruyter. Brunnschweiler, C. N., & Lujala, P. 2015. Economic backwardness and social tension. University of East Anglia. Bryce, R. 2014. Smaller faster lighter denser cheaper: How innovation keeps proving the catastrophists wrong. New York: Perseus. Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. 2015. Will humans go the way of horses? Foreign Affairs, July/Aug. Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. 2016. The Second Machine Age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies.

pages: 879 words: 309,222

Nobody's Perfect: Writings From the New Yorker by Anthony Lane

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, colonial rule, dark matter, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Index librorum prohibitorum, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, moral hazard, Norman Mailer, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, The Great Good Place, trade route, University of East Anglia, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, urban planning

The confusion stems from nothing more than the strategies of publishers, and yet it feels gratifyingly true to the world of Sebald, where nothing can be trusted to cleave to its proper place. Sebald was born in Germany in 1944; in 1970, he moved to England for good, although, to read his collected works, which both unsettle the nerves and ponder the resettlement of displaced persons, you can hardly imagine him pausing to unpack, let alone putting down roots. Since 1987, he has been professor of European literature at the University of East Anglia, where, for five years, he was also the first director of the British Centre for Literary Translation; fluent to a fault in his adopted tongue, he chooses not to write in it, entrusting Hulse with the alchemical task. Yet there is barely a handful of English-speaking writers who can rival the reach and play of Sebald’s three publications to date, and connoisseurs of national contention will note that, in literature as in soccer, German talent has once again beaten the English at their own game.

pages: 1,373 words: 300,577

The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World by Daniel Yergin

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial innovation, flex fuel, global supply chain, global village, high net worth, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, market design, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norman Macrae, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, technology bubble, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

And given the meltdown on Wall Street, some were hardly enthusiastic about creating a vast new financial market in trading carbon. After the Republicans won the House of Representatives in 2010, a climate legislation became even less likely. “THE HEALTH OF THE HIMALYAS” More or less concurrent with Copenhagen was a chipping away of the credibility of the IPCC itself. In what became known as climategate, somebody hacked into the e-mails of the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia in England, which was one of the main research centers supporting climate research and the work of the IPCC. To many climate scientists and activists, the e-mails were being taken out of context and grossly misconstrued. But the way others read the e-mails was that some prominent scientists had turned to “tricks” to come out with the results they had wanted and went out of their way to denigrate and isolate those who might disagree.

pages: 1,477 words: 311,310

The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 by Paul Kennedy

agricultural Revolution, airline deregulation, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, imperial preference, industrial robot, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, long peace, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, oil shock, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, zero-sum game

Paddy O’Brien and John Bosher sought to make my comments on eighteenth-century British and French finance a little less crude. Nick Rizopoulos and Michael Mandelbaum not only scrutinized the later chapters, but also invited me to present my ideas at a series of meetings at the Lehrman Institute in New York. Many, many scholars have heard me give papers on subthemes in this book, and have provided references, much-needed criticism, and encouragement. The libraries and staffs at the universities of East Anglia and Yale were of great assistance. My graduate student Kevin Smith helped me in the search for historical statistics. My son Jim Kennedy prepared the maps. Sheila Klein and Sue McClain came to the rescue with typing and word processing, as did Maarten Pereboom with the bibliography. I am extremely grateful for the sustained support and encouragement which my literary agent, Bruce Hunter, has provided over the years.

I You We Them by Dan Gretton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Desert Island Discs, drone strike, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Honoré de Balzac, IBM and the Holocaust, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, place-making, pre–internet, Stanford prison experiment, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

His view of what writing and art could achieve is inspirational: ‘It’s not… an ego trip, it is serious, it is politics, it is economics, it’s everything, and art in that instance becomes so meaningful, both to the artist and to the consumers of that art.’ W. G. Sebald (1944–2001) Writer and academic. Born in a small Bavarian village towards the end of World War II, Sebald studied English and German literature in Germany and Switzerland, before taking a lectureship at the University of Manchester in 1966. In 1970 he completed his PhD at the University of East Anglia, where he worked for the rest of his life, becoming Professor of European Literature and establishing the British Centre for Literary Translation. He began to publish outside academia relatively late – his first novel, Vertigo only being published in 1990. The Emigrants (1992) and The Rings of Saturn (1995) rapidly consolidated his growing reputation – his writing being utterly distinctive and uncompromisingly out-of-step with modern life.

Principles of Corporate Finance by Richard A. Brealey, Stewart C. Myers, Franklin Allen

3Com Palm IPO, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbus A320, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, break the buck, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, compound rate of return, computerized trading, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, equity premium, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, fudge factor, German hyperinflation, implied volatility, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, inventory management, Iridium satellite, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, linear programming, Livingstone, I presume, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, market friction, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Real Time Gross Settlement, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the rule of 72, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, VA Linux, value at risk, Vanguard fund, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Green Loughborough University Mark Griffiths Thunderbird, American School of International Management Re-Jin Guo University of Illinois, Chicago Ann Hackert Idaho State University Winfried Hallerbach Erasmus University, Rotterdam Milton Harris University of Chicago Mary Hartman Bentley College Glenn Henderson University of Cincinnati Donna Hitscherich Columbia University Ronald Hoffmeister Arizona State University James Howard University of Maryland, College Park George Jabbour George Washington University Ravi Jagannathan Northwestern University Abu Jalal Suffolk University Nancy Jay Mercer University Thadavillil (Nathan) Jithendranathan University of Saint Thomas Kathleen Kahle University of Arizona Jarl Kallberg NYU, Stern School of Business Ron Kaniel Duke University Steve Kaplan University of Chicago Eric Kelley University of Arizona Arif Khurshed Manchester Business School Ken Kim University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Jiro Eduoard Kondo Northwestern University Kellogg School of Management C. R. Krishnaswamy Western Michigan University George Kutner Marquette University Dirk Laschanzky University of Iowa Scott Lee Texas A&M University Bob Lightner San Diego Christian College David Lins University of Illinois, Urbana Brandon Lockhart University of Nebraska, Lincoln David Lovatt University of East Anglia Greg Lucado University of the Sciences in Philadelphia Debbie Lucas Northwestern University Brian Lucey Trinity College, Dublin Suren Mansinghka University of California, Irvine Ernst Maug Mannheim University George McCabe University of Nebraska Josie McLaren, University of Newcastle Eric McLaughlin California State University, Pomona Joe Messina San Francisco State University Tim Michael University of Houston, Clear Lake Dag Michalson Bl, Oslo Franklin Michello Middle Tennessee State University Peter Moles University of Edinburgh Katherine Morgan Columbia University James Nelson East Carolina University James Owens West Texas A&M University Darshana Palkar Minnesota State University, Mankato Claus Parum Copenhagen Business School Dilip Patro Rutgers University John Percival University of Pennsylvania Birsel Pirim University of Illinois, Urbana Latha Ramchand University of Houston Rathin Rathinasamy Ball State University Raghavendra Rau Purdue University Joshua Raugh University of Chicago Charu Reheja Wake Forest University Thomas Rhee California State University, Long Beach Tom Rietz University of Iowa Robert Ritchey Texas Tech University Michael Roberts University of Pennsylvania Mo Rodriguez Texas Christian University John Rozycki Drake University Frank Ryan San Diego State University Marc Schauten Eramus University Brad Scott Webster University Nejat Seyhun University of Michigan Jay Shanken Emory University Chander Shekhar University of Melbourne Hamid Shomali Golden Gate University Richard Simonds Michigan State University Bernell Stone Brigham Young University John Strong College of William & Mary Avanidhar Subrahmanyam University of California, Los Angeles Tim Sullivan Bentley College Shrinivasan Sundaram Ball State University Chu-Sheng Tai Texas Southern University Tom Tallerico Dowling College Stephen Todd Loyola University, Chicago Walter Torous University of California, Los Angeles Emery Trahan Northeastern University Gary Tripp Southern New Hampshire University Ilias Tsiakas University of Warwick Narendar V.