license plate recognition

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pages: 397 words: 110,222

Habeas Data: Privacy vs. The Rise of Surveillance Tech by Cyrus Farivar

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden,, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, John Markoff, license plate recognition, Lyft, national security letter, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Hackers Conference, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Available at:​documents/​3892602-LEARN-Hosted-Server-User-Agreement-July-2017.html#document/​p3/​a362163. “Woman’s Life Saved”: “Woman’s Life Saved Using Vigilant Solutions’ License Plate Recognition (LPR) Data,” Officer Press Release, 2013. Available at:​press_release/​10939925/​womans-life-saved-using-vigilant-solutions-license-plate-recognition-lpr-data. Another proclaims: “Survey: License Plate Recognition Is a Valuable, Well-Regulated Technology,” Officer Press Release, 2013. Available at:​press_release/​11079856/​survey-license-plate-recognition-is-a-valuable-well-regulated-technology. One notable example came: “SB-893 Automated License Plate Recognition Systems: Use of Data,” Bill Status, California Legislative Information, 2017. Available at:​faces/​billStatusClient.xhtml?

Vigilant uses the data to entice companies to buy hardware and other services. Its website and press releases herald numerous “success stories” with quotes from law enforcement agencies nationwide. (Access to Vigilant’s database, known as LEARN-NVLS, requires that officers agree to a non-disparagement clause contained within the company’s terms of service.) “Woman’s Life Saved using Vigilant Solutions’ License Plate Recognition (LPR) Data,” one success story touts. Another proclaims: “Survey: License Plate Recognition Is a Valuable, Well-Regulated Technology,” citing a poll of hundreds of law enforcement officers. As a private company, Vigilant Solutions does not disclose financial data, but in 2013, a company official told the San Francisco Business Times that its “products and services are used by more than 2,000 government agencies with 30,000-plus officers, including about two dozen agencies in the Bay Area.”

These are essentially specialized: “3M™ Mobile ALPR Camera P634” 3M, 2017. Available at:​3M/​en_US/​company-us/​all-3m-products/​~/​3M-Mobile-ALPR-Camera-P634?N=5002385+8709322+8709393+3292106901&rt=rud. The three largest vendors of LPR: “3M Completes Sale of Tolling and Automated License/Number Plate Recognition Business,” 3M Press Release, June 30, 2017. Available at:​news/​press-release-details/​2017/​3M-Completes-Sale-of-Tolling-and-Automated-LicenseNumber-Plate-Recognition-Business/​default.aspx. These companies routinely encourage: “Find Out How to File for Law Enforcement Grants and Funding,” Elsag, 2017. Available at:​how-to-buy/​law-enforcement-grants-guide. In 2014, for example: “Central Marin Police Authority UASI ALRP Grant,” 2014.

pages: 316 words: 90,165

You Are Here: From the Compass to GPS, the History and Future of How We Find Ourselves by Hiawatha Bray

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, digital map, don't be evil, Edmond Halley, Edward Snowden, Firefox, game design, Google Earth, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, license plate recognition, lone genius, openstreetmap, polynesian navigation, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFID, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thales of Miletus, trade route, turn-by-turn navigation, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Zipcar

Jennifer Valentino-DeVries, “Stingray Phone Tracker Fuels Constitutional Clash,” Wall Street Journal, September 22, 2011; Kim Zetter, “Feds’ Use of Fake Cell Tower: Did It Constitute a Search?,”, November 3, 2011, 15. Cynthia Lum and Linda M. Merola, “Emerging Surveillance Technologies: Privacy and the Case of License Plate Recognition (LPR) Technology,” Judicature (November–December 2012): 119. 16. Jon Campbell, “License-Plate Recognition Has Its Eyes on You,” San Diego CityBeat, February 20, 2013, 17. “Report: RFID Market to Surpass $26B in 2022,” Security Sales and Integration, July 19, 2012, See also Joanne Perry, “RFID Developments,” Aircraft Technology (December 2012–January 2013): 56–61. 18.

If that sounds like a limited, low-tech approach to crime fighting, think again. Police forces throughout the United States track millions of vehicles with help from digital systems that record the license plates of passing cars. If you are a driver, your vehicle has probably been tracked this way. A 2009 study found that 37 percent of police agencies of more than one hundred officers were using license-plate recognition systems, and another one-third of departments were planning to get it.15 In an LPR system, police mount cameras along major roads, at intersections, or even on roving squad cars. These cameras give a clear view of the license plates on passing vehicles. The large bold letters and numbers are easily readable by a computer. The machine records the time at which the image was captured, and with help from a GPS receiver, it pinpoints the location of each scanned vehicle.

See Keyhole Markup Language Kobia, David, 182 Korean Air Lines Flight 007, 105–106 Krasner, Norm, 115 Lamarr, Hedy, 124 Land, Edwin, 156 Lapita people, 3 Latitude, 4, 6, 7–8, 12, 50, 86, 87, 92, 106, 113, 119, 127, 170–171, 173, 228 Laussedat, Aimé, 147 Law, 146, 147, 160 Law enforcement, 113–114, 140, 216, 217, 226, 227 Lawrence Livermore Laboratories, 166 Leghorn, Richard, 154–156 Lewis, David, 3 Lewis, Meriwether, 17 License-plate recognition (LPR) systems, 218 Lighted airway system, 33, 34 Lindbergh, Charles, 104–105 Location Privacy Protection Act, 226–227 Lockheed Martin, 167 Loki, 133–134 Longitude, 7–8, 12, 13, 14, 86, 87, 92, 106, 113, 119, 127, 170–171, 173, 228 Logsdon, Tom, 106–107 LORAN, 96–97 Magnavox, 86 Magnetic compasses, 8–13, 20, 26, 48, 50–51, 59, 60, 61, 106 Magnetism, 8–13, 20–21 Mail system, 32–34 Mapping compasses and, 11–13 GPS and, 119 history of, 2–7 hot-spot, 130–134 radio technology and, 29–30 triangulation and, 16–17 wave, 3–4 Wi-Fi, 136, 137–144, 170 world map and, 17–18 See also Internet mapping MapQuest, 175, 176, 179, 187–188 Marconi, Guglielmo, 22–23, 24–25, 45 Marcus, Michael, 124–125 Marine Corps, US, 184 Marketing, 202–205 Markey, Edward, 216 Maskelyne, Nevil, 16 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 40, 61, 67, 68, 69, 71, 212 Maximus Planudes, 7 Maxwell, James CLerk, 21 Mayflower, 1, 2, 18 McClure, Frank, 78, 80, 81, 82, 83 McDonnell, Stephen, 144 Meier, Patrick, 181–182, 183 Melvin, Curtis, 170 Mercator, Gerhard, 10, 11–12 Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 124 Microsoft, 175, 179, 187 Midway, 79 Miguelez, Andrew, 200–201 Million Map, 17–18 MIT.

pages: 305 words: 93,091

The Art of Invisibility: The World's Most Famous Hacker Teaches You How to Be Safe in the Age of Big Brother and Big Data by Kevin Mitnick, Mikko Hypponen, Robert Vamosi

4chan, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, connected car, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden,, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pattern recognition, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, Tesla Model S, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

Actions taken in the real world can be used to identify you in the virtual world. Sure, I could walk into Walmart and pay cash for a burner phone and one hundred minutes of airtime. Who would know? Well, lots of people would. First, how did I get to Walmart? Did I take an Uber car? Did I take a taxi? These records can all be subpoenaed. I could drive my own car, but law enforcement uses automatic license plate recognition technology (ALPR) in large public parking lots to look for missing and stolen vehicles as well as people on whom there are outstanding warrants. The ALPR records can be subpoenaed. Even if I walked to Walmart, once I entered the store my face would be visible on several security cameras within the store itself, and that video can be subpoenaed. Okay, so let’s say I send someone else to the store—someone I don’t know, maybe a homeless person I hired on the spot.

How do the authorities know where to send your bill? They photograph your license plate when you cross the toll plaza. These license-plate photographs are also used to nab red-light runners at problematic intersections. And increasingly, police are using a similar strategy as they drive by parking lots and residential driveways. Police departments passively track your car’s movements every day with automated license plate recognition (ALPR) technology. They can photograph your car’s license plate and store that data, sometimes for years, depending on the police department’s policy. ALPR cameras scan and read every plate they pass, whether the car is registered to a criminal or not. Ostensibly ALPR technology is used primarily to locate stolen cars, wanted criminals, and assist with AMBER Alerts. The technology involves three cameras mounted to the top of a patrol car that are hooked up to a computer screen inside the vehicle.

The system is further linked to a Department of Justice database that keeps track of the license plates of stolen cars and vehicles associated with crimes. As an officer drives, the ALPR technology can scan up to sixty plates per second. If a scanned plate matches a plate in the DOJ database, the officer receives an alert both visually and audibly. The Wall Street Journal first reported on license plate recognition technology in 2012.13 At issue for those who oppose or question ALPR technology is not the system itself but rather how long the data is kept and why some law enforcement agencies will not release it, even to the owner of the car being tracked. It’s a disturbing tool that the police can use to figure out where you’ve been. “Automatic license plate readers are a sophisticated way of tracking drivers’ locations, and when their data is aggregated over time they can paint detailed pictures of people’s lives,” notes Bennett Stein of the ACLU’s Project on Speech, Privacy, and Technology.14 One California man who filed a public records request was disturbed by the number of photos (more than one hundred) that had been taken of his license plate.

pages: 181 words: 52,147

The Driver in the Driverless Car: How Our Technology Choices Will Create the Future by Vivek Wadhwa, Alex Salkever

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Google bus, Hyperloop, income inequality, Internet of things, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, life extension, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Menlo Park, microbiome, mobile money, new economy, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Thomas Davenport, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

Data breaches don’t take account of nuance; the devastation of their personal and social lives will be unmitigated by whether a couple was going through a rough patch or whether somebody was just looking with no intention to actually commit infidelity. It’s not just the things we say or do but also the information that is collected about us that makes up our identity and reputation now. On a typical day as you drive home, cameras mounted on top of police cars and road signs are using automated license-plate recognition technology to make a database of virtually all of your car’s movements. Surveillance cameras on buildings and at traffic stops are constantly snapping pictures and recording video of you everywhere you go. As you pull into your driveway, your home automation system makes a record of exactly when you arrived; to deliver the perfect temperature, your Nest thermostat tracks your movements across the house.

pages: 307 words: 87,373

The Last Job: The Bad Grandpas and the Hatton Garden Heist by Dan Bilefsky

Boris Johnson, Etonian, global supply chain, license plate recognition, urban sprawl, young professional

Using the massive network of CCTV cameras across London that have made Britons the most-watched nation in Europe, Day and the rest of the team were also able to trace and track the Mercedes’s movements throughout London during the previous several months. Just about a week after the burglary had first been discovered, the network of surveillance footage finally led them to the tool shop in Edmonton, where CCTV cameras had filmed the distinctive car parked outside, while Collins and Jones bought a new replacement pump to help them complete the job. They were homing in. Automatic license plate recognition cameras, which photograph license plates and are installed all over London to help police fight crime, had also photographed the Mercedes. Armed with a positive identification on the car and the data on its movements, Day was then able to identify the car’s owner: a portly career criminal called Kenny Collins, whom the Firm referred to as “a wombat-thick old cunt.” The Flying Squad had its first suspect.

pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Individual traffic police officers can and do have a pattern of disproportionately stopping black drivers,72 while traffic cameras with automatic license plate recording act irrespective of the race of the driver. So in this way, a change of technology can cut down on specific incidents of racist behavior. Yet we should be careful about drawing general conclusions about the overall effect of any new technology: as criminologist Clive Norris has shown, license plate recognition has now become a way of tracking known individuals as they move around, and it is no surprise who is tracked more and who is tracked less.73 The underlying problem remains: there is still racism in the system, but it is now manifested in different ways. Data acquisition shifts the place where racism happens from the street to the database query. There is no evidence of intentional discrimination by the companies, and the patterns may change as the systems evolve, but we should be cautious about ascribing too much blame or credit to the companies involved.

pages: 444 words: 84,486

Radicalized by Cory Doctorow

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, call centre, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, Flash crash, G4S, high net worth, information asymmetry, license plate recognition, obamacare, old-boy network, six sigma, TaskRabbit

On the other hand, people used the tag to glorify and publicize mass killings. On the other hand, making a new tag wasn’t exactly rocket surgery: #AfraidShouldBeYes, #YShldBFrd. Of course, the Fuckriffers didn’t care, they got all the #YouShouldBeAfraid talk they needed on their private boards. BlueCross BlueShield of Minneapolis broke ground on a new building in an industrial park at the end of its own gated cul-de-sac, with high guard towers, automated license plate recognition systems in a one-mile radius, panic rooms on every floor, and a large staff of 24/7 armed guards. Their shareholder disclosures costed this out and amortized the capital over five years, explaining how the running costs would be covered by a combination of a “security surcharge” on all premiums and a tiny per-share dividend hit. After a short bobble when the shorts moved into the market, the share price closed up and some shorts took a big hit

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Cities intent on building more variety, freedom, sharing, and sustainability in mobility have no choice but to confront the privilege of private cars. Demand, Supply, and Surprise Some brave cities have tinkered with the economics of demand. In 2003 the London mayor Ken Livingstone adopted the world’s most geographically extensive congestion charge on vehicles entering the heart of the city on weekdays.* The system uses automatic license plate recognition cameras to identify and charge most private vehicles entering the city core, with exemptions for emergency vehicles, taxis, and residents. The fee started at a hefty £5 but has since been bumped to £10. After three years, the charge had reduced traffic in the core by a quarter and was pulling in £122 million a year. It showed that travel behavior really is elastic: when people start paying the true cost of driving (which, in London’s case, includes pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and the burden imposed on other users by drivers using a disproportionate share of road space), they find other ways of moving.

pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel,, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Similar uplifting statistics can be found in many other police departments across America. Other powerful systems that are currently being built can also be easily reconfigured to suit more predictive demands. Consider the New York Police Department’s latest innovation—the so-called Domain Awareness System—which syncs the city’s 3,000 closed-circuit camera feeds with arrest records, 911 calls, license plate recognition technology, and radiation detectors. It can monitor a situation in real time and draw on a lot of data to understand what’s happening. The leap from here to predicting what might happen is not so great. If PredPol’s “prediction” sounds familiar, that’s because its methods were inspired by those of prominent Internet companies. Writing in The Police Chief magazine in 2009, a senior LAPD officer lauded Amazon’s ability to “understand the unique groups in their customer base and to characterize their purchasing patterns,” which allows the company “not only to anticipate but also to promote or otherwise shape future behavior.”

Inside British Intelligence by Gordon Thomas

active measures, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, lateral thinking, license plate recognition, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

They were told, “It is in the interest of national security.” No other nation, except China, equaled such surveillance. Sufficient film to encircle the equator was downloaded daily and analyzed, and “appropriate” images were stored for future use. A Home Office spokesman said, “The question of what is appropriate is decided on a national security basis.” A surveillance network was devoted to automatic license plate recognition: Its cameras tracked vehicles used by suspected terrorists or criminals and had the capability to handle fifty million plate readouts in a day in any weather conditions and transmit them to one of the scores of optical software recognition stations positioned across Britain. From snapshot to target recognition took seconds. Hidden among this forest of silent watchers were the cameras deployed by MI6.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

the repossession business: Shawn Musgrave (5 Mar 2014), “A vast hidden surveillance network runs across America, powered by the repo industry,” BetaBoston/Boston Globe, Shawn Musgrave (5 Mar 2014), “Massive license plate location database just like Instagram, Digital Recognition Network insists,” BetaBoston/Boston Globe, 2.5 billion records: Vigilant Video (23 Feb 2009), “Site specific preparation sheet for LEARN V.4.0 server installation,” In addition to repossession businesses: Cyrus Farivar (27 Feb 2012), “Your car, tracked: The rapid rise of license plate readers,” Ars Technica,

The Dubai police are integrating custom facial recognition software with Google Glass to automatically identify suspects. With enough cameras in a city, police officers will be able to follow cars and people around without ever leaving their desks. This is mass surveillance, impossible without computers, networks, and automation. It’s not “follow that car”; it’s “follow every car.” Police could always tail a suspect, but with an urban mesh of cameras, license plate scanners, and facial recognition software, they can tail everyone—suspect or not. Similarly, putting a device called a pen register on a suspect’s land line to record the phone numbers he calls used to be both time-consuming and expensive. But now that the FBI can demand that data from the phone companies’ databases, it can acquire that information about everybody in the US. And it has. In 2008, the company Waze (acquired by Google in 2013) introduced a new navigation system for smartphones.

A single geofencing company, Placecast, delivers location-based ads to ten million phones in the US and UK for chains like Starbucks, Kmart, and Subway. Microsoft does the same thing to people passing within ten miles of some of its stores; it works with the company NinthDecimal. Sense Networks uses location data to create individual profiles. CORRELATING DIFFERENT DATA SETS Vigilant Solutions is one of the companies that collect license plate data from cameras. It has plans to augment this system with other algorithms for automobile identification, systems of facial recognition, and information from other databases. The result would be a much more powerful surveillance platform than a simple database of license plate scans, no matter how extensive, could ever be. News stories about mass surveillance are generally framed in terms of data collection, but miss the story about data correlation: the linking of identities across different data sets to draw inferences from the combined data.

pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Previously, such high-tech gear would only have resided in a spy agency or with the FBI, but now, given the exponential drop in pricing of these technologies, even a neighborhood mom can spy on her kids or potentially cheating spouse. In the world of big data, we can even leak our physical location without a bugged mobile phone or GPS tracker hidden in our car. A new technology, known as an automatic license plate reader (ALPR), allows both governments and individuals to use video cameras and optical character recognition to record the locations of cars as they pass from one camera point to another, revealing the real-time movement of any vehicle throughout a city or country with great detail. From Minnesota to New Jersey, and from Ankara to Sydney, hundreds of millions of individual license plate records have been stored. As a result, a query can be applied against these massive databases to determine the position of any vehicle over time.

Army, news archive, Mar. 7, 2012, www.​army.​mil. 46 The longitude and latitude: Ibid. 47 Not only can we be tracked: The product can now be found at http://​www.​trackingkey.​com. 48 From Minnesota to New Jersey: For an excellent review of the social and privacy implications of automatic license plate readers, see the American Civil Liberties Union report You Are Being Tracked: How License Plate Readers Are Being Used to Record Americans’ Movements. 49 Private companies such as Digital Recognition Network: Julia Angwin and Jennifer Valentino-Devries, “New Tracking Frontier: Your License Plates,” Wall Street Journal, Sept. 29, 2012. 50 He then used the data: Ibid. 51 In 2009: Kate Crawford, “San Francisco Woman Pulled Out of Car at Gunpoint Because of License Plate Reader Error,” ACLU (blog), May 15, 2014. 52 To date, Euclid has: Quentin Hardy, “Technology Turns to Tracking People Offline,” Bits (blog), New York Times, March 7, 2013; Gene Marks, “Why the Home Depot Breach Is Worse Than You Think,” Forbes, Sept. 22, 2014. 53 The cloud is here to stay: Frederic Lardinois, “Google Announces Massive Price Drops for Its Cloud Computing Services and Storage, Introduces Sustained-Use Discounts,” TechCrunch, March 25, 2014. 54 All the major cloud service providers: Keir Thomas, “Microsoft Cloud Data Breach Heralds Things to Come,” PCWorld, Dec. 23, 2010; Ed Bott, “Dropbox Gets Hacked … Again,” ZDNet, Aug. 1, 2012. 55 In late 2014, hundreds: Daisuke Wakabayashi and Danny Yadron, “Apple Denies iCloud Breach,” Wall Street Journal, Sept. 2, 2014. 56 As a result, the plans: Jaikumar Vijayan, “Classified Data on President’s Helicopter Leaked via P2P, Found on Iranian Computer,” Computerworld, March 2, 2009. 57 In fact, there are more than a hundred: Threat Working Group of the CSIS Commission on Cybersecurity, “Threats Posed by the Internet.” 58 Every single day, the NSA: Dana Priest and William M.

Practical Python and OpenCV by Adrian Rosebrock

computer vision, license plate recognition, Mars Rover

pages: 374 words: 111,284

The AI Economy: Work, Wealth and Welfare in the Robot Age by Roger Bootle

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, anti-work, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mega-rich, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, positional goods, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, Y2K, Yogi Berra

When Computers Can Think: The Artificial Intelligence Singularity by Anthony Berglas, William Black, Samantha Thalind, Max Scratchmann, Michelle Estes

3D printing, AI winter, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, blue-collar work, brain emulation, call centre, cognitive bias, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, create, read, update, delete, cuban missile crisis, David Attenborough, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, factory automation, feminist movement, finite state, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, natural language processing, Parkinson's law, patent troll, patient HM, pattern recognition, phenotype, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test, uranium enrichment, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, zero day

Emails, social media, medical records, and business documents are all being analyzed and correlated with much greater accuracy. This will make serious crime almost impossible to commit. In the past horrific crimes against children and adults could be very difficult to solve. Today, if a serious crime is committed, such as the disappearance of a child, the police quickly query mobile phone towers to produce a list of everyone that was in the vicinity at the time. License plate readers and facial recognition technology can already monitor the movements of cars and people. Voice recognition systems will soon be able to analyze million of hours of phone and other conversations. A major drive for this surveillance is to prevent terrorist attacks, which kill a few people every few years in western countries. As our surveillance systems become more powerful and integrated, many of these attacks will be able to be prevented.

Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)

Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional

National Laboratories at Livermore and Los Alamos, where thermonuclear weapons and antimissile defenses are designed, have long been the owners of the most powerful collections of computing power in the world. Computer and communications technologies outside the military sphere are applied with great effectiveness by public and private police agencies. One example that I saw with my own eyes is suggestive of the range of goodies available to police forces: at a laboratory outside Tokyo, I saw a video camera on a freeway zero in on the license plate of a speeder, use shape-recognition software to decode the license number, and transmit it to police computers, where a warrant search could be conducted. No human in the loop-- the camera and computer determine that a crime has been committed and instantly identify the suspect. Just as grassroots citizens' networks have been interconnecting into a planetary Net, police information networks have been evolving as well.

pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

What would prevent them from making a similar request involving an Amazon Echo or any other smart device with a microphone or sensors? The spread of networked devices — the so-called internet of things — could someday give police easy access to the most private parts of our lives. Law enforcement already has a formidable array of surveillance technologies, ranging from license plate readers to the cell site simulators nicknamed “stingrays” that mimic mobile phone towers to facial recognition and access to credit card transactions — an area of data that is mushrooming as some areas of the country move towards a cashless economy. Meanwhile, Amazon has quietly been licensing its own facial recognition software, called Rekognition, to law enforcement agencies. In November 2018, alarmed members of Congress wrote a letter to Jeff Bezos, demanding to know more about how Rekognition was being used.

pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

There’s also software that detects your mood via facial recognition to make tailored recommendations. If you are willing to give up privacy altogether, the mobile app Placed gives you coupons for providing information on what store you’re in. As you get out on the city streets and public places, there’s now an unprecedented array of sensors, CCTVs, and vast wireless networks that are set up to detect your motion, sense your car, read your license plate, and capture key biometric information such as facial recognition. Then there are all the low-cost satellites from above so that “all of the Earth will be held to a mirror, in near real time, at an increasing granularity of visual infrared and other kinds of data.”33b Wow, are we ever being watched. Not just being watched but also identified. The NameTag app enables users of Google Glass to take a picture of a stranger and identify them in the FacialNetwork company’s database, which includes occupation and social media profiles.34 Similarly, the NEC company is developing tools to enable hotels and businesses to automatically recognize their important visitors.35 These efforts rely on converting each person’s facial data into a “faceprint” of mathematical code along with a large database to find a match.

pages: 558 words: 164,627

The Pentagon's Brain: An Uncensored History of DARPA, America's Top-Secret Military Research Agency by Annie Jacobsen

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, John Markoff, John von Neumann, license plate recognition, Livingstone, I presume, low earth orbit, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, place-making, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

But DARPA’s defense contractors and scientists back home persevered. The system of systems being built by DARPA was long term, and had ambitious, well-funded goals. The ultimate objective for Combat Zones That See was to be able to track millions of people and cars as they moved through urban centers, not just in Iraq but in other urban areas that potentially posed a threat. Cars would be tracked by their license plates. Human faces would be tracked through facial recognition software. The supercomputers at the heart of the system would process all this information, using “intelligent computer algorithms [to] determine what is normal and what is not,” just as the Total Information Awareness office proposed. Combat Zones That See was similar to TIA’s needle-in-a-haystack hunt. It was bigger, bolder, and far more invasive. But would it work?

pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

,” The Economist, May 31, 2018, 2. “More Data and Surveillance Are Transforming Justice Systems,” The Economist,, June 2, 2018, 3. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), 282–290. 4. Surveillance-Video, product catalog, (accessed June 27, 2019). 5. Will Oremus, “Forget Security Cameras. Stores Are Using Face Recognition to See If You’re a Shoplifter,” Slate, November 24, 2015, (accessed June 27, 2019). 6. JenerationTech, “How Facial Recognition Will Impact the Shopping Industry,” Kairos, November 22, 2016, (accessed June 27, 2019). 7.

pages: 350 words: 98,077

Artificial Intelligence: A Guide for Thinking Humans by Melanie Mitchell

Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, dark matter, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk,, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, ImageNet competition, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, ought to be enough for anybody, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

As Google’s Blaise Agüera y Arcas remarked, “It’s been a sort of gold rush—attacking one problem after another with the same set of techniques.”13 Using ConvNets trained with deep learning, image search engines offered by Google, Microsoft, and others were able to vastly improve their “find similar images” feature. Google offered a photo-storage system that would tag your photos by describing the objects they contained, and Google’s Street View service could recognize and blur out street addresses and license plates in its images. A proliferation of mobile apps enabled smartphones to perform object and face recognition in real time. Facebook labeled your uploaded photos with names of your friends and registered a patent on classifying the emotions behind facial expressions in uploaded photos; Twitter developed a filter that could screen tweets for pornographic images; and several photo- and video-sharing sites started applying tools to detect imagery associated with terrorist groups.

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Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

pages: 410 words: 119,823

Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

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The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man,, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation,, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Part of its activities included the Nuremberg Files Web site, where the public was solicited for as much information as possible about the identities, lives, and families of physicians who performed abortions, as well as about clinic owners and workers.76 When a provider was killed, a line would be drawn through his or her name. (The site was rarely updated with new information, and it became entangled in a larger lawsuit lodged under the U.S. Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act.77 The site remains accessible.) An associated venture solicits the public to take pictures of women arriving at clinics, including the cars in which they arrive (and corresponding license plates), and posts the pictures in order to deter people from nearing clinics.78 With image recognition technology mash-ups, photos taken as people enter clinics or participate in protests can be instantly cross-referenced with their names. One can easily pair this type of data with Google Maps to provide fine-grained satellite imagery of the homes and neighborhoods of these individuals, similar to the “subversive books” maps created by computer consultant and tin-kerer Tom Owad, tracking wish lists on Amazon.79 This intrusion can reach places that the governments of liberal democracies refuse to go.

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar