assortative mating

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pages: 324 words: 93,175

The Upside of Irrationality: The Unexpected Benefits of Defying Logic at Work and at Home by Dan Ariely

Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Burning Man, business process, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, IKEA effect, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, second-price auction, software as a service, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, young professional

As I analyzed the situation over and over, my personal concerns soon developed into a more generalized interest in the romantic dance. Assortative Mating and Adaptation You don’t need to be an astute observer of human nature to realize that, in the world of birds, bees, and humans, like attracts like. To a large degree, beautiful people date other beautiful people, and “aesthetically challenged”* individuals date others like them. Social scientists have studied this birds-of-a-feather phenomenon for a long time and given it the name “assortative mating.” While we can all think of examples of bold, talented, rich, or powerful yet aesthetically challenged men coupled with beautiful women (think of Woody Allen and Mia Farrow, Lyle Lovett and Julia Roberts, or almost any British rock star and his model/actress wife), assortative mating is generally a good description of the way people tend to find their romantic partners.

While we can all think of examples of bold, talented, rich, or powerful yet aesthetically challenged men coupled with beautiful women (think of Woody Allen and Mia Farrow, Lyle Lovett and Julia Roberts, or almost any British rock star and his model/actress wife), assortative mating is generally a good description of the way people tend to find their romantic partners. Of course, assortative mating is not just about beauty; money, power, and even attributes such as a sense of humor can make a person more or less desirable. Still, in our society, beauty, more than any other attribute, tends to define our place in the social hierarchy and our assortative mating potential. Assortative mating is good news for the men and women sitting on the top rung of the attractiveness ladder, but what does it mean for the majority of us on the middle or lower rungs? Do we adapt to our position in the social hierarchy? How do we learn, to paraphrase the old Stephen Stills song, to “love the ones we’re with”? This was a question that Leonard Lee, George Loewenstein, and I started discussing one day over coffee. Without indicating which of us he had in mind, George posed the following question: “Consider what happens to someone who is physically unattractive.

A Accessory Transit Company, 154 acknowledging workers, 74–76, 80 acronyms, 120 adaptation, 157–90 assortative mating and, 191–212; see also assortative mating focusing attention on changes and, 159–60 hedonic, 160–84; see also hedonic adaptation nineteenth-century experiments on, 157–58 to pain, 160–67 physical, 157–60, 161n sensory perception and, 158–60 Aesop, 198–99 agriculture, obesity and technological developments in, 8 AIDS, 250, 251 airlines, customer service problems of, 142–43 alienation of labor, 79–80 American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 Andrade, Eduardo, 262, 265, 267–68, 299 anger, acting on, 257 author��s anecdote of, 258–61 driving and, 261 ultimatum game and, 268, 269–70, 273, 274, 276 animals: empathy for suffering of, 249 generalizing about human behavior from studies on, 63 working for food preferred by, 59–63 annoying experiences: breaking up, 177–79, 180 decisions far into future affected by, 262–64 annuities, 234 anterior insula, 266–67 anticipatory anxiety, 45 Anzio, Italy, battle of (1944), 167 apathy toward large tragedies, 238–39 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 statistical condition and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 apologies, 149–51 for medical errors, 152 Apple, 120n battery replacement issue and, 141–42 art, homemade, 89–90 Asian tsunami, 250, 251 assembly line, 78–79 assortative mating, 191–212 altering aesthetic perception and (sour grapes theory), 198–99, 200, 201, 203 author’s injuries and, 191–96, 210–11 dinner party game and, 198 failure to adapt and, 200–201, 203–5 gender differences and, 209, 211 HOT or NOT study and, 201–5, 208, 211 reconsidering rank of attributes and, 199–200, 201, 205–10 speed-dating experiment and, 205–10 Atchison, Shane, 140–41, 146 attachment: to one’s own ideas, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias to self-made goods, see IKEA effect attractiveness, assortative mating and, 191–212 see also assortative mating auctions, first-price vs. second-price, 98–99 Audi customer service, author’s experience with, 131–36, 137, 149, 153–54 experimental situation analogous to, 135–39 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review based on, 147–49 B bailout, public outrage felt in response to, 128–31 baking mixes, instant, 85–87 bankers: author’s presentation of research findings to, 107–9, 121 bonus experiments and, 38–41, 51 Frank’s address to, 41 public outrage in response to bailout and, 128–31 bankruptcy, 129, 130 Barkan, Racheli, 39, 109–10, 299 basketball, clutch players in, 39–41 beauty: assortative mating and, 196–212; see also assortative mating general agreement on standard of, 203 Becker-DeGroot-Marschak procedure, 91 Beecher, Henry, 167 behavioral economics: goal of, 9–10 human rationality not assumed in, 6–7 revenge as metaphor for, 124n Betty Crocker, 87 Bible, Gideon’s conversation with God in, 288–89 blindness, adaptation to, 172–74 blogging, 65 Blunder (Shore), 117 boiling-frog experiment, 157–58 bonuses, 17–52 bank executives’ responses to research on, 37–39 clutch abilities and, 39–41 for cognitive vs. mechanical tasks, 33–36, 40–41 creativity improvements and, 47–48 experiments testing effectiveness of, 21–36, 44–46 Frank’s remarks on, 41 intuitions about, 36–37 inverse-U relationship between performance and, 20–21, 47 loss aversion and, 32–33 optimizing efficacy of, 51–52 public rage over, 21 rational economists’ view of, 36–37 social pressure and, 44–46 surgery situation and, 48–49 viewed as standard part of compensation, 33 in wake of financial meltdown of 2008, 131 brain: judgments about experiences and, 228–29 punishment and, 126 breaks, in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 Brickman, Philip, 170 business, experimental approach to, 292–93 C cake mixes, instant, 85–87 California, moving to, 176 Call, Josep, 127 cancer, American Cancer Society fundraising and, 241–42, 249–50, 254 canoeing, romantic relationships and, 278–79 cars, 215–16 designing one’s own, 88, 89 division of labor in manufacture of, 78–79 in early days of automotive industry, 94 hedonic treadmill and, 175 see also driving cell phones, 7 in experiments on customer revenge, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 see also texting CEOs, very high salaries and bonuses paid to, 21 Chance, Zoë, 220, 300 changes: ability to focus attention on, 159–60 decisions about life’s path and, 287 in future, foreseeing adaptation to, 160, 171–74 status quo bias and, 285, 286 in workers’ pay, job satisfaction and, 169–70 charities: American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 emotional appeals and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 charities (cont.)


Capitalism, Alone: The Future of the System That Rules the World by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, means of production, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, purchasing power parity, remote working, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

It will go up even more if mating was previously random or disassortative (with richer men marrying poorer women). Some have argued that assortative mating has become much more common in liberal meritocratic capitalism because social norms have changed such that more women are highly educated (in fact, their graduation rates now exceed those of men), and many more work. It is also possible (although it is entirely speculative) that people’s preferences have changed, and that both men and women now prefer to be in a union with someone who is similar to them. Whatever the reasons for it, increasing homogamy is yet another factor that will push income inequality up. However, it will only push inequality up during the period of transition from nonassortative mating (or assortative mating with nonparticipation of wives in the labor force) to assortative mating. Once assortative mating and labor force participation rates have reached their limits, the inequality-enhancing effect disappears.

Consider two men, one who earns 50 units and another 100, and two women, one earning 10 units and the other 20. Now, suppose that there is some assortative mating (also called homogamy), that is, a positive correlation between husbands’ and wives’ earnings: thus the man with earnings of 100 marries the woman with earnings of 20, and the poorer man marries the poorer woman. But then assume that the rich wife drops out of the labor force (as in the 1950s), while in the other couple both continue to work. The ratio of the two family incomes will be 100 to 60. Now let the assortative mating remain the same, but both women (as today) stay in the labor force: the ratio of the two family incomes becomes 120 to 60, that is, inequality increases. The example shows that under conditions of assortative mating, inequality will go up if women’s participation in the workforce increases.

Complex nature of liberal meritocratic capitalism What do we find overall, then, when we compare inequalities in the different versions of capitalism? In all six aspects examined here, liberal meritocratic capitalism displays features that enhance inequality. It differs from classical capitalism most distinctively in the feature that capital-rich individuals are also labor-rich, and probably also in greater assortative mating. It differs significantly from social-democratic capitalism in several respects: it exhibits a rising aggregate share of capital in net income, it has labor-rich capitalists, it almost certainly has a greater prevalence of assortative mating, and it most likely has greater intergenerational transmission of inequality. Three points need to be made, however, before we move on to a more detailed review of each of these six characteristics. The fact that liberal meritocratic capitalism scores “yes” on all six does not immediately imply that it must be more unequal than the other forms of capitalism.


pages: 898 words: 266,274

The Irrational Bundle by Dan Ariely

accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business process, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, IKEA effect, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, Schrödinger's Cat, second-price auction, Shai Danziger, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, young professional

As I analyzed the situation over and over, my personal concerns soon developed into a more generalized interest in the romantic dance. Assortative Mating and Adaptation You don’t need to be an astute observer of human nature to realize that, in the world of birds, bees, and humans, like attracts like. To a large degree, beautiful people date other beautiful people, and “aesthetically challenged”* individuals date others like them. Social scientists have studied this birds-of-a-feather phenomenon for a long time and given it the name “assortative mating.” While we can all think of examples of bold, talented, rich, or powerful yet aesthetically challenged men coupled with beautiful women (think of Woody Allen and Mia Farrow, Lyle Lovett and Julia Roberts, or almost any British rock star and his model/actress wife), assortative mating is generally a good description of the way people tend to find their romantic partners.

While we can all think of examples of bold, talented, rich, or powerful yet aesthetically challenged men coupled with beautiful women (think of Woody Allen and Mia Farrow, Lyle Lovett and Julia Roberts, or almost any British rock star and his model/actress wife), assortative mating is generally a good description of the way people tend to find their romantic partners. Of course, assortative mating is not just about beauty; money, power, and even attributes such as a sense of humor can make a person more or less desirable. Still, in our society, beauty, more than any other attribute, tends to define our place in the social hierarchy and our assortative mating potential. Assortative mating is good news for the men and women sitting on the top rung of the attractiveness ladder, but what does it mean for the majority of us on the middle or lower rungs? Do we adapt to our position in the social hierarchy? How do we learn, to paraphrase the old Stephen Stills song, to “love the ones we’re with”? This was a question that Leonard Lee, George Loewenstein, and I started discussing one day over coffee. Without indicating which of us he had in mind, George posed the following question: “Consider what happens to someone who is physically unattractive.

A Accessory Transit Company, 154 acknowledging workers, 74–76, 80 acronyms, 120 adaptation, 157–90 assortative mating and, 191–212; see also assortative mating focusing attention on changes and, 159–60 hedonic, 160–84; see also hedonic adaptation nineteenth-century experiments on, 157–58 to pain, 160–67 physical, 157–60, 161n sensory perception and, 158–60 Aesop, 198–99 agriculture, obesity and technological developments in, 8 AIDS, 250, 251 airlines, customer service problems of, 142–43 alienation of labor, 79–80 American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 Andrade, Eduardo, 262, 265, 267–68, 299 anger, acting on, 257 author’s anecdote of, 258–61 driving and, 261 ultimatum game and, 268, 269–70, 273, 274, 276 animals: empathy for suffering of, 249 generalizing about human behavior from studies on, 63 working for food preferred by, 59–63 annoying experiences: breaking up, 177–79, 180 decisions far into future affected by, 262–64 annuities, 234 anterior insula, 266–67 anticipatory anxiety, 45 Anzio, Italy, battle of (1944), 167 apathy toward large tragedies, 238–39 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 statistical condition and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 apologies, 149–51 for medical errors, 152 Apple, 120n battery replacement issue and, 141–42 art, homemade, 89–90 Asian tsunami, 250, 251 assembly line, 78–79 assortative mating, 191–212 altering aesthetic perception and (sour grapes theory), 198–99, 200, 201, 203 author’s injuries and, 191–96, 210–11 dinner party game and, 198 failure to adapt and, 200–201, 203–5 gender differences and, 209, 211 HOT or NOT study and, 201–5, 208, 211 reconsidering rank of attributes and, 199–200, 201, 205–10 speed-dating experiment and, 205–10 Atchison, Shane, 140–41, 146 attachment: to one’s own ideas, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias to self-made goods, see IKEA effect attractiveness, assortative mating and, 191–212 see also assortative mating auctions, first-price vs. second-price, 98–99 Audi customer service, author’s experience with, 131–36, 137, 149, 153–54 experimental situation analogous to, 135–39 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review based on, 147–49 B bailout, public outrage felt in response to, 128–31 baking mixes, instant, 85–87 bankers: author’s presentation of research findings to, 107–9, 121 bonus experiments and, 38–41, 51 Frank’s address to, 41 public outrage in response to bailout and, 128–31 bankruptcy, 129, 130 Barkan, Racheli, 39, 109–10, 299 basketball, clutch players in, 39–41 beauty: assortative mating and, 196–212; see also assortative mating general agreement on standard of, 203 Becker-DeGroot-Marschak procedure, 91 Beecher, Henry, 167 behavioral economics: goal of, 9–10 human rationality not assumed in, 6–7 revenge as metaphor for, 124n Betty Crocker, 87 Bible, Gideon’s conversation with God in, 288–89 blindness, adaptation to, 172–74 blogging, 65 Blunder (Shore), 117 boiling-frog experiment, 157–58 bonuses, 17–52 bank executives’ responses to research on, 37–39 clutch abilities and, 39–41 for cognitive vs. mechanical tasks, 33–36, 40–41 creativity improvements and, 47–48 experiments testing effectiveness of, 21–36, 44–46 Frank’s remarks on, 41 intuitions about, 36–37 inverse-U relationship between performance and, 20–21, 47 loss aversion and, 32–33 optimizing efficacy of, 51–52 public rage over, 21 rational economists’ view of, 36–37 social pressure and, 44–46 surgery situation and, 48–49 viewed as standard part of compensation, 33 in wake of financial meltdown of 2008, 131 brain: judgments about experiences and, 228–29 punishment and, 126 breaks, in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 Brickman, Philip, 170 business, experimental approach to, 292–93 C cake mixes, instant, 85–87 California, moving to, 176 Call, Josep, 127 cancer, American Cancer Society fundraising and, 241–42, 249–50, 254 canoeing, romantic relationships and, 278–79 cars, 215–16 designing one’s own, 88, 89 division of labor in manufacture of, 78–79 in early days of automotive industry, 94 hedonic treadmill and, 175 see also driving cell phones, 7 in experiments on customer revenge, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 see also texting CEOs, very high salaries and bonuses paid to, 21 Chance, Zoë, 220, 300 changes: ability to focus attention on, 159–60 decisions about life’s path and, 287 in future, foreseeing adaptation to, 160, 171–74 status quo bias and, 285, 286 in workers’ pay, job satisfaction and, 169–70 charities: American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 emotional appeals and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 charities (cont.)


pages: 310 words: 85,995

The Future of Capitalism: Facing the New Anxieties by Paul Collier

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, bonus culture, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, centre right, Commodity Super-Cycle, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, full employment, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, greed is good, income inequality, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, negative equity, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, too big to fail, trade liberalization, urban planning, web of trust, zero-sum game

It stopped when enough people recognized that perpetuating class divisions in this way was a menace, not a service. The greater porousness of the old upper class is symbolized by the marriage of Prince William to Kate Middleton, whose mother had been an airline stewardess: Kate would not have been invited to a debutante ball. But ‘assortative mating’ among the old upper class has been replaced by even more effective assortative mating among the new elite.21 Prince William and Kate met while studying at St Andrews, an elite university. Like-marrying-like is a powerful force for social inequality. Such assortative mating, a force that helps stabilize marriages, inadvertently widens class divisions, but there is little that can be done about it. But some behaviour is exploitative, and could potentially be curbed. In America between 1981 and 1996 children at elementary school increased their hours of study by an astonishing 146 per cent.22 In Britain during the past decade, suicide rates among university students have risen 50 per cent.

Women and men learned how to find partners with whom they would be compatible (something that has continued with the enhanced match-making of online dating). This was soon supplemented by the legalization of abortion, a second line of defence behind contraception. The previous norms of the middle-generation couple, of gender hierarchy and mutual obligations to the other generations, were replaced in most educated households by mutual encouragement to self-fulfilment through personal achievement.1 Cohabitation and assortative mating turned the educated into well-matched couples, and so divorce rates declined. High-achieving parents aspired to pass their success on to their offspring, and so the gender hierarchy that had reflected the gender imbalance in education gave way to mutual parental hothousing. When I was a child I got no help with homework: no parental coaching or monitoring; no private tutors. My parents were in no position, either academically or financially, to do so.

In many families, the adults have acquired more education and skills than ever before in human history; they are more inclined to marry people like themselves than ever before; men have adopted a revolutionary family norm of equality and co-operation never before seen; and parents are nurturing their children more intensively than ever before. Success stabilizes such families; their children inherit the success of the parents. These families are having it all: they are becoming dynasties. In many other families, the adults have little education, and the skills they laboriously acquired have lost their value. They too are more likely to marry people like themselves, but this is due to shrinking opportunities: assortative mating among the educated has left women with fewer chances of marrying upwards; men have retained the traditional norm of breadwinner but are no longer able to live up to it; and parents have retained the traditional norm of leaving education to the school. The mounting tensions of failure destabilize the family; children inherit the instabilities of their parents. These families are falling apart.


Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society by Nicholas A. Christakis

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, assortative mating, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, iterative process, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, joint-stock company, land tenure, Laplace demon, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, out of africa, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replication crisis, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

We found hundreds of genetic loci across the genome that exhibited more assortativity or disassortativity than would be expected due to chance.66 We then did some further analyses to explore the possible role of assortativity in human evolution. We measured whether regions of the human genome that show a tendency to be similar across spouses have been evolving faster over the past thirty thousand years, as we would expect if assortative mating conferred fitness advantages. And we found that loci exhibiting even moderate assortativity among spousal pairs were evolving faster than loci exhibiting no assortative mating or those exhibiting disassortative mating. In other words, something about assortative mating may enhance the fitness of humans and thus increase the prevalence of the relevant gene variants. Our analysis showed that, overall, people in our sample chose partners from the population at large who were genetically equivalent to fourth cousins (even though their partners were not actually related to them).

Inzlicht, “Sex Differences in Response to Physical and Social Factors Involved in Human Mate Selection: The Importance of Smell for Women,” Evolution and Human Behavior 23 (2002): 359–364. 64. R. McDermott, D. Tingley, and P. K. Hatemi, “Assortative Mating on Ideology Could Operate Through Olfactory Cues,” American Journal of Political Science 58 (2014): 997–1005. 65. A. Nishi, J. H. Fowler, and N. A. Christakis, “Assortative Mating at Loci Under Recent Natural Selection in Humans” (unpublished manuscript, 2012). Several small-scale studies have explored the extent to which humans preferentially mate with people they resemble genetically and what this might mean for evolution. See R. Sebro, T. J. Hoffman, C. Lange, J. J. Rogus, and N. J. Risch, “Testing for Non-Random Mating: Evidence for Ancestry-Related Assortative Mating in the Framingham Heart Study,” Genetic Epidemiology 34 (2010): 674–679; and R. Laurent, B. Toupance, and R.

Human spouses generally resemble each other in many respects, including attractiveness, health, religion, politics, and so on. Some of this similarity comes from the widely observed tendency of spouses to convert to each other’s religions or adopt their food tastes. But most of this similarity comes about due to homogamy, or the tendency of like to marry like in the first place, which is known as assortative mating. Assortative mating can occur for traits that are mutable (such as religion) or immutable (such as a person’s height or ethnicity).46 Confusingly, humans sometimes manifest a tendency toward the practice of “opposites attract” with respect to certain traits as well. A century ago, evolutionary biologists and statisticians Ronald A. Fisher and Sewall Wright separately proposed the idea that if spouses resembled each other superficially (that is, phenotypically), they would also resemble each other genetically.47 Since most phenotypes arise from the actions of many genes working together, assortative (or disassortative) mating could result in genetic correlations between spouses at thousands of locations within the genome.


pages: 312 words: 91,835

Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, mittelstand, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, stakhanovite, trade route, transfer pricing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

But we cannot tell whether this wage-stretching was a result of skill-biased technological change or globalization (in the form of displacement of domestic labor by cheaper imports and outsourcing). Assortative mating and change in family structure (e.g., more young people deciding to live alone) explained another 22 percent of the change. Women’s increased participation in the labor force, however, reduced inequality by some 19 percent. In the end, about 40 percent of the increase in income inequality remained as a residual. (It is interesting to speculate whether the increased participation of women in the labor force is related to the rising importance of assortative mating, and whether the net effect of these two phenomena on income inequality may be close to zero [22 minus 19, in this case].) One can, with some effort and simplification, allocate all these “accounting” elements to one of three groups of factors: technology, openness/globalization, and policy (our TOP).

Looking at the data for Germany, we see that government policies, especially through greater social transfers, have had a powerful effect on reducing inequality—in Germany as compared with the United States as well as within Germany over time. These policies failed, however, to fully offset the increase in German market income inequality: disposable income inequality still went up, even if by only 1 to 2 Gini points. Some other factors have also been adduced as “culprits” for increased inequality. One of these concerns behavioral changes, such as the greater prevalence of assortative mating, or homogamy; marriages between partners who both have high skills and high incomes have become more common than they were in the 1950s and 1960s (Greenwood et al. 2014). Another suggested cause involves vaguely defined changes in ethical or pay norms, which allow for much wider gaps between the pay of top managers and average workers (Levy and Temin 2007; Piketty 2014, chap. 9). It is not my objective here to adjudicate between all the likely factors.

In the 1960s, when relatively few women worked (the participation rate in the labor force for women in the United States was 40 percent, vs. more than 90 percent for men),25 it was common for well-off men to marry women who did not work outside the household and thus did not contribute a monetized income. This practice tends to diminish inequality, in comparison with a situation where highly paid men marry highly paid women. The latter has indeed been happening more often in the past quarter century. Greenwood et al. (2014) document the increasing trend of homogamy (assortative mating) among American couples and consider it one of the contributing factors to rising income inequality. It is paradoxical that increasing inequality has resulted from a change in social norms that has seen the labor participation rate of women almost catch up with that of men (73 percent for women, 84 percent for men in 2010) and has encouraged marriages that are based on a model of equal partnership between people with similarities of interests and backgrounds rather than a hierarchical model where the husband is the breadwinner and the wife a homemaker.


pages: 550 words: 124,073

Democracy and Prosperity: Reinventing Capitalism Through a Turbulent Century by Torben Iversen, David Soskice

Andrei Shleifer, assortative mating, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, implied volatility, income inequality, industrial cluster, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, means of production, mittelstand, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, passive investing, precariat, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, speech recognition, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban decay, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

Thus, not only are companies and individuals embedded in skill clusters, but the embedding is reinforced by the cost to a relevantly skilled individual of leaving a cluster which “carries” his or her reputation. The same is true of companies. 5. Social networks: assortative mating and clusters of skill clusters. Skill clusters are themselves embedded within and across broader social networks of the highly educated; these seem of critical importance for our understanding of the knowledge economy, and big-city agglomeration. Meeting partners occurs often at university. Given the high lifetime income of graduates, assortative mating (being more likely to choose partners of the same educational background the higher the level of your education) has become a phenomenon of central importance as participation in higher education has risen. But partners do not necessarily choose similar careers.

But partners do not necessarily choose similar careers. Thus, partners, if they are following or likely to follow different careers, will want to settle in urban areas with wide enough skill clusters to accommodate both partners. The direct effect of assortative mating is thus that couples are likely to favor settling in cities with more skill clusters. This favors the growth of big cities. This dynamic is reinforced in two ways: first, going to university in a big city means less concern in choosing partners in any particular profession (or potential skill cluster). Second, equally important, and complementary to assortative mating, students tend to join together with friends and their partners in social networks; there seems good reason to believe that this constitutes a highly valuable resource subsequently in people’s careers in terms of contacts, new jobs, and perhaps career opportunities (as well as being central to satisfying human needs for friendship).

Second, equally important, and complementary to assortative mating, students tend to join together with friends and their partners in social networks; there seems good reason to believe that this constitutes a highly valuable resource subsequently in people’s careers in terms of contacts, new jobs, and perhaps career opportunities (as well as being central to satisfying human needs for friendship). Social networks, of any size and diversity, need large cities to provide the wide enough range of skill clusters. We can see how assortative mating and social network formation magnifies the inegalitarian effects of skill-biased technological change that economists have identified. By pairing people at similar skill levels and embedding them in complementary social groups, household income by education is becoming increasingly stratified. Assortative mating in the Fordist economy was less prevalent because careers tended to be highly gender segregated and stratified, and social networks were far less important for careers or as a source of insurance. 6. Patterns of specialization and knowledge-intensive MNEs.


pages: 463 words: 115,103

Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

., 166 Bloodworth, James, The Myth of Meritocracy, 75 Bloomsbury Group, 53 Botton, Oli de, 300 Bovens, Mark, Democracy (with Wille), 95, 155–58, 169, 177–78 Boys Smith, Nicholas, 288–89 Breen, Richard, 81 Brexit Britain: alienation and, 276 Anywhere-Somewhere divide, 12–20, 287–88 immigration policy and, 168, 169 job status decline and, 213–14 pushback against cognitive class, 10, 32, 154–55, 160–61, 164–66, 185–86, 213–14 British Cohort Study (1970), 76 British Red Cross, 222–23 British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, 140, 209–10, 212, 219, 226n, 230 Brooks, David, 276 Brown, Gordon, 25, 174 Brown, Phillip, The Global Auction (with Lauder and Ashton), 23, 144, 258–60 Brown, Tara Tiger, 195–96 Building Beautiful Commission, 289 Bukodi, Erzsébet, 75–76 Bunting, Madeleine, Labours of Love, 27, 217, 225, 227, 233, 246 Burt, Cyril, 100 Butler, Joseph, The Analogy of Religion, 42 Byng, John, 52 Cameron, David, 156, 170 Campbell, Rosie, 171–72 Caplan, Bryan, The Case Against Education, 123, 129 care sector, see Heart (care) work Caregivers UK, 224 Carer’s Allowance (UK), 293 Carl, Noah, 165n Carnegie Mellon University, 282 Carnes, Nicholas, 172 Carr, Nicholas, The Shallows, 22 Case, Anne, 206–7, 220 Cavendish, Camilla, 240, 242 Cavendish Laboratory (UK), 45 CBI/Pearson Education and Skills Survey, 198 CCTV, 185 Centre for Time Use Research, 242–43, 246–47 centrifugal forces, x, 278 centripetal forces, x, 278 Chabris, Christopher, 67, 78–79 Charman, Ken, 253–55 Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (UK), 145–46 Cheese, Peter, 145–46 child-rearing, 224–25, 227, 229–30, 242, 243 China, 39, 85, 259 Churchill, Winston, 194 Cinderella sectors, xii, 162, 241 CIPD, 209 civil service, 31, 41, 43 Clarke, Kenneth, 102 Clinton, Bill, 111, 161–62 Clinton, Hillary, 152, 215 Cobb, Jonathan, The Hidden Injuries of Class (with Sennett), 190 Coe, Robert, 124 Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT), 65 cognitive aptitude, 55–89 assortative mating and, 79–83 behavioral genetics movement and, 72–75, 83, 86, 88 “cognitive elite” and, 78–79 correlation with socioeconomic status, 78–82, 83–84 eleven-plus (UK), 20, 65–66, 82, 100, 196 as gold standard of human esteem, 3–5, 11–12, 28 as innate vs. learned, 55–56, 63, 68, 71–75 measuring, 56, 61–71, see also IQ/IQ-type tests in meritocracy, 75–89 nature of, 55–57, 61, 70–71 need for cognitive diversity and, 88–89, 281–84 selection into cognitive classes, 75–84, 87–88, see also cognitive class social mobility and, 75–84 wisdom and, 283, 302–3 see also intelligence cognitive class, 31–53 assortative mating and, 79–83 cognitive elite (Herrnstein and Murray), 78–79 cognitive entrepreneurs and, 33 creative class cohort, 28, 223–25, 256–58, 270, 299 economic cognitive domination and, see knowledge economy education trends and, 36, 43–53 educational cognitive domination and, see college/university education family background and, 48, 115, 118, 125–26, 156 in future of knowledge economy, 143–44, 253–74 high school graduation (US) and, 14–15, 35, 40, 51, 95–96, 98–99, 116, 118, 124 high-skill occupations, 97, 135–36, 138, 148, 259, 268–71 historical emergence of, 39–53 industrialization and, 32, 33–35, 41–42, 45, 51–52, 253 levels of, 13–15 low-skill occupations, 25–26, 120–21, 135–36, 152, 198, 202–3 methods of entering, 35 middle-skill occupations, 107–11, 129–31, 135–36, 150–52, 198, 209 need for cognitive diversity, 88–89, 281–84 political, see political cognitive domination in postindustrial society, 32, 35–39 professions/professional exams, 39–43, 44, 53 selection into, 75–84, 268–71 shift in cognitive class hegemony, 20–29, 32–33 size in 1930s, 53 social selection based on intelligence, 34–35, 39–41, 46–53 value divide and, 32, 36, 279–84 cognitive sector, see Head (cognitive) work College Board, 66 College of Policing (UK), 148–49 college/university education, 43–53, 93–131 assumptions about, 93–94 brain/gene drain and, 125–26 community colleges (US), 96, 102, 112–13, 115–16 corruption in admissions process, 6n creeping credentialism and, 15, 94–97, 99, 122–24, 130, 271–72 demographic trends and, 131 effectiveness of, 14, 123–25, 129, 130–31, 171–74 era of educational selection, 96–97 expansion of, 99, 100–111, 113–17 family background and, 115, 118, 125–26, 156 funnel for single elite, 5, 36, 52–53, 126, 156 future of, 298 generalist vs. specialized, 38, 47, 49–50, 53, 97–99, 105, 113–17, 272, 299 “genetics of success” and, 75 GI Bill (1944, US), 43–44, 66, 96, 115 globalization and, 259 graduate pay premium, 105, 116–17, 136, 139, 145, 152, 262–64 “graduatization”/income divergence of the labor market, 133–52, 234–39 grandes écoles (France), 44, 48, 81, 102, 118, 141, 156 mass higher education and, 36, 96–98, 100–111, 113–17 meritocracy based on, 6–12 need for cognitive diversity and, 283 overeducation and, 266–67 oversupply of graduates, 94–95, 121–26, 171–72, 268–71 Oxford/Cambridge (UK) and, 41–42, 44–52, 84, 97–98, 101–2, 156, 172–73, 263, 264 political cognitive domination and, 172–74 polytechnics/“new universities” (UK), 98, 100–102, 105–8, 115, 119, 263 postgraduate degrees, 78, 116, 122, 148, 191–92, 212, 258, 266 reversal of trends in, 24, 268–71 Russell Group (UK), 80, 102, 107, 125, 130, 263 SAT (US) and, 20, 52, 64, 65–68, 80, 114–15, 117, 287 signaling effect and, 94–96, 121–26, 267, 271 social mobility and, 6, 103, 105, 125–31, 253–55, 268–71 social selection based on intelligence, 34–35, 39–41, 46–53 student debt and, 14, 104, 115, 116, 268, 297 technician gap and, 107–11, 130–31, 135–36 tuition ceiling in UK, 104, 106–7, 109, 116, 119 in the UK, 41–53, 80–81, 100–107, 116, 262–63 in the US, 48–49, 50, 80, 112–17, 264 see also knowledge economy Collins, Randall, 15 community colleges (US), 96, 102, 112–13, 115–16 Conley, Dalton, 83 construction industry, 197–98, 200–201 Cook, Philip J., The Winner-Take-All Society (with Frank), 142 Corby, Paul, 196–97 Covid-19 crisis, ix–xiii digital giants and, xiii, 16 educational mobility and, 128, 130–31 failure to prepare for, 20 gender division of labor and, xii globalization and, ix–x Hand (manual) work and, 7, 23, 26, 203, 277–78 Head (cognitive) work and, 7, 23, 62, 277–78 Heart (care) work and, 7, 23, 217, 225, 241, 245, 277–78 Internet and, 294, 298–99 lockdown period, xi, 32–33, 298–99 rebalancing of Hand, Head, and Heart work, ix–xiii, 4–5, 20, 21–22, 277–78 Cowen, Tyler, Average Is Over, 273–74 Cowley, Philip, 171–72 Cox, Brian, 299 craft skills, 114, 194, 195, 256–57, 294–96, 299–300, 301–2 Crawford, Matthew B., The Case for Working with Your Hands, 17, 47–48, 114, 189, 195, 275 creative class cohort, 28, 223–25, 256–58, 270, 299 Crosland, Tony, 100, 101 Darwin, Charles, 42 de Gaulle, Charles, 118 Deary, Ian, 165n death penalty, 160–61 deaths of despair (Deaton), 10–11, 136, 206–7, 220, 222 Deaton, Angus, 10–11, 136, 206–7, 220, 222 Dench, Geoff, 164 Dewey, John, 49, 98 Diamond, Jared, 299 digital giants: Covid-19 crisis and, xiii, 16 employment trends and, 25 impact of Internet on intelligence, 22 technology of connection and, 19 “winner-takes-all” markets and, 14, 33, 142, 272, 286 digital Taylorism, 23–25, 144, 258–61 Direct Seafoods, 201 Dodd-Frank Act (2010, US), 284 Duckworth, Angela, 67 Dweck, Carol, 60, 67 early-years education, 15, 73, 217, 218, 242 East India Company, 41 École Nationale d’Administration (ENA, France), 48, 118, 156 economic cognitive domination, see knowledge economy education: college/university, see college/university education early-years, 15, 73, 217, 218, 242 grammar school, 46, 58, 65, 82, 98, 100 lifelong learning, 95, 107–9, 296–301 secondary, see secondary education STEM education, 101–2, 108, 111, 236, 265, 268 vocational, see vocational training Education Acts (UK), 43–44, 46, 98, 100 Educational Testing Service (ETS), 52 Einstein, Albert, 58, 275 elder care, see adult social care eleven-plus (UK), 20, 65–66, 82, 100, 196 Elias, Peter, 266 Eliot, T.

Christopher Chabris, professor of psychology at Union College in New York State, estimates that a random person with above-average intelligence has a two-thirds chance of earning an above-average income, while a random person of below-average intelligence has only a one-third chance. So it seems that there is strong evidence that increased levels of cognitive selection into higher education and the higher professions has helped to shape a cognitive class over the past seventy years, reinforced by “assortative mating,” in which like increasingly attracts like in marriage and partnering. Bright men and women were attracted to each in the past, too, but fifty years ago there were far fewer women at elite universities or in higher professional jobs, so the very brightest were less likely to meet up. Male doctors often married female nurses and male businessmen often married female secretaries. According to the Economist: “In 1970 only 9 per cent of those with bachelor’s degrees in America were women, so the vast majority of men with such degrees married women who lacked them.

Social class and educational background have tightened their grip on marriage in the United Kingdom in recent decades. According to research by the think tank Institute for Public Policy Research, 39 percent of women born in 1958 married a partner in the same social class, rising to 56 percent for those born twenty years later.27 David Willetts, the former Conservative minister, argued in his book The Pinch: How the Baby Boomers Took Their Children’s Future—and Why They Should Give It Back that such assortative mating has contributed to a slowing of social mobility. “If advantage marries advantage then we must not be surprised if social mobility suffers… [I]ncreasing equality between the sexes has meant increasing inequality between social classes. Feminism has trumped egalitarianism.”28 Charles Murray returns to this theme in his more recent book Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010 (2012).


pages: 506 words: 152,049

The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene by Richard Dawkins

Alfred Russel Wallace, assortative mating, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, epigenetics, Gödel, Escher, Bach, impulse control, Menlo Park, Necker cube, p-value, phenotype, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, selection bias, stem cell

Hamilton also noted the idea’s inherent implausibility, but he went on ‘… exactly the same a priori objections might be made to the evolution of assortative mating which manifestly has evolved, probably many times independently and despite its obscure advantages’ (Hamilton 1964b, p. 25). It is worth briefly examining this comparison with assortative mating, which for present purposes I shall take to mean the tendency of individuals to prefer to mate with individuals that genetically resemble them. Why is it that the green-beard effect seems so much more far-fetched than assortative mating? It is not just that assortative mating is positively known to occur. I suggest another reason. This is that when we think of assortative mating we implicitly assume self-inspection as a means of facilitating the effect. If black individuals prefer to mate with black individuals, and white with white, we do not find this hard to believe because we tacitly assume that individuals perceive their own colour.

Rather, kin recognition and ‘green-beard’ recognition are alternative ways in which genes could behave as if discriminating in favour of copies of themselves. To return to Hamilton’s comparison with assortative mating, we can see that it does not really provide good grounds for optimism over the plausibility of the green-beard effect. Assortative mating is much more likely to involve self-inspection. If, for whatever reason, it is an advantage in general for like to mate with like, selection would favour an armpit type of behavioural rule: Inspect yourself, and choose a mate that resembles you. This will achieve the desired result—an optimal balance between outbreeding and inbreeding (Bateson 1983) or whatever the advantage may be—regardless of the exact nature of the characteristics by which individuals differ. Assortative mating is not the only analogy Hamilton might have chosen. Another one is the case of cryptic moths choosing to sit on a background that matches their own colour.

aposematism The phenomenon whereby distasteful or dangerous organisms like wasps ‘warn’ enemies by bright colours or equivalent strong stimuli. These are presumed to work by making it easy for the enemies to learn to avoid them, but there are (not insuperable) theoretical difficulties over how the phenomenon might evolve in the first place. assortative mating The tendency of individuals to choose mates that resemble (positive assortative mating or homogamy) or specifically do not resemble (negative assortative mating) themselves. Some people use the word only in the positive sense. autosome A chromosome that is not one of the sex chromosomes. Baldwin/Waddington Effect First proposed by Spalding in 1873. A largely hypothetical evolutionary process (also called genetic assimilation) whereby natural selection can create an illusion of the inheritance of acquired characteristics.


pages: 239 words: 69,496

The Wisdom of Finance: Discovering Humanity in the World of Risk and Return by Mihir Desai

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, assortative mating, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, carried interest, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, follow your passion, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, housing crisis, income inequality, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jony Ive, Kenneth Rogoff, longitudinal study, Louis Bachelier, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, principal–agent problem, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, zero-sum game

The study of Thai family firms is Bunkanwanicha, Pramuan, Joseph P. H. Fan, and Yupana Wiwattanakantang. “The Value of Marriage to Family Firms.” Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 48, no. 2 (2013): 611–36. There is now a rich literature on recent trends in assortative mating: Greenwood, Jeremy, Nezih Guner, Georgi Kocharkov, and Cezar Santos. Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality. Working paper no. 19829. National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2014; and Eika, Lasse, Magne Mogstad, and Basit Zafar. Educational Assortative Mating and Household Income Inequality. Working paper no. 20271. National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2014. Journalistic summaries are provided in Bennhold, Katrin. “Equality and the End of Marrying Up.” New York Times, June 12, 2012; Cowen, Tyler. “The Marriages of Power Couples Reinforce Income Inequality.”

Translation from academese: the Monte allowed elites to keep inmarrying (endogamy), rather than marrying up-and-comers with large cash dowries, and thereby perpetuated the economic strength of the elites rather than diluting that power. Indeed, these scholars point to the Monte as the reason for the durability of the elites of Florence relative to other elites in other city-states. The dowry fund encouraged what is known as “assortative mating,” where individuals mate with people like themselves rather than at random. As a result, elites could stay in power by creating strategic alliances between elite families. Marriages were, in effect, mergers between powerful families, and the Monte was the financing mechanism that allowed them to keep pursuing those mergers. Indeed, marriages as mergers between economic interests are common through much of history.

When children of elite family businesses marry the children of other elite family businesses, the share price of those family businesses appreciates significantly on the announcement of the marriage. No such stock price appreciation happens when these children marry “commoners.” It’s not just in the cultures of Asia. Modern America is increasingly characterized by marriages of individuals with similar financial power. In fact, one of the major drivers of increasing income inequality recently has been the revival of assortative mating. With more marriages happening between individuals of similar earning power and educational pedigree, economic power has become more concentrated. Some estimates suggest that if mating were to happen as randomly as it did in 1960, household income inequality would have changed little over the last fifty years. In other words, it’s not just Nicky Hilton marrying James Rothschild—it’s all of us marrying people in the same social and educational strata.


pages: 198 words: 52,089

Dream Hoarders: How the American Upper Middle Class Is Leaving Everyone Else in the Dust, Why That Is a Problem, and What to Do About It by Richard V. Reeves

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, circulation of elites, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, longitudinal study, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working-age population, zero-sum game

As Isabel Sawhill puts it in her book Generation Unbound: Drifting into Sex and Parenthood without Marriage, “family formation is a new fault line in the American class structure.”25 The rising disparity in earnings for both men and women is therefore amplified by class gaps in the chances of being in a relationship where resources and risks can be shared. Highly educated Americans are not just more likely to be married: they are more likely to be married to each other. This process, with the stunningly unromantic label of “assortative mating,” means that college grads marry college grads. To the extent that cognitive ability is reflected in educational attainment and passed on genetically, assortative mating is likely to further concentrate advantage. As Michael Young put it, “Love is biochemistry’s chief assistant.”26 Online dating has simply added some helpful algorithms. If you don’t want to look online, you could look around the lecture hall. In the spring of 2013, a media storm erupted when a Princeton alum, Susan A.

But her basic advice to marry a man “worthy of you”—to the extent that worth is to be measured in terms of education and earnings—is one most college graduate women are already heeding. The share of marriages with two college graduates has grown from 3 percent in 1960 to 22 percent in 2012 (in large part, of course, because there are so many more female grads around).28 Households with two college graduates multiply that high earnings power by two, which widens the income gap. The combined effects of more women at work, changes in family structure, and increased assortative mating have widened income gaps. Gary Burtless estimates that between 10 percent and 16 percent of the rise in income inequality in the United States between 1979 and 2004 was caused by the “growing correlation of earned incomes received by husbands and wives.”29 Families with two college graduates will have more money to invest in their children. They can afford private K-12 schools or homes in top-notch school districts.

The elite is on the way to becoming hereditary: the principles of hereditary and merit are coming together.5 High-IQ men and women seek each other out and have high-IQ children, who they then educate and train intensively. And so status becomes inherited again, just in a different and more apparently morally palatable way: “The top of today breeds the top of tomorrow.” It is hard not to read Young’s words and think of the growing evidence for “assortative mating” discussed in chapter 2. If smarts are what count, we are likely to seek intelligence in our mate, not just beauty or brawn. Unlike in Young’s dystopia, there is no government body in the contemporary United States measuring IQ on a regular basis. But educational achievements, highly valued in the market, get quite close. Think SAT scores and the brands of selective colleges. These have a strongly hereditary dimension: six out of ten children born to a parent with a postgraduate degree end up with a BA, compared to 17 percent of the children whose parents have at most a high school diploma.6 The next problem in Young’s dystopia is widening inequality.


pages: 741 words: 199,502

Human Diversity: The Biology of Gender, Race, and Class by Charles Murray

23andMe, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, basic income, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, p-value, phenotype, publication bias, quantitative hedge fund, randomized controlled trial, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, school vouchers, Scientific racism, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies, universal basic income, working-age population

The higher that correlation between the heights of the parents, the more that DZ twins resemble each other over and above the degree that would be predicted by their shared genes, but for a reason that has nothing to do with the environment. Suppose that the assortative mating increased the observed DZ correlation to +.6. In that case, the MZ twin correlation is unchanged at 1.0, but the Falconer formula would determine that the value of the shared environment, C, is 2 × .6 – .6 = .6, or 60 percent, which is inflated. In the real world, assortative mating is routine. At least when it comes to marriage, people tend to marry others who are similar on a wide variety of traits. The empirical reality of that statement has been established for a long time, beginning with Steven Vandenberg’s review of the early literature in 1972.19 Since then, extensive additional research has documented assortative mating for education, intelligence, political affiliation, mental illness, substance abuse, aggressive behavior, and criminal behavior.

For general discussion of these assumptions with additional references, see Verweij, Mosing, Zietsch et al. (2012) and Appendix A of Barnes, Wright, Boutwell et al. (2014). 18. Genetic assortative mating needs to be discriminated from cultural transmission, which also tends to inflate the estimate of shared environmental effects. For a discussion of the assumptions of the classical twin model and an empirical assessment of assortative mating for intelligence, see Vinkhuyzen, van der Sluis, Maes et al. (2012). 19. A separate issue is the genome-wide genetic similarity of mates (e.g., see Domingue, Fletcher, Conley et al. (2014)). Here I am reporting evidence for phenotypic assortative mating on discrete traits that are known to be substantially heritable. 20. For citations, see the literature review in Barnes, Wright, Boutwell et al. (2014): 7. 21.

The Validity of Twin Studies The ACE model makes a strong claim: It can disentangle the roles of nature and nurture. You will not be surprised to learn that many challenges to the validity of that model have been mounted. The logic I have just presented entails five primary assumptions. Three of them, discussed in the note, involve fewer problematic issues.[17] Two of the assumptions are at center stage in the debate over the validity of twin studies: Humans mate randomly (no assortative mating). DZ and MZ twins experience their common environments equally, known in the literature as the equal environments assumption (EEA). The Random Mating Assumption The Falconer equations assume that DZ twins share on average 50 percent of their genes, which in turn depends on their parents having mated randomly for any given trait. When this assumption is violated, the statistical estimate of heritability will be too low.18 To see why, suppose that height is 100 percent heritable but that people mate randomly relative to height.


pages: 287 words: 82,576

The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, business cycle, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey

America’s prowess at matching means more segregation by income and educational status and indirectly more segregation by race in many parts of the country, even as racial tolerance has never been higher. It is price and rental rates that are driving different groups apart, not outright prejudice, so that good matching technologies can separate us more rapidly and more effectively than ever before. There is also more assortative mating of high earners and high achievers—the investment banker will marry another investment banker rather than a next-door neighbor or high school sweetheart or secretary. That’s great for wealthy and accomplished couples, but it is harder for many others to break into these very exclusive pairings. CALM AND SAFETY ABOVE ALL Physical disruptions, in the form of riots or violent protests, are these days harder to accomplish, and most Americans seem less interested in them than during the 1960s and 1970s.

It seems to work better to present some version of “who you really are” and then look for the person who will appreciate that, or in other words, it is better to try to match.8 For dating, there is also Lawyerflirts.com, JustTeachersdating.com, and FarmersOnly.com, if you wish to match by profession. Farmers, by the way, are especially likely to marry each other, in part because it’s a tough job with unusual hours and in part because both members of the potential couple tend to live in rural areas with a smaller number of other professions around. If you are getting up every morning at 4:30 a.m., there is something to be said for marrying another person who does the same.9 “Assortative mating”—that is, the marriage of people of similar educational and socioeconomic backgrounds—has become more widespread than in the past. That phrase refers to matching generally, but it also refers more specifically to men of high education and income marrying women of high education and income. More concretely, lawyers marry other law partners, or perhaps investment bankers, rather than their secretaries.

This results in a kind of segregation of the skilled, hardworking, and smart, a negative in the sense of giving less-skilled workers a chance to learn from the best. But that segregation also constitutes better matches—a positive word if you are either a successful company or someone with the skill set to be desirable to such a firm. Americans with potent talents are working together, and more effectively, than ever before, and that is a kind of successful matching, an assortative mating of IQ and talent at the corporate level. This new segregation has preserved the quality and cooperativeness of America’s very best clusters, such as tech businesses in Silicon Valley. A troublemaker can’t just show up at Google and set up a desk and start working and interacting with workers. The top American businesses enforce very selective standards for hires, taking the art of human resources management to new peaks—bureaucracy, excess credentialism, and standardized testing included.


pages: 436 words: 140,256

The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee by Jared Diamond

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Columbian Exchange, correlation coefficient, double helix, Drosophila, European colonialism, invention of gunpowder, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, longitudinal study, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, the scientific method, trade route

Walster et al, 'Importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior', Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 4, pp. 508-16 (1966); J.N. Spuhler, 'Assortative mating with respect to physical characteristics', Eugenics Quarterly 15, pp. 128-40 (1968); E. Berscheid and K. Dion, 'Physical attractiveness and dating choice: a test of the matching hypothesis', Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 7, 173-89 (1971); S.G. Vandenberg, 'Assortative mating, or who marries whom? , Behavior Genetics 2, pp. 127-57 (1972); G.E. DeYoung and B. Fleischer, Motivational and personality trait relationships in mate selection', Behavior Genetics 6, pp. 1–6 (1976); E. Crognier, 'Assortative mating for physical features in an African population from Chad', Journal of Human Evolution 6, pp. 105–114 (1977); P.N. Bender and M.D. Newcomb, Longitudinal study of marital success and failure', Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46, pp. 1053-70 (1978); R.C.

Newcomb, Longitudinal study of marital success and failure', Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 46, pp. 1053-70 (1978); R.C. Johnson etal, 'Secular change in degree of assortative mating for ability? , Behavior Genetics 10, PP- 1–8 (1980); W.E. Nance et al, 'A model for the analysis of mate selection in the marriages of twins', Acta Geneticae Medicae Gemellologiae 29, pp. 91-101 (1980); D. Thiessen and B. Gregg, 'Human assortative mating and genetic equilibrium: an evolutionary perspective', Ethology and Sociobiology 1, pp. 111—40 (1980); D.M. Buss, 'Human mate selection', American Scientist 73, pp. 47–51 (1985); A.C. Heath and L.J. Eaves, 'Resolving the effects of phenotype and social background on mate selection', Behavior Genetics 15, pp. 75–90 (1985); and A.C. Heath et al, 'No decline in assortative mating for educational level', Behavior Genetics 15, pp. 349-69 (1985). Also relevant is a book by B.I.

Make Andersson describes his experiments on how female widowbirds responded to males with artificially shortened or lengthened tails in an article 'Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird', Nature 299, pp. 818-20 (1982). Three papers describing mate choice by white, blue, or pink snow geese are by F. Cooke and C.M. McNally: 'Mate selection and colour preferences in Lesser Snow Geese', Behaviour 53, pp. 151-70 (1975); F. Cooke et al, 'Assortative mating in Lesser Snow Geese (Anser caerulescensY, Behavior Genetics 6, pp. 127-40 (1976); and F. Cooke andJ.C. Davies, 'Assortative mating, mate choice, and reproductive fitness in Snow Geese', pp. 279-95 in Mate Choice by Patrick Bateson, already cited. Chapter 7: Why Do We Grow Old and Die? The classic paper in which George Williams presented an evolutionary theory of aging is 'Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence', Evolution 11, pp. 398–411 (1957).


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

According to a 2005 study by sociologists Christine Schwartz and Robert Mare, the chances of a high school graduate marrying someone with a college degree shrank by 43 percent between 1940 and the late 1970s.9 In this decade, researchers reported in the journal Demography, the percentage of couples who share the same level of education reached its highest point in forty years. It’s hard to fault people for what Nobel Prize winner Gary Becker termed “assortative mating,” the tendency to pair off with someone like themselves.10 And in a world in which highly talented and highly paid people concentrate in the same handful of places, it should come as little surprise that they are marrying each other. Over time, this growing tendency of like marrying like will only reinforce clustering and geographic sorting along class lines, giving the emerging map of social, economic, and cultural segregation even greater permanence. It stands to reason that assortative mating reflects economic inequality, but recent research also offers evidence that the phenomenon is a driving force behind disparities in wealth as well.

A study by economists Raquel Fernández and Richard Rogerson, published in 2001 in the Quarterly Journal of Economics, concluded that increased marital sorting (whereby high earners marry high earners) “will significantly increase income inequality.” 11 Likewise, a 2003 analysis by Brookings economist Gary Burtless found that increased marital sorting between 1979 and 1996 was behind 13 percent of the growth in economic inequality during that period. Burtless cautions, however, that he does not believe assortative mating is necessarily more pronounced than it used to be: men have long married women of their own social class. “Now that women who are in a position to [work or pursue advanced degrees] are attending college and graduate school and joining the professions,” writes Annie Murphy Paul in the New York Times, “the economic consequences of Americans’ assortative mating habits are becoming clearer.” Also behind increasing socioeconomic inequality is a growing gap between married couples and single people. Recent studies show that the marital prospects of rich and poor people are diverging.

Index Adelaide Aesthetic-amenity premium Aesthetics community happiness and importance of industrial place choice and Agglomeration Agriculture Allen, Woody Amabile, Teresa Amazon Am-Brus-Twerp region (fig.) American Community Survey Amman Amsterdam Anderson, Brad Anholt, Simon See also City Brands Index Antwerp Apor, Jane the Arcade Fire Armani Art scenes Assortive mating Atlanta Atlantic, The Auckland Austin Australia Austria Avent, Ryan Axtell, Robert Baby boomers Baltimore Bangalore Bangalore-Madras(fig.) Bangkok(fig.)(fig.) Barber, Benjamin Barcelona Barce-Lyon(fig.) Basic services importance of place choice and Batty, Michael Beatles, The Beautiful cities Beauty premium Becker, Gary Beijing(fig.)


pages: 976 words: 235,576

The Meritocracy Trap: How America's Foundational Myth Feeds Inequality, Dismantles the Middle Class, and Devours the Elite by Daniel Markovits

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Anton Chekhov, asset-backed security, assortative mating, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Emanuel Derman, equity premium, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, high net worth, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, medical residency, minimum wage unemployment, Myron Scholes, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, stakhanovite, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, traveling salesman, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

But even if innocently brokered, these marriages, taken all together, enormously concentrate the elite, both within a generational cohort and especially down through the generations. Assortative mating increases economic inequality within the marrying cohort, operating literally as a multiplier for the already growing inequality produced by rising top labor incomes. If marriage pairings had been random by education in 1960, this would have had no observable effect on household income inequality. But when highly paid superordinate workers pair off, marriage ceases to be neutral. Replacing today’s actual pattern of assortative mating with random pairings, or indeed with the lower level of assortative mating from 1960, would reduce overall inequality by a fifth or more. In addition, assortative mating increases educational inequality in the next generation down. Elites do not just increasingly marry each other but also increasingly stay married and raise children within mature, stable marriages.

Rich young adults make two interconnected decisions, concerning whom to marry and whether to stay married, that increasingly give their children advantages that children born outside the elite do not enjoy. Moreover, the rich make these choices not severally but together, embedded in communities of other rich people making similar choices. Children of rich parents are conceived, borne, and born in markedly more auspicious circumstances than middle-class children enjoy. The elite increasingly marry each other—a practice that economists have given the ugly name assortative mating. Assortative mating had been common during the last decades of the nineteenth century, among the aristocracy in the Gilded Age, but then declined over the first half of the twentieth century. By 1960 only 3 percent of American marriages were between partners who both possessed college degrees. Meritocratic inequality renewed the elite’s preference for elite mates, so that by 2010, fully 25 percent of couples were composed of two college graduates.

Mare, “Educational Homogamy in Two Gilded Ages: Evidence from Inter-generational Social Mobility Data,” Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science 663 (January 2016): 117–39, and Robert D. Mare, “Educational Assortative Mating in Two Generations: Trends and Patterns Across Two Gilded Ages,” California Center for Population Research On-Line Working Paper Series, January 12, 2013, http://papers.ccpr.ucla.edu/papers/PWP-CCPR-2014-015/PWP-CCPR-2014-015.pdf [inactive]. two college graduates: See Murray, Coming Apart, 62. For further reference, see Christine Schwartz and Robert Mare, “Trends in Educational Assortative Marriage from 1940 to 2003,” Demography 42 (2005): 621–46, reporting that both partners had sixteen or more years of schooling in 3.95 percent of married couples in 1960 and in 27.7 percent of married couples in 2000. over 5 percent in 2005: Jeremy Greenwood et al., “Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality,” American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings) 104 (May 2014): 348, 350.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Single mothers are now more likely to file for bankruptcy than the elderly, divorced men, members of ethnic minorities, and inhabitants of low-income neighborhoods.26 Do greater financial risk, increased assortative mating, and the rise of single-parent households—all by-products of women’s growing clout in the economy—contribute to the Great Divergence? In the case of economic risk, the answer is yes in the abstract—families at greater risk of going bankrupt are by definition at greater risk of lowering their income. But if the reason for their instability is that they rely on more income than they once did (from two sources rather than one), it would seem perverse to blame the Great Divergence on two-income families. Assortative mating clearly did contribute to the Great Divergence. But since income-based assortative mating has also been on the rise abroad—one study has it rising within OECD countries from 33 percent to 40 percent during the past two decades—it seems doubtful that assortative mating did much to make the Great Divergence so much worse in the United States than income-inequality trends in other industrialized democracies.27 As for single parenthood, its contribution to the Great Divergence must be judged minimal because it increased mostly before 1980, when the Great Divergence was just getting under way.

Hacker also noted the widespread substitution of company employees with company contractors. Where taxicab drivers once were employed by cab companies, by 2006 most of them leased their cabs from cab companies, an arrangement that required them to acquire their own gasoline and their own auto insurance and to take the losses when business was slow.22 Shifts in Marriage Patterns People like to procreate with people like themselves. Biologists refer to this as “assortative mating.” One particularly strong affinity is economic. People tend to marry people whose incomes are at roughly the same level as their own. Back when women didn’t typically have professional careers, the opportunities for a male lawyer on his way to making partner to marry a female lawyer on her way to making partner were few and far between. (There were also some ugly social prejudices against women pursuing careers usually limited to males.)

But since income-based assortative mating has also been on the rise abroad—one study has it rising within OECD countries from 33 percent to 40 percent during the past two decades—it seems doubtful that assortative mating did much to make the Great Divergence so much worse in the United States than income-inequality trends in other industrialized democracies.27 As for single parenthood, its contribution to the Great Divergence must be judged minimal because it increased mostly before 1980, when the Great Divergence was just getting under way. By the early 1990s, the growth in single-parent households halted altogether, and though it resumed in the aughts the rate of growth was significantly slower.28 Another consideration is that single parenthood is today less damaging economically than it was at the start of the Great Divergence. “That’s mostly because the percentage of women who are actually working who are single parents went up,” Jencks told me.


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The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

And we are living with the consequences of this segregation by way of life, pockets of like-minded citizens that have become so ideologically inbred that we don't know, can't understand, and can barely conceive of "those people" who live just a few miles away. 2. THE POLITICS OF MIGRATION OPPOSITES DON'T ATTRACT. Psychologists know that people seek out others like themselves for marriage and friendship. That the same phenomenon could be taking place between people and communities isn't all that surprising. "Mobility enables the sociological equivalent of assortative mating,'" explained social psychologist David Myers. Assortative mating—the tendency of similar types to pair up—has been studied as a cause of poverty and autism. But Myers was making a different point. Our wealth, education, and ability to move have allowed us to seek "those places and people that are comfortably akin to ourselves."1 The United States was shaped by migration. Explorers found their way on foot through the Cumberland Gap.

In fact, exposure to a wide array of views increases tolerance.39 But Americans are increasingly unlikely to find themselves in mixed political company. Not Hearing the Other Side Even if Americans don't live among those from another party as much as they did a generation ago, they certainly have increasing access through the media and the Internet to all manner of opinions and points of view. The choice is there, but there is a media corollary to the phenomenon of assortative mating. Given unprecedented media choices, people self-segregate into their own gated media communities. In cities (most outside the United States) where a variety of newspapers reflect an array of political points of view, people don't buy several newspapers to learn what others are thinking. Instead, they buy the one that best fits their political proclivities. "They read one newspaper or the other based on what they agree with," University of Pennsylvania political scientist Diana Mutz told me.

., [>] n Alcohol use, [>] ALEC, [>]–[>] ALICE, [>] All the King's Men (Warren), [>] Allen, George, [>] Allport, Gordon, [>] Amazon.com, [>] America Coming Together (ACT), [>], [>], [>], [>] American Center for Law and Justice, [>] American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), [>] American Constitution Society, [>] American Enterprise Institute, [>] American Evangelism (Hunter), [>]–[>] n American Legion, [>], [>] American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), [>]–[>] American Legislative Issue Campaign Exchange (ALICE), [>] American Political Science Association, [>] Americans for Democratic Action, [>] The Anatomy of Buzz (Rosen), [>] n Anderson, Chris, [>] n Anderson, Sherry Ruth, [>]–[>] Anomie, [>] Antiwar protests, [>]–[>], [>] Apathy, benefits of, [>]–[>] Appalachian Regional Commission, [>] Apple Corp, [>], [>] Applebee's, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>]–[>] Ardery, Julia, [>] Arizona. See Phoenix, Ariz Armey, Dick, [>] Armstrong, Jerome, [>], [>] Armstrong, Lance, [>] Assortative mating, [>], [>] Atlanta, Ga.. blacks in, [>], [>], [>]; creative-class workers in, [>]; as high-tech city, [>] n, [>], [>], migration to, [>], [>], [>], [>] Atlantic magazine, [>] The Atlas of North American English (Labov), [>] n Austin, Tex.. Bishops'neighborhood in, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], boundaries of, [>] n; churches in, [>]–[>]; Clarksville neighborhood in, [>]–[>]; conservatives in Dallas versus, [>]; creative-class workers in, [>]; educational level of residents of, [>]; and environmentalism, [>], [>] n; government in, [>]; as high-tech city, [>], [>] n, [>]; interest groups in, [>]; and midterm elections (2006), [>]; migration to, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], school in, [>], as superstar city, [>]; and transportation, [>]; wages in, [>] Austin American-Statesman, [>], [>] n, [>], [>] Automobiles, [>] n, [>], [>] Babington, Charles, [>] Bacon, Francis, [>] Bai, Matt, [>] Baltimore, Md., [>] Barnes, Fred, [>] Barnett, Guy, [>] Baron, Robert, [>], [>], [>] Bartels, Larry, [>], [>] Baton Rouge, La., [>]–[>] Baton Rouge Advocate, [>], [>] Battlo, Jean, [>] Bay Area Center for Voting Research, [>] n Bayh, Evan, [>] Baylor College of Medicine, [>] Baylor University Institute for Studies of Religion, [>] n Beasley, Jerry, [>] Belgium, [>], [>] Bell, Daniel, [>], [>] Bell, Terrel, [>] Bellamy, Bill, [>], [>], [>], [>] n Bennett, Anina, [>] Bennett, Joni, [>] Benson, Duane, [>]–[>] Berger, Peter, [>] Berkeley, Calif., [>] n Berry, Jon, [>] n Bethlehem, N.H., [>] n Bible-beliefs about, [>], [>], [>]; and emerging churches, [>], high school course on, [>], and social reform, [>].


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The New Geography of Jobs by Enrico Moretti

assortative mating, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business climate, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate raider, creative destruction, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, global village, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, medical residency, Menlo Park, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Wall-E, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

The marriage market in the United States has become increasingly segregated along educational lines, with well-educated professionals increasingly marrying other well-educated professionals. Economists have a decidedly unromantic term for this trend: assortative mating. It means that people tend to marry people with similar socioeconomic characteristics. Assortative mating is nothing new: even in the 1980s, well-educated women were more likely to marry well-educated men than less educated men. However, this tendency has strengthened over the past thirty years, with a significant increase in the probability that a man with a master’s degree will marry a woman with a master’s degree, a man with a college degree will marry a woman with a college degree, and so on. This applies not just to educational levels but also to type of job, salary level, and many other factors. Like attracts like. As assortative mating increases, the need for a large marriage market also increases. If you are looking for a partner with very specific characteristics, a thick dating scene is better.

., [>], [>] Air Force Academy, fitness experiment at, [>] Akron, [>] Albany, [>], [>] Albuquerque, [>] and Microsoft, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] and Seattle, [>]–[>] Alexandria, Louisiana, and cost of living, [>] Alexopoulos, Michelle, [>] Allen, Paul, [>], [>], [>] Altoona, Pennsylvania, and cost of living, [>] Amazon, [>], [>] American Apparel, [>] American Community Survey, [>] “American dream,” [>], [>] death of, [>]–[>] American Pastoral (Roth), [>]–[>] Amgen, [>], [>] Amylin Pharmaceuticals, [>] Anchorage, Alaska, and cost of living, [>], [>] Aniston, Jennifer, [>] Anniston, Alabama, [>], [>] Ann Arbor, [>], [>], [>] A123 Systems, [>] Apple, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>] Applied Materials, [>] Argentina, [>], [>] Artisanal workshops, [>] Assortative mating, [>] Atlanta, [>] and biotech industry, [>], [>] Empowerment Zone Program in, [>] August Capital, [>] Austin, Texas, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] college graduates in, [>], [>] and cost of living, [>] exciting celebrities in, [>] Austral Capital, [>] Australia, [>], [>] Austria, PISA scores of, [>] Automation, in production of PCs and semiconductors, [>] Automobile industry, [>].


pages: 543 words: 153,550

Model Thinker: What You Need to Know to Make Data Work for You by Scott E. Page

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic trading, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Checklist Manifesto, computer age, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, deliberate practice, discrete time, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, first-price auction, Flash crash, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, High speed trading, impulse control, income inequality, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, Network effects, p-value, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, school choice, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, selection bias, six sigma, social graph, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Supply of New York City Cabdrivers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the rule of 72, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, value at risk, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

They then calculate the average income for each education level and fit the data for the number of marriages between each pair of education levels, resulting in a crude approximation of the impact of assortative mating. Assortative Mating Sorting Model and Categories Each individual has an education level: {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} where 1 = dropout, 2 = high school diploma, 3 = some college, 4 = college degree, and 5 = postgraduate. Let P(m, j) and P(w, j) denote the probability that a man and woman have education level j. Income(g, l) equals the (estimated) income of a person of gender g and income level l. Household income for a couple consisting of a man with education level lM and a woman with education level lW earns the following estimated household income:12 Income(M, lM) + Income(W, lW) Cause of inequality: Increases in the number of educated women, increased pay for workers with higher levels of education, and assortative mating (the tendency for people to marry others of the same income level) result in an increase in household-level income inequality.

The problem of capital accumulation has a straightforward solution: impose a wealth tax. That may not be politically possible. As an alternative, we might wait for a war or revolution to redistribute wealth by force or for some technological breakthroughs that produces a new set of wealthy capitalists. Our next two models give priority to sociological forces. Both also have strong empirical support. The first explains rising inequality based on assortative mating. A family’s income depends on the incomes of both partners. If a low-income person marries a high-income person, then that marriage will contribute toward equalizing income distributions. If high-income people marry other high earners, then income disparities will increase. Most people marry at an age when a potential partner’s lifetime income cannot be known with certainty. People do know the education level and general health of potential partners and get signals of their ambitions.

Standard of Living Since the Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Granovetter, Mark. 1973. “The Strength of Weak Ties.” American Journal of Sociology 78, no. 6: 1360–1380. Granovetter, Mark. 1978. “Threshold Models of Collective Behavior.” American Journal of Sociology 83, no. 6: 1360–1443. Greenwood, Jeremy, Nezih Guner, Georgi Kocharkov, and Cezar Santos. 2014. “Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality.” American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings 104, no 5: 348-353. Greif, Avner. 2006. Institutions and the Path to the Modern Economy: Lessons from Medieval Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Griliches, Zvi. 1957, 1988. “Hybrid Corn: An Exploration of the Economics of Technological Change.” In Technology, Education and Productivity: Early Papers with Notes to Subsequent Literature.


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The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality From the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, corporate governance, cosmological principle, crony capitalism, dark matter, declining real wages, demographic transition, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, hiring and firing, income inequality, John Markoff, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, mega-rich, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, universal basic income, very high income, working-age population, zero-sum game

Even so, at least up to this point, international economic integration and competition is in theory expected to constrain only certain types of redistributive policies and in practice has not generally undermined welfare spending.12 In rich countries, demographic factors have impinged on the income distribution in different ways. Immigration has had only a small effect on inequality in the United States and has even generated equalizing consequences in some European countries. Conversely, assortative mating—more specifically, the growing economic similarity of marriage partners—has widened gaps between households and has been credited with causing some 25 percent to 30 percent of the overall increase in American earnings inequality between 1967 and 2005, even though this effect may have been largely concentrated in the 1980s.13 Institutional change is another prominent culprit. Falling union membership rates and eroding minimum wages have been contributing to rising income disparities.

Policies: Bourguignon 2015: 115; Kanbur 2015: 1877. 12 Taxation: Hines and Summers 2009; Furceri and Karras 2011. Welfare: Bowles 2012a: 73–100 (theory); Hines 2006 (practice). 13 Immigration to the United States: Card 2009. Europe: Docquier, Ozden, and Peri 2014 (OECD); Edo and Toubal 2015 (France); and cf. also D’Amuri and Peri 2014 (Western Europe). For Latin America, see herein, chapter 13, p. 368 n. 1. Assortative mating: Schwartz 2010, with reference to earlier studies that attribute 17 percent to 51 percent of the overall increase to this factor. 1980s: Larrimore 2014. 14 Salverda and Checchi 2015 provide the most comprehensive survey of this topic. For the importance of unionization and minimum wages, see 1653, 1657, and also, e.g., Koeniger, Leonardi, and Nunziata 2007; and see Autor, Manning, and Smith 2010; Crivellaro 2013: 12 for the role of minimum wages.

Capital gains and dividends: Hungerford 2013: 19. 23 Global wealth growth: Piketty 2014: 435 table 12.1. Offshore wealth: Zucman 2013 and esp. 2015: 53 table 1. Cf. also Medeiros and Ferreira de Souza 2015: 885–886. 24 Förster and Tóth 2015: 1804 fig. 19.3 offer a succinct qualitative summary of the multiple causes of inequality and their contrasting effects. In addition to the ones mentioned in the text, they also note assortative mating, single-headed households, voter turnout, partisanship, and female employment. Levy and Temin 2007 offer a synthetic historical account of institutional change since World War II that first contained and later precipitated income inequality. Historically, the role of the stagflation of the 1970s, which provided a powerful impulse for disequalizing economic liberalization, also needs to be taken into account.


pages: 350 words: 96,803

Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Albert Einstein, Asilomar, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Columbine, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, impulse control, life extension, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, Scientific racism, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Turing test, twin studies

And second, they argued that genes played a role in the fact that African-Americans score lower than whites by about one standard deviationa on intelligence tests. Murray and Herrnstein maintained that in a world in which social barriers to mobility were falling and the rewards to intelligence rising, society would be increasingly stratified along cognitive lines. Genes and not social background would be the key to success. The most intelligent would walk away with most of the earnings; indeed, due to “assortative mating” (the tendency of people to marry like people) the cognitive elite would tend to increase its relative advantage over time. Those of lower intelligence faced severely limited life chances, and the ability of compensatory social programs to improve them was limited.16 These arguments echoed those made earlier by psychologist Arthur Jensen in an article in the Harvard Educational Review that appeared in 1969, in which he came to similar pessimistic conclusions. 17 It is no wonder that The Bell Curve produced such controversy.

The most clear and present danger is that the large genetic variations between individuals will narrow and become clustered within certain distinct social groups. Today, the “genetic lottery” guarantees that the son or daughter of a rich and successful parent will not necessarily inherit the talents and abilities that created conditions conducive to the parent’s success. Of course, there has always been a degree of genetic selection: assortative mating means that successful people will tend to marry each other and, to the extent that their success is genetically based, will pass on to their children better life opportunities. But in the future, the full weight of modern technology can be put in the service of optimizing the kinds of genes that are passed on to one’s offspring. This means that social elites may not just pass on social advantages but embed them genetically as well.

Affymetrix Africa, sub-Saharan African-Americans and crime age, and ability age cohorts age discrimination age distribution political implications of ageing problems with and sexuality theories of Agence Française du Médicament (France) aggression genes and sex differences in Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) agricultural biotechnology regulation of agricultural biotechnology industry agriculture, history of alcohol Alexander, Richard alpha males “Alphas, Betas, Epsilons, and Gammas” altruism Alzheimer’s disease American diet American Medical Association (AMA) American Psychologist, special issue of American Revolution American South, slavery in amino acids amniocentesis androgynous median personality angry young men Animal and Plant Inspection Service animal ethology animal rights movement animals behavior of consciousness of cultural learning by pain and suffering felt by rights of social hierarchies among sympathy with traits shared with humans animal testing anthropology anti-immigrant backlash movements Antinori, Severino ape-human cross, proposed apes apperception, transcendental unity of Argentina aristocracy natural Aristotle political philosophy of Arkes, Hadley Arnhart, Larry artificial intelligence (AI) Ashkenazi Jews Asia sex-selection in Asilomar Conference assortative mating attention deficit disorder (ADD) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medicalization of Austria authoritarian regimes Babylonia Bacon, Francis ballistic missiles, control of Becker, Gary behavior genetic basis of learned medicalization of self-control over behavioralism behavior genetics behavior modification Belgium bell curve debate Bentham, Jeremy benzodiazepines Berg, Paul Bernal, J.


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The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

Some of these other jobs are highly skilled too, such as lawyers, accountants or consultants. Others are low-paid, such as gardeners, artisanal manufacturers, baristas or yoga teachers. At this rate, smart cities will become a better place to generate employment than the old manufacturing hubs. This growing importance of smart cities is also driven by social phenomena. The last few decades have seen a striking increase in what sociologists call assortative mating. In other words, marriage partners are more alike now in terms of education and income than they were in the past. This effect is also driving the growth of cities. For these highly skilled partnerships, finding interesting work for two is a great deal more difficult than finding it for one.6 In the past, small towns were more attractive for traditional families where the husband worked and the wife was a homemaker.

The economic argument is that these partnerships work in part because it is cheaper for two people to finance a large house, enjoy a holiday or run a household than it is for two single people to live independently. There is also the important advantage of risk pooling; this played an important role in the way Jane and Jorge navigated their life, and we expect that more couples will make the same commitments to each other to pool the risk. This may go some way to explaining the significant shift to what has been termed assortative mating,8 where both partners are of similar age, education and income. In Becker’s traditional view of marriage, the production complementarities gained most when there is a significant income differential between partners, giving greater scope to comparative advantage. However, when the potential income differential is less, then it makes more sense for partners to pool their risk and this is easiest where the earning capacity of both partners is similar.

Index The letter f following an entry indicates a figure 3.0 scenarios here–here, here, here, here 3.5 scenarios here–here, here, here 4.0 scenarios here–here, here–here, here, here 5.0 scenarios here–here, here, here, here, here, here–here Acorns here activities of daily living (ADL) here adolescence here–here, here adult equivalence scales here age cognition and here–here corporations and here explorers and here–here government policy and here independent producers and here life stages and here–here, here–here portfolios and here predictability of here segregation and here–here, here–here, here, here–here age process algorithms here, here ageing process here, here ageism here, here agency here, here, here finance and here–here agriculture here–here Amazon here anxiety here appearance here Apple iPhone here reputation here Archer, Margaret here Artificial Intelligence (AI) here, here, here, here education and here human skills and here medical diagnoses and here–here, here skills and knowledge and here–here Asia here assets here, here see also intangible assets; tangible assets; transformational assets assortative mating here–here, here Astor, Brooke here Autor, David here–here, here Baby Boomers here–here beauty here Becker, Gary: ‘Treatise on the Family’ here, here–here, here behavioural nudges here Benartzi, Shlomo here benefits here–here see also welfare Bennis, Warren here birth rates, decline in here–here, here brain, the here–here, here–here cognition here Braithwaite, Valerie here Brontë, Charlotte: Jane Eyre here Buffett, Warren here–here Calico (California Life Company) here Calment, Jeanne here careers breaks and here changes and here–here dual careers here, here, here cell aging here centenarians here, here–here change here–here catalysts for here–here corporations and here–here, here education and here–here government policy and here–here, here identity and here–here inequalities and here–here mastery and here–here planning and experimentation and here–here rate of here–here Cherlin, Andrew here chess here children here, here–here, here Christensen, Clayton here Cloud Robotics here cohort estimate of life expectancy here, here, here companies here, here–here, here–here Amazon here Apple here–here change and here–here, here creative clusters here–here economies of scale and here–here Facebook here flexibility here–here, here–here reputation and here–here research and here small business ecosystems here–here technology and here–here Twitter here value creation here–here WhatsApp here compression of morbidity here–here computing power here–here, here–here see also Moore’s Law connectivity here–here consumerism here, here consumption complementarities here–here consumption levels here, here continuums here corporations here–here, here–here see also companies creative clusters here–here independent producers and here–here creativity here cross-age friendships here crucible experiences here–here Deep Learning here dementia here depreciation here developing countries life expectancy and here–here, here state pensions and here Dickens, Charles: Old Curiosity Shop, The here diet here Dimson, Elroy here disabilities here discounting here discretionary time here diverse networks here, here–here Doctorow, Corey: Makers, The here Downton Abbey effect, the here–here Doyle, Arthur Conan here driverless cars here, here dual career households here, here, here Dweck, Carol here–here dynamic/diverse networks here, here–here Easterlin’s Paradox here economy, the here–here agriculture and here–here gig economy here job creation and here–here leisure industry and here service sector and here sharing economy here, here stability and here education here, here–here, here–here see also mastery experiential learning here–here, here, here human skills and judgement and here ideas and creativity and here institutions here–here learning methods here mental flexibility and agility and here–here multi-stage life and here specialization here–here, here, here technology and here, here, here training here efficacy here, here, here–here elasticity here–here emerging markets life expectancy and here state pensions and here emotional spillover here employers here–here, here employment see also companies; employment changes age and here, here–here, here–here changes and here, here, here–here, here–here city migration and here–here creation here–here demographics and here, here–here diverse networks and here–here elasticity and here–here environmental concerns and here–here, here family structures and here–here, here, here–here, here, here, here–here flexibility and here–here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here hollowing out of work here–here, here, here home and here job classification here–here knowledge and skills and here levels here, here matches here–here mobility here multi-stage life and here office-based here paid leave here participation rates here–here, here pay here–here, here psychological contract here satisfaction here–here self-employment here–here specialization and here–here statistics here status and here supply and here–here technology and here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here unique human skills here–here, here vacancies here–here women and here–here working hours here–here, here working week here–here employment changes here, here, here–here companies and here–here industry sectors and here–here, here entrepreneurship here–here see also independent producers equity release schemes here experiential learning here–here, here, here experimentation here, here–here, here–here explorers here–here, here–here adventurers here age and here–here assets and here crucible experiences and here–here options and here–here searchers here, here exponential discounting here exponential growth here–here Facebook here families here, here, here–here, here children here, here–here, here dual career households here, here, here marriage here–here work and here, here finance here, here–here see also pensions age process algorithms here, here agency and here–here automation and here–here costs here–here efficacy and here–here equity release schemes here flexibility here governments and here–here, here, here–here health and here housing and here–here hyperbolic discounting here–here inheritances here–here investment here, here–here, here–here, here, here old age and here–here pay here–here, here pension replacement rates here–here, here, here–here portfolios here–here psychology and here–here retirement and here–here fitness and health here–here see also health Fleming, Ian here flexibility here, here–here, here, here–here, here–here, here corporations and here–here government policy and here–here working patterns and here flexibility stigma here, here Ford, Henry here Foxconn here Frey, Carl here Friedman, Stewart here–here, here Fries, James here, here Future of Work Consortium here future selves here–here future selves case studies Jane here–here, here–here Jimmy here–here, here galumphing here–here gender here, here see also women inequality here–here, here–here, here, here, here specialization of labour here, here–here, here, here, here–here Generation Y here generational attitudes here gerontology here Giddens, Anthony here, here gig economy here–here globalization here Goldin, Claudia here, here Google here governments here, here–here, here inequalities and here–here pensions and here–here rate of change and here–here Gratton, Lynda here Shift, The here growth mindset here–here Groysberg, Boris here Haffenden, Margaret here Hagestad, Gunhild here–here, here Harvard Grant Study here health here, here–here brain, the here–here chronic diseases here–here, here compression of morbidity here–here dementia here diseases of old age here–here finance and here improvements in here–here inequality here, here–here infectious diseases here public health here stress here–here healthy life expectancy here heterogeneity here hollowing out of work here–here, here, here home, work and here household here–here see also home economies of scale and here–here relationships here, here–here, here, here housing here–here imputed rent here, here ownership here HR policies here–here human skills here–here, here, here, here hyperbolic discounting here–here Ibarra, Herminia here identity here–here, here, here–here, here–here see also self-control; self-knowledge improvisation here–here imputed rent here, here income see also welfare distribution here growth and here inequalities here–here, here–here skills and knowledge and here–here income effect here–here independent producers here–here, here–here assets and here case study here–here creative clusters and here–here learning and here–here prototyping here–here reputation and curating and here–here India here–here Individual, the here Industrial Revolution, the here–here, here, here, here inequalities here–here gender and here–here, here–here, here, here, here government policy and here–here health here, here–here income here–here, here–here life expectancy and here–here, here–here, here infant mortality here intangible assets here–here, here–here, here case studies here–here, here–here, here corporations and here–here endowed individual characteristics here, here independent producers and here marriage and here productive assets see productive assets time and here transformational assets see transformational assets transitions and here–here vitality assets see vitality assets International Labour Organization (ILO) here ‘Women and the Future of Work’ here investment here, here–here, here–here, here Japan centenarians here–here life expectancy here, here–here,here–here, here pensions and here population decline and here job classification here–here job creation here–here job satisfaction here–here juvenescence here, here–here, here Kahneman, Daniel here Kegan, Robert here Keynes, John Maynard: Economic Possibilities of Our Grandchildren here knowledge see skills and knowledge Kurzweil, Ray here labour market see employment Lampedusa, Giuseppe : Leopard, The here law (occupation) here–here leadership here learning methods here leisure class here leisure industry here, here, here–here leisure time here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here Keynes, John Maynard and here life expectancy here–here, here see also long life best practice here, here calculating here–here, here chronic diseases and here–here cohort estimate of here, here, here developing countries and here–here diseases of old age and here–here government plans and here healthy life expectancy here historical here, here, here increase in here–here, here India and here–here inequalities in here–here, here–here, here infant mortality and here Japan and here, here–here, here–here, here limit to here–here period life expectancy measure here, here–here public health innovations and here South Korea here US and here–here Western Europe here life stages here–here, here–here age and here–here experiential learning and here explorers and here–here, here–here independent producers and here–here, here–here juvenescence and here, here–here multi-stage model here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here–here, here new stages here, here see also life stages case studies portfolios and here–here, here–here three-stage model here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here transitions and here life stages case studies diversity and here Jane here–here Jimmy here–here, here lifetime allowances here–here, here, here liminality here Linde, Charlotte here lockstep of action here–here, here London here–here London Business School here long life see also life expectancy as a curse here, here as a gift here, here Luddites, the here machine learning here marriage here–here Marsh, Paul here Marshall, Anthony here mastery here–here matching here–here Millenials here Mirvas, Philip here Modigliani, Franco here MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) here, here Moore’s Law here–here, here Moravec’s Paradox here, here morbidity here–here compression of here–here Morrissey, Francis here mortality here mortality risk here multiple selves here–here National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress here neighbourhoods here neoplasticity here neoteny here, here new experiences here occupations here–here old age dependency ration here–here, here Ondine, curse of here options here, here–here Osborne, Michael here paid leave here Parfit, Derek here participation rates here–here, here peers here–here pension case studies Jack here, here–here, here, here Jane here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here, here–here Jimmy here–here, here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here three-stage life model here–here, here–here, here–here pension replacement rate here–here, here, here–here pensions here, here–here, here see also pension case studies amount required here–here funded schemes here goals and here government policy and here–here investment and here, here occupational pensions here–here Pay As You Go schemes here–here, here, here pension replacement rate here–here, here, here–here reform and here state pensions here–here, here period life expectancy measure here, here–here personal brands here pharmacy (occupation) here planning here plasticity here–here play here–here politics, engagement with here Polyani’s Paradox here–here, here population here–here, here–here portfolios (financial) here–here portfolios (life stage) here–here, here–here switching costs here transitions and here–here posse here–here, here possible selves here, here–here possible selves case studies Jane here–here Jimmy here–here, here Preston, Samuel here production complementarities here, here–here, here productive assets here–here, here case studies here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here–here, here, here marriage and here transitions and here professional social capital here–here prototyping here–here psychology here, here–here see also self-control age process algorithms here, here automation and here–here behavioural nudges here saving and here–here pure relationships here, here pyramid schemes here re-creation and recreation here–here, here–here recruitment here reflexive project, the here regenerative community here, here, here Relation P here relationships here–here, here, here children and here–here divorce and here–here, here dual career households here families and here–here, here–here friendships here, here–here household here, here–here, here, here marriage and here–here, here–here matches and here–here multi-generational living here–here, here options and here–here pure relationship here switching roles here, here, here, here–here reputation here–here, here–here, here–here retirees here–here retirement see also pensions age of here, here, here, here, here–here, here consumption levels and here corporations and here, here government policy and here–here stimulation in here, here risk here risk pooling here robotics here, here, here, here see also Artificial Intelligence role models here routine here routine activities here routine-busting here routine tasks here–here Rule of here here Sabbath, the here sabbaticals here–here Save More Tomorrow (SMarT plan) here–here Scharmer, Otto here second half of the chessboard here–here segregation of the ages here–here, here–here, here, here–here self-control here–here, here–here age process algorithms here, here automation and here behavioural nudges here self-employment here–here self-knowledge here–here, here finance and here–here service sector here sexuality here–here Shakespeare, William King Lear here sharing economy here–here, here, here short-termism here–here skills and knowledge here, here–here, here see also human skills earning potential and here professional social capital and here–here technology and here–here valuable here–here Slim, Carlos here smart cities here–here independent producers and here–here social media here, here–here society here spare time here see also leisure time standardized practices here–here Staunton, Mike here strategic bequest motive, the here–here substitution effect here switching here, here, here, here–here tangible assets here–here, here, here, here, here see also housing; pensions case studies here, here, here, here, here, here transitions and here taxation here, here–here Teachers Insurance and Annuity Assurance scheme here technology here, here see also Artificial Intelligence computing power here–here, here–here see also Moore’s Law driverless cars here–here, here education and here, here, here employment and here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here human skills and here, here innovation and here matching and here relationships and here teenagers here–here, here–here, here, here Thaler, Richard here thick market effects here–here Thomas, R. here time here, here–here see also sabbaticals discretionary time here flexibility and here–here, here Industrial Revolution, the here–here, here–here, here intangible assets and here leisure and here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here restructuring here, here spare time here working hours here–here, here, here–here working hours paradox here–here, here working week, the here–here, here time poor here–here trade unions here transformational assets here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here case studies here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here, here crucible experiences and here corporations and here transitions here, here–here, here–here, here corporations and here financing here–here government policy and here, here nature of here–here portfolios and here–here re-creating here recharging here–here tribal rituals here Twitter here Uhlenberg, Peter here–here, here UK, occupational pension schemes and here–here Unilever here universities here US here–here compression of morbidity and here occupational pension schemes and here Valliant, George here value creation here vitality assets here, here–here, here case studies here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here transitions and here–here website here week, the here–here weekend, the here, here weight loss here welfare here–here see also benefits Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania here–here, here WhatsApp here Wolfran, Hans-Joachim here women see also gender children and here–here relationships and here, here, here work and here–here Women and Love here work see employment working hours here–here, here, here–here working week, the here–here, here Yahoos here–here youthfulness here–here Bloomsbury Information An imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 50 Bedford Square 1385 Broadway London New York WC1B 3DP NY 10018 UK USA www.bloomsbury.com BLOOMSBURY and the Diana logo are trademarks of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc First published 2016 © Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott, 2016 Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott have asserted their right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as Author of this work.


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The Upside of Inequality by Edward Conard

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

In another version of the hollowing-out argument, sociologists blame rising income inequality for increasing the unproductive behavior of the working class. For example, the greater uncertainty of employment allegedly makes working-class men less marriageable.7 Their lower workforce participation allegedly leads to a decline in marriage and a corresponding rise in out-of-wedlock births. The children of single parents are more prone to unruly behavior.8 Alternatively, an increase in assortative mating—people with similar levels of education, income, and capability marrying each other—heightens the difference between the children of the haves and the have-nots. The haves devote extra resources—whether money, time, or attention—which allows their children to compete more successfully for an alleged shortage of educational and employment opportunities.9 Some sociologists also allege that growing segregation between the haves and the have-nots prevents the have-nots from benefiting from the positive peer pressure of the haves.10 Ironically, while one school of thought blames the separation of the successful for failing to provide good examples to the middle and working classes, another camp claims that the success of the 1 percent drove an envious middle class to borrow against the rising value of their homes in order to consume too much.11 Yet despite these concerns, wages have risen with little change in the shape of their distribution.

Claims that the failure of marriage is linked to the success of the 1 percent or that the rich could affect improvements in middle- and working-class behaviors by setting more visible examples are far-fetched. More likely, rising middle- and working-class prosperity is giving people the opportunity to eschew supervision and leadership and to do as they please. Unfortunately, it’s easier to gain status destructively with a devil-may-care attitude rather than constructively with hard work and moral fortitude. While it is true that assortative mating has boosted the incomes of richer households, and that these households have invested more in their children relative to other families, it is doubtful that this trend diminishes anyone’s educational opportunities. If anything, the share of rich white children in prestigious colleges, where enrollment is limited, has declined. College enrollment has expanded to satisfy the growing demand from every socioeconomic group.

See test scores accelerating growth, 243–66 balanced trade and strengthening bank guarantees for, 254–59 ferocity of competition and, 79–82 investors influencing economic policy for, 106–8 lowering marginal corporate tax rate for, 249–54 promising educational opportunities for, 234–40 ultra-high-skilled immigration for, 244–49 admission policy, of charter schools, 223, 224 Affordable Care Act, 24 African American children charter schools, 223–26 high school dropout rates and income mobility, 182, 182–83, 235 preschool education, 228–30 African Americans comparisons of causes of poverty, 183, 183–84 effect of race on income mobility, 180, 181–82 African American workers income distribution, full time, 159, 160 median income, 204 workforce participation rate, 204, 206 agriculture (agrarian economies), 42, 45, 128–29 “alchemist fallacy,” 77 all-equity banking, 138–39 Amazon, 23 Angrist, Joshua, 225, 227 “animal spirits,” 118, 120, 125 antitrust enforcement, 99–100 Apple, 11, 23, 29, 31, 46, 75, 98, 102, 129, 236 Asian-American students, 170, 219 assortative mating, 157, 175 asymmetric information, 87–88, 98–99, 108 automation, 11, 42, 156, 211, 250 Autor, David, 57–58 baby boomers, 15, 42, 44, 243, 244, 247 Bagchi, Sutirtha, 83 Baker, Dean, 77–78 balanced trade, 39–40, 44, 254–59 bank loans, 2, 138–39, 257–58 bank runs, 2, 135–36, 137, 255, 257–58 banks (banking) all-equity, 138–39 capital requirements, 258 guarantees, 138–39, 257–59 risks to economy of instability of, 135–39 Barro, Robert, 82, 236 Bernanke, Ben, 119–20, 126, 140, 150, 151 Bezos, Jeff, 66 birth rate, and labor supply, 41 births, out-of-wedlock, 156, 167, 210 Bordo, Michael, 168 Borjas, George, 56 brain plasticity, 228, 234 Brin, Sergey, 19, 66, 69 Broda, Christian, 46 Brooks, Arthur, 212 budget deficits, 14, 256, 261 Buffett, Warren, 141, 200, 255 Burkhauser, Richard, 162 business consolidation, 24, 102–3 business investment, 103–5, 104, 250 business majors, 245–46 business profits.


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Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional

forms of group mixing that are uncommon today: The data on labor unions come from Gerald Mayer, Union Membership Trends in the United States (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2004). The quote is from Peter Bearman and Delia Baldassarri, “Dynamics of Political Polarization,” American Sociological Review 72 (October 2007): 787. On the rise of marriage within a social class (or “assortative mating”), see Robert Mare, “Educational Homogamy in Two Gilded Ages,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 663 (2016): 117–39. “met with plausible counterarguments”: Cass Sunstein, #Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2017), 91–92. It’s urgent that we understand them: See Elijah Anderson, The Cosmopolitan Canopy: Race and Civility in Everyday Life (New York: W.

Haidt is quoted in Sean Illing, “Why Social Media Is Terrible for Multiethnic Democracies,” Vox, November 15, 2016, https://www.vox.com/​policy-and-politics/​2016/​11/​15/​13593670/​donald-trump-jonathan-haidt-social-media-polarization-europe-multiculturalism. cannot be entirely to blame: Levi Boxell, Matthew Gentzkow, and Jesse Shapiro, “Is the Internet Causing Polarization? Evidence from Demographics,” Working Paper, 2014, http://web.stanford.edu/​~gentzkow/​research/​age-polar.pdf. different education level, ethnic identity, or religious affiliation: Gina Potarca, “Does the Internet Affect Assortative Mating? Evidence from the U.S. and Germany,” Social Science Research 61 (2017): 278–97. to get news from home: Ivan Watson, Clayton Nagel, and Zeynep Bilginsoy, “ ‘Facebook Refugees’ Chart Escape from Syria on Cell Phones,” CNN, September 15, 2015, https://www.cnn.com/​2015/​09/​10/​europe/​migrant-facebook-refugees/​index.html. with a diverse set of peers: See Nicole Ellison, Charles Steinfield, and Cliff Lampe, “The Benefits of Facebook ‘Friends’: Social Capital and College Students’ Use of Online Social Network Sites,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 12, no. 4 (2007): 1143–68, and Min-Woo Kwon, Jonathan D’Angelo, and Douglas McLeod, “Facebook Use and Social Capital: To Bond, to Bridge, or to Escape,” Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society 33, no. 1–2 (2013): 35–43.


pages: 550 words: 89,316

The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspirational Class by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

assortative mating, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, income inequality, iterative process, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, Mason jar, means of production, NetJets, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit maximization, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Veblen good, women in the workforce

Increasingly, as cities are sites of intellectual production (finance, technology, the arts) rather than industrial production, they are also the nexus where the very skilled end up meeting each other and having kids, thus becoming the ultimate power couples and producing children who grow up to become the same.22 Much of the concern around inequality stems from the social and economic bifurcation between the skilled and the less skilled and the opportunities that exist for them and future generations. The roots of this phenomenon can be traced to the dating market of urban centers (particularly as people marry like, rather than marrying “up” or “down,” a twenty-first-century trend economists term “assortative mating”23). Smart people want to be around other smart people not just for work, but also for friendships and romantic relationships, and over time that results in highly stratified hyper-educated affluent places where, as the economist Tyler Cowen remarked, “Money and talent become clustered in high-powered, two-earner families determined to do everything possible to advance the interests of their children.”24 The social and economic interplay of urban inhabitants enables and promotes cities as the ultimate sites of consumption.

AEA (equity firm), 144 age, consumption influenced by, 37, 38t Ahn, Eugene, 122, 137 Ahrendts, Angela, 14 Alaskan Wildlife Refuge, 143 Albert, Prince, 10 Albertson’s, 118 alcohol, 164 Alger, Horatio, 10, 183 Ali, Shimelse, 193–94 alienated labor, 121, 141–42 Alkon, Alison, 124 alternative consumption, 138 American Academy of Pediatrics, 78, 80 American Dream, 175, 182, 183 anxious middle, 183 Armani Exchange (A/X), 11 Arts and Crafts movement, 139–40 Asians, consumption patterns of, 37 aspiration: imitation as means of, 7–8; information availability as spur to, 10 aspirational class: bobos compared to, 19; characteristics and values of, 19, 21–22, 183–84; cities linked to, 148, 151–52; and cost-of-information inconspicuous consumption, 50–60; and cost-prohibitive inconspicuous consumption, 60–62; economic hierarchy within, 19–20; inconspicuous consumption by, 21–22, 49–77; reproduction of, 51–52, 55, 75–77, 185–86, 189–90; rise of, 17–20; social impact of, 185–86 assortive mating, 155 Athletica, 103 attachment parenting, 94 authenticity, 127, 132 Bach, Lydia, 101–2 Bailey, Christopher, 14 Ballet Slippers (nail polish), 46–48, 51, 53 Baltimore, 162, 167 Banana Republic, 11–12 Barber, Elizabeth Wayland, 140 Bare Burger, 123 The Bar Method, 101–2 barre studios, 102–3 Barthes, Roland, 80–81 Baumann, S., 55 Baumol, William, 63–64 beauty and personal grooming care, 171–72 beer, 164 Bell, Daniel, 106 Bennhold, Katrin, 57 Berk, Lotte, 100–101 Berkeley Bowl, 117 Bianchi, Suzanne, 65–66 birthing practices, 92–94 blacks, consumption patterns of, 37 Bluefly, 12 boats and motors, 33, 33f bobos, 18–19, 55–56, 106, 227n3 Boorstin, Daniel, 6, 25–26 Boston, 163–64, 173, 179 bottled water, 164 Bourdieu, Pierre, 3, 48, 53, 55, 59, 177, 224n20 boutiques, 127–28 Bowen, Sarah, 197 Bowman, Elizabeth, 121, 138, 142 brand leaders, 194 Bravo, Rosie Marie, 14 Brazil, 94, 193 breastfeeding, 78–92, 85f, 104–5, 225n6 Brenton, Joslyn, 197 BRIC countries, 193 Bristol, Muriel, 1–2 Brooks, David, 17–19, 55–56, 106 Broome Street General Store, 128 Bucks & Does, 128 Buddhism, 138 Burberry’s, 13–14 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 27 Burt’s Bees, 144 California, food production in, 125–26 Cameron, David, 56 candles, 2–3 capitalism: conspicuous production and, 141; cultural contradictions of, 106–7; Marx’s critique of, 141–42; reactions against, 139–40 Capote, Truman, 10 Carlin, George, 182 Carney, Kevin, 137 car purchases/sales, 177, 193 Carson, Rachel, Silent Spring, 135 cash contributions, 29 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 79–80 Century Foundation, 189 CES.


pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford

affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay, William Langewiesche

It’s astonishing how widespread this tendency to homophily can be, and it can be both deep-rooted and absurdly superficial.* But while our attraction to people who share our outlook is not new, what is new is that we’re far more able to indulge that desire. Women are now far freer, better educated, and better paid, which is good news. But one unintended consequence of that freedom is what economists call “assortative mating.” Executives with MBAs used to marry their secretaries; now they marry other executives with MBAs.28 And just as people choose ever more similar spouses, they also choose ever more similar neighborhoods in a process called “assortative migration.” In the United States, neighborhoods are increasingly segregated—economically, politically, almost any way one cares to look at the data.29 We have an unprecedented choice of news outlets.

https://keithsawyer.wordpress.com/2015/09/02/why-arent-entrepreneurs-more-creative/. 27. A. J. Bahns, K. M. Pickett, and C. S. Crandall, “Social Ecology of Similarity: Big Schools, Small Schools and Social Relationships,” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, DOI: 10.1177/1368430211410751. 28. Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Georgi Kocharkov, and Cezar Santos, “Marry Your Like: Assortative Mating and Income Inequality,” NBER Working Paper No. 19829, January 2014, www.nber.org/papers/W19829. 29. Bill Bishop with Robert G. Cushing, The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008). 30. On this point, see Ethan Zuckerman’s excellent Rewire: Digital Cosmopolitans in the Age of Connection (New York: W. W. Norton, 2013). 31.


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SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

Steve Schwarzman and Pete Peterson of Blackstone decided early on not to pursue hostile deals but to instead use their connections to partner with companies in their buyouts.9 Today’s leaders in finance do not have to be born into privilege to make it, although executives from connected families, such as Jamie Dimon, certainly get a head start. Homophily also extends to the choice of spouses with a comparable socioeconomic background in what is called “assortative mating,” the pairing of like with like. Power couples lead prosperous lives, and they further perpetuate income inequality by facilitating their offspring’s advantaged start in life.10 A perfectly just system should be meritocratic, but true meritocracy has proven elusive. In 1995, Newsweek featured a cover story titled “The Rise of the Overclass,” which included numerous Wall Street stars—women and various ethnic groups among them.

See also Deutsche Bank at EQT Partners, 144 family of, 136 general references to, 101, 118, 120 International Institute of Finance and, 131 legal charges against, 142–143 Mannesmann AG and, 142–143 Pierre Wauthier suicide and, 138, 144 public relations mistakes by, 143 at Zürich Insurance, 144 “Age of irresponsibility,” 222 Ahamed, Liaquat, 160 AIG, 31, 48, 183–184, 217 Air France, 193 “Airport test,” 80 Albania, 27 Alibada Group, 103 Allen & Company Sun Valley Conference, 112 Alpha personality, 55–58 Alps, 38, 93, 122 Altman, Roger, 121 Alumni networks, 81 Al-Waleed, Prince of Saudi Arabia, 205 Amazon, 199 Amygdala, 98 “Analysis paralysis,” 51 Analytical thinking, 218 Anarchy, 213 Andreessen Horowitz, 189 Anger, 57 Annan, Kofi, 27 Ant colonies, 6 “Anthropocene,” xxvii Apollo Global Management, 88 Appaloosa Management, 88 Arab Spring, 226 Arabella Sheraton Hotel Seehof, 115 Arbitrage traders, 166, 208 Arcadia Conference, 34 Archbishop of Westminster, 226 Aristotle, 79 Arrow, Kenneth, 185 “Ask gap,” 153 Aspen Institute, 112, 200 Assess the Value of Your Networks, 41 Assessment gap, 152–153 “Assortative mating,” 80 Athleticism, 126 Atlantic Council, 158 Avenue Capital Group, 90 AXA, 179 Axel Springer, 136 Azerbaijan, 171 B Babacan, Ali, 120 Bacall, Lauren, 199 Bacon, Louis, 109 Bailouts, 10–11, 216 Bair, Sheila, 56, 150, 168, 172–173, 176, 214 Baker & McKenzie, 154, 159 Banamex Bank, 167 Banco Santander, 121, 148 Bank(s) bailouts of, 10–11, 216 central, xxv, 6, 10, 32–33, 37 CEOs of, 38, 87–88, 174 commercial, 37 description of, xxv investment, 38 postcrisis regulation of, 218 private, 37 private equity firms and, 61 regular, 37 savings, 37 shadow, 38 “too big to fail,” 216 Bank Credit-Dnepr, 195 Bank for International Settlements, 37, 78, 214 Bank of America, 115, 151, 183 Bank of Cyprus, 144–145 Bank of England, xxv, 32, 43, 57, 84, 106, 165, 214–215, 222 Bank of Israel, 36, 84 Bank of New York, 196 Bank One, 65 Banking Conduct and Culture, 223 Banque de France, 39 Barabasi, Albert-László, 19 Barak, Ehud, 9 Barclays, 43, 137, 179, 183, 205 Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, 37 BASF, 115 Bass, Kyle, 154 Baur au Lac Hotel, 38 Bear Stearns, 41, 56–57, 198 Beaux-Arts style, 34 Behavior of networks, 20 Beijing, 103, 194 “Believability index,” 72 “Believability matrices,” 71 Belvédère Hotel, 3, 9, 29 Berkeley Hotel, 43 Berkshire Hathaway, 60 Berlusconi, Silvio, 177–178 Bernanke, Ben annual salary of, 165 as Federal Reserve chairman, 34–37, 188 background on, 36 at Bilderberg conference, 121 in Euro crisis, 177–178 in financial crisis of 2007–2008 management, 11, 36–37, 84, 172 Medley Global Advisors leak and, 43 power of, 35 Princeton University graduation speech by, 50, 80 successor to, 188 Bernstein, Leonard, 199 Beverly Hills Hotel, 192 Bieber, Justin, 67 “Big data analysis” programs, 72 Bild, 136 Bilderberg conference, 120–122 Bilderberg Group, 96, 112 Bilderberg Steering Committee, 142 Billionaires, 123 BIS.


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The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

And there is today among middle-class and upper-middle class families an unprecedented focus of attention on improving or at least maintaining their own children’s position—a kind of ‘arms race’ in everything from places in top private or state schools to the use of tutors and job internships. And as the group of hard-to-move professional families slowly expands it is likely that there will be less overall movement, at least through relative mobility. This entrenchment of an elite upper professional class has been reinforced by another factor with the ugly name of ‘assortative mating’—meaning educated and successful people marrying each other. People have always tended to marry broadly within their own class but until a generation or two ago male doctors tended to marry female nurses not female doctors, because there were so few of the latter, and businessmen married their secretaries rather than businesswomen for the same reason. Men, in other words married ‘down’ in educational and status terms and women tended to marry ‘up’.

INDEX 1960s liberalism: 6 Aaronovitch, David: 142 Achen, Christopher: Democracy for Realists, 61 Afghanistan: Civil War (1992–5), 82; Operation Enduring Freedom (2001–14), 225 Akesson, Jimmie: defection from Moderate Party, 70 AkzoNobel: 175 Algeria: 104 Alternative für Deutschland: 53, 70, 73 American Dream: 65 anti-Semitism: 57 Anywheres: 10, 12–13, 15, 17–18, 20–1, 41–3, 45, 51, 74, 114–15, 118, 149, 177, 197, 202, 205, 207, 210, 215, 228; characteristics of, 4–5, 17, 24–5, 34–5, 37, 46, 123; conflict with Somewheres, 23, 79, 81, 193, 215; education levels of, 156, 158, 198; employment of, 11; European, 103; family dynamics of, 211–14; liberals, 27–8; mobile, 203; political ideologies of, 63–4, 76, 81–2, 109–10, 112, 120, 213, 224, 232–3; political representation/voting patterns of, 13, 17, 26–7, 36, 62, 69, 75, 78, 91–2, 153, 167, 218–19, 221, 227; potential coalition with Somewheres, 220, 222, 225–6, 233; progressive individualism, 11, 60, 180, 219; view of migrant integration, 134 Apple, Inc.: product lines of, 86 Appiah, Kwame Anthony: 117 assortative mating: 188 Aston University: 164 austerity: 98, 200 Australia: 4, 160 Austria: 56, 69–70 authoritarianism: 8, 12, 30, 33, 44, 57; concept of, 57; hard, 45 Baggini, Julian: observations of British class system, 59 Bangladesh: 130 Bank of England: personnel of, 86 Bartels, Larry: Democracy for Realists, 61 Bartlett, Jamie: Radicals, 64 Basel Accords: 85 BASF: 176 Bayer: 176 Belgium: 73, 75, 101; Brussels, 53, 89, 93, 95, 98 Berlusconi, Silvio: 65 birther movement: 68 Bischof, Bob: head of German-British Forum, 174 Blair, Tony: 10, 76, 159, 189; administration of, 218; foreign policy of, 96; speeches of, 3, 7, 49; support for Bulgarian and Romanian EU accession, 26; unravelling of legacy, 221 Bloomsbury Group: 34 Bogdanor, Vernon: concept of ‘exam-passing classes’, 3 Boyle, Danny: Summer Olympics opening ceremony (2012), 111, 222 Branson, Richard: 11 Brexit (EU Referendum)(2016): 1–2, 19, 27, 81, 89, 93, 99–100, 125, 233; negotiations, 103; polling prior to voting, 30, 64; Remainers, 2, 19–20, 52–3, 132; sociological implications of, 4–7, 13, 53–4, 118, 126, 167–8, 225; Stronger In campaign, 61; Vote Leave campaign, 42, 53, 72, 91, 132; voting pattern in, 7–9, 19–20, 23, 26, 36, 52, 55–6, 60, 71, 74, 215, 218 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC): 112, 145; Newsnight, 60; personnel of, 15; Radio 4, 31, 227; Today, 60 British Empire: 107 British National Party: European election performance of (2009), 119; supporters of, 38 British Future: 19 British Private Equity and Venture Capital Association: personnel of, 135 British Social Attitudes (BSA) surveys: 153; authoritarian-libertarian scale, 44–5; findings of, 38–9, 44, 106–7, 120, 202, 206–7, 218; immigration survey (2013), 44; personnel of, 218–19 British Values Survey: establishment of (1973), 43; groups in, 43 Brooks, Greg: Sheffield report, 155 Brown, Belinda: 205, 207–8 Brown, Gordon: 106; abolition of Married Couples Allowance, 204; budget of (2006), 147–8; political rhetoric of, 16–17 Brummer, Alex: Britain for Sale, 173 Bulgaria: 26; accession to EU, 225 (2007); migrants from, 126; population levels of, 102 Burgess, Simon: 131 Burggraf, Shirley: Feminine Economy and Economic Man, The, 194 Cahn, Andrew: 98 Callaghan, Jim: Ruskin College speech (1976), 154 Callan, Eamonn: 191 Callan, Samantha: 202, 212 Cambridge University: 35, 179, 186; faculty of, 37; students of, 158–9 Cameron, David: 71, 103, 179, 183, 189; administration of, 226; cabinet of, 187 Canada: 160; mass immigration in, 119 capital: 9, 100; cultural, 190; human, 34; liberalisation of controls, 97; social, 110 capitalism: 7, 11; organised, 159 Care (Christian Action Research & Education): 203 Carswell, Douglas: 13 Case, Anne: 67 Casey, Louise: review of opportunity and integration, 129 Catholicism: 15, 213; original sin, 57 Cautres, Bruno: 72 Center for Humans and Nature: 30 Centre for Social Justice: 206; personnel of, 202 chauvinism: 33; decline in prevalence of, 39; violent, 106 China, People’s Republic of: 10, 95, 104, 160; accession to WTO (2001), 88; manufacturing sector of, 86; steel industry of, 87 Chirac, Jacques: electoral victory of (2002), 49 Christianity: 33, 69, 83, 156 citizenship: 68, 121–2; democratic, 7; global, 114; legislation, 103; national, 5; relationship with migration, 126; shared, 113; temporary, 126 Clarke, Charles: British Home Secretary, 84 Clarke, Ken: education reforms of, 158–9 Clegg, Nick: 11, 13, 189 Cliffe, Jeremy: 10–11; ‘Britain’s Cosmopolitan Future’ 216; observations of social conservatism, 217 Clinton, Bill: 29, 76; administration of, 218 Clinton, Hillary: electoral defeat of (2016), 67–8 Coalition Government (UK) (2010–16): 13, 54, 226; cabinet members of, 16; immigration policies of, 124–5 Cold War: end of, 83, 92, 95, 98 Collier, Paul: 110; view of potential reform of UNHCR, 84 colonialism: 87; European, 105 communism: 58 Communist Party of France: 72 Confederation of British Industry (CBI): 164 confirmation bias: concept of, 30 Conservative Party (Tories)(UK): 19, 207; dismantling of apprenticeship system by, 157; ideology of, 76, 196; members of, 31, 164, 187; Party Conference (2016), 226; Red Toryism, 63; supporters of, 24, 35, 77, 143, 216–17 conservatism: 4, 9; cultural, 58; social, 217; Somewhere, 7–8; working-class, 8 Corbyn, Jeremy: elected as leader of Labour Party, 20, 53, 59, 75, 78 Cowley, Philip: 35 Crosland, Tony: Secretary of Education, 36; two-tier higher education system proposed by, 158 Crossrail 2: 228; spending on, 143 Czech Republic: 69, 73 D66: supporters of, 76 Dade, Pat: 43–4, 219; role in establishment of British Values Survey, 43, 218–19 Daily Mail: 227; reader base of, 4 Danish Peoples’ Party: 55, 69–70, 73; ideology of, 73 Darwin, Charles: 28 death penalty: 44; support for, 39, 216–17 Deaton, Angus: 67 deference, end of: 63 Delors, Jacques: 96, 103–4; President of European Commission, 94 Democratic Party: ideology of, 62, 65; shortcomings of engagement strategies of, 66–7 Demos: 137 Dench, Geoff: 207; concept of ‘quality with pluralism’, 214; Transforming Men, 209 Denmark: 69, 71, 99; education levels in, 156 Diana, Princess of Wales: death of (1997), 107 double liberalism: 1, 11, 63 Duffy, Gillian: 124 Dyson: 173; Dyson effect, 173 Economist: 10, 210, 216 Eden, Anthony: administration of, 187 Eichengreen, Barry: 91 Elias, Norbert: 119 Employer Skills Survey: 163 Engineering Employers Federation: 166 Englishness: 111 Erdogan, Recep Tayyip: 218 Essex Man/Woman: 186 Estonia: population levels of, 102 Eton College: 179, 187 Euro (currency): 100–1; accession of countries to, 98–9 European Commission: 26, 97 European Convention on Human Rights: 83–4 European Court of Justice (ECJ): 103 European Economic Community (EEC): 92; British accession to (1973), 93; Treaty of Rome (1957), 101 European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM): 97–8 European Parliament: elections (2009), 71–2; elections (2014), 72 European Union (EU): 10, 25, 53, 76, 89, 92–4, 99–100, 120, 124, 160, 215, 221–2, 229, 233; Amsterdam Treaty (1997), 94; Common Agricultural Policy, 92, 96; establishment of (1957), 91–2; freedom of movement principles, 100–1, 163–4; Humanitarian Protection Directive (2004), 83; integration, 50, 98–9, 173; Lisbon Treaty (2009), 94; Maastricht Treaty (1992), 94, 96, 103; members states of, 16, 31, 55, 71, 216; personnel of, 128; Schengen Agreement (1985), 94–5, 99, 117; Single European Act (1986), 94; Treaty of Nice (2000), 94 Euroscepticism: 69 Eurozone Crisis (2008–): 92, 99 Evening Standard: 143–5 Facebook: 86 family culture: 196–7; childcare, 202–3; cohabitation, 196, 211; divorce figures, 196–7; gender roles, 206–13; legislation impacting, 195–6; lone parents, 196; married couples tax allowance, 225; relationship with state intrusion, 200–2; tax burdens, 203–4; tax credit systems, 202, 204–5, 225 Farage, Nigel: 11; leader of UKIP, 72; political rhetoric of, 20 Fawcett Society: surveys conducted by, 195–6 federalism: 69 feminism: 185, 199, 205; gender pay gap, 198–9; orthodox, 194 Fidesz: 69, 71, 73 Fillon, François: 73 Financial Times: 91, 108, 115, 138, 145, 147 Finkelstein, Daniel: 34 Five Star Movement: 53, 55, 64, 70, 73 Florida, Richard: concept of ‘Creative Class’, 136 Foges, Clare: 183 food sector: 17, 102, 125, 126 Ford, Robert: 35, 150 foreign ownership: 172–74, 230 Fortuyn, Pim: assassination of (2002), 50, 69 France: 69, 75, 94–6, 101, 173; agricultural sector of, 96; compulsory insurance system of, 222; Paris, 104, 143; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 151; Revolution (1789–99), 106 Frank, Thomas: concept of ‘liberalism of the rich’, 62 Franzen, Jonathan: 110 free trade agreements: opposition to, 62 Freedom Party: 69; electoral defeat of (2016), 70; ideology of, 73; supporters of, 70 French Colonial Empire (1534–1980): 107 Friedman, Sam: ‘Introducing the Class Ceiling: Social Mobility and Britain’s Elite Occupations’, 187 Friedman, Thomas: World is Flat, The, 85 Front National (FN): 53, 69, 72–3; European electoral performance of (2014), 72; founding of (1973), 72; supporters of, 72 Gallup: polls conducted by, 65 Ganesh, Janan: 115, 145 gay marriage: 5, 76; opposition to, 46–7; support for, 26, 220 General Electric Company (GEC) plc: 172, 175 German-British Forum: members of, 174 Germany: 70, 73, 86, 94, 96, 100–1, 173–4, 209; automobile industry of, 96; chemical industry of, 176; compulsory insurance system of, 222; education sector of, 166; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 151; labour market of, 147; Leipzig, 58; Ludwigshafen, 176; Reunification (1990), 96, 147, 176; Ruhr, 176–7 Ghemawat, Prof Pankaj: 85–6 Gilens, Martin: study of American public policy and public preferences, 61–2 Glasman, Maurice: 227 Global Financial Crisis (2007–9): 56, 169–70, 177; Credit Crunch (2007–8), 98, 177 Global Villagers: 31–2, 44–5, 160, 226; characteristics of, 46; political representation of, 75; political views of, 109, 112 globalisation: 9–10, 50–2, 81–2, 85, 87–8, 90–1, 105–6, 148; economic, 9; global trade development, 86–7; growth of, 85–6; hyperglobalisation, 88–9; relationship with nation states, 85–6; sane, 90 Golden Dawn: 74; growth of, 105 Goldman Sachs: personnel of, 31 Goldthorpe, John: 184–5, 189–90 Goodhart, David: 12 Goodwin, Fred: 168 Goodwin, Matthew: 150 Gordon, Ian: 137–8, 140 Gould, Philip: 220 Gove, Michael: 64, 91 great liberalisation: 39–40, 47; effect of, 40 Greater London Authority (GLA): 143 Greece: 53, 56, 69, 74, 99, 105; Athens, 143; government of, 98 Green, Francis: 163 Green Party (UK): supporters of, 38 Group of Twenty (G20): 89 Guardian: 14, 210 Habsburg Empire (Austro-Hungarian Empire): collapse of (1918), 107 Haidt, Jonathan: 11, 30, 33, 133; Righteous Mind, The, 28–9 Hakim, Catharine: 205 Hall, Stuart: 14–15 Hames, Tim: 135–6 Hampstead/Hartlepool alliance: 75 Hanson Trust: subsidiaries of, 175 Hard Authoritarian: 43–7, 51, 119, 220; characteristics of, 24–5; political views of, 109 Harris, Gareth: 137; ‘Changing Places’, 137 Harvard University: faculty of, 57 Heath, Edward: foreign policy of, 96 Higgins, Les: role in establishment of British Values Survey, 43 High Speed 2 (HS2): 228 High Speed 3 (HS3): aims of, 151, 228 Hitler, Adolf: 94 Hoescht: 176 Hofstadter, Richard: ‘Everyone is Talking About Populism, But No One Can Define It’ (1967), 54 Holmes, Chris: 151 homophobia: observations in BSA surveys, 39; societal views of, 39–40, 216 Honig, Bonnie: concept of ‘objects of public love’, 111 Huguenots: 121 Huhne, Chris: 16, 32 human rights: 5, 10, 55, 113; courts, 113; legislation, 5, 83–4, 109, 112; rhetoric, 112–13 Hungary: 53, 64, 69, 71, 73–4, 99, 218; Budapest, 218 Ignatieff, Michael: leader of Liberal Party (Canada), 13 Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI): 172, 174–5; personnel of, 169; subsidiaries of, 175 Inbetweeners: 4, 25, 46, 109; political views of, 109 India: 104 Inglehart, Ronald: theories of value change, 27 Insider Nation: concept of, 61, 64; evidence of, 61–2 Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS): 201; findings of, 211–12 International Monetary Fund (IMF): 86–7, 102 interracial marriage: societal views of, 40 India: 10, 160 Ipsos MORI: polls conducted by, 42, 122 Iraq: 84; Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003–11), 82 Islam: 50; Ahmadiyya, 84; conservative, 131; Halal, 68; hostility to, 73; Qur’an, 50 Islamism: 130 Islamophobia: 130 Italy: 55, 64, 69–70, 73, 96; migrants from, 125 Jamaica: 14 Japan: 86; request for League of Nations racial equality protocol (1919), 109 Jews/Judaism: 121, 259; orthodox, 131; persecution of, 17 jingoism: 8 Jobbik: 53, 64, 74 Johnson, Boris: 145 Jones, Sir John Harvey: death of (2008), 169 Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of: government of, 84 Jospin, Lionel: defeat in final round of French presidential elections (2002), 49 Judah, Ben: This is London: Life and Death in the World City, 145 Kaufmann, Eric: 8–9, 131, 219, 227; ‘Changing Places’, 137 Kellner, Peter: 78 King, Mervyn: Governor of Bank of England, 86 Kinnock, Neil: 98 knowledge economy: 147, 149, 154, 166, 221 Kohl, Helmut: 94 Kotleba: 74 Krastev, Ivan: 55, 65, 82–3 labour: 9, 89–90, 149; eastern European, 125–6; gender division of, 197; hourglass labour market, 150, 191; living wage, 26, 152; market, 95, 101–2, 124, 140, 147–8, 150–2, 156–7, 181, 225 Labour Party (Denmark): 77 Labour Party (Netherlands): 50; supporters of, 76 Labour Party (UK): 2, 23, 53, 57, 72, 123, 157, 159, 207; Blue Labour, 63; electoral performance of (2015), 75; European election performance (2014), 72; expansion of welfare state under, 199–200; members of, 14, 20, 36, 59, 61, 77–8, 84; Momentum, 53; New Labour, 33, 75, 107, 123, 155, 159, 167, 196, 207, 220, 226, 232; Party Conference (2005), 7; social media presence of, 79; supporters of, 17, 35, 75, 77, 143, 221; voting patterns in Brexit vote, 19 Lakner, Christoph: concept of elephant curve, 87 Lamy, Pascal: 97 Latvia: adoption of Euro, 98–9; migrants from, 25–6 Laurison, Daniel: ‘Introducing the Class Ceiling: Social Mobility and Britain’s Elite Occupations’, 187 Law and Justice Party: 69, 71, 73 Lawson, Nigel: 205 Le Pen, Jean-Marie: victory in final round of French presidential elections (2002), 49, 69 Le Pen, Marine: 53; electoral strategies of, 73 Leadbeater, Charles: 53 League of Nations: protocols of, 109 left-behinders: 20 Lega Nord: 69 Levin, Yuval: Fractured Republic, The, 232 liberal democracy: 2, 31, 55 Liberal Democrats: 23, 53–4; members of, 16; supporters of, 38, 78 Liberal Party (Canada): members of, 13 liberalism: 4–5, 12–13, 29–31, 55, 76, 119, 127–8, 199, 233; Anywhere, 27–8; baby boomer, 6; double, 1, 63; economic, 11; graduate, 216–17; meritocratic, 34; metropolitan, 216; orthodox, 13–14; Pioneer, 44; social, 4, 11 libertarianism: 8, 11, 22, 39, 44 Libya: 84; Civil War (2011), 225 Lilla, Mark: 35 Lind, Michael: 105, 135 Livingstone, Ken: 136 Lloyd, John: 56 London School of Economics (LSE): 54, 137–8, 140, 183 Low Pay Commission: findings of, 170 Lucas Industries plc: 172 male breadwinner: 149, 194, 195, 198, 206, 207 Manchester University: faculty of, 131 Mandelson, Peter: British Home Secretary, 61; family of, 61 Mandler, Peter: 135 Marr, Andrew: 53, 181 Marshall Plan (1948): 92 mass immigration: 14, 55, 104–5, 118–19, 121–4, 126–7, 140, 228–9; accompanied infrastructure development, 137–9; brain-drain issue, 102; debate of issue, 81–2; freedom of movement debates, 100–3; housing levels issue, 138–9; impact on wages, 152; integration, 129–32, 140–2; non-EU, 124–5; opposition to, 16–17, 120, 220 May, Theresa: 63, 179, 183, 198–9; administration of, 173, 176, 187, 191, 230; British Home Secretary, 124–5; ‘Citizens of Nowhere’ speech (2016), 31; political rhetoric of, 15, 31, 226 McCain, John: electoral defeat of (2008), 68 meritocracy: 152, 179–80, 190; critiques of, 180–1; perceptions of, 182–3 Merkel, Angela: reaction to refugee crisis (2015), 71 Mexico: borders of, 21 migration flows: global rates, 82, 87; non-refugee, 82 Milanovic, Branko: 126; concept of elephant curve, 87 Miliband, Ed: 78, 189 Mill, John Stuart: ‘harm principle’ of, 11–12 Millennium Cohort Study: 159 Miller, David: concept of ‘weak cosmopolitanism’, 109 Mills, Colin: 185 Mitterand, François: 94, 97 mobility: 8, 11, 20, 23, 36, 37, 38, 153, 167, 219; capital: 86, 88; geographical, 4, 6; social, 6, 33, 58, 152, 168, 179, 180, 182, 183–191, 213, 215, 220, 226, 231 Moderate Party: members of, 70 Monnet, Jean: 94–5, 97, 103–4 Morgan Stanley: 171 Mudde, Cas: observations of populism, 57 multiculturalism: 14, 50, 141–2; conceptualisation of, 106; laissez-faire, 132 narodniki: 54 national identity: 14, 38, 41, 111–12; conceptualisations of, 45; indifference to, 41, 46, 106, 114; polling on, 41 nationalism: 38, 46–7, 105; chauvinistic, 107, 120; civic, 23, 53; extreme, 104; moderate, 228; modern, 112; post-, 8, 105–6, 112; Scottish, 221 nativism: 57 Neave, Guy: 36 net migration: 126; White British, 136 Netherlands: 13–14, 50, 69, 73, 75, 99–100; Amsterdam, 49, 51; immigrant/minority population of, 50–1; Moroccan population of, 50–1 Netmums: surveys conducted by, 205–6 New Culture Forum: members of, 144 New Jerusalem: 105 New Society/Opinion Research Centre: polling conducted by, 33 New Zealand: 160 Nextdoor: 114 non-governmental organizations (NGOs): 21; refugee, 82 Norris, Pippa: 57 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): 91; opposition to, 62 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): 85, 92; personnel of, 84 Norway: 69 Nuttall, Paul: leader of UKIP, 72; Obama, Barack: 67; approval ratings of, 60; electoral victory of (2012), 68; healthcare policies of, 22–3; target of birther movement, 68 O’Donnell, Gus: background of, 15–16; British Cabinet Secretary, 15 O’Leary, Duncan: 232 Open University: Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change (CRESC), 172–3 Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003–11): political impact of, 56 Orbán, Victor: 69, 218 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): 201, 204; report on education levels (2016), 155–6; start-ups ranking, 173 Orwell, George: Nineteen Eighty-Four, 108–9 Osborne, George: 189; economic policies of, 4, 226 Oswald, Andrew: 171 Ottoman Empire: collapse of (1923), 107 outsider nation: concept of, 61, 64 Owen, David: 99 Oxford University: 15, 35, 179, 186; Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance, 151; faculty of, 31, 151; Nuffield College, 32 Pakistan: persecution of Ahmadiyya Muslims in, 84 Parris, Matthew: 115 Parsons, Talcott: concept of ‘achieved’ identities, 115 Party of Freedom (PVV): 69; ideology of, 73; supporters of, 50, 76 Paxman, Jeremy: 42 Pearson: ownership of Higher National Certificates (HNCs)/Higher National Diplomas (HNDs), 157 Pegida: ideology of, 73 Pessoa, Joao Paulo: 88 Phalange: 74 Phillips, Trevor: 133 Pioneers: characteristics of, 43–4 Plaid Cymru: supporters of, 38 Podemos: 53, 64 Poland: 56, 69, 73; migrants from, 25–6, 121 Policy Exchange: ‘Bittersweet Success’, 188 political elites: media representation of, 63–4 populism: 1, 5, 13–14, 49–52, 55–6, 60, 64, 67, 69–74, 81; American, 54, 65; British, 63; decent, 6, 55, 71, 73, 219–20, 222, 227, 233; definitions of, 54; European, 49, 53, 65, 68–9, 74; left-wing, 54, 56; opposition to, 74; right-wing, 33, 51, 54 Populists: 54 Portillo, Michael: 31 Portugal: migrants from, 121, 125 post-industrialism: 6 post-nationalism: 105 poverty: 83, 168; child, 183–4, 200, 204; extreme, 87; reduction of, 78, 200; wages, 231 Powell, Enoch: ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech (1968), 127 Professionalisation of politics: 59 Progress Party: 69 progressive individualism: 5 Progressive Party: founding of (1912), 54 proportional representation: support for, 228 Prospect: 14, 91, 136 Prospectors: characteristics of, 43 Protestantism: 8, 213 Putin, Vladimir: 218 Putnam, Robert: 22; theory of social capital, 110 racism: 32, 73–4, 134; observations in BSA surveys, 39; societal views of, 39; violent, 127 Rashid, Sammy: Sheffield report, 155 Reagan, Ronald: 58, 63; approval ratings of, 60 Recchi, Ettore: 104 Refugee Crisis (2015–): 83–4; charitable efforts targeting, 21–2; government funds provided to aid, 83; political reactions to, 71 Relationships Foundation: 202 Republic of Ireland: 99; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 151; property bubble in, 98 Republican Party: ideology of, 62, 65; members of, 68 Resolution Foundation: 87–8; concept of ‘squeezed middle’, 168–9; reports of, 171 Ricardo, David: trade theory of, 101 Robinson, Eric: 36 Rodrik, Dani: 82, 89; concept of ‘hyperglobalisation’, 88; theory of ‘sane globalisation’, 90 Romania: 26; accession to EU, 225 (2007); migrants from, 102, 126 Romney, Mitt: electoral defeat of (2012), 68 Roosevelt, Theodore: leader of Progressive Party, 54 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: 156 Rowthorn, Bob: 149 Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS): personnel of, 168 Royal College of Nursing: 140 Rudd, Amber: foreign worker list conflict (2016), 17 Ruhs, Martin: 126 Russell Group: 55; culture of, 37; student demographics of, 130–1, 191 Russian Federation: 2, 92; Moscow, 218; St Petersburg, 218 Rwanda: Genocide (1994), 82 Saffy factor: concept of, 199, 221–2 Scheffer, Paul: 85; ‘Multicultural Tragedy, The’ (2000), 49–50 Schumann, Robert: 94 Sciences Po: personnel of, 104 Scottish National Party (SNP): 1, 23, 54, 112; electoral performance of (2015), 75; ideology of, 53 Second World War (1939–45): 105, 194; Holocaust, 109 Security and identity issues: 41, 78, 81 Settlers: characteristics of, 43 Sikhism: 131 Singapore: 101, 128; education levels in, 156 Slovakia: 69, 73–4 Slovenia: adoption of Euro, 98–9 Smer: 69, 73 Smith, Zadie: 141–2 Social Democratic Party: supporters of, 75–6 social mobility: 6, 33, 58, 179–80, 183, 187, 189–91, 220; absolute mobility, 184, 188; relative mobility, 184; slow, 168; upward, 152 Social Mobility Commission: 161, 179–80 socialism: 49, 72, 183, 190 Somewheres: 3–5, 12–13, 17–18, 20, 41–3, 45, 115, 177, 180, 191, 214, 223, 228; characteristics of, 5–6, 2, 32; conflict with Anywheres, 23, 79, 81, 193, 215; conservatism, 7–8; employment of, 11; European, 103; immigration of, 106; moral institutions, 223–4; political representation/voting patterns of, 13–14, 24–6, 36, 53–5, 77–9, 124, 227; political views of, 71, 76, 109, 112, 119, 199, 218, 224–6, 232; potential coalition with Anywheres, 220, 222, 225–6, 233; view of migrant integration, 134 Sorrell, Martin: 31 Soskice, David: 159 South Korea: 86 Soviet Union (USSR): 92, 188; collapse of (1991), 82, 107 Sowell, Thomas: 30; A Conflict of Visions, 29 Spain: 53, 56, 64, 74; government of, 98; migrants from, 125; property bubble in, 98 Steinem, Gloria: 198 Stenner, Karen: 30, 44, 122, 133, 227; Authoritarian Dynamic, The, 30–1 Stephens, Philip: 108 Sun, The: 227 Sutherland, Peter: 31–2 Sutton Trust: end of mobility thesis, 183–5 Swaziland: 135 Sweden: 56, 70, 100; general elections (2014), 70; Stockholm, 143; taxation system of, 222 Sweden Democrats: 70; electoral performance of (2014), 70; ideology of, 73 Switzerland: 37 Syria: Civil War (2009–), 82, 84 Syriza: 53, 69 Taiwan: 86 Teeside University: 164 terrorism: jihadi, 71, 74, 129 Thatcher, Margaret: 58, 63, 95, 189, 205; administration of, 169; economic policies of, 176 Third Reich (1933–45): 104; persecution of Jews in, 17 Times Education Supplement: 37 Timmermans, Frans: EU Commissioner, 128 Thompson, Mark: Director-General of BBC, 15 trade theory: principles of, 101 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): 89; support for, 225 Trump, Donald: 50, 62, 74, 85; electoral victory of (2016), 1–3, 5–7, 13, 27, 30, 64–8, 81, 232; political rhetoric of, 14, 22–3, 51, 54, 66–7; supporters of, 56, 67 Tube Investments (TI): 172 Turkey: 218 Twitter: use for political activism, 79 Uber: 140 UK Independence Party (UKIP): 53, 55, 63–4, 69, 71–3, 228; electoral performance of (2015), 75; European election performance (2009), 71–2; members of, 13; origins of, 72; supporters of, 24, 35, 38, 72, 75, 143, 168, 216, 222 ultimatum game: 52 Understanding Society: surveys conducted by, 37–8, 202 unemployment: 101–2; gender divide of, 208–9; not in employment, education or training (Neets), 151–2, 190; youth, 139, 151–2, 166 Unilever: 175 United Kingdom (UK): 1–3, 8, 11–12, 21, 27–8, 31, 33, 41, 44, 59–60, 69, 73, 75, 81, 83, 91, 111–12, 147, 165, 173, 180, 193–5, 199, 204, 217, 227; Aberdeen, 136; accession to EEC (1973), 93; Adult Skills budget of, 161, 225; apprenticeship system of, 154, 157, 162–3, 166; Birmingham, 7, 123, 166; Boston, 121; Bradford, 133, 136; Bristol, 136; British Indian population of, 77; Burnley, 151; Cambridge, 136; City of London, 95, 106, 174; class system in, 58–9, 75, 123, 135–6, 149–52, 172, 182–3, 186, 195; Dagenham, 136; Department for Education, 206; Department for International Development (DfID), 224; Divorce Law Reform Act (1969), 196; economy of, 152, 170; Edinburgh, 54, 136; education sector of, 35, 147, 154–8; ethnic Chinese population of, 77; EU citizens in, 101; Finance Act (2014), 211; Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), 224; Glasgow, 136; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 150–1; higher education sector of, 35–7, 47, 159–62, 164–7, 179, 208, 230–1; Home Office, 17; House of Commons, 162; general election in (2015), 60; House of Lords, 31; Human Rights Act, 123, 225; income inequality levels in, 169–70, 172, 177, 184–5; labour market of, 16, 26, 124, 140–1, 148, 150–1, 152, 225; Leicester, 133; Leeds, 161; London, 3–4, 7, 10–11, 18–19, 24, 26, 34, 37, 59, 79, 101, 114–15, 119, 123, 131, 133–45, 151, 168, 216, 218, 226, 228, 232–3; Manchester, 123, 136, 151, 161, 228; manufacturing sector of, 17, 88; mass immigration in, 122–4, 126–7, 228–9; Muslim immigration in, 41–2, 44; Muslim population of, 127, 130; National Health Service (NHS), 72, 91, 111, 120, 140, 144, 200–1, 229; National Insurance system of, 204; Newcastle, 131, 136, 161; Northern Ireland, 38; Office for Fair Access, 180; Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted), 155; Office of National Statistics (ONS), 138, 144–5; Oldham, 133; Olympic Games (2012), 111, 143, 222; Oxford, 136; Parliamentary expenses scandal (2009), 56, 168; Plymouth, 131; public sector employment in, 171, 208–9, 229–30; regional identities in, 3–4, 186; Rochdale, 124; Scotland, 110, 138; Scottish independence referendum (2014), 53, 110; self-employment levels in, 171; Sheffield, 161; Slough, 131, 133; social mobility rate in, 58, 184–5, 187; start-ups in, 173–4; Stoke, 121; Sunderland, 52, 172; Supreme Court, 66; taxation system of, 222; Treasury, 16; UK Border Agency, 108; vocational education in, 163; voting patterns for Brexit vote, 7–9, 19–20, 23, 26, 36, 52; wage levels in, 168; Wales, 138; welfare state in, 199–203, 223–4, 231–2; Westminster, 54, 58, 60; youth unemployment in, 151–2 United Nations (UN): 102, 198; Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 10; Declaration of Human Rights (1948), 109; Geneva Convention (1951), 82–4; High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), 82, 84; Security Council, 99 United States of America (USA): 1–2, 6–7, 22–3, 36–7, 51, 57, 60, 74, 86, 89, 94, 128, 168, 193, 208, 227; 9/11 Attacks, 130; Agency for International Development (USAID), 224; Asian population of, 68; borders of, 21; Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), 54; class identity in, 65–6; Congress, 67; Constitution of, 57; education system of, 166; higher education sector of, 167; Hispanic population of, 67–8, 85; House of Representatives, 67; immigration debate in, 67–8; Ivy League, 36, 61; New York, 135; political divisions in, 65; Senate, 67 University College London (UCL): Imagining the Future City: London 2061, 137, 139 University of California: 165 University of Kent: 36 University of Sussex: 36 University of Warwick: 36; faculty of, 171 Vietnam War (1955–75): 29 Visegrad Group: 69, 73, 99 Vlaams Belang: ideology of, 73 wages for housework: 194 Walzer, Michael: 117–18 War on Drugs: 62 WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Democratic): 27 Welzel, Christian: Freedom Rising, 27 Westminster University: 165 white flight: 129, 134, 136 white identity politics: 9, 67 white supremacy: 8, 68, 73–4 Whittle, Peter: 144 Wilders, Geert: 50, 76 Willetts, David: 164, 185 Wilson, Harold: electoral victory of (1964), 150 Wolf, Prof Alison: 162, 164–5; XX Factor, The, 189, 198 working class: 2–4, 6, 51–2, 59, 61, 65; conservatism, 8 political representation/views of, 8, 52, 58, 63, 70, 72; progressives, 78–9; voting patterns of, 15, 52, 75–6; white, 19, 68 World Bank: 84 World Trade Organisation (WTO): 10, 85, 89–90, 97; accession of China to (2001), 88 World Values Survey: 27 xenophobia: 2, 14, 50–1, 57, 71, 119, 121, 141, 144, 225 York, Peter: 138 York University: 36 YouGov: personnel of, 78; polls conducted by, 16–17, 42, 66, 79, 114, 132, 141 Young, Hugo: 93 Young, Michael: 119, 190; Rise of the Meritocracy, The, 180–1 Yugoslav Wars (1991–2001): 97 Yugoslavia: 97 Zeman, Milos: President of Czech Republic, 73


pages: 459 words: 123,220

Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis by Robert D. Putnam

assortative mating, business cycle, correlation does not imply causation, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, full employment, George Akerlof, helicopter parent, impulse control, income inequality, index card, jobless men, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, school choice, selection bias, Socratic dialogue, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, upwardly mobile, Walter Mischel, white flight, working poor

Bastedo and Ozan Jaquette, “Running in Place: Low-Income Students and the Dynamics of Higher Education Stratification,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 33 (September 2011): 318–39; Caroline M. Hoxby and Christopher Avery, “The Missing ‘One-Offs’: The Hidden Supply of High-Achieving, Low Income Students,” NBER Working Paper No. 18586 (Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research, December 2012). 41. Robert D. Mare, “Educational Assortative Mating in Two Generations: Trends and Patterns Across Two Gilded Ages” (unpublished manuscript, January 2013). Although I speak loosely here of the two “halves” of the century, in fact the turning point, both for intermarriage rates and for income inequality, came around 1970. 42. This is true even after accounting for the rising number of well-educated potential mates from which to pick. See Christine R.

., 135, 139–143, 264–65, 270–71 parental spending and, 125–26, 126 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 5–6, 24–26 savvy gap and, 157, 216 social networks and, 209–10, 209 affordable housing, 251–52 African Americans: affluent, 82–92 educational reform and, 161 in PCHS class of ’59, 12–19 poor, 101–108 see also specific individuals air bags, sociological, 198, 210, 269 alcohol abuse, 55, 93, 102, 106–7, 113, 204 Alger, Horatio, 33 America, two-tiered: class differences and, 34–37, 37 consequences of, 77–79 inequality and, 31–34 marriage and, 40–41 opportunity and, 41–44 reasons for, 72–77 residential segregation and, 38–39, 38 American Dream, 1–45 class disparities in, 6–30 coinage of term, 33 conceptual note on, 44–45 inequality in, 31–34 Port Clinton as embodiment of, 1–2 socioeconomic status and, 189–90 solutions to crisis of, 227–61 two Americas in, 34–44 American economic history, 32–34, 230–31 American Political Science Association, 239 American Revolution, 237 “America’s Technology Highway,” 265 Amy, 198–202, 204–206, 216, 225, 234, 256 Andrew, 49, 50–54, 61, 65, 67, 78, 123, 125, 128, 209, 213, 221, 238 antipoverty programs, 246–47 apprenticeship, 255–56 Arendt, Hannah, 239–40 Army, U.S., 101, 157 Ash, Jay, 261 assortative mating, 40–41 Atlanta, Ga.: affluence in, 80, 82–92 as “Black Mecca,” 81 life stories of, see Carl; Desmond; Elijah; Lauren; Michelle; Simone; Stephanie racial segregation in, 81–83 Austin, Tex., 264, 272 Autobiography (Franklin), 32–33 Autor, David, 35, 231 “Avoid the Stork” campaign, 245–46 B Baby and Child Care (Spock), 117 Bailey, Martha, 185 Belfield, Clive, 232 Bend, Oreg.: affluence in, 50–54 child poverty in, 47–48, 48 economic disparity in, 46–49 housing boom in, 46–47 life stories of, see Andrew; Darleen; Earl; Joe; Kayla; Patty logging industry in, 46 old-timers vs. newcomers in, 46–49 as tourist destination, 264 Bernanke, Ben, 32 Big Brothers Big Sisters, 213 Birmingham, Ala., 270 birth control, see contraception births: cultural shifts and, 73–75 shotgun marriages and, 62 teen, 2, 196, 203–5, 245–46 “Black Mecca,” 81 blended families, 68–71 Boston, Mass., 261, 265 Bowling Alone (Putnam), 211 Boyd, Danah, 212 Brady, Henry, 236 brain development, 109–117, 246 Brown, Margaret Wise, 125–26, 242 Building Strong Families initiative, 244 Bush, George W., 244 Bush, Laura, 130 C California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE), 156 Carl, 83–86, 88–92, 101, 110, 118, 119–20, 209, 229 Carlson, Marcia, 75 Catholic schools, 84, 201, 254–55 certificate courses, 186 character building, 176 charter schools, 204, 253–54 Chelsea, 2, 24–26, 30, 31, 32, 39, 43, 78, 261, 266 Cherlin, Andrew J., 73 Cheryl, 2, 12–13, 15–19, 30, 213, 274 Chetty, Raj, 228 child care: day care and, 128–30, 248–49 early childhood education and, 153, 249–51 nannies and, 194–95 nonparental, 128–30, 248–49 parental time in, 126–28, 127 spending gap in, 125–26 child development: Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale and, 112–13, 113 autonomy and, 89 brain development in, 109–17, 246 class differences and, 119–20 discipline and, 96–97 family impact on, 79 emotional security and, 115 government policies and, 248–51 neglect and, 111–12 parenting and, 83, 109–17, 129–30, 222, 248–51 poverty and, 116, 122 stages of, 109–10 toxic stress and, 111–14 childhood diabetes, 90–91 childhood obesity, 222–23, 222 child-parent relationships, time and, 126–28, 127 child poverty: in Bend, Oreg., 47–48, 48 brain development and, 116 costs of, 231–32 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 22, 23 child tax credit, 247 churches: Catholic, 84, 192, 193, 201, 254–55 as social networks, 4, 10, 89–90, 193, 201 City University of New York (CUNY), 84, 85 civic engagement, 235–36, 235, 265 Civil Rights movement, 81 Clara, 137, 139–48, 158–59, 164–65, 174, 209, 213, 229 class gap: in 1950s Port Clinton, 6–8 in 21st-century Port Clinton, 19–23 college and, 184–90, 187 consequences of, 77–79 disciplinary suspensions, 170–71, 171 education and, 137, 138, 160–73 extracurricular activities and, 176–78, 177 financial stress and, 130–32, 131 parenting and, 119–22, 120 politics and, 237–38 race and, 161–62 reasons for, 72–77 savvy and, 216 social networks and, 207–10, 208 social trust and, 219–20 in spending, 125–28, 126 Coalition for Community Schools, 254 cognitive skills, 109–11, 115–18, 122, 124–25, 128, 131, 162, 174, 273 cohabitation, 67–68 collective efficacy, 218–19, 221 college: class gap and, 184–90, 187 educational attainment in, 184–90, 189, 190 financing of, 59 parental encouragement and, 8 scholarships and, 8, 14, 17, 141 socioeconomic status and, 189–90 tracking and, 143, 173 Common School movement, 160 community, 191–226 affluence in, 193–98 government policies and, 258–60 mentor support and, 206, 213–17, 215 neighborhood support and, 217–23 poverty in, 198–206 religious support in, 197, 201–4, 223–26 vs. rugged individualism, 206, 261 safety nets in, 132, 206, 229, 246–47, 254, 258–59, 261, 264, 265 social networks and, 206–13 solutions for problems of, 258–60 youth resources in, 206–226 community colleges, 59, 157, 185, 256–58 community schools, 253 computers, 85, 125, 130, 147 brain compared to, 110 concerted cultivation, 101, 118 contingent reciprocity, 110 contraception, 62, 64–65, 73, 196, 245–46 crime: in neighborhoods, 102–3, 199–200 in schools, 153–54, 170 curriculum, 143, 153, 168 D dance classes, 139, 177, 178 Darlene, 54–58, 60, 64, 68, 73–74, 123, 128 David, 2, 26–33, 39, 43, 68, 78, 188, 216, 233, 237, 240, 256, 263, 273 day care: Head Start and, 250 parenting gap and, 128–30, 249 quality of, 248–49 Declaration of Independence, 241 depression, 60, 194 Desmond, 83–92, 118–19, 121, 123, 125, 128, 209, 272–73 Dewey, John, 253 diabetes, childhood, 90–91 Dick, 24, 92 Digital Divide, 211–36 disability payments, 60 discipline, 89, 96, 118–22 in schools, 171 Disneyland, 135, 141, 151, 162 divorce: in 1970s, 62 co-parenting and, 194 and family structure, 61–63, 67, 75, 78, 269 rates of, 21, 67 see also single-parent families domestic violence: child abuse, 93, 105, 106 emotional abuse, 106 physical abuse, 55, 102, 105, 111 spousal abuse, 55, 102 verbal abuse, 105 Don, 3–4, 5, 6, 8, 18, 30, 44, 213, 223, 274 Dr.


pages: 474 words: 136,787

The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Bonfire of the Vanities, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, feminist movement, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, phenotype, rent control, theory of mind, twin studies, University of East Anglia, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

we ask of a model’s dull and unsuccessful husband, as if there must be some hidden clue to his worth that the rest of us have missed. ‘How did she manage to catch him?’ we ask of a high-flying man married to an ugly woman. The answer is that we each instinctively know our relative worth as surely as in Jane Austen’s day people knew their place in the class system. Bruce Ellis has a way of showing how we manage this ‘assortative mating’ pattern. He gives each of thirty students a numbered card that they stick on their foreheads: each can now see the other’s number, but nobody knows his or her own. He tells them to pair up with the highest number they can find. Immediately the person with thirty on her forehead is surrounded by a buzzing crowd: so she adjusts her expectations upwards and refuses to pair up with just anybody, settling eventually for somebody with a number in the high twenties.

., 1990, ‘Parasites and Mate Choice in Red Junglefowl’, American Zoologist, 30:235–44 Index Abortion, sex-selective, 117, 122 Aché people, 185, 220 Acheulian technology, 314 Adaptation and Natural Selection (Williams), 35 Adapted Mind, The (Barkow, Cosmides, and Tooby), 303 Adrenogenital syndrome, 247 Adultery, 170, 187, 195, 210–36 among birds, 213–16, 219 concealed ovulation and, 222–4 among hunter-gatherers, 220–21 inheritance patterns and, 230–35 jealousy and, 227–30 orgasm effect and, 216–19 polygamy and, 224–7 testicular size and, 211–14 violence and, 196–7 Aeschylus, 197 Affirmative action, 254–5 African Queen, The (film), 199 Aggression, 306–7 gender differences in, 242, 244 Agriculture, 187–8 AIDS, 68, 72, 73, 99, 175 Aka pygmies, 187 Akhenaten, 191, 273 Albatrosses, 177 Alexander, Richard, 319–20, 322 Alliance theory, 276 Altitude, 76–7 Altmann, Jeanne, 113 Altruism, 34–6, 74 reciprocal, 187, 189 Anaxagoras, 115 Anderson, Roy, 81 Antony and Cleopatra (Shakespeare), 10–11 Anthropology, 4, 266, 307, 308 Antibiotics, 68 Antibodies, 71, 72 Antigens, 72 Apes exogamy of, 182–3 gender differences in behavior of, 242 mating systems of, 170, 180–81, 205–9 violence among, 195–6 See also Chimpanzees; Gibbons; Gorillas; Orang-utans Aphids, 55, 57 Aquinas, Thomas, 6 Aristotle, 115 Arms race analogies, 65–8, 69 Artificial intelligence, 310 Artificial life, 66–7, 75 Assortative mating pattern, 296 Attractiveness, see Beauty Augustus, 193 Austad, Steven, 111 Austen, Jane, 296, 322 Australian aborigines, 186, 221 Australopithecus afarensis, 183, 300–301, 316–17 Automixis, 37 Aztecs, 191 Baboons, intelligence of, 324–6 Babylon, 191, 199 Bacteria, 63–4, 68, 69, 90–91 antibiotics and, 68 descendants of, 96 fusion and, 98–9, 99–100 male-killing genes in, 103 Badcock, Christopher, 331 Baker, Robin, 216–18 Baldwin, James Mark, 244 Baldwin effect, 312 Bamboo, 77–8 Bangladesh, 198 Barlow, Horace, 321 Basolo, Alexandra, 157 Bateman, A.


pages: 636 words: 140,406

The Case Against Education: Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money by Bryan Caplan

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, assortative mating, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, deskilling, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, future of work, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, hive mind, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, market bubble, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, profit maximization, publication bias, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, school choice, selection bias, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, twin studies, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

University of Geneva, Economics of Education Project. http://www.educationeconomics.unige.ch/Projets/Competences/Pasche_09.pdf. Paternoster, Raymond, Shawn Bushway, Robert Brame, and Robert Apel. 2003. “The Effect of Teenage Employment on Delinquency and Problem Behaviors.” Social Forces 82 (1): 297–335. Pellizzari, Michele. 2010. “Do Friends and Relatives Really Help in Getting a Good Job?” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 63 (3): 494–510. Pencavel, John. 1998. “Assortative Mating by Schooling and the Work Behavior of Wives and Husbands.” American Economic Review 88 (2): 326–29. Pérez, Ruth, and Gerardo Loera. 2015. “Los Angeles Unified School District Reference Guide REF-4236.11.” Last modified June 22. http://notebook.lausd.net/pls/ptl/docs/page/ca_lausd/fldr_organizations/fldr_instructional_svcs/ref-4236.11.pdf. Perkins, David. 1985. “Postprimary Education Has Little Impact on Informal Reasoning.”

Boston: Center for Labor Market Studies Publications. http://www.northeastern.edu/clms/wp-content/uploads/The_Consequences_of_Dropping_Out_of_High_School.pdf. Sweeney, Megan. 2002. “Two Decades of Family Change: The Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage.” American Sociological Review 67 (1): 132–47. Sweeney, Megan, and Maria Cancian. 2004. “The Changing Importance of White Women’s Economic Prospects for Assortative Mating.” Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (4): 1015–28. Sweet, Donald. 1989. A Manager’s Guide to Conducting Terminations: Minimizing Emotional Stress and Legal Risks. New York: Lexington Books. Sweeten, Gary, Shawn Bushway, and Raymond Paternoster. 2009. “Does Dropping Out of School Mean Dropping into Delinquency?” Criminology 47 (1): 47–91. Tabarrok, Alex. 2012. “Cheating and Signaling.” Marginal Revolution.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Today, almost two thirds of women with children under six years of age work (63 percent); by contrast, the figure was just over one third (39 percent) in 1975.39 Instead of cooking for their families, many low-wage women now reheat preprocessed food for other families in the restaurant industry. Instead of waiting on their own husband and kids, many women without college degrees wait on your kids. (Waitressing is, in fact, the number one profession for women without a college education.)40 This story of women’s rising labor force participation has the potential to increase economic inequality when it combines with what demographers call assortative mating—otherwise known as like-marrying-like. That is, since 1967, the demographer Christine Schwartz demonstrates that among two-earner couples, the similarity in their wages has risen by about threefold. In other words, whereas women used to look for good earners to marry, now men do so, too. What’s more, in the 1960s, when a husband earned more money, it usually meant that his wife didn’t have to work (or was less likely to).


pages: 242 words: 68,019

Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies by Cesar Hidalgo

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, assortative mating, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, New Economic Geography, Norbert Wiener, p-value, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, price mechanism, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, working-age population

Hibbing, “Are Political Orientations Genetically Transmitted?,” American Political Science Review 99, no. 2 (2005): 153–167; Carolyn L. Funk et al., “Genetic and Environmental Transmission of Political Orientations,” Political Psychology 34, no. 6 (2013): 805–819; Christian Kandler, Wiebke Bleidorn, and Rainer Riemann, “Left or Right? Sources of Political Orientation: The Roles of Genetic Factors, Cultural Transmission, Assortative Mating, and Personality,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102, no. 3 (2012): 633. For papers focusing on genetics and political participation, see James H. Fowler, Laura A. Baker, and Christopher T. Dawes, “Genetic Variation in Political Participation,” American Political Science Review 102, no. 2 (2008): 233–248; James H. Fowler and Christopher T. Dawes, “Two Genes Predict Voter Turnout,” Journal of Politics 70, no. 3 (2008): 579–594; James H.


pages: 246 words: 70,404

Come and Take It: The Gun Printer's Guide to Thinking Free by Cody Wilson

3D printing, 4chan, active measures, Airbnb, airport security, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, assortative mating, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, disintermediation, fiat currency, Google Glasses, gun show loophole, jimmy wales, lifelogging, Mason jar, means of production, Menlo Park, Minecraft, national security letter, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, thinkpad, WikiLeaks, working poor

“There’s this insistence on mocking the religious for not thinking of humans as evolved animals,” he told me, “but then this denial that any of the lessons of evolutionary neurobiology might apply to our observed differences.” He approached political problems pragmatically. Like Lenin, he knew politics simply meant who does what to whom. “As long as you understand the formula, you can achieve the right result.” He compared the USG to Whitman’s multitude, and taught me the virtues of assortative mating. “Take me, for example. I’ll be marrying a Chinese woman with an IQ of one seventy.” When I pointed out to Varol that his strategy might lead to social segregation, he didn’t disagree. He was about triangulating, understanding the big picture, and finding an exit. “Journalists and dot gov have this odd standoff. Real First Amendment complaints, no access, and there are all these prosecutions of journalists for not giving up their sources.


pages: 224 words: 71,060

A Time to Build: From Family and Community to Congress and the Campus, How Recommitting to Our Institutions Can Revive the American Dream by Yuval Levin

affirmative action, Airbnb, assortative mating, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demand response, Donald Trump, hiring and firing, Jane Jacobs, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method

Yet those standards are not by any means self-evidently suited to supplying us with an able and legitimate elite. And a merit-based system cannot avoid the simple and unchangeable fact that an elite is inherently narrow and exclusive. In fact, our meritocracy has not even been able to avoid the tendency of elites to become outright aristocracies—that is, to transmit privilege generationally. Thanks to both assortative mating and the powerful incentives to game the tests that grant entry into the American elite, children whose parents are in the upper echelons of our society have a very strong (and growing) chance of finding themselves in those upper echelons as adults. Moving from the WASP near-aristocracy to our meritocracy vastly enlarged the pool of potential elites in America in the middle of the last century.


pages: 300 words: 76,638

The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

There will be an army of slender, highly cultivated products of Mountain View and the Upper East Side and Bethesda heading to elite schools that has been groomed since birth in the most competitive and rarefied environments with very limited exposure to the rest of the country. When I was growing up, there was something of an inverse relationship between being smart and being good-looking. The smart kids were bookish and awkward and the social kids were attractive and popular. Rarely were the two sets of qualities found together in the same people. The nerd camps I went to looked the part. Today, thanks to assortative mating in a handful of cities, intellect, attractiveness, education, and wealth are all converging in the same families and neighborhoods. I look at my friends’ children, and many of them resemble unicorns: brilliant, beautiful, socially precocious creatures who have gotten the best of all possible resources since the day they were born. I imagine them in 10 or 15 years traveling to other parts of the country, and I know that they are going to feel like, and be received as, strangers in a strange land.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

Albert Einstein, animal electricity, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, twin studies, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Temple Grandin observed in Thinking in Pictures, “Marriages work out best when two people with autism marry or when a person marries a handicapped or eccentric spouse . . . They are attracted because their intellects work on a similar wavelength.” Attraction between people with similar genetic traits is called assortative mating. In 1997, cognitive psychologist Simon Baron-Cohen found that the fathers and grandfathers of children with autism were more likely to be engineers. Could assortative mating between men and women carrying the genes for autism be responsible for the rising number of diagnoses in the Valley? My story exploring that hypothesis, “The Geek Syndrome,” was published in the December issue of Wired in 2001. The world was still reeling from the horror of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, but e-mail started pouring into my inbox even before the magazine officially hit the newsstands.


pages: 312 words: 83,998

Testosterone Rex: Myths of Sex, Science, and Society by Cordelia Fine

assortative mating, Cass Sunstein, credit crunch, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, epigenetics, experimental economics, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, publication bias, risk tolerance

Biology or culture alone cannot account for human sex differences and similarities. Psychological Inquiry, 24(3), 241–247. 38. Wood & Eagly (2013), ibid. Quoted on p. 245, references removed. See Sweeney, M. M. (2002). Two decades of family change: The shifting economic foundations of marriage. American Sociological Review, 67(1), 132–147; Sweeney, M. M., & Cancian, M. (2004). The changing importance of white women’s economic prospects for assortative mating. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4), 1015–1028. 39. Buston, P. M., & Emlen, S. T. (2003). Cognitive processes underlying human mate choice: The relationship between self-perception and mate preference in Western society. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(15), 8805–8810. 40. For example, the amount of variation explained for preference for wealth and status and physical appearance, by self-perception of those same attributes, was 23 percent and 19 percent respectively for women, and 19 percent and 11 percent for men.


pages: 285 words: 83,682

The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity by Kwame Anthony Appiah

affirmative action, assortative mating, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, four colour theorem, full employment, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, precariat, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

In a footnote attached to the first use of this word, Young’s sociologist of the future writes: “The origin of this unpleasant term, like that of ‘equality of opportunity,’ is still obscure. It seems to have been first generally used in the sixties of the last century in small-circulation journals attached to the Labour Party, and gained wide currency much later on.” 43.Ibid., 85–86. Young’s mention of intraelite intermarriage has support from recent economic research into assortative mating. See, e.g., Gustaf Bruze, “Male and Female Marriage Returns to Schooling,” International Economic Review (January 23, 2015), which finds that in Denmark, half the financial rewards of college come from the opportunity to marry a spouse with a higher income; and John Mare, “Educational Homogamy in Two Gilded Ages: Evidence from Intergenerational Social Mobility Data,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 663 (January 2016). 44.Barry E.


pages: 372 words: 92,477

The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cashless society, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Norman Macrae, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, open economy, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, pension reform, pensions crisis, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit maximization, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, too big to fail, total factor productivity, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, zero-sum game

But the problem is deeper than that. Californians are choosing to live in like-minded places. San Francisco is probably the most left-wing enclave in the country while the Central Valley is one of the most right-wing. A third of the U.S. Navy’s Pacific Fleet is based in San Diego while San Francisco’s residents have voted to prevent military recruiters from setting up shop in high schools. And this political version of “assortative mating” has been reinforced by gerrymandering, which produces a modern version of eighteenth-century rotten boroughs. The result is that politicians can get their party’s votes only if they appeal to the extremes. The hedonistic Arnold Schwarzenegger became governor only because a recall petition allowed him to bypass the Republican primary process. Until Jerry Brown reappeared with a clearer Democratic majority, gridlock was the order of the day in Sacramento.


pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, post-work, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, very high income, working-age population

In rich cities, rich people have rich friends. These rich friends gather for after-work drinks, enjoy dinner parties or holidays together, chat while waiting together to pick up kids after school or on the sidelines at their children’s football match, and generally interact in friendly ways. Networks of the current and aspiring 1 percenters have become richer and more important over the last generation as a result of the rise in assortative mating: skilled, well-paid men are more likely to marry skilled, well-paid women than was once the case. High-powered couples befriend other high-powered couples and hang out in high-powered groups. This sounds sterile and pernicious. It generally isn’t. For the most part, these are people making their way in the world, befriending and coupling with others that they find interesting or funny or nice to be around, and watching friends and neighbours for cues on how to behave: how to structure a social life, how to get one’s children into good schools, how to live the ‘good life’.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

American Review of Sociology 35 (2009): 445. 14“Trends in American Values: 1987–2012: Partisan Polarization Surges in Bush, Obama Years,” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, June 4, 2012, 72–74. 15“Changing Views of Gay Marriage: A Deeper Analysis,” Pew Research Center for People and the Press, May 23, 2012, http://www.people-press.org/2012/05/23/changing-views-of-gay-marriage-a-deeper-analysis/. 16“Inspire Hope Change,” pamphlet published by the It Gets Better Project, accessed December 12, 2013. 17Robert D. Mare, “Five Decades of Educational Assortative Mating,” American Sociological Review 56, no. 1 (1991): 15–32, in Christine R. Schwartz and Robert D. Mare, “Trends in Educational Assortative Marriage from 1940 to 2003,” California Center for Population Research, July 2005, 4. 18Schwartz and Mare, “Trends in Educational Assortative Marriage From 1940 to 2003,” 20, 23–24. 19Theda Skocpol, Diminished Democracy: From Membership to Management in American Civic Life (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2003), 163–71. 20Skocpol, Diminished Democracy, 158. 21Robert D.


pages: 358 words: 106,729

Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

A relatively stagnant minimum wage has certainly allowed the lowest real wages to fall (thereby also ensuring that some people who would otherwise be unemployed do have a job), though only a small percentage of American workers are paid the minimum wage. Finally, the entry of women into the workforce has also affected inequality. Because the well-connected and the highly educated tend to mate more often with each other, “assortative” mating has also helped increase household income inequality. The reasons for growing income inequality are, undoubtedly, a matter of heated debate. To my mind, the evidence is most persuasive that the growing inequality I think the most worrisome, the increasing 90/10 differential, stems primarily from the gap between the demand for the highly educated and their supply. Progressives, no doubt, attribute substantial weight to the antilabor policies followed by Republican governments since Ronald Reagan, whereas conservatives attribute much of the earlier wage compression to anticompetitive policies followed since Franklin Roosevelt.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

As technology progresses, the number of American households with sufficient discretionary income and confidence in the future to engage in robust spending could well continue to contract. The risk is further increased by the fact that many of these top-tier households are probably more financially fragile than their incomes might suggest. These consumers tend to be concentrated in high-cost urban areas and, in many cases, probably do not feel especially wealthy. Large numbers of them have climbed into the top 5 percent through assortative mating: they have partnered with another high-earning college graduate. However, housing and education costs are often so high for these families that the loss of either job puts the household at substantial risk. In other words, in a two-income household the likelihood that sudden unemployment will lead to a substantial cut in spending is effectively doubled. As the top tier comes under increasing pressure from technology, there are few reasons to expect that the prospects for the bottom 95 percent of households will improve significantly.


pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

(It turns out she spends her time investing part of the family portfolio, studying art history, and decorating their Upper East Side town house.) And it is graduates of Yale Law School and the like who are the housewives of the plutocrats. In 1979, nearly 8 percent of the 1 percent had spouses the IRS described as doing blue-collar or service sector jobs—governmentspeak for bosses married to their secretaries. That number has been falling ever since. What economists call assortive mating—the tendency to marry someone you resemble—is on the rise. But while the aggressive geeks of the super-elite are marrying their classmates rather than their secretaries, their highly educated wives are unlikely to work. My own suspicion is that most plutocrats privately believe women don’t make it to the top because something is missing. Most know better than to muse on this matter in public—they all remember, for instance, what that cost Larry Summers, who happens to have a sterling record of promoting the careers of his female protégés—but I can report an unguarded remark one private equity billionaire made to me.


pages: 397 words: 121,211

Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray

affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional

Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. Idler, Ellen, and Stanislav V. Kasl. 1992. Religion, disability, depression, and the timing of death. American Journal of Sociology 97 (4):1052–79. Jensen, Arthur R. 1998. The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability. Westport, CT: Praeger. Kalmijn, Matthijs. 1998. Intermarriage and homogamy: Causes, patterns, trends. Annual Review of Sociology 24:395–421. ———. 1994. Assortative mating by cultural and economic occupational status. American Journal of Sociology 100:422–52. Karlgaard, Richard. 2005. Talent wars. Forbes, October 31. Koenig, Harold G., Michael E. McCullough, and David B. Larson. 2001. Handbook of Religion and Health. New York: Oxford University Press. Korenman, Sanders, and David Neumark. 1991. Does marriage really make men more productive? Journal of Human Resources 26 (2):282–307.


pages: 404 words: 124,705

The Village Effect: How Face-To-Face Contact Can Make Us Healthier, Happier, and Smarter by Susan Pinker

assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, facts on the ground, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, Occupy movement, old-boy network, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, Yogi Berra

After running tests in both countries, Huang found that American and Chinese couples who chose to take exactly the same route to work—whether or not they left home at the same time—were the happiest with each other.71 Their matching journeys implied matching goals. This synchrony resonated with the couple as yet another confirmation of their bond. Every seemingly coincidental overlap in their thoughts, habits, or behavior reminded them of what had attracted them to each other in the first place. Like attracts like, homophily, assortative mating, birds of a feather—whatever you want to call it, we know that people who are already similar are drawn to each other. They live in the same neighborhoods, eat the same foods, have similar worries, pray in the same way, and often do business together. The question we’ll explore in the next chapter is whether this magnetic attraction is always a force for good. 9 When Money Really Talks Social Networks, Business, and Crime Located in the good part of town, Mary Coughlan’s living room looks like a cross between a private library and a gallery of Asian and African art.


pages: 487 words: 151,810

The Social Animal: The Hidden Sources of Love, Character, and Achievement by David Brooks

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, business process, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial independence, Flynn Effect, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, impulse control, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, loss aversion, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, six sigma, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Walter Mischel, young professional

What emotions and ideas does the information set off? Are there cultural assumptions that distort or enhance the way it is understood? This change in the cognitive load has had many broad effects. It has changed the role of women, who are able to compete equally in the arena of mental skill. It has changed the nature of marriage, as men and women look for partners who can match and complement each other’s mental abilities. It has led to assortative mating, as highly educated people marry each other and less-educated people marry each other. It has also produced widening inequality, so that societies divide into two nations—a nation of those who possess the unconscious skills to navigate this terrain and a nation of those who have not had the opportunity to acquire those skills. Over the past decades there has been a steady rise in the education premium, the economic rewards that go to people with more education.


pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Since the market value of these companies is measured in the billions of dollars, $19m or so barely registers. However, the main reason why chief executive pay has risen so far is that their packages have been linked to share options. The rising stock market has done the rest. In Japan, where share prices have struggled, chief executive pay is much lower. But presumably you need to be as talented to run Sony or Toyota as you do to run General Electric or Ford. Another factor is “assortative mating” – well-educated people are increasingly likely to marry each other. In 1960, 25% of men with university degrees married women with the same level of education; in 2005, 48% did.47 And another element has been the decline in trade union membership and the loss of collective bargaining power. On average, only 17% of workers in OECD countries were unionised in 2013.48 The decline of the big factories clearly had an impact.


pages: 846 words: 232,630

Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, assortative mating, buy low sell high, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test

But under most circumstances, the "time to be selfish," for genes, is strictly limited, and once the die — or the ballot — is cast, those genes are just along for the ride until the next election.2 Skyrms shows that when the individual elements of a group — whether of whole organisms or their parts — are closely related (clones or near-clones) or are otherwise able to engage in mutual recognition and assortative "mating," the simple game-theory model of the Prisoner's Dilemma, in which the strategy of defection always dominates, does not correctly model the circumstances. That is why our somatic cells don't defect; they are clones. This is one of the conditions under which groups — such as the group of my "host" cells — can have the "harmony and coordination" required to behave, quite stably, as an "organism" or "individual."