Ayatollah Khomeini

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pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

After the riots in Qom, leading clerics worried that the shah was preparing to have Khomeini executed, and one of their most prestigious members, Grand Ayatollah Mohamed Kazem Shariatmadari, moved to have the title of “Grand Ayatollah” given to Khomeini as a preemptive measure. (Their reasoning was that the shah would never dare to end the life of one of the country’s highest-ranking clerics.) The shah backed down and released Khomeini. In 1964, Khomeini delivered another scorching reproach of the shah over a planned agreement for the stationing of US forces in Iran, which many Iranians regarded as a violation of their country’s sovereignty. Khomeini was arrested again. By now his religious colleagues had tired of their tug-of-war with the shah, and there was little protest when the government sent Khomeini into exile. Most of the religious scholars saw their primary role as helping the faithful to navigate the tremendous moral and social confusion generated by the shah’s program.

Some of them, like Modarres, supported Mossadeq’s plans to nationalize the oil industry and effectively curtail the shah’s powers. Others, like Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Mostafavi Kashani, ended up siding with the coup plotters who put an end to Mossadeq’s ascendancy and revitalized the rule of the shah. This divided religious establishment—some of them wooed by the shah with money and favors—was in no position to act as an alternate power center. In 1961, Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi died. This gave his pupil Khomeini the freedom to act as he saw fit. He now had no reason to hold back from public attacks against the shah. The shah had not helped matters by acclaiming an ayatollah in Iraq as the preeminent spiritual leader of Iran’s Shiites—a transparent attempt to undermine the authority of politically minded clerics back in Iran like Khomeini and his older (and somewhat more cautious) colleague Ayatollah Mohamed Kazem Shariatmadari.

But to those who were now determined to bring Iran under tight clerical control, the case of Grand Ayatollah Mohamed Kazem Shariatmadari, the country’s top-ranking religious leader, posed a much more serious challenge. Back in 1963, when Khomeini was under intense pressure from the shah, it was Shariatmadari, Khomeini’s senior both literally and clerically, who had seen to it that the younger man received the title of “ayatollah”—a status that made it virtually impossible for the shah to execute him. Some Iranians contend that Shariatmadari deserved the credit for saving Khomeini’s life. By 1979, in any event, Shariatmadari was the highest-ranking cleric in Iran, and second in popularity only to Khomeini. When the revolution broke out, Shariatmadari sided with the religious opposition and supported it.


pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Farzad Bazoft, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

And in so far as it was possible, Tudeh, Iran’s oldest political party, wanted the same things as Ayatollah Khomeini. This was the theory and Kianouri held to it bravely. The truth was that Tudeh’s views on the new Iran were almost exactly the same as those of the Soviet Union—which, for the moment, was in favour of the Ayatollah. “We have criticised the establishment,” Kianouri said. “We have made criticism over the position of liberty in the state and about the rights of women. We have criticised Islamic fanaticism—we are against the non-progressive ideas of those conservative elements. But for us, the positive side of Ayatollah Khomeini is so important that the so-called negative side means nothing. We think he is an obstacle to fanaticism: he is more progressive than other elements.” I interrupted Kianouri. Three months ago, I said, Khomeini condemned Hafizullah Amin’s Soviet-backed government in Afghanistan for struggling against Muslim rebels.

Were the Iranian mullahs in charge of the Iranian army, journalists asked, and the major translated this question as: “Aren’t religious people influencing your officers?” It was true, the prisoner said sullenly. “The spirit of our soldiers is not what it used to be.” And what, the world’s press wanted to know, did the two prisoners think of Ayatollah Khomeini? The major mistranslated the question thus: “Now that things have gone so badly for you, what do you think of Khomeini?” The first prisoner replied that “opinion” of the Ayatollah would not be the same after the war. But the wounded man glanced quickly at us and said that “if Ayatollah Khomeini brought on a war between two Muslim countries, this was wrong.” The conditional clause in this reply was lost on the Iraqi major who then happily ordered the removal of the prisoners. The Iraqi army, it seemed, would go to any lengths to display proof of victory and it spent a further hour showing off Iranian hardware captured in Khorramshahr.

Saddam tolerated the Shah once he withdrew his support for the Kurdish insurgency in the north—the Kurds, like the Shia, were regularly betrayed by both the West and Iraq’s neighbours—and agreed that the Iraqi–Iranian frontier should run down the centre of the Shatt al-Arab River. He had been prepared to allow Ayatollah Khomeini to remain in residence in Najaf where he had moved after his expulsion from Iran. The prelate was forbidden from undertaking any political activity, a prohibition that Khomeini predictably ignored. He gave his followers cassettes on which he expressed his revulsion for the Shah, his determination to lead an Islamic revolution and his support for the Palestinian cause. One of his closest supporters in Najaf was Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Mohtashemi—later to be the Iranian ambassador to Syria who sent Iranian Revolutionary Guards to Lebanon in 1982—who was imprisoned three times by the Iraqi authorities.44 Khomeini’s theological ambassador was Ayatollah Sayed Mohamed Bakr Sadr, one of the most influential and intellectual of the Shia clergy in Najaf, who had written a number of highly respected works on Islamic economy and education.


pages: 648 words: 165,654

Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East by Robin Wright

Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment

Soroush came of age in the 1960s as Ayatollah Khomeini began his campaign against the monarchy’s modernization plan—for failing the poor, deserting religious values, and corrupting a civilization dating back five millennia. Soroush grew up as sleepy Tehran was transformed into a cosmopolitan capital, complete with casinos and discos, Peyton Place on television and Kentucky Fried Chicken in restaurants, miniskirts and makeup, and shopping malls and supermarkets to rival traditional commercial powers in the Middle East’s grandest old bazaar. Iran became a hub of foreign influence in the Middle East. “You see nothing but…self-interest, lechery, immodesty, criminality, treachery, and thousands of associated vices,” Khomeini railed in a little book called Secrets Exposed.1 The ayatollah, already in his sixties, was a rare voice willing to risk the dangers of speaking out.

In 1963, after condemning the shah as a “miserable wretch,” Khomeini was arrested and held for ten months. Soroush was only a high-school student at the time. But when the cleric was released, Soroush was among the thousands who traveled to the cleric’s mud-brick home in Qom, the dusty religious center an hour’s drive from Tehran, to celebrate his release. The final confrontation between king and cleric unfolded in 1964, when Khomeini attacked a new law granting immunity to thousands of U.S. military personnel—and all their dependents—for any crimes committed in Iran. To followers assembled in front of his home, the ayatollah thundered that Iran’s dignity had been destroyed. He linked the law to a $200-million loan from the United States.2 The controversial legislation, Khomeini pronounced, reduced the Iranian people to a level lower than that of an American dog.

But if an American cook runs over the shah, the head of state, no one will have the right to interfere with him…. Are we to be trampled underfoot by the boots of America simply because we are a weak nation and have no dollars?3 On November 4, 1964, the shah expelled the fiery ayatollah.* Soroush kept up with the ayatollah’s wandering exile—in Turkey for seven months, in Iraq for twelve years until he was deported by Saddam Hussein, and the final four months in Paris. The first in his family to go to university and the first to go to the West, Soroush took a break from his studies in London to visit Khomeini in France in 1978, as the revolution was building up steam back home. The two men hit it off. When the ayatollah returned triumphantly to Tehran to install Islamic rule several weeks later, Soroush followed him home. Soroush quickly became a prominent figure in revolutionary circles. He was the youngest of seven men named to the Committee of the Cultural Revolution.


pages: 273 words: 86,821

Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History by Antonio J. Mendez, Matt Baglio

Ayatollah Khomeini, Ronald Reagan

She sat down next to me on the sofa and listened while I rattled on about the job, the office, the Pentagon, everything. It was beginning to look more and more like the crisis was going to drag out indefinitely. On November 5, the Ayatollah Khomeini’s son Ahmad had praised the takeover as being in the name of the people. After that, the entire religious leadership of Iran had thrown its support behind the militants. Mehdi Bazargan, Iran’s prime minister, was forced to resign in protest, and this meant that there was only one person left for President Carter and his administration to deal with: the Ayatollah Khomeini. I paused long enough to take a sip of beer and felt her looking closely at me. Glancing up, I saw that she had been waiting for me to stop talking so that she could tell me something. “What?” I said. I thought on some subconscious level that she was having a problem with one of the kids.

At the time, Iran was a chaotic mess. The Ayatollah Khomeini had returned triumphantly from exile in Paris and the shah’s government had quickly collapsed. The army soon followed suit and in the vacuum the diverse factions who had banded together to oust the shah (leftists, nationalists, Soviet-sponsored communists, hard-line Islamicists) had splintered and were now fighting it out among each other. Armed men roamed the streets and revenge killings were rampant. Small gangs called komiteh (committees) sprang up across the country, carving out territories of control. Beholden to no one except whatever mullah they claimed allegiance to, these gangs amounted to little more than thugs, and began enforcing their own brand of revolutionary justice at the barrel of a gun. Amid this confusion, Khomeini and his inner circle had installed a provisional government to manage the country while the Assembly of Experts worked diligently behind the scenes to draft a new constitution.

Today, the United States and Iran are as far apart as they have ever been, while the population of Iran suffers under a corrupt and ineffective regime. We now know that when the militant students overran the American embassy, they did not expect to stay for any length of time. But as the crisis stretched on, and as Ayatollah Khomeini seemingly endorsed their actions, they discovered that they had invented a new tool of statecraft: hostage taking. In no other civilized country in the world would such an undertaking be tolerated by the host government. And therein lay the power of the technique. Once Khomeini approved of their plan, the students had no need to negotiate. Iran has followed its own example in the interim, taking hostages almost whimsically whenever it felt a need for international attention or had a cause that needed leveraging. In 2007, fifteen British Royal Navy sailors were taken hostage and held for two weeks.


Reaganland: America's Right Turn 1976-1980 by Rick Perlstein

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, affirmative action, airline deregulation, Alistair Cooke, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, death of newspapers, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, energy security, equal pay for equal work, facts on the ground, feminist movement, financial deregulation, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, land reform, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, oil shock, open borders, Potemkin village, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, traveling salesman, unemployed young men, union organizing, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, wages for housework, walking around money, War on Poverty, white flight, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

And, like the new breed of American fundamentalist in the Jerry Falwell mold, he rejected the older tradition of theological quietism to insist that religious leaders must involve themselves directly in politics—even though, under the shah, that could lead to prison or exile. Khomeini’s placid courage in the face of that threat was mesmerizing. In 1962, when the shah’s cabinet passed a law allowing non-Muslims to hold office and women to vote, Khomeini decried it as “the first step toward the abolition of Islam.” The following year, when the shah held a phony referendum on his reforms, Khomeini persuaded mullahs to boycott. The shah responded by raiding a leading seminary in Qom, injuring dozens, killing one. Defiant, Khomeini proclaimed, “I will never bow my head to your tyranny.” His awed students greeted his arrest with riots. The shah pondered whether to execute him—until one of Khomeini’s quietist rivals reached out to save his life by awarding him the title of “grand ayatollah.” The Iranian constitution forbade executing anyone with that exalted title—and even the shah dared not violate that.

One of the liberals shot at Ghotbzadeh’s limousine and another injured a bodyguard with a knife. On April 1, Khomeini claimed he had received a 97 percent mandate in a referendum to institute an Islamic republic, declaring “the first day of a government of God.” This was followed two weeks later by protests from thousands shouting “Down with Khomeini,” carrying portraits of Tehran’s most popular liberal clerk, Ayatollah Mahmoud Taleghani, who said that Khomeini was worse than the shah. His sons were then kidnapped and tortured. The following week a general was murdered. At his funeral procession, a man in an air force uniform failed to assassinate Prime Minister Bazargan with a machine gun. A week later, his faction successfully cut down the chairman of the Revolutionary Council. Khomeini responded by establishing an Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolutionary Council—his very own SAVAK.

The handler saved their skin in the only way he could think of: he fetched an official, and Oriana Fallaci became the man’s second wife. She searched in vain in The Commandments of Ayatollah Khomeini, the guidebook to daily living sold in every Tehran street stall, to learn how she might gain an annulment. Given that she suffered neither from insanity, madness, leprosy, blindness, skin disease, lameness, or sexual defects, and her new husband was neither mad nor, as best she knew, missing a genital organ, for all she knew she was married to him still. * * * PERHAPS THE SITUATION WOULD NOT have grown so frenzied had the Ayatollah’s forces not felt so besieged. The course of their revolution had not run smooth. It began in a bloom of ideological pluralism, sidewalk vendors sold publications from Islamist to Marxist, even Marxist-Islamist. Then, Khomeini loyalists began a bid for complete control. One of the most important was Sadegh Ghotbzadeh, a veteran anti-shah activist educated at the Georgetown School of Foreign Service, placed in charge of state television and radio, where he undertook a purge of leftists—these via execution—and women, and instituted worse censorship than the shah’s.


The King of Oil by Daniel Ammann

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, business intelligence, buy low sell high, energy security, family office, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, Yom Kippur War

Green asked him in Farsi for a receipt for his passport. His chutzpah was rewarded. The T official wrote Green’s name, date of birth, and passport number on the back of a piece of paper packaging and signed the unusual receipt. Khomeini’s Return On that day, February 1, 1979, hundreds of thousands of people kept vigil at Mehrabad Airport. They were waiting for an aged man who finally arrived on an Air France Boeing 747: the seventy-six-year-old Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returning to Iran after fifteen years in exile in France. Four days later Khomeini appointed an “Islamic revolutionary government,” and soon afterward Bakhtiar had to make way for Khomeini’s appointed prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan. All the while Green was stranded in Tehran without a passport. He was prohibited from working, and he was not allowed to travel. He was isolated.

Sure enough, Green managed to get back his passport and immediately leave the country at a time when Americans and Jews in Iran had to fear for their lives. Two weeks after the Ayatollah Khomeini’s return, Iran found itself in the iron grip of Islamic fundamentalists. In the wake of the takeover, dozens of ministers who had remained true to the shah were tried by “Islamic people’s courts” in summary proceedings and sentenced to death. Thousands of army and police officers were arrested and shot. Prime Minister Bazargan broke off all relations with Israel, and the Israeli embassy was stormed and plundered by a rampaging mob. A few days later the Ayatollah Khomeini turned over the Israeli mission to the PLO; chairman Yasser Arafat flew to Iran to personally raise the Palestinian flag above the mission. The ayatollah set the tone for Iran’s future stance on the Jewish state: Israel was a “cancer” that would destroy the Islamic religion and Muslims if it were not removed from the region.2 Khomeini believed that according to the Koran Israel had no right to exist.

Iran Hostage Crisis Then came November 4, 1979—a day that would change the world, the United States, and the public’s view of Marc Rich forever. On that Sunday five hundred Iranians calling themselves the Muslim Students of the Imam Khomeini Line stormed the American embassy in Tehran in the late morning and took ninety people hostage, including sixty-three U.S. citizens. The American chargé d’affaires, Bruce Laingen, and two other diplomats were seized at the Iranian foreign ministry. The Ayatollah Khomeini immediately lent his support to the hostage taking as the “natural reaction of the people” and characterized the embassy as an “American den of spies.” Khomeini branded the United States “the Great Satan.” (He would later call Israel “the Little Satan.”) In return for freeing the hostages, the alleged students demanded the United States return the ousted shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, who had been undergoing treatment for lymphatic cancer at the Cornell Medical Center in New York for the previous two weeks.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

The shah’s most resolute enemy was the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, an austere, singled-minded, narrow, and intensely devout Shia cleric, implacable in his resistance and ruthless in destroying those who stood in the way of an Islamic republic ruled by the clergy. From exile, Khomeini called for an Islamic revolution. The country was thrown into turmoil by strikes and larger and larger demonstrations, marked by increasing violence. In January 1979, with his regime crumbling, the shah left Iran. Two weeks later, the seventy-seven-year-old Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile to a tumultuous reception. Shortly after, Khomeini proclaimed himself the “Supreme Leader of the Revolution.” Critics of the shah rushed to embrace Khomeini. In the New York Times, a prominent Princeton professor trumpeted how Khomeini would provide “a desperately needed model of humane governance for a third-world country.”

In the New York Times, a prominent Princeton professor trumpeted how Khomeini would provide “a desperately needed model of humane governance for a third-world country.” Khomeini and his followers moved to consolidate power. Hundreds were shot in a few months on the roof of Khomeini’s headquarters in 1979. In November, after the shah was admitted to the United States for cancer treatment, a mob of young Iranian zealots “following the Imam’s line” invaded the U.S. embassy. They were to hold fifty-two American diplomats hostage for 444 days under degrading conditions. Khomeini and his allies used the seizure of the hostages as the opportunity to take complete control. The Ayatollah introduced a new constitution that is the basis for political power in Iran today. It enshrined the velayet-e-faqih—“the guardianship of the Islamic jurist”—and the ultimate power of religious scholars, with Khomeini having final say as the chief jurist, or supreme leader.

The supreme leader has control over the Guardian Council, which decides who can run for office, and has final approval over parliamentary acts. He also has control over the Revolutionary Guard, the mainstay of the region, and of the media, and judiciary. The elected president is subordinate to the supreme leader. Under this new constitution, there were few bounds on the authority of the Ayatollah Khomeini. His legitimacy, he asserted, came from the Prophet and from God and from his expertise in Islamic law. In short, one scholar has written, “Khomeini had obtained constitutional powers unimagined by shahs.”5 While Iranian presidential campaigns, and the shifts they may portend, get global attention, these constitutional arrangements—an Islamic republic under the control of the most conservative parts of the Shiite clergy—remain the foundation for the way Iran is ruled today.


pages: 1,042 words: 273,092

The Silk Roads: A New History of the World by Peter Frankopan

access to a mobile phone, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South China Sea, spice trade, statistical model, Stuxnet, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, wealth creators, WikiLeaks, yield management, Yom Kippur War

This was ignored – as was Sullivan’s recommendation that ‘we attempt to structure a modus vivendi between the military and religious [leaders]’ at the first opportunity. He meant that the US should try to open channels of communication with Khomeini, before he took power rather than afterwards.4 Loud voices in the White House, however, continued in the belief that the US could control the situation, maintaining support for the Shah and backing a proposal made at the end of January 1979 by the Prime Minister, Shapur Bakhtiar, that Ayatollah Khomeini should be arrested if he flew into Iran.5 The blinkered futility of this thinking became apparent within a matter of days. On 1 February 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini touched down in Teheran fourteen years after being forced into exile. Enormous crowds gathered to greet him at the airport, following him as he made his way first to the Cemetery of Martyrs, twelve miles south of Teheran, where some 250,000 supporters were waiting.

Endemic corruption did not help – with hundreds of millions of dollars taken in ‘commission’ by the royal family and those close to the ruling regime, just for each reactor.71 By the late 1970s, the situation in Teheran was poisonous as crowds took to the streets in growing numbers to protest about the lack of social justice – and about the rising cost of living on the back of plunging oil prices as global supplies began to exceed demand. Growing dissent played into the hands of Ayatollah Khomeini, by now exiled in Paris after being removed from Iraq as part of the deal struck with the Shah in 1975. Khomeini – whose elder son was probably murdered by the Savak in 1977 – seized control of the situation, providing a vision that at once diagnosed the ills in Iran and promised to cure them. He was a brilliant communicator, able to capture the mood just as Mossadegh had done three decades earlier. In a move that appealed to left-wing revolutionaries, Islamic hardliners and almost all those who were outside the golden loop of gilded rewards, Khomeini declared that the time had come for the Shah to step aside. The beneficiaries of good leadership should be the Iranian public and Islam – and not the Shah.

Although the initial aim seems to have been to make a short, sharp protest about the decision to admit the Shah to the US, things escalated rapidly.50 On 5 November, Ayatollah Khomeini commented on the situation at the embassy. He did not mince his words, let alone appeal for calm. The embassies of Teheran, he declared, were breeding grounds for ‘underground plots [that] are being hatched’ to bring down the Islamic Republic of Iran. The chief orchestrator of these plots, he went on, was ‘the great Satan America’. With that, he called on the US to hand over ‘the traitor’ so that he could face justice.51 Initial US efforts to defuse the situation ranged from the inept to the shambolic. One envoy, carrying a personal appeal from the President to Khomeini, was flatly denied an audience with the ayatollah and was unable to deliver his letter; it emerged that another envoy had been authorised to open discussions with the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), whose members had been behind terror attacks such as the massacre at the Munich Olympic Games and whose primary aim was the establishment of a Palestinian state at the expense of Israel.


pages: 302 words: 91,517

Baghdad Without a Map and Other Misadventures in Arabia by Tony Horwitz

Ayatollah Khomeini, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donald Trump, Farzad Bazoft, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mercator projection, trade route

Returning from the airplane toilet a few hours later, I couldn't find my seat. Which form in this sea of black hoods was my wife? We touched down in Tehran at two in the morning, forty-eight hours after the announcement on Iranian radio that “Imam Khomeini has passed away. From God we come, to God we go.” Or, as an editor in the United States put it in a wake-up call to Cairo shortly after, “Khomeini's finally kicked it. Get up and write something.” The news was oddly surprising, despite the fact that the ayatollah was eighty-six and had reportedly been dying for years. Khomeini's failing health was one of those Middle East stories, like civil war in Beirut and the Arab-Israeli “peace process,” that had dragged on for so long with so little sign of actual movement that an end seemed unimaginable. The bionic madman would simply live forever.

The bionic madman would simply live forever. “I cannot believe he's really dead,” said the Iranian standing beside me in line at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport. He was a businessman returning from Germany and had told me on the plane that he hated Khomeini. “But I fear for the future. It is like your saying: 'The devil you know is better than a Satan you have not met.' ” The known devil scowled from a huge portrait on the wall, wreathed now in black crepe. Staring sleepily at the black-turbaned ayatollah, his eyebrows arched in menacing fury, I wondered aloud if Khomeini had ever smiled. Certainly not in any picture I'd seen. “He is not smiling now,” said the businessman, shuffling slowly toward immigration. “Not in hell.” The officials at the airport, most of them women, weren't smiling either. Their tightly drawn head scarves made them look both plain and severe, like unfriendly nuns.

I like Americans very much. I went to UCLA for four years.” He gestured out at the prayer ground. “Now tell America what you see with your own eyes. Tell America how much we love Imam Khomeini.” The view from the wall caused an odd sort of vertigo. Stretched below us, for a mile in every direction, was a seamless carpet of black tossed over the pink-brown hills. The carpet shifted, rearranging itself, as yet more mourners poured into the prayer ground. A high stand decorated the center of the rug, supporting Khomeini's coffin. The imam's trademark black turban, which denotes descent from the Prophet, rested on his chest. Several other ayatollahs stood beside the dais, and one of them moved to a microphone and shouted, “Allabu Akbar!” Mourners paused where they stood and bowed their heads in prayer. Five syllables had sufficed.


pages: 579 words: 164,339

Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? by Alan Weisman

air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, David Attenborough, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, El Camino Real, epigenetics, Filipino sailors, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute couture, housing crisis, ice-free Arctic, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, liberation theology, load shedding, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The victorious citizenry widely believed that in newly liberated Iran, both secular and religious would live and worship as they liked, with Ayatollah Khomeini as the country’s guiding spirit. Soon, however, Iranians learned that Khomeini’s idea of spiritual leadership was not mere guidance, but theocracy. Although the revolutionary constitution had established a democracy, Khomeini anointed himself Supreme Leader, with a Guardian Council of religious clerics holding veto power over parliament, president, and prime minister. Among his first edicts was reinstatement of the compulsory hijab. Women’s heads must be covered, and their bodies cloaked in chadors or long, loose-fitting garments. Secular Iranians felt betrayed. But as Hourieh Shamshiri entered her specialized studies in gynecology, her divided country suddenly united behind the Ayatollah, because Iran was attacked. Shortly after the Ayatollah Khomeini’s ascension, across Iran’s western border Saddam Hussein had assumed the presidency of Iraq.

They are further undermined by hundreds of stores selling hair extensions, makeup, wigs, hair clasps, and lingerie—the latter is even sold in the gift shop at the Ayatollah Khomeini’s tomb. Smuggling networks widely assumed to be run by the Ayatollah’s Revolutionary Guards help keep stores stocked with European and New York haute couture—sluiced, like the BMWs and Lamborghinis of north Tehran, through portals like Dubai. Even during sanctions, Tehran, like Havana, thrums with energy. But it lives on time borrowed from mountain springs recharged by rain. In 1900, they easily supported the 150,000 Tehranis. Counting the 3 million workers who commute here daily, 15 million drain that water today, a hundred-fold increase in just over a century. Khomeini’s divine mandate to build not just an army, but an Islamic generation with no memory of the Shah, spawned as breathtaking a demographic leap as the world had ever seen—which made what came next all the more astonishing.

In the mid-1970s, the Shah, ostensibly a constitutional monarch, abolished every political party except his own, which incited spontaneous strikes. A high-ranking Shi’a cleric named Ruhollah Khomeini, exiled for denouncing the Shah’s lavish rule from the Peacock Throne and his coziness with the West, became a symbol of defiance in absentia. The strikes intensified and organized, until millions filled the streets. Suddenly to everyone’s shock, in January 1979 the Shah fled to Egypt. A year later he died from lymphoma. The bloodless revolution that toppled him had been joined across the country’s political spectrum, from orthodox mullahs to intellectuals. When the triumphant Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile in France, even soldiers in the Shah’s army celebrated. A referendum on whether the monarchy should be abolished in favor of Islamic government won 98 percent approval.


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Rise and Kill First: The Secret History of Israel's Targeted Assassinations by Ronen Bergman

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

It was clear to both Washington and Jerusalem that what was once their closest ally in the Middle East was now their bitterest enemy. It also soon became clear that Khomeini’s vision was not restricted to the Islamic republic that he declared in Iran. Rather than clinging tenuously to power, the ayatollah was determined to spread his Islamic revolution throughout the Middle East. He intended to begin with Lebanon. — ONE OF KHOMEINI’S CLOSEST allies during his years in exile, a Shiite cleric named Ali Akbar Mohtashamipur, was given the mission of spreading the revolution. He first met Khomeini when studying in Najaf, a city holy to Shiites in Iraq, where the ayatollah had found refuge after being expelled by the shah. He accompanied him throughout his years of exile both there and in France. In 1973, Khomeini had sent him, together with a group of other loyal associates, to the Middle East to establish links with Muslim liberation movements in the region.

“Please kill us,” Khomeini proclaimed and wrote. “For we, too, are going to kill you!” He would later instruct the bereaved families of martyrs and their neighbors to hold joyous celebrations to mark the deaths of their sons in Iran’s holy war. Khomeini’s next step was to shatter the most important traditional custom of Shiite theology. He allowed the believers—even encouraged them—to call him “imam,” a term in the Shiite tradition that is largely similar in meaning to the Judeo-Christian concept of the Messiah, whose advent heralded the End of Days. In 1963, a short time after formulating his new doctrine, Khomeini launched an open campaign against the shah from Qom, Iran’s holiest city. The shah couldn’t risk killing the ayatollah, so instead he was exiled. Khomeini found refuge in Turkey, Iraq, and finally France.

As for the government of Shapour Bakhtiar, who had been appointed prime minister by the shah before he left, Khomeini dismissed it with one short, sharp statement: “I will break their teeth.” The United States, the “Great Satan,” as Khomeini thundered, and Israel, “the Little Satan,” saw the ayatollah’s rise as a passing episode. After all, American and British intelligence services had restored the shah to power once before, after left-wing rebels deposed him in 1953. But Khomeini’s rise was the culmination of years of foment, girded by enormous popular support and protected by seasoned, sophisticated lieutenants who identified and crushed all attempts at counterrevolution. In November, a mob of angry student supporters of Khomeini broke into the U.S. embassy in Tehran, occupied it, and took the diplomats and other workers there hostage. They also seized a vast trove of American intelligence material.


Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

฀But฀his฀White฀Revolution฀came฀a฀cropper,฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ / and฀he฀was฀thrown฀out฀by฀one฀of฀the฀most฀significant฀Islamic฀personalities฀ of฀ the฀ twentieth฀ century:฀ Ayatollah฀ Ruholla฀ Khomeini.฀ Khomeini฀had฀been฀conducting฀a฀campaign฀against฀the฀Shah฀since฀ the฀ early฀ s฀ from฀ Najaf฀ in฀ Iraq,฀ and฀ later฀ from฀ Paris.฀ He฀ was฀ able฀to฀mobilise฀the฀lower-middle-class฀urban฀population฀who฀resented฀the฀westernised฀secular฀and฀rich฀elite฀surrounding฀the฀Shah.฀ Khomeini’s฀Revolution฀was฀Islamic,฀albeit฀a฀Shi’a฀one.฀It฀was฀total.฀ Just฀ as฀ the฀ October฀ Revolution฀ led฀ to฀ Russia’s฀ withdrawal฀ for฀ a฀ while฀from฀international฀circles,฀Khomeini฀was฀determined฀to฀take฀ Iran฀completely฀out฀of฀any฀Western฀camp฀and฀rebuild฀it฀along฀pure฀ Islamic฀lines.฀Iran฀remains฀today฀a฀theocracy฀which฀overrides฀the฀ civilian฀democratic฀apparatus.

.฀(:฀) The฀ example฀ of฀ the฀ Iranian฀ Revolution฀ and฀ of฀ AyatollahKhomeini฀ has฀ obviously฀ impressed฀ Bin฀ Laden.฀ He฀ does฀ not฀ of฀ course฀ explicitly฀refer฀to฀the฀Ayatollah฀as฀he฀belongs฀to฀the฀dissident฀Shi’a฀ sect.฀But฀the฀similarity฀in฀the฀power฀of฀the฀Shah,฀his฀high฀standing฀ as฀an฀ally฀of฀the฀West,฀his฀powerful฀secret฀service฀Savak฀as฀well฀as฀ the฀suddenness฀of฀his฀collapse฀will฀all฀be฀known฀and฀remembered฀  ฀  by฀ Muslims.฀ The฀ Shah฀ had฀ just฀ invented฀ for฀ himself฀ a฀ ฀ year฀ history฀of฀his฀dynasty฀(which฀in฀reality฀had฀a฀history฀of฀less฀than฀ fifty฀years)฀and฀crowned฀himself฀in฀a฀glamorous฀ceremony฀to฀which฀ many฀Western฀leaders฀and฀media฀were฀lured.฀He฀had฀also฀bought฀ modern฀arms฀from฀the฀West.฀But฀Khomeini฀had฀been฀a฀thorn฀in฀his฀ side฀and฀fought฀him฀over฀twenty฀years,฀first฀from฀Najaf฀and฀then฀ from฀Paris.

.฀ In฀ other฀ countries,฀ the฀ face฀ was฀ of฀ Mao฀ or฀ Pol฀ Pot฀ or฀ Kim฀ Il-Sung.฀ But฀ it฀ was฀ always฀ the฀ face฀ of฀ the฀ Supreme฀ Leader.฀ The฀new฀terror฀also฀has฀a฀face฀–฀Osama฀Bin฀Laden.฀He฀too฀has฀zealous฀ champions฀ and฀ his฀ face฀ appears฀ on฀ T-shirts.฀ He฀ has฀ spawned฀ other฀faces,฀much฀as฀Stalin฀did:฀Ayman฀al-Zawahiri,฀Hambali฀and฀ Abu฀ Musab฀ al-Zarkawi.฀ The฀ face฀ of฀ the฀ Iranian฀ Revolution฀ was฀ Ayatollah฀Ruholla฀Khomeini. Terrorism฀ as฀ a฀ systematic฀ violent฀ assault฀ on฀ innocent฀ civilian฀ populations฀(i.e.฀those฀uninvolved฀with฀or฀unable฀to฀affect฀the฀issue฀ at฀dispute฀between฀the฀terrorists฀and฀their฀avowed฀enemy)฀is฀sadly฀ neither฀unknown฀nor฀infrequent฀in฀modern฀times.฀State฀terrorism฀ is฀older฀and฀more฀systematic฀and฀less฀criticised.฀It฀is฀terrorism฀by฀ groups฀ which฀ are฀ not฀ in฀ power฀ –฀ by฀ non-governmental฀ organisations,฀ so฀ to฀ speak฀ –฀ which฀ is฀ the฀ subject฀ of฀ most฀ debate฀ today.฀ But฀ even฀ to฀ understand฀ this฀ latest฀ brand฀ of฀ violence,฀ a฀ historical฀ perspective฀is฀useful.


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The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, do-ocracy, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

Its title gave some idea of the thrust of his political thought: Three Whom God Should Not Have Invented: Persians, Jews, and Flies. Though the Ayatollah Khomeini was expelled from Iraq in 1978, before Hussein's complete acquisition of power, the Ayatollah held Hussein personally responsible for his troubles and ranked him among his preeminent opponents. Once asked to list his enemies, Khomeini replied: "First, the Shah, then the American Satan, then Saddam Hussein and his infidel Ba'th Party." Khomeini and his circle saw the secular, socialist Ba'thists as implacable enemies of their own creed and attacked Ba'thism as "the racist ideology of Arabism." As if all that was not bad enough, Khomeini had even worse to say; he denounced Hussein as a "dwarf Pharaoh." Saddam Hussein had good reason to fear Khomeini's diatribes. Around half of Iraq's population was estimated to be Shia, while the Ba'thist regime was secular and based on the minority Arab Sunnis.

Grasping for some certitude in the melee, they increasingly heeded the call of traditional Islam and of an ever more fervent fundamentalism. The beneficiary was the Ayatollah Khomeini, whose religious rectitude and unyielding resistance made him the embodiment of opposition to the Shah and his regime and indeed to the very character and times of Iran in the mid-1970s. Born around 1900 in a small town 180 miles from Tehran, Khomeini came from a family of religious teachers. His father had died a few months after his birth, killed on the way to a pilgrimage by a government official, it was said by some. His mother died when he was in his teens. Khomeini turned to religious studies and, by the 1930s and 1940s, was a popular lecturer on Islamic philosophy and law, promulgating the concept of an Islamic Republic under the stern control of the clergy. For many years, Khomeini had regarded the Pahlavi regime as both corrupt and illegitimate.

The efforts to construct hastily some new American position were complicated by the fact that the Shah was an object of dislike and criticism in the media in the United States and elsewhere, which resulted in a familiar pattern—moralistic criticism of U.S. policy combined with the projection by some of a romantic and unrealistic view of the Ayatollah Khomeini and his objectives. A prominent professor wrote in the New York Times of Khomeini's tolerance, of how "his entourage of close advisers is uniformly composed of moderate, progressive individuals," and of how Khomeini would provide "a desperately-needed model of humane governance for a third-world country." The American ambassador to the United Nations, Andrew Young, went even further; Khomeini, he said, would eventually be hailed as "a saint." An embarrassed President Carter immediately felt the need to make clear "that the United States is not in the canonization business." So great was the lack of coherence that one senior official, who had been involved in every Middle Eastern crisis since the early 1960s, noted the "extraordinary" fact that the "first systematic meeting" at a high level on Iran was not convened until early November—very late in the day.


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What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

The leaders of the Iranian left assured them that they could safely ignore the black-clad fanatics who were fanning out across the country. ‘We have criticised Islamic fanaticism – we are against the non-progressive ideas of the conservative elements,’ said Noureddin Kianouri, leader of the Marxist Tudeh Party, as he explained how he had weighted the options. ‘But for us, the positive side of Ayatollah Khomeini is so important that the so-called negative side means nothing.’ Later they arrested him along with tens of thousands of his comrades, paralysed his arms, broke his fingers and made him confess on television to being a Soviet spy. The ayatollahs crushed the Left, the liberals and the feminists, and imposed a religious tyranny far more terrible and far harder for women to endure than the Shah’s persecutions. Afsaneh Najmabadi had been far more sceptical about the wisdom of leftists going along with holy misogynists, and had the good sense to leave and get back to Kanan in London.

The people in power in both countries did not want to know about the Iraq Republic of Fear described, and one of the few remarks of Henry Kissinger’s that is worth remembering explains why. ‘It’s a pity they can’t both lose,’ he said of the Iran – Iraq War. When Khomeini’s revolutionary armies looked as if they would win, and seize Iraq’s oil fields and go on to control a large chunk of the world’s oil by seizing the Saudi Arabian oil fields as well, the United States intervened. It helped the Baathists with facts rather than arms sales. What Saddam got out of the approaches first from the Carter administration and then from Donald Rumsfeld for the Reagan administration was an intelligence-sharing agreement. AWACS spy planes recorded Iranian troop deployments so the Iraqi army could concentrate its fire. American jets brought down Iranian civilian and military flights to deter the Ayatollah Khomeini from destroying the Iraqi war economy by sinking Iraqi tankers in the Persian Gulf.

The big daddy of French theory, Michel Foucault, was braver in his way than many of his imitators in that he was prepared to make a commitment to the Ayatollah Khomeini. He went to Iran in 1978 to support the Islamists and drooled that ‘an Islamic movement can set the entire region afire, overturn the most unstable regimes, and disturb the most solid. Islam – which is not simply a religion, but an entire way of life, an adherence to a history and a civilization – has a good chance to become a gigantic powder keg, at the level of hundreds of millions of men.’ With socialist revolutions gone, he was desperate for something new to set the world afire. If that something new was a vicious clerical reaction, then so be it. Notice, though, that the Iranian revolution was a vicious clerical reaction whose persecutions others had to suffer. If the bishops of the French Catholic Church had achieved the theocratic power of the ayatollahs and used it to prescribe what Foucault and his colleagues could teach at the Collège de France in Paris, I’m sure Foucault and all his admirers in the Anglo-American academe would have gone ape and shouted ‘fascism’.


The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, colonial rule, Columbine, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a highly respected Democratic senator, criticized the policy by declaring, ‘‘You don’t negotiate with illegality.’’39 Khomeini ordered the students to release women and black hostages from the embassy, and then 10 THE AMERICA THAT REAGAN BUILT granted interviews to ABC and NBC News. The criminal act of seizing the American hostages at the embassy was multiplied by endless media speculation and the inability of the world’s most powerful military to respond. The Ayatollah Khomeini would not play by the rules. He said the militants occupying the U.S. embassy were expressing the will of the Iranian people. It was as if the holy man was powerless to stop them. The president sent a private letter to the Ayatollah, and Khomeini promptly read it before the assembled press. In the middle of the takeover, Khomeini ignored his country’s disintegration long enough to wage a savage, holy civil war against his own Kurdish citizens, who, he explained, had joined the cults of Satan.

His rise to power capitalized on the centuries-old Sunni-Shia split, the Arab versus Persian religious and ethnic disputes, and the personal animosity Saddam Hussein had for Ayatollah Khomeini in neighboring Iran. While the Iraqis were led by fear, the Iranians had a divine reverence for Khomeini. Khomeini’s ouster of the shah and leadership of the Iranian revolution of 1979 led to a protracted war between the neighboring countries from 1980 to 1988, dubbed the Iran-Iraq War. In the fighting between contiguous states, Baghdad planned for a quick victory over Tehran. Saddam wanted oil, and he expected that when his armies invaded, the people in the Arabic-speaking area of Iran would respond by rising against Khomeini’s fundamental Islamic regime. It did not happen that way, and after a time Iraq found itself bogged down in a stalemate of its own making.

The first revelation was that the Middle Eastern states were not intimidated or understanding of the West. In Jimmy Carter’s mind, knowledge developed through assimilation and reason. ‘‘If an issue was mine,’’ he said, ‘‘I wanted to understand it.’’ The president spent hours poring over briefing books assembled by his staff. His strength was knowability, but the Ayatollah Khomeini was inscrutable. Carter wrote in his diary: ‘‘Every time one of the Iranian government officials shows any sign of rationality, he is immediately incompatible with Khomeini.’’52 The America of incomprehensible military strength was actually weaker for having a modern service economy that was dependent on foreign oil. But it was also weaker for having an inability to understand its opponents. Like Napoleon, who waited in Moscow for the Russians to surrender before realizing he had to retreat, the American president expected Iran to give up when it remained defiant.


The Oil Kings: How the U.S., Iran, and Saudi Arabia Changed the Balance of Power in the Middle East by Andrew Scott Cooper

addicted to oil, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, energy security, falling living standards, friendly fire, full employment, interchangeable parts, Kickstarter, land reform, MITM: man-in-the-middle, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, unbiased observer, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

As part of the agreement Saddam Hussein would permit Shi’a pilgrims from Iran to cross into Iraq to visit Shi’a holy places. If the Shah thought this gesture would bolster his standing at home among the clergy he was sadly mistaken. Many of the faithful sought out Ayatollah Khomeini, who was living in exile in Iraq. “People knew about Khomeini,” said Ambassador Richard Helms. “This was particularly true after the Algiers Agreement of 1975, when Iranian pilgrims were again permitted to visit the holy shrines in Iraq at Karbala and Najaf. Some pilgrims brought tapes back from Khomeini, and one began to hear reports of their being played in the mosques and circulated clandestinely. So that as a political factor, people were aware of him.” THE IDES OF MARCH In March 1975, from Lisbon to Saigon, American power was in retreat.

It was on this trip that she noticed for the first time that young protesters were holding up pictures of a stern-looking bearded cleric. “And so I asked the name of the mullah who was idolized by our young demonstrators and whose defiant look meant nothing to me.” The queen learned that he was Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the hard-line cleric who had led the 1963 revolt against her husband’s White Revolution reforms. “It struck me as unusual,” she said. “I had always thought of students as young, idealistic, liberal, progressive individuals seeking freedom. Why would a student in America demonstrate for Khomeini and carry his picture as an emblem of his belief?” Ambassador Ardeshir Zahedi spent 1977 outside Iran, preferring to focus on his official duties rather than deal with the increasingly political atmosphere at court where those closest to the throne intensified their jockeying for position.

On the day of the state welcome he deployed only 151 police officers—including two dozen on horseback—to patrol the Ellipse, where the rival Iranian factions had been told they could set up their pickets. Riot police armed with gas masks, shields, and truncheons were held in reserve, well away from the crowds, stationed in buses several blocks from the White House grounds. The Pahlavis flew into Virginia on November 14 and spent the night in Colonial Williamsburg. Ambassador Sullivan was intrigued to see so many young protesters holding up Khomeini’s portrait. He knew who he was. “Although I appreciated the role that Ayatollah Khomeini had played in the struggle between the shah and Shi’a clergy, this was the first time I had seen his name and portrait invoked in the struggle by the Iranian students against the shah’s regime,” he recalled later. Like the queen, Sullivan was perplexed that a man with a feudal outlook could command any following outside religious circles. The following morning the Shah and his party flew to Washington, where they landed on the Mall in two helicopters, then drove on to the White House.


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Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World by Nir Rosen

Ayatollah Khomeini, failed state, glass ceiling, Google Earth, liberal capitalism, Parag Khanna, selection bias, unemployed young men, urban sprawl, éminence grise

The Hakim family was perceived to represent the elite; it also backed Ayatollah Khomeini’s system of clerical rule, known as wilayat al-faqih. Although theological differences existed, the bitter rivalry between followers of Hakim and Sadr can best be seen as both a class conflict and a symptom of the resentment of Iraqi nationalist Shiites who stayed in Iraq toward Hakim and his followers, who were in exile in Iran. The Sadrists are inspired by the example and teachings of Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, arguably the most important Shiite theologian of the twentieth century, who challenged the quietist and traditional role of the Shiite clerical establishment, known as the hawza. He eventually confronted Saddam and was executed by him in 1980. His cousin Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr inherited his mantle, building an immense following among poor Shiites.

Sayyid Nasr of the Sayyid Haidar Husseiniya—a husseiniya is a Shiite place of worship and communal gathering—also visited the Qiba Mosque to pay respects with thirty friends and relatives. As the honorific title of “sayyid” revealed, he was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus respected. He was also the oldest and best-known sayyid in Shaab. I visited his large home, which was down the street from a wall with posters of Ayatollahs Khomeini and Khamenei. The walls of his study were decorated with posters of Supreme Council leader Muhammad Bakr al-Hakim, who had been slain six months earlier in Najaf, as well as other ayatollahs. Nasr wore a black turban and thick glasses. “Our good leaders will prevent fitna,” he said. He explained that when he visited the Qiba Mosque, he told the gathered people that “I am Sunni and I am Shiite. We are all Muslims.” He was certain that “there will not be any problems between us,” and blamed Zarqawi for the attacks.

His men had already taken over much of Shiite Iraq, providing social services and security and imposing their strict interpretation of Islam on women and more liberal Muslims. His network of clerics coordinated their sermons, and his bayanat (statements) were posted on mosque walls throughout Iraq. On June 23, 2003, Muqtada, having just returned from a trip to Iran—where he had met with government officials and Ayatollah Haeri, his father’s official successor and intellectual heir, and commemorated the death of Ayatollah Khomeini—visited Baghdad for the first time since his father’s death in 1999. He visited the neighborhoods of Kadhimiya and Shula before arriving in Sadr City, where tens of thousands greeted him with Iraqi flags as well as flags from the Bahadal, Msaare, Al Jazair, and Fawawda tribes. Before Muqtada took the stage, a speaker read the victory verse from the Koran: “If you receive God’s victory and you witness people joining Islam in great numbers, thank your God and ask him to forgive you, for God is very merciful.”


pages: 419 words: 124,522

Shadow of the Silk Road by Colin Thubron

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, invention of gunpowder, invention of the telescope, Lao Tzu, Pax Mongolica, South China Sea, trade route

Arabs defeat the Chinese c 840 The Uighur migrate west to the Tarim 1220–7 Mongols invade under Genghis Khan 1260–1368 The ‘Pax Mongolica’ c. 1300 The Kyrgyz migrate from Siberia into the Tian Shan 1381 Tamerlane invades Afghanistan 1405 Tamerlane dies 1405–1530 Timurids rule at Herat 1500 Uzbek Shaybanids seize Samarkand 1504 Kabul captured by Babur 1747 Foundation of Afghan state 1885 Russians complete the conquest of Central Asia 1917 Soviet power established in Kyrgyz territory 1920 Bolsheviks seize Bukhara; Uzbek and Tajik refugees flee to Afghanistan 1924–7 Stalin defines the borders of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan 1979–80 USSR invades Afghanistan 1989 USSR retreats from Afghanistan 1991 The Central Asian states gain independence from USSR 1994 Rise of the Taliban 1997 Taliban seize Mazar-e-Sharif, then are massacred 2001 US-led invasion of Afghanistan 2004 First free Afghan elections Iran 765 Birth of the Ismaili sect 874 Occultation of the 12th Shia Imam 1020 Death of Firdausi 1037–1220 Seljuk Turkish dynasty 1256–7 Mongols under Hulagu extirpate the Assassins 1256–1335 Ilkhanid Mongol dynasty 1258 The Mongols sack Baghdad 1304–1316 Reign of Oljeitu 1500–1736 Safavid dynasty 1925–1979 Pahlevi dynasty 1979 Islamic revolution under Ayatollah Khomeini. The Shah flees 1980–88 Iran–Iraq war 1989 Death of Ayatollah Khomeini The West 680 Battle of Kerbela 800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor 1099 First Crusade captures Jerusalem 1260 Mamelukes turn back the Mongols 1453 Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople 1498 Portuguese pioneer the seaway round Africa 1914–18 First World War 1917 The Russian Revolution 1939–45 Second World War 1984–97 Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 2001 World Trade Center attack 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq Searchable Terms Abbasid Caliphate Abdullah (Kurdish driver) Abdurahman, King Afghanistan journey in Afrasiab Africa, seaway round Aga Khan Ahmadjan Ahuramazda (god) Aimaq (nomads) Ain Jalut, battle of Akayev, President of Kyrgyzstan Akbar Khan al- for names beginning al- see under following element of name Alamut Alamut river Alaric Alexander the Great Alexandria Ali (statistician) Ali, Caliph Alik (ex-policeman) Aloban (Nestorian priest) Altun mountains Amanullah, King America see United States of America Amin, Hafezullah Amirali (artist and poet) Amithaba (Buddha of Infinite Light) Amu Darya/Oxus river Anatolia Ancestors, claimed see also Manas Andijan Andkvoi Annar (Kyrgyz) Ansari Antioch Antiochus IV, King Antoninus Pius, emperor Apak Hoja mausoleum, Kashgar Apollo Arabian Incense Road Arabs Aral Sea Arhun (watchman) Armenia Armenians Aryans Asmu, Imam: tomb Assassins Assyria Assyrian church At-Bashy Athens Ata, Mohammed Attar Augustus Caesar, emperor Aurelian, emperor Azerbaijan Iranian Azeris Babur, emperor Babylon Bacon, Francis Bactria Bactrians Badakshan Baghdad Baisanghur, prince Balkh Barnabas, St Basra ‘Beauty of Kroran, The’ Behesht-e Zahra Beijing see also Tiananmen Square Bethlehem Bibi Khanum mosque Samarkand Bihzad bin Laden, Osama Birecik Bishkek Black Jade river, Khotan Black Mountains Bodh Gaya Bolsheviks Bombyx mori (silk moth) Book of Changes Book of Odes Book of Rites Borders Brazil British, the Buddhism in China Bukhara Byron, Robert Byzantine empire Caesar, Julius Canada Carrhae, battle of (53 BC) Caspian Sea Caucasus, the Central Asia time line see also names of countrie Chaldean Church Changan (Xian) palace ruins see also Xian chariots Charklik (Ruoqiang) Charlemagne, emperor Chatyr lake Chechens Chechnya Cherchen (Qiemo) salt plateau of Chiang Kai-shek Chilamachin China journey in time line Chinese (outside China) Chingiz (builder) Chinon Christianity in Antioch in China in modern Iran and Mongols Chrysostom, St John Chychkan river Cicero Cizre Cleopatra Cologne cathedral Columbus, Christopher Communism compass, the magnetic Confucianism Confucius Conrad of Montferrat Constantine the Great, emperor Constantinople Crassus, triumvir Crete crossbows Crusades Cultural Revolution Cyrus, King of Persia Czechoslovakia Da Qin Dalai Lama Damascus Damghan Daniar (Kyrgyz) Daniel (builder) Daphne, groves of (near Antioch) Dasht-e-Laili Demavend, Mount Deng Xiaoping Deobandi schools, Pakistan Dharamsala Dokuz Khatun Dolkon (Uighur) Dost Mohammed, King Dostum, Abdul Rashid Dowlatabad drugs Dubs, Homer Dudayev, General Dunhuang East Turkestan Islamic Movement Edward I, King of England Egypt Eighth Imam (Shia) Elburz mountains Eleanor of Castile, queen Elnura (Kyrgyz) England English language Euclid Euphrates Europe Fatima (daughter of Mohammed) Feng (Hui) Fergana Fergana valley Firdausi Shahnama tomb First Pass under Heaven, The Fitzgerald, Edward Flanders Fraser, James (British traveller) Friendship Bridge Friday Mosque, Herat Gang of Four Gansu corridor Gate of Sorrows, Jiayuguan Gawhar Shad, queen mausoleum of Gawhad Shah mosque and college, Herat Gawhar Shad mosque, Meshed Gazargah Gazur Khan Gelia (artist’s wife) Genghis Khan Germans Germany al-Ghazali Ghorid dynasty Gobi desert Goes, Bento de Golden Horde ‘Golden House’, Antioch Golmud Goths Great Game Great Leap Forward Great Wall Greece Gromov, General Guanyin (goddess) Guarong (Song Guorong) Gul (Uighur) Gulag Gulja Guma Gumbaz mosque, Namangan gunpowder Gutenberg Gwelin Hafizullah (Afghan) Hairatan Hakkari Hamed Han Hangzhou Hari river Haroun al-Rashid Hasan-i-Sabah Hazara Hazrat Ali shrine, Mazar-e- Sharif Heavenly mountains see Tian Shan mountains Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Helena, St Herat Herodotus Hindu Kush Hinduism Homs Hongming (film-maker) Horses Hu Ji (historian) Huang Huangling Huatuguo Hui Hulagu, emperor Hunan Huns 70 134 Husain Baiqara, sultan Hussein (Iranian acquaintance) Hussein (son of Caliph Ali) Hussein, Saddam Ibn BattutaId Kah mosque, Kashgar Ilkhanid dynasty India Indians Innocent IV, Pope Inventions, Chinese see also crossbows, stirrups Iran journey in time line see also Iran-Iraq war Iran-Iraq war Iranian Azerbaijan Iraq see also Iran-Iraq war Isfahan, Qadi of Islam/Muslims in China see also Mevlevi sect; Naqshbandi sect; Shia; Sunni Ismail, 281, 282 Ismailis see also Assassins Israelis Italy see also Romans; Rome jade Jade Gate Jade Road Jafar (trainee doctor) Japan Jaxartes (Syr Darya) river Jelaleddin Rumi Jerusalem Crusader king of Patriarch of Jesuit missionaries Jesus Christ Jews Jiahuang (painter) Jiayuguan Jielu Jiuquan Jumgal valley Justinian, emperor Juvenal Kabul Kalan minaret, Bukhara Kanikay Karakoram Karakoram mountains Karakoram Highway Karimov, President of Uzbekistan Karzai, President of Afghanistan Kashgar Kazakhs Kazakhstan Kekemeren river Kenkol ravine Kerbela, battle of (AD 680) Keriya Khameini, Supreme Leader, Iran Khan, Ismail Khan family, Bukhara Khatami, President of Iran Khoja Parsa shrine, Balkh Khomeini, Ayatollah tomb of Khorasan Khotan Kitbogha Kizilkum desert Kiziltepe Kochkor mazar near Kochoi, tomb of Kokand Koran Korea Koreans Kublai Khan, emperor Kuchi Kun Lun mountains Kunduz Kurds Kushans Kyanizyak-khatun, princess Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan journey in Labrang Living Buddha of Lady of the Silk Worms (Lei-tzu) Lanchou University Lanzhou Lao-tzu Lattimore, Owen Lei-tzu see Lady of the Silk Worms Lenin (village) Lenin, V.I.

Government police had moved in to supervise its hundred-million-dollar annual revenue, and a machine-gun perched on a truck looked down on a mob of customs officials. After an hour our bus crept past a last barrier. The way swarmed with money-changers. The red, green and black of the Afghan flag gave way to the red, green and white of Iran, and the photogenic smile of President Karzai was replaced by the painted scowl of Ayatollah Khomeini and the owlish confusion of Supreme Leader Khamenei. The lorries were banked up five abreast for quarter of a mile, heavy with the shipment containers of evil memory, and piled with cement, Mitsubishi trucks, steel rods, Nestlé bottled water… The Iranian police, dapper in bottle green, boarded our bus in twos and threes, glittering with suspicion, hunting for the opium which leaked like bacilli across the border.

Some wore a brazen hint of lipstick or eye-shadow. They might have been naked. It was the eve of the birthday of the Twelfth Imam, venerated in Shia tradition as the coming saviour, and the city was choked with pilgrims. Only after a long time did I find a hotel, above a noisy crossroads. In the foyer hung a trio of photographs: the awkward-looking Supreme Leader Khamenei, the mild reformist president Khatami, and in the centre an angry Ayatollah Khomeini, watching them both. I was shown to a cleanish room. In its bedside drawer were a Koran, a folded prayer-mat and a medallion of clay to which the faithful touch their foreheads in prayer. Meshed enshrines the memory of murder and loss. In 818 the Eighth Imam in the Shia line was poisoned here by the reigning Sunni caliph (say the Shia) with grapes and pomegranate juice. At first he was buried royally beside the great Haroun al-Rashid of ‘The Thousand and One Nights’, father of his murderer, who had died here nine years before.


From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, financial innovation, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, young professional

However, the radical implications of Qutb’s critique of Western secularism were nowhere as clearly worked out as in Shiite Iran. As Ayatollah Khomeini wrote, using words seemingly borrowed from Qutb (or, with some modifications, Liang Qichao and Tagore): For the solution of social problems and the relief of human misery require foundation in faith and morals; merely acquiring material power and wealth, conquering nature and space, have no effect in this regard. They must be supplemented by and balanced with, the faith, the conviction, and the morality of Islam, in order to truly serve humanity, instead of endangering it … So as soon as someone goes somewhere or invents something, we should not hurry to abandon our religion and its laws, which regulate the life of man and provide for his well-being in this world and the hereafter.50 Khomeini was referring to the most ambitious programme to catch up with the West since Muhammad Ali’s nineteenth-century reforms in Egypt.

When the revolt finally erupted in Iran in the late 1970s, every major socio-political organization outside the state joined it – secular communists and nationalists as well as religious radicals. Millions of demonstrators and strikers appeared united by their hatred for the American-backed shah. But it was an exiled cleric, Ayatollah Khomeini, the charismatic figure dreamt of by Bazargan in the 1960s, who emerged as the most visible face of protest by deftly using the idiom of Shiite Islam – and anti-imperialism: ‘Islam is the religion of militant individuals who are committed to truth and justice. It is the religion of those who desire freedom and independence. It is the school of those who struggle against imperialism.’59 A referendum held weeks after his triumphant return to Iran in 1979 overwhelmingly endorsed Khomeini; 99 per cent of Iranians voted in favour of Iran being made into an Islamic Republic. ‘Come friends,’ Ali Shariati had paraphrased Frantz Fanon in the 1960s, ‘let us abandon Europe; let us cease this nauseating apish imitation of Europe.

It makes it possible, I believe, to see the main political and intellectual tendencies that preceded and outlasted the better-known figures that have come to monopolize, and limit, our sense of India, China and the Muslim world. Liang Qichao bequeathed his obsession with building state power to Mao Zedong and his heirs in Communist China; al-Afghani’s fear of the West and obsession with Muslim self-strengthening prepared the way for Atatürk and Nasser as well as Ayatollah Khomeini, and still animates the politics of Islamic societies. During their long and eventful lives the Asians discussed in the book manifested all of the three main responses to Western power: the reactionary conviction that if Asian people were truly faithful to their religious traditions, which were presumed to be superior to those of all other civilizations, they would be strong again; the moderate notion that only a few Western techniques were required by Asians whose traditions already provided a sound basis for culture and society; and the vigorous determination, embraced by radical secularists like Mao and Atatürk, that the entire old way of life had to be revolutionized in order to compete in the jungle-like conditions of the modern world.


What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response by Bernard Lewis

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, lone genius, spice trade, women in the workforce

In the heartlands of Islam, such progress as was made in women’s rights was due entirely to internal forces and to the unaided efforts of Muslim women and men. 69 WHAT WENT WRONG? Nevertheless the struggle for the emancipation of women made some progress in the socially and economically more advanced parts of the region and has become a major target of different schools of militant Islamic revival. The Ayatollah Khomeini, in particular, gave it a prominent place in his indictment of the misdeeds of the shah and the crimes of his regime. From a traditional point of view, the emancipation of women—specifically, allowing them to reveal their faces, their arms, and their legs, and to mingle socially in the school or the workplace with men—is an incitement to immorality and promiscuity, and a deadly blow to the very heart of Islamic society, the Muslim family and home.

enacting their own laws.10 But in the sense of a state ruled by the church or by priests, Islam was not and indeed could not be a theocracy. In this sense, classical Islam had no priesthood, no prelates who might rule or even decisively influence those who did. The caliph, who was head of a governing institution that was state and church in one, was himself neither a jurist nor a theologian, but a practitioner of the arts of politics and sometimes of war. The office of ayatollah is a creation of the nineteenth century; the rule of Khomeini and of his successor as “supreme jurist” an innovation of the twentieth. In most tests of tolerance, Islam, both in theory and in practice, compares unfavorably with the Western democracies as they have developed during the last two or three centuries, but very favorably with most other Christian and post-Christian societies and regimes. There is nothing in Islamic history to compare with the emancipation, acceptance, and integration of other-believers and non-believers in the West; but equally, there is nothing in Islamic history to compare with the Spanish expulsion of Jews and Muslims, the Inquisition, the Auto da fé’s, the wars of religion, not to speak of more recent crimes of commission and acquiescence.

Such distinctively European vehicles as the novel and the play have become normal forms of literary self-expression in all the literary languages of the Middle East. The ready acceptance of the visual and verbal arts makes the rejection of music the more remarkable. It was not for lack of trying. Sultan Mahmud II was not alone in his experiment with a brass band. Other rulers saw the relevance of Western music to Western drill, and hence to Western warfare. Even the Ayatollah Khomeini, who in general fiercely denounced the sinfulness and corruption of all kinds of music and of Western music in particular, was willing to make an exception for marches and anthems. In Turkey, where Westernization as distinct from modernization has made most progress, Western music has won the widest acceptance and there are Turkish soloists, orchestras, and even composers in the Western style.


pages: 1,208 words: 364,966

Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War by Robert Fisk

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, friendly fire, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

In the grey days of Iranian opposition to the Shah, almost all the figures who were, after 1979, to be the kingmakers and spiritual leaders of Iran visited Tyre. To Mousa Sadr’s Jebel Amel college outside the city came Mehdi Bazargan, Khomeini’s future prime minister. Bazargan’s deputy, Sadeq Tabatabai – still one of Khomeini’s closest aides – visited Tyre each year. So did Ayatollah Mohamed Beheshti, who was later to become leader of the Islamic Republican Party and Iranian minister of justice. Sadeq Qotbzadeh, who advised Khomeini in Paris and became his foreign minister, travelled to Tyre each year. Mustapha Chamran, who was to be Khomeini’s minister of defence, was one of the founders of the Jebel Amel college and taught there for several years. One of his pupils, a young electrical engineering student, was Mohamed Sa’ad who, years later, was to be Khalil Jerardi’s leading explosives expert in the resistance movement.

Academics, especially in Israel or the United States, liked to attribute Shia Muslim radicalism in southern Lebanon to some form of revolutionary inspiration from Iran, as if Ayatollah Khomeini exerted a physical power over the region. They ignored the fact that this radicalism was partly created by Israel. Even more seriously, they ignored the fact that the Iranian revolution did not begin in the Iranian city of Qom or in Tehran. It began in southern Lebanon. Mousa Sadr, whose portrait now hung over the ruins of the homes destroyed by Israeli troops, was not just a missing Imam, almost a Twelfth Imam to the Shias of southern Lebanon. He was Iranian. He was born in Qom. Even more crucial, he was the principal link between the Iranian opposition to the Shah and the Ayatollah Khomeini when the latter was enduring his bitter exile in Najaf. Mousa Sadr lived in Tyre. His sister, Rabab, married Hussein Charefiddin, from one of the most prominent Lebanese Shia families in the city.

How could one compare one of the great developments of twentieth-century history with Lebanon’s little wars? I watched Ayatollah Khomeini one day – I sat a few feet from him – lecturing us on the evils of America, the necessity of returning the Shah to Iran for trial and the eternal nature of the Islamic Republic. He stared at the floor as he spoke. Only at the ground; at a tiny spot of light that fell onto the poorly carpeted floor of this crowded room at his home in Qom. Not once did he take his eyes off the emanation. It must have been produced by a crack in the window or a reflection from a mirror, but it was half an hour before it dawned upon us that he would not look at a single human being in the room, not even at his interpreter, Sadeq Qotbzadeh, in whose execution he would later calmly acquiesce. Khomeini could condone the imprisonment of American diplomats in Tehran – the inhabitants of the ‘spy nest’ – and effortlessly prove the United States to be a paper tiger.


pages: 427 words: 127,496

Mossad: The Greatest Missions of the Israeli Secret Service by Michael Bar-Zohar, Nissim Mishal

airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, illegal immigration, Stuxnet, traveling salesman, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

But before the officials could act on their plans, the Iranian revolution transformed Israeli-Iranian relations. The revolutionary Islamic government massacred the shah’s supporters and turned against Israel. The ailing shah escaped from his country as it fell under Ayatollah Khomeini’s control and into the hands of his loyal mullahs. Khomeini put an immediate end to the nuclear project, which he considered “anti-Islamic.” The building of the reactors was stopped and their equipment dismantled. But in the 1980s, a bloody war erupted between Iraq and Iran. Saddam Hussein used poison gas against the Iranians. The use of nonconventional weapons by their vilest enemy made the ayatollahs rethink their policy. Even before Khomeini’s death, his heir apparent, Ali Khamenei, instructed his military to develop new weapons—biological, chemical, and nuclear—to fight back against the weapons of mass destruction that Iraq had unleashed on Iran.

Guy Bechor, Forum Intifada, Internet News, December 8, 2008 (H) “Iran Will Be Able to Produce a Bomb This Year,” Der Spiegel, Forum Intifada, Topics and News, January 25, 2010 and NRG January 25, 2010 (H) “How to Stop the Bomb,” Yoav Limor, YNET, June 19, 2007 (H) “War Games (Scenarios),” David Sanger, New York Times, Haaretz, April 4, 2010 (H) “Uri Lubrani: An Interview at His Retirement from the Ministry of Defense,” Yossi Yehoshoa and Reuven Weiss, Yedioth Ahronoth, February 15, 2010 (H) “Palestine Iran Palestine,” Ari Shavit, Haaretz, March 25, 2010 (H) “How the Opportunity to Attack and Destroy the Iranian Nuclear Project Was Missed,” Aluf Ben and Amos Harel, Haaretz, December 18, 2009 (H) “Appointment in Iran: The Head of the Nuclear Project Is the Scientist Who Survived the Attempt on His Life,” Yedioth Ahronoth, February 14, 2011 (H) “An Analysis of the Virus in the Iranian Nuclear Reactor, Confirms Its Purpose: To Sabotage the Centrifuges,” Yossi Melman, Haaretz, November 19, 2010 (H) “Mossad, U.S., U.K. Cooperating to Sabotage Iran Nukes,” JPOST.COM.STAFF, December 30, 2010 KHOMEINI AND THE “ANTI-ISLAMIC” NUCLEAR WEAPONS Tahiri, Amir, Allah’s spirit: Khomeini and the Islamic revolution, Ofakim-Am-Oved, Tel-Aviv, 1985 (H) “Will Worldwide Recession Create Totalitarianism Again?” Carl Forsloff, Digital Journal, December 14, 2008 “Khamenei Vehemently Rejects Nuclear Allegations,” Arabianbusiness.com, June 3, 2008 “Has Iran Been Striving for Nuclear Weapons for Many Years?” Kedma Amirpur Katajun, translated from the Zud Deutsche Zeitung with the author’s permission, Kedma.co.il (H) “A Speech by the Ayatollah Khomeini About Nuclear Development and the Negative Influence of the American Technology,” Answers Yahoo.com, April 9, 2006 (H) “Before Starting a New War in the Middle East,” Yossi Dahan, Haoketz, haokets. didila.com, June 5, 2009 (H) 1977—ISRAEL OFFERS BALLISTIC MISSILES TO IRAN Minutes of Conversation Between Defense Minister Weizman and General Toffinian, July 18, 1977; see also Top Secret Minutes from Israel’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 18, 1977, Digital National Security Archive, George Washington University, Washington, D The authors’ interviews with former Minister of Defense Ezer Weizman and with former Director General of the Ministry of Defense Dr.

But in 1982, Israel launched the Lebanon war, called Operation Peace for Galilee, invaded Lebanon, and crushed the PLO. Its surviving members, headed by Yasser Arafat, were exiled to Tunisia. Mughniyeh, though, decided to stay behind and joined the first group of Hezbollah founders. The Hezbollah—literally, the Party of God—was a Shiite terrorist organization created in 1982, in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. Inspired by the Ayatollah Khomeini, trained and supplied by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, the Hezbollah became Israel’s vile enemy, defining his main goal as “Israel’s final departure from Lebanon as a prelude to its final obliteration.” From the first day of its existence, Hezbollah engaged in violent acts of terrorism against Israel. And Mughniyeh was an ideal recruit for the nascent group. As a real man of shadows, he chose to operate in secret and refrained from appearing in public.


pages: 276 words: 78,061

Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence

Iran is a good example. Its flag even has Arabic script on it, while at the same time it is also deeply Persian and revolutionary. The Iranian flag is a simple tricolour: three horizontal bands, green at the top, white in the middle and red at the bottom. It dates from 1980, the year after the Islamic revolution overthrew the Shah of Iran and brought the religious fundamentalists led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to power. The green signifies several things in Iranian culture, including happiness and vitality. Green is also, as we’ve noted, the colour traditionally linked to Islam, and in the fiercely Shia Islamic Republic of Iran it can also be seen as a recognition of the Shia Fatimid dynasty. White is the traditional colour of freedom, and in Iran the colour red is associated with martyrdom, bravery, fire and love.

This was the day in 1979 when, with the country in uproar and millions on the streets, national state radio crackled into life with the words, ‘From Tehran, the voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran’. The red tulip in the centre of the white band is a complex symbol, or set of symbols. It comprises four crescents and a central stem which can be read as a geometrically symmetric form of the word Allah, but also as symbolizing the Five Pillars of Islam. The stem is also a sword standing for the strength of the nation. Ayatollah Khomeini liked all this symbolism, so it was no surprise when, after his death in 1989, the faithful decorated his tomb with seventy-two stained-glass tulips, the number harking back to the martyred Hussein’s difficult last day. However, the tulip is meaningful for all Iranians, not just those who support the revolution, and so it was not a surprise that in 2009, when opposition protests broke out against the re-election of President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, some demonstrators used the flower as a symbol of defiance.

To this day they maintain close co-operation and have fought alongside one another in Syria. At the heart of Beirut’s Shia southern suburbs is the district of Al-Dahiya. This is a no-go area for state officials: here Hezbollah is the police, the army, the religious authority and the government all rolled into one. One of the things that strikes you about the neighbourhood is the sight of massive posters extolling Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran and the current Hezbollah leader, Hassan Nasrallah. There is also a sea of single-colour flags, including red, black and green for the traditional Islamic motifs alongside the yellow of Hezbollah. The yellow is sometimes tinged with gold, which is a colour often found at Shia shrines, but there is no conclusive evidence that this is why it is used. When the Hezbollah militias march beneath their banner they can often be seen goose-stepping and giving the fascist salute.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

See Internet Service Providers Israel Izvestiya Jackson, Michael Japan Javan Jefferson, Thomas Jewish Internet Defense Force (JIDF) JIDF. See Jewish Internet Defense Force Jihad Jane Judt, Tony Kadeer, Rebiya Kadinsky, Wassily Kafka, Franz Kaiser Kuo Kalathil, Shanthi Kapor, Mitch Kaspersky, Yevgeny Kaspersky Lab Kaufman, Ted Keenan, Thomas Kennan, George Kennedy, John F. Kenya Keohane, Robert Kern, Holger Lutz Kerry, John Keyes, David Keyhole Keylogger Keyword filtering KGB Khamenei, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Khouri, Rami Kierkegaard, Søren Kill-switch Kimmage, Daniel Kimmelman, Michael Klee, Paul Klein, Naomi Klosterman, Chuck Kohák, Erazim Kononenko, Maksim Kotkin, Stephen Krame, Ghaleb Kristof, Nicholas Krugman, Paul Lacan, Jacques Lake, Eli Lasswell, Harold Law enforcement Lawlessness Lazarsfeld, Paul Learn from Lei Feng (game) Lebedev, Artemy Lessig, Lawrence Lewis, James Li Qiaoming Li Xiaolin Liberation by facts theory Liberation by gadgets theory LinkedIn Lippmann, Walter Literature Liu Xiaobo Liu Zhengrong LiveJournal The Lives of Others (film) Logic The Logic of Failure (Dörner) Lolcats Luna, Riccardo Lynch, Marc MacKinnon, Rebecca Madison, Elliot Malkin, Michelle Mandelson, Peter Manhattan Project Mao Zedong Marconi, Guglielmo Marcuse, Herbert Marketing Marketing Dictatorship: Propaganda and Thought Work in Contemporary China (Brady) Marvin, Simon Marx, Karl Marx, Leo Marxism Masnick, Mike Massage Milk McAffee computer security firm McConnell, Mike McLaughlin, Andrew McLuhan, Marshall McNamara, Robert Mearsheimer, John Medvedev, Dmitry Meet the Press Megaphone Memorial (Russian NGO) Messina, Chris “FactoryJoe,” Metzl, Jamie Mexico Meyen, Michael Microchip Immune Deficiency Syndrome (MIDS) Microsoft Middle class Middle East MIDS.

In December 2009 the pro-Ahmadinejad Raja News website published a batch of thirty-eight photos with sixty-five faces circled in red and a batch of forty-seven photos with about a hundred faces circled in red. According to the Iranian police, public tip-offs helped to identify and arrest at least forty people. Ahmadinejad’s supporters may have also produced a few videos of their own, including a clip—which many in the opposition believed to be a montage—that depicted a group of protesters burning a portrait of Ayatollah Khomeini. If people had believed that the footage was genuine, it could have created a major split in the opposition, alienating vast swathes of the Iranian population. The police or someone acting on their behalf also went searching for personal details—mostly Facebook profiles and email addresses—of Iranians living abroad, sending them threatening messages and urging them not to support the Green Movement unless they wanted to hurt their relatives back in Iran.

This explains how, less than a year after the Iranian protests, a Newsweek writer mustered the courage to proclaim that “the revolts in Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Burma, Xinjiang, and Iran could never have happened without the web.” (Newsweek, it must be noted, has been predicting an Internet-led revolution in Iran since 1995, when it published an article pompously titled “Chatrooms and Chadors” which posited that “if the computer geeks are right, Iran is facing the biggest revolution since the Ayatollah Khomeini.”) Unless journalists fully commit themselves to scrutinizing and, if necessary, debunking such myths, the latter risk having a corrosive effect on policymaking. As long as Twitter is presumed to have been instrumental in enabling the Iranian protests, any technologies that would allow Iranians to access Twitter by bypassing their government’s censorship are also presumed to be of exceptional importance.


pages: 407 words: 123,587

The Prince of the Marshes: And Other Occupational Hazards of a Year in Iraq by Rory Stewart

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, clean water, Etonian, full employment, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, Masdar, microcredit, trade route, unemployed young men, urban planning

A young turbaned cleric came with two hundred men and told me in a high-pitched voice that he had been a leading bomb-maker in the resistance movement; that ninety-seven of his relatives had been killed by the old regime; that the local Saddam hospital, newly named the “Sadr” hospital, was only intact after the looting because he had put guards around it; and that my only choice was to put him on the provincial council. I asked him what he thought about the current situation. He answered that he was sorry that we were not cutting the hands off thieves. It was ordained in the Koran. “But even Imam Khomeini did not encourage people in Iran to cut off hands,” I said. “Imam Khomeini has his opinion and I have mine,” the cleric replied. Young Shia clerics were normally deferential toward the age and wisdom of a Grand Ayatollah like Khomeini. I asked how long he had been in the hawza, the seminary in Najaf. “Two years,” he replied. It was normal to study there for fifteen years or more. I asked which Grand Ayatollah he had followed. “I followed myself,” he replied. This disregard for learning and authority appeared increasingly typical of young Shia politicians and their religious opinions seemed fractured, less controllable, and increasingly militant.

I wondered if he was simply seeing something I was missing. “And who is making trouble at the moment?” I asked. “Everyone including Iran,” he replied. “We want a national government for Iraq.” This was a change for a party that had once aimed to include Iraq in a super state under the Iranian leader Khomeini. “And what kind of government do you wish to establish?” “Wilayat-e-faqih,” he replied, smiling. The government of the jurists—or, in other words, an Islamic theocracy under a senior Ayatollah: the governmental system of Iran. No one in the Coalition wanted to establish an Iranian-style theocracy, and it was clear even in the few days I had been in the province that there was little enthusiasm for it from Iraqis. Was the man naïve, or somehow steps ahead of me? The Prince was wrong. These men were not simply Iranian spies out to destroy the Coalition.

—finance officer Charlotte “Charlie” Morris—social affairs officer IRAQI POLICE Abu Rashid—police chief, Maysan Brigadier General Sabih—acting police chief Seyyed Faqr—police chaplain Nadhem—police chief, Amara MARSH ARABS Seyyed Issa—head of the district council of Beni Hashim The “progressive classes” Ali—a young activist Asad—a middle-aged poet Hussein—director of the Finance Ministry POLITICAL PARTIES “The Prince’s Party” Rural/tribal and relatively secular Karim Mahood Hattab—“Abu Hatim,” “The Prince of the Marshes” Riyadh Mahood Hattab—brother of the Prince—head of the regeneration committee and candidate for governor Shia parties All derived from the original Dawa Party, founded in the late fifties and led by Ayatollah Muhammad Bakr al-Sadr (Sadr I), martyred in 1980 The “Iranian-linked groups” Supreme Committee for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) Formed by the Marytr Ayatollah Muhammed Bakr Al-Hakim Militia—Badr Brigades and Party of God Abu Ahmed—SCIRI central, candidate for governor Abu Miriam—Movement of the Party of God Abu Maytham—Badr brigades, candidate for police chief Dawa Formed by the Martyr Ayatollah Muhammad Bakr al-Sadr (Sadr I) Abu Muslim—ex-cleric from Dawa movement Abu Akil—national head of Dawa Iraq tendency Abu Mustafa—cleric—independent Dawa Sheikh Rahim—cleric—independent Dawa The Sadrists (Office of the Martyr Sadr and Fodala) Formed by the Martyr Ayatollah Muhammad Sadeq al-Sadr (Sadr II) and led now by his son Muqtada (Sadr III) and Chief of Staff Al-Yakubi Militia—Army of the Imam Mehdi Seyyed Hassan—head of the Sadr Party Seyyed Sattar—head of the Majar branch of Sadr Hassan—head of the “alternative councils” TRIBES Albu Muhammad Beni Lam Al-Azerj Suwaad Beni Kaab Albu Deraaj Abu Ali Sudan Saada Bahadil DHI QAR COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY John Bourne—governorate coordinator, Dhi Qar Barbara Contini—governorate coordinator, Dhi Qar Jeremy Nathan—deputy governorate coordinator, Dhi Qar Toby Bradley—political officer, Dhi Qar Franco Corbani—special projects, Dhi Qar Sabri Badr Rumaiath—governor of Dhi Qar Abbas—deputy governor, a Danish citizen Adnan Sherife—assistant governor Abdul Amir Al-Hamdani—director of archaeology SADRISTS Sheikh Aws Al-Khafagi—head of the office Sheikh Ali Zeidi—Al Rafai leader Sheikh Muwayad—Nasiriyah leader Asad Al-Ghuzzi—associate and ally AL RAFAI TRIBES Shweilat, Sheikh Arkan Hairullah Beni Rikaab, Shlage Yunus, son of Shlage Ismail Taleb TIMELINE 3000 B.C.


pages: 410 words: 106,931

Age of Anger: A History of the Present by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, informal economy, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, Republic of Letters, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The Jacobins and the German Romantics may have been Rousseau’s most famous disciples, determined to create through retributive terror or economic and cultural nationalism the moral community neglected by Enlightenment philosophes. But Rousseau’s prescient criticism of a political and economic system based on envious comparison, individual self-seeking and the multiplication of artificial needs also helps us understand a range of historical and sociological phenomena: how and why a cleric like Ayatollah Khomeini rose out of obscurity to lead a popular revolution in Iran; why many young people seduced by modernity come to pour scorn on Enlightenment ideals of progress, liberty and human perfectibility; why they preach salvation by faith and tradition and uphold the need for authority, hierarchy, obedience and subjection; or why, suffering from self-disgust, these divided men and women embrace conflict and suffering, bloodshed and war.

John Calvert’s Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism (London, 2010) is a useful counter to the post-9/11 clichés about his subject. Three books by Ervand Abrahamian are indispensable: Iran between Two Revolutions (Princeton, 1982); Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin (London, 1989); and Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (Berkeley, 1993). Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi’ite Islam (London, 2002), is a good overview of the Shiite tradition. Baqer Moin, Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah (London, 1999), has many useful details. Two excellent accounts of gender relations in Iran, before and after the revolution, are offered by Afsaneh Najmabadi: The Story of the Daughters of Quchan: Gender and National Memory in Iranian History (Syracuse, NY, 1998), and Women with Mustaches and Men without Beards: Gender and Sexual Anxieties of Iranian Modernity (Berkeley, 2005). On Foucault’s engagement with Iran, see a stern reckoning in Janet Afary and Kevin B.

., A Rebours (1884) ideology, theory of Ignatieff, Michael immigrants anarchists in USA fin de siècle as great age of migration hate-mongering against Polish émigrés in Turkey racism towards after Brexit vote imperialism, Western backlashes in name of traditional society creation of ‘long-term losers’ by decolonization exporting of modernity French German institutionalization of racism by Italian justifications for violence legacy for nation states of Napoleon neo-imperialism nineteenth-century expansion of Rhodes on Spanish American colonies and Tocqueville see also British Empire; post-colonial states India author’s upbringing in caste system and European mystical doctrines gods and goddesses independence (1947) Indian Mutiny (1857) and individualism inequality in Kashmiri and Naga insurgencies Maoist guerrillas in Marx on modernization nuclear tests (1998) post-independence writers and artists and Herbert Spencer universal suffrage in Young India see also Hindu nationalism individual, liberal universalist ideal of attempts to impose by force and capitalist modernization Enlightenment inception of failed universalization of fin de siècle rejections of and French Revolution German counter-tradition and Mill Napoleon’s politicization of and new post-war ‘Western Model’ notion of self-expansion and the philosophes promoted by privileged minority rational choice-making capacity Rousseau as critic and Sorel worldwide spread of individualism and Bakunin and creeping despotism culture of competition and mimicry and digital media dominance of since 1990s and Dostoyevsky’s writings and globalization and ISIS and Mazzini neo-liberal fantasy of nineteenth-century rise of Ayn Randian clichés rational egoism notion rhetoric of self-empowerment and rise of ressentiment in USA war of all against all Indonesia industrial revolution inequality as abetted by intellectual classes in India in nineteenth/early twentieth century present-day intellectual and artist class ‘comprador intelligentsia’ fin de siècle as first apostles of nationalism and French Revolution in India in Muslim countries support of despotic modernizers and Voltaire-Rousseau battle see also German Romantics; philosophes Iqbal, Muhammad IRA Iran Khomeini’s rule Khomeini’s velayat-e faqih (guardianship by jurist) revolution (1978) Shah of Shah’s repressive security apparatus US and UK backed coup (1953) Iran-Iraq war (1981–8) Iraq First Gulf War (1990) invasion of (2003) Ireland ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) appeal of birth of destruction as a creative passion and individualism intellectual forefathers and ‘narcissism of small difference’ use of internet Western bafflement at Islam Jalal Al-e-Ahmad writings and Atatürk cartoons lampooning Prophet Mohammed clash of civilizations thesis and Erdogan and European fin de siècle ‘experts’ on first generation of Islamists and Hindu nationalism intellectual and artist class Iranian revolution (1978) Italian invasion of Libya (1911) Naipaul on pan-Islamism in post-colonial states and Rashid Rida Shiite tradition Sunni tradition and Voltaire Western campaign to ‘reform’ Islamism, Radical 9/11 terrorist attacks al-Suri’s jihad strategy appeal of and Christian eschatology as disconnected from Islamic faith historical continuity explanations ideological eclecticism intellectual forefathers and ‘jihad’ and local defences of autonomy mimetic violence as product of modern era and pseudo-explanations and struggle against sensuousness and urbanization World Trade Centre attack (1993) see also ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) Israel Italy assassination of Umberto I (1878) Bakunin’s influence Carboneria city states constitutionalist revolt (1820–21) failings of unified state far-right resurgence in Fascism fin de siècle migration and First World War and ‘Free State of Fiume’ imperial ambitions industrialization Lazzaretti in Tuscany literature Marx on militarism in late nineteenth century Northern League post-WW2 period Risorgimento Sorel’s influence in unification Young Italy see also Mazzini, Giuseppe Jabotinsky, Vladimir Ze’ev Jacobi, Friedrich Jacobins Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig James, Henry Japan Jena-Auerstädt, battle of (1806) Jews see also anti-Semitism Jihadi John jingoism Johnson, Samuel Joyce, James, Ulysses (1922) Jünger, Ernst Kalimantan, Indonesia Kang Youwei Kant, Immanuel Kashmir Kasravi, Ahmad Keats, John Kepler, Johannes Keynes, John Maynard Khamenei, Ali Khan, Ayub Khomeini, Ayatollah post-revolutionary reign of terror Kierkegaard, Soren Kipling, Rudyard Kitaro, Nishida Kleist, Heinrich von Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb Kölcsey, Ferenc Korner, Theodor Kotkin, Stephen Kropotkin, Peter Kuliscioff, Anna Kyle, Chris, American Sniper Kyoto School of philosophy de Lafayette, Marquis de Lagarde, Paul de Lamartine, Alphonse de Lamennais, Abbé Félicité Words of a Believer (1834) Lang Lang (pianist) Le Pen, Marine Lebanon Lees, Edith Lenin Leroux, Pierre Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim Lewis, Bernard Li Shizeng Liang Qichao liberalism, classical Adam Smith’s theory ideal of pursuit of individual interests see also free market ideology; neo-liberalism Libya Lichtheim, George Locke, John Lohia, Rammanohar Loughner, Jared Louis Vuitton Louis XIV, King of France Lu Xun Luce, Henry Luther, Martin Macpherson, James, Ossian fraud de Maistre, Joseph Malatesta, Errico Mali mandarin culture Mandela, Nelson Mandelstam, Osip, ‘My Age, My Beast’ (1918) Mann, Heinrich Mann, Thomas Mannheim, Karl Manzoni, Alessandro Mao Zedong al-Maqdisi, Abu Mohammed Marat, Jean-Paul Marinetti, Filippo The Futurist Manifesto (1909) Marx, Karl The Communist Manifesto (1848) view of history Marxism dialectic dream of universal utopia see also Communism masculinity crisis of in nineteenth century fixation with manliness and Hindu nationalism machismo of Napoleon New Man in fin de siècle Mateen, Omar Maududi, Abu Al-Ala May, Theresa Mazzini, Giuseppe non-European disciples religion of humanity ‘Third Rome’ plan McEwan, Ian, Amsterdam (1998) McKinley, William, assassination of (1901) McLuhan, Marshall McVeigh, Timothy media see also digital communications Meinecke, Friedrich messianism, revolutionary metric system Metternich, Prince Mexico Meyerbeer, Giacomo Michelet, Jules Michels, Robert Mickiewicz, Adam Micklethwait, John Middle Ages Middle East division into mandates Israeli assault on Lebanon (2006) see also individual countries Miglio, Gianfranco Mill, John Stuart mimesis and Adam Smith’s theories appropriative mimicry and commercial society Herzl’s’Darwinian mimicry’ mimetic desire national emulation and ressentiment and Rousseau and violence and Westernizing dictators Mishima, Yukio modernity Anglo-America as maker of modern world Enlightenment inauguration of and European imperialism fin de siècle rejections of German counter-tradition and Khomeini latecomers to Marshall Berman’s definition and mimetic desire modernization from above and Naipaul’s ‘mimic men’ and post-colonial nations reappearance of mythic volk violent history of and Voltaire-Rousseau battle West vs Islam binary see also Enlightenment; individual, liberal universalist ideal of; progress, Enlightenment/modern notions of; Western society (the West) modernization theory Modi, Narendra Mohammed, Khalid Sheikh Montaigne Montesquieu Persian Letters (1721) The Spirit of the Laws (1748) Mosaddeq, Mohammad Mosca, Gaetano Most, Johann Muenzer, Thomas Mukerjee, Radhakamal Mumbai Munif, Abd al-Rahman, Cities of Salt (1984) Mussolini, Benito Myanmar Naipaul, V.


pages: 518 words: 143,914

God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is Changing the World by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Brooks, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

; six years later, under Anwar El Sadat, their new battle cry was, “Allahu Akhbar.”29) At the same time, Israel ’s “miraculous” triumph gave God a stronger voice in its politics, emboldening the settler movement. In the same year a Hindu nationalist party won 9.4 percent of the vote in India. Faith gathered pace in politics in the 1970s. By the end of that decade, America had elected its first proudly born-again Christian, Jimmy Carter; Jerry Falwell had founded the Moral Majority; Iran had replaced the worldly shah with Ayatollah Khomeini; Zia-ul-Haq was busy Islamizing Pakistan; Buddhism had been formally granted the foremost place in Sri Lanka’s constitution; and an anti-Communist Pole had become head of the Catholic Church. What caused this shift in the 1970s? Believers see a populist revolt against the overreach of elitist secularism—be it America’s Supreme Court legalizing abortion or Indira Gandhi harrying Hindus. From a more secular viewpoint, John Lewis Gaddis, a Yale historian, points out that the religious revival in the 1970s coincided with the collapse of secular “isms.”

The Muslim Brotherhood’s credo summed up his philosophy succinctly: “God is our objective; the Koran is our constitution; the prophet is our leader; struggle is our way; and death for the sake of God is the highest of our aspirations.” Al-Banna was assassinated in 1949, but his ideas spread throughout the Islamic world, often underground. Occidentosis: A Plague from the West by Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, one of Iran’s leading intellectuals, had to be secretly published in Tehran in 1962. The book’s argument against what he called “west-mania” or “westoxification” had a marked influence on Ayatollah Khomeini. The Karl Marx of radical Islam was Sayyid Qutb, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood and, many argue, the spiritual godfather of Al Qaeda. Qutb received both a traditional Muslim education (he had memorized the entire Koran by the age of ten) and a secular Western one. He published poems, novels and literary criticism, and earned his living as a teacher and education bureaucrat. The Egyptian government sent him to the United States to study its educational system in 1948-50, in part to get him out of the way.

Governments in many places are incapable of providing security and welfare services, leaving their unstable and rootless populations ripe for recruitment by religious entrepreneurs. A ring of instability lines Islam’s southern frontier, which runs roughly along the tenth parallel from West Africa to the Philippines. Radical Islam has a huge influence over several countries—notably Iran, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. Iran is the most bellicose: Ayatollah Khomeini, who seized power from the shah in 1979, preached a messianic form of Shia Islam that involved a continuous war against the forces of evil, by which he meant the infidel West, led by the United States. His successors have preached the same doctrine with varying degrees of fervor. The current Iranian president is on the extreme end of that: he believes that the Second Coming is imminent and seems to think that he has a chosen role in bringing it about.


Inside British Intelligence by Gordon Thomas

active measures, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, lateral thinking, license plate recognition, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Asgari had been in his twenties during the closing years of the shah’s reign and its failed attempts at industrial modernization of a nation. While possessing 10 percent of the world’s oil reserves, the majority of Iran’s people lived a life indistinguishable from that of their medieval forefathers; millions were without electricity, running water, or paved roads. The call for change had finally swept the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to power in 1979 when he had returned from exile in Paris preaching with the fervor of a new prophet. Asgari had been standing outside the Majlis, the country’s parliament, when Khomeini had been appointed faqih, the nation’s pious jurist, who would lead religious scholars to teach the people the true meaning of velayat-e faqih, a harsh doctrine that previously even the twelve Shiite Muslims who were the apostles of their faith had not spread. Consumption of alcohol was punished by public flogging and adultery by stoning to death.

A quiet and polite man with a receding hairline, which made him look older than his years, Evans had been one of the young officers marked down for fast-tracking, and he had been appointed to implement the policy changes Walker had left unfinished. In his spare time, he had chosen a subject to study: the politicizing of modern Islam. He became fascinated with how it developed from the power struggle between the House of Saud monarchy and the fundamentalism of Ayatollah Khomeini and how later Saddam Hussein, a secularist, had mobilized Iraq’s religious groups to keep them out of Khomeini’s control, a decision that had led to the seven-year war between their nations. From the mishmash of groups that emerged from that conflict, Evans had become intrigued by al-Qaeda and its messianic leader, Osama bin Laden. In 1991, bin Laden had set up his “Base” in a huge, well-guarded compound outside Khartoum, which was protected by the Sudanese military regime.

Intelligence would not be shared unless there was a strong common interest to do so, such as the threat the Soviet Union posed in the region. At college, Asgari had read T. E. Lawrence’s Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Its description of the role intelligence had played in using the Arabs to overthrow the Turks had convinced him MI6 had been the most powerful intelligence service, and remained so, in the region. He read elsewhere how it had later manipulated the shah and helped the Ayatollah Khomeini gain power and had then gone on to try unsettling the mullahs after Iran revealed its plans to become a nuclear power. In intelligence terms, Asgari saw MI6 as cool, calculated strategists. That conclusion may well have been the moment his thoughts of secretly working for it were sown. A passage in Lawrence’s book had stayed in his mind, “All men dream, but not equally. Those who dream by night in the dusty recesses of their minds wake in the day to find that it was vanity: but the dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they may act their dream with open eyes, to make it possible.”


pages: 586 words: 184,480

Slow Boats to China by Gavin Young

Ayatollah Khomeini, illegal immigration, Malacca Straits, Pearl River Delta, South China Sea

When I came out, I found he’d peed in the washbasin.’ ‘Who was it, then?’ ‘One of those Kurds.’ There were indeed three Kurds aboard the Chidambaram. Later I tried to talk to them in mangled English, French and Arabic. They were a thick-set, blue-chinned trio. ‘You are from Germany?’ they asked. ‘No, England.’ ‘We are Kurds,’ they said gruffly. When I asked them who they preferred, the Shah or Ayatollah Khomeini, they answered, ‘Both are bad. The Shah is looking too far forward, Khomeini too far back – he wants to see 700 AD in 1980.’ They were Kurdish nationalists, they said, and were confident that one day their country would be united and independent. ‘There are problems but in fifteen, twenty years….’ Were they, I wondered, on an arms-buying mission? They bought bottles of Teacher’s whisky from the bar and drank fiercely, toasting ‘Kurdistan or death’.

Under his orders, Shapur and Khalat threw open the hoods of the cars on deck and began detaching collars, pipes, a radiator, wires and batteries. The nakhoda came up to me, looking hot but unflustered. He said, ‘We stop here maybe two hours. Then go….’ He pointed vaguely towards Iran, or did he mean Pakistan? I wondered if we were going to end up engineless, foodless and waterless on some remote beach in the wild west of Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iran. As I took a discreet nip of gin behind the wheelhouse, the hoarse voice of Mir Mohamed murmured at my elbow, ‘A little for me?’ I poured him a couple of fingers, and he gave me a sly grin and a wink before going back to chop fish in his ‘galley’. After a while I heard him singing a lugubrious Baluchi lament. The dolphins had disappeared; I hoped they were lingering somewhere within earshot.

Suddenly a sharp call from below roused the three from their contemplation of me, and they ducked under the roof-deck and disappeared. Soon Jan and the Haji joined me, Jan jumpy but giggling, the Haji apparently calm in the recollection of Allah. ‘You make friend with Moro, yah?’ cried Jan. ‘You make friend with very Muslim man – yah, yah – with Ayatollah!’ Thereafter Musa, the friendly Moro with the bottle-green eyes, was known to Jan as the Ayatollah. The Haji said, ‘Moros take arms from Brazil revolutionaries. FN rifles and pistols. Their chief is living in Libya with his wife. They want independence for Sulu, Mindanao and Palawan Island, all Muslim areas. But, of course, all that is too small for independence. It has nothing. I am a Muslim also, but I think independence is nonsense and Moros are too savage.’


pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

He inserted Iran into the Cold War.18 Schlesinger did too, telling the oil minister of Kuwait that events in Iran “followed recent events in the two Yemens and Afghanistan.”19 At the time, the Western consensus was that religious leaders could not govern, and the Americans concluded that the Soviet Union, seemingly on the move, would reap the fruits of a post-shah Iran, not the Iranian Shiite leader, Ayatollah Khomeini. Liberals, too, misread the Shiite opposition. UN Ambassador Andrew Young predicted that Khomeini “would eventually be hailed a saint.”20 Carter’s press secretary, Jody Powell, quickly informed Young that the “United States is not in the canonization business.”21 Princeton professor Richard Falk took Khomeini at his word when he pledged freedom to Jews and leftists. Falk believed that “Iran may yet provide us with a desperately-needed model of humane governance for a third world country.”22 The American left was prone to see its own aspirations in the new regime. For many, the ayatollah’s vocal anti-imperialism was the only passport he needed to enter progressive circles. Even those in the region were of the mark.

Hamsa Abbas, head of the Central Bank of Kuwait, stated categorically that “Khomeini is not a leftist,” but he also believed that despite the “revolutionary fervor,” Khomeini “would need to get his economy going again, which means he will have to reach some agreement with the U.S.”23 Khomeini was a more interesting and reactionary figure than his detractors and admirers made him out to be. He had some acquaintance with Western philosophy and modeled his ideas of government on Plato’s, with all of the elitism that the choice implied. Forced into exile in Iraq, he was expelled by Saddam Hussein as a favor to the shah in October 1978 and was savvy enough to direct affairs in Iran from Paris. Khomeini was dead set against any compromise with the shah. The ayatollah’s eccentricities, which he exhibited in forms such as making the playing of chess a capital crime because of its monarchical pieces, were irrelevant for Americans.

See also War on Poverty Joint Economic Committee (JEC) Jones, James R. Jones, Reginald Jordan, Hamilton Kahn, Alfred Kaplan, Neal Kaufman, Henry Kazin, Michael Keefe, Robert J. Kemp, Jack Kemp-Roth bill Kempton, Murray Kennedy, David Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, John Kennedy, Robert Kennedy Round Kent State University, student protests at Kerner Commission Kerry, Bob Ketchum, William Keynesianism Keyserling, Leon Khomeini, Ruhollah Killingsworth, C. C. Kimbell, Larry King, C. B. King, Martin Luther, Jr. King, Martin Luther, Sr. Kirkland, Lane Kissinger, Henry Klein, Lawrence Klutznick, Philip Kohl, Helmut Kopkind, Andrew Kreps, Juanita Kristol, Irving Krugman, Paul Kuttner, Robert Kuwait Kuwait Oil Company labor movement. See also AFL-CIO labor unions Lance, Bert Larry, Heath Lasch, Christopher Leahy, Patrick Lengle, James Leontief, Wassily Lesher, Richard T.


pages: 420 words: 126,194

The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam by Douglas Murray

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, open borders, post-industrial society, white flight

How could some of them not be? The problem was that they were consistently ignored. Britain had one of the earliest warnings, from Valentine’s Day 1989 when the Supreme Leader of the Revolutionary Islamic Republic of Iran, Ayatollah Khomeini, issued a document calling on ‘all zealous Muslims of the world’ to know that ‘the author of the book entitled The Satanic Verses – which has been compiled, printed and published in opposition to Islam, the Prophet and the Qur’an – and all those involved in its publication who were aware of its contents, are sentenced to death’. The Ayatollah went on: ‘I call on all zealous Muslims to execute them quickly, wherever they may be found, so that no one else will dare to insult the Muslim sanctities.’6 The head of a Tehran ‘charitable foundation’ followed this up with a $3 million reward for the British novelist’s murder (the bounty to be reduced by $2 million if the murderer was a non-Muslim).

One man who thanks to the controversy was on the fast-track to Muslim leadership status, Iqbal (later Sir Iqbal) Sacranie, was asked whether he thought the author of The Satanic Verses deserved death. Sacranie replied, ‘Death perhaps, is a bit too easy for him.’7 Britain’s most famous convert to Islam, Yusuf Islam (formerly known as the singer Cat Stevens), was asked on a television programme whether he would give Rushdie shelter if he were to turn up at his door. He replied, ‘I’d try to phone the Ayatollah Khomeini and tell him exactly where this man is.’ Asked whether he would go to a demonstration where an effigy of Rushdie was being burnt, he replied, ‘I would have hoped that it would be the real thing.’8 Across the cultural and political worlds people debated this reawakened question of blasphemy. On both the political left and right there were those who believed that the novelist had transgressed the rules of courtesy.

Besides which ‘burning books,’ he claimed ‘was not a big issue for blacks’.14 Still a small but determined group of people did realise what the fatwa meant and supported the novelist whom Ayatollah Khomeini referred to as ‘that blasphemous bastard’.15 The novelist Fay Weldon was sitting opposite Cat Stevens when he made his comments and remarked with amazement that a police chief superintendent who was also in the studio did not simply walk across and arrest the singer for incitement to murder. In a subsequent pamphlet Weldon claimed that Britain was paying the price for the fact that too few people had bothered to read the Koran and had instead been happy to murmur ‘platitudes about “great world religions”’.16 This broadside in turn was viewed by some British Muslims as hate-speech, with even a fairly moderate Muslim writer of the period, Ziauddin Sardar, writing that, ‘It seemed Weldon could fabricate whatever she wished and produce a prejudiced diatribe simply because Muslims were fair game.’17 In fact, it was only people associated with Rushdie who were ‘fair game’.


pages: 183 words: 59,209

Pumpkinflowers: A Soldier's Story of a Forgotten War by Matti Friedman

Ayatollah Khomeini, friendly fire, Yom Kippur War

In another pocket of his coveralls, inside a plastic pouch, he had a mystical book the size of a matchbox written in minuscule Hebrew letters. It was called The Book of the Angel Raziel. Mordechai’s mother had given it to him because she thought it might protect him from harm. The army found four bodies afterward. They were around Mordechai’s age. They had rifles, ammunition clips, grenades, food, candy, and gum. They had a Russian missile launcher. One had a photograph of the ayatollah Khomeini. Another had a video camera. They wore red-and-green headbands, camouflage coats, and dog tags, and in their packs were worry beads. Each had a small Qur’an. When everything was quiet again Mordechai brought his tank back to the outpost. The crew replenished the ammunition and made sure the tank was ready for more, just in case. Inside the cramped interior the four of them tried to figure out exactly what happened.

He seemed to be doing this mainly for his own entertainment, as the van was full. A child sat on her mother’s lap and chewed the seat in front of her. The roadside villages grew more ragged as we drove, the women’s dress more conservative, the yellow flags more numerous as we approached Hezbollah’s territory in the former security zone. At the entrance to the city of Tyre we were greeted by the guerrilla group’s patron saint, the ayatollah Khomeini, glaring from a poster next to a Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise, which was full. Tyre was to be the base for my exploration of the south. When the minivan stopped the barker pointed me toward a swarm of yellow cabs, one of which dropped me a few minutes later at a pension in the city’s Christian Quarter. After I paid, the driver told me to be careful. Why, I asked. He motioned with his hand toward Israel and grinned.

I knew what the post looked like inside: a low ceiling, a horizontal opening facing Lebanon, an electric kettle, radio equipment with a few frequencies babbling, packages of processed cheese. Ibrahim pointed his index finger in the direction of the base, thumb up, mimed a gunshot, and then sped away. We passed through Shiite towns bedecked with Hezbollah flags and posters of martyrs and leaders. After a while it seemed to me that Hezbollah’s artists might have become bored painting the same Hassan Nasrallahs and Ayatollah Khomeinis, and I started noticing the same portraits but with backgrounds of airbrushed neon colors, the kind of style you might have seen on the side of a van in America in the 1970s. I saw one Nasrallah with a pop-art background of comic book dots and imagined a frustrated artist laboring in a basement covered in his own unsold paintings, churning out another portrait of the leader to cover rent.


pages: 1,118 words: 309,029

The Wars of Afghanistan by Peter Tomsen

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, drone strike, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The Wahhabi establishment considered Shia to be infidels. Shiism was recognized as Iran’s official religion in Khomeini’s new constitution. The Shia devotion of ayatollahs as quasi-deities and the Shia worship of saints and the shrines of holy men violated the Wahhabi tawhid emphasis on the oneness of God. The Saudi government and the Wahhabi ulema interpreted Khomeini’s promise to “export Islam everywhere”—“the same version of Islam which is currently in power in our country”39—as a dangerous Shia assault on Sunni Islam. Iranian Shia pilgrims in Mecca attempting to distribute photos of Ayatollah Khomeini and pamphlets praising the Iranian Revolution fought pitched battles with Saudi security forces. On November 28, 1979, in the midst of the Grand Mosque crisis in Mecca, violent pro-Khomeini demonstrations erupted in the oil-rich, Shia-minority eastern province of Hasa in Saudi Arabia.

The Soviet Union’s attack on its small Muslim neighbor offered the royal family space to project itself as the defender of Islam against a non-Muslim aggressor. The second was Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iranian Revolution. Khomeini charged that the al-Sauds were no less an American implant in the Islamic religious cosmos than the shah he had just overthrown. Shrill Iranian radio broadcasts to Saudi Arabia in Arabic enjoined the “revolutionary masses” in the kingdom to “resist the government” and announced that “the ruling regime in Saudi Arabia wears Muslim clothing, but it actually represents a luxurious, frivolous, shameless way of life, robbing funds from the people and squandering them.”38 Khomeini’s propaganda blitz excoriating the American “Great Satan,” the Soviet “Lesser Satan,” and Israel appealed to many Muslims in Saudi Arabia and the broader Muslim world. But it was Khomeini’s pan-Islamic reach across the ancient Shia-Sunni chasm that most alarmed the Saudi monarch, the Wahhabi clergy, and Saudi Arabia’s conservative Sunni population.

Vance’s and Brzezinski’s contradictory foreign-policy speeches exhibited a zigzag U.S. approach to Soviet expansionism that lasted until Vance’s resignation in 1980. American equivocation was painfully acute in Iran, where America was losing an ally while the USSR was gaining one in next-door Afghanistan. Carter publicly praised the shah in a 1977 state dinner in Tehran, noting the “admiration and love which your people give to you.”20 Less than a year later, on January 16, 1979, revolutionaries led by Ayatollah Khomeini drove the shah into exile. Khomeini-supported students conducted the first (one-day) seizure of the American embassy and its staff, including Ambassador William Sullivan, on February 14. That same day, four gunmen from a small Marxist Shia group snatched the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, from his vehicle on a Kabul street, then barricaded themselves with their captive in a room at the downtown Kabul Hotel.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

If the norms for freedom of expression differ starkly between the two places—if, for example, it is normal to question Islam in one place and unacceptable in the other—then violent responses become more likely, in one country or both. Many of the defining free speech moments of our time have precisely this dual, urban-orbal character. In 1989, the novelist Salman Rushdie’s life was endangered because an ayatollah in distant Tehran issued a fatwa (‘what’s a fatwa?’ exclaimed Rushdie’s American publisher, back in those innocent days) and the news travelled rapidly around the world.41 The threat had to be taken seriously, not least because Rushdie lived in a city (London) and a country where many Muslims now also lived, and it would take only one of them to carry out Ayatollah Khomeini’s injunction. A study of the worldwide storm that followed the publication in 2005 of cartoons of Muhammad by the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten—the ‘Danish cartoons’—estimates that more than 240 people died in the course of demonstrations against them.42 None of those deaths was in Denmark, and only one was in Europe; most were in countries such as Nigeria, Pakistan, Libya and Afghanistan.

This book lays out an argument for, and invites a conversation about, free speech in our new cosmopolis. I start from the history of dramatic transformations—technological, commercial, cultural and political—that have occurred since the mid-twentieth century, and with particular intensity since 1989. That year saw no less than four developments that would prove seminal for free speech in the twenty-first century: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the invention of the World Wide Web, the Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa on Salman Rushdie and the strange survival of Communist Party rule in China. History’s horse has not stopped galloping since, and I am always conscious of Walter Raleigh’s injunction that ‘who-so-euer in writing a modern Historie, shall follow truth too neare the heeles, it may happily strike out his teeth’.4 Nonetheless, I maintain that the basic character of the challenges we face in this world of neighbours is now clear.

READING JOHN STUART MILL IN BEIJING By this point, some readers will want to object: ‘but in our culture . . .’ Your whole argument, they will say, is built on purely Western intellectual foundations. How can that possibly be the basis for a transcultural debate? This challenge deserves a careful answer. The first and easiest—too easy—part of that answer is to point out that the same judgement grid can be used to present propositions that a Western liberal would abhor. Ayatollah Khomeini’s call for the execution of Salman Rushdie, the Chinese Communist Party’s case for arresting the dissident Liu Xiaobo, a socially conservative father’s argument for locking his daughter in her bedroom to prevent her from going out: all can in principle be presented in the form ‘If someone says X, constraint Y is justified by Z’. All three propositions would be scorned by a liberal, but they can be represented in the same basic schema.


pages: 639 words: 212,079

From Beirut to Jerusalem by Thomas L. Friedman

Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, Unsafe at Any Speed

Pro-Israeli press critics used to complain that the Commodore was a “PLO hotel.” There is no denying that many a Palestinian spokesman hung out there, but when the Israeli army invaded West Beirut, more than a few Israeli officers dined in the Commodore’s restaurant and used it to contact reporters—the exact way the PLO had. The Commodore lived by the motto: The king is dead, long live the king. I would not be surprised if today a poster of Ayatollah Khomeini is hanging over the reception desk. Every serious Beirut militia, whether Christian or Muslim, Palestinian or Lebanese, had a spokesman and a few assistants. The militia spokesmen were the real gatekeepers for Beirut reporters and we all knew it. If you wanted an interview with the big boss, you needed to stay on his spokesman’s good side. Some of the spokesmen developed a reputation for honesty and integrity, and as a reporter you would be willing to give great weight to the information they passed on.

The first to go was the notion that the PLO was still the vanguard of an Arab nationalist revival and the conscience of the Arab world. Arafat had repeated this notion so many times in speeches, he had clearly become convinced of it. What Arafat hadn’t seemed to notice was that in the decade between 1973 and 1982 the Arab world had been broken, either by wealth or by the whip. The wealthier states had grown tired of the PLO’s revolutionary rhetoric, its endless waffling, and its shakedown operations. At the same time, Ayatollah Khomeini’s revolutionary takeover of Iran in 1979 posed a radical Islamic threat that the Arab oil states found far more frightening, both militarily and ideologically, than anything coming out of Israel. Since the Arabs were unwilling to give the Palestinians enough resources or sacrifices to see them through to success, they compensated them instead with money and rhetoric. They adorned all the PLO’s failures, whether in Amman or in Lebanon, with victory bouquets, and indulged them in all their revolutionary bravado, which the Palestinians, as a weak and victimized people, needed as compensation.

The Reagan Administration also took far too long to understand that the United States, in having supported the Israeli invasion and the May 17 peace agreement between Israel and Lebanon, was undercutting Syria, which viewed Lebanon as part of its traditional sphere of influence, and that eventually there would be a price to pay for this as well. Finally, the Reagan team took far too long to understand that back in Teheran, Ayatollah Khomeini was still nursing a grudge against the Americans for having supported the Shah for all those years. Having driven them out of Iran, he wanted to carry on and drive them out of the region altogether. All these aggrieved parties decided to fight the Americans in the only way they knew how, and that was not according to the Geneva Convention. I would never justify what they did, but I cannot say it was without logic.


pages: 420 words: 98,309

Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts by Carol Tavris, Elliot Aronson

Ayatollah Khomeini, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, false memory syndrome, fear of failure, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, medical malpractice, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, psychological pricing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, telemarketer, the scientific method, trade route, transcontinental railway, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

In 1963, the shah put down an Islamic fundamentalist uprising led by Khomeini and sent the cleric into exile. As opposition to the shah's government mounted, he allowed his secret police, SAVAK, to crack down on dissenters, fueling even greater anger. When did the hostage crisis begin? When the United States supported the coup against Mossadegh? When it kept supplying the shah with arms? When it turned a blind eye to the cruelties committed by SAVAK? When it admitted the shah for medical treatment? Did it begin when the shah exiled Khomeini, or when the ayatollah, after his triumphant return, saw a chance to consolidate his power by focusing the nation's frustrations on America? Did it begin during the protests at the embassy, when Iranian students allowed themselves to be Khomeini's political pawns? Most Iranians chose answers that justified their anger at the United States, and most Americans chose answers that justified their anger at Iran.

He was offended by what he saw as a crass effort by his father-in-law to claim some of the settlement money; they were offended by what they saw as his selfish motives to get rid of his wife.2 By the time the country witnessed this family's final, furious confrontation, one inflamed by the media and opportunistic politicians, their reciprocally intransigent positions seemed utterly irrational and insoluble. *** In January 1979, the shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, faced with a growing public insurrection against him, fled Iran for safety in Egypt, and two weeks later the country welcomed the return of its new Islamic fundamentalist leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, whom the shah had sent into exile more than a decade earlier. In October, the Carter administration reluctantly permitted the shah to make a brief stopover in the United States on humanitarian grounds, for medical treatment for his cancer. Khomeini denounced the American government as the "Great Satan," urging Iranians to demonstrate against the United States and Israel, the "enemies of Islam." Thousands of them heeded his call and gathered outside the American embassy in Tehran. On November 4, several hundred Iranian students seized the main embassy building and took most of its occupants captive, of whom fifty-two remained as hostages for the next 444 days.

See also Holocaust; Israel Crusades and, [>] stereotypes of, [>]–[>], [>] Johnson, Lyndon, [>] Jones, Edward, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] Jost, John, [>] (n.6) jurors, evidence bias and, [>]–[>], [>] Kahn, Michael, [>]–[>] Kardon, Bob, [>]–[>] Karr, Mary, [>]–[>] Kassin, Saul, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] (n.30)–[>] Keech, Marian, [>]–[>], [>], [>] Keller, Sharon, [>] Kelley, Susan, [>]–[>] Kennedy, John F. Cuba and, [>] presidential debate with Nixon, [>] Kerry, John, [>], [>]–[>] Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, [>], [>] Kihlstrom, John, [>] King, Larry, [>] Kirsch, Jack, [>] Kissinger, Henry, [>], [>] Knowledge Networks polls, [>] Kochva, Omri, [>]–[>] Kohler, Rika, [>]–[>] Koppel, Ted, [>]–[>], [>] Kosinski, Jerzy, [>]–[>] Kranz, Tomasz, [>]–[>] (n.18) Krauthammer, Charles, [>]–[>] Krimsky, Sheldon, [>] Krugman, Paul, [>] Lacer, Ralph M., [>], [>] Lancet, [>]–[>] leading questions, [>]–[>] Leape, Lucian, [>] Leaving the Saints (Beck), [>] Lee, Bibi, [>] Lee, Robert E., [>]–[>] legal system, [>]–[>] Central Park Jogger case, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>] denial of problems in, [>]–[>], [>] DNA testing and, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>] (n.40) evidence bias, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] eyewitness testimony, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] false confessions, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>] false confidence and, [>]–[>] false convictions, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] independent commissions, [>]–[>] interrogator bias, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] investigator bias, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>] police corruption and, [>]–[>], [>] prosecutor bias, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] (n.8) videotaping of interviews, [>]–[>], [>] wrongful pardons, [>] Leo, Richard, [>], [>] Levi, Primo, [>] Liddy, G.


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

From the beginning, as it rose from nothing in 1968 to 10,000 houses in the early 1970s to hundreds of thousands in the 1980s, Eslamshahr has offered a parallel, highly organized but legally clandestine society and government, a model for all future arrival cities, independent from Tehran’s municipal authorities and Iran’s ruling regime—and frequently at war with them. In media accounts, the 1979 revolution’s flashpoints are conventionally identified as the holy city of Qom, where the Ayatollah Khomeini and his circle of clerics delivered their rhetorical barrages against Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi after returning from exile in 1978; or in the bazaars of central Tehran, where the wealthy merchants merged their religious pieties with anti-modernist fury to back the Ayatollah’s movement. Yet these explosions occurred long after the revolution was well under way, and they would not have been society-altering events if this had merely been a revolt of the mosque and the bazaar. The revolution was not, until its final moments, an Islamic movement, and its motives and causes were not religious.

But he knew that his revolution would not succeed unless he won the unqualified support of the slum-dwellers.14 His message was efficiently spread through the mosques, a recruiting network of the sort that the liberal-democratic and Marxist parties did not possess and did not seem capable of replicating. Even as he promised free land and housing, Khomeini kept the Islamic nature of his revolution obscure, couching it in the language of nationalism and democracy, referring to it as an “Iranian revolution” or a “republic” when addressing less religious audiences and avoiding discussion of Islamic policies.15 There is every indication that ordinary Iranians, when they voted overwhelmingly for Khomeini’s government in the referendum of March 1979, believed they were voting for a nationalist, liberal-democratic party that happened to have a mullah for a leader. As the revolution turned theocratic, rejected the republican constitution, expelled the liberal-minded president, executed many of his colleagues, and turned the Ayatollah into a perpetual, all-powerful Supreme Leader, it was safe from the anger and disillusionment of the secular middle classes because it carefully maintained the loyalty of the far larger mass of arrival-city residents.

“The vast majority of participants in the revolutionary uprising,” the most comprehensive study of the revolution’s social origins concludes, “did not indicate in any way that they wanted to establish a society based on fundamentalist principles.”12 According to the sociologist Asef Bayat, who observed the revolution closely, “most of the poor seem to be uninterested in any particular form of ideology and politics.”13 There was every reason to expect this to be a liberal-democratic revolution, a turn to Turkish-style Kemalism or European-style liberalism. But it was the cleric Ruhollah Khomeini who most vocally, and most credibly, promised the rural migrants a place to live—in fact, in his speeches of early 1979, he promised all Tehranis, and all peasants, their own land. “This Islamic revolution is indebted to the efforts of this class, the class of shanty dwellers,” he said that February. “These South Tehranis, these footbearers, as we call them, they are our masters … they were the ones who brought us to where we are.


pages: 613 words: 151,140

No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, John Bercow, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Live Aid, loadsamoney, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sloane Ranger, South Sea Bubble, spread of share-ownership, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional

He had not read the novel, but had heard about the chapter that retold in fictional form an episode from the life of Mohammed, which he denounced as ‘indecent vilification of the Holy Prophet’.39 As a precaution against the possibility of riots, the Indian government banned the book. Several countries with large Muslim populations followed India’s example. Ironically, one of the first countries to ban The Satanic Verses months before the Ayatollah’s fatwa, was South Africa, the land of apartheid. In January 1989, after 1,000 Muslims had taken to Bradford’s streets and burnt copies of the book, WH Smith withdrew it from the shelves. The next month, after a peaceful demonstration by 3,000 people in Birmingham, a violent one outside the American Cultural Centre in Islamabad and a riot in Kashmir, Ayatollah Khomeini, who had now ruled Iran for ten years, issued his infamous fatwa to Muslims worldwide to kill Rushdie and everyone involved in publishing the novel. The death sentence forced Rushdie to go into hiding for almost ten years, with armed bodyguards watching over him each time he ventured out.

When the call was taken up in the House of Lords, the venerable Lord Hailsham, the oldest and most experienced member of cabinet and the only one possibly better known to the country than Margaret Thatcher, was shocked: ‘If I thought the Conservative Party in its manifesto had taken the line that it was going to stop all secondary action, I should certainly not have supported the manifesto myself, and I certainly should not have accepted office in the present government.’51 The most pressing issue was not the trade unions, however, it was the constant decline in the value of money. Inflation had been coming down since 1976, but was still too high and was likely to get worse because the 1979–80 revolution in Iran that brought Ayatollah Khomeini to power had almost tripled the price of oil. Thatcher and Howe set about applying the monetarist remedy with an enthusiasm that was almost masochistic. Howe’s first Budget looked like a wilful application of fuel on the fire. It contained a lavish gift to the rich – a cut in the top rate of income tax from 83 to 60 per cent. To make this giveaway more palatable to those on middle incomes, the standard rate of income tax was also cut, from 33 per cent to 30 per cent.

During the decade, there were three violent incidents involving terrorists who were Muslim, but they were not British Muslims. One of the strangest episodes opened on 30 April 1980, when a group of gunmen burst into the Iranian embassy in London and seized twenty-six hostages, including PC Trevor Lock and two BBC employees. The gunmen were Arabs from Iran (where Arabs were a subdued minority), who opposed Ayatollah Khomeini’s revolutionary government. The Home Office went into its standard, slow procedure for negotiating with hostage-takers. Four hostages were released over the first three days, including a BBC employee, but by Monday, 5 May, which was a bank holiday, the gunmen were exhibiting symptoms of hysteria. They killed the Iranian press attaché, threw his body out of a window and threatened to blow up the building.


pages: 276 words: 71,950

Antisemitism: Here and Now by Deborah E. Lipstadt

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fixed income, ghettoisation, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, union organizing, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Yours, DEL IV “Yes, But”: Rationalizing Evil THE OMINOUS CASE OF SALMAN RUSHDIE Dear Deborah: In your catalog of antisemites, I notice you didn’t address antisemitism within the Islamic world. I was thinking about this tonight because I just returned from a lecture by Salman Rushdie, whose 1988 novel, The Satanic Verses, contained Islam-related material that many Muslims believed was insulting to their religion. As I know you well remember, Ayatollah Khomeini, then Iran’s supreme religious authority, issued a fatwa, a religious ruling, declaring the novel blasphemous and calling on “zealous Muslims” to murder Rushdie and “all those involved in [the novel’s] publication.” Anyone killed in fulfilling this ruling would, he promised, be deemed a religious martyr. The Iranian government put a bounty on Rushdie’s head, and he was in hiding for about a decade.1 At the lecture, Rushdie spoke of his disappointment at what he felt was a lack of support from some Western intellectuals.

Jews, together with other religious and ethnic minorities, have always thrived in societies where freedom of speech and religion have been highly valued. They have blossomed in societies that welcome an array of cultures and beliefs. Khomeini’s fatwa was a religious attack on freedom of speech. He convicted Rushdie, who does not identify as a religious Muslim, of a religious crime. He insisted that non-Muslims are also bound by Islamic laws regarding blasphemy. And he gave Muslims throughout the world the authority to carry out his religious ruling that “blasphemers,” wherever they may be found, be punished.16 While most of Rushdie’s Western critics did not feel that Khomeini had the right to issue his fatwa, they also blamed Rushdie for doing something that he knew would enrage Muslims who were willing and able to express their anger in acts of violence—as if Muslims are for some reason not expected to adhere to the rules of international law when someone insults them.

I mean there is always a reason why anti-anything crops up anywhere; even a stinker like Hitler didn’t just pick on them for no reason.”11) Paul Gilroy, author of There Ain’t No Black in the Union Jack, whom Rushdie had once lauded as “the United Kingdom’s Cornel West” and a person intent on shedding light on racism, accused Rushdie of having created his own tragedy.12 The historian Hugh Trevor-Roper declared that he “would not shed a tear if some British Muslim, deploring his manners, should waylay him in some dark street and seek to improve them. If that should cause him thereafter to control his pen, society would benefit, and literature would not suffer.”13 There were, however, public figures who supported Rushdie. Daniel J. Boorstin, a historian and former Librarian of Congress, declared Khomeini a terrorist and called for the American government to react in “the strongest terms.” Boorstin encouraged people to buy The Satanic Verses as an act of “affirmation of the freedom of the press in America and our unwillingness to be held hostage in our own country.”14 A similar tone was adopted by the Clinton White House. In 1993, White House director of communications George Stephanopoulos declared: “We unequivocally condemn the fatwa.


pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

But if you do the same with Islam, the Koran, the Prophet Muhammad, some son of Allah, you are called a xenophobic blasphemer who has committed an act of racial discrimination.”124 Fallaci was not always logical in her views. One of the many famous political leaders that she interviewed was Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini. She was barefoot and wearing a chador—quite a compromise for an outspoken feminist—when she met him in Qom. She then described the Ayatollah as the most handsome old man she had ever met. She did reach a breaking point in the interview, however, and tore “this stupid medieval rag” off her face. Khomeini proved understanding and agreed to resume the interview the next day. Fallaci’s Islamophobic statements led to legal charges filed against her. The Federal Office of Justice in Berne asked the Italian government to extradite her so she could be charged under Article 261b of the Swiss Criminal Code.

Chancellor Merkel subsequently complained that “Self-censorship does not help us against people who want to practice violence in the name of Islam.”77 In 2008, a stage adaptation of Salman Rushdie’s novel Satanic Verses in the east German city of Potsdam was seen as a provocative act by some Muslim groups in the country. Shortly after it had been published in 1988, the supposedly blasphemous novel had evoked a fatwah (religious directive) issued by Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini calling for the author’s assassination. The play was put on stage just as the controversy had seemed to be forgotten. In Britain, home secretary John Reid called on Muslim parents to keep a close watch on their children. “There’s no nice way of saying this,” he told a group of Muslims in London. “These fanatics are looking to groom and brainwash children, including your children, for suicide bombing, grooming them to kill themselves to murder others.”78 Former British foreign secretary Jack Straw wrote that he felt uncomfortable addressing women whose faces were covered with a veil—a “visible statement of separation and difference.”79 Even the mythic Dutch reputation for tolerance was tested with the murder of filmmaker Theo van Gogh in 2004 by a Dutch-born Moroccan.

See also anti-Semitism John Paul II (Pope), 36, 107, 152, 216 Joppke, Christian, 156 Judt, Tony, 58 jus sanguini, 130, 132 jus soli, 130, 132, 133 248 Index Kaczyński, Jarosław, 107; defeat of, 111–12, 142–43; on Polish land rights, 110 Kaczyński, Lech, 76, 105, 107, 108; defeat of, 142–43; on German exhibition, 109 Kadare, Ismail, 9, 201, 203; on Balkan history, 208–9; Broken April by, 206; The Concert by, 207; The File on H. by, 202; General of the Dead Army by, 206–7; The Palace of Dreams by, 207–8; Spring Flowers, Spring Frost by, 209; The Three-Arched Bridge by, 204–6 Kant, Immanuel, 13, 15, 17, 108 Kanun, 209 Kapuscinski, Ryszard, 13, 37n2 Katzenstein, Peter, 167–68 Keohane, Robert, 167–68 Kertész, Imre, 4 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 103, 220 Kipketer, Wilson, 230 kitsch, 175 Kjærsgaard, Pia, 102 Klaus, Vaclav, 76 Klein, Naomi, 73–74 Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, 65–66 Kogon, Eugen, 68 Kohl, Helmut, 22; on culture, 62; on German role, 68; immigrant policies of, 131 Kohut, Andrew, 168 Kołodko, Grzegorz, 55n20 Kosovo, 14, 150–51, 178, 207–8 Kremlin, 33, 34 Kroum (Levin), 193 Krzemiński, Adam, 109 Kumar, Krishan, 89–90 Kundera, Milan, 174–75 Künneth, Walter, 68 labor, 73–74, 200 Lacqueur, Walter, 85, 89 Lahav, Gallya, on asylum seekers, 127; on European identity, 91; on immigration, 92, 93, 121 land sales: Denmark’s fear of, 64n7; Polish, 43, 110 language, 86–87 Latvia, 126, 233 Lega Nord.


pages: 549 words: 170,495

Culture and Imperialism by Edward W. Said

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, traveling salesman

The raid on Libya is instructive not only because of the spectacular mirror reflection between the two sides, but also because they both combined righteous authority and retributive violence in a way that was unquestioned and then often replicated. Truly this has been the age of Ayatollahs, in which a phalanx of guardians (Khomeini, the Pope, Margaret Thatcher) simplify and protect one or another creed, essence, primordial faith. One fundamentalism invidiously attacks the others in the name of sanity, freedom, and goodness. A curious paradox is that religious fervor seems almost always to obscure notions of the sacred or divine, as if those could not survive in the overheated, largely secular atmosphere of fundamentalist combat. You would not think of invoking God’s merciful nature when you were mobilized by Khomeini (or for that matter, by the Arab champion against “the Persians” in the nastiest of the 1980s wars, Saddam): you served, you fought, you fulminated.

Many people in England probably feel a certain remorse or regret about their nation’s Indian experience, but there are also many people who miss the good old days, even though the value of those days, the reason they ended, and their own attitudes toward native nationalism are all unresolved, still volatile issues. This is especially the case when race relations are involved, for instance during the crisis over the publication of Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses and the subsequent fatwa calling for Rushdie’s death issued by Ayatollah Khomeini. But, equally, debate in Third World countries about colonialist practice and the imperialist ideology that sustained it is extremely lively and diverse. Large groups of people believe that the bitterness and humiliations of the experience which virtually enslaved them nevertheless delivered benefits—liberal ideas, national self-consciousness, and technological goods—that over time seem to have made imperialism much less unpleasant.

Such practices are anachronistic and supremely mischievous, since they not only make wars continuously possible and attractive, but also prevent a secure knowledge of history, diplomacy, and politics from having the importance it should. An article that appeared in the Winter 1990–91 issue of Foreign Affairs, entitled “The Summer of Arab Discontent,” opens with the following passage, which perfectly encapsulates the sorry state of knowledge and power that gave rise to Operation Desert Storm: No sooner had the Arab/Muslim world said farewell to the wrath and passion of the Ayatollah Khomeini’s crusade than another contender rose in Baghdad. The new claimant was made of material different from the turbaned saviour from Qum: Saddam Hussein was not a writer of treatises in Islamic government nor a product of high learning in religious seminaries. Not for him were the drawn-out ideological struggles for the hearts and minds of the faithful. He came from a brittle land, a frontier country between Persia and Arabia, with little claim to culture and books and grand ideas.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Woerner, and J. D. Wall, “Sex-Biased Evolutionary Forces Shape Genomic Patterns of Human Diversity,” PLoS Genetics, Vol. 4, No. 9, 2008 (www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1000202, accessed 08/08/2010). The views of David Hume and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini on polygamy are found in David Hume, Essays Moral, Political and Literary, Part I, Essay XIX, in The Philosophical Works of David Hume, Vol. 3, edited by Adam Black, William Tait, and Charles Tait, 1826; and Oriana Fallaci, “An Interview with Khomeini,” New York Times Magazine, October 7, 1979. Mating strategies of bonobos and birds can be found in Matt Ridley, The Red Queen (London: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. 203-235. Insights on men and women’s adulterous choices can be found in Lena Edlund, “Marriage: Past, Present, Future?”

That fits a typical marker of polygamy: rich men mate a lot with lots of different women; poor men breed very little or not at all. In his essay on polygamy and divorce, the eighteenth-century Scottish Enlightenment philosopher David Hume blasted polygamy as unnatural: “This sovereignty of the male is a real usurpation, and destroys that nearness of rank, not to say equality, which nature has established between the sexes.” But in 1979, more than two hundred years later, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini told the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci that Iran’s “law of the four wives is a very progressive law, and was written for the good of women since there are more women than men.” Polygamy, he concluded, “is better than monogamy.” IT MIGHT SEEM odd to bring the invisible hand of the market to bear on the most intimate transactions between men and women. But there is an economic rationale for these mating arrangements.

, The (album) infanticide information conflict between makers and consumers of driven off-line free online information technology Inhofe, James ink In Rainbows (album) insurance health social insurance companies Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Labour Organization Internet free downloads and internet service providers (ISPs) investment bubbles and in human capital investment banks iPhone Iran Ireland, Irish Isabella, Queen of Spain Israel Italy iTunes Jack Benny Show, The (TV show) Jackson, Michael janitors Japan, Japanese culture in health-related expenditures in Jehovah’s Witnesses Jews, Judaism Orthodox ultra-Orthodox Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan jobs Jobs, Steve John Paul II, Pope Johns, Adrian justice Justice Department, U.S. Justinian, Emperor Kahneman, Daniel Karnataka Katrina, Hurricane Kellner, Jamie Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kenya Keynes, John Maynard Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khouri, Saeed kidneys Kimble, George H. T. Kipsigis Kmart Kodachrome Kodak Kolkata Krugman, Paul labor, cost of labor theory of value labor unions Lamalera land, allocation of Langthab lap dancing lawyers Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo legal system, laws Lehman Brothers Lennon, John Leo IX, Pope Lewis, W. Arthur license plates licensing Liebowitz, Stan life, price of health care and 9/11 and life expectancy lighthouses Lincoln, Abraham lobbying London Los Angeles, Calif., housing in Lost Symbol, The (Brown) Louis XVI, King of France Luther, Martin luxury McCain, John McCartney, Paul Machiguenga magazines Magnus, Albertus Maimonides, Moses Maldives Malinowski, Bronislaw Malthus, Rev.


pages: 446 words: 578

The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, life extension, linear programming, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, nuclear winter, old-boy network, open economy, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

The fantastic economic growth made possible by modern science had a dark side, for it has led to severe environmental damage to many parts of the planet, and raised the possibility of an eventual global ecological catastrophe. It is frequently asserted that global information technology and instant communications have promoted democratic ideals, as in the case of CNN’s worldwide broadcasting of the occupation of Tienanmen Square in 1989, or of the revolutions in Eastern Europe later that year. But communications technology itself is value-neutral. Ayatollah Khomeini’s reactionary ideas were imported into Iran prior to the 1978 revolution on cassette tape recorders that the Shah’s economic modernization of the country had made widely available. If television and instant global communications had existed in the 1930s, they would have been used to great effect by Nazi propagandists like Leni Riefenstahl and Joseph Goebbels to promote fascist rather than democratic ideas.

This problem can be broken down into two parts: first, can modern natural science be deliberately rejected by existing societies; and second, can a global cataclysm result in the involuntary loss of modern natural science? The deliberate rejection of technology and a rationalized society has been suggested by any number of groups in modern times, from the Romantics of the early nineteenth century, to the hippie movement of the 1960s, to Ayatollah Khomeini and Islamic fundamentalism. At the moment, the most coherent and articulate source of opposition to technological civilization comes from the environmental movement. Contemporary environmentalism comprises many different groups and strands of thought, but the most radical among them have attacked the entire modern project of mastering nature through science, and have suggested that man might be happier if nature were not manipulated but returned to something more closely approximating its original, pre-industrial state.

., 5 Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bovier de, 57, 62, 64, 72 Foreign policy, 8, 245-252, 318 France, 275 centralizing tradition in, 218-219 democratic transition in, 212 événements of 1968, 330 nationalism in, 271, 272 Franco, Francisco, 13, 18-19 Francoism, 19 Franco-Prussian War, 129 Franklin, Benjamin, 326 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke, 331 Freedom, 51, 58, 60, 64, 65, 132 Christianity and, 196-198 Hegel on, 148-152 work as kind of, 194, 195 French Canadians, 121, 273 French Revolution, 4, 19, 25, 42, 64, 66, 67, 134, 137, 175, 199, 216 Freud, Sigmund, 299 Fundamentalist Islam, 46, 83, 217, 235-237, 243 Fussell, Paul, 5 Galileo, 56 Gambia, 35 Gandhi, Mahatma, 228 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 283 Gellner, Ernest, 268, 269 Genocide, 4, 6, 128 Germany, 6, 123, 129, 280, 336 appeal of fascism in, 16-17 nationalism in, 215, 267, 271, 272 National Socialism in, 6, 7, 16, 48, 128, 129, 220, 333 unification of, 258, 337 World War I and, 5, 331-332, 335 Glasnost’, 30, 31 Global cataclysm, 83, 86-87, 127 Global communications, 7 Global culture, 126 Global division of labor, 91, 92 Global warming, 87 Glory, as form of recognition, 162, 183, 184 Gneisenau, August, 75 God’s Presence in History (Fackenheim), 3 Goebbels, Joseph, 7 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 26, 29, 40, 47 coup against (1991), 28 glasnost’ and perestroika and, 31, 75 “new thinking” and, 263 Great Britain, 44, 256-258 Great Illusion, The (Angell), 5 Great Leap Forward, 79, 95 Great Terror, 30 Greece, 13, 19-20, 55, 110, 256 Green movement, 86, 307 Group of Seven, 283 Group recognition, in Asia, 231-232, 238-242, 325 Guomindang party, 14 Guyana, 14 Hamilton, Alexander, 153, 162, 186, 187, 203 Handicapped, 294-295 Hapsburg Empire, 267, 269 Havel, Václav, 33, 166-169, 171, 176, 177, 181, 182, 196, 258 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 39, 59-69, 75, 83, 91, 135, 143-156, 159-161, 165, 176, 182, 185, 191, 194-200, 203, 204, 208, 216, 223, 224, 288, 296, 300-302, 311, 322, 329-330, 337 Heidegger, Martin, 333 Heller, Mikhail, 24 Hinduism, 217 economic development and, 228-229 Hippie movement, 83 Hiroshima, 6, 87 Historicism, 62-64, 83, 137 History directionality of, 71-81, 89, 126, 127 theories of, 4, 55-57, 68-70 History of the Peloponnesian War (Thucydides), 245 Hitler, Adolf, 6, 15-17, 23, 127, 190, 249 Hobbes, Thomas, 145-150, 153-162, 164, 185, 186, 188, 189, 193, 197-200, 214, 255, 288 Holocaust, 6, 7, 128-130 Homophobia, 296 Honecker, Erich, 94, 133, 178-179 Hong Kong, 107, 278 economic development of, 101, 102 Human nature, 51, 63-64, 138, 145-152 Human needs, 83, 132-133 Hume, David, 185 Humiliation, 168 Hungary, 26, 93, 273 democratic transition in, 26, 36, 112 Huntington, Samuel, 11, 216 Hussein, Saddam, 16, 190 Hu Yaobang, 34, 179 Hyksos dynasty, 260 Ibañez, Carlos, 106 Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View, An (Kant), 57-59, 281 Ideology, 45-46, 62, 195-198, 205 Immigration, 277-278 Imperialism, 182, 183, 245, 255, 256, 259, 260, 262, 265-267, 279 Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (Lenin), 99 Import substitution, 100, 101, 104, 220 Impressment, 261 India, 44, 123, 221, 228-229 Indignation, 165, 172, 176 Individual freedom, 42 Individualism, 240, 295 Industrialization, 76, 84, 89-91, 96, 268-270; see also Economic development Industrial policies, 124-125 Industrial Revolution, 6, 134 Inequality, 289-295 Infant mortality rate, 115 Interest groups, 117, 172 International relations, 245-264, 279-283 International trade, 92, 99-100 Introduction to the Reading of Hegel (Kojève), 192, 287 Iran, 7, 44, 76, 112, 123, 127, 137 Iranian revolution (1978-79), 236 Iraq, 16, 46, 76, 112, 127, 236, 249, 262, 264, 277, 282 Ishihara, Shintaro, 243 Islam, 45-46, 260 Islamic fundamentalism, 46, 83, 217, 235-237, 243 Isothymia, 182, 187, 190, 292, 294, 295, 314, 332, 334, 337 Israel, 236, 264 Italy, 215 Japan, 41, 101, 107, 186, 319-320, 336 American occupation of, 120 democratization of, 110 group identity in, 231-232, 238-241 invasion of Manchuria, 249 Meiji, 74-75, 113, 123, 236 nationalism in, 231 trade disputes with, 233 work ethic in, 227-228, 230 Jay, John, 186 Jefferson, Thomas, 153, 159, 326 Jews, 6 Jodo Shinshu, 227, 229 Jones, R. V., 225 Juan Carlos, King of Spain, 19, 47 Judaism, 217 Junkers, 113 Kant, Immanuel, 57-60, 70, 76, 126, 135, 138, 144, 151, 160, 163, 252, 262, 281-283, 296, 297, 302 Kapital, Das (Marx), 68, 131-132 Karamanlis, Constantine, 13 Katyn murders, 178 Kazakhstan, 269 Kennan, George, 246, 256 Kesey, Ken, 24 Khmer Rouge, 79, 127, 293 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 7, 83 Khrushchev, Nikita, 26, 28, 32, 40 King, Martin Luther, 196-197, 237 Kirkpatrick, Jeanne, 8-9 Kissinger, Henry, 8, 68, 246, 249-252, 256, 280 Kojève, Alexandre, 65-67, 139, 143, 144, 147, 150, 192, 193, 203, 206-207, 287-289, 291, 310-312, 319-320, 329, 339 Kommunist, 263 Korean War, 263 Krenz, Egon, 178 Kulaks, 6 Kurds, 273 Kuwait, 262, 277, 282 Langer, William, 267 Last man, 300, 301, 305-308, 312, 336 Late development, 100, 107 Latin America, 10, 16; see also specific countries democratic transitions in, 13-14, 19-21, 112, 121, 212, 220, 277 dependencia theory in, 99 economic development in, 41-42, 44, 103-106, 223 social structure in, 217 League of Nations, 249, 251, 281, 282 Lebanon, 236 Lee Kuan Yew, 134, 241, 243 Legitimacy concepts of, 257-259, 279 crisis of, 15-17 definition of, 15-16 Leisure, 225 Lenin, V.


pages: 535 words: 158,863

Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making by David Rothkopf

airport security, anti-communist, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, carried interest, clean water, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, William Langewiesche

Jacobson, Nancy Janklow, Mort Jews, conspiracy theories about JFK (film) Jiang Xiaosong Jiang Zemin Jobs, Steve Joffe, Josef John Paul II, Pope Johnson, Chalmers Johnson, Edward C. “Ned,” Johnson, James Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen Jolie, Angelina Jones, Gen. Jim Jordan, Vernon Jum’ah, Abdallah Jumper, Gen. John Kangxi, emperor of China Kant, Immanuel Kaplan, Steven Kapuściński, Ryszard Kassar, Monzer al- Katz, Rita Kennard, William Kennedy, John F. Khaled, Amr Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali Khan, Abdul Qadeer Khatami, Mohammad Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Khosla, Vinod Kidman, Nicole Kim Jong Il Kimmitt, Bob Kirchner, Néstor Kissinger, Henry Klein, Maury Kobayashi, Yotaro Koch, Ed Koizumi, Junichiro Kok, Wim Kosovo war Kouchner, Bernard Kraay, Aart Kravis, Henry Krišto, Borjana Krugman, Paul Kryshtanovskaya, Olga Kuczynski, Pedro-Pablo Lagardère, Arnaud Lagos Weber, Ricardo Lake, Anthony Lampert, Eddie Lamy, Pascal Langewiesche, William Langone, Kenneth Larson, Adm.

As a consequence, as religious elites were losing their flocks, they also seemed to be losing significance in the global power structure. But by the early 1970s, many areas of the world began witnessing a backlash to secularism, and with it the reemergence of powerful religious leaders. The religious reversion was especially marked in the Middle East and Southeast Asia: In Iran, the secular and Western-oriented Shah saw his power diminish through the 1970s, culminating in the revolutionary ascension of Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979. Similar movements toward more religious forms of nationalism took place in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A “born-again” Baptist president, Jimmy Carter, was elected in the United States, and Americans tuned in en masse to the televised sermons of evangelist Jerry Falwell and other broadcast ministries. Catholicism blossomed in the developing world during the reign of modern history’s most popular pope, John Paul II, and by the late 1980s, his Communist adversaries not just in Poland but throughout the world faltered and collapsed.

His place in the Iranian power structure was well represented at Ahmadinejad’s inauguration in 2005, when the newly installed president made a very public sign of obedience: bending down to kiss Khamenei’s hand. Unlike most religious leaders, Khamenei has significant direct experience in government. He served two terms as Iran’s president from 1981 to 1989, winning the 1981 election with a 95 percent vote. His predecessor and mentor, Ayatollah Khomeini, led the overthrow of the Shah, founded the Islamic Republic of Iran, and held the highest rank of cleric, a Source of Emulation. In modern Iran, a better mentor would be hard to find. As supreme leader, Khamenei has proved a model of political pragmatism in creating networks of strategic allies. He has strong ties to the Revolutionary Guards, the clerical regime’s powerful military force, as well as the Basiji volunteer militia, a quasi police force dedicated to enforcing religious law in Iran.


pages: 392 words: 106,532

The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis

American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, full employment, land reform, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine

The temptation to exploit this opportunity was too great to resist, and soon the Soviet Union was sending aid to the new regime in Kabul, which undertook an ambitious program to support land reform, women’s rights, and secular education. It did so, however, just as the revolution was brewing in neighboring Iran, which in January, 1979—in a severe setback for the United States—forced its long-time ally Shah Reza Khan Pahlavi into exile, replacing him with the Ayatollah Khomeini. The Russians and their new Afghan clients were no more prepared for this development than the Americans had been, and in mid-March a violent rebellion broke out in Herat, close to the Iranian border, which resulted in the deaths of some 5,000 people including fifty Soviet advisers and their families. The Afghans blamed Khomeini, but from Moscow’s perspective the unpopularity of the Kabul regime was also responsible.32 “Do you have support among the workers, city dwellers, [and] the petty bourgeoisie?” Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin demanded of Afghan Prime Minister Nur Mohammed Taraki in a top-secret telephone conversation.

The unsuccessful Bay of Pigs landing in April, 1961, exposed the most ambitious covert operation the Agency had yet attempted, humiliated the newly installed Kennedy administration, strengthened relations between Moscow and Havana, and set in motion the series of events that would, within a year and a half, bring the world to the brink of nuclear war.29 Meanwhile, the Shah of Iran, restored to power by the Americans in 1953, was consolidating an increasingly repressive regime which Washington found impossible to disavow. Once again, a tail wagged a dog, linking the United States to an authoritarian leader whose only virtues were that he maintained order, kept oil flowing, purchased American arms, and was reliably anti-communist. Iranians were sufficiently fed up by 1979 that they overthrew the Shah, denounced the United States for supporting him, and installed in power under the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini the first radically Islamist government anywhere in the world.30 Not all C.I.A. operations ended this badly. In April, 1956, one of the most successful of them was, quite literally, exposed when the Russians invited reporters to tour a tunnel the Agency had constructed, extending from West Berlin a third of a mile into East Berlin, by which it had intercepted Soviet and East German cable and telephone communications for more than a year.

Jackson-Vanik amendment Japan atomic bombing of and Korea occupation of Jaruzelski, Wojciech Jews Soviet John Paul II, pope attempted assassination of Johnson, Lady Bird Johnson, Lyndon B. Great Society programs of Vietnam War and Johnson administration Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Justice Department, U.S. Kádár, János Kant, Immanuel Katyn Wood massacre Kazakhstan Kennan, George F. “long telegram” of on role of C.I.A. on U.N. Kennedy, John F. Cuban missile crisis and U.S.-Soviet relations and Kennedy, Robert F. Kent State incident K.G.B. Khmer Rouge Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khrushchev, Nikita background and personality of Berlin Wall and Cuban missile crisis and East German alliance and Eisenhower’s meetings with Hungarian uprising and nuclear weapons policy of ouster of rise of Sino-Soviet relations and Stalin denounced by Suez crisis and Tito visited by U.S. visited by U-2 incident and “We will bury you” remark of Khrushchev, Sergei Kim Il-sung King, Martin Luther, Jr.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Following the 1994 Jewish Community Center attack, pressure to investigate and solve the matter heightened, but high-level interference slowed the process down. In 1998, Argentinian judicial and intelligence officials got a break when an Iranian defector in formal testimony implicated senior members of the Tehran government including the president, the minister of foreign affairs, the head of intelligence, the son of the ayatollah Khomeini and the Iranian ambassador to Argentina at the time of the attacks. Additional information, gathered by Argentinian intelligence, showed Iranian officials FROM TERRORISM TO INSURGENCY I79 leaving and entering Argentina under false names around the time of the bombings (Rother, 2002a). For the first time in this investigation, a geographic connection was made that continues to matter today: the so-called Triple Frontier where Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay converge (Fig. 9-1).

No amount of behavior modification on the part of the Western world or of the United States can undo what history has wrought, and of course there is no way to return the planet to the circumstances represented by Figure 8-2. Not even a complete cessation of oil exports and the total withdrawal of all Westerners and Western interests from Saudi Arabia would be enough to satisfy bin Laden and his Wahhabist associates: they equate the "moderate" wing of the royal family with the former shah of Iran, and nothing short of a theocracy of the Khomeini variety will do. Indeed, Khomeini himself made a move that reveals the intent of those who espouse the true faith: in 1989 he issued a fatwa that reached beyond the world of Islam, the umma, by proclaiming a death sentence against a British author living in the United Kingdom for a work allegedly containing blasphemy. This pronouncement compelled Muslims to attempt to find and kill the offender, who had to go into hiding in his own country.

But in Islamic law— and, among the major religions. Islamic law alone—conversion from Islam is apostasy, punishable by death. Once a Muslim, always a Muslim; attempt to renounce the faith, and both the convert and he who encouraged the conversion are condemned. The Hadith is quite specific on this point: "Whoever changes his religion, kill him" (Hadith, 37). While apostasy and blasphemy (another capital offense, as Khomeini's fatwa against British author Salmon Rushdie reminded the world) may not routinely result in execution, it is noteworthy that reservations against the principle are almost never heard from clerics or commoners, and opposition to condemnations is rare. In Iran in 2002, when a conservative court sentenced a university professor to death for publishing a proposal for an Islamic "enlightenment," thousands of university students did take to the streets in protest.


pages: 740 words: 236,681

The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever by Christopher Hitchens

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, Ayatollah Khomeini, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, David Attenborough, Edmond Halley, Georg Cantor, germ theory of disease, index card, Isaac Newton, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, phenotype, risk tolerance, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thales of Miletus, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics

“Imagine There’s No Heaven” A Letter to the Six Billionth World Citizen SALMAN RUSHDIE Born a Muslim in the year that his Indian homeland was fatally sundered by religious partition and war, Salman Rushdie has achieved global renown for his novels and for the way in which they illuminate cross-cultural migrations. In 1989, the Ayatollah Khomeini publicly offered money in his own name to suborn his murder, adding the inducement of a ticket to paradise for anyone willing to take the bribe. Ever since, Rushdie has come to symbolize the defense of free expression and unfettered literary activity (it was his novel The Satanic Verses that was also the object of Khomeini’s mad rage) as well as the right of any person to apostatize from religion. In 1997, Rushdie contributed a letter to a UN-sponsored anthology, addressed to the six-billionth human child who was expected to be born that year. In consequence of Rushdie’s contribution, the ever-courageous Kofi Annan, who was at the time Secretary-General, withdrew his own introduction to the volume.

That much we can understand or politely pretend to understand. But the problem of fatalism remains. In a nuclear age, and in an age of serious environmental degradation, apocalyptic belief creates a serious second order danger. The precarious logic of self-interest that saw us through the Cold War would collapse if the leaders of one nuclear state came to welcome, or ceased to fear, mass death. The words of Ayatollah Khomeini are quoted approvingly in an Iranian eleventh grade textbook: “Either we shake one another’s hands in joy at the victory of Islam in the world, or all of us will turn to eternal life and matyrdom. In both cases, victory and success are ours.” And if we let global temperatures continue to rise because we give room to the faction that believes it is God’s will, then we are truly—and literally—sunk.

This is the battle Voltaire was fighting, and it’s also what all six billion of us could do for ourselves, the revolution in which each of us could play our small, six-billionth part: once and for all, we could refuse to allow priests, and the fictions on whose behalf they claim to speak, to be the policemen of our liberties and behavior. Once and for all, we could put the stories back into the books, put the books back on the shelves, and see the world undogmatized and plain. Imagine there’s no heaven, my dear Six Billionth, and at once the sky’s the limit. The Koran From Why I Am Not a Muslim IBN WARRAQ One of those moved into action and response by Ayatollah Khomeini’s assault on civilization was Ibn Warraq, the nom de plume of a scholarly ex-Muslim who is obliged to keep his true identity a secret. In this long extract from his outstanding book Why I Am Not A Muslim, he considers the fantastic claim that the Koran is the final and unalterable word of god, as delivered to an illiterate merchant in seventh-century Arabia. Timeo hominem unius libri (I fear that I am a man of one book).


pages: 283 words: 77,272

With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald

Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Bush administrations—were seeking immunity from prosecution. Sure enough, they got it: White House officials who clearly and knowingly broke the law, and then deliberately lied to Congress about what they had done (also a felony), were systematically protected from any consequences for their crimes. The Iran-Contra scandal erupted in 1986, when it was revealed that the Reagan administration had sold arms—anti-tank and antiaircraft missiles—to the Ayatollah Khomeini’s regime in Iran. The purpose of the deal was twofold. Initially, it was meant to help secure the release of six American hostages who were being held by Iranian-backed Shia militants in Lebanon. At the same time, the money received from the sale of these weapons to Iran was used to fund the Contras, a CIA-backed rebel group fighting to overthrow the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Reagan’s approval of a weapons-for-hostages deal was an astonishing act of hypocrisy for a self-styled tough guy who had boasted that he would never “negotiate with terrorists.”

Morgan JPMorgan Chase Jefferson County case Jurist news service Justice Department (DOJ) detention without trial and fails to investigate Bush crimes financial industry and Iran-Contra and legal access of poor and memos authorizing criminal conduct and Plame outing and as political arm of White House prisons and state secrets and torture and U.S. attorney firings and warrantless eavesdropping and whistle-blowers and Kashkari, Neel Katzenbach, Nicholas Kean, Thomas Kelly, Elisa Kelly, Ian Kendrick, Joh Kennedy, Robert Kenworthy, Lane Kenya Khomeini, Ayatollah King, Martin Luther, Jr. Klein, Joe Klein, Mark Knutson, Harmony Kozinski, Alex Kravis, Henry Kristof, Nicholas Kristol, Bill Krumholz, Sheila Kuwait Lacey, Frederick Lachman, Desmond La Follette, Bob Lammers, Joris Latinos Lebanon Lederman, Marty Legal Service Corporation (LSC) legal services, access to Lehman Brothers Leibowitz, Shamai Libby, Lewis “Scooter” media defense of Plame outing and sentence commuted Libby Defense Fund Liberia Lichtblau, Eric Liddy, Ed Lieberman, Joe Lietzau, William Liptak, Adam lobbying financial industry and prison industry and telecoms and Los Angeles Times Loury, Glenn Macey, Jonathan Madison, James Madoff, Bernie Malaysia Mann, James R.


pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

Throughout Sunni Islam, the literalist interpretation of the Koran spread by Wahabi Muslims under the sponsorship of Saudi oil billionaires soon snuffed out any intellectual exploration. And Khomeini’s fundamentalism achieved the same result among Shi’ite scholars. The ayatollah himself found it impossible to decide whether the Iranian economy was to be capitalist or Socialist. “Islam does not approve of an oppressive and unbridled capitalism,” he declared in his last will. “Neither is Islam opposed to private property, as [are] communism, Marxism and Leninism. Islam provides for a balanced regime.” The consequences of Khomeini’s inability to deal with privately owned property went beyond Iran. In effect it gave credence to a globalized agricultural economy draped over a corrupted Islamic version of feudal possession of the earth.

In the same way, the shah’s rule, however brutal, was judged to be creating the conditions for Rostow’s elite group of modernizers to prepare the ground for capitalism and representative government. During the last years of Mohammed Reza’s reign, the combination of corruption and autocracy alienated all rural interest groups—aristocracy, tribal chiefs, and peasants—as well as religious and academic opinion in the cities. When his rule collapsed in 1979 and Ayatollah Ruhallah Khomeini returned as the flag bearer of Islamic fundamentalism, the adherents of western democracy had nothing to offer as an alternative. From the perspective of the twenty-first century, the fundamental errors in “development” theory are glaringly obvious. The evidence offered by China, Russia, and Vietnam, among others, demonstrates beyond doubt that capitalism can in fact flourish very well without modern democracy.

But, as in Iraq, Egyptian autocracy went on to flourish on the back of the fertilized agriculture that fed Cairo’s bursting slums, and filled the purses of the rural elite, many of them related to senior officers in the military. The fix from the Green Revolution, however, revealed an awkward gap in Islamic thinking about how to deal with the capitalist intrusion into the Ottoman Empire’s land system. Significantly, when the Ayatollah Khomeini returned from exile in 1979 to lead the Islamic revolution, he singled out Arsanjani’s land reforms for particular vilification. Ostensibly, he blamed them for the dismemberment of large religious estates whose rents financed Shia colleges and clergy, but the real problem, that he never solved, was that a literal reading of the Koran offered no authority for dealing with the forces unleashed by individual ownership of land.


pages: 323 words: 95,188

The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Michael Meyer

Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, union organizing

How was it, then, that these dramatic events failed to spark a realization that change was on the march in Eastern Europe, that the Cold War world was profoundly and quickly changing? The answer was Tiananmen Square. The massacre of demonstrating students in China—with its dramatic TV footage of rumbling tanks, riot police firing tear gas, screams, shots and bodies in the streets—occurred on the same day as the Polish election. June 4 also brought news of the death, at eighty-nine, of Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, the father of the Iranian Revolution. The imagery from China, coupled with the fanatical turmoil of Khomeini’s funeral, thrust Poland’s political transformation to the background of the news. “After that,” one Bush aide later told me, “it was almost impossible to focus on anything else. It was Tiananmen, Tiananmen, Tiananmen. And then Iran. Eastern Europe? Yes, it was on the radar. But not really.” In retrospect, this made Poland’s election all the more remarkable.

Bush, 94–95 as president of Poland, 92, 128, 131–132, 225–226 Round Table (1989), 35, 47, 49, 50–54, 58–63, 80, 82–83, 129, 141 Solidarity elections of 1989, 81 Jefferson, Thomas, 29, 41 Jennings, Peter, 183 John Paul II (pope), 190–191 Johnson, Ben, 39 Johnson, Daniel, 223 Jordan, 106 Jubilee of 1989 (GDR), 66, 115, 135, 147–152 Judt, Tony, 219, 238 Julius Caesar, 131 Kadar, Janos, 84–85, 88 Kagan, Robert, 215, 237 Karl-Marx-Stadt, rise of opposition, 158 Karpati, Ferenc, 57, 68–69 Kat, 52–53, 59, 81 Katowice, 51–52 Keller, Bill, 222 Kennan, George, 61 Kennedy, John F., 3, 10 Kent State University, 225–226 Kessler, Heinz, 68–69, 117 KGB secret police, 11–12, 25, 53, 135–136, 140 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla, 83 Khrushchev, Nikita S., 17 Ki-moon, Ban, 219 Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite (Behr), 236 Kiszcak, Czeslaw at Round Table (1989), 48, 59, 63, 80, 82–83 Solidarity elections of 1989, 82, 84 Klaus, Vaclav, 184 Kochemasov, Vyacheslav, 154–155, 234 Kohl, Helmut attitudes toward German reunification, 23–28, 127 fall of Berlin Wall and, 9, 72–76, 175, 228–229, 235–236 Gorbachev and, 12 nuclear deterrence and, 74–76 refugees from GDR and, 113–114, 125–127 Korean War, impact of, 23 Kornblum, John, 10 Kosovo, 47 Kovacs, Gyula, 99–100, 102 Kraków, 82 Krauthammer, Charles, 214, 236–237 Krenz, Egon collapse of GDR and, 163, 165–167, 169, 170, 172, 173, 204, 234–235 fall of Berlin Wall and, 7–9, 65, 223, 234 GDR Jubilee of 1989 and, 148, 150 as leader of GDR, 156–161, 175 refugees from GDR and, 133–135 rise of opposition in GDR, 154–156 Kreuzberg, 24 Krol, Marek, 130 Kubek, Tony, 94 Kubisova, Marta, 182 Kulcsar, Kalman, 145, 206 as justice minister of Hungary, 29, 30–31, 33, 36, 41, 55 Kurfurstendamm (West Berlin), 120 Kuron, Jacek, 53–54 Kuwait, 214 Kwiatkowski, Stanislaw, 230 Lake Balaton, 57, 68, 95, 98, 101, 113, 207, 232 Lance missiles, 229 Largo Desolato (Havel), 136 League of Young Democrats (Fidesz), 32 Lebow, Richard, 224 Leipzig fall of Berlin Wall and, 172, 234 refugees from GDR and, 124, 135, 160 rise of opposition, 152, 153, 155, 158–159 Lenin’s Tomb, 65–66 Letna Park (Prague), 188–190 Libby, I.


pages: 492 words: 153,565

Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

The revolutionaries who ousted the shah and seized power with the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini took a narrow view of the behemoth reactors being erected at Bushehr, considering them a symbol of the shah’s alliance with the West. The United States, alarmed by the unstable political situation, withdrew support for the project, and the German government eventually forced Kraftwerk Union to pull out of its contract for Bushehr.20 The subsequent Iran–Iraq war wasn’t kind to the abandoned reactors. Throughout the eight-year war, which ran from 1980 to 1988, Iraq bombed the two towers more than half a dozen times, leaving them in ruins.21 During the war, the commander of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard urged the Ayatollah Khomeini to launch a nuclear weapons program to fend off Iraq and its Western allies. But Khomeini refused, believing that nuclear weapons were anathema to Islam and a violation of its basic moral principles.

But Khomeini refused, believing that nuclear weapons were anathema to Islam and a violation of its basic moral principles. He apparently changed his mind, however, after Saddam Hussein unleashed chemical weapons on Iranian troops and civilians, killing about 25,000 and injuring more than 100,000 others. Incensed by the UN’s passive reaction, and alarmed at rumors that Iraq was seeking to build nuclear weapons of its own, Khomeini decided to revive Iran’s nuclear program. This included developing a uranium enrichment program.22 To launch the program, Iran turned to a Pakistani metallurgist named Abdul Qadeer Khan for help. Khan had been instrumental in helping Pakistan build its nuclear weapons program in the mid-1970s, using centrifuge technology he had stolen from Europe. Khan had worked for a Dutch company that conducted centrifuge research and development for Urenco, a consortium formed by Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands to develop centrifuges for nuclear power plants in Europe.

Protesters vandalized stores and set fire to trash bins, while police and Basijis, government-loyal militias in plainclothes, tried to disperse them with batons, electric prods, and bullets. That Sunday, Ahmadinejad gave a defiant victory speech, declaring a new era for Iran and dismissing the protesters as nothing more than soccer hooligans soured by the loss of their team. The protests continued throughout the week, though, and on June 19, in an attempt to calm the crowds, the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei sanctioned the election results, insisting that the margin of victory—11 million votes—was too large to have been achieved through fraud. The crowds, however, were not assuaged. The next day, a twenty-six-year-old woman named Neda Agha-Soltan got caught in a traffic jam caused by protesters, and was shot in the chest by a sniper’s bullet after she and her music teacher stepped out of their car to observe.


pages: 413 words: 128,093

On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey Into South Asia by Steve Coll

affirmative action, airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, yellow journalism

It becomes necessary to see opponents not just as bad or misguided but as evil incarnate, evil in the face of which there can be no compromise. One example from my time is what happened to Salman Rushdie, a Bombay-born Muslim whose family emigrated to Pakistan before Rushdie went on to settle in the West. As is well known, Rushdie ran afoul of Ayatollah Khomeini for writing the novel The Satanic Verses, which some Muslims found blasphemous. Khomeini then issued a fatwah, or religious edict, condemning Rushdie to death and forcing the author into hiding. That such an edict would emanate from the puritan terrorism of the Iranian revolution did not seem entirely surprising. But what was mind-boggling was the way Rushdie was treated in the land of his birth. India’s nominally democratic and pluralistic government, fearful of rioting and political blackmail provoked by local Muslim politicians, banned the novel.

The American was a black man and he had visas in his passport indicating recent visits to Iran. Kamran’s source said the American had been detained at the airport for possession of a small amount of hashish. Later, the police discovered in his luggage and at his hotel what they described—in writing, at the time—as the manual of a C-130 aircraft, a hand-drawn sketch of a military airfield, a map of the airports at Islamabad and Istanbul, Turkey, photographs of the Ayatollah Khomeini, and the names and telephone numbers of pro-Iranian Shia activists in Pakistan. In addition, the American possessed unidentified radio equipment, possibly transmitters. The police were so alarmed by these materials that the chief martial-law bureaucrat in Baluchistan—this was prior to the restoration of democracy—flew to army headquarters in Rawalpindi and demanded a meeting with the chief of the Pakistan intelligence service, ISI.

Kanpur, India Karachi, Pakistan Karmal, Babrak Kashmir, India; counterinsurgency campaign in ; separatist guerrilla movements in ; vote-rigging in Kathmandu, Nepal Kennedy, Robert F. Kerala, India Khala Pahar (‘Black Mountain’) Khalid (guerrilla) Khan, A. Q. Khan, Kamran; investigation of Zia ul-Haq crash ; knife attack on Khan, Mohammed Amir Mohammed (‘Suleiman’) Khanna, Ajay Khayal, Ghulam Nabi Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khyber Pass kidnappings Kipling, Rudyard Koran Korea Kotagoda, Sri Lanka Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Tardip Kumari, Ranjana Kuwait Lai, Rajesh Kumar Lakshmi, Rama Lal, Bahwaral land ownership land reform Latin America Layec, Suleiman Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) ; and political assassination; suicide attacks of life expectancy rates literacy rates Lockheed Corporation Lodhi, Maleeha London School of Economics Louis XVI (king of France) Lucknow, India McGee, Jim Maharashtra, India Mahendra (king of Nepal) Mahmudabad, India Mahule, S.


Executive Orders by Tom Clancy

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, card file, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, experimental subject, financial independence, friendly fire, lateral thinking, Monroe Doctrine, one-China policy, out of africa, Own Your Own Home, plutocrats, Plutocrats, rolodex, South China Sea, trade route

Theirs was a maritime trading culture that predated Islam, a fact remembered in America only in remakes of Sinbad the Sailor movies. In that sense they were very like Americans, despite the difference in language, clothing, and religion, and just like Americans they had trouble understanding people who were not willing to do business, to reach an accommodation, to make some sort of exchange. Iran was such a country, changed from the previous state of affairs under the Shah by the Ayatollah Khomeini into a theocracy. They're not like us was the universal point of concern for any culture. They're not like us ANYMORE would be a very frightening development for Gulf States who'd always known that, despite political differences, there had always been an avenue of commonality and communication. “Tehran?” Jack asked next. Ben Goodley took the question unto himself. “Official news broadcasts welcome the development-the routine offers of peace and renewed friendship, but nothing beyond that at this point,” Goodley said.

“My country wishes no more than peace in this region-throughout the world, for that matter.” “As is indeed the wish of Allah, as revealed to us through the Prophet.” He was sticking to the script, Adler saw. Once upon a time, President Jimmy Carter had dispatched an emissary to visit this man's boss, Khomeini, at his exile home in France. The Shah had been in deep political trouble then, and the opposition had been sounded out, just to hedge America's bets. The emissary had come home after the meeting to tell his President that Khomeini was a “saint.” Carter had accepted the report at face value, and brought about the removal of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, allowing the “saint” to supplant him. Oops. The next administration had dealt with the same man and gotten nothing more for it than a scandal and world ridicule.

President,” the FBI Director said, entering with Inspector O'Day and Andrea Price. “Why do you look so happy?” And then they told him. IT WAS A BRAVE man who awoke the Ayatollah Mahmoud Haji Daryaei before dawn, and since those around him feared his wrath, it took two hours for them to summon the courage to do so. Not that it would help matters. At four in the morning in Tehran, the phone by the side of his bed rang. Ten minutes after that, he was in the sitting room of his private apartment, his dark, sunken eyes waiting to punish those responsible. “We have a report that American ships have entered the Gulf,” the intelligence chief told him. “When and where?” the Ayatollah asked quietly. “It was after midnight at the narrows. One of our missile-patrol boats spotted what it reported to be an American destroyer. It was ordered in to attack by the local naval commander, but we've heard nothing more from the boat.” “That is all?


The Secret World: A History of Intelligence by Christopher Andrew

active measures, Admiral Zheng, airport security, anti-communist, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francisco Pizarro, Google Earth, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

Its incomprehension of the political power of religious extremism was vividly displayed during the crisis in Iran which led early in 1979 to the fall of the pro-Western Shah and the rise of the 78-year-old Shia Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who had lived in exile for the past fourteen years. The popular appeal of the call by Imam Khomeini (as he was best known in Iran) for the establishment of a religious ruler, the velayate faqih, was almost beyond the comprehension even of the devoutly Christian US President, Jimmy Carter. The White House aide on Iran, Gary Sick, later acknowledged: ‘The notion of a popular revolution leading to the establishment of a theocratic state seemed so unlikely as to be absurd.’ ‘Whoever took religion seriously?’ demanded one State Department official after Khomeini’s rise to power.1 Iran’s religious revolution, however, was more popular than most of the political revolutions the West found easier to understand.

But the increasingly secularized late-twentieth-century West found it far more difficult to grasp the appeal of Islamic fundamentalism. Its incomprehension of the political power of religious extremism was vividly displayed during the crisis in Iran which led early in 1979 to the fall of the pro-Western Shah and the rise of the 78-year-old Shia Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. ‘Whoever took religion seriously?’ demanded one surprised State Department official after Washington had been taken aback by Khomeini’s popular triumph.25 Over the next decade, many Western intelligence analysts similarly failed to grasp that understanding the appeal of Al Qaeda and the terrorist threat which it posed required serious study of its theology. Those with the best understanding of the Islamist terrorist threat before the 9/11 attacks, among them the leading academic expert on ‘Holy Terror’, Bruce Hoffman, were those with a long-term perspective.26 The dawn of cyberwarfare and the looming threat of terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction confront twenty-first-century intelligence communities with dramatic new challenges.

Al-Khatmi crept into bint Marwan’s house at night and plunged a knife into her chest as she lay sleeping with her children.16* The offence for which she, like Kab and Abu Rafi, was assassinated was not hurting Muhammad’s feelings but blasphemy against the message which Allah had entrusted to him. In 1989 the Iranian Shia leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, claimed to be following the example of Muhammad when he issued a fatwa calling for the killing of the British author Salman Rushdie and his publishers on the grounds that his novel Satanic Verses had insulted the Prophet and ‘the sacred beliefs of Muslims’.† Khomeini’s fatwa calling for the assassinations declared that ‘whoever is killed in this cause will be a martyr’. This, he believed, was in accordance with the teachings of the Prophet. Muhammad looked on those of his spies who were killed during secret missions as martyrs who, like those who died in battle, had earned a place in Paradise.


pages: 214 words: 57,614

America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

It is an attempt to ideologize religion and use it for political purposes, more a Threat, Risk, and Preventive War product of modernity (like communism or fascism) than a re-assertion of traditional religion or culture. The historians Ladan and Roya Boroumand have argued similarly that many radical Islamist ideas are not Islamic but Western in origin. If we go back through the precursor political thinkers who shaped al-Qaida's ideology, such as Hassan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb of the Muslim Brotherhood, Maulana Mawdudi of the Jamaat-e-Islami movement in Pakistan, or Ayatollah Khomeini, we find a peculiar syncretist doctrine that mixes Islamic ideas with Western ones, borrowed from the extreme left and right of twentieth-century Europe. 5 Concepts like "revolution," "civil society," "state," and the aestheticization of violence come not out of Islam but out of fascism and Marxism-Leninism. Jihadism's purpose is as much political as religious. It is thus a mistake to identify Islamism as an authentic and somehow inevitable expression of Muslim religiosity, though it certainly has the power to reinforce religious identity and spark religious hatred. 6 The implication of this view is that we are not currently engaged in anything that looks like a "clash of civilizations" but rather in something that looks much more familiar to us from the experience of the twentieth century.

"Scoop," 34 Jacksonian nationalists, 7, 8, 183 Jaffa, Harry, 23 Japan, 129,132,175 JDAMs (Joint Direct Attack Munition), 35 Jefferson, Thomas, 2 3 jihadists (radical Islamists), 69-70; cultural background of, 75-78; Iraq as base for, 181; political roots of, 72-74, 2om5; as threat to the United States, 5-6, 70-75, 184-85 Johnson, Lyndon,18 Jowitt, Ken, 54-55, 58, 86 Kagan, Robert, 40-44, 56, 102 Kant, Immanuel, 176 Kay, David, 92 Kelling, George, 19 Kennan, George, 50 Kennedy, John F, 50 Kennedy administration, 83 Kepel, Gilles, 71-72 Khalilzad, Zalmay, 31 Khan, A. Q., 80 221 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 73 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 41, 43 Kissinger, Henry, 5, 7, 34, 37, 189 Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 133 Kosovo war, 36, 98, 99, 172, 173 Krasner, Stephen, 178 Krauthammer, Charles, 43, 70-71, 102 Kristol, Irving, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 37, 40, 102 Kristol, William, 40-44, 56 Kristol-Kagan agenda, 40-44, 56, 102, 117 Kuwait, 160 Kyoto Protocol, 65 Laden, Osama bin, 70, 79 LaRouche, Lyndon, 21 Latin America, 109, 205~6ni5 leadership, aspects of, 60-61 League of Nations, 49, 176 leftists (during the 1960s), 18 legitimacy: of American actions against Iraq, 97; international, 96, 97-98, 191; of international institutions, 155, 169, 170-71; of NATO, 172-74; of states, 10 Leninism, 55, 58 Lerner, Daniel, 126 Levine, Ross, 123 Lewinsky, Monica, 43 liberal authoritarianism, 140-41 liberal internationalists, 7 libertarians, 27-28 Ligachev, Yegor, 199-200^2 Lilla, Mark, 21,23 Limongi, Fernando, 128 Lipset, Seymour Martin, 15, 16-17, 128 Loury, Glenn, 18-19 Lukashenko, Alexander, 130 Luther, Martin, 78 MacArthur, Douglas, 30, I97~98ni5 Madrid bombings, 73 Maine, Henry, 125 Mann, James, 14 Manning, David, 195m Marcos, Ferdinand, 135 Mawdudi, Maulana, 73 Mead, Walter Russell, 7, 106, 107 memorandum of understanding (MOU), 166 Metternich, Prince von, 189 Mexico, 148-49 Middle East: democracy in, 177, 186-87, 2I 5 n 4; nuclear proliferation in, 34.


pages: 556 words: 141,069

The Profiteers by Sally Denton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, clean water, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, profit motive, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, William Langewiesche

In 1983 Iraq and Iran were still embroiled in a brutal armed conflict that had begun three years earlier when Iraq invaded Iran in a ground assault. The two countries had a long history of border disputes, but the current war was fueled by Iran’s Islamic revolution that had spurred the ousting of the Shah—a proxy for US interests in the Middle East—and his replacement by the anti-American radical cleric Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini. The vicious war, in which Saddam Hussein was using chemical weapons against Khomeini in violation of international law, had jeopardized the flow of oil out of the region. “After the Iranian revolution, Bechtel had been booted from Iran by the Ayatollah,” as one account described the geopolitical conflict of the region. “To counter this ungracious exile, Bechtel warmed once again to its old friends in Iraq.” Reportedly sent to the Middle East in December 1983 in response to the recent terrorist bombing of an American military facility in Lebanon, Rumsfeld’s top secret detour to visit Saddam in Iraq would remain classified for the next twenty years.

(JFK), 112 assassination of, 80–81, 82, 131, 318 Bay of Pigs invasion and, 78 McCone’s disagreements with, 82 normalization of relations with Cuba and, 81 plots against Cuba and, 78, 80 as president, 87, 119 proposed CIA reform by, 78 Kennedy, Joseph P. Sr., 78 Kennedy, Robert brother’s assassination and, 80–81 plots against Cuba and, 78 Kerry, John, 301 Keystone Pipeline System, 9 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla, 168 Kim Jong-il, 281 King, Ralph, 226, 309 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 140 Kissinger, Henry, 238 Allende coup in Chile and, 97, 98–99 as Bechtel consultant, 99, 121, 126–27, 184, 209 Bechtel’s participation in Arab boycott of trade with Israel and, 126–27 biotech company Theranos and, 305 on George Shultz, 109 Iran-Iraq war and, 172 Nixon administration and, 110, 132 nuclear nonproliferation and, 276, 283–84 nuclear technology export and, 146 Pollard affair and, 300 Klamath River Highway, California, 25 Klein, Aaron, 302 Klein, Naomi, 230, 245, 246 Klotz, Frank G., 294 Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Niskayuna, New York, 294–95 Koch brothers (Charles and David), 11, 309 Koch, Ed, 165–66 Koch Industries, 7 Komes, Jerome, 85 Kondrake, Morton, 140 Kopf, Rick, 219–20 Koppel, Ted, 175, 233, 234 Korb, Lawrence, 139 Korea, 89 Kosovo, 306–08 Kostikov, Valeriy, 81 Kurtz, Howard, 150 Kuwait Bechtel projects in, 62–63, 202–03, 206, 212 Iraqi invasion of, 200, 201, 202 oil industry in, 62, 85, 202, 242 Kuwait Oil Company, 62 Kwitny, Jonathan, 104 Kyl, Jon, 281–82 Labaton, Stephen, 311 Labor-Management Advisory Committee, US Treasury Department, 95 Laird, Melvin, 133 Lando, Barry, 193 LANS LLC, 258, 263, 270, 271, 282 Lardner, George, 190 La Rocque, Gene, 137 Latin America, 64, 96, 146, 225 Lauer, Eliot, 302 Laughlin, Robert B., 296 Lawrence, Ernest, 251 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 154 background of, 10–11 founding of, 251 layoffs at, 263–64 LLNS, LLC, formed by Bechtel to manage, 258, 263–64, 265–66, 283, 289, 290, 294 National Ignition Facility at, 265–66 national laboratory system with, 157 University of California management of, 252, 253 Lebanon, 168 American hostages held in, 185, 187 Bechtel projects in, 63, 139 warfare in, 142, 147, 177 Lee, Wen Ho, 252–53 Levi, Edward, 125–26 Libya, 178 Bechtel’s projects in, 63, 94, 96, 124, 139 CIA’s covert operations in, 78, 96 oil industry in, 94, 96 Qaddafi in, 87, 96, 124, 306 Lidgerwood Manufacturing, 36 Liedle, Steven B., 264 Life (magazine), 67 liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry, 9, 95–96, 101, 158, 205, 304 Livermore.

., 41–42, 51 Illich, Jim, 236 Imperial Chemical Industries, 85 Imperial Valley, California, farms, 30, 37 Independent (London), 99, 237 India, 87, 94, 120–21, 123, 226, 274, 305 Indonesia, 95–96, 123, 205, 209, 225 Industrial Workers of the World, 40–41 infrastructure projects, 5–6, 9, 30, 62, 63, 82, 95, 134, 135, 162, 208, 209, 216, 233–34, 235, 306–07, 304 Institute for Policy Studies (IPS), 169, 229 Intelligence Committee, Senate, 141, 181, 292, 301 Interagency Contingency Operations Plan, 177–78 Inter-American Development Bank, 112 intercontinental ballistic MX missiles (ICBMs), 162 InterGen, 218, 220, 225–26 International Herald Tribune, 172 International Monetary Fund, 112, 308 International Bechtel Inc., 59, 76, 306 International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT), 97, 318 International Water, 222 Investigative Reporting Program, University of California at Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism, 307–08 Iran Bechtel’s projects in, 63, 64–65, 78, 127, 168 Bechtel’s ties with the Shah and, 87, 121, 124 hostage crisis in, 133, 138–39 intelligence gathering in, 65 Khomeini and Islamic revolution in, 168 Mossadegh’s overthrow in, 65, 76 oil industry in, 65, 96, 168 Shah’s proposed restoration in, 65 US clandestine sale by weapons to, 347–48n185 Iran-Contra affair, 187–92, 240 background to, 187–88 Bechtel and, 213 Colley’s murder in, 77, 192 investigation of, 187, 190 Meese’s resignation and, 191–92 Pollard affair and, 184–85, 347n185 Rappaport’s involvement in, 189–91 Rumsfield’s visit with Saddam about pipeline and, 188–89 Weinberger’s role in, 185–86, 188, 191, 213–14, 302 Iran-Iraq war, 167–68, 169, 172, 176, 187 Iraq Bechtel employees as hostages in, after US invasion, 201–02 Bechtel’s arrival in, 5 Bechtel’s business relationships with, 15, 124, 168, 192–94, 197 Bechtel’s headquarters in Republican Palace in Green Zone in, 3–4, 242 Bechtel’s projects in, 5–6, 63 Bush’s reconstruction plans for, 5, 202, 235 chemical weapons production facilities in, 174, 176, 180–81, 198–99, 230, 237 CIA operations in, 80, 175 Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) in, 238, 239–40 depth of feeling about Israel held by, 188–89 ISIS in, 3 Israel’s bombing of reactor in, 141, 142, 175 lobbying for projects in, 141, 166, 173, 189–90, 194 PC2 petrochemicals plant in, 175–76, 180, 184, 197, 199–200, 201, 202–03 Reagan administration and, 141–42 Rumsfield’s visit with Saddam in, 166, 167, 168–71, 172–73 Saddam’s use of chemical weapons in, 168, 169–70, 173, 200, 230 Shultz’s support for Bechtel’s projects in, 166, 167, 168–73 US financing of projects in, 198–99, 200–01 US invasion of, 3, 201 weapons of mass destruction of, 3, 172, 199, 228, 229 Weinberger and weapons transfer to, 188, 198 Iraq Petroleum Company, 62 Iraq War, 3 iron-ore slurry pipelines, 146 irrigation construction projects, 235 ISIS, 3 Israel Arab boycott of trade with, 124, 125–26, 129, 146 Bechtel’s pipeline project in Iraq and guarantee from, 188–90, 191, 192 Bechtel’s business approach and, 148 Bechtel’s refusal to build in, 61, 124, 125 bombing of Iraqi reactor by, 141, 142, 175 Connally’s proposal on borders of, 131 depth of Iraqi feeling about, 188–89 distrust of Bechtel by, 124–25, 189 espionage operations against American targets by, 15 “Free Jonathan Pollard” crusade and, 14–15 Iran-Contra affair and, 188 Kerry’s proposal of prisoner swap for Pollard with, 301 nuclear test ban treaty and, 274 Pollard’s concern about threats to existence of, 174–76, 177–78, 180, 184–85 Pollard’s documents returned by, 182 Pollard’s release requested by, 13, 298, 299 Pollard’s spying for, 15, 178–82, 300 Qaddafi in Libya and, 306 Reagan administration and, 140–41, 142, 165, 166 Six-Day War (1967) of, 168 US spying on prime ministers of, 14 US support for, 61, 168 Weinberger’s hostility toward, 139–41, 142, 174–75, 303 J.


pages: 309 words: 79,414

Going Dark: The Secret Social Lives of Extremists by Julia Ebner

23andMe, 4chan, Airbnb, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, feminist movement, game design, glass ceiling, Google Earth, job satisfaction, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, off grid, pattern recognition, pre–internet, QAnon, RAND corporation, ransomware, rising living standards, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Transnistria, WikiLeaks, zero day

When the German cultural historian Arthur Moeller van den Bruck wrote The Third Reich, his idea of a new state would rebrand conservatism by combining right-wing nationalism and left-wing socialism. Like fascism, Islamist extremism combines conservative and progressive thinking. For instance, the Iranian revolution of 1979 was a careful and cunning attempt to reconcile fundamentally different leftist and rightist values. The resulting ideology under Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khomeini was therefore an innovative merging of socialism and Islamism,9 often described by oxymorons such as ‘pragmatic fundamentalism’10 and ‘illiberal democracy’.11 The direction of many radical movements is ‘forward to the past’, or at least to a reinterpretation of the past. ‘I don’t think that one precludes the other. I am conservative in that I want to preserve our national identity and cultural heritage, but progressive in that I am in favour of radical change.’

Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/10/opinion/sunday/youtube-politics-radical.html. 6Ibid. 7Angela Nagle, Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars from 4chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right (London: Zero Books, 2017). 8Darren L. Linvill and Patrick L. Warren, ‘Troll Factories: The Internet Research Agency and State-Sponsored Agenda Building’, July 2018. Available at http://pwarren.people.clemson.edu/Linvill_Warren_TrollFactory.pdf. 9Gabriele Thoß and Franz-Helmut Richter, Ayatollah Khomeini: Zur Biographie und Hagiographie eines islamischen Revolutionsführers (Münster: Wurf Verlag, 1991), pp. 156–7. 10Cf. Ervand Abrahamian, Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), p. 2. 11‘The Oxymoron of “Illiberal Democracy”’, Brookings, 2004, online: http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2004/08/14islamicworld-abdulhamid, last accessed on 30 January 2015. 12Caroline Jack, ‘Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information’, Data & Society Research Institute, 2017.

., Daniel here Habeck, Robert here HackerOne here hackers and hacking here ‘capture the flag’ operations here, here denial of service operations here ethical hacking here memory-corruption operations here political hacking here ‘qwning’ here SQL injections here techniques here Halle shooting here Hamas here, here Hanks, Tom here Happn here Harris, DeAndre here ‘hashtag stuffing’ here Hate Library here HateAid here, here Hatreon here, here, here Heidegger, Martin here Heise, Thorsten here, here Hensel, Gerald here, here Herzliya International Institute for Counter-Terrorism here Heyer, Heather here, here, here Himmler, Heinrich here Hintsteiner, Edwin here Histiaeus here Hitler, Adolf here, here, here, here, here Mein Kampf here, here Hitler salutes here, here, here, here Hitler Youth here HIV here Hizb ut-Tahrir here, here, here Höcker, Karl-Friedrich here Hofstadter, Richard here Hollywood here Holocaust here Holocaust denial here, here, here, here, here Holy War Hackers Team here Home Office here homophobia here, here, here Hooton Plan here Hoover Dam here Hope Not Hate here, here, here Horgan, John here Horowitz Foundation here Hot or Not here House of Saud here Huda, Noor here human trafficking here, here Hussein, Saddam here, here Hutchins, Marcus here Hyppönen, Mikko here Identity Evropa here, here iFrames here Illuminati here Incels (Involuntary Celibacy) here, here Independent here Inkster, Nigel here Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Intelius here International Business Times here International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation (ICSR) here International Federation of Journalists here International Holocaust Memorial Day here International Institute for Strategic Studies here Internet Research Agency (IRA) here iPads here iPhones here iProphet here Iranian revolution here Isabella I, Queen of Castile here ISIS here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here hackers and here, here, here, here, here Islamophobia here, here, here, here, here, here, here Tommy Robinson and here, here see also Finsbury Mosque attack Israel here, here, here, here, here Israel Defense Forces here, here Jackson, Michael here jahiliyya here Jakarta attacks here Jamaah Ansharud Daulah (JAD) here Japanese anime here Jemaah Islamiyah here Jesus Christ here Jewish numerology here Jews here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also anti-Semitism; ZOG JFG World here jihadi brides here, here JihadWatch here Jobs, Steve here Johnson, Boris here Jones, Alex here Jones, Ron here Junge Freiheit here Jurgenson, Nathan here JustPasteIt here Kafka, Franz here Kampf der Niebelungen here, here Kapustin, Denis ‘Nikitin’ here Kassam, Raheem here Kellogg’s here Kennedy, John F. here, here Kennedy family here Kessler, Jason here, here Khomeini, Ayataollah here Kim Jong-un here Kohl, Helmut here Köhler, Daniel here Kronen Zeitung here Kronos banking Trojan here Ku Klux Klan here, here Küssel, Gottfried here Lane, David here Le Loop here Le Pen, Marine here LeBretton, Matthew here Lebron, Michael here Lee, Robert E. here Li, Sean here Li family here Libyan Fighting Group here LifeOfWat here Lifton, Robert here Littman, Gisele here live action role play (LARP) here, here, here, here, here, here lobbying here Lokteff, Lana here loneliness here, here, here, here, here, here, here Lorraine, DeAnna here Lügenpresse here McDonald’s here McInnes, Gavin here McMahon, Ed here Macron, Emmanuel here, here, here, here MAGA (Make America Great Again) here ‘mainstream media’ here, here, here ‘Millennium Dawn’ here Manosphere here, here, here March for Life here Maria Theresa statue here, here Marighella, Carlos here Marina Bay Sands Hotel (Singapore) here Marx, Karl here Das Kapital here Masculine Development here Mason, James here MAtR (Men Among the Ruins) here, here Matrix, The here, here, here, here May, Theresa here, here, here Meechan, Mark here Meme Warfare here memes here, here, here, here and terrorist attacks here Men’s Rights Activists (MRA) here Menlo Park here Mercer Family Foundation here Merkel, Angela here, here, here, here MGTOW (Men Going Their Own Way) here, here, here MI6, 158, 164 migration here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also refugees millenarianism here Millennial Woes here millennials here Minassian, Alek here Mindanao here Minds here, here misogyny here, here, here, here, here see also Incels mixed martial arts (MMA) here, here, here, here Morgan, Nicky here Mounk, Yascha here Movement, The here Mueller, Robert here, here Muhammad, Prophet here, here, here mujahidat here Mulhall, Joe here MuslimCrypt here MuslimTec here, here Mussolini, Benito here Naim, Bahrun here, here Nance, Malcolm here Nasher App here National Action here National Bolshevism here National Democratic Party (NPD) here, here, here, here National Health Service (NHS) here National Policy Institute here, here National Socialism group here National Socialist Movement here National Socialist Underground here NATO DFR Lab here Naturalnews here Nawaz, Maajid here Nazi symbols here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also Hitler salutes; swastikas Nazi women here N-count here Neiwert, David here Nero, Emperor here Netflix here Network Contagion Research Institute here NetzDG legislation here, here Neumann, Peter here New Balance shoes here New York Times here News Corp here Newsnight here Nietzsche, Friedrich here, here Nikolai Alexander, Supreme Commander here, here, here, here, here, here 9/11 attacks here, here ‘nipsters’ here, here No Agenda here Northwest Front (NWF) here, here Nouvelle Droite here, here NPC meme here NSDAP here, here, here Obama, Barack and Michelle here, here, here, here, here Omas gegen Rechts here online harassment, gender and here OpenAI here open-source intelligence (OSINT) here, here Operation Name and Shame here Orbán, Viktor here, here organised crime here Orwell, George here, here Osborne, Darren here, here Oxford Internet Institute here Page, Larry here Panofsky, Aaron here Panorama here Parkland high-school shooting here Patreon here, here, here, here Patriot Peer here, here PayPal here PeopleLookup here Periscope here Peterson, Jordan here Pettibone, Brittany here, here, here Pew Research Center here, here PewDiePie here PewTube here Phillips, Whitney here Photofeeler here Phrack High Council here Pink Floyd here Pipl here Pittsburgh synagogue shooting here Pizzagate here Podesta, John here, here political propaganda here Popper, Karl here populist politicians here pornography here, here Poway synagogue shooting here, here Pozner, Lenny here Presley, Elvis here Prideaux, Sue here Prince Albert Police here Pro Chemnitz here ‘pseudo-conservatives’ here Putin, Vladimir here Q Britannia here QAnon here, here, here, here Quebec mosque shooting here Quilliam Foundation here, here, here Quinn, Zoë here Quran here racist slurs (n-word) here Radio 3Fourteen here Radix Journal here Rafiq, Haras here Ramakrishna, Kumar here RAND Corporation here Rasmussen, Tore here, here, here, here Raymond, Jolynn here Rebel Media here, here, here Reconquista Germanica here, here, here, here, here, here, here Reconquista Internet here Red Pill Women here, here, here, here, here Reddit here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here redpilling here, here, here, here refugees here, here, here, here, here Relotius, Claas here ‘Remove Kebab’ here Renault here Revolution Chemnitz here Rigby, Lee here Right Wing Terror Center here Right Wing United (RWU) here RMV (Relationship Market Value) here Robertson, Caolan here Robinson, Tommy here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Rockefeller family here Rodger, Elliot here Roof, Dylann here, here Rosenberg, Alfred here Rothschilds here, here Rowley, Mark here Roy, Donald F. here Royal Family here Russia Today here, here S., Johannes here St Kilda Beach meeting here Salafi Media here Saltman, Erin here Salvini, Matteo here Sampson, Chris here, here Sandy Hook school shooting here Sargon of Akkad, see Benjamin, Carl Schild & Schwert rock festival (Ostritz) here, here, here Schilling, Curt here Schlessinger, Laura C. here Scholz & Friends here SchoolDesk here Schröder, Patrick here Sellner, Martin here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Serrano, Francisco here ‘sexual economics’ here SGT Report here Shodan here, here Siege-posting here Sleeping Giants here SMV (Sexual Market Value) here, here, here Social Justice Warriors (SJW) here, here Solahütte here Soros, George here, here Sotloff, Steven here Southern, Lauren here Southfront here Spencer, Richard here, here, here, here, here, here Spiegel TV here spoofing technology here Sputnik here, here SS here, here Stadtwerke Borken here Star Wars here Steinmeier, Frank-Walter here Stewart, Ayla here STFU (Shut the Fuck Up) here Stormfront here, here, here Strache, H.


Interventions by Noam Chomsky

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, cuban missile crisis, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, old-boy network, Ralph Nader, Thorstein Veblen, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, éminence grise

Bill Savadove, “President of Iran calls for unity against west,” South China Morning Post, June 16, 2006; “Non-aligned nations back Iran’s nuclear program,” Japan Economic Newswire, May 30, 2006; Edward Cody, “Iran Seeks Aid in Asia In Resisting the West,” Washington Post, June 15, 2006. 2. See, among others, William Lowther and Colin Freeman, “US funds terror groups to sow chaos in Iran,” Sunday Telegraph, February 25, 2007. 3. For Khamenei’s statement, see “Leader Attends Memorial Ceremony Marking the 17th Departure Anniversary of Imam Khomeini,” June 4, 2006. http://www.khamenei.ir/EN/News/detail.jsp?id=20060604A. The Great Soul of Power JULY 13, 2006 It is a challenging task to select a few themes from the remarkable range of the work and life of Edward Said. I will keep to two: the culture of empire, and the responsibility of intellectuals or those whom we call “intellectuals” if they have the privilege and resources to enter the public arena.

The arc of Negroponte’s career ranges from Honduras, where as Reagan’s ambassador he oversaw the Contra terrorist forces’ war against Nicaragua, to Iraq, where as Bush’s ambassador he briefly presided over another exercise in alleged democracy development—experience that can inform his new duties to help combat terror and promote liberty. Orwell would not have known whether to laugh or to weep. In Iraq, the January (2005) elections were successful and praiseworthy. However, the main success is being reported only marginally: The United States was compelled to allow them to take place. That is a real triumph, not of the bombthrowers, but of nonviolent resistance by the people, secular as well as Islamist, for whom Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani is a symbol. Despite U.S.-U.K. foot-dragging, Sistani demanded speedy elections, reflecting popular determination to achieve freedom and independence, and some form of democratic rights. The nonviolent resistance continued until the United States (and the United Kingdom, trailing obediently behind) had no recourse but to allow the elections. The doctrinal machinery then went into high gear to present the elections as a U.S. initiative.

Even apart from the timing, the democratization bandwagon runs up against the fact that the United States has tried, in every possible way, to prevent elections in Iraq. Last January’s (2005) elections came about because of mass nonviolent resistance which U.S. forces could not contain. Few competent observers would disagree with the editors of the Financial Times, who wrote last March (2005) that “the reason [the elections] took place was the insistence of the Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani, who vetoed three schemes by the U.S.-led occupation authorities to shelve or dilute them.” Elections, if taken seriously, mean you pay some attention to the will of the population. The crucial question for an invading army is: Do they want us to be here? There is no lack of information about the answer. One important source is a poll for the British Ministry of Defense this past August (2005), carried out by Iraqi university researchers and leaked to the British press.


pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning

During Bannon’s second deployment, when he had become a navigator, the Paul F. Foster was ordered to the North Arabian Sea. Just past midnight on March 21, 1980, he was piloting the destroyer off the southern coast of Iran when it rendezvoused with the supercarrier USS Nimitz, which it was assigned to shadow. The previous November, Iranian revolutionaries belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line, an Iranian student group that backed the Ayatollah Khomeini, had stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and seized fifty-two American hostages. The crisis dominated American headlines and roiled the latter stages of Jimmy Carter’s troubled presidency. The Paul F. Foster and the Nimitz sailed to the Gulf of Oman, where they began preparations for the secret mission that was to become Carter’s response. The Nimitz carried eight RH-53D Sea Stallion helicopters that were supposed to swoop into Tehran with Delta Force soldiers, who would free the American hostages in a lightning blitz code-named Operation Eagle Claw.

., 174 Johnson, Woody, 197 Jones, Paula, 43, 153, 217 Jordan, Jim, 175–76 junk bonds, 67–68 Kali Yuga, 205, 223 Kaplan, Rob, 65 Kasich, John, 170, 182, 187 Kelly, Megyn, 168–74, 180, 192, 194, 195 Kelly, Michael, 33 Kelly File, The, 168, 173 Kennedy, John F., 50, 196 Kennedy, Kevin, 64 Kennedy, Ted, 90 Kerkorian, Kirk, 75–76 Khan, Khizr and Ghazala, 196, 219 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 56 King, Larry, 38 Koch, Charles and David, 123, 135 Kramer, Jane, 122n Krauthammer, Charles, 189 Krugman, Paul, 148 Kushner, Jared, 3, 12, 17, 193, 200, 201, 203, 215, 218, 219 Kwatinetz, Jeff, 80, 81 Lehane, Chris, 159 Leininger, Eric, 96 Lemon, Don, 171, 228 Le Pen, Marine, 207, 208, 222–23 Lessig, Lawrence, 152 Levin, Mark, 109, 172 Lewandowski, Corey, 3, 162–63, 166, 183, 192–94, 202 Lewinsky, Monica, 43 Lewis, Michael, 70, 88 Liberty Film Festival, 85 Liman, Doug, 80 Limbaugh, Rush, 85 Lindbergh, Charles, 190 Lovett, Jon, 34 Lynch, Loretta, 148 Maddow, Rachel, x Mallaby, Sebastian, 129 Manafort, Paul, 3–4, 193–94, 196, 199–203, 210 Manigault-Stallworth, Omarosa, 97 Maréchal-Le Pen, Marion, 208 Marlow, Alex, 143, 172, 173 McCain, John, ix, 39–40, 99–100 McCain-Feingold Act, 30 McDonald’s, 95, 96 Meadows, Mark, 176 Medallion Fund, 129, 130 Meet the Press, 27–28 Mercer, Rebekah, 122n, 123, 130, 133–35, 197, 199–200, 216 Mercer, Robert, 119–36, 141, 200, 216 Bannon and, 119, 124, 125, 130–31, 134–36, 148 Republican Party and, 120, 121, 134–35 Mercer Family Foundation, 133 Merkel, Angela, 206 Mexican immigrants: border agents and, 6, 108, 110, 163, 164 Breitbart and, 6, 108–10, 164 Trump’s attack on, 6, 161–63, 165–66 and Trump’s visit to border crossing, 6, 164–67 Trump’s wall plan and, 111, 163, 165, 169, 170, 190, 234 Meyers, Seth, 32, 35–36, 42 MGM, 24, 75–78 Mider, Zachary, 122n Milken, Michael, 67–72, 80, 141 Miller, Jason, 18 Miller, Stephen, xii, 14, 17, 183–84 minorities, 226 Republican Party and, 99–100, 102 Trump and, 96–103, 191 see also African Americans; Hispanics Mirage Resorts, Inc., 23–24 Mobile Press-Register, 182 Mook, Robby, 18–19 More Money Than God (Mallaby), 129 Morning Joe, 173 Morris, Dick, 30 Mount, Thom, 74 Murdoch, Rupert, 75, 108–9, 167, 179–80, 184, 194, 195 Muslims, see Islam, Muslims Mussolini, Benito, 205 NAACP, 90 NAFTA, 37, 41 nationalism, 207, 240 Bannon and, xiii, 6, 21, 46, 93, 150, 204, 207, 208, 222, 241 Trump and, xiii, 6, 46, 93, 204, 208, 230, 241, 242 Nazarbayev, Nursultan, 152 Nazi Germany, 205 NBC, 73, 93–95, 97, 101 Nelson, Monique, 96, 97, 103 Nevin, Darrell, 54 New Hampshire Freedom Summit, 117 New Hampshire primary, 182 New Republic, 41 Newsmax, 104–5 New York, 28n, 172, 194, 196, 215 New York Post, 38, 104, 153, 242 New York Times, 26, 40, 69–70, 148, 152–54, 156, 157, 162, 199, 201, 202, 220, 229 Nightline, 27 Nimitz, USS, 56, 57 9/11 terrorist attacks, 84, 85 Nixon, Richard, 41, 99 Nojay, Bill, 112–13 North, Oliver, 33 Nugent, Ted, 233 Nunberg, Sam, 44–46, 105–6, 109, 111–14, 117, 166, 192, 193 Obama, Barack, 15–16, 31–32, 38, 42, 87, 106, 107, 125, 148, 155, 176, 226, 237 birth certificate of, 31–35, 39–40, 42, 45–46, 100–101, 103, 125 college records of, 45 racial issues and, 39–40, 98 at White House Correspondents’ dinner, 33–35, 41 Obama, Michelle, 220 Obamacare, 114, 115, 176, 238, 240 Oczkowski, Matt, 226, 232 O’Donnell, Rosie, 169 O’Keefe, James, 89–90 Orion Pictures, 78 Ornstein, Norman, 28 Overlock, Mike, 70 Ovitz, Michael, 44, 80 Paladino, Carl, 112 Palin, Bristol, 89 Palin, Sarah, ix–xi, xiii, 21, 88–89, 145, 207 Palmieri, Jennifer, 211 Parretti, Giancarlo, 75–77 Passion of the Christ, The, 134 Patriot, 137 Patterson, Nick, 132 Paul, Rand, 45, 116, 117, 170 Paul F.

“One to a hundred, I would say 75 and 80 [percent],” Trump replied. “I want to do it so badly. You know, I have the theme. It’s my theme. It’s ‘Make America Great Again.’ That’s what I want to do.” But Trump didn’t even rate as the day’s most popular reality-TV star—Bannon outdid him. He’d spent the day at CPAC squiring around an unlikely pair of guests: Nigel Farage, the leader of the right-wing UK Independence Party, and Phil Robertson, the bandanna’d, ayatollah-bearded Duck Dynasty patriarch who was accepting a free-speech award. CPAC is a beauty contest for Republican presidential hopefuls. But Robertson, a novelty adornment invited after A&E suspended him for denouncing gays, delivered a wild rant about beatniks and sexually transmitted diseases that had upstaged them all, to Bannon’s evident delight. Afterward, everyone piled into party buses and headed for the Breitbart town house.


pages: 604 words: 177,329

The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright

airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, rolodex, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

WHEN ZAWAHIRI RETURNED to his medical practice in Maadi, the Islamic world was still trembling from the political earthquakes of 1979, which included not only the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan but also the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to Iran and the toppling of the Peacock Throne—the first successful Islamist takeover of a major country. When Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the exiled Shah of Iran, sought treatment for cancer in the United States, the Ayatollah incited student mobs to attack the American Embassy in Tehran. Sadat regarded Khomeini as a “lunatic madman…who has turned Islam into a mockery.” He invited the ailing Shah to take up residence in Egypt, and the Shah died there the following year. For Muslims everywhere, Khomeini reframed the debate with the West. Instead of conceding the future of Islam to a secular, democratic model, he imposed a stunning reversal.

Writing to his mother: interview with Omar Azzam; Robert Marquand, “The Tenets of Terror,” Christian Science Monitor, October 18, 2001. Through his connection: interview with Omar Azzam. recruiting for jihad: interview with Mahmoun Fandy. 46 “a training course”: al-Zawahiri, “Knights Under the Prophet’s Banner,” part 2. 47 “lunatic madman”: Ibrahim, Egypt Islam and Democracy, 30 n. “Yes we are reactionaries”: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, “Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School,” August 24, 1979; reproduced in Rubin and Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism, 34. “Islam says”: Taheri, Holy Terror, 226–27. Iranian revolution: Abdelnasser, Islamic Movement, 73. 48 five hundred Quranic verses: Roy Mottahedeh, personal communication. final speech: Guenena, “‘Jihad’ an ‘Islamic Alternative,’” 80–81. 49 Sadat dissolved: Kepel, Jihad, 85.

“You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom.” As early as the 1940s, Khomeini had signaled his readiness to use terror to humiliate the perceived enemies of Islam, providing theological cover as well as material support. “Islam says: Whatever good there is exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! People cannot be made obedient except with the sword! The sword is the key to paradise, which can be opened only for holy warriors!” The fact that Khomeini came from the Shiite branch of Islam, rather than the Sunni, which predominates in the Muslim world outside of Iraq and Iran, made him a complicated figure among Sunni radicals.* Nonetheless, Zawahiri’s organization, al-Jihad, supported the Iranian revolution with leaflets and cassette tapes urging all Islamic groups in Egypt to follow the Iranian example.


The End of the Cold War: 1985-1991 by Robert Service

active measures, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier

He said he understood why Gorbachëv might want to resolve his differences with the Iranian government even though he detested what the Ayatollah Khomeini stood for. The Iraqi dictator made a joke of it all: ‘May Allah help you. Only let it be our Allah and not the Iranian one!’33 On to Iran, where Shevardnadze hoped to mend fences. But if Deng and Assad had been bad-tempered hosts, Khomeini was even more difficult in his own peculiar way. The Ayatollah refused to see him in Tehran. Shevardnadze had to fly down to Qom, where Khomeini received him in his modest little house: power had not made him materialistic. It was the strangest of diplomatic encounters since the old man proved interested only in questions of spiritual belief and practice. He would talk about nothing else. To Shevardnadze he gave the impression of an impoverished widower. Khomeini rejected every attempt at dialogue about foreign policy despite knowing that this was the sole purpose of Shevardnadze’s trip.

Shevardnadze encountered the new attitude when meeting Baker on 7 March at the Conventional Forces in Europe talks in Vienna. Baker demanded freedom for all the peoples of Europe and called on Soviet leaders to undertake an explicit rejection of the Brezhnev Doctrine. He slated the USSR’s lack of respect for human rights. He deprecated its military supplies to Nicaragua. He objected to what he saw as Shevardnadze’s efforts to cosy up to Iran’s Islamist leadership by visiting Ayatollah Khomeini. Shevardnadze replied as best he could that the priority for America and the USSR ought to be to resume their collaboration on nuclear arms reduction. Baker was implacable, explaining that the Americans had begun their policy review and could not say how long it would take. Shevardnadze warned: ‘If you begin to modernize your tactical missiles, we’ll be obliged to react.’ He pushed for arms talks to recommence after Baker’s scheduled trip to Moscow in April.

.: passim see also Gorbachëv, Mikhail; Reagan, Ronald; Shevardnadze, Eduard; Shultz, George; Yakovlev, Alexander France Eureka project ref1 Gorbachëv’s visit to (1985) ref1 relations with US ref1 relations with USSR ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 see also Mitterand, François French Communist Party ref1, ref2 Friedman, Milton ref1, ref2 Frolov, Ivan ref1, ref2 G7 summits (1990) (Houston) ref1, ref2 (1991) (London) ref1, ref2 Gaddafi, Muammar ref1, ref2, ref3 Gandhi, Rajiv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Gapurov, Mukhamednazar ref1 Garland, Sean ref1 Gates, Robert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 General Department (USSR) see under Communist Party of the Soviet Union General Staff Academy ref1 Geneva summit (1985) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Genscher, Hans-Dietrich ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Georgia (USSR) ref1, ref2, ref3 Armenians in ref1 history of ref1 relations with USSR ref1, ref2 ref3 Russian invasion (2008) ref1 and Shevardnadze ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 Tbilisi massacre (1989) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 German Democratic Republic see East Germany German reunification ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 and Bush ref1, ref2, ref3 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Gorbachëv’s deal with Kohl over ref1 and Kohl ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Kohl’s Ten-Point Plan for ref1, ref2, ref3 Germany ref1, ref2 and NATO membership ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 recognizing of post-war border with Poland ref1 see also East Germany; West Germany Gierek, Eduard ref1, ref2 Glavlit ref1, ref2 Gorbachëv, Mikhail ref1, ref2 American opinion on ref1 and Afghan war ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and Africa ref1 and agriculture ref1, ref2, ref3 and Andropov ref1, ref2 and Armed Forces leaders ref1 and Asia ref1 appeal for economic assistance ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 appointment of reformers to leading posts ref1 ‘asymmetrical response’ programme ref1 attributes and qualities ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 awarded Nobel Peace Prize ref1 background ref1, ref2 and Baltic states ref1, ref2 and biological weapons question ref1 and Bush ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and Camp David summit (1990) ref1 change in title from Chairman of Supreme Soviet Presidium to President ref1 and Chernobyl power station disaster ref1, ref2, ref3 and Chinese–Soviet relations ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and constitutional reform ref1, ref2 contribution to end of Cold War ref1 coup against, failed (1991) ref1, ref2, ref3 criticism of his policies ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 and Cuba ref1 decline in international status ref1 as deputy leader to Chernenko ref1 and dismantling of Soviet Union ref1 and East Germany ref1, ref2 and Eastern Europe ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and the Eastern Europe revolutions ref1, ref2, ref3 economy and economic reforms ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 elected as leader (1985) ref1 and Ethiopia ref1 and 500 Days programme ref1, ref2 and Geneva Summit (1985) ref1 German reunification and deal with Kohl over ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and Germany’s NATO membership ref1, ref2 global image and popularity ref1 government structure reforms ref1 and Gromyko ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Helsinki summit (1990) ref1 and human rights ref1, ref2 industrial reforms ref1, ref2 and Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty negotiations ref1 and internal political reform ref1 invited to London by Thatcher (1984) ref1 and Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait (1990) ref1, ref2, ref3 January declaration ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 and Kohl ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Libyan crisis ref1, ref2 and Lithuania ref1, ref2 and Malta summit (1989) ref1 marriage ref1, ref2 and Marxism-Leninism ref1, ref2 meeting with John Paul II (1989) ref1 and Mitterrand ref1, ref2 and Moscow summit (1988) ref1 and nuclear disarmament and arms reduction ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23 and perestroika ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Perestroika (book) ref1 and Polish crisis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 political career ref1, ref2 public appeal ref1, ref2 and Reagan ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 reduction of Soviet forces and withdrawal of troops from Eastern Europe ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 reform team behind ref1 resignation ref1 retreat over reform and dropping of prominent reformers ref1, ref2 and Reykjavik summit (1986) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Rust affair and sackings initiated in armed forces ref1 and Schultz ref1, ref2, ref3 and Shevardnadze ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and Soviet–Far East relations ref1 speeches to Party Congress ref1, ref2 and Strategic Defense Initiative ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15 temperament ref1 and Thatcher ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and trade relations with US ref1 and Ustinov ref1 visit to China (1989) ref1 visit to Czechoslovakia (1987) ref1 visit to London (1989) ref1 visit to New York and speech to UN General Assembly (1988) ref1 visit to Paris (1985) ref1 and Warsaw Pact ref1 and Washington summit (1987) ref1, ref2, ref3 and West European leaders ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 and Western Europe ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and withdrawal of troops from East Germany ref1, ref2 and world communist movement ref1, ref2 and Yeltsin ref1, ref2, ref3 Gorbachëva, Raisa ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 Gordievski, Oleg ref1, ref2, ref3 grain embargo, lifting of (1981) ref1, ref2, ref3 Grenada, US invasion of (1983) ref1 Grey, Earl ref1 Grinevski, Oleg ref1, ref2, ref3 Grishin, Viktor ref1 Gromov, Boris ref1 Gromyko, Anatoli ref1 Gromyko, Andrei ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Afghan War ref1, ref2, ref3 and arms control talks ref1 becomes Chairman of the Supreme Soviet ref1 criticism of Gorbachëv’s arms reduction stance ref1, ref2 and Czechoslovakia ref1 easing out of the Politburo by Gorbachëv ref1 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Ministry of Foreign Affairs ref1, ref2, ref3 and Poland ref1, ref2 visit to US (1984) ref1 Grósz, Károly ref1, ref2, ref3 GRU (Main Intelligence Administration) ref1, ref2 Haig, Alexander ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Hall, Gus ref1, ref2 Hannaford, Pete ref1, ref2 Hart, Gary ref1 Hartman, Arthur ref1, ref2, ref3 Havel, Václav ref1, ref2 Healey, Denis ref1, ref2 Helms, Jesse ref1, ref2, ref3 Helsinki Final Act (1975) ref1, ref2, ref3 Helsinki summit (1990) ref1 Heritage Foundation ref1 Heston, Charlton ref1 Hill, Charles ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Hinckley, John ref1 Holland, Stuart ref1 Honecker, Erich ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14 Hong Kong ref1 Howe, Geoffrey ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Hoxha, Enver ref1 human rights in United States ref1 in USSR ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20 Humphrey, Gordon ref1 Hungary ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Hurd, Douglas ref1, ref2 Husák, Gustáv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Hyett, Nell ref1 Iklé, Fred ref1, ref2 Iliescu, Ion ref1, ref2 intelligence ref1 Inter-Departmental Working Group (‘Little Five’) ref1 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty ref1, ref2, ref3 negotiations ref1 savings made by ref1 Senate and Supreme Soviet ratification of ref1, ref2, ref3 signing of ref1, ref2 International Department see under Communist Party of the Soviet Union International Fund of Assistance ref1 International Harvester Company ref1 International Monetary Fund ref1 Iran ref1 Iran–Contra scandal (1986) ref1, ref2, ref3 Iran–Iraq War ref1, ref2 Iraq ref1 invasion of Kuwait (1990) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 relations with USSR ref1, ref2, ref3 Islamic fundamentalism ref1 Israel ref1 Italian Communist Party ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Italy ref1 Jackson–Vanik amendment ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Jakes, Miklos ref1 jamming, radio and TV ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Japan ref1, ref2, ref3 and China ref1 economic success ref1, ref2, ref3 relations with US ref1 relations with USSR ref1, ref2 Shevardnadze’s visit to (1986) ref1 and South Kuriles question ref1 Toshiba scandal (1980) ref1 Jaruzelski, Wojciech ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17 Jiang Zemin ref1 John Paul II, Pope ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and Lithuania ref1 meeting with Gorbachëv (1989) ref1 visit to Poland (1987) ref1, ref2 Johnson, Lyndon ref1 Johnson, Thomas ref1, ref2 Kádár, János ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Kampelman, Max ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Kania, Stanisław ref1 Karmal, Babrak ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Karpov, Viktor ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Kataev, Vitali ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Katusev, Alexander ref1, ref2 Kaunda, Kenneth ref1 Kazakhstan ref1 Kendall, Dr Henry ref1 Kennedy, John ref1 Kennedy, Paul ref1 KGB ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16 Khomeini, Ayatollah ref1 Khrushchëv, Nikita ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Kim Il-sung ref1, ref2 Kinnock, Neil ref1, ref2, ref3 Kirilenko, Andrei ref1 Kirkland, Lane ref1 Kirkpatrick, Jeane ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Kissinger, Henry ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Kiszczak, Czesław ref1, ref2 Kohl, Helmut ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 deal with Gorbachëv over German reunification ref1 and East Germany ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and financial assistance to Soviet Union ref1, ref2, ref3 and German reunification ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and Reagan ref1 and Strategic Defense Initiative ref1 Ten-Point Plan for German unity ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Thatcher ref1, ref2, ref3 visit to Moscow (1990) ref1 Kokoshin, Andrei ref1, ref2 Kolbin, Gennadi ref1 Korean War ref1 Kornienko, Georgi ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Kosygin, Alexei ref1 Kovalëv, Anatoli ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Krasnoyarsk radar station ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Krenz, Egon ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Kristol, Irving ref1 Kryuchkov, Vladimir ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18 Kukliński, Ryszard ref1 Kulikov, Viktor ref1, ref2 Kuwait, Iraqi invasion of (1990) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Labour Party (Britain) ref1 Lance nuclear missiles ref1, ref2, ref3 Landsbergis, Vytautas ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Lange, David ref1 Latvia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Lenin, Vladimir ref1, ref2, ref3 Li Peng ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Libya ref1, ref2, ref3 Ligachëv, Yegor ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 Lithuania ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 blockade initiated by Gorbachëv on (1990) ref1 demand for independence ref1, ref2, ref3 Jews in ref1 relations with USSR ref1 restrictions on number of foreigners entering ref1 setting up of popular front (Sajūdis) ref1, ref2 suspension of independence declaration ref1 and the Vatican ref1, ref2 Vilnius massacre (1991) ref1 Yakovlev’s visit to (1988) ref1 Little Five see Inter-Departmental Working Group Long-Term Grain Agreement ref1, ref2 Lungren, Dan ref1 MacEachin, Douglas ref1 McFarlane, Robert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 McLennan, Gordon ref1 McNamara, Robert ref1 Madison Group ref1 Main Intelligence Administration see GRU Main Military Council (USSR) ref1 Major, John ref1, ref2, ref3 Malta summit (1989) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Marchais, Georges ref1, ref2 Marxism-Leninism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Maslyukov, Yuri ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Massie, Suzanne ref1 Matlock, Jack ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Mazowiecki, Tadeusz ref1, ref2 Medvedev, Vadim ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Meese, Ed ref1, ref2, ref3 Melnikov, Alexander ref1 Mengistu, Haile ref1, ref2 Mensheviks ref1 MI6 ref1 Middle East ref1 Militaru, Nicolae ref1, ref2 Mitchell, George ref1 Mitkin, Nikolai ref1 Mitterrand, François ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 and German reunification ref1, ref2 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2 and nuclear disarmament ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Strategic Defense Initiative ref1, ref2, ref3 and Thatcher ref1 visit to Moscow (1984) ref1 visit to Moscow (1986) ref1 visit to Moscow (1988) ref1 Mladenov, Petar ref1, ref2 Modrow, Hans ref1, ref2, ref3 Moiseev, Mikhail ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 mole, false (American) see Matlock, Jack Mondale, Walter ref1 Mongolia conference (1988) ref1 Morning Star (newspaper) ref1 Moro, Aldo ref1 Moscow summit (1988) ref1, ref2, ref3 Mulroney, Brian ref1, ref2 Murphy, George ref1 mutual acquaintance, process of (US and USSR) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 mutually assured destruction (MAD) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Najibullah, Mohammad ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Nakasone, Yasuhiro ref1 Namibia ref1, ref2 Napolitano, Giorgio ref1 national question in the USSR ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 see also Estonia; Georgia; Latvia; Lithuania National Security Advisor see Allen, Richard; Carlucci, Frank; Clark, William; McFarlane, Robert; Poindexter, John; Powell, Colin; Scowcroft, Brent National Security Council (US) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23 National Security Decision Directive (No. 75) ref1 National Security Decision Directive (No. 210) ref1 National Union of Mineworkers ref1, ref2 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 command post exercise (Able Archer 83) (1983) ref1, ref2 and de Gaulle ref1, ref2 and deployment of Pershing-2 and Tomahawk missiles ref1 expansion eastwards ref1, ref2 Germany’s membership question ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and nuclear disarmament ref1 and nuclear war ref1 Nazi–Soviet Pact (1939) ref1, ref2 Németh, Miklós ref1, ref2 New York Times ref1 New Zealand ref1 Nicaragua ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Nicholson, Major, shooting of (1985) ref1 Nitze, Paul ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Nixon, Richard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Nofziger, Lyn ref1 non-aligned movement ref1, ref2 North, Oliver ref1, ref2 North Atlantic Treaty Organization see NATO North Korea ref1 Novosti ref1 nuclear disarmament advantages and savings ref1 Akhromeev’s January 1986 proposal and Gorbachëv’s assent ref1, ref2 and Bush ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Geneva summit (1985) ref1, ref2, ref3 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23 Gorbachëv’s declaration for global elimination by 2000 and reaction to ref1 inspections ref1 Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty see Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty and Malta summit (1989) ref1, ref2 and Politburo Arms Limitation Commission (Big Five) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16 and Reagan ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23, ref24 Reagan’s commitment to Strategic Defense Initiative as stumbling block ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and Reykjavik summit (1986) ref1, ref2 and short-range missiles ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Stockholm and Vienna meetings ref1 strategic nuclear weapon talks ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20 Treaty on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START) (1991) ref1 and Washington summit (1987) ref1 withdrawal of SS-23s by Gorbachëv ref1 ‘zero’ option proposal ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 nuclear war ref1 and NATO countries ref1, ref2 and Poland ref1 probable consequences ref1, ref2, ref3 Soviet preparations for ref1 nuclear weapons ref1, ref2 deployment of an extra B-52 bomber with cruise missiles by Reagan (1986) ref1 deployment of Pershing-2s and Tomahawks in Europe by US ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 deployment of SS-20 missiles in Eastern Europe by USSR ref1, ref2 modernization question (US & USSR) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 non-realization of Dead Hand system ref1 peace movement ref1, ref2 Nunn, Sam ref1, ref2, ref3 Nyers, Resző ref1 Obama, Barack ref1 October Revolution (1917) ref1 Odom, William ref1 Ogarkov, Nikolai ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 oil prices, fall of (1985–86) ref1, ref2 Oldfield, Barney ref1 O’Neill, Tip ref1, ref2 OPEC ref1 Open Skies Conference (1990) ref1 Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries see OPEC Orlov, Yuri ref1 Ortega, Daniel ref1, ref2, ref3 Orzechowski, Marian ref1 Packard, David ref1 Pakistan ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Palme, Olof ref1, ref2, ref3 Party Central Committee see under Communist Party of the Soviet Union Party of Democratic Socialism (Italy) ref1 Party Politburo (USSR) see Politburo under Communist Party of the Soviet Union Pasechnik, Vladimir ref1, ref2 Patiashvili, Dzhumber ref1 Patolichev, Nikolai ref1 Pavlov, Valentin ref1, ref2, ref3 peace movement ref1, ref2, ref3 Pelshe, Arvid ref1 Perle, Richard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Pershing-2 missiles ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Petrakov, Nikolai ref1 Petrovski, Boris ref1 Petrushenko, Nikolai ref1, ref2 Pióro, Tadeusz ref1 Pipes, Richard ref1 Podhoretz, Norman ref1 Poindexter, John ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Poland ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 crisis (1989) ref1 economy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 ending of martial law (1983) ref1 Gorbachëv’s visit to Warsaw (1986) ref1 Gorbachëv’s visit to Warsaw (1988) ref1 government talks with Solidarity and legal status given to (1989) ref1, ref2 introduction of martial law by Jaruzelski (1981) ref1, ref2 John Paul II’s visit to (1987) ref1, ref2 Solidarity revolution and repression of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Soviet preparations for nuclear war ref1 strikes and political protests (1988) ref1 Thatcher’s visit to (1988) ref1 and USSR ref1, ref2, ref3 winning of election by Solidarity and new government formed (1989) ref1, ref2 Polish United Workers Party ref1, ref2 Politburo see under Communist Party of the Soviet Union political reform, internal (USSR) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21 political right ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Ponomarëv, Boris ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 popular front ref1 Powell, Charles ref1 Powell, Colin ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Pozner, Vladimir ref1 Primakov, Yevgeni ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Prokofev, Yuri ref1 propaganda ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 US ref1, ref2 USSR ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 see also disinformation campaigns; Communist Party of the Soviet Union: Propaganda Department; United States Information Agency Propaganda Department see under Communist Party of the Soviet Union Pugo, Boris ref1, ref2 Putin, Vladimir ref1, ref2 Qian Qichen ref1 Quad, The ref1 Quayle, Dan ref1 quarantine, cultural and informational (USSR) ref1 lifting of ref1 see also under censorship in USSR; jamming, radio and TV; travel permits (USSR) Radio Free Europe ref1, ref2, ref3 radio jamming see jamming, radio and TV Rakowski, Mieczysław ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Ratushinskaya, Irina ref1 Razumovski, Georgi ref1 Reagan, Nancy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Reagan, Ronald ref1, ref2, ref3 acting career ref1, ref2 addresses to the nation ref1, ref2 and Afghan War ref1, ref2, ref3 anticommunism and anti-Soviet rhetoric ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 appearance and character ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 attempted assassination of (1981) ref1, ref2 background ref1 and China ref1, ref2 contribution to end of Cold War ref1, ref2 critics of rapprochement with USSR ref1 demand for Berlin Wall to be pulled down ref1 and Eastern Europe ref1, ref2 elected President (1981) ref1, ref2 and expansion of military expenditure ref1, ref2 and Geneva summit (1985) ref1, ref2, ref3 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 and Haig ref1 health concerns ref1 horse-riding fall (1989) ref1 and Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty negotiations ref1, ref2 and Iran–Contra scandal (1986) ref1, ref2 and Kohl ref1 leadership credentials ref1 and Libyan raid (1986) ref1 marriage ref1 and Moscow summit (1988) ref1 and nuclear disarmament and arms reduction ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23, ref24 Orlando speech (1983) ref1 and Polish crisis ref1 political philosophy and approach ref1, ref2 reaction to Gorbachëv’s declaration on eliminating nuclear weapons ref1, ref2 and reading ref1 and Reykjavik summit (1986) ref1, ref2, ref3 seen as a warmonger ref1, ref2 and Shevardnadze ref1, ref2 and Shultz ref1, ref2 Soviet policy ref1, ref2, ref3 Springfield speech (1988) ref1 and Strategic Defense Initiative ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20, ref21, ref22, ref23 and Thatcher ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and US–Soviet trade relations ref1 visit to China (1984) ref1 visit to West Berlin and Brandenburg Gate speech ref1 and Washington summit (1987) ref1 and Weinberger ref1, ref2 wins second term in office (1984) ref1 Reaganauts ref1 Red Brigades ref1 Regan, Don ref1, ref2, ref3 Reykjavik summit (1986) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Ridgway, Rozanne ref1, ref2 Robinson, Peter ref1 Rockefeller, David ref1 Rogers, Bernard ref1 Romania ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Ceauşescu’s oppressive regime ref1 protests (1989) ref1 relations with USSR ref1, ref2 uprising against Ceauşecu and collapse of communism (1989) ref1 see also Ceauşescu, Nicolae Romanov, Grigori ref1 Romerstein, Herb ref1 Rostow, Eugene ref1 Rowen, Harry ref1 Rowny, Ed ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Rusakov, Konstantin ref1 Russia ref1 relations with US ref1, ref2 Rust, Mathias ref1, ref2 Ryzhkov, Nikolai ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15 Sachs, Jeffrey ref1 Saddam Hussein ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Sagan, Carl ref1 Sagdeev, Roald ref1 Sajūdis ref1, ref2, ref3 Sakharov, Andrei ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 SALT-II Treaty ref1, ref2 Sandinistas ref1, ref2, ref3 Sasser, Jim ref1 Saudi Arabia ref1 Scargill, Arthur ref1 Schifter, Richard ref1 Schmidt, Helmut ref1, ref2, ref3 Scowcroft, Brent ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Second World War ref1 Secretariat see under Communist Party of the Soviet Union Shabanov, Vitali ref1 Shakhnazarov, Georgi ref1, ref2, ref3 Shatalin, Stanislav ref1, ref2 Shcharanski, Anatoli ref1, ref2, ref3 Shcherbitski, Vladimir ref1 Shebarshin, Lev ref1, ref2 Shevardnadze, Eduard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 and Afghan War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Africa ref1, ref2 and Akhromeev ref1 appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs ref1, ref2 and Asia ref1 Asian tour (1989) ref1 and Baltic states ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and biological weapons ref1 and Castro ref1 character ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 and China–USSR relations ref1 criticism of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and East German political crisis ref1 and Eastern Europe ref1, ref2 and Georgia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 and German reunification ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and Howe ref1 and human rights ref1 and Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty negotiations ref1 and Iraqi invasion of Kuwait ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Japanese–USSR relations ref1 and Krasnoyarsk radar station ref1, ref2, ref3 and Libyan international crisis ref1 and Lithuania ref1 and Malta summit ref1, ref2 meeting with Reagan (1985) ref1 meeting with Reagan (1988) ref1 and nuclear disarmament ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 personal life ref1 and Poland ref1, ref2, ref3 and rapprochement with US ref1 and Reagan ref1, ref2 and reform of Foreign Affairs Ministry ref1 resignation (1990) ref1, ref2, ref3 and Reykjavik summit ref1 rivalry between Yakovlev and ref1 and Romanian crisis ref1 speeches to Supreme Soviet ref1, ref2 and Strategic Defense Initiative ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 talks and relationship with Baker ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 talks and relationship with Shultz ref1, ref2, ref3 threatens to resign (1989) ref1 and Tbilisi massacre ref1, ref2 and Vietnam ref1, ref2 visit to Bonn and talks with Kohl (1988) ref1 visit to China and talks with Deng Xiaoping (1989) ref1 visit to Japan (1986) ref1 weakness in grasping international relations ref1 and withdrawal of Soviet forces from East Europe question ref1, ref2, ref3 Shevardnadze, Nanuli (wife) ref1, ref2 Shevchenko, Arkadi ref1 Shishlin, Nikolai ref1 Shmelev, Nikolai ref1 Shultz, George ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and Afghan War ref1, ref2 and ‘age of information’ ref1 appointed Secretary of State ref1 and Carlucci ref1 character and attributes ref1 and CIA ref1 and Conference on Security and Cooperation ref1 foreign policy ref1 and Gorbachëv ref1, ref2, ref3 and Gorbachëv’s declaration on nuclear weapons ref1, ref2 hands in resignation and withdraws it ref1 and Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty negotiations ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 meetings with Gorbachëv ref1, ref2 and Moscow summit (1988) ref1 as Nixon’s Treasury Secretary ref1, ref2 and nuclear disarmament and arms control negotiations ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Reagan ref1, ref2 and Reykjavik summit ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and Strategic Defense Initiative ref1, ref2, ref3 talks and relationship with Shevardnadze ref1, ref2, ref3 tour of Europe’s capitals (1985) ref1 and trade relations with USSR ref1 and US–Soviet relations ref1, ref2 visit to Moscow (1988) ref1 and Washington summit (1987) ref1 and Weinberger ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Shultz, O’Bie ref1, ref2, ref3 Siberian oil and gas pipeline ref1, ref2 Sitaryan, Stepan ref1, ref2, ref3 Slovo, Joe ref1 Slyunkov, Nikolai ref1 Snow, C.


pages: 400 words: 121,708

1983: Reagan, Andropov, and a World on the Brink by Taylor Downing

active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear paranoia, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Stanislav Petrov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Yom Kippur War

Most humiliating was the loss of the Shah of Iran, a long-term friend of America. For twenty-five years the Shah had led a process of Westernisation in Iran, and in return for major concessions to British and American oil companies received substantial oil revenues. But opposition to his corrupt regime led to his abdication in January 1979 and his replacement by the fundamentalist Islamic cleric Ayatollah Khomeini. The new, strict Islamic republic reversed the process of Westernisation and its leaders denounced the ‘Great Satan’ of America. The greatest insult of all came in November 1979 when militant students seized US embassy personnel in Tehran and took them hostage. An unsuccessful rescue attempt by the military resulted in an accident when a US helicopter crashed into a refuelling aircraft in the desert.

Reagan saw the Middle East as ‘an adders’ nest of problems’, not just because of repeated conflicts between Arabs and Zionists but also because of an alarming rise in radical Islamic fundamentalism. This had already wrenched away a close American ally in the region, Iran, after the Revolution that brought about the departure of the Shah and the takeover of the state by the fundamentalist cleric Ayatollah Khomeini. It also threatened Egypt after the assassination of Anwar Sadat because of his agreement to a peace treaty with Israel.1 During the early months of 1982 all these tensions seemed to bubble to the surface in Lebanon, a state with its own fragile balance between Arabs and Christians that had been shattered by civil war a decade earlier and was now further unbalanced by the existence of a militant Palestinian community in the south of the country.

Edgar 24 House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) 24 Howe, Sir Geoffrey 211, 218, 259, 270, 271, 272, 288 Hubbard, Carroll 149 human intelligence (HUMINT) operations 82 human rights issues 14, 48–9, 114, 270, 303, 306, 313, 314, 322 Hungary 42, 264 Hungarian Revolution 43–4 political reforms 328 HVA 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 251–2, 253, 336 and Operation RYaN 85–6 hybrid warfare 342 Ikle, Fred 142 India, nuclear arsenal 343 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 9, 12–13, 34, 53, 60, 194, 198, 239, 313 Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty 320, 321–2, 333 verification processes 322 intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) 13 Iran 209 Iranian Revolution 29, 202 Tehran embassy hostage crisis 20, 29 Iran-Contra scandal 319–20 Iraq, US military incursions 342, 343 Irgun 203 Iron Curtain 23, 24, 332 Islamic fundamentalism 76, 202, 209, 323 Israel Israel Defence Forces (IDF) 203–4, 205, 206–7 Israeli Air Force 205 nuclear arsenal 343 Israeli-Palestinian conflict 202–9 Ivy League 82 exercise 59, 61–3, 97 Japan Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1–4, 93 listening stations 161–2, 183 Joan (MI6 case officer) 121–2, 291 John Birch Society 149 Johnson, Lyndon B. 26 Jones, General David 56 Jones, Nate 348–9 Kádár, János 43 Kalinin 159 Kalugin, Oleg 85, 240 Kamchatka peninsula 136, 138, 139–40, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 168, 180, 183 Kardunov, Marshal Alexandr 163 Karelian Republic 40–2 Kazakhstan 5, 333, 334 KC-135 tanker aircraft 191 Kennedy, John F. 10, 11, 320 Kennedy, Robert 114 KGB 43, 45–7, 49, 338 and the Able Archer 83 exercise 250–1 Andropov as head of 35, 45, 46–7, 48, 69, 74, 80, 83, 106, 341 directorates 73 First Chief Directorate (FCD) (Foreign Intelligence) 73–4 foreign residencies 46, 81, 118–20, 122–5, 218, 227, 228, 277, 278, 279 intelligence successes 125–8, 134–5 moles within see Gordievsky, Oleg; Martynov, Valery; Vetrov, Captain Vladimir role 45–6, 70 see also Operation RYaN Kharbarovsk 161, 163, 164 Khomeini, Ayatollah 29, 202 Khrushchev, Nikita 9, 10, 42, 43, 45 Cuban missile crisis 11, 114 denounces Stalin 42 Kim Eui-dong 150, 152 Kirghizia 333 Kirkpatrick, Jeane 183 Kissinger, Henry 99, 114 Kline, Major John 56 Kohl, Helmut 319 Korean Air Lines (KAL) Flight 007 149–56, 157–88, 165 downing of 157–69 intelligence community’s verdict on 187 Soviet defence of action 181–2, 183–5, 186–7, 216 Soviet propaganda disaster 176–7, 180 US response 169–79, 187–8 Kosygin, Aleksei 68–9 Kremlinologists 37, 214 Kryuchkov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich 74, 75, 80, 127, 229, 255, 279, 281, 282, 333 Kuklinski, Colonel 110–11 Kulikov, Marshal Viktor 248 Kuntsevo Clinic 234–5, 236, 242, 250, 255, 275 Kurchatov, Igor 5 Kurile islands 136, 139, 155, 171, 187 labour camps 46 Lang, Admiral 137 Laos 29 Latvia 329 Launch Under Attack option 15, 60, 238–9 Leahy, Patrick 176 Lebanon 202–9, 220 Israeli bombardment of Beirut 205–7, 228 Israeli invasion of 203–4 Multinational Force 206, 207, 208, 209 UN peacekeepers 203 Lee Kuan Yew 259 LeMay, General Curtis 8 Libya 110, 310 limited nuclear war concept 10, 15, 55, 88, 343 Line X operation 123, 143, 144, 285 listening stations 163–4, 168, 170, 176, 183, 217, 227, 231, 267–8 lithium H-bomb 7–8 Lithuania 329 Lockheed 54 Lokot, Sergei 246–7 Los Angeles Olympic Games (1984) 268 Lubyanka 46, 284 M-1 Abrams Main Battle Tank 53 McDonald, Larry 149–50, 171 McFarlane, Robert ‘Bud’ 208–9, 262, 297, 320 and Able Archer exercise 231, 260, 261, 265–6 and SDI 99, 100 McNamara, Robert 12 malware 144–5 Manchuria 4, 330 Mao Zedong 44–5 Martynov, Valery 285–6 Marxism-Leninism 36, 45, 50, 65, 69, 71, 134 maskirovka 160, 227, 253 Massive Retaliation doctrine 8, 9, 10 Matlock, Jack 312 Mauroy, Pierre 37 Meese, Edwin 32, 169 MI6 (British Secret Intelligence Service) 110, 121, 122, 126, 281, 336 exfiltration of Oleg Gordievsky 286–92 MiG 204, 205 MiG-23 248 military-industrial complex 74, 303, 310 Minsk 138 Minuteman missiles 195 Misawa 162, 170, 171, 172 missile silos 13, 194, 195, 200, 239, 242–3 Mitterrand, François 143 Moldavia 333 Mondale, Walter 269 Mons 223–4, 225, 229, 250, 256 Moorestown 193 Morrow, Douglas 91 Moscow Olympics (1980) 30, 49, 268 Moscow summit (1988) 323–5 Mozambique 29 Mujahideen 76, 77, 110, 310, 323 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) 12, 242, 244 Munich Olympic Games (1972) 203 Murmansk 126 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) 12, 13, 15, 17, 63, 93, 97, 103, 114, 344 MX missiles 53, 98, 99 Nagasaki, bombing of (1945) 4, 93 Nagy, Imre 43 Nakasone, Yasuhiro 183 National Association of Evangelicals 66 National Command Authority 241 National Emergency Airborne Command Post (Boeing 747) 59, 61 National Intelligence Council 269 National Military Command Center 61, 91, 193 National Security Advisors 189, 309, 320 National Security Agency (NSA) 141, 156, 161, 187, 258, 299 expansion of 54–5 National Security Archive (NSA) 17, 348–9, 350 National Security Council 144, 145, 208, 209, 231 NATO 55, 82, 86, 88, 100, 124, 126, 127, 130, 131, 140, 318, 320 Abel Archer 83 exercise 222–56, 344 Allied Command Europe (ACE) 222 Autumn Forge 83 exercises 223 Current Intelligence Group 131 East German agent in 130–5 MC 161 document 132–3 Political Affairs Directorate 131 response to SDI 134 neo-Nazis 129 Nicaragua 29, 70, 319, 323 Contras 110, 319–20 Nicholson, Major Arthur 295–6 Nine Lives exercise 61, 63 9/11 241 1983–The Brink of Apocalypse (documentary) 346 Nitze, Paul 313 Nixon, Richard 32, 114, 298, 320 anti-ballistic missiles (ABM) Treaty 92 signs Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) 13 Watergate 14, 28, 74 NKVD 5 nomenklatura 70, 220 North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) 90–1, 145, 189, 190, 193 North Korea 4, 44 nuclear capability 343 North, Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver 320 Norway 126, 127 intelligence service 157 Norwegian Labour Party 127 nuclear accidents 190–2 Chernobyl nuclear disaster 310–11 nuclear arms race 6–9, 12–13 nuclear arsenal 200 Soviet 223 US 8 nuclear ‘football’ system 55–6, 240–1 Nuclear Freeze peace movement 96, 103 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 13 nuclear war Counterforce strategy 10 Defense Readiness Condition (DEFCON) 204, 230 false alerts 189–201, 239 Launch Under Attack option 15, 60, 238–9 limited nuclear war 10, 15, 55, 88, 343 Massive Retaliation doctrine 8, 9, 10 Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) 12, 13, 15, 17, 63, 93, 97, 103, 114, 344 probable consequences 8, 60, 63, 68, 248–9 protocols for launching nuclear weapons 10, 15–16, 55–6, 62–3, 240–1 simulated nuclear attack 61–2 Withhold Options 60 nuclear war scare (1983) 344 Able Archer 83 exercise and 222–56, 344 CIA report on 339–40 Soviet arsenal on maximum alert 16, 240, 242, 243–9, 255, 257, 307 Soviet paranoia and miscalculation 16, 224, 227–9, 232–3, 239, 240, 242, 250–1, 254, 256, 258–61, 344 nuclear winter 16, 249 Nyerere, Julius 259 Obama, Barack 256, 343 observation satellites 90, 111, 194–5, 196, 248, 256 October War (1973) 204, 230 Odom, William 189 Office of Strategic Services (OSS) 107 Ogarkov, Marshal Nikolai 73, 183–4, 184, 198, 236, 241, 245, 250, 255 oil and gas pipelines 65, 143, 145, 285 Okinawa 138 Oko satellite network 194–5 O’Malley, General 173 ‘open labs’ proposal 304, 314 Operation Barbarossa 80–1, 247 Operation Chrome Dome 190–2 Operation RYaN 80, 81–7, 88, 105, 118, 124–5, 216, 217–18, 227, 228–9, 237, 251, 255, 257, 340 categories of intelligence 81–2 confirmation bias 81, 86 information processing 83–4 spurious reports 81, 84, 86, 124–5, 227–8, 250–1 Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States 210 Ossipovich, Major Gennady 162–3, 164–7, 168, 178, 184–5 Pakistan, nuclear arsenal 343 Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) 203–4, 205, 206 Palestinian-Israeli conflict 202–9 Palmerston, Lord 273 Palomares incident (1966) 191–2 Parr, Jerry 56–7 Partial Test Ban Treaty 13 peace movement 66, 95–7, 96, 103, 123–4, 237 Pelše, Arvids 214 Pentecostal Christians 59, 116 perestroika 311, 325, 329 Perroots, Lieutenant-General Leonard 253–5 Pershing II missiles 14, 53, 78, 79, 88, 94, 95, 123, 135, 216, 220, 239, 258, 270, 299, 309, 319, 321 Petropavlosk 138, 158 Petrov, Lieutenant-Colonel Stanislav 195–200, 239 Pfautz, Major General James 172–3 Phalangist militiamen 207 Philby, Kim 278, 292 PL-5 missiles 157 plutonium implosion bomb 4, 6 Podgorny, Nikolai 69 Poindexter, Admiral John 320 Poland 65, 94 political reforms 328 popular protests 42–3 Solidarity 65, 110, 111, 328 Polaris 13 Politburo 34, 47–8, 64, 70, 76, 78, 181, 214, 215, 236, 255, 264, 275, 312, 317, 319 Prague Spring 47 President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) 339, 349–50 protective missile system see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) psychological operations (PSYOPS) 139–43, 147, 162, 182, 187, 310, 340 Putin, Vladimir 341 Pym, Francis 37 radiation sickness 3–4, 249 radioactive contamination 192 RAF Lakenheath 190 Ramstein Air Force Base 253 RAND Corporation 12 RC-135 spy planes 140–1, 156–7, 170, 178, 182 Reagan, Nancy 19, 25, 32, 66, 114, 302, 306 Reagan, Ronald 108 and Able Archer 83 exercise 231–2, 261, 262, 263, 265–6 anti-communism and anti-Soviet rhetoric 23, 24, 25, 26, 30–1, 51–2, 64–7, 77–8, 93, 94–5, 110, 114–15, 116, 177, 182, 216, 266 appearance and personality 21, 22, 33 approval ratings 28, 97, 265, 323 approves technological sabotage 144 attempted assassination of 56–8 background of 20–2 belief in personal diplomacy 51, 93–4, 268 ‘bombing Russia’ poor-taste joke 267–8 and Brezhnev 59 Cold War warrior 31, 267, 321 on the decision to launch nuclear weapons 15–16 demands Berlin Wall be pulled down 321 diary entries 64–5, 98, 99–100, 102, 116, 206, 262, 268, 294, 308 and the downing of KAL 007 169, 174, 177, 178, 179, 182, 188 economic policies 27–8, 31 elected President 15, 31–2 ‘evil empire’ rhetoric 66–7, 89, 117, 176, 182, 216, 324 film career 22, 25–6, 301 Geneva summit 297–9, 300–9, 305 Governor of California 27–8 ‘Great Communicator’ 268 and human rights issues 114, 270, 303, 306, 313, 314, 322 and invasion of Grenada 210, 211, 212 and Israeli-Palestinian conflict 202–9 leadership style 27 and Margaret Thatcher 211–12 meets Gordievsky 337, 337 Moscow summit 323–5 and nuclear policy 51, 58–9, 63–4, 91–3, 97–101, 103–4, 114, 261 political philosophy 22–3, 26 populism 19, 27, 33 president of Screen Actors Guild 24, 25 presidential inauguration 19–20, 21, 32–3 protocol for launching nuclear weapons 55–6, 62–3 re-election 265, 266–7, 269 Reykjavik summit 311, 312–18, 317 and SDI 98, 99–105, 117, 134, 298, 306, 313–14, 324 secret meeting with Soviet ambassador 115–17 signs INF Treaty 321 spouses see Reagan, Nancy; Wyman, Jane suggests rapprochement with Soviet Union 266–7, 268, 294 and total abolition of nuclear weapons 51, 93, 315, 318 visits Berlin 320–1 visits London 65 visits NORAD base 90, 91 war games, participation in 61–3, 62, 97, 262 Washington summit 321–3 Reagan Doctrine 110 Red Integrated Strategic Offensive Plan (RISOP) 55, 60 Red Scares 23, 24–5 Reed, Thomas 61, 62, 143–4 Reforger 83 exercise 223 Regan, Don 208 reunification of Germany 332 Rex 82 Alpha exercise 61, 63 Reykjavik summit 311, 312–18, 317 Rivet Joint operations 141, 162 Rogers, William 61 Romania 332 Romanov, Grigory 238, 270 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 27, 146 Rubin, Professor 213 Rupp, Rainer 128–34, 135, 251–3, 336 Russia 334 hybrid warfare capabilities 342 military exercises 342 Sabra and Shatila massacres (1982) 207 Sadat, Anwar 202 Sakhalin island 136, 160, 168, 171, 172, 173, 180, 183, 184 Sakharov, Andrei 48 Sandinistas 29 Saudi Arabia 208, 343 Scarlett, John 121, 125, 218, 259 Schmidt, Helmut 94 Schneider, Dr William 142 Scowcroft, Brent 327 Screen Actors Guild 24, 25 Sea of Okhotsk 136, 138, 156, 159, 162, 168, 180, 187, 299 Second World War 40–1, 107, 146, 255 end of 4 German invasion of Soviet Union 40, 80–1, 247 Serpukhov-15 194, 195–200 Severomorsk 245 Sharansky, Anatoly 49 Sharon, Ariel 203, 207 Shchelokov, Nikolai 88 Shemya 156, 157 Shevardnadze, Eduard 297, 309, 313, 320, 330 Shultz, George 37, 113–16, 117, 146–7, 208, 219, 262 and the downing of KAL 007 169, 174, 175, 176, 179, 185 and the Geneva summit 297, 303 on Gorbachev 295 and the Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty 320 meets with Gromyko 185, 240, 296–7 meets with Shevardnadze 320 and the Reykjavik summit 313, 314, 315, 318 and SDI 100, 298 and the Soviet ‘peace offensive’ 309 signals intelligence (SIGINT) 82, 141, 170, 176, 183 Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) 10, 11, 55, 56, 60, 62, 262 Six Day War (1967) 203 ‘snap-ons’ 161, 163, 164, 170 Snow, Jon 324 Sokol 164 Solidarity 65, 110, 111, 328 Solzhenitsyn, Alexander 48 Son Dong-hui 150, 155, 161, 166, 167 South Korea 138 South Korean Navy 137 US-South Korean Mutual Defense Treaty 149 Soviet Air Force 247–8 expansion of 138 Far East Air Defence Command 139, 158, 162, 163, 180–1 Soviet embassy, London 81, 118–20, 122, 218, 228, 279 Soviet embassy, Washington 81, 277, 278 Soviet Far East 136–40, 137, 149–88 Soviet missile systems intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 9, 34, 194, 239 PL-5 missiles 157 SS-18 missiles 90 SS-19 missiles 242 SS-20 missiles 29, 53, 75, 75, 78, 94, 238, 244, 254, 299, 309, 314, 321 SS-N-8 missiles 246 SS-N-20 missiles 246 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 161 Soviet Navy Northern Fleet 126, 140, 245, 246 Pacific Fleet 138 submarine fleet 245–7 Soviet Union anti-Jewish purges 46 centralised planning 6, 69 civil defence programme 30 communist orthodoxy 36–7 Congress of People’s Deputies 329 corruption and organised crime 87–8, 333 defence budget 30 dismantling of 329, 333 economic stagnation 37, 48, 50, 64–5, 69, 71, 111 Five Year Plans 39–40 German invasion of 40, 80–1, 247 Great Terror 36, 39–40 human rights issues 14, 48–9, 114, 270, 303, 306, 313, 314, 322 intelligence community see GRU; KGB; SVR invasion and occupation of Afghanistan 30, 76–7 and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict 204–5 Kremlin nuclear paranoia 85, 86, 112, 125, 233, 238, 240 see also Able Archer 83 exercise; Operation RYaN Middle East policies 220 military strength and personnel 222–3 nuclear arsenal 223 nuclear programme 4–6, 8, 9, 12 office of head of state 35, 36 oil and gas pipelines 65, 143, 285 outrage over Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) launch 104–5, 106 political reforms 311–12, 329 post-Soviet problems 333 post-war reconstruction 41 reduced nuclear stockpile 333–4 reduction of Soviet forces in Europe 328, 333–4 Second World War 4, 40–1, 80–1, 247, 255 Sino-Soviet relations 44, 45, 220, 330 social conditions 69–70 support for global liberation struggles 29, 30, 52, 70, 94, 109, 301 suspected of influencing American presidential elections 269, 342 suspicion and fear of the West 14, 71–2, 73, 78, 80, 85, 240 technology gap 72, 73, 104, 120, 143, 144 The Soviet War Scare, 1983 (documentary) 346 Soyuz spacecraft 14 space weapons see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Speakes, Larry 169, 176 Sputnik 9, 194 SS-18 missiles 90 SS-19 missiles 242 SS-20 missiles 29, 53, 75, 75, 78, 94, 238, 244, 254, 299, 309, 314, 321 SS-N-8 missiles 246 SS-N-20 missiles 246 stagflation 28–9 Stalin, Joseph 5, 23, 24, 35, 146, 237, 329 anti-Jewish purges 47 death of 42 and the Great Terror 36, 39–40 ‘Star Wars’ see Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Stasi 85, 128, 130, 133, 335 Stewart, Nina 349 Stinger anti-aircraft missiles 310 Stombaugh, Paul, Jr 284 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) 13, 14, 94, 156 Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II) 30, 77 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) 94, 105, 270, 334 Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) 103 costs 102 Geneva summit and 298, 299, 304 Gorbachev’s hostility to 273, 298, 299, 304, 305, 306, 309, 313, 314, 315, 316, 319 ‘open labs’ proposal 304, 314 origins of 97–100 proposed limits on 313 public attitudes towards 102 Reagan’s enthusiasm for 98, 99–105, 117, 134, 298, 306, 313–14, 324 Soviet fears of 104–5, 106, 117, 216 ‘strip alert’ 248, 254 Su-24 248 submarines Delta class 138, 246 nuclear weapon-carrying submarines 13, 136, 140, 200, 246 Ohio class 54 Typhoon class 246 suicide bombers 208–9 Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) 223, 229 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 140–1, 161 Suslov, Mikhail 45 SVR 285, 334 Symms, Steve 149 Syria 204, 205, 209, 220 Syrian Air Force 205 systems failures 192, 193, 200, 201, 239 T-72 tank 204 Tadzhikistan 333 Taliban 77, 323 Tass news agency 182 Tehran embassy hostage crisis (1979–81) 20, 29 telemetry intelligence (TELINT) 156 Teller, Edward 6–7, 97–8, 101 ter Woerds, Margreet 347 terrorism 108–9 Thatcher, Denis 272 Thatcher, Margaret 124, 134, 210, 211–12, 217, 218, 231, 259, 264, 293 and British–Soviet relations 270 and Gordievsky 337, 338 meets Gorbachev 272–4, 274 on nuclear deterrence 318–19 thermonuclear weapons 7–8, 45, 190–1 Thor missiles 13 Thule 192 Tiananmen Square massacre (1989) 330 Titan missiles 13 Titov, Gennadi 127 Tkachenko, Captain Viktor 243–4 Tolkachev, Adolf 283–4 Tomahawk Cruise missiles 53 Topaz see Rupp, Rainer Treholt, Arne 127–8 Trident missiles 54, 319 ‘Trinity’ atomic test 5 Tripoli 310 ‘Trojan horses’ 144–5 Trudeau, Pierre 271 Truman, Harry 6, 7, 107 Trump, Donald 31, 269, 342, 343 Tsygichko, Vitalii 239 Tupolev TU-22M ‘Backfire’ bomber 138, 247 United States budget deficit 55, 102 Ukraine 333, 334, 341 United Nations 185 Lebanese operations 203 peacekeeping force (UNIFIL) 203 Security Council 183 United States declining superpower role 342–3 defence budget 52, 66, 79, 342 intelligence community see Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); National Security Agency (NSA); Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict 203–4 military rearmament 52–4, 116 military-industrial complex 74, 303, 310 nuclear arsenal 8 nuclear programme 6–8, 9, 12 peace movement 66, 96, 96, 103 Red Scares 23, 24–5 Second World War 107 Washington KGB residency 81, 277, 278 US Air Force Air Force Intelligence 172–3, 178 PSYOPS 140–1, 142 Strategic Air Command 8, 10, 58, 90–1, 156, 190–1, 193 US Marines 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 212, 217 US missile systems anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs) 12, 13 Cruise missiles 53, 78, 88, 94, 95, 123, 135, 216, 220, 258, 270, 299, 309, 321 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) 12–13, 53, 198 Minuteman missiles 195 multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs) 12 MX missiles 53, 98, 99 Pershing II missiles 14, 53, 78, 79, 88, 94, 95, 123, 135, 216, 220, 239, 258, 270, 299, 309, 319, 321 Stinger anti-aircraft missiles 310 submarine-launched ballistic missiles 13 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) 140–1 Trident missiles 54 Vanguard missiles 9 US Navy 142 expansion 54, 138 Pacific Fleet 138 PSYOPS 142 US presidential elections 1964 26 1976 28 1980 30–1 1984 265–9 2016 269, 342 suspected Soviet influence 269, 342 USS Coral Sea 137 USS Eisenhower 140 USS Enterprise 136–7 USS Midway 137, 139 USS New Jersey 208 Ustinov, Marshal Dmitri 34–5, 87, 180, 181, 198, 215, 236, 241, 242, 255 US-South Korean Mutual Defense Treaty 149 Uzbekistan 333 Vanguard missiles 9 Velikhov, Yevgeny 104 Velvet Revolution 332 Vessey, Admiral 262 Vetrov, Captain Vladimir 143 Vietnam war 27, 29 Vladivostok 138 Volk Field Air Base 192–3 Wakkanai 162, 168, 170, 172, 174 Warsaw Pact 43, 47, 55, 86, 88, 132, 222, 318 Washington summit (1987) 321–3 Watergate 14, 28, 74 Watkins, Admiral James D. 98–9, 139–40 Weinberger, Caspar 32, 52, 58, 100, 131, 179, 262, 296, 320 Weiss, Dr Gus 144, 145 West Germany 14, 128, 319 peace movement 95 Winter War (1939–40) 40 Withhold Options 60 Wolf, Markus 85, 86, 135, 335 Wright, Oliver 260 Wyman, Jane 22, 25 Yeltsin, Boris 329, 333, 338 Yesin, General-Colonel Ivan 245 Yom Kippur War (1973) 204, 230 Yugoslavia 44 Yurchenko, Vitaly 299–300 Zapad 17 exercise 342 Zeleny 139 zero-zero option 94–5, 315, 316, 318, 321, 321–2 Zil limousines 74, 111, 112, 236 Zionists 74, 202, 203 US lobby 204 Zubok, Vlad 348


pages: 570 words: 151,609

Into the Black: The Extraordinary Untold Story of the First Flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia and the Astronauts Who Flew Her by Rowland White, Richard Truly

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, low earth orbit, Maui Hawaii, Mercator projection, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, Ronald Reagan, William Langewiesche

In the spring of 1979, a small, chaotic group of Iranian Marxist revolutionaries had managed to seize the US embassy in Tehran. They were quickly thrown out by supporters of the country’s new leader, the radical cleric Ayatollah Khomeini. In the aftermath of the attack, the CIA’s Iran branch chief in Langley contacted the head of the Tehran station to reassure him that another incursion was unlikely. “The only thing that could trigger an attack,” he said, “would be if the shah was let into the United States—and no one in this town is stupid enough to do that.” On October 21, the exiled Shah of Iran was admitted to a New York hospital for cancer treatment. Two weeks later, three thousand angry supporters of the ayatollah swarmed over the walls of the US embassy in the Iranian capital, overpowering the Marine guards to take hostage more than sixty embassy staff. The sight of American diplomats blindfolded and handcuffed while crowds outside burned the Stars and Stripes and chanted for the shah’s return shocked America.

The sight of American diplomats blindfolded and handcuffed while crowds outside burned the Stars and Stripes and chanted for the shah’s return shocked America. Before the end of the month, Ayatollah Khomeini had released all the women and African American hostages, but a warning was to follow: if America attacked his country, the remaining fifty-three hostages would die “on the spot.” Work on a rescue attempt, however, had already begun. The foundation upon which the US Army’s Delta Force planned their operation was overhead photography from the two KH-11 satellites. While a CIA agent on the ground was able to supply detail about what was going on inside the embassy, augmented by increased signals intelligence monitoring Iranian communications, no military option was possible without detailed information about the physical layout of the compound and its surroundings.

See KH-11 KENNEN Kerwin, Joe, 112, 113, 119, 121 KEYHOLE (spy satellite program), 64, 88, 204, 296, 378 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 281–82, 287–90, 296, 301, 310–11, 316–18, 320, 324, 336–37 failings of, 38 MOL program, 33, 39–40, 60 security, 64, 311 Skylab, 298 Vandenberg Air Force Base, 54 See also individual satellites (KH) KGB, 205 KH-4 CORONA (Discoverer), 34–38, 39, 64, 88 CIA develops replacement, 58 Discoverer 0, 35 Discoverer 1, 34–35 Discoverer 2, 35 Discoverer 3, 35 Discoverer 13, 35 Discoverer 14, 35–36 USSR reconnaissance, 52 KH-7 GAMBIT, 37–38 KH-8 GAMBIT, 287, 288 KH-8 GAMBIT-3 (G3), 108, 115 assists Skylab, 1, 113, 115–18 KH-9 HEXAGON, 58–59, 74, 161, 287, 288 cancellation of, 58–60 design, 58, 93, 187 launch, 92, 162–63, 287 KH-10 DORIAN, 31, 32–33, 38–40, 42, 53, 55, 60 KH-11 KENNEN, 86, 161–62, 189, 203–4, 224–25 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 288–90, 296, 301, 310–11, 316–18, 320, 324, 336–37 development of, 162, 188 launch, 203–4, 224–25, 324 KH-12 Advanced KENNEN (CRYSTAL/IKON), 188, 378 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 224–25 Kiker, John, 126–27 Kindley Field Naval Air Station, 183–84 Kissinger, Henry, 55, 86 Kleinknecht, Kenny, 223 Knoche, Hank, 162 Kokee Park tracking station, 293 kosmolyot, 142 Kosygin, Alexei, 107 Kraft, Chris, 151, 152, 248 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 324 and Hans Mark, 256–57 heat shield development, 222, 229, 247 John Houbolt’s concern over Columbia, 247, 250 meets NASA’s TFNGs, 198 Shuttle development, 125, 127, 244 Shuttle Training Aircraft program, 158, 161 state of Shuttle program, 219–20 STS-1 launch, 270 STS-1 reentry and landing, 372 Kranz, Gene, 298, 318 Apollo 3 reentry, 348 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 286–87, 290, 301, 306, 307, 324, 327–29, 333–37, 342, 375 press conferences, 302 Kranz Doctrine, 336, 391 Kubrick, Stanley (2001: A Space Odyssey), 164 Kuiper, Gerard P., 340 Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), 340–41, 342, 343–44, 353–54 STS-1 reentry and landing, 347–48 systems failure, 361 Kulpa, Major-General John, 187, 188–89, 214 Land, Edwin, 35–36 landing Approach and Landing tests, 151, 165–88 landing gear, 125–26 landing simulations, 135–37 Langley Research Center, 126, 127, 245–47 Larsen, Dr., 124 Lawrence, Bob, 30, 42, 44 Lawyer, Dick, 29–30, 42 Learjet, 285 Lee, Dottie Apollo 11, 3 begins work on Space Shuttle concept, 3–4, 48–51 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 6, 279, 294, 300–301 final presentation to Walt Williams, 235 LeMay, General Curtis, 15, 31 Leonov, Alexei, 140 Lewis, Chuck, 298, 333 Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, 75 Liberty Star (recovery ship), 270 Liebergot, Sy, 77 Life magazine, 12, 69 Lindberg, Charles, 10 Ling-Temco-Vought Company, 41 Livermore Laboratory, 87–88, 162 Lockheed Corporation, 49, 53, 103, 104 A-12 OXCART, 102, 103 bids to build Shuttle, 106 C-5A Galaxy, 126, 127 C-130 Hercules, 20, 35 C-141 Starlifter, 116, 340–41, 343–44, 353–54, 361 EC-130, 225 F-104 Starfighter, 18, 20, 25, 27–28, 44, 124, 222, 249 F-117 Nighthawk, 136, 213 heat shield, 133, 185–86 JC-130B, 116 Jetstar, 137 large space telescope (LST), 288 NF-104 AeroSpace Trainer, 18 NT-33, 136 P-80 Shooting Star, 22 Shuttle airframe testing, 208 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, 127 Shuttle Training Aircraft, 137 Skunk Works, 49, 102, 103, 162 SR-1 ejection seat, 259 SR-71 Blackbird, 102, 103, 233, 258 T-33, 20, 136 U-2 (spyplane), 36, 49, 102 Lockheed-Martin F-22 Raptor, 136 Los Alamos Laboratories, 388 Los Angeles Air Force Base, 41, 187 Lousma, Jack, 183, 184–85, 209, 377 Lovell, Jim, 76, 77, 78–80, 348 Lovell, Marilyn, 77 Lozino-Lozinskiy, Gleb, 205 Luftwaffe, 140 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 340 lunar landing training vehicle (“Flying Bedstead”), 135 lunar module, 18 Apollo program, 99 Aquarius, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 Orion, 94–95, 135, 246 simulators, 135 lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR), 245–46 Lunar Rover buggy, 95 Lyulka AL-31 turbofan, 380 M113 tracked armored personnel carrier, 242 MacLean, Alistair (Ice Station Zebra), 34, 35 Macleay, Mac, 29–30, 42, 57, 58 Mahe, Seychelles, 54, 249, 274 Malabar Test Facility, 305, 307, 328 manned maneuvring unit, 234 Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), 29–33, 38–44, 68, 118, 388 closure of project, 57–58, 60–61 computer systems, 129 costs, 52–53 DORIAN, 32–33, 38–40, 53, 55, 60 launch, 283, 388 “Magnificent Eight,” 29–30, 44 Manned Space Flight Center, Houston (MSFC), 45–51, 61, 63–70, 83–86, 102–38, 151–64, 227–36, 250–58, 281–98, 320–39, 355–62, 369–75 Apollo program, 99 Faget introduces Space Shuttle concept, 3–4 Firing Room 1, 260, 264, 265, 274 Flight Control, 286, 298, 302, 306, 332, 336 Launch Control, 236, 261, 264, 266, 274, 280 Shuttle’s computer systems, 109 Space Shuttle program, 99 Structures and Mechanics Division (Building 13) airframe testing, 207–8 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 6, 283, 294, 301, 324–25, 335 heat shield construction concerns, 211, 218 heat shield testing, 223 See also Astronaut Office (NASA); Johnson Space Center; Mission Control manned spaceflight engineers (MSEs), 214 Mark, Hans, 93, 378, 390 at Ames Research Center, 88, 99–100, 131, 162–63, 189, 229, 340 appointed Air Force Secretary, 219, 220–21 appointed deputy administrator of NASA, 248 appointed director of NRO, 187, 203–4, 219, 281 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 281–82, 287, 293, 296, 311, 337 Freedom space station, 383 Hans-o-grams, 131 heat shield design concerns, 211 heat shield development, 100, 103, 131, 134, 144, 230 Hubble Telescope, 288 interest in intelligent life, 163–64 interest in space, 87 MSEs, 214 Payload Specialists, 164, 214 seeks extra money and time for Shuttle program, 220–21 Shuttle crew selection, 164 Shuttle’s future under Reagan, 240–41 Shuttle’s launch location, 190 Skylab, 121–22 Space Shuttle program, 86–89, 90, 121–22 spy satellites, 287 STS-1, 248, 256–57, 355, 373–74 USAF and CIA’s resistance to Shuttle, 187–88 “The Utility of Military Man in Space,” 213–14 and Wernher von Braun, 88–89, 163, 376 Mark, Herman, 87 Mark, Marion, 164, 204 Mars, 56, 66–67, 257 Marshall Space Flight Center, 99–100, 110 acoustic stress testing, 209, 229 development of Shuttle’s engines, 85, 144, 207 engine testing, 181, 186, 230 Skylab, 113, 185 Space Simulation Branch, 115 Wernher von Braun at, 88 Martin NB-57 Canberra bomber, 20 WB-57F, 214, 215 Martin-Marietta (manufacturers), 42, 144–46, 185, 223, 229, 234 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 109 Mathematica Inc.


pages: 373 words: 80,248

Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle by Chris Hedges

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cal Newport, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, social intelligence, statistical model, uranium enrichment

Nikolai Volkoff, who wrestled during these years under the name Boris Breznikoff, used to sing the Soviet National Anthem and wave the Soviet flag before matches to bait the crowd. He eventually teamed up with an Iranian-born wrestler, Hossein Khosrow Ali Vaziri, known as The Iron Sheik. In the midst of the Iranian hostage crisis, the Iron Sheik bragged in the ring about his devotion and friendship with Ayatollah Khomeini. The Iron Sheik was regularly pitted against a wrestler known as Sergeant Slaughter, All-American G. I. During the first Gulf War; the Iron Sheik reinvented himself, as often happens with wrestlers who shed one persona and name for another, as Colonel Mustafa, an Iraqi who was a close confidant of Saddam Hussein. In wrestling, villains were nearly always foreigners. They were people who wanted to destroy “our way of life.”

Morgan Chase Jackson, Randy Jameson, Jenna Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider’s Account of Life in a Japanese Auto Factory (Kamata) Jaxin, Jersey Jefferson, Thomas Jensen, Robert Jerri (Survivor contestant) The Jerry Springer Show (television show) Jesus Christ JM Productions Job losses See also Unemployment Johnson, Chalmers Johnson, Lyndon Johnston, David Cay Jollee, Ariana Jopling, David Journal of Happiness Studies The Jungle (Lewis) Junk politics Justice Department, U.S. Kamata, Satoshi Kane (wrestler) Kant, Immanuel Keller, Bronwen Keltner, Dacher Kenci (porn actress) Kennedy, John F. Kerbel, Jarrett Kerry, John Khomeini, Ayatollah Khosrow Ali Vaziri, Hossein (Iron Sheik) Klein, Naomi Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) schools Known Unknowns: Unconventional “Strategic Shocks” in Defense Strategy Development (Freier) Korten, David Kristy (The Swan contestant) Krypton, Roger Ku Klux Klan Kucinich, Dennis LA Weekly (newspaper) Labor unions LaFarge, Peter Lahde, Andrew Landay, Jonathan Lane, Robert Lane, Sunny Las Vegas, Nevada described porn expo in Lasch, Christopher The Last Honest Place in America (Cooper) The Last Professors: The Corporate University and the Fate of the Humanities (Donoghue) Law, John Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Layfield, John Bradshaw (JBL) Lazarus, Richard S.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Just as Christians repeatedly re-enact the drama of the crucifixion and imitate the passion of Christ, so Shiites re-enact the drama of Ashura and imitate the passion of Husayn. Millions of Shiites flock yearly to the holy shrine in Karbala, established where Husayn was martyred, and on the day of Ashura Shiites throughout the world stage mourning rituals, in some cases flagellating and cutting themselves with chains and knives. Yet the importance of Ashura is not limited to one place and one day. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and numerous other Shiite leaders have repeatedly told their followers that ‘every day is Ashura and every place is Karbala’.12 The martyrdom of Husayn at Karbala thus gives meaning to every event, anywhere, any time, and even the most mundane decisions should be seen as having an impact on the great cosmic struggle between good and evil. If you dare doubt this story, you will immediately be reminded of Karbala – and to doubt or mock the martyrdom of Husayn is just about the worst offence you could possibly commit.

N. 310, 315–16 Good Samaritan parable 57 Google 31, 36, 39, 40, 41, 48, 53–4, 68, 77, 78, 90, 91, 178, 282; Glass 92; Maps 54, 55; Translate 262 gorilla 94–5, 98 Gove, Michael 46 Great Barrier Reef, Australian 116 Great Depression 251 Great Ukrainian Famine (1932–3) 33, 238 Greece 13, 154–5, 181; ancient 52, 95–6, 177, 181, 182, 291 greenhouse gases 117, 119 groupthink 218–20, 230 Guardian 306 Guevara, Che 9–10, 11, 133 Gulf War, First (1990–91) 172, 174 Haber, Fritz 194, 195 Haiti 150 Hamas 173 HaMevaser 97 Hammurabi 188 Hamodia 97 happiness xiv, 41–2, 201, 202, 211, 245, 251, 252, 273, 309 Harry Potter 234 Hastings, Battle of (1066) 178–9 Hayek, Friedrich 130, 131 healthcare 11, 16, 40, 112; AI and 22–3, 24–5, 28, 48–9, 50, 106–7; basic level of 41; religion and 128, 129 Hebrew Old Testament 184–96 Hillel the Elder, Rabbi 190 Hinduism 105, 108, 127, 129, 131, 133, 134, 181, 186, 191, 200, 203, 208, 235, 269– 70, 278, 283–4, 285, 291 Hirohito, Emperor of Japan 235 Hiroshima, atomic bombing of (1945) 112, 115, 178 Hitler, Adolf 9, 11, 66–7, 96, 108, 178, 211, 231, 237, 295 Holocaust 184, 236, 248, 272, 293 Holocene 116 hominids 110, 122 Homo Sapiens: communities, size of 90, 110, 111; disappearance of 122; emergence of 185; emotions and decision-making 58; as post-truth species 233, 238–9, 242; religion and 185, 188, 198; as storytelling animal 269, 275; superhumans and 41, 75, 246; working together in groups 218 homosexuality 50, 61, 135, 200, 205–6, 300 Hsinbyushin, King of Burma 305 Hugh of Lincoln 235–6 human rights xii, 4, 11, 15, 44, 93, 95, 96, 101, 211–12, 306 human sacrifice 289 humility 180, 181–96; ethics before the Bible and 186–90; Jews/Judaism and 182–96; monotheism and 190–3; religion and 181–96; science and 193–5 Hungary 169 hunter-gatherers 73, 100, 108, 111, 147, 187, 218, 224, 226, 230 Hussein, Saddam 180 Huxley, Aldous: Brave New World 251–5 IBM 23, 29, 30–1 identity, mass: religion and 133–7 ignorance 217–22; individuality and 218, 219–20; knowledge illusion, the 218–19; power and 220–2; rationality and 217–18 illness 48–9, 69, 129, 134 immigration xi, 4, 16, 93–4, 108, 115, 138, 139–55 imperialism 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 63, 79, 106, 136, 145, 178, 191–2, 212 Inca 289 incest, secular ethics and 205, 206 India 4, 10, 15, 39, 74, 76, 100, 106, 109, 113, 115, 127, 131, 181, 182, 183, 184, 191, 192, 193, 260, 266, 285–6, 310, 315 Indian Pala Empire 139 individuality: AI and 22, 23, 27; myth of 218–20 Indonesia 10, 14, 26, 102–3, 105 Industrial Revolution 16, 19, 33, 34, 74, 186, 266 inequality see equality information technology/infotech xii, 1, 6, 7, 16, 17, 21, 33, 48, 66, 80–1, 83, 120–1, 176 inorganic life, creation of xii, 78, 122, 246 Inoue, Nissho 305 Inside Out (movie) 249–51, 267 Instagram 301 Institution of Mechanical Engineers 118 intelligence, consciousness and ix, 68–70, 122, 245–6 see also artificial intelligence (AI) International Olympic Committee (IOC) 104 Internet 6, 15, 40, 65, 71, 73, 88, 122, 232, 246, 263 intuition 20–1, 47 Iran 90, 94, 106, 107–8, 120, 130–1, 134, 135, 137, 138, 139, 173, 181, 200, 289 Iran-Iraq War (1980) 173 Iraq 5, 13, 94, 106, 159, 165, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 210, 219, 288, 295, 296 Islam xi, 13, 15, 17–18, 87, 93–4, 96, 97–8, 101, 106, 107, 126, 127, 133, 137, 161, 168, 169, 177, 181, 183, 184, 186, 191, 196, 199, 248, 289, 295, 296 Islamic fundamentalism 87, 93–4, 97–8, 101, 106, 107, 161, 177, 188, 191, 199, 248, 295, 296 Islamic State 93, 94, 97–8, 101, 106, 107, 177, 188, 191, 199, 248, 295, 296 Isonzo, tenth Battle of the (1917) 160 Israel 15, 42–3, 64–5, 88, 97, 101, 103, 106, 107, 108, 111, 122, 130, 131, 134, 135, 137, 138, 141–2, 160, 163, 173–4, 182, 183–4, 186, 189, 190, 191, 221, 224, 233, 242, 272, 274–5, 277, 290, 294 Israel Defence Forces (IDF) 173 Italy 38, 103, 172, 173, 179, 251, 292, 294, 295 Ivory Coast 103, 188 Japan 13, 54, 107, 119, 120, 135–7, 139, 148, 161, 162, 171, 173, 179–80, 182, 184, 186, 232, 235, 251, 285, 305–6 Jerusalem 15, 57, 165, 183, 239, 274, 279, 298 Jesus 108, 128, 131, 133, 187, 190, 212–13, 237, 283, 284, 289, 291–2, 306 Jewish Enlightenment 194 Jewish Great Revolt (66–70 ad) 239 Jews/Judaism 8, 15, 42–3, 57, 58, 96–7, 131, 132, 134, 137, 138, 142, 182–7, 188, 189–96, 208, 233, 235–6, 239, 272, 273–4, 279, 284, 289–90 jobs: AI and xiii, 8, 18, 19–43, 59–60, 63, 109, 259–68; education and 259–68; immigration and 139, 141, 149, 152 Johnson, Boris 46 Johnson, Lyndon B. 113, 114 Joinville, Jean de 296 Juche 137 Judah 189 judiciary 4, 44 justice xiii, 188–9, 222, 223–30, 270, 277, 288; complex nature of modern world and 223– 8; effort to know and 224; morality of intentions and 225–6; roots of sense of 223 kamikaze 136 Kanad, Acharya 181 Kant, Immanuel 58–9, 60 Karbala, Iraq 288, 289 Kasparov, Garry 29, 31 KGB 48, 299 Khan, Genghis 175, 179 Khomeini, Ayatollah 130, 131, 288 Kidogo (chimpanzee) 187–8 Kim Il-sung 137 Kim Jong-Il 180 Kim Jong-Un 64 Kinsey scale 50 Kiribati, Republic of 119, 120 Kita, Ikki 305 knowledge illusion, the 218–19 Korea 104, 135, 137, 171, 180, 275, 285 Labour Party 45 Laozi 190, 267 Leave campaign 46 Lebanon 173 Leviticus 189 LGBT 135, 200 liberalism/liberal democracy xii, xiv, xv, 3–4, 33, 46, 55, 141, 154–5, 210, 217, 237, 301; AI and 6–9, 17–8, 43, 44–72, 217, 220, 230; alternatives to 5, 11–15, 17; birth of 33; choice and 45–6, 297–300; crisis/loss of faith in x, xi, xiv–xv, 1, 3–18, 44, 45, 46, 55, 141; crises faced by, periodic 9–18; education and 261;elections/referendums and 45–6, 210–11; equality and 74, 76, 80; immigration and 4, 138, 141, 142–3, 144; individual, faith in 44–9, 55, 217, 220, 230, 297–302; liberty and 44–72; meaning of life stories and 297–302; nationalism and 11, 14–15, 112; reinvention of 16–17; secular ethics and 210 Liberation Theology 133 liberty xii, xiii, 3, 4, 10–11, 17, 44–72, 83, 108, 204, 211, 299; AI future development and 68–72; authority shift from humans to AI 43, 44–72, 78, 268; decision-making and 47–61; digital dictatorships and 61–8; free will/feelings, liberal belief in 44–6 Libya 5, 172, 173 life expectancy 41, 107, 109, 260, 264, 265 Life of Brian (film) 186, 220 Lincoln Cathedral 236 Lincoln, Abraham 12 Lion King, The (movie) 270–1, 273, 275–6, 297, 299 Lockerbie bombing, Pan Am flight 103 (1988) 160 Lody (chimpanzee) 187–8 logic bombs 77, 178 Louis IX, King of France 296 Louis XIV, King of France 66, 96 Louis XVI, King of France 207 Lucas, George 298 Luhansk People’s Republic 232 machine learning 8, 19, 25, 30, 31, 33, 64, 65, 67, 245, 267, 268 Mahabharata 181 Mahasatipatthana Sutta 303 Mahavira 190 Maimonides 193 Maji Maji Rebellion (1905–7) 239 Mali 229 Manchester Arena bombing (May, 2017) 160 Manchukuo 232 Manchuria 180 Mansoura, Battle of (1250) 296 Markizova, Gelya 237 martyrs 287–9, 295–6 Marx, Karl 94, 130, 131, 133, 209, 210, 213, 246, 248, 262; The Communist Manifesto 262, 273 Marxism 15, 137, 209–10, 213 Marxism-Leninism 12, 137 Mashhad, Iran 289 Mass, Christian ceremony of 283 Matrix, The (movie) 245, 246–8, 249, 255 Maxim gun 178 May, Theresa 114 Maya 186, 193 McIlvenna, Ted 200 meaning xiii–xiv, 269–308; Buddhism and 302–6; stories and 269–83, 291–8, 301–2, 306–8; individual/liberalism and 297–302; rituals and 283–91; romance and 280–1; successful stories 276–7 meat, clean 118–19 media: government control of 12–13; post-truth and 238; terrorism and 166, 167 Meir, Golda 233 Merkel, Angela 95, 96, 97 Mesha Stele 191 Mesopotamia 189 Methodism 200 #MeToo movement xi, 164 Mexican border wall 8 Mexican-American war (1846–48) 172 Mexico 8, 106, 151, 172, 260, 261, 266 Mickiewicz, Adam 307 Middle East 13, 15, 78, 106, 139, 142, 143, 161, 173, 175, 177, 188, 193, 199, 296 Mill, John Stuart 58, 60 Milwaukee County Zoo 187 mind, meditation and 310–18 Mishra, Pankaj 94 Mitsui 305 Moab 191 Modi, Narendra 114, 179 morality see justice Moses, prophet 186–7, 188–9, 274 movies, AI and 51–2, 69, 245–51, 255, 267, 268 Mubarak, Hosni 63 Muhammad, Prophet 15, 94, 181, 182, 187, 288 Mumbai x, 17 Murph (chimpanzee) 188 music, AI and 25–8 Muslims 13, 55, 62, 63, 93–4, 96, 98, 100, 104, 107, 130–3, 134, 143, 145, 148, 150, 152, 153, 165, 172, 181, 184, 185, 190, 191, 193, 200, 203–4, 208, 230, 233, 235, 271–2, 284, 288, 292, 295, 296, 306 Mussolini, Benito 295 My Lai massacre (1968) 62, 63 Myanmar 306 Nakhangova, Mamlakat 237–8 nanotechnology 76 national liberation movements 10 nationalism xi, 14, 83, 109, 110–26, 132, 160, 176–7, 179, 181, 230, 241, 309; AI and 120–6; benefits of 111–12; ecological crisis and xi, 115–20, 121, 122–3, 124; Europe and 124–5; fascism and 292–5; ideology, lack of unifying 176–7; liberalism, as alternative to 11–15, 17, 112; nostalgia and 14–15; nuclear weapons and 112–15, 121–2, 123, 124; origins of 110–12; post-truth and 231–3; religion and 137–8, 305, 307; rituals/sacrifice and 286–8, 292–5; story and meaning of 272, 273–5, 276, 277–8, 280, 286–7, 292–5, 306–8; suffering and 306–8; technology and 120–2, 123–4 National Rifle Association (NRA) 291–2 Native American Indians 79, 147, 185, 186, 191 NATO 175, 177, 231 natural selection 58, 93, 94, 122 Nazi Germany 10, 66, 96, 134, 136, 212, 213, 226, 237, 251, 279, 295 Nepal 103 Netanyahu, Benjamin 173, 179, 221 Netflix 52, 55 Netherlands 10, 14, 38, 186 neuroscience 20 New York Times 243 New Zealand 76, 105 Ngwale, Kinjikitile 239 Nigeria 90, 101, 103, 127, 159, 165 Nile: Basin 113; River 111; Valley 172, 296 9/11 159, 160, 161, 162–3, 166, 168, 195 Nobel Prize 193, 194, 195 North Korea 4, 64, 106, 107–8, 137, 138, 169, 171, 178 Northern Ireland: Troubles 132 nuclear weapons/war 14, 34, 107–8, 112–15, 116, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 137, 138, 154, 165, 167–70, 178, 179, 181 Nuda, Yuzu 54 nurses 24, 107 Obama, Barack 4, 12, 15–16, 98, 151, 168 oligarchy 12–13, 15, 76, 176 Olympics: (1016) (Medieval) 103–5; (1980) 103; (1984) 103; (2016) 101–2; (2020) 105; Christian emperors suppress 192 opportunity costs 168 Orthodox Christianity 13, 15, 137, 138, 183, 237, 282, 308 Orwell, George 63, 64; Nineteen Eighty-Four 52, 252 Oscar (chimpanzee) 188 Ottoman Empire 153 Pakistan 102, 153, 159, 200, 286 Palestinians 64–5, 101, 103, 160, 233, 274, 275, 282 Paris terror attacks (November, 2015) 160, 295–6 Parks, Rosa 207, 299 Passover 284 Pasteur, Louis 299 pattern recognition 20 Pearl Harbor attack (1941) 135, 161, 162 Pegu, King of 305 Pentagon 162 People’s Liberation Army (PLA) 178 Peter the Great 175 Phelps, Michael 102 Philippines 127, 161 phosphorus 116 Picasso, Pablo 299 Pixar 249–50 Plato 181, 182 Pokémon Go 92 Poland 15, 103, 137, 142, 169, 177, 186, 231, 279–80, 307–8 polar regions, ice melt in 117 post-truth xiii, 230, 231–45; action in face of 242–4; branding/advertising and 238; history of 231–3; Homo Sapiens as post-truth species 233–6; knowledge and belief, line between 240–2; nation states and 236–8; scientific literature and 243–4; truth and power, relationship between 241–2; uniting people and 239–40 Pravda 237, 243 Princeton Theological Seminary 57 Protestants 108, 132, 213 Putin, Vladimir 12, 13, 15, 80, 114, 175, 176, 177, 231, 232, 233, 238 Qatar 142 Qin Dynasty 171 Quran 127, 130, 131, 132, 181, 198, 233, 235, 272, 298 racism 60, 137, 141, 142, 146, 147, 150–2, 154, 182, 185, 190, 226 Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli 286 rationality 45, 47, 180, 217–18, 219, 220, 282 Reagan, Ronald 44 refugees x, 117, 123, 140, 141, 142, 144, 147, 148, 155, 205 regulation: AI and 6, 22, 34–5, 61, 77–81, 123; environmental 118, 130, 133, 219, 225 religion xi–xii, xiii, 14, 17, 46, 57, 83, 106, 108, 126, 127–38, 160, 248, 255, 260; authority and 46–7; community and 89, 91; distortions of ancient traditions and 96–8; economics and 33, 106; future of humanity and 127–8; God/gods and see God and gods; humility and 181–96; identity and 128, 133–7; immigration and 141–3, 144, 153; meaning of life stories and see meaning; meditation and 315–16; monotheism, birth of 190–3; nationalism and 15, 17, 137–8, 309; policy problems (economics) and 128, 130–3; post-truth and 233–7, 239, 241; science and 127–30, 193–5; secularism and see secularism; technical problems (agriculture) and 127–30; unemployment and 42–3 see also under individual religion name renewable energy 118, 120, 127, 128–30 robots 249, 250; inequality and 76–7; jobs/work and 19, 22, 24, 29–30, 34, 36, 37, 39, 42; as soldiers 61–8, 76–7, 168; war between humans and 70, 246 Rokia 229 Roman Empire 177, 184, 191, 192, 235, 239, 282 Romania 103, 169 Russia 5, 9, 12–13, 15, 64, 76, 100, 101, 105, 113, 114, 119–20, 122, 134, 135, 137, 137, 138, 139, 168–9, 171, 174–7, 179, 182, 231–2, 236, 237, 238, 242, 248, 251, 260, 277, 294, 307, 308 see also Soviet Union Sabbath, Jewish 188, 189, 290 sacrifice 60–1, 91, 112, 120, 136, 141, 182, 190, 274, 275, 279, 283–91, 302–3, 305, 307, 308 Sanders, Bernie 292 Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind (Harari) 183 Saudi Arabia 102, 120, 131, 134, 135, 137, 139, 148 science fiction 51, 61, 68–9, 70, 244, 245–55; Brave New World 251–5; free will, Inside Out and concept of 249–51; intelligence with consciousness, confusion of 68–9, 246; mind’s inability to free itself from manipulation 245–55; ‘self’, definition of and 255; technology used to manipulate/control human beings, outlines dangers of 246–9; The Matrix 245, 246–8, 249, 255; The Truman Show 246–7, 248, 255, 268 scientific literature 243–4 Scientific Revolution 193, 195 Scotland: independence referendum (2014) 124–5 Second World War (1939–45) 3, 10, 11, 100, 123, 124, 179–80, 184, 293 secularism 42, 127, 130, 143, 183, 194, 195, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203–14, 229–30, 290; compassion and 205–6; courage and 207–8; definition of 203; equality and 206–7; freedom and 207; secular ideal/ethics of 204–9; Stalin and 209–10, 212 Serbia 175, 275, 276, 282 sexuality: AI and 50; law and 61; liberalism and 299; religion and 200, 300; secularism and 205–6 Shakespeare, William 25, 55–6, 252; Hamlet 297 Shechtman, Dan 194 Shiite Muslims 131, 134, 137, 138, 288–9 Shinto 135–7, 186 Shulhan Arukh (code of Jewish law) 195 Shwedagon Pagoda, Burma 305 Siam 304–5 Sikhs 186, 284 Silicon Valley 39, 76, 85, 178, 217, 299 skin colour 151, 152 slavery 96, 148, 151, 177, 226 Sloman, Steven 218 smart bomb 136 social media 50 solar energy 119, 120 soldiers, AI and 61–8, 76–7, 168 Somme, Battle of the (1 July, 1916) 160 Song Empire, Chinese 104, 259 South Africa 13, 76 South East Asia 100 South Korea 13, 120 Soviet Union 5, 8, 9, 10, 15, 48, 65, 103, 114, 169, 172, 174–5, 176, 209–10, 237–8, 248, 279, 280, 299 see also Russia Spain 48, 124, 125, 236, 260, 289 Spanish Inquisition 48, 96, 199, 212, 213, 289, 299 speciation (divergence of mankind into biological castes or different species) 76 Spinoza 193 Srebrenica massacre (1995) 62–3 St Paul the Apostle 190 Stalin, Joseph 66, 67, 96, 175, 176, 209–10, 211, 212, 237, 238, 243 Stockfish 8 31 Stone Age 73, 86, 182, 187, 217, 218, 233 stress 32, 57, 264 strongmen 5, 165 Suez Canal 172 suffering: AI and xii, 49; Buddhism and 303–4; fake news and 242; meditation and 309, 313; nation states and 307–8; reality and 242, 286–7, 306–8; sacrifice and 287, 289; secular ethics and 201, 205–9 Sumerian city states 188 Sunni Muslims 104, 131, 134 superhumans 41, 75, 211–12, 246 surveillance systems 63–5 Sweden 101, 105, 112, 141 Syria 13, 29, 93, 94, 106, 114, 139, 141, 147, 148, 159, 171, 173, 175, 176, 223, 228, 261, 295, 296 Taiwan 100, 102, 104, 135 Taliban 30, 101, 153 Talmud 42, 43, 97, 132, 183, 186, 189, 193, 235 Tasmanians, aboriginal 227 tax 6, 37, 40, 90–1, 105, 118, 130, 205, 286, 291 Tea Party 219, 291 technology 87; animal welfare and 118–19; ecological collapse and 118–19, 122–3; education and 266–8; equality and 72–81; human bodies and 88–9; liberal democracy and 6–9, 16, 17–18; liberty and 44–72; nationalism and 120–4; science fiction and 245–55; threat from future xii–xiii, xiv, 1–81, 123, 176, 178–9, 245–55, 259–68; war and 99–100, 123, 176, 178–9; work and 19–43 see also artificial intelligence (AI) and under individual are of technology Tel el-Kebir, Battle of (1882) 172 television, AI and 51–2 Temple of Yahweh, Jerusalem 15 Ten Commandments 186, 187, 199, 291 Tencent (technology company) 40, 41, 77 terrorism: AI and 65, 69; etymology 159; fear of xi, xiii, 93, 155, 159–70, 217, 237, 249; media and 166, 167, 170; nuclear weapons 167–70; numbers killed by 23, 159; state reaction to 163–7; strategy of 159–63; suicide/martyrdom 295–6 Tesla 59, 60–1 Thatcher, Margaret 44–5 Theodosian Decrees (391) 192 Theodosius, Roman Emperor 192 Third World War see war 3-D printers 39 Tibet 232 Tiranga (tricolor) (Indian national flag) 285–6 Tojo, General 180 Torah 190, 194 trolley problems 57, 60 Truman Show, The (movie) 246–7, 248, 255, 268 Trump, Donald xi, 5, 8, 9, 11, 14–15, 40, 114, 150–1, 232, 233, 312 truth 12, 54, 215–55; Google and 54; ignorance and 217–22; justice and 223–30; meditation and see meditation; nationalism and 277–8, 293; post-truth and xiii, 231–45; reality and 306–8; science fiction and 245–55; secular commitment to 204–14; suffering and 308 Tsuyoshi, Inukai 305 Tunisia xi Turkey 5, 15, 127, 141, 169, 181, 260 Twitter 91, 235, 238 Ukraine 33, 101, 114, 169, 174, 176, 177, 219, 231–2, 238, 242 ultra-Orthodox Jews 42–3, 97, 195 Umayyad caliphs 94 unemployment 8, 18, 19, 21, 30, 32–3, 34, 37, 43 see also jobs United Nations 15, 101; Declaration of Human Rights 211 United States 4, 5, 8, 11, 14–15, 24, 29, 33, 39, 40, 62, 63, 64, 65, 67, 76, 79, 94, 96, 99–100, 103–4, 106, 107, 108, 113, 114, 115, 118, 119, 120, 121, 127, 130, 131, 133, 135, 136, 142, 145, 147, 150–1, 152, 159, 161, 162, 165, 168, 169, 172, 173, 175, 177, 178, 182, 185, 191, 194, 200, 219, 227, 230, 231, 236, 242, 275 Universal Basic Income (UBI) 37–43 universe, age of 274 university, deciding what to study at 54–5 University of Oxford 310 US Air Force (USAF) 29, 30 useless class 18, 30, 32, 121 US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 24 US presidential election: (1964) 113, 114; (2016) 8, 85 Vedas 127, 131, 132, 198, 235, 240, 298 Victoria, Queen 15, 178 Vietnam 14, 100, 104, 176, 285 Vietnam War (1955–75) 62, 63, 100, 172, 173 violence: ethics and 200–2; nationalism and 112; number of deaths attributed to 16, 114; terrorism and see terrorism; war and see war Vipassana meditation 310, 312, 315–16 Vishwamitra 181 Wahhabism 137 Waksman, Selman 194 Walt Disney Pictures 249–51, 267, 270 war xi, xiii, 138, 170, 171–80; AI and 61–8, 123–4; economy and 177–9; possibility of 123–4, 138, 170, 171–80; religion and 138; spreads ideas, technology and people 99–100; stupidity/folly and 179–80; successful wars, decline in number of 171–80; technological disruption increases likelihood of 123–4 Warmland (fictional nation) 148–50, 152–4 War on Terror 168 Watson (IBM computer system) 20–1 weapons 123, 136, 212, 224–5; autonomous weapons systems 63; nuclear 14, 34, 107–8, 112–15, 116, 119, 121, 122, 123, 124, 137, 138, 154, 165, 167–70, 178, 179, 181; terrorism and see terrorism; weapons of mass destruction xiv, 167–70 welfare state xii, 10–11, 76 West Bank 64–5, 224 White Memorial Retreat Center, California 200 Wilhelm II, Kaiser 95, 96 William the Conqueror 178–9 Willow (movie) 298 Wirathu, Ashin 306 work/employment, AI and 18, 19–43 see also jobs World Health Organization (WHO) 22–3 Wright brothers 181, 299 Xi Jinping 12 Yahweh 15, 191, 291 Yemen 173, 195 YouTube 50, 102 Yugoslavia 169 Zakkai, Rabbi Yochanan ben 195 Zen meditation 305–6 Zionism 111, 184, 233, 272, 273–4, 276, 279 Zuckerberg, Mark 80, 81, 85–6, 87, 88, 89–90, 93 @vintagebooks penguin.co.uk/vintage This ebook is copyright material and must not be copied, reproduced, transferred, distributed, leased, licensed or publicly performed or used in any way except as specifically permitted in writing by the publishers, as allowed under the terms and conditions under which it was purchased or as strictly permitted by applicable copyright law.

Ancient scriptures are just not a good guide for modern economics, and the main fault lines – for example between capitalists and socialists – don’t correspond to the divisions between traditional religions. True, in countries such as Israel and Iran rabbis and ayatollahs have a direct say about the government’s economic policy, and even in more secular countries such as the United States and Brazil religious leaders influence public opinion on matters ranging from taxation to environmental regulations. Yet a closer look reveals that in most of these cases, traditional religions really play second fiddle to modern scientific theories. When Ayatollah Khamenei needs to make a crucial decision about the Iranian economy, he will not be able to find the necessary answer in the Quran, because seventh-century Arabs knew very little about the problems and opportunities of modern industrial economies and global financial markets.


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The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

However, Attaturk wanted to replace Ottoman Turkey with a westernized, republican system that in theory would embrace democratic government – not an idea that appealed to either of the Shahs. But they adopted the methods that Attaturk had used to build a secular Turkish state, and in particular his cultural strategy to outflank dissenting Islamists, which depended in equal measure on archaeology and architecture. Before the Shah finally took the controls of his personal Boeing 707 in 1979 and flew off to exile and an early death in Egypt, allowing Ayatollah Khomeini to take power in an orgy of revolutionary violence and religious intolerance, he had embarked on a building campaign that was even more ambitious, though in the end manifestly less successful, than Attaturk’s. He wanted to turn Tehran into the capital of a modern, technocratic nation that would reflect his vision of Iran as one of the world’s leading industrial economies. It was a conception that the Shah had inherited from his father, Reza Khan, and it was a project undertaken in the hope that those of his subjects who were not grateful for being transformed from rural peasants living a subsistence existence into prosperous citizens of the modern world would at least be dazzled into silence by the glittering new state taking shape all around them.

Baron Haussmann was luckier than we were; Napoleon III survived just long enough to see his city built, but the Shah did not.’ In the event, of course, the Shah had packed his bags for exile, leaving his airports, his armed forces, and his infrastructure to the Ayatollahs. Even before the Islamic Republic of Iran closed the Shah’s art galleries and abandoned the plan for the library, the mob had swarmed over the site of the square, ransacking the pavilion in which a huge model of the new city had been on show. It had been flown from London in 1977 on a special Iranian Air Force flight. Tehran’s dispossessed destroyed it in moments and went on to try and dig up the gold foundation stone that the Shah had laid four years earlier. Not long after, the Ayatollahs gleefully dynamited Reza Khan’s tomb. After the hiatus of the revolutionary years, the Chinese eventually finished the metro system. But the square, the library, and the new city disappeared, swallowed up in the explosive growth of Tehran.

He is pictured on the title page, in a dapper needle-cord suit and silk tie from Yves St Laurent, standing over a concrete tube onto which a block and tackle has been manoeuvred. Helping the Shah bury the solid gold plaque marking the inauguration of construction on the site is Tehran’s last Pahlavi mayor, G. R. Nikpay. He wears a long black robe, embroidered in gold braid around the collar and cuffs, decked in medals, like a hero of the Soviet Union. Within five years, Nikpay would be dead, executed during Khomeini’s bloody settling of accounts. Haussmann’s Paris, it was constantly repeated, was the source for the reconstruction of Tehran. Llewelyn-Davies himself claimed, with what in retrospect sounds like a stunningly blinkered understanding of the closing years of the Shah’s reign, that ‘since Iran is in a period of national resurgence, it is only natural that the capital should become such a monumental expression of national pride.


On Power and Ideology by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, imperial preference, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, union organizing

But, these exercises of state violence are often quite costly to the general population in both material and moral terms—and the latter should not be discounted, as is often done in a display of pretended sophistication that is hardly more than an expression of self-righteous elite contempt for ordinary people, contempt that is as unwarranted as it is uninformed. Domestic policies too are conducted in the interest of dominant elites, but are often quite costly for the general population: militarization of the society, for example. To mobilize the population and recalcitrant allies in support of costly domestic programs and foreign adventures, it is necessary to appeal to the fear of some Great Satan, to adopt the Ayatollah Khomeini’s useful contribution to political rhetoric. The Cold War confrontation provides a useful means. Of course, it is necessary to avoid direct confrontation with the Great Satan himself, this being far too dangerous. It is preferable to confront weak and defenseless powers designated as proxies of the Great Satan. The Reagan Administration has regularly used Libya for this purpose, arranging regular confrontations timed to domestic needs, for example, the need to gain support for the Rapid Deployment Force or for contra aid.

Recall that under the Orwellian principles of Western logic, it is a matter of definition, not of fact, that the United States is never the agent of subversion or aggression; hence by simple logic, enemies of the United States must be guilty of subversion and aggression in their own countries if they act in ways displeasing to the Master and come into conflict with his designs. One might, incidentally, imagine the reaction in the West if some top Soviet military commander, or Moammar Qaddafi or Khomeini, were to issue such pronouncements about the use of nuclear weapons. Some of the 19 incidents when U.S. strategic nuclear forces were involved might surprise you. At least, they surprised me when I learned about them. One such occasion, for example, was an election in Uruguay in 1947. Another was the CIA coup in Guatemala in 1954. As part of the background planning, the U.S. dispatched nuclear-armed bombers to Nicaragua, “meant, it would appear, as a signal of American commitment,” Blechman and Kaplan observe.


Arabs: A 3,000 Year History of Peoples, Tribes and Empires by Tim Mackintosh-Smith

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, domestication of the camel, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, invention of movable type, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, New Urbanism, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scramble for Africa, trade route

Divines and other scholars would, of course, continue to be fluent in the ecclesiastical language of Arabic; the new madrasahs would ensure that. And the new Persian would be interwoven with Arabic words, a richly figured linguistic carpet. But the warp, the basis, was Iranian. From the Caspian to the Gulf a cultural curtain, a Persian purdah, descended across the gates of the east. Beyond it would flourish Firdawsi, Sa’di, Hafiz, and a whole Persianate future all the way to Safavid Iran, Mughal India and Ayatollah Khomeini. It was in the west that arabness persisted, even intensified. However, that did not mean Arab political unity; far from it. THE ALCHEMY OF ARABNESS It was the interconnectedness of their empire that helped the rot run wild through Arab rule. Even in Egypt, it was those mobile and troublesome Turks from furthest Central Asia who were the first to challenge the sovereignty of Baghdad. In 868, as the Saffarids were consolidating their own rule in the east, and as the anger of the Zanj was about to boil over in southern Iraq, the lieutenant-governor of Egypt declared his own independence from the caliph.

Here was an Islam that was not uniting and empowering impoverished tribesmen, but taking over a wealthy state whose regime was backed by one of the two latest ‘lions’, the United States. The fight against old-fashioned colonialism had already been won, in the decades immediately following the Second World War; the fight against the new cultural and economic imperialism of the Cold War could triumph too – with the blessing of Allah (or at least, in His name, of Ayatollah Khomeini), rather than of Nasser or Che Guevara. The third factor came into operation when, at the end of that same year, 1979, the second, Soviet, lion pounced on Afghanistan. From 1983, this time with the blessing of the United States as well as of Allah, Arab fighters went to join the Afghan resistance. Afghan and ‘Afghan-Arab’ mujahideen were the toast of the West; ‘jihadists’, the cognate with the darker connotations, had yet to be coined.

Sinan al-Absi (i), (ii) Khalid b. al-Walid (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) khalifah, khilafah see caliphate kharaj (land tax) (i) Kharijis (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Khartum (i) Khashoggi, Jamal (i) khatibs (orators; later, preachers) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Khawlan (tribe) (i) khayal al-zill (shadow-puppet theatre) (i) Khaybar (i) Khazars (i), (ii) Khazraj (tribe) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Khirbat al-Mafjar (i) Khomeini, Ayatollah (i), (ii), (iii) Khrushchev, Nikita Plate 19 Khurasan and Khurasanis (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii), (xviii), (xix), (xx), (xxi) ‘Khusraw’ (general term for Sasanian shahs) (i), (ii) Khusraw Anushiruwan, Shah (i) Khuza’ah (tribe) (i), (ii), (iii) Khuzistan (i) Khwarizm (i) Khwarizm Shah (i) Kilito, Abdelfattah (i) Kilwa Kisiwani (i), (ii), (iii) Kindah (tribe) and Kindis (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv) al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf Ya’qub (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Kipling, Rudyard (i), (ii) al-Kisa’i (i) Kish Island (i) Kishk, Muhammad Jalal (i) Kollam (i) Krishna (deity) (i), (ii) al-Kufah and Kufans (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii), (xviii), (xix), (xx), (xxi), (xxii), (xxiii), (xxiv), (xxv) Kulayb (Taghlibi chief) (i), (ii), (iii) Kumyah (Berber tribe) (i) Kurds (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) Kuwait (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) al-Kuwayk (i) Kyrgyzstan (i) Labid (i) Lakhm (tribe) and Lakhmid dynasty (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii), (xviii), (xix), (xx), (xxi), (xxii), (xxiii), (xxiv), (xxv), (xxvi), (xxvii), (xxviii) Lane, Edward William (i), (ii) Lar (i) Laroui, Abdallah (i) al-Lat (deity) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Latin language (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Lawrence, T.E.


pages: 303 words: 83,564

Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game

A disastrous instance of this phenomenon is the support provided by the Tamil diaspora in North America and Europe for the Tamil Tiger separatist rebellion in Sri Lanka. This has most surely left Sri Lankan Tamils worse off than had the diaspora been quiescent. Nor is the existence of safe havens from bad governments unambiguously beneficial. The regime of the Russian czars epitomized misgovernance, but the return of Lenin from safe haven in Switzerland frustrated what might otherwise have been a transition to democracy. Similarly, the return of Ayatollah Khomeini to Iran from safe haven in France scarcely ushered in an era of sweetness and light. While in such extreme instances governments are right to fear diasporas, more commonly policies of discouragement appear to be based on little more than resentment at success. For example, Haiti, with its huge latent diaspora asset, has denied migrants the right to dual citizenship. Governments are only slowly waking up to the need to manage this asset as carefully as a conventional sovereign wealth fund.

See income inequality income inequality capital endowment and, 28 capital mobility and, 28–29 factors explaining, 27–28 global aspects of, 28, 37–40, 50 marketization’s impact on, 84, 233 migration and, 38–41, 44–47, 49–50, 166, 251–252, 267, 271 technology’s impact on, 83–84 India brain gain versus brain drain in, 218, 220, 252 economic growth in, 39, 201 education investment in, 200–201 migration study from, 173–174 remittances to, 207 indigenous populations in host countries education competition and, 119–120 emigration by, 128–131 fatalism among, 119 happiness of, 138–139 migration policy and, 245 migration’s impact on housing for, 114–117, 123, 165, 254 migration’s impact on the happiness of, 138–139 migration’s impact on wages for, 111–113, 123, 129, 131, 136, 169–170, 253–254, 258, 261 migration’s impact on worker training for, 126–128 social networks among, 107–108, 242 trust levels among, 74–75, 81, 105, 141 values of, 243–244 individualism, 231–233 Indonesia, 200 international trade, 23, 36, 271 Iraq, 193 Ireland economic boom in, 130 famine in, 94, 215 migration from, 92, 94, 215 Protestants in, 94 Israel, 93, 247–249 Istanbul (Turkey), 216, 221 Italy, 123 Jamaica, 80, 200, 214 Japan, 12, 33, 132 Johnson, Boris, 96–97 Johnson, Simon, 93 Kahneman, Daniel, 6, 14, 78, 175 Kant, Immanuel, 260 Kenya cooperation study from, 76, 239–240 ethnic identity in, 240 remittances and, 206 schooling in, 196–197 Kenyatta, Jomo, 240 Keynes, John Maynard, 30, 198 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, 188 Koopmans, Ruud, 107 Kranton, Rachel, 32–33, 192, 204, 238 Labour Party (Great Britain), 15, 21, 103 “ladder of life” metric, 172–174 language assimilation and, 70, 98–99, 107, 242, 264, 270 and cultural distance and, 77 identity and, 70, 73 multiculturalism and, 107 Laos, 200 Latin America. See also specific countries economic growth in, 39 migrants to the United States from, 37, 76 remittances to, 206–207 Spanish imperialism in, 94 Layard, Richard, 138 Leicester (Great Britain), 36 Lenin, Vladimir, 188 liberalism critiques of, 5 multiculturalism and, 97, 272 views of migration and, 13–14, 265, 271 Liberia, 200, 209 libertarianism, 232, 246 Libya, 35, 185 life expectancy, retirement ages and, 124 London (Great Britain) migrant population in, 101–102, 104, 116, 121, 129 Olympics (2012) in, 241 social networks in, 79–80 terrorism in, 4 Malawi, 200 Mali, 185–187, 247–248 Manchester (Great Britain), 80–81 Mercier, Marion, 185–187, 192 Merkel, Angela, 5, 18, 70, 240 Mexico, 185 migrants.


pages: 478 words: 142,608

The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins

Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Ayatollah Khomeini, Brownian motion, cosmological principle, David Attenborough, Desert Island Discs, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, gravity well, invisible hand, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific worldview, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, unbiased observer

If only such subtle, nuanced religion predominated, the world would surely be a better place, and I would have written a different book. The melancholy truth is that this kind of understated, decent, revisionist religion is numerically negligible. To the vast majority of believers around the world, religion all too closely resembles what you hear from the likes of Robertson, Falwell or Haggard, Osama bin Laden or the Ayatollah Khomeini. These are not straw men, they are all too influential, and everybody in the modern world has to deal with them. I’m an atheist, but I wish to dissociate myself from your shrill, strident, intemperate, intolerant, ranting language. Actually, if you look at the language of The God Delusion, it is rather less shrill or intemperate than we regularly take in our stride – when listening to political commentators for example, or theatre, art or book critics.

Almost unbelievably, the crime of blasphemy is still on the statute book in Britain,118 and in 2005 a Christian group tried to bring a private prosecution for blasphemy against the BBC for broadcasting Jerry Springer, the Opera. In the United States of recent years the phrase ‘American Taliban’ was begging to be coined, and a swift Google search nets more than a dozen websites that have done so. The quotations that they anthologize, from American religious leaders and faith-based politicians, chillingly recall the narrow bigotry, heartless cruelty and sheer nastiness of the Afghan Taliban, the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Wahhabi authorities of Saudi Arabia. The web page called ‘The American Taliban’ is a particularly rich source of obnoxiously barmy quotations, beginning with a prize one from somebody called Ann Coulter who, American colleagues have persuaded me, is not a spoof, invented by The Onion: ‘We should invade their countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity.’119 Other gems include Congressman Bob Dornan’s ‘Don’t use the word “gay” unless it’s an acronym for “Got Aids Yet?”’

Religious memes of this kind don’t necessarily have any absolute aptitude for survival; nevertheless, they are good in the sense that they flourish in the presence of other memes of their own religion, but not in the presence of memes of the other religion. On this model, Roman Catholicism and Islam, say, were not necessarily designed by individual people, but evolved separately as alternative collections of memes that flourish in the presence of other members of the same memeplex. Organized religions are organized by people: by priests and bishops, rabbis, imams and ayatollahs. But, to reiterate the point I made with respect to Martin Luther, that doesn’t mean they were conceived and designed by people. Even where religions have been exploited and manipulated to the benefit of powerful individuals, the strong possibility remains that the detailed form of each religion has been largely shaped by unconscious evolution. Not by genetic natural selection, which is too slow to account for the rapid evolution and divergence of religions.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

The Gulf countries used this oil windfall to kick off massive infrastructural modernization powered by millions of South Asian laborers and white-collar workers. From the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, 1 million Koreans also went to the Gulf states to complete megaengineering projects. Other upheavals shook the Arab and Islamic domains. In early 1979, more than two thousand years of Persian monarchic tradition collapsed as the Ayatollah Khomeini ousted Iran’s Pahlavi monarchy and declared an Islamic Republic. Later that year, Sunni extremists held 100,000 worshippers hostage at the Grand Mosque in Mecca. Both Saudi Arabia and Iran began to push their respective strains of Islam outward, especially in Pakistan. In December 1979, amid political chaos in Afghanistan, the Soviet Union invaded the country to install a loyalist government, inspiring fierce resistance from Muslim nations backed by the United States.

., 49, 265, 316 Ganges region, 29, 32 Ganges River, 33, 35, 46 “Gangnam Style” (music video), 343 Gates, Bill, 317 Geely, 194 General Electric, 110, 168, 211 Genghis Khan, 39–40 Georgia, Republic of, 59 technocracy in, 307 Germany, Nazi, 50 Germany, unified: Arab refugees in, 255 Asian immigrants in, 253, 254, 256 Asia’s relations with, 242 multiparty consensus in, 284 Ginsberg, Allen, 331 Giving Pledge, 317 Global-is-Asian, 22 globalization: Asia and, 8–9, 162, 357–59; see also Asianization growth of, 14 global order, see world order Goa, 44, 89, 186 Göbekli Tepe, 28 Goguryeo Kingdom, 34 Go-Jek, 187 Golden Triangle, 123 Google, 199, 200, 208–9, 219 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 58 governance: digital technology in, 318–19 inclusive policies in, 303 governance, global: Asia and, 321–25 infrastructure and, 322 US and, 321 government: effectiveness of, 303 trust in, 291, 310 violence against minorities by, 308–9 Government Accountability Office (GAO), 293 GrabShare, 174–75 grain imports, Asian, 90 Grand Canal, China, 37, 42 Grand Trunk Road, 33 Great Britain: Asian investments in, 247 Brexit vote in, 283–84, 286, 293–94 civil service in, 293–94 colonial empire of, 46–47 industrialization in, 46 Iran and, 252 populism in, 283–84 South Asian immigrants in, 253, 254 West Asian mandates of, 49–50 Great Game, 47 Great Leap Forward, 55 Great Wall of China, 31 Greece, 60, 91, 248 Greeks, ancient, 29, 34 greenhouse gas emissions, 176–77, 182 gross domestic product (GDP), 2, 4, 150 Grupo Bimbo, 272 Guam, 50, 136 Guangdong, 42, 98 Guangzhou (Canton), 37, 48, 68 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), 58, 101, 102 Gulf states (Khaleej), 6, 9, 57, 62, 81 alternative energy projects in, 251 Asianization of, 100–106 China and, 101, 102 European investment in, 251 India and, 102 Israel and, 99–100, 105 Japan and, 102 oil and gas exports of, 62, 74, 100–101, 176 South Asian migrants in, 334 Southeast Asia’s trade with, 102 South Korea and, 102 technocracy in, 311–12 US arms sales to, 101 women in, 315 see also specific countries Gulliver, Stuart, 148, 150 Gupta Empire, 35 H-1B visas, 219 Hamas, 59, 100, 139 Hamid, Mohsin, 184 Han Dynasty, 32, 33, 34, 300 Hanoi, 180 Han people, 31–32, 37, 69 Harappa, 29 Hardy, Alfredo Toro, 275 Hariri, Saad, 95 Harun al-Rashid, Caliph, 37 Harvard University, 230 Haushofer, Karl, 1 health care, 201–2 Helmand River, 107 Herberg-Rothe, Andreas, 75 Herodotus, 30 heroin, 106–7 Hezbollah, 58, 95, 96, 106 Hindus, Hinduism, 29, 31, 32, 34, 38, 70–71 in Southeast Asia, 121 in US, 220, 221 Hiroshima, atomic bombing of, 51 Hispanic Americans, 217 history, Asian view of, 75 history textbooks: Asia nationalism in, 27–28 global processes downplayed in, 28 Western focus of, 27–28, 67–68 Hitler, Adolf, 50 Ho, Peter, 289 Ho Chi Minh, 52 Ho Chi Minh City, 56 Honda, 275 Hong Kong, 56, 74 American expats in, 234 art scene in, 342 British handover of, 60, 141 civil society in, 313 Hongwu, Ming emperor, 42 honor killings, 315 Hormuz, Strait of, 103, 106 hospitality industry, 190, 214 Houthis, 106, 107 Huan, Han emperor, 33–34 Hulagu Khan, 40 Human Rights Watch, 313 human trafficking, 318 Hunayn ibn Ishaq, 37 Hungary, 40, 248, 256 Huns, 35, 76 hunter-gatherers, 28 Huntington, Samuel, 15 Hu Shih, 332 Hussein, Saddam, 58, 62, 101 Hyundai, 104 IBM, 212 I Ching, 30 Inclusive Development Index (IDI), 150 income inequality: in Asia, 183–84 in US, 228, 285 India, 101, 104 Afghanistan and, 118 Africa and, 264–66 AI research in, 200 alternative energy programs in, 178–79, 322 Asian investments of, 118 Australia and, 128 British Raj in, 46, 49 charitable giving in, 316–17 China and, 19–20, 113, 117–18, 155, 156, 332 civil society in, 313 in Cold War era, 52, 55, 56 corporate debt in, 170 corruption in, 161, 305 demonetization in, 184, 186–87 diaspora of, 333–34 early history of, 29, 30–31 economic growth of, 9, 17, 148, 185–86 elections in, 63 European trade partnerships with, 250–51 expansionist period in, 38, 41–42 failure of democracy in, 302 family-owned businesses in, 160 film industry in, 349–51 financial markets in, 186 foreign investment in, 192 gender imbalance in, 315 global governance in, 322–23 global image of, 331–32 Gulf states and, 102 inclusive policies in, 304 infrastructure investment in, 63, 110, 185 Iran and, 116, 118 Israel and, 98–99 IT industry in, 204, 275 Japan and, 134, 156 Latin America and, 275 manufacturing in, 192 as market for Western products and services, 207 naval forces of, 105 Northeast Asia and, 154–55 oil and gas imports of, 96, 107–8, 176 Pakistan and, 53, 55, 61, 77–78, 117–18 partitioning of, 52–53 pharmaceutical industry in, 228, 275 population of, 15, 186 in post–Cold War era, 61, 62 privatization in, 170 returnees in, 226 Russia and, 86–87 service industry in, 192 Southeast Asia and, 154–55 special economic zones in, 185 spiritual heritage of, 332 technocracy in, 304–6 technological innovation in, 186–87 territorial claims of, 11 top-down economic reform in, 305 traditional medicine of, 355 West Asia and, 155 Indian Americans, 217, 218, 219–20, 222 Indian Institutes of Technology (ITT), 205 Indian Ocean, 38, 47, 74, 105, 261, 262, 266 European voyages to, 44 Indians, in Latin America, 276 IndiaStack, 187 Indochina, 45, 50, 52 see also Southeast Asia Indo-Islamic culture, 38 Indonesia, 53, 61, 121, 125, 182 art scene in, 342 in Cold War era, 54 economic growth of, 17, 148 eco-tourism in, 340 failure of democracy in, 302 foreign investment in, 187 illiberal policies of, 306 inclusive policies of, 304 Muslims in, 71 technocracy in, 304–5 Indus River, 32, 113 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), 92, 159 industrialization, spread of, 22 Industrial Revolution, 2, 46, 68 Indus Valley, 29 infrastructure investment, in Asia, 6, 62, 63, 85, 88, 93, 96, 104, 108, 109, 110–11, 185, 190, 191, 243–44 see also; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank; Belt and Road Initiative Institut d’Études Politiques de Paris (Sciences Po), 257, 286–87 insurance industry, 210 intermarriage, 336, 337–38 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 162, 163, 166, 323 International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC), 116 International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 100 International Systems in World History (Buzan), 7 Internet of Things (IoT), 134, 136, 197 Interpol, 324 Iran, 11, 15, 62, 92, 95, 98, 101, 140 China and, 101, 106–7, 116 in Cold War era, 54 European trade with, 251–52 growing opposition to theocracy in, 312 India and, 116, 118 Islamic revolution in, 57 Israel and, 99, 100 nuclear program of, 62 oil and gas exports of, 50, 94, 106, 107–8, 118, 176 in post–Cold War era, 58–59 privatization in, 170 re-Asianization of, 81, 106 Russia and, 87 Saudi Arabia and, 95–96, 100, 105–6 Syria and, 106 tourism in, 252 Turkey and, 94 US sanctions on, 87, 107, 241, 251, 252 women in, 315 Yemen and, 107 Iran-Iraq War, 58, 106 Iraq, 9, 11, 16, 49 Kuwait invaded by, 59 oil exports of, 55, 96 Sunni-Shi’a conflict in, 312 Iraq Reconstruction Conference (2018), 96 Iraq War, 3, 62, 91, 217, 240 Isfahan, 41 Islam, 40, 316 politics and, 71–72 spread of, 36, 38–39, 43, 69–72, 74 Sunni-Shi’a conflict in, 95, 312 Sunni-Shi’a division in, 36 see also Muslims; specific countries Islamic radicalism, 58, 59, 62, 65, 68, 71, 72, 115, 117, 139 see also terrorism Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), 63, 71, 94, 96, 117 Israel, 11, 54, 96 arms sales of, 98 China and, 98–99 desalinzation technology of, 181 EU and, 97 Gulf states and, 99–100, 105 India and, 98–99 Iran and, 99, 100 Russia and, 88 see also Arab-Israeli conflict; Palestinian-Israeli conflict Japan, 14, 16, 63, 68, 69, 73 Africa and, 265 Allied occupation in, 51 alternative energy technologies in, 322 Asian investments of, 118, 156 Asianization of, 81 Asian migrants in, 336–37 Asian trade with, 273 capitalism in, 159 cashless economy in, 189 China and, 19–20, 77, 134, 136–37, 140–42 in Cold War era, 5, 55 corporate culture of, 132 early history of, 29, 31, 34–35 economic growth of, 55, 132, 148, 158, 163 economic problems of, 132, 134–35 in era of European imperialism, 47–48 EU trade agreement with, 133 expansionist period in, 38, 42, 44 foreign investment in, 135 in global economy, 133–37 global governance and, 322–23 global image of, 331 Gulf states and, 102 immigration in, 135–36 India and, 134, 156 infrastructure investment in, 110 Latin America and, 275 precision industries in, 134, 135–36 robotic technology in, 134 Russia and, 82, 86–87 Southeast Asia and, 133, 153–54, 156 South Korea and, 141–42 technological innovation in, 134, 196, 197 territorial claims of, 11 tourism in, 135 US and, 136 in World War I, 49 in World War II, 50–51 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), 265 Japan-Mexico Economic Partnership Agreement, 273 Java, 35, 38, 39, 45 Javid, Sajid, 254 Jericho, 28 Jerusalem, 54, 98 Jesus Christ, 35 jihad, 38 Jinnah, Muhammad Ali, 52 Jobs, Steve, 331 Joko Widodo (Jokowi), 305, 306, 320 Jollibee, 172 Jordan, 54, 62, 97, 99 Syrian refugees in, 63 Journal of Asian Studies, 352 Journey to the West, 353 Judaism, 36 Kagame, Paul, 268 Kanishka, Kush emperor, 35 Kapur, Devesh, 218 Karachi, 113 Karakoram Highway, 113 Kashmir, 53, 55, 61, 77–78, 117–18, 119 Kazakhstan, 59, 140, 207 China and, 20, 108 economic diversification in, 190 energy investment in, 112 as hub of new Silk Road, 111–12 Kenya, 262, 263 Kerouac, Jack, 331 Khaleej, see Gulf states Khmer Empire, 70 Khmer people, 34, 38, 239 Khmer Rouge, 56 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 57, 59 Khorgas, 108 Khrushchev, Nikita, 56 Khwarizmi, Muhammad al-, 37 Kiev, 40 Kim Il Sung, 55 Kim Jong-un, 142 Kish, 28 Kissinger, Henry, 357 Koran, 316 Korea, 11, 31, 51, 68, 69 early history of, 34 expansionist period in, 38 Japanese annexation of, 48 reunification of, 142–43 see also North Korea; South Korea Korea Investment Corporation, 164 Korean Americans, 217 Korean War, 51 Kosygin, Alexei, 56 K-pop, 343 Kuala Lampur, 121, 246 Kublai Khan, 40 Kurds, Kurdistan, 87, 94, 99, 256 Kushan Empire, 32, 35 Kuwait, 101 Iraqi invasion of, 59 Kyrgyzstan, 59, 108, 182 language, Asian links in, 68–69 Laos, 45, 52, 60, 122, 154 Latin America: Asian immigrants in, 275–76 Asian investment in, 273–75, 276–77 Indian cultural exports to, 350 trade partnerships in, 272–73, 274, 275 US and, 271–72 Lebanon, 49, 54, 58, 95, 106 Syrian refugees in, 63 Lee, Ang, 347 Lee, Calvin Cheng Ern, 131 Lee Hsien Loong, 296–97 Lee Kuan Yew, 56, 127, 268, 288, 289, 292–93, 299, 305 voluntary retirement of, 296 Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 22, 299 Lenin, Vladimir, 49, 89 Levant (Mashriq), 81, 95, 97 LG, 275 Li & Fung, 184–85 Liang Qichao, 48–49 Liberalism Discovered (Chua), 297 Lien, Laurence, 317 life expectancies, 201 literature, Asian, global acclaim for, 353–54 Liu, Jean, 175 Liu Xiaobo, 249 logistics industry, 243 Ma, Jack, 85–86, 160, 189 Macao (Macau), 44 MacArthur, Douglas, 51 McCain, John, 285 McKinsey & Company, 160, 213 Macquarie Group, 131 Maddison, Angus, 2 Made in Africa Initiative, 262 Magadha Kingdom, 31 Magellan, Ferdinand, 43 Mahabharata, 35 Mahbubani, Kishore, 3 Mahmud of Ghazni, Abbasid sultan, 38 Malacca, 38, 43, 44, 124 Malacca, Strait of, 37, 39, 102, 103, 118, 125 Malaya, 46, 50 Malay Peninsula, 39, 53 Malaysia, 53, 61, 188 Asian foreign labor in, 335 China and, 123, 124 in Cold War era, 54 economic diversification in, 190 economic growth of, 17 technocracy in, 308 Maldives, 105 Malesky, Edmund, 308 Manchuria, 38, 48, 50, 51 Mandarin language, 229–30, 257 Manila, 121, 245 Spanish colonization of, 44 Mansur, al-, Caliph, 37 manufacturing, in Asia, 192 Mao Zedong, 51–52, 55, 56, 261, 300, 301 Marawi, 71 Marcos, Ferdinand, 53–54, 61 martial arts, mixed (MMA), 340–41 Mashriq (Levant), 81, 95, 97 Mauritius, 268 Mauryan Empire, 32–33, 68 May, Theresa, 293 Mecca, 57 media, in Asia, 314 median ages, in Asia, 148, 149, 155 Median people, 29 Mediterranean region, 1, 6, 29, 30, 33, 68, 84, 92, 95, 99, 106 see also Mashriq Mehta, Zubin, 332 Mekong River, 122 Menander, Indo-Greek king, 33 mergers and acquisitions, 212–13 meritocracy, 294, 301 Merkel, Angela, 242, 254 Mesopotamia, 28 Mexico, 7 Asian economic ties to, 272, 273, 274, 277 Microsoft, 208 middle class, Asian, growth of, 3, 4 Mihov, Ilian, 309 mindfulness, 332 Ming Dynasty, 42–43, 44, 69, 73, 75, 76, 105, 137, 262 mobile phones, 157, 183–84, 187, 188, 189, 193, 199, 208–9, 211 Modi, Narendra, 63, 98, 117, 119, 154–55, 161, 180, 185, 222, 265, 305, 306, 307, 320 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 54 Mohammed bin Salman, crown prince of Saudi Arabia, 72, 247, 310, 312, 315 Mohenjo-Daro, 29 Moluku, 45 MoneyGram, 196 Mongolia, 92, 111–12 alternative energy programs in, 112, 182 technocracy in, 307 Mongols, Mongol Empire, 39–40, 42, 44, 68, 69, 73, 76, 77, 239 religious and cultural inclusiveness of, 40, 70–71 Monroe Doctrine, 271 Moon Jae-in, 142 Moscow, 81, 82 Mossadegh, Mohammad, 54 MSCI World Index, 166, 168 Mubadala Investment Company, 88, 103, 104 Mughal Empire, 41–42, 46 religious tolerance in, 70–71 Muhammad, Prophet, 36 Mumbai, 185–86 Munich Security Conference, 241 Murakami, Haruki, 354 Murasaki Shikibu, 353 music scene, in Asia, 343 Muslim Brotherhood, 59 Muslims, 70–72 in Southeast Asia, 38–39, 43, 70–71, 121 in US, 220 see also Islam; specific countries Myanmar, 60, 63, 161 Asian investment in, 118–19 charitable giving in, 316 failure of democracy in, 302 financial reform in, 184 Rohingya genocide in, 122–23 see also Burma Nagasaki, atomic bombing of, 51 Nanjing, 42, 49 Napoleon I, emperor of the French, 1 nationalism, 11, 20, 22, 49–50, 52–55, 77, 118, 137, 138–39, 222, 312, 329, 337, 352 Natufian people, 28 natural gas, see oil and gas natural gas production, 175–76 Nazism, 200 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 52, 55 Neolithic Revolution, 28 neomercantilism, 20, 22, 158 Nepal, 46, 119–20, 333 Nestorian Christianity, 36, 70 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 97, 98, 100 Netflix, 348 New Deal, 287 New Delhi, 245 Ng, Andrew, 199 NGOs, 313 Nigeria, 265 Nisbett, Richard, 357 Nixon, Richard, 56, 101 Nobel Prize, 48, 221, 249, 323, 353–54 nomadic cultures, 76 Non-Aligned Movement, 55 Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty, 61 North America: Asian trade with, 13, 14, 207 as coherent regional system, 7 energy self-sufficiency of, 175, 272 internal trade in, 152 see also Canada; Mexico; United States North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 7 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 2, 57, 92, 116 Northeast Asia, 141 India and, 154–55 internal trade in, 152 manufacturing in, 153 North Korea, 55, 61 aggressiveness of, 63 China and, 143 cyber surveillance by, 142 nuclear and chemical weapons program of, 142 Russia and, 143 South Korea and, 142 US and, 142–43 Obama, Barack, 18, 82, 229, 240 oil and gas: Asian imports of, 9, 62, 82–83, 84–85, 96, 102, 106, 107–8, 152, 175, 176, 207 Gulf states’ exports of, 62, 74, 100–103, 176 Iranian exports of, 50, 94, 106, 107–8, 118, 176 Iraqi exports of, 55, 96 OPEC embargo on, 57 price of, 61 Russian exports of, 82–83, 84, 87–88, 175, 176 Saudi exports of, 58, 87–88, 102, 103 US exports of, 16, 207 West Asian exports of, 9, 23, 57, 62, 152 Okakura Tenshin, 48 oligarchies, 294–95 Olympic Games, 245 Oman, East Asia and, 104 ONE Championship (MMA series), 341 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), 57 Operation Mekong (film), 123 opium, 47, 123 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 241 Oslo Accords, 59 Osman I, Ottoman Sultan, 41 Ottoman Empire, 40–41, 43, 45, 46–47, 48, 73, 91 partitioning of, 49–50 religious tolerance in, 70–71 Out of Eden Walk, 4 Overseas Private Investment Company (OPEC), 111 Pacific Alliance, 272 Pacific Islands, 181–82 US territories in, 48 Pacific Rim, see East Asia Pakistan, 52–53, 58, 62, 72, 95, 102, 105 AI research in, 200 Asianization of, 81, 113–18 as Central Asia’s conduit to Arabian Sea, 113–14 China and, 20, 114–16, 117–18 corruption in, 161 failure of democracy in, 302 finance industry in, 168–69 foreign investment in, 115 GDP per capita in, 184 India and, 55, 61–62, 117–18 intra-Asian migration from, 334 logistics industry in, 185 as market for Western products and services, 207 US and, 114–15 Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), 307 Palestine, Palestinians, 49, 54, 99 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 59 Palestinian-Israeli conflict, 59, 62, 97, 100 Pan-Asianism, 48, 351–52 paper, invention of, 72 Paris climate agreement, 178, 240 Paris Peace Conference (1918), 49 Park Chung-hee, 56 Park Geun-hye, 313 parliamentary democracy, 295 Parthians, 33, 76 Pawar, Rajendra, 205 Pearl Harbor, Japanese attack on, 50 peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, 169 People’s Action Party (PAP), Singapore, 294 People’s Bank of China (PBOC), 110, 188 Pepper (robot), 134 per capita income, 5, 150, 183, 186 Persia, Persian Empire, 29, 30, 42, 45, 47, 50, 68, 75 see also Iran Persian Gulf War, 61, 101, 217 Peru: Asian immigrants in, 275, 276 Asian trade with, 272 Peshawar, 32 Peter I, Tsar of Russia, 45, 90 pharmaceutical companies, 209–10 Philippines, 61, 157, 165 alternative energy programs in, 180 Asian migrants in, 333 China and, 123–24 Christianity in, 74 in Cold War era, 53–54 eco-tourism in, 340 foreign investment in, 124 illiberal policies of, 306 inclusive policies in, 304 as market for Western products and services, 207 Muslims in, 71 privatization in, 170 technocracy in, 304–5 urban development in, 190 US acquisition of, 48 US and, 123–24 philosophy, Asian vs.

In 1991, the Soviet Union itself splintered into fifteen independent republics. The Cold War came to an end, sparking geopolitical and ideological realignments favorable to Asia’s return to center stage in the global order. Asia Reawakens As the Cold War ended, West Asia grabbed the spotlight away from Europe. In the aftermath of the 1988 cease-fire between Iran and Iraq, Iran was weakened by war, economic isolation, and the death of its supreme leader, Ayatollah Khomini, in 1989. Iraq sought to rebuild its strength by turning on its oil-rich southern ally Kuwait. Within months, the United States sent 200,000 troops to defend Saudi Arabia, which became the staging ground for the liberation of Kuwait and massive retaliation against Saddam Hussein’s forces. With US military preponderance established in the region, the United States pursued a policy of “dual containment” against both Iraq and Iran.


pages: 1,373 words: 300,577

The Quest: Energy, Security, and the Remaking of the Modern World by Daniel Yergin

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial innovation, flex fuel, global supply chain, global village, high net worth, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, market design, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norman Macrae, North Sea oil, nuclear winter, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, technology bubble, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

Embassy in November 1979 and took 66 U.S. diplomats hostage, holding them until January 1981. The country’s new leader was the stern cleric Ayotollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who had returned to Iran after 15 years of exile. Khomeini and his followers used the seizure of the hostages—and the immediate cleavage it created with the United States—to consolidate power and eliminate effective opposition to the new theocratic fundamentalist regime. At one point, in a “letter to clergy,” Khomeini wrote, “When theology meant no interference in politics, stupidity became a virtue.” In the new Iran, ultimate political power lay in the hands of mullahs and, specifically, the Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Khomeini.13 Khomeini’s hatred for the shah, who had exiled him in 1963, was matched by his hatred for Israel, and for the United States. America as the implacable enemy—the “Great Satan”—became one of the organizing principles of the Islamic Republic and indeed a backbone of its legitimacy, critical to holding together the apparatus of control.

Kabul Kahn, Alfred Kandahar Kang Shien Karine A (freighter) Kashagan oil field Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Kawaguchi, Yoriko Kazakhstan China in diplomacy needs of economy of Kashagan field in nuclear weapons of size and population of under Soviets Tengiz field in Keeling, Charles David Keeling Curve Kelley, P. X. Kelly, Robert Kelvin, Lord (William Thomson) Kenetech Kennan, George Kennedy, Edward (“Ted”) Kennedy, John Kenya, U.S. embassy bombed in kerogen Kerr-McGee Kerry, John Keynes, John Maynard KGB Khamenei, Ali Khan, A. Q. Khan, German Khatami, Mohammad Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khosla, Vinod Khrushchev, Nikita Kiev King, David Kissinger, Henry Kistiakowsky, George (Kisty) Kleiner, Eugene Kleiner Perkins (later Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers) Koonin, Steven Korea Korean War Kosygin, Alexei Krupp, Fred Kurdistan, Kurds Kuwait Iraq’s invasion of oil of Kwaśniewski, Aleksander Kyoto conference (1997) developed vs. developing countries and Europe vs.

It stepped up its efforts to subvert other regimes along the Persian Gulf, fostered terrorism, targeted U.S. interests, and embarked on a military buildup. The hand of its clandestine Qods forces, the international arm of the Revolutionary Guards, could be seen in terrorism around the world. By 1993 Iran had earned the sobriquet of “the most dangerous sponsor of state terrorism.”14 NORMALIZATION? Khomeini died in 1989. He was succeeded as Supreme Leader by one of his acolytes, Ali Khamenei, who had been president for eight years and who embraced the hard line of his predecessor. Yet at various moments, glimmers of normalization appeared. The marketoriented president Hashemi Rafsanjani thought that a reduction in tensions with the United States was in Iranian interests and that commercial relations was the way to begin.


pages: 363 words: 98,024

Keeping at It: The Quest for Sound Money and Good Government by Paul Volcker, Christine Harper

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, business cycle, central bank independence, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, Donald Trump, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, full employment, global reserve currency, income per capita, inflation targeting, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, margin call, money market fund, Nixon shock, Paul Samuelson, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, secular stagnation, Sharpe ratio, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning

The capital needs to be sufficient to take the loss if the bank’s loans sour or securities lose value. chapter 8 ATTACKING INFLATION President Jimmy Carter was up against it. “It” was high, rising, and seemingly intractable inflation. And by 1979 it seemed to be complicating, even blocking, every policy initiative. Price measures were rising 13 percent a year, driven in part by the oil crisis (the second in a decade) that followed the early 1979 Iranian revolution in which Grand Ayatollah Khomeini replaced the US-supported shah. A gasoline shortage led to long lines and rationing, dominating the news. New budget programs were politically, even economically, nonstarters. The forceful effort to stabilize the dollar in late 1978 had not produced lasting results. To put it mildly, the public was growing restive. The president retreated to Camp David. For more than a week he consulted with advisors, titans of business, politicians, teachers, clergy, labor leaders, and even some private citizens.

See Swiss banks-Nazi victims investigation John Paul II, Pope/visit to America, 107–108 Johnson, Lyndon, x Quadriad meeting/interest rates and, 55 reelection win, 50 Treasury and, 53, 54 Volcker and, 53 William Martin and, x, 55 Johnson, Manuel, 142, 142n JPMorgan Chase, 208 Kashiwagi, Yusuke/family, 73–74 Kaufman, Henry, xiii, 21 Kavesh, Bob, 103 Keating, Charles, 130 Keating Five, 130 Kennedy, David, 60, 61, 65, 68, 84 Kennedy, John F. assassination, x, 47, 67 exchange rate and, 45, 62, 64 Nixon and, x, 60 Treasury and, 44 Volcker and, 60 Kettl, Donald, 160, 245–246 Keynes, John Maynard, 17, 22–23 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 102 Kim, Jim Yong, 190, 191 King, Martin Luther, 210 Kipling, Rudyard, 35 Kissinger, Henry European travels, 73 international monetary policies and, 59, 64 Nixon and, 76 Volcker and, 59, 64 Knight, Bob, 61 Kohn, Donald, 123 Korean War and monetary policy, 23, 31 Korman, Edward, 177, 180 Laingen, Bruce, 173–174 Lambsdorff, Otto, Count, 171 Lamfalussy, Alexandre, 145 LaRouche, Lyndon/supporters, 109 Latin America inflation history, 223 Latin American debt crisis (1980s), 28, 130–131 current situation and, 136–137 loans and, 97–98, 115, 121, 131, 146–147 See also specific countries; specific individuals/institutions Lay, Ken, 197 Leach, Jim, 205 “Leadership for America: Rebuilding the Public Service,” 174 Lebanon Daily News, 6 Lee Kuan Yew, 137n Lehman Brothers, 209 Leigh-Pemberton, Robin, 147 Lenny (Federal Reserve barber), 141 Leutwiler, Fritz Nestlé and, 167–168 Swiss bank investigation and, 176–177, 180 Volcker and, 167–168 Levin, Carl, 218 Levine, Charles, 174n Levitt, Arthur, 108, 193–194, 195 Lewy, Glen, 154–155 Liberty bonds, 20 Light, Paul, 174n, 235–236, 245–246 Lincoln Savings and Loan (empire), 130 “Little Boy” atom bomb, 9 lobbyists, 92, 170, 209, 217, 218, 221 London School of Economics (LSE), 26, 27–29 London/Volcker (early 1950s), ix, 26, 27–29 Longstreth, Bevis, 154 Ludwig, Gene, 209 Lutz, Friedrich, 17 Luzzatto, Ernie, 244 McCarthy, Leonard, 190, 191, 192 McCloy, John J., 42 McCracken, Paul, 68, 70 McKinsey & Company, 197 McNamar, R.T.


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

To be sure, Israel faces the “existential threat” of Iranian pronouncements: Supreme Leader Khamenei and former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad famously threatened it with destruction. Except that they didn’t—and if they had, it would have been of little moment.18 They predicted that “under God’s grace [the Zionist regime] will be wiped off the map” (according to another translation, Ahmadinejad says Israel “must vanish from the page of time,” citing a statement by the Ayatollah Khomeini during the period when Israel and Iran were tacitly allied). In other words, they hope that regime change will someday take place. Even that falls far short of the direct calls in both Washington and Tel Aviv for regime change in Iran, not to speak of the actions taken to implement regime change. These, of course, go back to the actual “regime change” of 1953, when the United States and Britain organized a military coup to overthrow Iran’s parliamentary government and install the dictatorship of the shah, who proceeded to amass one of the world’s worst human rights records.

(Dhanapala and Duarte) Jabari, Ahmed Japan Jefferson, Thomas Jeju Island Jenin refugee camp Jerusalem East Greater Jervis, Robert jihadi movements Jobbik party (Hungary) Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, Samuel John XXIII, Pope Jomini, Henry Jones, Clive Jordan Jordan Valley Journal of Strategic Studies Justice Department Kapeliouk, Ammon Kayani, Ashfaq Parvez Keller, Bill Kennan, George Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kern, Montague Kerry, John KGB Khamenei, Sayyed Ali Khamvongsa, Channapha Khomeini, Ayatollah Khrushchev, Nikita Kill Chain (Cockburn) Kimmerling, Baruch King, Martin Luther, Jr. Kinsley, Michael Kissinger, Henry Kivimäki, Timo Klinghoffer, Leon Knox, Henry Korean War Kornbluh, Peter Krähenbühl, Pierre Krugman, Paul Kull, Steven Küng, Hans Kuperman, Alan Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) Kurds Kuwait labor movement Labor Party (Israel) Laden, Osama bin assassination of Lansdale, Edward Laos Latin America Lawson, Dominic Leahy, Patrick Lebanon Leffler, Melvyn LeoGrande, William Le Pen, Marine Levy, Gideon Lewis, Anthony liberal internationalists liberation theology Liberty, USS, attack Libya Liebknecht, Karl Likud party (Israel) Lincoln, Abraham Linebaugh, Peter Lippmann, Walter Locke, John Lodge, Henry Cabot London Review of Books Luftwaffe Lukes, Steven Luxemburg, Rosa Madison, James Madison, Wisconsin, uprising Madrid negotiations Maechling, Charles, Jr.


pages: 956 words: 288,981

Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2011 by Steve Coll

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, centre right, colonial rule, computer age, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, index card, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

Clandestine, informal, transnational religious networks such as the Muslim Brotherhood reinforced the gathering strength of old-line religious parties such as Jamaat. This was especially true on university campuses, where radical Islamic student wings competed for influence from Cairo to Amman to Kuala Lumpur.5 When Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran and forced the American-backed monarch Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to flee early in 1979, his fire-breathing triumph jolted these parties and their youth wings, igniting campuses in fevered agitation. Khomeini’s minority Shiite creed was anathema to many conservative Sunni Islamists, especially those in Saudi Arabia, but his audacious achievements inspired Muslims everywhere. On November 5, 1979, Iranian students stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran, sacked its offices, and captured hostages.

Prince Turki al-Faisal, the Saudi intelligence chief, concluded that the Mecca uprising was a protest against the conduct of all Saudis—the sheikhs, the government, and the people in general. There should be no future danger or conflict between social progress and traditional religious practices, Turki told visitors, as long as the Saudi royal family reduced corruption and created economic opportunities for the public. In Tehran, the Ayatollah Khomeini said it was “a great joy for us to learn about the uprising in Pakistan against the U.S.A. It is good news for our oppressed nation. Borders should not separate hearts.” Khomeini theorized that “because of propaganda, people are afraid of superpowers, and they think that the superpowers cannot be touched.” This, he predicted, would be proven false.14 The riot had sketched a pattern that would recur for years. For reasons of his own, the Pakistani dictator, General Zia, had sponsored and strengthened a radical Islamic partner—in this case, Jamaat and its student wing—that had a virulently anti-American outlook.

Like the Americans, the Soviets had directed most of their resources and talent toward the ideological battlefields of Europe and Asia during the previous two decades. In the early spring of 1979 religious activists inspired by Khomeini’s triumphant return carried their defiant gospel across Iran’s open desert border with Afghanistan, particularly to Herat, an ancient crossroads on an open plain long bound to Iran by trade and politics. A Persian-accented desert town watered by the Hari Rud River, Herat’s traditional cultures and schools of Islam—which included prominent strains of mysticism—were not as severe toward women as in some rural areas of Afghanistan to the east. Yet it was a pious city. Its population included many followers of Shiism, Iran’s dominant Islamic sect. And as elsewhere, even non-Shias found themselves energized in early 1979 by Khomeini’s religious-political revival. Oblivious, Kabul’s communists and their Soviet advisers pressed secular reforms prescribed in Marxist texts.


pages: 801 words: 229,742

The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by John J. Mearsheimer, Stephen M. Walt

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, David Brooks, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, invisible hand, oil shock, Project for a New American Century, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

In short, thanks in good part to Israel and its American backers, the United States has pursued a counterproductive policy toward Iran since the early 1990s and is having difficulty getting support from states that have their own reasons to help Washington deal with Iran and would otherwise be inclined to do so. CONFRONTATION OR CONCILIATION? The United States had excellent relations with Iran from 1953 until 1979, when the American-backed shah was toppled and Ayatollah Khomeini and his Islamic theocracy came to power. Since then, relations between the two countries have been almost entirely adversarial. Israel has also had hostile relations with Tehran since the shah’s overthrow. During the 1980s, however, neither the United States nor Israel was seriously threatened by Iran, mainly because it was involved in a lengthy war with Iraq, which pinned it down and sapped its strength.

.; Middle East policy of Joint Security Assistance Planning Group (JSAP) Jordan; U.S. aid to Jordan, Hamilton Jordan River Judt, Tony Kagan, Robert Kalman, Matthew Kaplan, Lawrence Karine A incident Karpin, Michael Kashmir Katz, Haim Katznelson, Berl Kazakhstan Keller, Bill Kellogg Brown & Root Kelly, Michael Kenen, I. L. “Si,” Kennan, George Kennedy, John F.; Middle East policy of Kenya, 1998 U.S. embassy bombing in Kerry, John Kessler, Jonathan Khalidi, Rashid Khalq, Mojahedin-e Khatami, Mohammad Khobar Towers attacks (1996) Khomeini, Ayatollah Khrushchev, Nikita S. Kimmerling, Baruch King, Henry Churchill Kinsley, Michael Kirk, Russell Kirkpatrick, Jeane Kissinger, Henry; Cold War strategy of Klein, Joe Klein, Morton Klose, Kevin Knesset Koch, Ed Koch, Noel Kohr, Howard Kohut, Andrew Komer, Robert Kosovo Kramer, Martin Krauthammer, Charles Kristof, Nicholas D. Kristol, William Kucinich, Dennis Ku Klux Klan Kurds Kurtz, Stanley Kushner, Tony Kuwait Labor party Lafer, Fred LaHaye, Timothy Lamont, Ned Landau, David Lantos, Tom Lavi aircraft Lavon affair (1954) Law of Return Lawrence, Bruce laws of war, violation of Lebanon; civil war (1976–86); -Hezbollah war (2006),; Israel lobby and; 1982 Israeli invasion of; 1983 U.S. embassy and marine barracks bombings in; U.S. hostages in; U.S. policy toward; see also Lebanon war (2006) Lebanon war (2006); abduction of Israeli soldiers in; casualties; damage to U.S. interests; end of; human rights issues; Israel lobby and; Israel’s strategic mistakes in; laws of war violations in; moral arguments; neoconservatives and; prewar planning by Israel for; public opinion on; as punishment campaign; Winograd report on Ledeen, Michael Lelyveld, Arthur Lerner, Michael Leverett, Flynt Levy, Daniel Levy, Gideon Lewis, Anthony Lewis, Bernard Libby, I.

Institute of Peace, December 2006), 39. 90. On the “Lavon affair,” see Schoenbaum, The United States and the State of Israel, 107–108. On Israel’s various dealings with Iran, see “Israel-Iran Oil Deal Disclosed and Tied to Captives,” New York Times, December 20, 1989; Youssef M. Ibrahim, “Oil Sale Disclosure Upsets Israeli-Iranian Contacts,” New York Times, December 21, 1989; Bishara Bahbah, “Arms Sales: Israel’s Link to the Khomeini Regime,” Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (online), January 1987; and Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi, The Israeli Connection: Who Israel Arms and Why (New York: Pantheon Books, 1987), 3–22, 108–75. The Reagan administration did supply arms to Iran as part of the notorious Iran-contra arms scandal, but this covert operation was largely intended to secure the release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon and was widely seen as contrary to broader U.S. interests once it was exposed. 91.


Necessary Illusions by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, full employment, Howard Zinn, Khyber Pass, land reform, long peace, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing

Reviewing media coverage of the Kurds, Vera Beaudin Saeedpour observes that “beginning in 1979, the Kurds of Iran captured the attention of the Times” as they took up arms against the Khomeini regime.55 Subsequent press coverage treated the Kurdish problem as “a variable in the power struggle.” The basic question was whether whether U.S. interests would benefit or suffer if Iran were to be dismembered; coverage of the rights and travail of the Kurdish people rose or fell according to this criterion. There is, however, another condition under which repression of the Kurds becomes a legitimate issue of concern: if it can be exploited to support Israeli power. Thus, Times columnist William Satire has written favorably of Kurdish aspirations for autonomy and respect for their culture, then coming to the point: “PLO leader, Yasir Arafat, who wants not only sovereignty in the West Bank but claims all of Israel, has embraced the Ayatollah in Iran” and does not defend the Kurds; and the “Soviet-backed” Iraqis are equally hypocritical, attacking the “non-Arab Kurds” but calling for independence for Palestinian Arabs.

., 189, 266 Jonas, Susanne, 228 Jordan, 289, 290, 297, 306, 311, 339 Judis, John, 317 K Kahan Commission, 382n.21 Kahane, Rabbi Meir, 291, 296, 316 Kairys, David, 346, 348–49 Kalb, Marvin, 168 Kalven, Harry, 346 Kamm, Henry, 109 Kapeliouk, Amnon, 38, 118 Kempton, Murray, 123 Kennan, George, 40 Kennedy, John F., 28, 58, 67–68, 70, 115, 135, 189, 266 Kennedy, William V., 184 Kenworthy, E.W., 143 Kern, Montague, 122–23 Kerry, John, 58, 259 Key, V.O., 358n. l6 KGB, 167–68 Khalil, Samikha, 339 Khmer Rouge, 28, 37, 109, 156–55, 159 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, 134, 285–86 Kifner, John, 207, 403n.70 King, Martin Luther, 46 Kinsley, Michael, 61 Kinzer, Stephen, 56, 83, 126, 141, 147, 225, 231, 235, 239–40, 248, 250–51, 258–59, 315, 328, 329, 331–35, 337, 344, 407n.l33 Kipper, Judith, 300 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 94, 100, 103, 219, 246, 326 Kissinger, Henry, 4, 21, 25, 47, 286, 289, 307 Klein, Joe, 315 Klinghoffer, Leon, 118 Knight-Ridder, 179 Koch, Edward, 232 Kondracke, Morton, 167–68, 171–72, 369n.57 Kook, Rabbi A.I., 214 Krauthammer, Charles, 171 Ku Klux Klan, 318 Kupperman, Robert, 270 Kurds, 286 L Lacouture, Jean, 156, 159 La Crónica del Pueblo, 41, 42 La Epoca, 124, 125, 332 LaFeber, Walter, 111–12, 148–50 La Follette Committee, 30 La Nación, 33l Lane, Charles, 388n.17 Lane, Mark, 159 Laos, 35, 38, 81, 106, 133, 205, 280 La Prensa, 42, 62, 78, 123–28, 165, 166, 230, 233, 324–32 Laqueur, Walter, 113, 171, 277–82 Larouche, Lyndon, 353 La Semana Cómica, 250 Lasswell, Harold, 17 Latin American Studies Association (LASA), 140–41, 147 Lau, Ricardo, 205 Law, Richard, 181 Law in the Service of Man (Al-Haq), 338 Lebanon, 12, 52–54, 80–89, 117, 118, 156, 161, 166–68, 170–73, 175, 192–95, 218, 272, 274–78, 294, 304, 319, 343, 405n.l00 Leiken, Robert, 164, 333, 372n.l9 Lelyveld, Joseph, 199, 409n.159 Lemann, Nicolas, 145–48, 360n.32 LeMoyne, James, 42, 56, 63, 66, 70, 81, 94, 95, 97, 102, 134, 205, 199–202, 223, 228–32, 235, 237–38, 248, 329, 333–37, 360n.46, 407n.l33, 409n.l59 Lenin, Vladimir, 45, 347 LeoGrande, William, 164 Leumi, Irgun Zvai, 114–15 Levi, Edward H., 351 Levin, Marcus, 211 Levin, Murray, 188 Lewis, Anthony, 2, 6–7, 13, 87, 143, 300 Lewis, Flora, 323 Lewis, Neil, 49, 106 Lewy, Guenter, 350–55 Libya, 9, 39, 49, 70, 77, 113, 271–73, 277, 319 Lichtenstein, David, 175 Lie, Trygvie, 220 Lippmann, Walter, 16, 26 Locke, John, 132 London Times, 275, 319, 320 López Contreras, Carlos, 222 Los Angeles Times, 121, 300, 319 Lovestone, Jay, 266 Luard, Evan, 220 Luxembourg, 55 Lybia, 271 M Ma’ariv, 293 MacMichael, David, 58, 200, 354 Magana, Alvaro, 239 Majano, Adolfo, 230–31, 249 Mansour, Attallah, 174 Manuel, Anne, 255 Manufacturing Consent, 12, 145, 148 Marcos, Ferdinand, 107 Markham, James, 107 May Day, 29 McCain, John, 37, 96 McCann, Thomas, 323 McCarthy witchhunt, 217 McGovern, George, 157 McHorn, Robert, 204 McKinley, William, 186 Media Alliance, San Francisco, 235 Medrano, Imelda, 255 Meese, Edwin, 271 Mein Kampf, 72 Meir, Golda, 360n.33 Melton, Richard H., 250, 252–53 Merz, Charles, 26 Mesoamerica, 268 Metternich, 72 Mexico, 41, 84, 202 Miami Herald, 228, 256 Middle East Studies Association, 317 Mill, James, 13 Mill, John Stuart, 132 Milo, Roni, 297 Milton, John, 105 Miranda, Roger, 199, 200, 203, 205 Miskito, 66, 92, 204, 225 Mission of Peace, 57 Mitchell, George, 58 Mitterand, François, 117 Mitzna, Amram, 338 Molina, Rev.

It is important to stay away from camps on the Honduran border, where refugees report “without exception” that they were “all fleeing from the army that we are supporting” and “every person had a tale of atrocity by government forces, the same ones we are again outfitting with weapons” as they conduct “a systematic campaign of terrorism” with “a combination of murder, torture, rape, the burning of crops in order to create starvation conditions,” and vicious atrocities; the report of the congressional delegation that reached these conclusions after their first-hand investigation in early 1981 was excluded from the media, which were avoiding this primary source of evidence on rural El Salvador.72 It would be bad form to arouse public awareness of Nicaragua’s “noteworthy progress in the social sector, which is laying a solid foundation for long-term socio-economic development,” reported in 1983 by the Inter-American Development Bank, barred by U.S. pressure from contributing to these achievements.73 Correspondingly, it is improper to set forth the achievements of the Reagan administration in reversing these early successes, to record the return of disease and malnutrition, illiteracy and dying infants, while the country is driven to the zero grade of life to pay for the sin of independent development. In contrast, it is responsible journalism for James LeMoyne to denounce the Sandinistas for the “bitterness and apathy” he finds in Managua.74 Those who hope to enter the system must learn that terror traceable to the PLO, Qaddafi, or Khomeini leaves worthy victims who merit compassion and concern; but those targeted by the United States and its allies do not fall within this category. Responsible journalists must understand that a grenade attack on Israeli Army recruits and their families leaving one killed and many wounded deserves a front-page photograph of the victims and a substantial story, while a contra attack on a passenger bus the day before with two killed, two kidnapped, and many wounded merits no report at all.75 Category by category, the same lessons hold.


pages: 453 words: 111,010

Licence to be Bad by Jonathan Aldred

"Robert Solow", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, framing effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, full employment, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, nudge unit, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spectrum auction, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, zero-sum game

As for women who take paid work outside the home, they are repeatedly labelled ‘deviant’ by Becker. In a footnote he states ‘that “deviant” is used in a statistical, and not a pejorative sense’ – although even in 1981 working women were hardly a statistical outlier. Elsewhere in the Treatise, Becker argues that women would generally benefit from the legalization of polygamy, approvingly citing Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran – not an authority famous for his understanding of women’s interests – in support of his argument.6 Becker’s disregard for the facts was not limited to his work on the family. During the 2007–10 financial crisis he was asked whether low-waged and unemployed people who took out huge mortgages which they could not possibly hope to repay were rational. Becker answered yes, they were perfectly rational, since any default was on the lender’s capital, not their own.7 True, but the defaulter still ends up homeless – and being rational surely requires that you prioritize keeping a roof over your head over taking risks with other people’s money.

objection, 107, 119–20 Friedman, Milton, 4–5, 56, 69, 84, 88, 126, 189 awarded Nobel Prize, 132 and business responsibility, 2, 152 debate with Coase at Director’s house, 50, 132 as dominant Chicago thinker, 50, 132 on fairness and justice, 60 flawed arguments of, 132–3 influence on modern economics, 131–2 and monetarism, 87, 132, 232 at Mont Pèlerin, 5, 132 rejects need for realistic assumptions, 132–3 Sheraton Hall address (December 1967), 132 ‘The Methodology of Positive Economics’ (essay, 1953), 132–3 ‘The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase Its Profits’ (article, 1970), 2, 152 Frost, Gerald, Antony Fisher: Champion of Liberty (2002), 7* Galbraith, John Kenneth, 242–3 game theory assumptions of ‘rational behaviour’, 18, 28, 29–32, 35–8, 41–3, 70, 124 Axelrod’s law of the instrument, 41 backward induction procedure, 36–7, 38 and Cold War nuclear strategy, 18, 20, 21–2, 24, 27, 33–4, 35, 70, 73, 198 focus on consequences alone, 43 as form of zombie science, 41 and human awareness, 21–3, 24–32 and interdependence, 23 limitations of, 32, 33–4, 37–40, 41–3 minimax solution, 22 multiplicity problem, 33–4, 35–7, 38 Nash equilibrium, 22–3, 24, 25, 27–8, 33–4, 41–2 the Nash program, 25 and nature of trust, 28–31, 41 the Prisoner’s Dilemma, 26–8, 29–32, 42–3 real world as problem for, 21–2, 24–5, 29, 31–2, 37–8, 39–40, 41–3 rise of in economics, 40–41 and Russell’s Chicken, 33–4 and Schelling, 138–9 and spectrum auctions, 39–40 theory of repeated games, 29–30, 35 tit-for-tat, 30–31 and trust, 29, 30–31, 32, 41 uses of, 23–4, 34, 38–9 view of humanity as non-cooperative/distrustful, 18, 21–2, 25–32, 36–8, 41–3 Von Neumann as father of, 18, 19, 20–22, 25, 26, 28, 30, 34, 41 zero-sum games, 21–2 Gates, Bill, 221–2 Geithner, Tim, 105 gender, 127–8, 130–31, 133, 156 General Electric, 159 General Motors (GM), 215–16 George, Prince of Cambridge, 98 Glass–Steagall Act, repeal of, 194 globalization, 215, 220 Goldman Sachs, 182, 184, 192 Google, 105 Gore, Al, 39 Great Reform Act (1832), 120 greed, 1–2, 196, 197, 204, 229, 238 Greenspan, Alan, 57, 203 Gruber, Jonathan, 245 Haifa, Israel, 158, 161 Harper, ‘Baldy’, 7 Harsanyi, John, 34–5, 40 Harvard Business Review, 153 Hayek, Friedrich and Arrow’s framework, 78–9 economics as all of life, 8 and Antony Fisher, 6–7 influence on Thatcher, 6, 7 and Keynesian economics, 5–6 and legal frameworks, 7* at LSE, 4 at Mont Pèlerin, 4, 5, 6, 15 and Olson’s analysis, 104 and public choice theory, 89 rejection of incentive schemes, 156 ‘spontaneous order’ idea, 30 The Road to Serfdom (1944), 4, 5, 6, 78–9, 94 healthcare, 91–2, 93, 178, 230, 236 hedge funds, 201, 219, 243–4 Heilbroner, Robert, The Worldly Philosophers, 252 Heller, Joseph, Catch-22, 98, 107, 243–4 Helmsley, Leona, 105 hero myths, 221–3, 224 Hewlett-Packard, 159 hippie countercultural, 100 Hoffman, Abbie, Steal This Book, 100 Holmström, Bengt, 229–30 homo economicus, 9, 10, 12, 140, 156–7 and Gary Becker, 126, 129, 133, 136 and behaviour of real people, 15, 136, 144–5, 171, 172, 173, 250–51 and behavioural economics, 170, 171, 172, 255 long shadow cast by, 248 and Nudge economists, 13, 172, 173, 174–5, 177 Hooke, Robert, 223 housing market, 128–9, 196, 240–41 separate doors for poor people, 243 Hume, David, 111 Huxley, Thomas, 114 IBM, 181, 222 identity, 32, 165–6, 168, 180 Illinois, state of, 46–7 immigration, 125, 146 Impossibility Theorem, 72, 73–4, 75, 89, 97 Arrow’s assumptions, 80, 81, 82 and Duncan Black, 77–8 and free marketeers, 78–9, 82 as misunderstood and misrepresented, 76–7, 79–82 ‘paradox of voting’, 75–7 as readily solved, 76–7, 79–80 Sen’s mathematical framework, 80–81 incentives adverse effect on autonomy, 164, 165–6, 168, 169–70, 180 authority figure–autonomy contradiction, 180 and behavioural economics, 171, 175, 176–7 cash and non-cash gifts, 161–2 context and culture, 175–6 contrast with rewards and punishments, 176–7 ‘crowding in’, 176 crowding out of prior motives, 160–61, 162–3, 164, 165–6, 171, 176 impact of economists’ ideas, 156–7, 178–80 and intrinsic motivations, 158–60, 161–3, 164, 165–6, 176 and moral disengagement, 162, 163, 164, 166 morally wrong/corrupting, 168–9 origins in behaviourism, 154 and orthodox theory of motivation, 157–8, 164, 166–7, 168–70, 178–9 payments to blood donors, 162–3, 164, 169, 176 as pervasive in modern era, 155–6 respectful use of, 175, 177–8 successful, 159–60 as tools of control/power, 155–7, 158–60, 161, 164, 167, 178 Indecent Proposal (film, 1993), 168 India, 123, 175 individualism, 82, 117 and Becker, 134, 135–8 see also freedom, individual Industrial Revolution, 223 inequality and access to lifeboats, 150–51 and climate change, 207–9 correlation with low social mobility, 227–8, 243 and demand for positional goods, 239–41 and economic imperialism, 145–7, 148, 151, 207 and efficiency wages, 237–8 entrenched self-deluding justifications for, 242–3 and executive pay, 215–16, 219, 224, 228–30, 234, 238 as falling in 1940–80 period, 215, 216 Great Gatsby Curve, 227–8, 243 hero myths, 221–3, 224 increases in as self-perpetuating, 227–8, 230–31, 243 as increasing since 1970s, 2–3, 215–16, 220–21 and lower growth levels, 239 mainstream political consensus on, 216, 217, 218, 219–21 marginal productivity theory, 223–4, 228 new doctrine on taxation since 1970s, 232–5 and Pareto, 217, 218–19, 220 poverty as waste of productive capacity, 238–9 public attitudes to, 221, 226–8 rises in as not inevitable, 220, 221, 242 role of luck downplayed, 222, 224–6, 243 scale-invariant nature of, 219, 220 ‘socialism for the rich’, 230 Thatcher’s praise of, 216 and top-rate tax cuts, 231, 233–5, 239 trickle-down economics, 232–3 US and European attitudes to, 226–7 ‘you deserve what you get’ belief, 223–6, 227–8, 236, 243 innovation, 222–3, 242 Inside Job (documentary, 2010), 88 Institute of Economic Affairs, 7–8, 15, 162–3 intellectual property law, 57, 68, 236 Ishiguro, Kazuo, Never Let Me Go, 148 Jensen, Michael, 229 Journal of Law and Economics, 49 justice, 1, 55, 57–62, 125, 137 Kahn, Herman, 18, 33 Kahneman, Daniel, 170–72, 173, 179, 202–3, 212, 226 Kennedy, President John, 139–40 Keynes, John Maynard, 11, 21, 162, 186, 204 and Buchanan’s ideology, 87 dentistry comparison, 258–9, 261 on economics as moral science, 252–3 Friedman’s challenge to orthodoxy of, 132 Hayek’s view of, 5–6 massive influence of, 3–4, 5–6 on power of economic ideas, 15 and probability, 185, 186–7, 188–9, 190, 210 vision of the ideal economist, 20 General Theory (1936), 15, 188–9 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 128 Khrushchev, Nikita, 139–40, 181 Kilburn Grammar School, 48 Kildall, Gary, 222 Kissinger, Henry, 184 Knight, Frank, 185–6, 212 Krugman, Paul, 248 Kubrick, Stanley, 35*, 139 labour child labour, 124, 146 and efficiency wages, 237–8 labour-intensive services, 90, 92–3 lumpenproletariat, 237 Olson’s hostility to unions, 104 Adam Smith’s ‘division of labour’ concept, 128 Laffer, Arthur, 232–3, 234 Lancet (medical journal), 257 Larkin, Philip, 67 law and economics movement, 40, 55, 56–63, 64–7 Lazear, Edward, ‘Economic Imperialism’, 246 legal system, 7* and blame for accidents, 55, 60–61 and Chicago School, 49, 50–52, 55 and Coase Theorem, 47, 49, 50–55, 63–6 criminal responsibility, 111, 137, 152 economic imperialist view of, 137 law and economics movement, 40, 55, 56–63, 64–7 ‘mimic the market’ approach, 61–3, 65 Posner’s wealth-maximization principle, 57–63, 64–7, 137 precautionary principle, 211–12, 214 transaction costs, 51–3, 54–5, 61, 62, 63–4, 68 Lehmann Brothers, 194 Lexecon, 58, 68 Linda Problem, 202–3 LineStanding.com, 123 Little Zheng, 123, 124 Lloyd Webber, Andrew, 234–5, 236 lobbying, 7, 8, 88, 115, 123, 125, 146, 230, 231, 238 loft-insulation schemes, 172–3 logic, mathematical, 74–5 The Logic of Life (Tim Harford, 2008), 130 London School of Economics (LSE), 4, 48 Long-Term Capital Management (LTCM), 201, 257 Machiavelli, Niccoló, 89, 94 Mafia, 30 malaria treatments, 125, 149 management science, 153–4, 155 Mandelbrot, Benoît, 195, 196, 201 Mankiw, Greg, 11 marginal productivity theory, 223–4 Markowitz, Harry, 196–7, 201, 213 Marx, Karl, 11, 101, 102, 104, 111, 223 lumpenproletariat, 237 mathematics, 9–10, 17–18, 19, 21–4, 26, 247, 248, 255, 259 of 2007 financial crash, 194, 195–6 and Ken Arrow, 71, 72, 73–5, 76–7, 82–3, 97 axioms (abstract assumptions), 198 fractals (scale-invariance), 194, 195–6, 201, 219 and orthodox decision theory, 190–91, 214 Ramsey Rule on discounting, 208–9, 212 and Savage, 189–90, 193, 197, 198, 199, 205 and Schelling, 139 Sen’s framework on voting systems, 80–81 standard deviation, 182, 192, 194 and stock market statistics, 190–91, 195–6 use of for military ends, 71–2 maximizing behaviour and Becker, 129–31, 133–4, 147 and catastrophe, 211 and Coase, 47, 55, 59, 61, 63–9 economic imperialism, 124–5, 129–31, 133–4, 147, 148–9 Posner’s wealth-maximization principle, 57–63, 64–7, 137 profit-maximizing firms, 228 see also wealth-maximization principle; welfare maximization McCluskey, Kirsty, 194 McNamara, Robert, 138 median voter theorem, 77, 95–6 Merton, Robert, 201 Meucci, Antonio, 222 microeconomics, 9, 232, 259 Microsoft, 222 Miles, David, 258 Mill, John Stuart, 102, 111, 243 minimum wage, national, 96 mobility, economic and social correlation with inequality, 226–8, 243 as low in UK, 227 as low in USA, 226–7 US–Europe comparisons, 226–7 Modern Times (Chaplin film, 1936), 154 modernism, 67 Moivre, Abraham de, 193 monetarism, 87, 89, 132, 232 monopolies and cartels, 101, 102, 103–4 public sector, 48–9, 50–51, 93–4 Mont Pèlerin Society, 3–9, 13, 15, 132 Morgenstern, Oskar, 20–22, 24–5, 28, 35, 124, 129, 189, 190 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 91, 92–3 Murphy, Kevin, 229 Mussolini, Benito, 216, 219 Nash equilibrium, 22–3, 24, 25, 27–8, 33–4, 41–2 Nash, John, 17–18, 22–3, 24, 25–6, 27–8, 33–4, 41–2 awarded Nobel Prize, 34–5, 38, 39, 40 mental health problems, 25, 26, 34 National Health Service, 106, 162 ‘neoliberalism’, avoidance of term, 3* Neumann, John von ambition to make economics a science, 20–21, 24–5, 26, 35, 125, 151, 189 as Cold War warrior, 20, 26, 138 and expansion of scope of economics, 124–5 as father of game theory, 18, 19, 20–22, 25, 26, 28, 30, 34, 41 final illness and death of, 19, 34, 35, 43–4 genius of, 19–20 as inspiration for Dr Strangelove, 19 and Nash’s equilibrium, 22–3, 25, 38* simplistic view of humanity, 28 theory of decision-making, 189, 190, 203 neuroscience, 14 New Deal, US, 4, 194, 231 Newton, Isaac, 223 Newtonian mechanics, 21, 24–5 Nixon, Richard, 56, 184, 200 NORAD, Colorado Springs, 181 nuclear weapons, 18–19, 20, 22, 27, 181 and Ellsberg, 200 and game theory, 18, 20, 21–2, 24, 27, 33–4, 35, 70, 73, 198 MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction), 35, 138 and Russell’s Chicken, 33–4 and Schelling, 138, 139 Nudge economists, 13, 171–5, 177–8, 179, 180, 251 Oaten, Mark, 121 Obama, Barack, 110, 121, 157, 172, 180 Olson, Mancur, 103, 108, 109, 119–20, 122 The Logic of Collective Action (1965), 103–4 On the Waterfront (Kazan film, 1954), 165 online invisibility, 100* organs, human, trade in, 65, 123, 124, 145, 147–8 Orwell, George, Nineteen Eighty-Four, 42–3 Osborne, George, 233–4 Packard, David, 159 Paine, Tom, 243 Pareto, Vilfredo 80/20 rule’ 218 and inequality, 217, 218–19, 220 life and background of, 216–17 Pareto efficiency, 217–18, 256* Paul the octopus (World Cup predictor, 2010), 133 pensions, workplace, 172, 174 physics envy, 9, 20–21, 41, 116, 175–6, 212, 247 Piketty, Thomas, 234, 235 plastic shopping bag tax, 159–60 Plato’s Republic, 100–101, 122 political scientists and Duncan Black, 78, 95–6 Black’s median voter theorem, 95–6 Buchanan’s ideology, 84–5 crises of the 1970s, 85–6 influence of Arrow, 72, 81–2, 83 see also public choice theory; social choice theory Posner, Richard, 54, 56–63, 137 ‘mimic the market’ approach, 61–3, 65 ‘The Economics of the Baby Shortage’ (1978), 61 precautionary principle, 211–12, 214 price-fixing, 101, 102, 103–4 Princeton University, 17, 19–20 Prisoner’s Dilemma, 26–8, 29–32, 42–3 prisons, cell upgrades in, 123 privatization, 50, 54, 88, 93–4 probability, 182–4 and Keynes, 185, 186–7, 188–9, 210 Linda Problem, 202–3 modern ideas of, 184–5 Ramsey’s personal probabilities (beliefs as probabilities), 187–8, 190, 197, 198, 199, 204–5 and Savage, 190, 193, 197, 198, 199, 203, 205 ‘Truth and Probability’ (Ramsey paper), 186–8, 189, 190 see also risk and uncertainty Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 22 productivity Baumol’s cost disease, 90–92, 93, 94 and efficiency wages, 237–8 improvement in labour-intensive services, 92–3 labour input, 92 protectionism, 246, 255 psychology availability heuristic, 226 behaviourism, 154–8, 237 and behavioural economics, 12, 170–71 cognitive dissonance, 113–14 and financial incentives, 156–7, 158–60, 163–4, 171 framing effects, 170–71, 259 of free-riding, 113–14, 115 intrinsic motivations, 158–60, 161–3, 164, 165–6, 176 irrational behaviour, 12, 15, 171 learning of social behaviour, 163–4 moral disengagement, 162, 163, 164, 166 motivated beliefs, 227 ‘self-command’ strategies, 140 view of in game theory, 26–31 view of in public choice theory, 85–6 and welfare maximization, 149 ‘you deserve what you get’ belief, 223–6, 227–8, 236, 243 public choice theory as consensus view, 84–5 and crises of the 1970s, 85–6 foolish voter assumption, 86–8 ‘paradox of voter turnout’, 88–9, 95–6, 115–16 partial/self-contradictory application of, 86, 87–9 ‘political overload’ argument, 85, 86–7 ‘public bad, private good’ mantra, 93–4, 97 and resistance to tax rises, 94, 241 self-fulfilling prophecies, 95–7 and selfishness, 85–6, 87–8, 89, 94, 95–7 as time-bomb waiting to explode, 85 public expenditure in 1970s and ’80s, 89 Baumol’s cost disease, 90–92, 93, 94 and Keynesian economics, 4 and public choice theory, 85–8, 89, 241 and tax rises, 241–2 public-sector monopolies, 48–9, 50–51, 93–4 Puzzle of the Harmless Torturers, 118–19 queue-jumping, 123, 124 QWERTY layout, 42 racial discrimination, 126–7, 133, 136, 140 Ramsey, Frank, 186–8, 189, 190, 205, 208 Ramsey Rule, 208–9, 212 RAND Corporation, 17, 41, 103, 138, 139 and Ken Arrow, 70–71, 72–3, 74, 75–6, 77, 78 and behaviourism, 154 and Cold War military strategy, 18, 20, 21–2, 24, 27, 33–4, 70, 73, 75–6, 141, 200, 213 and Ellsberg, 182–4, 187, 197–8, 200 and Russell’s Chicken, 33 Santa Monica offices of, 18 self-image as defender of freedom, 78 rational behaviour assumptions in game theory, 18, 28, 29–32, 35–8, 41–3, 70, 124 axioms (abstract mathematical assumptions), 198 Becker’s version of, 128–9, 135, 140, 151 behavioural economics/Nudge view of, 173, 174–5 distinction between values and tastes, 136–8 economic imperialist view of, 135, 136–8, 140, 151 and free-riding theory, 100–101, 102, 103–4, 107–8, 109–10, 115–16 and orthodox decision theory, 198, 199 public choice theory relates selfishness to, 86 term as scientific-sounding cover, 12 see also homo economicus Reader’s Digest, 5, 6 Reagan, Ronald, 2, 87–8, 89, 104, 132 election of as turning point, 6, 216, 220–21 and top-rate tax cuts, 231, 233 regulators, 1–2 Chicago view of, 40 Reinhart, Carmen, 258 religion, decline of in modern societies, 15, 185 renewable energy, 116 rent-seeking, 230, 238 ‘right to recline’, 63–4 risk and uncertainty bell curve distribution, 191–4, 195, 196–7, 201, 203–4, 257 catastrophes, 181–2, 191, 192, 201, 203–4, 211–12 delusions of quantitative ‘risk management’, 196, 213 Ellsberg’s experiment (1961), 182–4, 187, 197, 198–200 errors in conventional thinking about, 191–2, 193–4, 195–7, 204–5, 213 financial orthodoxy on risk, 196–7, 201–2 and First World War, 185 and fractals (scale-invariance), 194, 195–6, 201 hasard and fortuit, 185* ‘making sense’ of through stories, 202–3 ‘measurable’ and ‘unmeasurable’ distinction, 185–6, 187–9, 190, 210–11, 212–13 measurement in numerical terms, 181–4, 187, 189, 190–94, 196–7, 201–2, 203–5, 212–13 orthodox decision theory, 183–4, 185–6, 189–91, 193–4, 201–2, 203–5, 211, 212–14 our contemporary orthodoxy, 189–91 personal probabilities (beliefs as probabilities), 187–8, 190, 197, 198, 199, 204–5 precautionary principle, 211–12, 214 pure uncertainty, 182–3, 185–6, 187–9, 190, 197, 198–9, 210, 211, 212, 214, 251 redefined as ‘volatility’, 197, 213 the Savage orthodoxy, 190–91, 197, 198–200, 203, 205 scenario planning as crucial, 251 Taleb’s black swans, 192, 194, 201, 203–4 ‘Truth and Probability’ (Ramsey paper), 186–8, 189, 190 urge to actuarial alchemy, 190–91, 197, 201 value of human life (‘statistical lives’), 141–5, 207 see also probability Robertson, Dennis, 13–14 Robinson, Joan, 260 Rodrik, Dani, 255, 260–61 Rogoff, Ken, 258 Rothko, Mark, 4–5 Rumsfeld, Donald, 232–3 Russell, Bertrand, 33–4, 74, 97, 186, 188 Ryanair, 106 Sachs, Jeffrey, 257 Santa Monica, California, 18 Sargent, Tom, 257–8 Savage, Leonard ‘Jimmie’, 189–90, 193, 203, 205scale-invariance, 194, 195–6, 201, 219 Scandinavian countries, 103, 149 Schelling, Thomas, 35* on access to lifeboats, 150–51 awarded Nobel Prize, 138–9 and Cold War nuclear strategy, 138, 139–40 and economic imperialism, 141–5 and game theory, 138–9 and Washington–Moscow hotline, 139–40 work on value of human life, 141–5, 207 ‘The Intimate Contest for Self-command’ (essay, 1980), 140, 145 ‘The Life You Save May be Your Own’ (essay, 1968), 142–5, 207 Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam, 172 Schmidt, Eric, 105 Scholes, Myron, 201 Schwarzman, Stephen, 235 Second World War, 3, 189, 210 selfishness, 41–3, 178–9 and Becker, 129–30 and defence of inequality, 242–3 as free marketeers’ starting point, 10–12, 13–14, 41, 86, 178–9 and game theory, 18 and public choice theory, 85–6, 87–8, 89, 94, 95–7 Selten, Reinhard, 34–5, 36, 38, 40 Sen, Amartya, 29, 80–81 service sector, 90–93, 94 Shakespeare, William, Measure for Measure, 169 Shaw, George Bernard, 101 Shiller, Robert, 247 Simon, Herbert, 223 Skinner, Burrhus, 154–5, 158 Smith, Adam, 101, 111, 122 The Wealth of Nations (1776), 10–11, 188–9 snowflakes, 195 social choice theory, 72 and Ken Arrow, 71–83, 89, 95, 97, 124–5, 129 and Duncan Black, 78, 95 and free marketeers, 79, 82 Sen’s mathematical framework, 80–81 social media, 100* solar panels, 116 Solow, Bob, 163, 223 Sorites paradox, 117–18, 119 sovereign fantasy, 116–17 Soviet Union, 20, 22, 70, 73, 82, 101, 104, 167, 237 spectrum auctions, 39–40, 47, 49 Stalin, Joseph, 70, 73, 101 the state anti-government attitudes in USA, 83–5 antitrust regulation, 56–8 dismissal of almost any role for, 94, 135, 235–6, 241 duty over full employment, 5 economic imperialist arguments for ‘small government’, 135 increased economic role from 1940s, 3–4, 5 interventions over ‘inefficient’ outcomes, 53 and monetarism, 87, 89 and Mont Pèlerin Society, 3, 4, 5 and privatization, 50, 54, 88, 93–4 public-sector monopolies, 48–50, 93–4 replacing of with markets, 79 vital role of, 236 statistical lives, 141–5, 207 Stern, Nick, 206, 209–10 Stigler, George, 50, 51, 56, 69, 88 De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum (with Becker, 1977), 135–6 Stiglitz, Joseph, 237 stock markets ‘Black Monday’ (1987), 192 and fractals (scale-invariance), 194, 195–6, 201 orthodox decision theory, 190–91, 193–4, 201 Strittmatter, Father, 43–4 Summers, Larry, 10, 14 Sunstein, Cass, 173 Nudge (with Richard Thaler, 2008), 171–2, 175 Taleb, Nassim, 192 Tarski, Alfred, 74–5 taxation and Baumol’s cost disease, 94 and demand for positional goods, 239–41 as good thing, 231, 241–2, 243 Laffer curve, 232–3, 234 new doctrine of since 1970s, 232–4 property rights as interdependent with, 235–6 public resistance to tax rises, 94, 239, 241–2 and public spending, 241–2 revenue-maximizing top tax rate, 233–4, 235 tax avoidance and evasion, 99, 105–6, 112–13, 175, 215 ‘tax revolt’ campaigns (1970s USA), 87 ‘tax as theft’ culture, 235–6 top-rate cuts and inequality, 231, 233–5, 239 whines from the super-rich, 234–5, 243 Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 153–4, 155, 167, 178, 237 Thaler, Richard, 13 Nudge (with Cass Sunstein, 2008), 171–2, 175 Thatcher, Margaret, 2, 88, 89, 104, 132 election of as turning point, 6, 216, 220–21 and Hayek, 6, 7 and inequality, 216, 227 privatization programme, 93–4 and top-rate tax cuts, 231 Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Von Neumann and Morgenstern, 1944), 20, 21, 25, 189 Titanic, sinking of (1912), 150 Titmuss, Richard, The Gift Relationship, 162–3 tobacco-industry lobbyists, 8 totalitarian regimes, 4, 82, 167–8, 216, 219 see also Soviet Union trade union movement, 104 Tragedy of the Commons, 27 Truman, Harry, 20, 237 Trump, Donald, 233 Tucker, Albert, 26–7 Tversky, Amos, 170–72, 173, 202–3, 212, 226 Twitter, 100* Uber, 257 uncertainty see risk and uncertainty The Undercover Economist (Tim Harford, 2005), 130 unemployment and Coase Theorem, 45–7, 64 during Great Depression, 3–4 and Keynesian economics, 4, 5 United Nations, 96 universities auctioning of places, 124, 149–50 incentivization as pervasive, 156 Vietnam War, 56, 198, 200, 249 Villari, Pasquale, 30 Vinci, Leonardo da, 186 Viniar, David, 182, 192 Volkswagen scandal (2016), 2, 151–2 Vonnegut, Kurt, 243–4 voting systems, 72–4, 77, 80, 97 Arrow’s ‘Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives’, 81, 82 Arrow’s ‘Universal Domain’, 81, 82 and free marketeers, 79 ‘hanging chads’ in Florida (2000), 121 recount process in UK, 121 Sen’s mathematical framework, 80–81 Waldfogel, Joel, 161* Wanniski, Jude, 232 Watertown Arsenal, Massachusetts, 153–4 Watson Jr, Thomas J., 181 wealth-maximization principle, 57–63 and Coase, 47, 55, 59, 63–9 as core principle of current economics, 253 created markets, 65–7 extension of scope of, 124–5 and justice, 55, 57–62, 137 and knee space on planes, 63–4 practical problems with negotiations, 62–3 and values more important than efficiency, 64–5, 66–7 welfare maximization, 124–5, 129–31, 133–4, 148–9, 176 behavioural economics/Nudge view of, 173 and vulnerable/powerless people, 146–7, 150 welfare state, 4, 162 Wilson, Charlie, 215 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 186, 188 Wolfenschiessen (Swiss village), 158, 166–7 Woolf, Virginia, 67 World Bank, 96 World Cup football tournament (2010), 133 World Health Organization, 207 Yale Saturday Evening Pest, 4–5 Yellen, Janet, 237 THE BEGINNING Let the conversation begin … Follow the Penguin twitter.com/penguinukbooks Keep up-to-date with all our stories youtube.com/penguinbooks Pin ‘Penguin Books’ to your pinterest.com/penguinukbooks Like ‘Penguin Books’ on facebook.com/penguinbooks Listen to Penguin at soundcloud.com/penguin-books Find out more about the author and discover more stories like this at penguin.co.uk ALLEN LANE UK | USA | Canada | Ireland | Australia India | New Zealand | South Africa Allen Lane is part of the Penguin Random House group of companies whose addresses can be found at global.penguinrandomhouse.com First published 2019 Copyright © Jonathan Aldred, 2019 The moral right of the author has been asserted Jacket photograph © Getty Images ISBN: 978-0-241-32544-5 This ebook is copyright 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pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, creative destruction, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, different worldview, digital map, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

One day in 1981, Javad Ashjaee had arrived at his office at Aryamehr University, in Tehran, and heard the unsettling news that a fellow professor had been murdered. Like Ashjaee, this man was one of four faculty members serving on the university’s senate. A young chair of the Aryamehr’s computer science department, and the driving force behind the school’s first microprocessor lab, Ashjaee was also an outspoken critic of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the chilling effect the Islamic Revolution was having on academic freedom. He had assumed that he was under surveillance by the Revolutionary Guards, the new government’s internal security force, but the death of his colleague confirmed that his own life was in danger. He decided he had no choice but to flee the country immediately, leaving behind his wife, two young daughters, and a comfortable middle-class existence.

., 35, 51, 64 Johnston, Roger, 146–50, 167–68 Joint Chiefs of Staff, 44 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), 71–72 Jones, Antoine, 188–90 Jones Live Map, 120 Journal of the Polynesian Society, 12 JPL Rogue, 213–14 Judeo-Christian tradition, 64 Juneau, Alaska, landing aircraft at, 138–40, 171 juvenile delinquents, 173–77 monitoring experiments with, 174–77 Kamehameha, king of Hawai’i, 107 Kansas City, Mo., 126 Kansas State University, 102 Kao, Min, 126–27, 242 Kaplan, Joseph, 29, 30 Karzai, Hamid, 72 Kashiwa, 128 Kashmar, 151 Katz v. United States, 178 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 84 Kind and Usual Punishment (Mitford), 177 Kitchin, Rob, 118 Kittredge Hall, 31 KLM Airlines, 229 Kon-Tiki, 12 Korean Air Lines Boeing 747, 81–82, 140 Korean War, 89 Korzybski, Alfred, 117–18 Kosovo, Serbian aggression in, 71 Kremlin, 75 Krull, Jay Dee, 126 Kuipers, Benjamin, 123–24 Kuwait, Iraqi invasion of, 62–63, 96 Kuwait City, 63 Kwajalein Atoll, xiv L1, 76, 91, 97–98 L2, 91, 92, 97–98 LaGuardia Airport, 170 Lake, Philip, 206 Lamarck, Chevalier de, 27 Lamarr, Hedy, 54 Landers, Calif., 215 land surveying, 245–51 modern history of, 248–51, 254–55 triangulation used in, 245–49, 251–54 Lang, John, 12 Laos, 51 Larson, Kristine, 217, 228–29 Last, David, 166–67 Las Vegas, Nev., 111, 135, 175 Laufenberg, 158 Leary, Timothy, 172–73, 174 Leclerc, George-Louis, 204 Levine, Judah, 154–55, 166 Lewis, David, 11–14, 18–22 Liang, Sam, 193–94, 200 Libya, 60–61 Lichten, Stephen, 261 Life, 210, 251 light, 156 speed of, xix, 40 Linz, 239–40 Livermore, Calif., 142–43 Locata company, 164, 165–66 London, xv, 25, 44, 55, 67 cab and bus drivers in, 133 Earl’s Court, 156 Hammersmith borough, 156 Long Island, N.Y., 243 LORAN (long-range radio navigation), 27, 37, 76, 81, 166 Loran-C, 76, 81, 85, 86, 157 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 146 Los Angeles, Calif., 141, 202, 203, 210 Northridge earthquake in, 215 Los Angeles Air Force Base, 53, 58 Louisiana, 69 Louisville, Ky., 143 Love, Jack, 194–95 Lowe, Fritz, 233 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 7 machine guns, 49 Macrometers, 213 Madrid, 192 Magellan, Ferdinand, 6, 7 Magellan GPS units, 111–12, 135, 136–37 Magellan Navigation, Inc., 89–90, 96, 98, 100, 126 Magnavox, 55–56, 58, 77, 78–79, 93 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 133 Maine, 249 Maloof, Matt, 42 Malys, Steve, 255–56 Mandalay, 251 Manpacks, 92–94, 95 maps, 127, 252–55 city, 130 cognitive, 115–20, 128, 130, 132, 133, 238 comprehensive, 116, 117–18, 128 computer, 241 digital, 122 downloading of, 126 hastily sketched, 124 moving, 122, 123 Pacific Ocean, 10, 13, 14, 263–64 reading and interpreting of, 126 reality, 117–18 strip, 116, 118, 128 territories vs., 117–18 see also Google Maps marine biology, 15 Marine Corps, U.S., 46 Mark, David, 124, 125 Marquesas, 4, 9, 265 Mars, 20 atmosphere on, 258, 262 exploration of, 258–62 Mars Climate orbiter, 259 Marseille, 263 Marshall Islands, 251, 265 Mars Odyssey mission, 259–60 Mars Polar Lander, 259 Mars rovers, 203, 258–59 Mars Science Laboratory, 258, 262 Marston, Glenn, 237 Martin Company, 34 Martinez, Bob, 196 Martínez de Zúñiga, Joaquín, 12 Martin-Mur, Tomas, 258 Maryland, 30, 44, 188 Maskelyne, Nigel, 26 Massachusetts, 184, 208 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 48, 209–10, 212–14, 246 MIT Media Lab, 239 mathematics, 205, 246, 255 “Mau,” see Piailug, Pius McClure, Frank, 37–38, 39 McDonald, Larry, 82 McDonald’s, 123 McGranaghan, Matthew, 124, 125 McHugh, Tom, 142 McNamara, Timothy, 131–32 McNeff, Jules, 47, 97, 99 Meades Ranch, 249 Mediterranean Sea, 113–14 Melanesia, 11 Melville, Herman, ix memory, human, 125, 128–29, 130, 237, 238 memory, solid-state, 126 Memphis, Tenn., 143 Mercator, Gerardus, 240 meteorology, 15, 27–28, 204, 227–28 GPS-enabled, 228 methamphetamine, 179 Mexico, 31, 161, 249 microchips, 87 Micronesia, 265 microprocessors, 79, 84 microwaves, 36–37, 41, 78 Milky Way, 257 Minitrack, 30–32, 35, 39, 57 Minnesota, 155 missiles, 47, 209, 250 Atlas ballistic, 43 CALCM, 69 cruise, 62, 69 guided, 37, 62 Hellfire, 66 long-range, 69–70 nuclear, 62, 69 Russian, 81 Scud, 66 tracking of, 37 Missouri, 71, 89 Missouri, USS, 48 Mitchell, Donald, 88 Mitford, Jessica, 177 Mitre, 139 Moby-Dick (Melville), ix modems, 195 Mojave Desert, 215, 259 Molyneaux, Robert, 9 Monaco, 168 Mona Lisa (Leonardo), 99 moon, 24, 26, 252 craters on, 210 landing of Apollo 11 on, 208 landing of Apollo 15 on, 210 moon rover, 210 Moorman, Thomas, 68 Moscow, 251 Moser, Edvard, 129 Moser, May-Britt, 129 Mosul, 69 Mountain City, Nev., 112, 135, 136 MTSAT Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS), 142 Murray, Sara, 197–98 napalm, 51 National Academy of Science, 31, 256 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 212, 257 Ames Research Center of, 96 Apollo missions of, 208, 210 Communications, Tracking, and Radar Division of, 261 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of, 203, 210, 213, 214, 222, 231–32, 258, 261 Mars program of, 258–62 space shuttle program of, 61, 88 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), 255–56, 261 see also Defense Mapping Agency National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 154–55, 166 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory of, 227 National Research Council, 99–100 National Space Policy, 101, 144 Naval Academy, 48 Naval Observatory, U.S., 44, 155 Master Clock at, xv, 154 Naverus, 139 navigation, 6–22, 48, 119–20 Carolinian, 18–21, 118 of carriages, 120 commercial shipping, 38 determining routes in, 17 Doppler-aided, 36–38, 40, 43, 44, 51, 259 estimating distance, speed and time in, 16–17, 19, 22–26, 31, 39, 40, 130 etak compared to, 18–19 experiments in, 127–29 home-centering vs. self-centering systems of, 17, 20, 21–22, 27 improving skills of, 133 inertial, 48, 82 local-reference system of, 17, 20, 21, 22 loss of environmental engagement in, 119, 129, 134 modern technologies of, 27 orientation in, 130–33 passive ranging in, 40–42, 44, 45, 53, 101–2 Polynesian, 6, 8–18 space, 30–45 by sun and stars, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 86 tools of, 5, 6, 13, 25, 26–27, 38–39 see also GPS auto navigation units NAVSPASUR (Navy Space Surveillance System), 39–40 Navstar Global Positioning System, 54 Navy, U.S., 37, 40, 42, 46, 56, 251 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) of, 29, 30, 31, 39, 42–43, 47, 57, 252 Ordnance Bureau of, 38 Navy Navigation Satellite System, 38 Navy Seals, 93 Nellis, Mike, 195, 197, 283 nervous system, 118 Netherlands, 166 neurological pathologies, 118 neutrinos, 155–56 Nevada, 111 Newark Liberty International Airport, 170, 171–72, 181–82 GPS jamming incident at, 200–201, 283–84 Newell, Homer, 29, 35 New England Datum, 249 New Guinea, 4, 86 New Haven, Conn., 184 New Jersey, 170–72, 249 New Jersey Turnpike, 170–71, 172, 181–82, 200, 281 New Mexico, 44, 146, 151 New Mexico penitentiary, 195 New Orleans, La., 192, 249 Newton, Isaac, 246 New York, N.Y., xv, 81, 164, 239–40, 245, 251 Coney Island, 249 distinguishing uptown from downtown in, 17 Greenwich Village, 17 Kips Bay, 236 Manhattan, 236 Queens, 243 Staten Island, 220 Times Square, 167 traffic patterns in, 192 transportation in, 17, 145, 192 World Trade Center in, 17, 170 New York City Marathon, 220–21 New York Herald Tribune, 34 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 34 New York Times, 173 New York Times Magazine, 86 New York World-Telegram and Sun, 35 New Zealand, 4, 12 NextGen, 142 NextNav company, 192 Nighthawk stealth aircraft, 66 NIMCOS company, 195 Nimer, Richard, 195 Nixon, Richard M., 51 North America, 25, 142, 215, 230, 242, 250, 254 electrical grid of, 158, 160 North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), xiii North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27), 249–51 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 71 North Korea, 166 North Stradbroke Island, Australia, 113 North Vietnam, bombing of, 51, 70 Norway, 251 NTS-2 satellite, 58–59 nuclear waste, 146 Oakland, Calif., 203 Obama, Barack, 255 oceanography, 15, 38 oceans: positional awareness on, 24–27 shipwrecks on, 26 see also specific oceans Odishaw, Hugh, 29 odometers, 120, 121, 243 Oetting, Valerie, 90 O’Hare Airport, 141 Ohio, 158, 164 Ohio State University, Mapping and Charting Research Laboratory of, 250–51 O’Keefe, John, 129, 252 Omega, 27 Omnitracs system, 182 Operation Allied Force, 71 Operation Desert Storm, see Gulf War Operation Eagle Claw, 77 Operation El Dorado Canyon, 61–62 Oregon, 111, 112, 202, 225 Origin of Continents and Oceans, The (Wegener), 205, 206 O-rings, 92–93 ornithology, 15 Oro worship, 7–8 Ortelius, Abraham, 204 Orwell, George, 177 oscillators, 41, 43, 77 oscilloscopes, 59, 79 Owens Valley, 214 Pace, Scott, 46, 68, 97–98 Pacific Ocean, xiv, 18–20, 26, 106–8, 122, 183, 218, 221–22, 229, 249 canoe travel on, 5, 9, 11, 14–15, 18–19, 264, 268 currents and winds of, 13, 14–15 exploration of, 4–10, 26, 27, 106–7 first detailed map of, 7 islands of, 4–13, 22, 27, 106–8, 251 maps of, 10, 13, 14, 263–64 ring of fire in, 221, 229 seismic disturbances in, 202 shipping charts of, 27 swell patterns of, 13, 14 Pacific Plate, 208 Pacific Rim, 4, 12 Palatucci, Joe, 242–43 Palo Alto, Calif., 77 Pangea, 3–4, 205 Pangea Ultima, 3 Papeete, 265 Paris, xv, 24, 154, 155, 167, 246 Eiffel Tower in, 167 Park Avenue Audio, 236–38 Parkinson, Brad, 45, 48, 50, 52–54, 56–58, 60–61, 65, 70, 81, 100, 140, 153, 165–66, 185, 230, 250, 272 particle accelerators, xix Pasadena, Calif., 203, 226 passive positioning systems, satellite-based, 40 passive ranging, 40–42, 44, 45, 53, 101–2 Pattabiraman, Ganesh, 192–93 Pave Low III helicopters, 65–66 PCM signals, 156 Pearl Harbor, bombing of, 34 Penn Station (New York City), 237 Penticton, 111 peregrine falcons, 237 Permanent GPS Geodetic Array, 214, 215 Permilab particle physics facility, 155 Persian Gulf, 63, 96 Peru, 12 Peterson Air Force Base, xiii Phasor measurement units (PMU), 159–61 Philippines, 12 photogrammetry, 251 photography, 235–39, 243 physics, 15, 28, 155, 204 Piailug, Pius “Mau,” 265–66 Picard, Jean, 245–46 pigeons, 174 PlaceMe, 193 planets, 24–27, 259 Plate Boundary Observatory, 215, 218 plates, tectonic, 215, 253, 258 continental, 207–8 movement of, 3–4, 202–8, 209, 214, 216, 232, 255 North American, 208, 221, 222 oceanic, 207, 208 Okhotsk, 221n Pacific, 208, 215, 221 Philippine Sea, 221 Point Arena, Calif., 249 Poland, 244 Polaris nuclear submarines, 37 police, 178–79, 181–82 British, 187–88, 197–98 German, 185–87 Irish, 187–88 Polynesia, 18, 21, 106, 264 Polynesians, 4–18 migration of, 11, 12–13, 21, 106, 264, 268 navigation of, 6, 8–18 origins of, 12 Polynesian Triangle, 264 Pong (video game), 121 Port Elizabeth, N.J., 170 Portis, Charles, 3 Precision Market Insights, 192 prime meridian, 25 prisons, 195, 197 privacy, xx, 177, 186–87, 190–91, 192–94, 200 Probation (magazine), 177 Project Moonbeam, 31 Project Moonwatch, 31 Project Vanguard, 29–35, 252 Pro Tech company, 196 proximity beacons, 121 psilocybin, 173 psychology, 116–18, 119, 131–32, 172–77 experiments in, 125, 127–29, 173–77, 277 psychotherapy, 173 Puea, 8 Pueblo, Colo., 75 Pullen, Sam, 181 Pyrenees Mountains, 246 Qihoo 360, 153 quadrants, 13 Qualcomm, 182 quasars, 209, 257, 261 radar, 27, 51, 66–67, 122, 142, 168, 229 GPS-assisted, 67 radiation, 43, 214, 258 radioactive materials, 146, 207 radio signals, xviii, 27, 30–31, 39, 54, 71, 91, 138, 171, 195 of celestial objects, 209 ham, 31 software vs. hardware components of, 149 transmission of, 210 Ra’iatea, 7, 9, 106 range measuring, 40 Rapa Nui, 4 rat experiments, 115–17, 118–19, 129, 133 Rea, Don, 90 Reagan, Ronald, 82, 140 Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM), 139–40 Red Army, 250 Red Army Faction, 185 Redoubt, Mount, 229–30 Regensburg, 49 Rehnquist, William, 180 relativity, xix, 267 Remote Oceania, 4 Resolution, HMS, 106–7 Rhodes, 168 Richmond Times, 34 Ring of Fire, 4 Rio Grande Valley, 40 Riyadh, 63–64 rockets, 28–29, 32–35 failure of, 33–35 Rockwell Collins, 58–60, 72, 78–79, 92, 93, 97 Rocky Mountains, 73 Rome, 55, 158–59, 164 Rosen, Milt, 252 Rotuma, 10 route discs, 120 Royal Institute of Navigation, 166 Royal Observatory, 25, 44 Royal Society, 7 Russia, xvii, 144, 166 Russian space agency, 88 Rutan 76 Voyager aircraft, 126 Saarbrücken, 127 Sahul, 4 Saigon, 64 St.


pages: 615 words: 187,426

Chinese Spies: From Chairman Mao to Xi Jinping by Roger Faligot

active measures, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business intelligence, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, housing crisis, illegal immigration, index card, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, union organizing, young professional, éminence grise

Their objective was to create a regional intelligence base that the Israeli Mossad would also be invited to join. In the end, however, Hua’s public declarations of the PRC’s eternal friendship with the Pahlavi dynasty fell rather flat; just a few months later, on 16 January 1979, the Iranian revolution spread. The Shah flew into exile with his family; he would not return. With the subsequent accession to power of Ayatollah Khomeini, the Americans lost their electronic interception base in Mashad. They invited the Chinese to join forces with them by putting up electronic listening devices along the Russian border. When the Iran–Iraq War broke out in 1980, Deng Xiaoping—seeking the mullahs’ forgiveness for China’s support for the Shah—supplied Silkworm rockets to the new regime. It was Hua Guofeng who came out weakened by these two failures, and by the new balance of power within the CCP.

As we shall see, around the turn of the millennium, the PLA3 and PLA4 began to cross a new threshold in the intelligence war, entering the online battlefield and becoming the principal country implementing wartime measures in cyberspace. A helping hand from the CIA and BND Before their launch into cyber-warfare, the Chinese had an extraordinary training school. It was the very people they were fighting against, the Americans, who came to their rescue. In 1979, the Chinese, as we have seen, were taken by surprise by Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iranian revolution, just as the Americans were. The Americans lost their base in Mashhad, a large radio station run with the British, which intercepted communications from the USSR. From this shared blow emerged an unexpected “friendly” intelligence collaboration. As early as April 1979, US intelligence services received the green light from Jimmy Carter to negotiate with Deng Xiaoping on possible collaboration in this area.

Chen had begun his political life as an activist in Shanghai, working undercover for Zhou Enlai’s and Kang Sheng’s Teke. Qiao Shi travelled a great deal in the entourage of the new president, Hua Guofeng: to Romania, Yugoslavia and Iran, countries whose own special services were interested in cooperating with the Chinese against the Soviets. The overthrow of the Shah obliged Qiao to renegotiate agreements with the Savama, the new Iranian secret police serving the Ayatollah. But he excelled in behind-the-scenes negotiations, and this minor inconvenience was not enough to stop his rise to the top. In April 1982, at the age of fifty-eight, Qiao became head of the ILD.9 In this capacity, he made technical-oriented trips to Algiers, Tehran and Pyongyang, where he established a close collaboration with his North Korean ILD counterpart, Kim Yong-nam, and the head of state security, Kim Byong-ha.


pages: 624 words: 189,582

The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al-Qaeda by Ali H. Soufan, Daniel Freedman

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, call centre, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, Ronald Reagan

They all happened in 1979.” With the Iranian revolution and the overthrow of the shah, an Islamic state was established under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It was the first success of a political Islamic movement in modern history, and its effect was felt across the Muslim world: Shiite communities elsewhere now had a protector as well as a similar goal to aim toward, and Sunnis—especially the more radical groups in Egypt and Saudi Arabia—dreamed of repeating the revolution within their own framework. Other Sunnis saw a Shiite theocracy as a threat to Sunni Islam’s dominance in the region and were motivated to try to counter it and strengthen their own influence. Khomeini’s seizure of power was itself a revolution in Shiite political thought. The traditional view is that an Islamic regime can’t be established until the return of the twelfth, “missing” imam.

Beforehand, the regime offered him mercy on the condition that he recant his views, but he refused, allegedly telling his sister, “My words will be stronger if they kill me.” He surely was right in that sense, as his ideas have been used by everyone from Khomeini to bin Laden. Khomeini was fond of employing Qutb’s imagery and conceptual arguments: just as Qutb, for example, compared Nasser (whom he viewed as a tyrant) to Pharaoh, Khomeini likened the shah to the biblical Pharaoh, and by his logic whoever challenged the Pharaoh took on the role of Moses. Given Khomeini’s international prominence as the leader of Iran, his use of Qutb’s ideas and arguments gave them wide circulation in the Muslim world. In March 1979, one month after the Iranian revolution, Egypt and Israel signed the peace treaty that formally completed the Camp David Accords of the previous year.

The traditional view is that an Islamic regime can’t be established until the return of the twelfth, “missing” imam. Until then the ideas of Islam can be used to bring about a just society, but not an Islamic state. Khomeini broke with this traditional view, and he justified his actions—over the objections of dissenting clerics—by advocating the doctrine of Velayat-e faqih, or rule of jurisprudence. He argued that religious leaders can be ambassadors of the twelfth imam and therefore can establish an Islamic regime prior to his return. Of course, modern political Islam wasn’t created by Khomeini alone. He drew many of his ideas and religious justifications from Sunni Islamic thinkers, chief among them the Egyptian author and intellectual Sayyid Qutb (1906 –1966). Qutb was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization founded by Hassan al-Banna in 1928, when Banna was a twenty-two-year-old teacher of Arabic.


On the Road: Adventures From Nixon to Trump by James Naughtie

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, obamacare, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, white flight, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

But they found it difficult to escape the caricature of southern outsiders, as when Hamilton Jordan, Carter’s chief of staff, was ridiculed for apparently overindulging at a banquet, peering down the dress of the Egyptian ambassador’s wife and announcing to the table, ‘I can see the pyramids!’ And then came the Iranian hostage crisis. In November 1979, at the height of the revolution that brought Ayatollah Khomeini to power, fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were taken prisoner and held for 444 days. It’s hard to exaggerate the feelings that their ordeal engendered back home – a blend of blazing anger and humiliation. Americans didn’t like the feeling that they were powerless. It produced a tide of patriotism but not one that was helpful to the president. When he addressed the nation in April 1980 to give details of a rescue attempt that had gone wrong – a combination of dust storms and mechanical failures hobbling the helicopters that were meant to get the hostages out, one of them crashing into a tanker aircraft and killing eight US servicemen – it was a humiliating admission of failure.

(‘LBJ’), 6, 40, 54, 97, 174, 200, 215, 264, 266, 270, 273 Johnson, Peggy, 134, 135, 137, 138, 140 Jolson, Al, 18 Jones, Alex, 184–5 Jones, Paula, 119, 123 Jordan, Barbara, 67 Jordan, Hamilton, 70–1 Jovita, Palloma, 287–8 Kaepernick, Colin, 268 Kaiser, Bob, 82 Kasich, John, 181 Katz, Diane, 214 Kavanaugh, Brett, 120, 285 Kaye, Danny, 45, 46 Kemp, Jack, 219 Kennedy, Caroline, 167 Kennedy, Christopher, 76 Kennedy, Edward (‘Ted’), 71–5, 76, 154, 167–8, 200 Kennedy, Ethel, 76 Kennedy, John F. (‘JFK’), 38, 40, 49, 72, 74, 77, 121, 124, 167, 168, 179, 198, 200, 202, 219 Kennedy, Robert F. (‘RFK’), 32, 38, 65, 71, 72, 76 Kennedy, Rose, 76–7 Kerouac, Jack, 6 Kerry, John, 152–3, 154, 163 KGB, 93 Khatami, Mohammad, 131 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 71 Kim Jong-un, 195 King, Carole, 154 King, Martin Luther, 24, 65, 122, 155, 169, 176, 202 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 85 Kissinger, Henry, 57, 59, 64 Klein, Joe, 162 Koch brothers, 120 Kohl, Helmut, 95–6, 97 Kopechne, Mary Jo, 71–2 Kornblum, John, 96 Krauthammer, Charles, 182 Ku Klux Klan, 216 Lavrov, Sergey, 150 Lee, Christopher, 110 Lee, Robert E., 172, 216 Lenin, Vladimir, 279 Leubsdorf, Carl, 34–6, 51 Levinson, Sanford, 283–4 Lewinsky, Monica, 119, 120, 121, 123, 261 Lewis, Jerry, 12, 15 Lieberman, Joe, 170 Life, 73 Lincoln, Abraham, 2–3, 41, 66, 120, 134, 194, 256, 260 Lincoln Memorial, 78, 169 Loeb, William, 180 Los Angeles Times, 55, 76 Louisiana Purchase, 240 Lowell, Robert, 6 McBain, Ed, 6 McCain, John, 167, 169–74, 181, 200–1 McCarthy, Eugene, 259 McCarthy, Joe, 38 McGovern, George, 54, 64, 180, 212 McHutchon, Graham, 116–17 Macintyre, Ben, 93 McPherson, James, 6 McQuaid, Joe, 180–1 Mailer, Norman, 6, 42, 293 Major, John, 117, 121 Making of the President (White), 74 Manafort, Paul, 183 Manchester Union-Leader, 180, 195 Marcia (cousin), 46–7 M*A*S*H, 45 Mason, Jackie, 15 Meadows, Chris, 209 Medina Ridge, Battle of, 111 Meese, Ed, 83 Melville, Herman, 297 mental health, 124, 269 Meyer, Christopher, 132 Milosevic, Slobodan, 130, 203–4 Miranda, Lin-Manuel, 293 MI6, 93 Mitchell, John, 52 Mitchell, Joseph, 29–31 Mondale, Walter, 67, 68, 88–9, 90–1 Mosey, Roger, 109 Mudd, Roger, 72, 73 Mueller, Robert, 184, 188, 195, 205, 221, 284, 289–90 Murdoch, Rupert, 100 Muskie, Ed, 180 Muti, Riccardo, 251 Nagin, Ray, 236 National Enquirer, 179, 198 National Governors Association, 87 National Press Building, 55 National Review, 98, 150 Naughtie, Andrew (son), 251, 300 Naughtie, Ellie (wife), 110–11, 300 Naughtie, Flora (daughter), 111 Naughtie, James: in Chicago, 80, 155, 158, 220, 221–52, 222 education of, 36–8 first arrives in US, 7, 9–33 first Thanksgiving of, 47 Greyhound travel of, 6–7, 11, 23, 34, 50 indentures of, 63 Leadership series of, see America’s Crisis of Leadership literary nature of, 6, 37, 52 in New Orleans, 23, 25, 222, 222–42 as Stern Fellow, 78–80 taco incident involving, 68–9 NBC, 74, 177 Negroponte, John, 151 neoconservatism, 129–31, 144, 149, 182 New York Post, 32 New York Times (NYT), 38, 54, 55, 76, 94, 104, 107, 176, 211 New Yorker, 29, 42, 120 Newhouse School of Communications, 42, 45 Newsday, 55 Newsome, Hawk, 216, 217 Newsweek, 162 Nichopoulos, George (‘Dr Nick’), 244, 245 Nightline, 102 Nixon, Richard, 5, 34, 35, 38–41, 43–4, 49–58, 65, 69, 79, 103, 124–5, 164, 183, 200, 294, 295 Ford pardons, 61 impeachment trial of, 265–6 resigns as US president, 59, 218 Watergate scandal, see main entry Norquist, Grover, 145–6 Novak, Phil, 45 Nunes, Devin, 291 Obama, Barack, 154–6, 160, 162–76, 183, 190–1, 193, 196, 199, 217, 231, 255, 287 becomes POTUS, 157–8, 168, 256–8 Obama, Michelle, 166, 193 Obamacare, 175, 178, 201, 205, 241 Observer, The, 76 ‘October Surprise’, 86 oil crises, 50, 69–70 Oklahoma bombing, 185 O’Neill, Terry, 183, 184 O’Neill, Tip, 94 optimism, 3, 4, 33, 60–1, 67, 154, 159, 168, 172, 251, 293 O’Rourke, Beto, 267–70, 272, 274 Oslo Accords, 114–15 Osnos, Peter, 82 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 179, 219 Palestine, 80, 114–15, 146 Palin, Sarah, 170–1, 175 Parker, Dorothy, 29 Parnas, Lev, 291 PBS, 38 Peel, John, 155 Perle, Richard, 144–5 Perot, Ross, 114 Pew Research Center, 237 philanthropy, 36, 183, 194, 236, 238, 259 Pick, Hella, 57 Pilgrim Fathers, 27, 133–4, 280 Plain Dealer, 55 Poirier, Dan, 135, 136 populism, 4, 118, 119, 152, 175, 180, 185, 193, 211–12, 260, 263, 266, 283, 296 Posner, Richard, 135 Powell, Gen.


pages: 489 words: 111,305

How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, land reform, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

The press also began passionately denouncing human rights violations that previously didn’t reach the threshold of their attention. By the time we invaded Panama in December 1989, the press had demonized Noriega, turning him into the worst monster since Attila the Hun. (It was basically a replay of the demonization of Qaddafi of Libya.) Ted Koppel was orating that “Noriega belongs to that special fraternity of international villains, men like Qaddafi, Idi Amin and the Ayatollah Khomeini, whom Americans just love to hate.” Dan Rather placed him “at the top of the list of the world’s drug thieves and scums.” In fact, Noriega remained a very minor thug—exactly what he was when he was on the CIA payroll. In 1988, for example, Americas Watch [a US-based human-rights monitoring organization] published a report on human rights in Panama, giving an unpleasant picture. But as their reports—and other inquiries—make clear, Noriega’s human rights record was nothing remotely like that of other US clients in the region, and no worse than in the days when Noriega was still a favorite, following orders.

By 1982, it was public knowledge that Israel was providing a large part of the arms for Iran—you could read it on the front page of the New York Times. In February 1982, the main Israeli figures whose names later appeared in the Iran/Contra hearings appeared on BBC television [the British Broadcasting Company, Britain’s national broadcasting service] and described how they had helped organize an arms flow to the Khomeini regime. In October 1982, the Israeli ambassador to the US stated publicly that Israel was sending arms to the Khomeini regime, “with the cooperation of the United States…at almost the highest level.” The high Israeli officials involved also gave the reasons: to establish links with elements of the military in Iran who might overthrow the regime, restoring the arrangements that prevailed under the Shah—standard operating procedure. As for the Contra war, the basic facts of the illegal North-CIA operations were known by 1985 (over a year before the story broke, when a US supply plane was shot down and a US agent, Eugene Hasenfus, was captured).

See also India Kennan, George on exploiting Africa on Indonesia Niebuhr revered by on police repression in the Third World on post-WWII foreign policy on Russian political power Kennedy administration Alliance for Progress Cuba campaign of Latin American policy of Vietnam War escalation during Kennedy, John F. business supported by CIA and as cult figure policy not affected by assassination of South Vietnam bombed by Kennedy liberals Kentucky Fried Chicken Kenya Kerala. See also India Kerry, John Keynesian economics Keynes, John Maynard Khiyam Khmer Rouge Khomeini regime Killing Fields Kirkpatrick, Jean Kissinger, Henry as “aristocrat,” on Chile as a “virus,” Chile destroyed by CIA and speaking truth to, as senseless Vietnam War and Knesset Knox, Henry Kofsky, Frank Kohen, Arnold Kolb, Eugene Kolko, Gabriel Koop, Everett Koppel, Ted Korea, US intervention after WWII. See also South Korea Korry, Edward Korsch, Karl Kosovo KPFA (radio, Berkeley) Krugman, Paul Kurds Kuwait invasion of Iraqi issues with labor.


Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

The Boston Globe had an editorial in which they praised the jury for having the courage, finally, to shut these guys up—by enforcing a law that gives the state the power to determine truth, and to punish deviation from it. 12 When the Globe started screaming about the Rushdie affair, I sent the editors a copy of that editorial and asked them if they would like to rethink it; well, I haven’t heard anything yet. … And you know, you didn’t have Susan Sontag [American writer] getting up in public and saying, “I am Ernst Zundel,” all this kind of thing. The point is, you defend freedom of speech when it’s speech you like, and when you’re sure there’s a half-billion Western Europeans out there between you and the Ayatollah Khomeini so you can be courageous [the Iranian leader put a $6 million price on Rushdie’s head in 1989]. But when you get to a case where nobody likes what’s being said, then somehow defense of freedom of speech disappears. Well, you couldn’t have a law like that in the United States anymore, but you can have it in Canada—and American intellectuals basically support it, like the liberal Boston Globe, the New York Times, the P.E.N, writers [an organization that promotes free expression for writers] who don’t get excited.

The big industrialists in Germany did not want a war with the West—but by then it was too late. Now, I don’t want to say that this is Nazi Germany, but there is a similarity—just as there’s a similarity to post-Khomeini Iran. I mean, Iranian business strongly opposed the Shah [the Iranian monarch who ruled the country until 1979], because they didn’t like the fact that he controlled the state monopolies, especially the National Iranian Oil Company—and as a result they wanted to see him overthrown, and they needed somebody to do it. Well, the only forces they could appeal to were the movements in the streets, and those guys were being organized by fundamentalist clerics. So as a result they overthrew the Shah alright, but they also got Khomeini and all these fundamentalist maniacs running around, which they didn’t like. Well, something similar has been happening in the United States and people are worried about it.

The only question you can’t answer is how the population is going to react as they get slammed in the face—and they are getting slammed in the face. One way it could go would be like the building of the C.I.O. [an integrated mass union formed in 1935], or the Civil Rights and feminist movements, or the Freedom Rides [whites and blacks rode buses together into the American South in 1961 to challenge segregation laws]. Other ways it could go would be Nazism, Khomeini’s Iran, Islamic fundamentalism in Algeria—those are all ways people could go too. But the country is very disturbed. You can see it in polls, and you can certainly see it traveling around—and I travel around a lot. There’s complete disaffection about everything. People don’t trust anyone, they think everyone’s lying to them, everyone’s working for somebody else. The whole civil society has completely broken down.


Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

active measures, American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

Again, it does not follow from the fact that the threat was fabricated that it was not believed in some planning circles; in public as in personal life, it is easy to come to believe what it is convenient to believe. The exaggeration of the Russian threat should be understood as an early example of the functioning of the Cold War system by which each superpower exploits the threat of the great enemy (its “Great Satan,” to borrow Ayatollah Khomeini’s term) to mobilize support for actions it intends to undertake in its own domains. The success of the Greek counterinsurgency campaign, both at the military and ideological level, left its stamp on future U.S. policymaking. Since that time there has been recurrent talk about Russia’s attempts to gain control of Middle East oil, the Soviet drive to the Gulf, etc. But no serious case has been made that the USSR would risk nuclear war—for that would be the likely consequence—by pursuing any Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Origins of the “Special Relationship” 65 such objective.

Since Israeli troops pulled out of West Beirut at the end of September, 17 Israelis had been killed and more than 90 wounded (not considering the building collapse in Tyre in which 76 Israelis were killed, allegedly as a result of a gas leak). The incidents are increasing in intensity, with half of the casualties since December 1, and 13 incidents in the first week of January 1983. “The perpetrators are reportedly Palestinians infiltrating back into south Lebanon, Lebanese leftists, as well as, in one case, Lebanese Shiite Muslim adherents of Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini.”286 Hirsh Goodman reports that “the IDF is conducting live fire patrols…to ensure that no terrorists are waiting in ruins or in orchards along the way”—that is, shooting randomly as they drive along Lebanese roads in what is called “defense against terrorism” by occupying armies.287 The U.S. marine commander in Lebanon criticized this “reconnaissance by fire” in the southern Beirut sector patrolled by his troops.

In an interview with the Boston Globe, Israeli Ambassador Moshe Arens, now Sharon’s replacement as Defense Minister, stated that Israel had provided arms to the Khomeini regime “in coordination with the U.S. government…at almost the highest of levels.” “The objective,” he stated, “was to see if we could not find some areas of contact with the Iranian military, to bring down the Khomeini regime.” Publication of this report elicited official U.S. government denials, and as Arens told the Globe: “I caught a little flack from the State Department.” Arens then reiterated his statement about coordination with the U.S. government, but qualified the account of the “objective”: the arms flow was too small to bring down the Khomeini regime; rather, “The purpose was to make contact with some military officers who some day might be in a position of power in Iran.”22 More information on Israeli ideas with regard to Iran was presented in a BBC program of February 1982 concerned with Israel’s arms shipments to Iran and what the moderator, Philip Tibenham, calls “one of the most closely-guarded secrets in the Middle East—Israel’s attempt to trigger a military coup in Iran.”23 The first person interviewed was Jacob nature of this alliance was revealed in part after the Shah’s fall by discussion in the Israeli press, particularly, the account by former Israeli Ambassador Uri Lubrani, who reports that “the entire upper echelon of the Israeli political leadership” visited the Shah’s Iran, including David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir, Abba Eban, Yitzhak Rabin, Yigal Allon, Moshe Dayan, and Menachem Begin, and who describes the warm relations that developed between Israel’s Labor leaders and the Shah’s secret police (SAVAK), who hosted these visits, taking time off from torturing prisoners.24 Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Road to Armageddon 771 Nimrodi, head of Mossad (the Israeli CIA, in effect) in Iran under cover as Israeli military attaché under the Shah.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Of course, virtual governance done remotely would never be anything but a last resort (surely, the distance would alter how accountable and credible the government would appear to its citizens), and certain preconditions must be in place for such a system to work, including fast, reliable and secure networks; sophisticated platforms; and a fully connected population. No state would be ready to do this today—Somalia least of all—but if countries can begin building such systems now, they will be ready when they are needed. The potential for remote virtual governance might well affect political exiles. Whereas public figures living outside their homelands once had to rely on back channels to stay connected—the Ayatollah Khomeini famously relied on audiocassette tapes recorded in Paris and smuggled into Iran to spread his message in the 1970s—there are a range of faster, safer and more effective alternatives today. In the future, political exiles will have the ability to form powerful and competent virtual institutions, and thus entire shadow governments, that could interact with and meet the needs of the population at home.

Hormuud https encryption protocols Huawei human rights, 1.1, 3.1 humiliation Hussein, Saddam, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 Hutus Identity Cards Act identity theft identity-theft protection, 2.1, 2.2 IEDs (improvised explosive devices), 5.1, 6.1 IEEE Spectrum, 107n income inequality, 1.1, 4.1 India, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 individuals, transfer of power to Indonesia infiltration information blackouts of exchange of free movement of see also specific information technologies Information and Communications Technologies Authority Information Awareness Office information-technology (IT) security experts infrastructure, 2.1, 7.1 Innocence of Muslims (video), 4.1, 6.1 innovation Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, n insurance, for online reputation integrated clothing machine intellectual property, 2.1, 3.1 intelligence intelligent pills internally displaced persons (IDP), 7.1, 7.2 International Criminal Court, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2 internationalized domain names (IDN) International Telecommunications Union Internet, 2.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 Balkanization of as becoming cheaper and changing understanding of life impact of as network of networks Internet asylum seekers Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) internet protocol (IP) activity logs internet protocol (IP) address, 3.1, 3.2, 6.1 Internet service provider (ISP), 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 7.1 Iran, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1 cyber warfare on “halal Internet” in Iraq, itr.1, 3.1, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2 Ireland iRobot Islam Israel, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 iTunes Japan, 3.1, 6.1n, 246 earthquake in Jasmine Revolution JavaOne Conference Jebali, Hamadi Jibril, Mahmoud Jim’ale, Ali Ahmed Nur Join the Club: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World (Rosenberg), 4.1 Joint Tactical Networking Center Joint Tactical Radio System Julius Caesar justice system Kabul Kagame, Paul, 7.1, 7.2 Kansas State University Karzai, Hamid Kashgari, Hamza Kaspersky Lab Kenya, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2 Khan Academy Khartoum Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Kickstarter kidnapping, 2.1, 5.1 virtual Kinect Kissinger, Henry, 4.1, 4.2 Kiva, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Klein, Naomi, n Kony 2012, 7.1 Koran Koryolink “kosher Internet,” 187 Kosovo Kurds, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Kurzweil, Ray Kyrgyzstan Laârayedh, Ali Lagos language translation, 1.1, 4.1, 4.2 laptops Latin America, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 law enforcement Law of Accelerating Returns Lebanon, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Lee Hsien Loong legal options, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns legal prosecution Lenin, Vladimir Levitt, Steven D.


pages: 443 words: 125,510

The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities by John J. Mearsheimer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, Clive Stafford Smith, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal world order, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Peace of Westphalia, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs

This is not to deny that during the Cold War the United States sometimes successfully interfered in the politics of minor countries. But even some of those successes came back to haunt American leaders. For example, the 1953 coup in Iran that put the shah back in power gave the United States an important ally for about twenty-five years. But it poisoned relations between Tehran and Washington after the shah was toppled in 1979 and Ayatollah Khomeini came to power. Indeed, memories of the 1953 coup continue to mar relations today, more than sixty years later. And that was a success! As Lindsey O’Rourke shows, most U.S. coup attempts did not even achieve their short-term goals.14 American interventions could also prove remarkably costly for the target states. The number of citizens of other countries killed by the United States and its allies during the Cold War is stunning.15 Worst of all, these interventions were unnecessary.

See Islamic State (ISIS) Islamic State (ISIS), 141, 165–66, 230 Israel, 106, 185, 202 Italy, 146 Jackson, Robert, 93, 97 Janowitz, Morris, 72 Japan, 88, 171 Japanese Americans, imprisonment of, 182 Jews, 256n25 Johnson, James Turner, 221 Johnson, Lyndon B., 69 justice: basis of, 25 fairness as, 66 global, 127–28 just war theory, 113, 203, 221, 292n1 Kaczynski, Ted (Unabomber), 34 Kagame, Paul, 113–14 Kant, Immanuel, 57, 61, 112, 151, 190, 196 Kargil War, 195 Karzai, Hamid, 165 Kennan, George, 177 Keohane, Robert, 211–13 Kerry, John, 178 Keyssar, Alexander, 73 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 225 Khrushchev, Nikita, 132 Kinzer, Stephen, 231–32 Kissinger, Henry, 156 Klosko, George, 63 Korean War, 294n15 Kramnick, Isaac, viii–ix, 57 Kristol, Irving, 27 Kuwait, 209 Kymlicka, Will, 104 laissez-faire, 46, 50, 56, 68, 70 Lampert, Lawrence, 240n28 language: nation-building through, 102 and nationhood, 88 Lasswell, Harold, 39 Lavrov, Sergei, 174 law, disagreements over, 25–27 Layne, Christopher, 154, 202 League of Nations, 81, 131 legal realism, 25 Levy, Jack, 207 liberal hegemony: American embrace of, 4–6, 122, 139, 153, 160–61, 177–78, 217–18, 227–30, 235n2 British embrace of, 139, 153, 160–61 contexts for, 1–2, 122, 139, 151 costs of, 233 defined, viii diplomacy hindered by, 156–58 domestic liberalism harmed by, 179–85, 233 elites and, 129–30 failure of, viii, 1–3, 122, 140–43, 151, 162–79, 186–88, 233 geographic constraints on, 268n25 goals of, viii, 1, 120, 127–28 intolerance demonstrated by, 157–58 militarism and war resulting from, 152–56, 179, 220–21 missionary zeal propelling, 152, 154–55, 219 negative consequences of, 2, 152–87, 218–20, 233 peace as motivation for, 121, 124–26, 154, 188–216 political instability resulting from, 162–79 the public and, 129–30 rationale for, 1–2, 120–21, 123–30 rights as important concern of, 1–2 liberal idealism, 10–11, 76–81 liberal institutionalism, 6, 189–90, 210–16 liberalism, 45–81 and community, 124 core features of, 6–7, 47–54 criticisms of, 82–83, 107–8 (see also international politics not amenable to) damages to, from liberal hegemony, 179–85, 233 defining, 8–12, 235n1 democracy in relation to, 11 domestic vs. international contexts for, 11–12 economics in, 51 as elite vs. popular point of view, 129 foreign policy based on, 5 freedom from viewpoint of, 9 good life from viewpoint of, 7, 54 historical context for, 113 human nature from viewpoint of, 7, 33, 82, 107, 241n40 individualism as core premise of, 7, 8, 33, 47, 82, 123, 241n40 and international economy, 127–28, 143 and international institutions, 127–28, 142–43 international politics not amenable to, 3, 11–12, 137–40, 188–89 intolerance of, 53, 63, 110 liberal idealism compared to, 10, 76–81 limits of, 82–83 maintenance of order by, 48–53 modus vivendi liberalism vs. progressive liberalism, 9–10, 45–46, 65–68 nationalism in relation to, 3–4, 82, 84, 102–8, 118, 125–26, 244n14 nationalism’s chief differences from, 102–3 opposition to, 142 paradoxes of, 53–54, 110 particularism of, 53–54, 110 politics’ role in, 51–52, 67–68 prevalence of, 104, 114 realism in relation to, 1–4, 122, 130–31, 137–39, 171–72, 178–79, 188–89 reason as core premise of, 47–48 rights as key concern of, 3, 8–9, 53–54, 65–66, 82–83, 107–16 safeguards of, 117–19 and sovereignty, 126, 158, 160–61 state’s role in, 9–10, 49–50, 55–56, 67, 68 threats to, 60–61, 64, 116–17 tolerance as value of, 9, 48–50, 53–54, 58, 62–63 Trump’s criticisms of, 230 of United States, 104, 235n1 universalism of, 53–54, 123 utilitarianism compared to, 10, 74–76 vulnerabilities of, 53, 126–27.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

Because we have not increased the nuclear component of our energy mix for more than thirty years, as our total energy demand grew we came to rely all the more heavily on fossil fuels—coal, crude oil, and natural gas. The year 1979 proved crucial for energy and the environment for other reasons as well. The cost of oil skyrocketed that year as did oil’s toxic geopolitical consequences. The sequence of events began in January 1979, with the overthrow of the shah of Iran and the subsequent takeover in Tehran by Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers. Months later, on November 20, 1979, the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was seized by violent Sunni Muslim extremists, who challenged the religious credentials of the Saudi ruling family. After retaking the mosque, the panicked Saudi rulers responded by forging a new bargain with their own Muslim fundamentalists, which went like this: “Let us stay in power and we will give you a free hand in setting social norms, veiling women, curtailing music, restricting relations between the sexes, and imposing religious education.

Johnson, Scott Johnston, Michael Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint U.S.-China Collaboration on Clean Energy Jordan, Michael JPMorgan Chase Justice Department, U.S. K Kaiser, Robert G. Kaiser Family Foundation Kannan Katz, Lawrence Keillor, Garrison Kelley, General James Kendrick, Anna Kennan, George Kennedy, David Kennedy, John F. Kennedy Center Honors Kerry, John Kessler, Andy Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Kindle Kinwar, Jishnu Kopp, Wendy Korean War Kosovo Krupp, Fred Kullman, Ellen Kurds Kyl, Jon L Labor Statistics, Bureau of Lamar University Land, Edwin Lane, Anthony Lazer, Hank Learning to Innovate, Innovating to Learn (Wagner) Lee Myung-bak Lehman Brothers Lemmon, Jack Lenin, V. I. Leonhardt, David Lesk, Jeff Lett, Lanair Amaad Levin, Carl Li, Yifan Libya Lieberman, Joseph Li & Fung Limbaugh, Rush Lin, Elisa Bisi Lincoln, Abraham Linux Litan, Robert Liu, David Chienyun Liu, Peggy Liu Xiaobo Liverpool Lizza, Ryan lobbying Long, Russell Long Telegram Los Angeles; public school system Los Angeles International Airport Loveless, Tom Lovins, Amory Lovins, L.


pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

“Right” means “just” in English. Droit is “law” in French. Recht is “authority” in German and Dutch. Diestro is “skillful” in Spanish.) The anti-left bias comes from, or is reflected in, the fact that in the New Testament, the devil sits at God’s left hand, whereas the blessed sit to His right. In Islam, too, left-handedness is a curse—just before the Islamist revolution in Iran in 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeini “proved” that the Shah was cursed by pointing out that his firstborn son was a lefty. And so left-handedness has been routinely discouraged, or even beaten out of people. China and the Netherlands were particularly aggressive in “hand reorientation” until the twentieth century, and until the 1960s in the U.S., elementary school teachers—most famously in Catholic schools—slapped left-handed children for trying to write with their left hands.

For more on the disputed effects of left-handedness on human health, see Nicole Frehsee, “All Is Not Right in the World of the Lefty,” Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel, October 29, 2005. For more on Southpaw earnings, see Joel Waldfogel, “Sinister and Rich,” Slate, August 16, 2006. The discussion of lateralization of the brain among animals comes from Amanda Onion, “The Left-Handed Advantage,” ABC News, February 17, 2005. For more on the religious heritage of left-handedness as sin, including the Ayatollah Khomeini reference, see “All Is Not Right in the World of the Lefty,” cited above; and Kathleen Laufenberg, “For Centuries, Being Left-Handed Was More than Just Inconvenient,” Tallahassee Democrat, January 29, 2002. The UCLA study is K. Hugdahl, et al., “Left-Handedness and Old Age: Do Left-Handers Die Earlier?,” Neuropsychologia, Vol. 4, 1993, pp. 325–33, cited in Thomas H. Maugh II, “Lefties Don’t Die Young After All, Study Reports,” Los Angeles Times, April 4, 1993.


pages: 466 words: 127,728

The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jitney, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

As typically happens at such gatherings, there was downtime for drinks and getting to know the other guests. During one such break, I chatted with the head of one of the largest institutional portfolios in the world. He asked me about my career, and I recounted my early days at Citibank on assignment in Karachi. That had been in the 1980s, not long after the shah of Iran had been deposed in the Iranian Revolution. Grand Ayatollah Khomeini became Supreme Leader and declared Iran to be an Islamic Republic guided by principles of sharia or Islamic law. This shift in Iranian governance placed pressure on Pakistan to burnish its own Islamic credentials. Pakistani president Zia-ul-Haq issued religious ordinances, including one that prohibited banks from charging interest on loans, something forbidden by sharia. Citibank had major operations in Pakistan.

-Iran financial war, 54–58 Iraq, 153 Ireland, 128, 200 iron rice bowl principle, 93 “Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Cyclical Investment” (Bernanke), 84, 85 ISI (Pakistani intelligence), 36–37 Israel, 156 Italy, 128 Jamaica compromise, 235–36 Japan, 82, 157–62 debt-to-GDP ratio of, 159, 259, 261 deflation in, 160–61, 260–62, 264 Federal Reserve’s easy-money policy and, 157–59 gold-to-GDP ratio of, 157, 281 IMF commitment of, 202 quantitative easing in, 160–61 secret gold acquisitions by, 273–74 Jin Dynasty, 90 Johnson, Lyndon, 7–8, 209 Jordan, 152, 153 JPMorgan Chase, 205 Kazakhstan, 151 Kelton, Stephanie, 168 Keynes, John Maynard, 7, 131, 134, 168, 207, 244 Keynesianism, 69, 124, 130–31, 193–94 Khan, Kublai, 90 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 30 Kindleberger, Charles, 84 King Dollar (sound-dollar) policy, 118, 176–77, 210, 211 Knight, Frank H., 85, 268, 269 Knight Capital computer debacle, 60, 63, 296–97 Knot, Klaas, 233 Korea, 202 Kos, Dino, 272–73 Kosovo, 136 Krugman, Paul, 117–18 on myth of Chinese growth, 94, 95, 96 myth that gold caused market panics and, 224 sticky-wage theory and, 124, 131, 134 Kuroda, Haruhiko, 161 Kuwait, 152, 153 Kyrgyzstan, 151 labor-capital factor input model of economic growth, 94–95 labor-management relations, 123–24 labor mobility, 125 Lagarde, Christine, 144, 148, 191, 192, 194–95, 198, 205, 206 land, as investment, 299 Lao Tzu, 90 Latvia, 136.


pages: 444 words: 127,259

Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Y Combinator

With thinning hair balancing a thick brow line and a full, steeply-bridged nose, Khosrowshahi was handsome, charming, even cool. Like someone’s dad, who also happened to look good while wearing black skinny jeans. Westerners often found his Persian surname tricky; everyone ended up calling him “Dara.” Khosrowshahi’s family fled Tehran in the late ’70s in the midst of the revolution that brought the Ayatollah Khomeini to power, escaping to the south of France before eventually settling in Tarrytown, New York. His parents, trying to usher their sons into American culture as painlessly as possible, enrolled young Dara and his two brothers at Hackley, a K–12 private prep school in the area, where they quickly assimilated. Khosrowshahi worked hard in high school to gain entry into the Ivy League. “There’s this chip you have on your shoulder as an immigrant that drives you,” he later said of his childhood.

Uber, 338–41 tries to rally shareholders, 301–2 Trump’s business advisory council and, 203, 204, 210–12, 221, 224, 254 Trump’s election and, 201–3 on Uber’s board, 79–80 at UCLA, 20–22 vision for Uber, 85 voting power of, 287 writes letter of apology to his employees, 265–66 Zimride and, 85–86 Kalanick, Travis Cordell, making of a founder, 16–25 Kamel, Fawzi, 237, 240, 308–10, 309n Kapor, Mitch, 284–85 Keitel, Harvey, 45 Kerry, John, 229 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 320 Khosrowshahi, Dara, 319–29, 331–34 Kim, Young Mi, 311n King, Gayle, 194 Klein, Freada Kapor, 284–85 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, 35, 38, 39, 40, 98, 184, 201 Klout, 93, 94 Knowles, Beyoncé, 7–8, 194 Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, 211 Kondaiah, M, 149 Kopelman, Josh, 293 Krafcik, John, 233 Krane, David, 98–101, 99n, 105–6, 283 Kuaidi Dache, 142 Kygo, 7 Lacy, Sarah, 119, 121, 128, 129–30, 150 Lake, Katrina, 285, 335 Larry King Live, 229 Lasky, Mitch, 294 Las Vegas, Nevada, 3, 4, 5–7, 8, 93, 113 Leathern, Rob, 28 Lehman Brothers, 132 Le Méridien hotel, 236 Levandowski, Anthony, 107–10, 180–85, 232–34, 233, 254–56, 260, 278, 333 Lin, Alfred, 92n LinkedIn, 74, 77, 117 Liu, Jean, 202, 258 Livefyre, 46 London, England, 84, 144 Los Angeles, California, 16–25, 84, 128, 144 Lowercase Capital, 288, 289, 293, 297–98 Lucini, Benedetta, 113–14 Lyft, 86n, 115, 132, 134, 137, 166, 177, 201, 211, 224, 248, 257–58 Kalanick’s attitude toward, 86–89, 119–20 Kalanick’s desire to merge with, 186–89 MacDonald, Andrew, 309 Maceo crime family, 66 Macintosh, 35, 37 Macromedia, 26 Maher, Bill, 229 Malaysia, 195 Mao Zedong, 201 Maris, Bill, 106 Martello, Wan-Ling, 276–77, 287 Match.com, 171–72 McCarran International Airport, 5 McCloskey, Melody, 49 McCue, Mike, 92n McKinsey, 132 Melbourne, Australia, 85 Menlo Ventures, 192, 288, 289, 297–98, 301–2 Merrill Lynch, 92, 332 Messina, Chris, 223 Metcalfe, Ben, 117 #MeToo movement, 241–42 Metropolitan Taxicab Commission, 117 Mexico, 172–74 Meza de la Cruz, Esteban, 173 Miami, Florida, 120 company-wide retreats in, 3, 4 Michael, Emil, 92n, 122, 143, 156–58, 162, 202, 226–27, 260, 262, 331, 337 celebrity recruitment and, 193–94, 227 firing of, 272–73 Michael, Emil (continued) gaffe at Waverly event, 127–29 Google and, 105–6 Gurley and, 125–26 Holzwarth and, 249–53 as Kalanick’s secret fundraising weapon, 92–99 Lyft and, 186 Michels, Oren, 193n Microsoft, 39, 69, 77, 115 Milan, Italy, 85, 113–14 Miller, Stephen, 207 MIT, 153 Modolo, Osvaldo Luis, Filho, 174 Mohrer, Josh, 84, 117–18, 130, 133–34, 156, 269 Morgan Stanley, 69 Motion Picture Association of America, 24, 28, 29 Mountain View, California, 105, 183 Mueller, Robert S., 168 Murdoch, Rupert, 295 Musk, Elon, 42, 54, 199 Napster, 21, 24 Nasdaq, 76 National Review, 229 NBC, 131 Nest, 98 Netscape, 35, 69, 69n Nevada, 110, 113 Nevada Department of Motor Vehicles, 182 New Delhi, India, 149–50, 150 News Corp, 295 New York, 113, 115 New York, New York, 84, 113, 126–28, 130, 144–45 popularity of Uber in, 83, 143 success in, 147 Uber offices in, 117–18, 134, 195 New Yorker magazine, 229, 241 New York magazine, 200 New York Police Department (NYPD), 145 New York Taxi Workers Alliance, 206, 208 New York Times, xvii, xix, 24, 55, 131, 199, 202, 332n, 339–40.


pages: 299 words: 89,342

The Places in Between by Rory Stewart

Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, Khyber Pass, out of africa, trade route, upwardly mobile

Zia, the twenty-year-old nephew of the feudal lord Mir Ali Hussein Beg, apologized and said it was only because his castle was unheated, but it seemed to me that visitors usually slept in the mosque. The mosque functioned not only as a chapel and a guesthouse but also as a dining hall, a conference room, and a school. The walls were of scratched mud, stained with grease, dimpled with worm casts and moth holes, and hung with a blackboard and a small embroidery of the Kabaa at Mecca. In Iran there would have been posters of Ayatollah Khomeini, but here there was no government figure to idolize, no father of the nation, no king. Nevertheless, the Beg had clearly spent money on the mosque—it had a felt carpet, three full-length windows, and plaster flowers on the ceiling. As if to confirm the building's secular aspect, three ibex heads with curling three-foot horns hung in the atrium. The ibex, a very large mountain goat, is with the snow leopard the most revered of the Asian mountain animals.

[back] *** 51 It is difficult to generalize about either Shia or Sunni Islam. The dispute was originally over who had been the legitimate successor of the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century. But each sect had gathered its own collection of traditions and practices over fourteen centuries. Some Christian observers saw the Sunnis as the Protestant and the Shia as the Catholic sections of Islam. They pointed to the authority of the ayatollah priests in the Shia tradition and their emotional and colorful penances, their incorporation of local traditions, and their concern with saints and miracles. But others saw the Shia as Protestants: reformers who had returned to the original religion of the Prophet when the earlier Sunni tradition had been corrupted by power. This conflict between the two sects, whatever its theological basis, is an old theme in Afghan history.


pages: 616 words: 189,609

The Dream Machine: The Untold History of the Notorious V-22 Osprey by Richard Whittle

Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Charles Lindbergh, digital map, Donald Trump, helicopter parent, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube

That was where Marine Major James H. Schaefer and fifteen other handpicked U.S. military pilots and copilots found themselves the night of Thursday, April 24, 1980. They were at the controls of eight RH-53D Sea Stallions, a Navy variant of the Sikorsky CH-53 built for minesweeping and equipped with extra fuel tanks. They were churning through a navigator’s nightmare of darkness and dust above Islamic revolutionary Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iran. They were also flying under radio silence, and at gut-wrenchingly low altitudes to avoid radar detection. The Sea Stallions were a crucial element in Operation Eagle Claw, an audacious secret mission of Rubik’s Cube complexity. The mission’s goal was to rescue fifty-three Americans held hostage in Iran over the previous five and a half months, since Islamic radicals had seized the 27-acre U.S.

., 240–43, 280, 286, 287, 301, 302, 303, 318, 314–15, 316, 318, 342, 361, 378, 388 Jones, Warren, 27, 36 JORD (Joint Operational Requirements Document), 91–92, 98, 116, 250 Journal of the American Helicopter Society, 56–57 Joyce, Sean, 214–15, 218–33 Joyce, Yvonne, 215, 233 Judge Advocate General Manual (JAGMAN) investigations, 321–24 JVX (Joint Services, Vertical Lift and Experimental), 7–8, 14, 88–106, 136–67 Army’s withdrawal from, 137–42, 144–45, 161, 177 Bell-Boeing contract bid for, 7–8, 14, 20, 103–4, 116, 117, 119, 137, 146 Blot as program manager of, 154, 155–59, 161 Congressional funding of, 92–95, 99, 101, 102–3, 137, 138 cost of, 98, 129, 132 design competition for, 98, 101–4 financing of, 97, 99, 101, 104 long lead items in, 183–84 new engine design for, 150–52 JVX operational requirements, 98, 102, 105–6, 107–116, 131–35, 140, 149, 206–8, 248, 325, 333, 366, 389 airspeed in, 98, 105, 108 altitude in, 98, 112 amphibious assault ship compatibility in, 108, 111, 112–13, 118, 126, 127, 129, 194–95, 327–28 autorotation in, 325, 335 defensive weapons in, 113, 153, 378 electronic gear in, 105, 108, 113 escape clause in, 116 infrared suppressors in, 113, 118 range in, 105, 108, 112, 135, 151, 206, 248 rotor size in, 108, 114, 119, 135 size in, 101, 105, 108, 110–12, 118, 124 survivability in, 113, 132–33, 201, 235–36, 246, 295 weight in, 113, 131–33 wing stow mechanism in, 127 JVX preliminary design, 107–35, 146, 147, 148–49, 164–65, 380 appearance of, 134–35 Composite Flex Ring in, 128–29 composite structures of, 119–22, 125, 126–31, 132, 148, 206, 236, 245–46 configuration of, 117–18 design gross weight in, 113, 114 disk loading of, 114, 166, 195, 327–28 engines of, 114, 118, 132, 133, 135, 150–52, 206, 215, 246 flight controls of, 105, 113, 118, 132–33, 148, 166, 195, 206 fuselage frames and formers of, 132, 245–46 fuselage of, 117, 118, 119, 125, 126, 129, 130, 131, 132, 161–62, 164, 206 honeycomb in, 129–31, 132 H-shaped tail of, 129, 135 hydraulic system of, 133 nacelles of, 118, 126, 133, 135, 151 power lever of, 157–59, 200 proprotor blades of, 108, 112, 113, 117–18, 119, 120, 130, 133, 135, 141 risk reduction studies in, 119, 132 rotor grips of, 120–22, 206 skin of, 119, 125, 130–31, 132 sponsons of, 135 testing of, 104, 119–22, 128, 132 unrealistic requirements for, 107–16, 133–35 weight problem in, 108, 113–15, 118, 119, 120, 126, 129–34, 151, 166, 206, 246 wing of, 135, 246 wing stow mechanism of, 118, 126–29, 132, 138, 206, 246 Kalista, Cliff, 43 Karem, Abraham, 396 Keith, Kelly, 261, 274 Kelley, Bartram, 28–29, 30, 42, 48 Kelley, P. X., 86–88, 91, 99, 138, 141, 154, 156, 160, 163 Kevlar composite, 131 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 60 Khosrowdad, Manuchehr, 47 Kisor, Ronald, 352–53 Klemin, Alexander, 9, 12, 18, 19, 20, 30, 34, 105 Knight Ridder Newspapers, 316 Knott, Sandy, 218, 233 Korean War, 32, 56, 57, 58 Krulak, Charles, 53, 244 Krulak, Victor H., 53 Krupp, Dennis, 305–6 Kurtz, Howard, 303 Lambert, Merrill, 12–13 Lawrence, William S., 73–76, 85–86 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 192 Leader, Gary, 214–15, 218–33 Leberman, Odin “Fred,” 306, 307, 310, 312, 314, 343, 344 LeCloux, Marty, 164, 216, 219, 220 Lehman, John Francis, Jr., 83–85, 87–88, 97, 130, 136–61, 173, 229 appearance of, 84 Army’s threatened withdrawal stopped by, 140–42 background of, 83, 84 Blot appointed by, 155–59 fixed-price FSD contract demanded by, 146–50, 164–65, 238, 333 managerial style of, 84–85 new engine design chosen by, 150–52 “Osprey” name picked by, 136–37 tiltrotor advocated by, 85, 88, 91, 94, 99, 103, 137, 204–5, 377 as XV-15 guest pilot, 83, 100–101 “Young Winston” nickname acquired by, 83–84 Leishman, J.


pages: 454 words: 139,350

Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy by Benjamin Barber

airport security, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, computer age, Corn Laws, Corrections Corporation of America, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, global village, invisible hand, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, pirate software, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, young professional, zero-sum game

But intangible social and political institutions can be deadly.”2 An official of the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance can afford to be less oblique. About satellite programs being beamed in to Teheran, he says: “These programs, prepared by international imperialism, are part of an extensive plot to wipe out our religious and sacred values.”3 With Dynasty, Donahue, Dinky Dog, and The Simpsons being beamed in courtesy of Star TV to compete with what Iranian skeptics call “the man on the balcony” (the late revolutionary leader Ayatollah Khomeini delivering interminable speeches), it is hardly surprising that the Iranian state believes “the satellite is exactly against the honorable Prophet” and is trying to ban the import, manufacture, and use of satellite dishes.4 Jihad has been a metaphor for anti-Western antiuniversalist struggle throughout this book. The question here is whether it is more than just a metaphor in the Muslim culture that produced the term.

Yet none is less susceptible to national constraints or democratic regulatory public goods; none is more wedded to global market imperatives. Indeed, my prediction that Jihad will eventually (if not any time soon) be defeated by McWorld rests almost entirely on the long-term capacity of global information and global culture to overpower parochialism and to integrate or obliterate partial identities. If the choice is ultimately to be (as the French writer Debray has argued) “between the local ayatollah and Coca-cola”11—if “the satellite [TV dish] is exactly against the honorable Prophet, exactly against the Koran”12—the mullahs will lose, because against satellite television and videocassettes they have no long-term defense. Over the long haul, would you bet on Serbian nationalism or Paramount Pictures? Sheik Omar Abdul Rahman or Shaquille O’Neal? Islam or Disneyland? Can religion as a fundamentalist driving force survive its domestication and commodification and trivialization as something akin to a fun fiction?

And if the democratic option sounds utopian as a response to the infotainment telesector with its infectious videology and its invisible electronic fingers curling around human minds and hearts wherever satellite transmissions can be received, think of the alternative: surrender to the markets and thus to the least noble aspirations of human civilization they so efficiently serve; and the shrinking of our vaunted liberty to Regis Debray’s wretched choice between “the local Ayatollah and Coca-Cola.”20 In a nation at war, Abraham Lincoln saw in democracy a last and best hope. On our paradoxical planet today, with nations falling apart and coming together at the same moment for some of the very same reasons, and with cowering national governments and toothless international law hardly able to bark, let alone bite, democracy may now have become our first and only hope. Afterword A YEAR AFTER the publication of Jihad vs.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

The veil, they say, is just another form of feminine attire, available in Istanbul stores in all kinds of colours and styles, with diamanté for the more flamboyantly inclined. The reality, of course, is that promoting the headscarf is part of a wider agenda to limit women’s rights by introducing sharia law in Turkey, achieving gradually what was achieved much more suddenly in Iran after the 1979 Revolution – a backlash against the Shah’s ‘Westoxification’ (gharbzadegi) of Iran, which the Ayatollah Khomeini converted into a drastic sexual counter-revolution.112 Already you can see burqas in the streets of Istanbul, covering their wearers in black from head to foot, leaving them with only a tiny slit to see out of – concealing their identities so totally that in 2010 the French National Assembly voted to prohibit such garments altogether. It is no accident that this sartorial shift has been accompanied by a change in Turkish foreign policy.

H. 103–4 empires see imperialism; individual empires Encümen-i Daniş (Assembly of Knowledge), Ottoman empire 89 Engels, Friedrich 207, 209, 210–11, 228 England 4, 18, 37 China and 47–9 exploration, voyages of 36 France and 23, 24, 39 Industrial Revolution 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70 Ireland and 24, 105, 203n London see London slavery (chattel slavery) in 130, 132 see also Britain; British empire English Civil Wars 104, 105, 106, 107, 115, 150, 152 the Enlightenment 76–9, 81 environmental issues 17, 293–4, 299 Epp, Franz Xavier Ritter von 188–9 Erasmus, Desiderius xxiii Erdely, Eugene 190 Eugene of Savoy, Prince 56 eugenics 176–7 in Germany 176–81, 189–90, 191; in German Namibia 176–81; genocide in 179–80, 188 Euler, Leonard 84 Euphrates river/valley 17 Europe competition between states 36–42 geography 36–7 Islamic envoys to 86–7 US and 16 see also individual countries European integration 14–15, 239 Everett, Edward 137 exploration, voyages of 9, 23, 38 Chinese 28–33, 48 English 36 marine chronometers for 70 as missionary endeavours 39 Portuguese 33–5, 39, 53, 130 Spanish 35–6 Faidherbe, Louis, governor of Senegal 164, 165, 166 fashion/clothing 197–8, 219–20, 225, 237, 246, 255 communist attitude to 249–50 in Japan 220–21, 222, 223, 225 jeans 240–44, 246–9, 250 machine made 217–18, 237 for men 216, 220–21, 230 military uniforms 215–16, 229, 233, 234, 237 for women 216, 220, 246; Islamic 253–5, 253n see also consumerism Fashoda incident, Sudan (1898) 173 Feng Youlan: History of Chinese Philosophy 27 Feraios, Rigas 213 Fermat, Pierre de 66 Ferrier, Thomas 121, 122 Ferry, Jules, Prime Minister of France 172 Fertile Crescent concept 17 film industry 230, 231 Filmer, Sir Robert: Patriarcha 108 financial systems 7, 14, 139 in Asia 7, 252–3, 277–8 banking 230–31 capitalism see capitalism cash nexus concept 206–7 consumer credit 238 in Europe 106–7, 161 markets/market economy 205–6, 276–7 money supply 38 monopolies 38 taxation 38, 44, 106, 107, 117, 210–11, 288 see also economic …; Great Depression First World War (1914–18) 16, 92, 148–9, 181, 182, 227 African colonial troops in 181–9; French 183–7; German 182 casualty figures 181, 183, 186, 187 Dardanelles 85 Gallipoli 91, 182 Rudyard Kipling on 187–8 Fischer, Eugen 180–81, 189 Human Heredity … 189 food see diet food supplies 22, 200–201 famine 44, 46 see also agriculture foreign aid, to Africa 145–6 France 4, 16, 36, 37, 83, 85 American Revolution and 117 Britain and 140, 160, 161, 173 economic crises 149–50, 161 England and 23, 24, 39 the Enlightenment 77–8 in First World War 182–3, 185–7 Huguenots 39, 41, 76 Italy and 159 literacy rates 77 living standards 24–5 the Marseillaise 156, 156n under Napoleon Bonaparte 119, 142, 156–61 Paris 5, 77, 215 property rights 152 Russia and 160 Spain and 119 student unrest 245 see also French … Frauenfeld, Alfred 193 Frederick the Great of Prussia 73–4 The Anti-Machiavel 75, 79–80 as an intellectual 79–80 Political Testaments 73, 80 as a scientific patron 71, 79–80, 84 French army, in First World War 182–3, 185–7 mutiny in 186–7 French empire 148, 159, 160, 195 in Africa 163–75, 176, 188, 190–91; segregation in 174–5 colonial armies 164; in First World War 183–7 Ecole Coloniale 165, 166–7, 172 extent of 144 institutional structure 172–3 legal system 165–6 male suffrage in 163 in North America (Louisiana Purchase) 163, 160–61 slavery, abolition of 163–4 unrest in 163, 175 French Revolution 119, 142, 149–57, 161–2 Edmund Burke on 149, 150–52, 152n, 155, 156 causes of 149–50, 153 Declaration of the Rights of Man 150, 151 executions during 152–3 political system during 152–3 as a religious conflict 151, 152, 153, 154 Rousseau and 151–2 the Terror 153, 155–6 Alexis de Tocqueville on 153–4 see also France … French West Africa 170–71, 174, 191 Freud, Sigmund 16 on civilization 272–3 on religion 270–71, 272 Frisch, Otto 235 Galileo Galilei 65, 66, 83, 84 Galton, Francis 176–7 Kantsaywhere 177n Gandhi, Mahatma 217 on Western civilization 141, 144, 171, 195 on Western medicine 146, 149 Garibaldi, Giuseppe 229 Le Gazetier Cuirassé 79 genocide 179–80, 188, 193, 194, 234 see also eugenics German army, in First World War 182–3, 185–7 colonial troops 182 German empire 144 in Africa 176–81, 188–90, 191; legal system 177, racial issues 176, 177–81; rebellion in 178–9 Nazi, in Eastern Europe 189–90, 191–5 German nationalism 213, 214 Germany 11, 16, 38, 159 division of, post-1945 243; Berlin Wall 249, 251 economic growth/output 231, 232–3 eugenics in 176–81 living standards 232–3 Nazi regime 189–90, 191–5, 231–4; see also Hitler, Adolf as a printing centre 61 Reformation 38 Russia and 192, 194, 231–2 as a scientific centre 175–6 Gibbon, Edward 78 The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 257–9, 291–2 Gide, André 174 Gilbert, William 65 Ginsburg, Allen 247 globalization 239 gold, from South America 99, 101–2, 130 golf 28 Goltz, Colmar Freiherr von de (Goltz Pasha) 91 Gorbachev, Mikhail 250 Göring, Heinrich (father of Hermann Göring) 176, 189 Göring, Hermann 176, 189, 193 Graham, Billy 273–4 Great Britain see Britain Great Depression 229–31 Greece 15, 17, 21 Greek nationalism 213, 228 Greer, Germaine 246 Gregory VII, Pope 60 Grijns, Gerrit 170 Grimm, Hans: People without Space 189 Grosseteste, Robert 60 Guettard, Jean-Etienne 66 Guizot, François xxvii Gutenberg, Johann 60–61 Habsburg empire 8–9, 53, 144 Ottoman empire’s invasion of (1683) 52, 54–7 Vienna, siege of (1683) 52, 53, 55, 57 see also Austria Haiti 120, 128, 160 Hamakari, battle of (1904) 179 Hammond, Mac 275 Hardy, Georges 166 Hargreaves, James 200 Harrison, John 70 Harvey, William 66 Haussmann, Baron Georges 215 Havel, Václav 248–9 Hawaii 144 Hayek, Friedrich von 301 Road to Serfdom 237 health issues 7, 12, 14, 44, 68, 175–6 antibiotics 148 Black Death/plague 4, 23, 25, 54, 169, 175 death 25–6 definition 13 diet and 170 eugenics see eugenics European diseases, spread of 99, 101 hospitals: Islamic 51 medical schools 53 native medicine/healers 171–2 public health 147, 148, 171–2, 177, 205 sanitation 23, 147, 179 tropical diseases 148, 168–70, 173; mortality rate from 168; research on 169–70, 174 vaccination 14, 147, 148, 170, 173, 175 Western medicine, benefits of 146–8, 168–75, 191 witch doctors 171, 172 health transition concept 147–8 Heck, Walter 233 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 159, 207, 212 Helvétius, Adrien 78 Hempel, Carl xx Hendel, Ann Katrin 250 Henry V, King of England 23, 24, 39 Henry VIII, King of England 72, 103–4 Henry the Navigator, King of Portugal 39 Himmler, Heinrich 190, 192, 193–4 Hirohito, Crown Prince of Japan 220, 225–6 Hispaniola (island) 101–2 history teaching of xviii–xx limitations of xx–xxii Hitler, Adolf 189–90, 194, 231 Hossbach memorandum 233 see also Germany, Nazi regime Ho Chi Minh 167 Hobbes, Thomas 24, 73 on liberty 107–8 Hoffmann, Erich 175–6 Hogg, James xxvi Holbach, baron Paul-Henri Thiry d’ 79 homicide rates 24, 25, 105 Hong Kong 105, 169 Hong Xiuquan 279–80 Hooke, Thomas 67, 70 Micrographia 64 How, Millicent (English migrant to South Carolina) 103, 106, 111–12 Hu Jintao 287–8 Huguenots 39, 41, 76 human rights 8 Hume, David 77, 78 Hungary 251 Huntington, Samuel, on Western civilization 15, 16, 312–13 Hus, Jan 61 Hussein, Saddam xvi Hutton, James 66 Ibrahim, Muktar Said 288–9 illiteracy see literacy rates imperialism 8–10, 13, 14, 15, 142–95, 302–3 in Africa 14, 139, 145, 146, 148, 163–75; see also individual countries in America see America … colonial armies/troops 164, 181–9 communications, difficulty of 170–71, 181–2 as conquest 99–102 European diseases spread by 99, 101 growth/decline of 3, 4, 5, 13, 38, 142, 144–5 impact of 8, 45, 46, 144–6, 173–4, 190–95 institutional structures and 103–5 Lenin on 144 as a term of abuse 144, 145 Mark Twain on 144 Western 14, 15, 96–140, 142–95 Western medicine, benefits of to overseas colonies 146–8, 168–75, 191 see also individual empires Inca empire, Spanish conquest of 98, 99–102 income levels see living standards; wages India 5, 9, 17, 36 as British colony 144, 264 China and 29, 32 as independent state 224–5 Portugal and 34, 35, 39 science/technology 11 textile industry 2245 Indian Medical Service 169–70 Indian Ocean 29, 32, 33 Indo-China, as a French colony 167, 191 Indonesia 240 Industrial Revolution 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 198–205 in Britain 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 199–200, 203–5 consumerism, increase caused by 201–2 definition 198–9 spread of 204–5, 225, 264 industrialization 10, 14, 216–18 in China 225, 284, 285 inequality see living standards infant mortality see life expectancy Inoue Kaoru 226 institutional structures 11–14 cultural 77 financial/economic see financial systems imperialism and 103–5, 112, 172–3, 287 of Islamic fundamentalism 288, 289, 290n Islamic 289, 290, 290n Iran 94–5, 255 Ireland 11, 227, 203n England and 24, 105 iron/steel industry 200–201 Islam 3, 8, 9, 16, 60 calligraphy, importance of 68 Europe, envoys sent to 86–7 health issues: hospitals 51; medical schools 53 the Koran 63 population figures 290 printing, attitude to 68, 86 religious conflict 71 in Turkey 253–5 the West and 39, 50–57, 63, 85–90, 255 women’s clothing 253–5, 254n see also Ottoman empire; religious issues Islamic education 51 Islamic fundamentalism 93–5, 93n, 255, 258, 288–91 institutional structure 288, 289, 290n Islamic migration 290, 290n Islamic science/technology 51–7, 264 astronomy 68–9 attitudes to 67–9 Roger Bacon on 52 modernization of 88–9, 92, 94–5 optics 51–2 Israel 92–5, 246–7 Jerusalem 93, 93n, 94 science/technology in 93–4 see also Jews Italian city-states/Italy 4, 25, 28, 159, 182 France and 159 Under Mussolini 228 Naples 26, 159 as a printing centre 63 Rome 17; March on (1922) 228–9 in Second World War 233–4 Venice 38–9 see also Roman empire Italian colonies 144 Italian unification 212–13, 214–15, 228 Iwakura Tomomi 221 Jamaica 120, 123 as a British colony 148 Jansen, Zacharias 65 Japan 5, 9, 42 China and 226, 233, 234 fashion/clothing 220–21, 222, 223, 225 living standards 45–6 modernization of 90, 218, 221–5, 226, 239, 257; internal opposition to 222 Russia and 226 textile industry 223–4 US and 221; in Second World War 233–5 Western influence on 5, 7, 15, 221–5 women in 222 Japanese armed forces 226, 234 Java 170 jeans, as a symbol of consumerism 240–49, 250 Jefferson, Thomas 134 Jerusalem 93, 93n, 94 Jews 3, 76 as entrepreneurs 216–17, 217n, 262n as intellectuals 235, 235n in Palestine 92–3 persecution of 38–9; in Germany 92, 214, 234, 235 Max Weber on 262 see also Israel Jiang Zemin 287 Jiao Yu and Liu Ji: Huolongjing 28 Jirous, Ivan 248 John Paul II, Pope 252 Johnson, Blind Willie 18 Johnson, Samuel 2, 10 Kahn, Albert 196, 196n Kamen, Dean 145n Kant, Immanuel 76, 79, 80–81 Critique of Pure Reason 76 Kara Mustafa Köprülü (‘the black’), Grand Vizier 52, 54–5, 56, 71, 86 Karaca, Nihal Bengisu 254 Kaufman, Henry xvi Kemal, Mustafa see Atatürk, Kemal Kennedy, Paul: The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers 298 Keynes, John Maynard 7, 230, 231, 237 Khan, Dr A. Q. 95 Khomeini, Ayatollah 255 Khrushchev, Nikita 243, 250 King, Jonathan 273n Kipling, Rudyard, on First World War 187–8 Kirsch, Wilhelm 90 Kissinger, Henry 16 Kitchener, Sir Horatio 173 Koch, Erich 193 Koch, Robert 169, 175 the Koran 63 see also Islam Korea 11 Korea, South 239, 240, 306–7 Korean War (1950–53) 235–6, 239 Kraus, Karl 273 Kuhlman, August 179–80 labour market 203, 232, 265 migrant workers 219 trade unions 238–9, 245 unemployment 230–31, 232, 265, 265n women in 224 working hours 265, 277 Labouret, Henri 166 Lafayette, marquis Gilbert de 150 Laigret, Jean 170 land ownership see property rights Landes, David, on Western ascendancy 11 Langton, Christopher 299 Laplace, Pierre-Simon 158n Larkin, Philip 270 Latin America see South America Laud, Archbishop William 106, 107 Lavoisier, Antoine 66 Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van 66 legal systems 8, 12, 124 in Britain 202–3 definition 13 in French colonies 165–6 in German colonies 177 Napoleonic 159–60 property rights see property rights racial laws 134–6 in Russia 244 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 65, 66, 70, 78, 80 on China 46 Leipzig, battle of (1813) 160 Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 227, 228 on imperialism 144 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor 54, 55 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor 155 Lettow-Vorbeck, General Paul Emil von 188 Leuthen, battle of (1757) 82–3 Leutwein, Theodor 176 Levi jeans 241–3, 244 Lewis, C.


pages: 530 words: 154,505

Bibi: The Turbulent Life and Times of Benjamin Netanyahu by Anshel Pfeffer

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, different worldview, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, high net worth, illegal immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Obama, impervious to criticism from Washington’s foreign policy establishment for having “tarnished America’s credibility” in the Middle East, would be sucked back into Syria a year later, when the Islamic State, a group he had dismissed as “a jayvee team,” began beheading Western hostages. All that, however, was in the future as Obama tuned out the foreign policy “experts” and Netanyahu, focusing his efforts instead on reaching a deal with Iran. In June 2013, a new Iranian president, Hassan Rouhani, had been elected. Rouhani was a member of the clerical class that had been behind Ayatollah Khomeini’s Islamic Revolution in 1979, but, unlike his predecessor as president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who had led an outwardly hardline attitude toward the world, the Western-educated Rouhani projected a more flexible image. Netanyahu, in both public appearances and in conversations with other Western leaders, tried in vain to convince his interlocutors that Rouhani and his new government were simply a more user-friendly face of the same extreme regime, and that the real power in Tehran still resided with Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC).

Nothing was further away from his thinking than a third war. Obama instead believed he could engage with the Shi’a Iranian regime, even partner with it in “balancing” Sunni extremism. On the campaign trail, Obama had said he would reach out to the Iranian people and their leaders. With the rabidly anti-Western president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in office in Iran, that seemed impossible, but, undeterred, Obama sent Iran’s supreme leader, the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, a personal letter in May 2009 in the hope of opening a dialogue. A month later, Khamenei referred to the letter in a speech in Tehran, citing it as proof that the United States and other foreign powers had interfered in Iran’s presidential election. It was a baseless accusation as far as Obama was concerned. Not only had the United States done nothing to interfere in the June 12 election, but after thousands of Iranians took to the streets to protest widespread fraud during the vote-counting in favor of Ahmadinejad, defying the Basij paramilitary forces who fired on the crowds, killing dozens, and the mass detentions and torture of thousands, it took Obama ten days to condemn the Iranian government’s actions.


pages: 333 words: 86,662

Zeitgeist by Bruce Sterling

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, informal economy, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, jitney, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, new economy, offshore financial centre, rolodex, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Y2K

Los Angeles, California, was the entertainment capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Once upon a time, in the distant royal 1970s, Iran had possessed a Westernized pop culture rather similar to Turkey’s. Iran had nightclub music on vinyl, punch-’em-up black-and-white action adventure movies, belly dancing on TV, quavering male heartthrob pop singers, and so forth. This pop scene had all been scraped painfully off the face of the country and flung overseas by Khomeini. The Ayatollah had installed a fifteen-year pop-music regimen, exclusively consisting of martial songs and folk hymns. However, Iran’s numerous exiles still required something to play on the stereo and watch on TV. There were a million Iranian emigrés, scattered all over the planet. Germany, Turkey, Britain, and Sweden all had extensive communities, but Los Angeles boasted an Iranian contingent that was eighty thousand strong.

“Leggy, I need to be bigger than this. A big star for the whole wide world. Super big. Huge. I want to be a monster.” “You know what that means, right, Betsy?” “Yeah, it probably means I die young, fat, hooked, and stupid. But let me tell you something. I’ve been around the block with G-7. I just got off a pop tour through half of fuckin’ Islam. I’ve seen these solemn sons of bitches in their Ayatollah beards. I went eyeball to eyeball with them. I know what they mean. They are fuckin’ medieval. They’re a bunch of friggin’ tribal morons. There’s not room enough in the world for me and them. If I’m gonna be all I can be, those fuckin’ losers have got to shut up shop and go.” She tossed her cigarette into the Bosphorus. “It’s not half enough just to nuke ’em—they’ve got to lose everything they believe.


The Despot's Accomplice: How the West Is Aiding and Abetting the Decline of Democracy by Brian Klaas

Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, citizen journalism, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global pandemic, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Skype, Steve Jobs, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

The regime, on the other hand, used Twitter to great effect. â•… In December 2009, during the Green Movement protests, a proregime website published a series of photos, with the faces of certain undesirables circled in red. Using Internet-based crowdsourcing, at 166 THE NEW BATTLEGROUND least forty people were arrested, showing that despotic regimes can use the web to request popular involvement, rather than fearing it or trying to shut it down. Then, the regime disseminated a video online that had possibly been altered, showing Green Movement protesters burning the image of Ayatollah Khomeini, a clear attempt to divide the opposition against itself. This move demonstrated the regime’s ability to use social media for misinformation campaigns to great effect. â•… Furthermore, Iranians living abroad received anonymous messages on social media warning them that if they posted about the protests online, their families might be harmed. Such a tactic would have been unthinkable in past decades; it’s hard to imagine the Iranian government sending out similar messages on official letterhead.

., 138 Development Assistance Committee (DAC), 58 Devlin, Larry, 43 Diamond, Larry, 171 Dictator’s Learning Curve, The (Dobson), 210 digital communications, 49, 125, 161–75, 207, 208, 221, 223 Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA), 48 direct democracy, 28–9 disabled rights, 141, 144 disinformation, 207–8 Dobson, Will, 210 “Don’t Forget Me” (GooGoosha), 140 Dubai, 82 Duékoué, Côte d’Ivoire, 105 Dulles, Alan, 41 Durack, Western Australia, 29–30 Duvalier, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc”, 114 Ebola, 184 echo chamber effect, 165 Egypt, 6, 9–10, 13–16, 27, 88, 155, 163–4, 225 1987 US aid payments begin, 14 2001 EU Association Agreement, 155 2008 Afifi exiled to US, 163 2009 Clinton describes Mubaraks as ‘friends of my family’, 6; Obama’s Cairo speech, 9–10, 218 2011 Tahrir Square protests begin, 10, 13, 163–4; Mubarak ousted, 13, 164 2012 Morsi elected president, 14; anti-Morsi demonstrations begin, 164, 247 2013 coup d’état; el-Sisi comes to power, 14–16, 88, 164; Saudi Arabia announces aid package, 15 Eid al-Kabir, 124 Eisenhower, Dwight David, 38, 43 elections campaign finance, 185–8, 238 foreign aid/intervention, 97–110, 143 “free and fair”, 8, 14, 88–90, 102, 159, 193 gerrymandering, 180–5, 188, 251 grade inflation, 88–9, 158, 159 inclusivity, 24, 129–31, 221 observation/monitoring, 8, 65, 81, 83–4, 88–90, 102, 158–9, 173–4, 178, 211, 223 polling, 174–6 respect for, 5, 37–48 rigging of, 22–3, 34, 61, 63–4, 70–1, 83–5, 87, 112, 158–9, 166, 210–11 short-term thinking, 26, 54, 56 turnout, 180, 184 Electoral Integrity Project, 189, 238 Elizabethville, Congo, 43 “emerging democracy”, 88 Emory University, 136 261 INDEX “End of History”, 163, 214 English Civil War (1642–51), 31 Ennahda party, 126–8 Equatorial Guinea, 6, 11, 121, 173, 220 Erdoggan, Recep Tayyip, 20, 161–3, 176 Eritrea, 11, 24 Estonia, 17, 149, 151 Ethiopia, 27 Eton College, Berkshire, 202 European Commission, 150 European Parliament, 84, 180 European Partnership for Democracy (EPD), 58 European Union (EU), 2, 3, 56, 61–3, 65–7, 84, 90, 100, 143, 145, 148–56, 160, 180, 195, 214, 223, 225, 247 1999 European Parliament elections, 180 2004 Eastern Bloc countries accede to Union, 148–9 2005 intervention in Palestinian election campaign, 100 2006 asset ban on Lukashenko government, 63 2008 aid given for Ghanaian election, 143 2009 Eurozone crisis begins, 180, 190 2013 endorsement of Azerbaijani election, 84; endorsement of Malagasy election, 90 2014 Riga designated European Capital of Culture, 148, 225 2015 Riga summit; Juncker slaps Orbán, 150 2016 Belarus sanctions suspended, 65, 67, 195; Zimbabwe sanctions suspended, 247; UK € 262 holds membership referendum, 1 Eurozone crisis, 180, 190 Facebook, 125, 161–3, 165, 168, 172, 223 Falls Church, Virginia, 163 famine, 24 Fatah, 99–102 Fats Domino, 207 Ferjani, Said, 125–33, 142, 156, 221, 224 Fidesz Party, 150–2 financial crisis (2008–9), 185, 206 FixMyStreet, 171 Florida, United States, 117 Forces Nouvelles, 106 Ford, Gerald, 45 Foreign Affairs, 53 foreign aid, 14–15, 47, 49, 52, 57, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 100–1 Fourteen Points (1918), 35 France, 2, 33, 44, 55–6, 58, 72, 89, 106, 108–10, 115, 129, 214, 225 “free and fair”, 8, 14, 88–90, 102, 159, 193 free speech, 94, 103, 161–3, 165, 188 free trade zones, 152–60 Freedom House, 139, 140, 189 Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 189 Front Populaire Ivorien, 105 FSB (Federal’naya sluzhba bezopasnosti), 61 Fukuyama, Francis, 74, 163, 214 fungibilty, 95 Gaddafi, Muammar, 24, 76–9, 102, 113, 129 Gambia, The, 121 Gandhi, Jennifer, 136 INDEX Gaza, Palestine, 100–1, 240–1 Gbabgbo, Laurent, 105–10, 111, 119 General Motors, 48 Geneva Convention, 177 Geneva, Switzerland, 140 George III, King of the United Kingdom, 31 Georgia, 143 Geraldton, Western Australia, 30 Germany, 17, 23, 35, 44, 56, 58, 74–5, 103–4, 147–8, 165, 189, 201, 204, 208, 213, 223 Gerry, Elbridge, 181–2 gerrymandering, 180–5, 188, 251 Ghana, 17, 143, 144, 171 Ghani, Rula, 137 globalization, 153 Globe & Mail, 94 golden handcuffs, 111, 119–21, 154 golden parachutes, 19, 116–21 Gollum, 20, 161–3, 165, 176 Google, 164 GooGoosha (Gulnara Karimova), 140, 145 Government Organized NonGovernmental Organizations (GONGOs), 209–10, 212 grade inflation, 88, 99, 158, 159 Great Leap Forward (1958–61), 24 Greece, 20, 21, 22, 27–30, 31, 156, 230 Green Revolution (2009), 135–6, 166–8 gridlock, 184–5, 187 Guardian, 166 gun regulation, 186–7 gunboat diplomacy, 116, 118, 120 Gutiérrez, Luis, 182 Guyana, 171, 220 Guys and Dolls, 40 Hague, William, 77 Haiti, 114–21 Hamas, 99–104, 241 Harmodius, 28 Harvard University, 45 health care, 184–5 Henry IV “the Impotent”, King of Castile and Léon, 30, 231 Herodotus, 29 Higiro, Robert, 94 Hipparchus, 28 Hitler, Adolf, 23, 103–4, 165 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), 116, 207 Hobart, Tasmania, 153 homosexuality, 12, 20 Hong Kong, 168–70, 176, 221 House of Representatives, 33, 181 human rights, 10, 11, 52, 54, 57, 64, 113, 118, 139, 209, 213 Humphrey, Hubert, 21 Hungary, 150–2, 160, 171 Hussein, Saddam, 63, 72, 73, 79, 124, 156–7 I Paid a Bribe, 170–1 Ibragimbekov, Rustam, 82 Iceland, 88 Iglesias, Julio, 140 “illiberal democracy”, 227 Illinois, United States, 182–3 Iloniaina, Alain, 222–3 imihigo program, 93 Immunization of the Revolution, 127 inclusion, 24, 129–31 India, 56, 98, 152, 156, 170–1, 172, 220 Indonesia, 27, 156, 218 Indyk, Martin, 102 insidious model effect, 46, 48 Inter-Commission Working Group 263 INDEX on International Cooperation, 211 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), 52, 53 International Criminal Court (ICC), 106, 109, 118, 119 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 105 International Republican Institute (IRI), 58, 142 Internet, 49, 125, 161–75, 207, 208, 221, 223 iPad, 151 iPhones, 20, 83, 135–6, 145 Iran, 26, 30, 36, 38, 47, 48, 69, 98, 117, 135–6, 145, 208, 232 1951 nationalization of AngloIranian Oil Company, 38 1953 Operation Ajax; Mossadegh ousted, 38–42, 98, 208 1979 Islamic Revolution, 42, 117, 216 2009 intervention in Lebanese election, 98; presidential election; Green Revolution protests, 135–6, 166–8 2010 VOA announces “citizen journalism” iPhone app, 135–6, 145 2015 nuclear deal, 26 Iraq, 2, 5, 20, 49, 63, 67, 72–5, 77, 78, 79, 98, 124, 128, 129, 133, 156–7, 198, 213 1979 Saddam comes to power, 72, 129 1990 invasion of Kuwait, 156 2003 US-led invasion, 63, 72–3, 77, 84, 98, 156, 201, 234; de-Ba’athification campaign, 72, 77, 124, 128 2006 formation of al-Maliki government, 73 264 2015 IS execute election officials, 74 Ireland, 90, 217 Islam, 11, 12, 16, 99, 105, 123–6, 129, 131, 177, 218 Islamic State (IS), 74, 78, 131 Islamism, 99, 123–6, 129, 131, 177 Israel, 14, 99–104 Italy, 98, 192 Jackson, Peter, 162 Jammeh,Yahya, 121 Japan, 17, 24, 35, 56, 58, 74–5, 89, 112, 154, 156, 164, 204, 206, 217, 218, 220 al-Jazeera, 76 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 172 Joan of Portugal, Queen consort of Castile, 231 Jobs, Steve, 151 Johnson, Boris, 202 Jordan, 18, 60, 155 Juncker, Jean-Claude, 150 Kabila, Joseph, 121 Kabul, Afghanistan, 70 Kagame, Paul, 6, 91–6 Kagan, Robert, 217–18 Kakul Military Academy, 53 Kallel, Abdallah, 124 Kant, Immanuel, 118 Karbala, Iraq, 201 Karegeya, Patrick, 94 Karimov, Islam, 139–40, 142, 154 Karimova, Gulnara, 139–40, 145 Karnataka, India, 170 Karoui, Nébil, 131 Karzai, Hamid, 70 Katanga, Congo, 43–4 Keane, John, 30 INDEX Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 11, 35–6, 55, 190, 192 Kenya, 220 KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), 3, 61–2, 147–8, 194, 225 Khan, Rana Sanaullah, 52 Khomeini, Ruhollah, 167 Kim Jong-un, 136, 181 Kingdom of Ebla, 28 Kipling, Rudyard, 69 Kissinger, Henry, 44–7, 214 knee-jerk reactions, 26, 55 Koch Brothers, 185–6 Konrad Adenauer Foundation, 58, 189 Kounalakis, Eleni, 151 kratos, 27 Kununurra, Western Australia, 30 Kuwait, 156, 229 Kyrgyzstan, 185 2011 NATO-led intervention, 76–7; death of Gaddafi, 76–7, 113 2013 Political Isolation Law, 77, 128 LINE, 164–5 Literary Digest, 174 lobbying, 186–7 local-level democracy, 3, 18, 169–73 locusts, 6–7 London, England, 132–3 long-term thinking, 4, 46, 48, 51–67, 138, 141, 234 Lord of the Rings (Tolkien), 20, 161–3, 165, 176 “Luck Be a Lady Tonight”, 40 Lukashenko, Alexander, 61–7, 154, 193–5, 206, 222 Lumumba, Patrice, 42–4 Lumumbashi, Congo, 43 Lake, Anthony, 117 Landon, Alf, 174 Langouste (Ramakavélo), 87 Laos, 200 Latin Earmuffs, 182 Latvia, 147–50, 151–2, 154, 160, 225 League of Democracies, 152–60, 212 Lebanon, 98 Léon, 30–1, 231 Léopoldville, Congo, 43 Levy, Phil, 157 Libya, 2, 5, 20, 24, 49, 67, 69, 76–9, 102, 113, 128, 129, 133, 156, 213 1969 coup d’état; Gaddafi comes to power, 78, 113, 129 2008 Rice makes visit, 76 MacCann, William, 34 Madagascar, 3, 6–9, 17, 20, 59, 85–91, 96, 200, 220, 222–3, 234–5 1991 Panorama Convention, 87 1992 presidential election, 87 1993 population census, 89 2006 presidential election, 85–6 2009 coup d’état; Rajoelina comes to power, 6, 90 2012 Rajoelina announces capture of bandits’ sorcerer, 7 2013 general election, 8, 89–90, 211, 222–3 Madagascar Effect, 6–8, 17, 81, 96, 159, 204, 234–5 Madison, James, 31–2 Malaysia, 153, 218 al-Maliki, Nouri, 73–4 Mao Zedong, 23, 24 265 INDEX marketplace of ideas, 24, 219 Mauritius, 220 May, Theresa, 26 McCain, John, 77 McMahon, Michael, 83 McSpedon, Joe, 49 Megara, 156 Mejora Tu Escuela, 171 El Mercurio, 47 Merkel, Angela, 208 Mesopotamia, 28 Mexico, 27, 149, 155, 156, 171, 172, 178 MI6, 43 Miami, Florida, 117 Miloševicc, Slobodan, 98, 120 Minnesota, United States, 21, 186–7 Minsk, Belarus, 19, 61–2, 66, 192, 193 Mo Ibrahim Foundation, 119 Mobutu, Joseph-Desiré, 43–4 Mogadishu, Somalia, 116 Moghaddam, Ismail Ahmadi, 167 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 39–42, 117 Moldova, 195–6 Mondale, Walter, 21 Mong Kok riots (2016), 169 Mongolia, 17, 30, 189 Morjane, Kamel, 130 Morocco, 155, 171 Morsi, Mohammed, 14, 15, 164, 247 Moscow, Russia, 210 Mossadegh, Mohammed, 38–42, 43, 232 Mosul, Iraq, 72, 73 al-Moubadara, 130 Mubarak, Hosni, 6, 13, 164 Mugabe, Robert, 112–13, 157–8 Mugenzi, Rene Claudel, 94–5, 189 € 266 Muhirwa, Alice, 93 Muñiz de Urquiza, María, 90 Munyuza, Dan, 94 Musharraf, Pervez, 51–7 Myanmar, 218, 225 Nasiri, Nematollah, 40 Nation, The, 198 National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), 197 National Democratic Institute (NDI), 58, 92, 142 National Endowment for Democracy (NED), 58, 60, 144, 247 National Rifle Association (NRA), 186–7 Native Americans, 32, 33 Nawabshah, Pakistan, 51 Nazi Germany (1933–45), 23, 44, 74–5, 103–4, 147–8, 165 Nepal, 98 Netherlands, 58, 89, 143 Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, 58 New Stanford Hospital, Palo Alto, 26 NewYork Times, 71, 93, 185–6 New Zealand, 112, 156, 209 Nicaragua, 24, 98 Nidaa Tounes, 131 Niger, 185 Nigeria, 171, 172 Nixon, Richard, 44–7 Niyazov, Saparmurat, 25 Nobel Prize, 18, 24, 131, 156, 163 non-alignment, 43 non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 58–60, 141–2, 144, 158, 209–10, 212, 238 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 45, 55, 77 INDEX North Carolina, United States, 183 North Korea, 4, 11, 136, 138, 144, 173, 176, 181 Norway, 24, 77, 205, 219 nuclear power/weapons, 26, 192 Nunavut, Canada, 153, 230–1 Nunn, Sam, 116 Nuristan, Afghanistan, 70 Nyaklyayew, Uladzimir, 61–2, 65 Nyamwasa, Faustin Kayumba, 94 Obama, Barack, 6, 9–10, 14, 49, 54, 55, 57–8, 76, 96, 111, 183, 204, 205, 218 Obiang, Teodoro, 6, 121 Odysseus, 22, 153 oil, 4, 11, 16, 24, 84, 192, 229 olive oil, 125 Operation Ajax (1953), 38–42, 98, 208 Operation Desert Storm (1991), 156 Operation Enduring Freedom (2001–14), 70 Operation Uphold Democracy (1994–5), 116 Orbán, Viktor, 150–2 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 64 Ortega, Daniel, 98 Orwell, George, 15, 101, 199 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 192 Ouattara, Alassane, 105–10, 119 Oxford University, 198, 202 OxfordGirl, 166 Pakistan, 18, 50–7, 70, 220, 233 Palestine, 99–104, 108, 240–1 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 99 Panama, 117 Panorama Convention (1991), 87 Papua New Guinea, 188 parliaments, 31 partisan engagement, 99–104 Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), 156 People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD), 197, 202 Pericles, 29 Persia, 28 Peru, 153 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 33 Philippines, 218 Pinochet, Augusto, 47–8, 225 Piromya, Kasit, 204–5 Plateau Dokui, Abidjan, 107 Plato, 29 Poland, 201 Political Isolation Law (2013), 77, 128 polling, 174–6 Pomerantsev, Peter, 210 Pongsudhirak, Thitinan, 165 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 117 Portugal, 218, 231 Pouraghayi, Saeedah, 167 Powell, Colin, 116, 120 Préval, René, 117 Price, Melissa, 30 Princeton University, 186 prisoner’s dilemma, 200 process engagement, 99–100 propaganda-industry tax, 209 protectionism, 177 proto-democracy, 28 Public Diplomacy of the Public Chamber of Russia Elections, 211 Pul-i-Charki, Kabul, 71 Putin, Vladimir, 63, 64–5, 194–5, 204, 207, 214 267 INDEX al-Qaeda, 18, 50, 52–3, 55, 78, 177, 234 Qatar, 155, 229 Qatif, Saudi Arabia, 11, 16 Queen, 121 racism, 176, 218, 250 Rajoelina, Andry, 6 Ramadan, 126 Ramakavélo, Desiré-Philippe, 86–7 Rao, Bhaskar, 170 Rassemblement des Républicains, 105 Ratchaburi, Thailand, 199 Ravalomanana, Marc, 6 Reagan, Ronald, 35–6, 55 realpolitik, 4, 45, 48, 98, 104 refugees, 208 representative democracy, 30–3 Republican Party, 39, 58, 79, 124, 142, 181, 182–8 Rever, Judi, 94 Riahi, Taghi, 39–40 Rice, Condoleeza, 76, 102 Riga, Latvia, 147–8, 150, 160, 225 rock lobster, 87 Rojanaphruk, Pravit, 198–9, 221, 223–4 Romania, 149, 209 Rome, Ancient (753 BC–476 AD), 21, 30 Romney, Mitt, 112 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 39, 174 Roosevelt, Kermit, 38–40, 208 Roosevelt, Theodore “Teddy”, 39 de Rosas, Juan Manuel, 34–5 Roskam, Peter 183 rule of law, 10, 27, 73, 77, 136, 159, 209, 218 Rumsfeld, Donald, 145 Russia Today (RT), 207–9 268 Russian Federation, 24, 27, 60–1, 63–5, 82, 106, 140, 149, 190, 191–6, 204, 205–12, 214, 221, 229 1996 Commonwealth with Belarus established, 194 2002 proposal for re-integration of Belarus, 194 2005 support for Moldovan opposition on Transnistria, 195–6; Russia Today established, 207 2010 Putin sings Fats Domino’s Blueberry Hill, 207 2013 endorsement of Azerbaijani election, 211 2014 annexation of Crimea; intervention in Ukraine, 64, 65; RT reports “genocide” in Ukraine, 207; RT reports CIA behind Ebola outbreak, 207 2015 NED banned, 60; pressure on Belarus to host military base, 65, 195 2016 RT report on rape of “Lisa” in Germany, 208; Putin praised by Trump, 214 Rwanda, 6, 20, 91–6, 120, 185, 189, 215, 216 Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), 91 San Diego State University, 209 sanctions, 52, 62–5, 67, 103, 106, 135–6, 145, 156–8, 160, 195, 247, 253 Sandinista National Liberation Front, 98 Sandy Hook massacre (2012), 186 dos Santos, José Eduardo, 112–13 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 108 INDEX SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), 25–6 Saudi Arabia, 5–6, 9–12, 15–16, 19–20, 85, 98, 138, 144, 200, 216, 229 1962 slavery abolished, 11 2009 intervention in Lebanese election, 98; children sentenced to prison and lashes for stealing exam papers, 11, 16; Jeddah floods, 172 2010 Indonesian maid mutilated by employer, 11, 12; arms deal with US, 10–12 2011 Qatif protests, 16 2013 aid package to Egypt announced, 15; purchase of US naval craft announced, 16; Badawi sentenced to prison and lashes, 16 Saudi Arabia Effect, 5, 9, 16, 85, 138, 200 Schneider, René, 45 School of the Americas, 115 Seattle, Washington, 77 Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), 43 Sen, Amartya, 24 Senate, US, 32–3, 187 Senegal, 42, 121 September 11 attacks (2001), 18, 52–3, 55, 70 Serbia, 98, 120 Shanghai Cooperation Organization, 211 Sharif, Nawaz, 51–2, 233 Shinawatra, Thaksin, 196, 199, 201, 202, 205 Shinawatra,Yingluck, 198 short-term thinking, 3–4, 26, 46, 48, 51–67, 120, 138, 141, 234 Shushkevich, Stanislav, 192–3 Siberia, 147, 148 Sidick, Koné Abou Bakary, 107–9 Sierra Leone, 88, 171, 209 Singapore, 23, 24, 27, 93, 155, 215, 216, 217, 229 Siripaiboon, Thanakorn, 165 el-Sisi, Abdel Fattah, 15 Skujenieks, Knuts, 148 Skype, 62 slavery, 11, 29, 32 social media, 49–50, 125, 161–70, 173, 176, 199, 207, 208, 223 Socrates, 29 Solon, 28 Somalia, 42, 116 Sophocles, 29 Sopko, John, 137 Sousse attacks (2015), 131 South Africa, 27, 94, 157, 189 South Korea, 17, 27, 112, 152, 156, 218 Soviet Union (1922–91), 1, 22–3, 35–6, 37–50, 61, 64, 82, 121, 147–8, 150, 160, 192–4, 201, 204, 206–7 Spain, 218 Sparta, 28, 29 St John’s College, Oxford, 202 Stalin, Joseph, 23 Stanford University, 171 State Department, 11, 15, 54, 202 state power, 27 Statkevich, Mikalai, 61–2, 65, 222 Stewart, Jon, 53 Sting (Gordon Sumner), 140 Stockholm Syndrome, 199 Sudan, 206 Sukondhapatipak, Werachon 198 Sundaravej, Samak, 197 Super PACs, 185 Supreme Court, US, 185, 188 Sweden, 92, 220 269 INDEX Switzerland, 118, 140, 205 Syria, 78, 120, 131, 198, 208, 217, 224, 225 Szájer, József, 151 Tahrir Square, Cairo, 10, 13, 163–4 Taiwan, 27, 218 Taliban, 18, 52, 56, 71, 138 tame democracy promotion, 59 Taming of Democracy Assistance, The (Bush), 59 Tarakhel Mohammadi, 70–1 Tasmania, Australia, 153 Tasting and Grumbling, 197 Tea Party, 185 terrorism, 11, 16, 18, 19, 20, 26, 52–3, 55, 63, 70, 78, 97, 100, 101, 131, 156, 201, 234 Tetra Tech, 138 Thailand, 3, 19, 27, 154, 164–5, 196–206, 212, 221, 223–4, 253 1973 pro-democracy uprising, 199 1976 student protests, 199 1982 launch of Cobra Gold exercises with US, 201 2003 troops dispatched to Iraq, 201 2006 coup d’état, 196, 197 2008 judicial coup, 196, 197, 202, 253 2010 protests and crackdown, 202 2014 NCPO coup d’état, 164, 196–206, 221; junta gives out free haircuts, 154; rail deal with China, 203; junta releases LINE “values stickers”, 164–5 2015 man arrested for insulting Tongdaeng, 165 270 2016 constitutional referendum, 197, 223 Thirty Tyrants, 29 Thucydides, 28, 29 time horizon, 55 Tobruk, Libya, 77 Togo, 170, 177–8 Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel, 20, 161–3, 165, 176 Tongdaeng, 165 torture, 11, 28, 43, 48, 52, 124–7, 132, 139, 141, 222, 224 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 153 Transnistria, 196 transparency, 26, 82, 170, 174, 212, 218 Tripoli, Libya, 77 Trojan War, 22 Trump, Donald, 1, 20, 25, 79, 178, 180, 187, 188, 204, 205 Tudeh Party, 41, 232 Tunisia, 12–13, 17, 18, 19, 27, 65, 77, 123–33, 142, 143, 144, 155, 156, 209, 218, 221, 224–5 1987 coup d’état; Ben Ali comes to power, 124, 126, 129 1991 Barraket Essahel affair, 123, 126, 224 1995 EU Association Agreement, 155 2010 self-immolation of Bouazizi; protests begin, 12, 126, 224 2011 ousting of Ben Ali, 13, 124–6, 130 2014 assembly rejects bill on political exclusion, 128; law on rehabilitation and recognition of torture victims, 224; presidential election, 130 2015 Bardo Museum and Sousse attacks, 131, 156; National INDEX Dialogue Quartet awarded Nobel Peace Prize, 18, 131 Tunisia’s Call, 131 Turkey, 20, 27, 39, 149, 161–3, 165, 176 Turkmenistan, 11, 25, 26, 138, 144, 154 Twitter, 49, 162, 163, 166, 168, 176, 199, 208 U2, 92 Udon Thani, Thailand, 201 Uganda, 166, 176 Ukraine, 2, 27, 64, 65, 171, 198, 207, 213 Umbrella Movement (2014), 168, 176, 221 United Arab Emirates (UAE), 229 United Kingdom (UK), 1–3, 31, 33, 38, 43–4, 56, 58, 71–2, 92, 94–5, 126, 129, 132–3, 156, 166, 171–2, 180, 189, 202, 214 1707 Acts of Union, 31 1947 Churchill’s statement on democracy, 22, 190, 215 1951 Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 38 1987 Ferjani arrives in exile, 126 1999 European Parliament election, 180 2003 invasion of Iraq, 72–3 2009 OxfordGirl tweets on Iranian Green Revolution, 166; Blair meets with Kagame, 6, 92 2011 intervention in Libya, 77; Kagame appears on BBC radio; threat against Mugenzi, 94–5, 189 2012 launch of FixMyStreet, 171 2016 EU membership referendum, 1 United Nations (UN), 104, 105, 106, 108–10, 118, 130, 132, 140, 152 United States (US) 1787 Constitutional Convention, 31 1812 redrawing of Massachusetts senate election districts, 181–2 1869 Wyoming grants women vote, 33 1870 non-white men receive vote, 33 1913 Seventeenth Amendment enacted, 32 1917 Wilson’s “safe for democracy” speech, 35 1918 Wilson’s Fourteen Points, 35 1920 women receive vote, 33 1924 protections to ensure Native American voting rights, 33 1936 presidential election, 174 1948 CIA intervention in Italian election, 98 1953 Operation Ajax; Mossadegh ousted in Iran, 38–42, 98, 208 1960 plot to assassinate Lumumba with poisoned toothpaste, 43 1961 Foreign Assistance Act, 14–15 1962 Saudi Arabia pressured into abolishing slavery, 11; Cuban Missile Crisis, 50 1963 Kennedy’s Berlin speech, 35; assassination of Kennedy, 192 271 INDEX 1965 protections to ensure minority voting rights, 33 1973 ousting of Allende in Chile, 47 1982 launch of Cobra Gold exercises with Thailand, 201 1987 Reagan’s Berlin speech, 35; aid payments to Egypt begin, 14 1988 Reagan’s “city on a hill” speech, 10, 35, 179, 188, 189 1990 intervention in Nicaraguan election, 98 1991 launch of Operation Desert Storm in Iraq, 156 1992 presidential and House of Representatives elections, 183–4 1993 Clinton assumes office, 115; Battle of Mogadishu, 116 1994 launch of Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, 116; Cessna crash at White House, 116; Cédras given “golden parachute”, 116–17 1997 USAID Cambodia claims to have “exceeded expectations”, 59 1999 Pakistan urged to return to democracy, 52, 53 2001 September 11 attacks, 18, 52–3, 55, 70; cooperation with Pakistan begins, 52–3, 55; invasion of Afghanistan, 70, 71, 84, 98 2002 Bush announces new approach for Israel/Palestine conflict, 99 2003 invasion of Iraq, 63, 72–3, 77, 84, 98, 156, 201, 234 272 2004 Belarus Democracy Act, 63, 194 2005 Senate vote on armorpiercing bullet ban, 187; intervention in Palestinian election campaign, 99–104 2006 Musharraf appears on The Daily Show, 53 2008 Afifi arrives in exile, 163, 247; Rice’s visit to Libya, 76 2009 Obama assumes office, 55, 57; Clinton describes Mubaraks as “friends of my family”, 6; Obama’s Cairo speech, 9–10, 218; military helicopter drops ballot boxes in Afghanistan, 70; Kagame receives Clinton Global Citizen award, 92 2010 VOA announces “citizen journalism” app for Iran, 135, 145; Citizens United v.


pages: 190 words: 62,941

Wild Ride: Inside Uber's Quest for World Domination by Adam Lashinsky

"side hustle", Airbnb, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, gig economy, Golden Gate Park, Google X / Alphabet X, information retrieval, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, pattern recognition, price mechanism, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, young professional

Andreessen asked Kalanick to dinner and said he’d like the valuation to be closer to half what they had agreed on. “They just felt it was too pricey,” says Kalanick. “I said, ‘Look, if I had doubled the revenues, would you do this deal?’ And he’s like, ‘Hell, yes.’ And I said, ‘Marc, I’ve got that in three months.’ But it was too pricey for them.” Though new to the venture-capital world, Pishevar was already a veteran networker. His family had left Iran during the revolution that brought Ayatollah Khomeini to power, and Pishevar had sold several technology companies by his mid-thirties. He was attending an entrepreneurship conference in Tunisia in October 2011 when Kalanick called to ask if he’d still like to invest. He also asked Pishevar to fly immediately to Dublin, where Kalanick was attending an Internet conference. “We were walking on those ancient cobblestoned streets in Dublin that are really bad for Uber cars, and he starts explaining the full vision that he wasn’t really talking about to everyone at the time, which was that he wanted to basically replace car ownership,” Pishevar recalls.


pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

Persuaded that the Shah’s regime was too oppressive, that America’s mistake in the past had been to alienate the Castros and Allendes through CIA action, he encouraged the Shah to hold back. In the same way, his official representative at a human rights gathering had solemnly stood up and apologized for his country’s handling of Allende and Chile. And so the Shah was overthrown. But his successors were not Communist at all. Over the turn of 1978-9, after various governments had passed in and out, the Ayatollah Khomeini took over, a grim, elderly figure whose prescription was theocracy, the Rule of Saints. The Saints manifested themselves in mobs of students, in gruesome executions, in parades of black-garbed women vociferously demanding that Westernization, in particular the ways of ‘satanic’ America, should be put down. This left the Communists nowhere: they - who after all did represent women’s rights and much else that Islam did not wish to see - received as much persecution as the rest, if not more.

., Jr Kennedy, Joseph Kennedy, Robert Kent State University shootings (1970) Kerr, Clark Keyder, Çağlar Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron: Galbraith and on government spending homosexuality hopes for German bombing on paper money and Roosevelt Keynesianism KGB: and coup of August 1991 and Cuban crisis of 1962 and dissidents and Gorbachev network of informers relationship with Party and revolutions of 1989 and war in Afghanistan and Western anti-missile demonstrations see also Cheka KHAD (Afghan secret police) Khanin, G. I. Khariton, Yuli Khe Sanh, battle of (1968) Khmer Rouge Khomeini, Ayatollah Khrushchev, Nikita: agricultural reform background and character and Berlin crisis of 1961 and China and Cuban crisis of 1962 cultural liberalization policies and de-Stalinization of Soviet satellite states defeat of old guard denunciation of Stalin and Eisenhower and Hungarian uprising of 1956 megalomania and Molotov Moscow Party head and nationalism and Orthodox Church overthrow of Beria overthrown (1964) ‘peaceful coexistence’ doctrine and Poland political reforms relations with China relations with West release of political prisoners reputation and popularity rise to power row with Nixon over culture at Stalin’s seventieth birthday transfer of Crimea to Ukraine 20th Party Congress speech (1956) Ukraine Party head Vienna conference (1961) Kiesinger, Kurt Georg Kiev Rosa Luxemburg knitwear factory Killing Fields, The (film) KimSung King’s College, Cambridge Kırbaşi Kirikkale Kirkpatrick, Jeane Kisielewski, Stefan Kissinger, Henry: background and character and Chile and Cyprus and EEC and Helskinki conference (1975) and Middle East military adviser to Kennedy and OPEC and ‘Pentagon Papers’ reputation and SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) and Vietnam Koç, Vehbi Koestler, Arthur Kohl, Helmut Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.

The Poles in a sense did both, because they did develop a first-rate intelligentsia, but instead of being loyal Communists, or even, like Czechs or Slovenes, just progressives of the sort that Communists could use, they marched off in a different direction altogether and produced the most vibrant political Catholicism in the world. Frenchmen, trained from earliest infancy in anti-clericalism, could not believe the crowds they saw in Poland welcoming the Pope. ‘Like the Ayatollah,’ sniffed one of those Frenchmen. There were great differences between Poland and the other ‘bloc’ countries. In the first place she had a ‘mass of manoeuvre’, a population coming on for 40 million, and still, in the 1960s, expanding, and that because of a second considerable difference: a large peasant population, still set in the old days, with hay-carts trundling along on the roads. That in turn reflected another great difference, that the Western Allies had had some sort of formal rights as regards Poland, and even Stalin shrank from applying the full-scale Soviet formula there.


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Powerful, modern states that are not offset by rule of law or accountability simply succeed in being more perfect tyrannies.22 Whether modern Islamists can achieve a democratic regime limited by a rule of law is a delicate question. The experience of the Islamic Republic of Iran after the 1979 revolution is not encouraging. Since the nineteenth century, Shia Iran has had a better-organized clerical hierarchy than anything existing in the Sunni world. This hierarchy, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, took control of the Iranian state and turned it into a genuine theocracy in which the clerical hierarchy controlled the state apparatus. That state developed into a clerical dictatorship that routinely jailed and killed opponents and has been willing to bend the law to suit its purposes as it went along. In theory, the Iranian Republic’s 1979 constitution could be the basis for a moderate, democratic, law-governed state.

Hitler, Adolph Hobbes, Thomas Holland, see Netherlands Holstein Holy Roman Empire Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo heidelbergensis Homo sapiens, evolution of Hopi Indians House of Commons, English Huan, Emperor of China Huguenots Hui, Victoria Hulagu Khan Humbert of Moyenmoutier, Cardinal Hume, David Humphrey, Nicolas Hundred, Court of the Hundred Schools of Thought period Hungary; accountability in; Diet of; Golden Bull in; maps of; military expenditures in; Ottoman conquest of Huns hunter-gatherers Huntington, Samuel Hunyadi, János Hunyadi, Mátyás Huo Xian Husain Hussein, Saddam Iceland I Jing (Book of Changes) Iliad (Homer) Ilkhanid dynasty Imperial Academy, Chinese Inden, Ronald India; accountability in; agnatic lineages in; agrarian society in; British rule in; comparison of China and; corruption in; democracy in; divergence from Chinese development of; economic growth of; film industry in; kinship structures in; Mongols in; Muslim nation building in; political consequences of ideas in; rationality of religion in; religion in (see also Brahmanism); rule of law in; transition to statehood in; tribalism in; victory of society over politics in Indians: American (see also Native Americans); Amazonian individualism; English; modern; primordial Indo-Aryans Indo-Europeans Indo-Gangetic Plain Indonesia Industrial Revolution; economic growth and productivity gains in; interaction of dimension of development during; kinship patterns and; Protestant work ethic and information technology Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional; PRI), Mexican International Criminal Court International Monetary Fund (IMF) Internet Iran; Islamic Republic of Iraq; tribalism in; U.S. invasion of Iraq-Iran War Ireland Irnerius Iron Age Iroquois Indians Isabella, Queen of Castile Islam; conversion to; in India; religious law of; see also Muslims Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Iranian Islamism; radical Israel, ancient István, King of Hungary Italy; Catholic church in; colonies of; Normans in; rise of capitalism in; serfdom abolished in; urban bourgeoisie in Ivan I, Prince of Moscow Ivan III, Tsar of Russia Ivan IV (the Terrible), Tsar of Russia Ivan the Terrible (film) Jainism James I, King of England James II, King of England Janissaries Japan Jefferson, Thomas Jena-Auerstadt, Battle of Jesus Jews; in England; in Hungary; in Ottoman Empire; see also Judaism Jim Crow laws Jin Dynasty Jing, Emperor of China Jin state Joanna, Queen of Spain John, King of England John II, King of France Johnson, Simon Jordan Judaism; see also Jews Junkers Justinian Code Jutes Kaikolar weaver caste Kalahari Desert, Bushmen of Kalenjin people Kalmar Union Karakhanids Karbala, Battle of Kashi Kashmir Kautilya Kaviraj, Sudipta Kazakhstan Keeley, Lawrence Kenya Khaldun, Ibn Kharijites Khilnani, Sunil Khitai Khitans Khomeini, Ruhollah Khorasanis Khwarazm empire Kikuyu people kinship; advent of state and exit from; agnatic, see agnation; in China ,; in Europe; fictive; in India; in Latin America; in Muslim state; property rights and; religion and Kipchak Turks Kipling, Rudyard Koguryo Kojève, Alexandre Köprülüs, vizirate of Koran Korea Korean War Kosala Kroeber, Alfred Kshatriyas Kublai Khan Kurds Kushana dynasty Kutadgu Bilig Kwakiutl Indians Kwangju massacre Labour Party, British Laffer curve Laon, Aldabéron de Laos Laslett, Peter latifundia Laud, Archbishop William Law, John Laws of Manu Lebanon LeBlanc, Steven LeDonne, John P.

For an overview of theories of how Islam relates to economic backwardness, see Timur Kuran, Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), pp. 128–47. 16 Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire, p. 75. 17 Timur Kuran, “The Provision of Public Goods Under Islamic Law: Origins, Impact and Limitations of the Waqf System,” Law and Society 35 (2001): 841–97. 18 Derrett, History of Indian Law, pp. 2–3. 19 Head, “Codes, Cultures, Chaos,” pp. 758–60. 20 Muhammad Qasim Zaman, The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), pp. 21–31. 21 Feldman, The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State, pp. 62–68. 22 See ibid., pp. 111–17. 23 Shaul Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1984). 20: ORIENTAL DESPOTISM 1 Denis Twitchett, ed., The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 3: Sui and T’ang China, 589–906, Part I (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 57–58, 150–51. 2 Ibid., pp. 86–87. 3 For intellectual developments during the Song Dynasty, see James T. C. Liu, China Turning Inward: Intellectual-Political Changes in the Early Twelfth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Council on East Asian Studies, 1988). 4 For an overview, see Anatoly M.


They Have a Word for It A Lighthearted Lexicon of Untranslatable Words & Phrases-Sarabande Books (2000) by Howard Rheingold

Ayatollah Khomeini, clockwork universe, fudge factor, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, Kula ring, Lao Tzu, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, the map is not the territory, the scientific method

Tikkun olam implies the joining together of all these sparks as part of each religious person's sacred duty, and thus directs the pious to refurm the political as well as the spiritual THEY HAVE A WORD FOR IT inequities of the worui This is clearly more than just a political statement-it implies a systemic transformation in the way we live upon the earth and in the way we live with each other. The concept sounds great. How could anybody disagree with the idea that helping reform earthly institutions is part of the duty of every religious person? The problems and disagreements begin when people attempt to define the nature of reformation. Fundamentalists like the Ayatollah Khomeini and Jerry Falwell, for example, both represent religious movements that very strongly believe in the reform of political institutions. Yet the kind of tikkun olam advocated by Islamic or Christian fundamentalists leads to very different visions of how societies ought to operate. And the "new age" transformationalists in our country have yet another vision of how the temporal world ought to be repaired.


pages: 339 words: 103,546

Blood and Oil: Mohammed Bin Salman's Ruthless Quest for Global Power by Bradley Hope, Justin Scheck

augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, coronavirus, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, Peter Thiel, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional, zero day

Bartiromo asked the prince why he was pursuing changes now, including permitting women to drive and allowing foreign investment in the country. Mohammed, in his most charismatic public speech to date, gave an impassioned pledge to return the country back to the way it was before religious extremism began to rise in 1979. That was the year of the Grand Mosque attack and the Al Saud’s subsequent decision to appease religious conservatives with restrictions on entertainment and women’s rights. It was also the year Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini overthrew Iran’s secular shah, showing Saudi Arabia what could happen if rulers moved too far away from powerful religious leaders. “Saudi Arabia and the entire region witnessed the spread of an awakening project after 1979 for many reasons that are not the subject of today,” Mohammed said. “We have not been this way before. We are just going back to what we used to be: moderate, open minded Islam to the world and to all religions and to all traditions and peoples.”

But when Mohammed bin Salman, twenty-nine years old and with less than eight weeks of experience running the Saudi military, sat down at the head of the V-shaped table and issued an unprecedented order, “Send in the F15s,” they were shocked into silence. Saudi Arabia was not just going to war. It was leading the way. Houthi rebels had been marching across Yemen, Saudi Arabia’s neighbor, capturing one city after another. Their brazenness, support from Iran, and proximity to Riyadh made the guerilla force a perilous threat on the southern border. For Saudi Arabia, no threat is greater than Iran, whose ayatollahs believe the Middle East is their strategic domain. It was Iran’s supply of powerful missiles and military hardware that gave the rebels so much confidence in facing down the bigger and better-equipped Saudi armed forces. A day earlier, one of the rebel commanders declared that if Saudi Arabia intervened, the Houthis wouldn’t stop their “expansion at Mecca, but rather Riyadh.” Mohammed wouldn’t abide such threats.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Most of my classmates were young women looking for starting secretarial jobs. There were no cell phones then, either. Because of that I got my first big lesson in journalism. It came on the very first real news story UPI sent me out to cover, after I joined its London bureau. And that lesson was: Never ask your competition to hold the phone for you. The Islamic Revolution in Iran was just unfolding. A group of pro–Ayatollah Khomeini Iranian students in London took over the Iranian Embassy there, ousted the shah’s diplomats, and then locked themselves inside the main embassy building. I managed to talk my way into the building to interview some of the student revolutionaries. I don’t remember what they said, but I was so excited by whatever it was that after filling my notebook I ran directly to the phone booth next to the embassy to call my story in to the bureau.

Jerry Maguire (film) Jersey Boys (musical) Jerusalem Jet (company) Jewish Mafia jihadists, see Islamist terrorism jobs, see workforce, innovation in Jobs, Steve “Jobs Crisis, The: Bigger Than You Think” (Mead) job seekers: credentials and; intelligent algorithms and; intelligent assistants and Johnson, John Johnson, Lyndon Joint IED Defeat Organization journalism: author’s career in; explanatory; opinion writing vs. Journal of History and Theory Kagol, Miriam Kalra, Prem Kalra, Urmila Kanagawa, Treaty of (1854) Kannan, P. V. Kaplan, Fred KARE (TV station) Karp, Alexander Karsner, Andy Kauffman Foundation kayaking Kelly, John E., III Kennedy, David Kennedy, John F. Kernza Khan, Salman “Sal” Khan Academy Khomeini, Ayatollah Kiev Kilby, Jack Kindle King, Jeremy Kissinger, Henry Knight Capital knowledge, stocks vs. flows of knowledge economy Koch, Hannes Kreisky, Bruno Krishna, Arvind Krzanich, Brian Kshirsagar, Alok Kunene River Kurdistan Kurniawan, M. Arie Kurzweil, Ray labor market, see workforce, innovation in Labour Party, British Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, Mohamed Lancet Lanchester, John Land, Edwin Land Institute laser science latency Latin America; emigration from Latinos LaunchCode.org Lavie, Peretz leadership; definition of; ethics and learned behavior Learning by Doing (Bessen) LearnUp.com Lebanese American University Lebanese PTT Lebanon; U.S. educational aid to LED lighting Lee Kuan Yew Leuthardt, Eric C.


When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

.; this introduced iron, copper and horses, thereby strengthening the area. These factors, as well as an extreme climate that has engendered a tough, vigorous populace, have enabled Persians to enjoy dominance of the region up to modern times. The Pahlavi monarchy (the Shah) was overthrown in 1979, and the Islamic Republic of Iran was established and endorsed by a universal referendum a month later. Ayatollah Khomeini emerged as the undisputed leader. Rule by religious leaders has continued into the twenty-first century. In economic terms, it is important to understand that currently the Iranians are cautious about signing large new contracts with foreign firms. There are big differences in attitude 396 WHEN CULTURES COLLIDE between the private and the public sectors: whereas trade with the private sector can be fast, mobile and present-oriented, the state has put on the brakes and is more long-term and future-oriented in the types of businesses it will consider.

Islamic faith and values, spirituality new technology, research, invention neighborliness traditional music and literature caution in decision making respect for the wisdom of the old politeness and clemency hospitality family design and pattern seriousness, dignity academic achievement respect for the Islamic role of women their cultural achievements Concepts Leadership and Status In general terms, spiritual leadership is dominant. When the spiritual leader Ayatollah Khomeini decided that it was time for the Shah to step down, support was massive and immediate (over 98 percent). In business, the leader may be identified as the last person to enter the room at a meeting, and he (and it will be a “he”) will sit in the middle. Alternatively, he may show his hospitality by greeting the visitors at the entrance to the room. IRAN 397 Academic achievement is of high importance: in government the Iranian leader must be a “fully qualified theologian,” selected by “experts.”


pages: 405 words: 121,999

The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Scott: The Great Gatsby, 115 food prices: fall in Victorian times, 73 food production (global), 44; see also Malthus, Thomas France: ethnic composition, 26; European immigrants, 110–11, 121, 158; fears German rivalry, 91–2; fertility rates, 105, 144–5; life expectancy increases, 107; little emigration, 50; manpower in First World War, 97; north African immigrants, 158; numbers of children born, 16; population compared with Germany, 79; pro-natalism and encouragement of fecundity in, 121; rural living conditions in eighteenth century, 4; rural remoteness, 76; size of economy, 56; slow population growth, 19, 50–1, 83, 86, 88, 120–1; slow urbanisation, 50 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, 189 Freedom House, 241 French, Marilyn: The Women’s Room, 141 Freud, Sigmund, 111 Gaddafi, Muammar, 224 Gandhi, Indira, 142, 264 Gandhi, Sanjay, 264 Gaza: fertility rate, 249–50, 252; relations with Israel, 252–3 George III, King of Great Britain, 64 Germans: US immigrants, 65, 66, 92 Germany: birth rate, 30; Catholic–Protestant divide, 81; East and West merge, 189; Eastern birth rate falls, 186; economic size, 23, 78, 80; expansion, 69; family size, 81–2; fear of Russian power, 93–4, 98; fertility rates, 32–3, 104–5, 145, 148, 158, 231–2, 259; future population decline, 279; as goal for non-European immigrants, 245; immigrants, 82, 156, 158–9; increased life expectancy, 80–1; invades Soviet Russia, 127–8; Jews emigrate, 110–11, 125; life expectancy, 151; manpower in First World War, 97; median age, 207; old-age pensions, 152; orderly society, 242; political reaction to immigration, 159; population growth, 51, 79, 83, 86, 91–4, 104; population in Second World War, 129; post-war baby boom, 137; pro-natal movement, 125; rapid industrial development, 95; rivalry with Britain, 70–1, 78–9, 91, 94; rural large families, 81; territorial expansion and settlement (Lebensraum), 125–6; unified from smaller states, 78–9; urbanisation, 81, 105 Goldstein, Ferdinand, 93 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 164–6 Granicus, Battle of (334 BC), 19 Grant, Madison: The Passing of the Great Race or the Racial Bias of European History, 114 Great Depression (1930s), 110, 133 Great Stink (London, 1858), 72 Greece: extra-marital births, 147; median age, 191 Gregory, John Walter: The Menace of Color, 115 Guatemala, 257 Guinea: death rate, 33; median age, 33 Haggard, Sir Henry Rider, 118–19 Haycraft, Dr John Berry: Darwinism and Race Progress, 89 Hayhoe, Aida, 76 Herzen, Alexander, 84 Hiroshima, 211 history: demography and, 29; shaping of, 6–7 Hitler, Adolf: and German war casualties, 126; Houston Stewart Chamberlain applauds, 200; military interference, 128; racial theories and German population, 100, 125–6, 127; and settlement of Ukraine, 202; war in Russia, 169 Holocaust, 8, 247–8 Honduras, 257 Hong Kong: life expectancy, 206 Howard, Michael, 111 Hu Yaobang, 216 Hughes, William, 117 Huguenots, 17 Human Development Index, 237 Ibn Khaldun, 20 Illustrated London News, 53 immigration: countries of origin, 156–9; effects, 153; into Europe from Middle East, 236; political reactions to, 159 Independent (newspaper), 155 India: British imperialism in, 60; emigrants, 118; famines, 261; fertility rates, 221, 262, 264, 265, 267; immigrants in UK, 157; independence, 127; life expectancy, 265; male life expectancy, 180; Muslims in, 231; population size, 24, 221, 261–2; size of economy, 23, 55, 266; sterilisation programme, 264–5 Indonesia: health care, 49; population size, 222; size of economy, 23 industrialisation: global spread, 22; rates of, 80 infant mortality: falls, 15–16, 72–3; historic, 3, 5, 8; in North Africa and Middle East, 230; in Russian central Asian republics, 171 infanticide: in China, 213; in Japan, 198, 213 Iran: fertility rates, 231, 234, 254; numbers of children born, 16; population policies, 233–4; status of women in, 234 Iraq: birth and death rates, 30; family size, 21, 230; median age, 225; militants, 20 Ireland: death and birth rates, 30; emigration, 46, 53, 59, 77, 109, 137; famine, 8, 53, 67; high fertility rate, 137, 148; importance of potato in, 52; nationalism and home rule, 54; population fall in Victorian age, 54; population growth, 52; separation from Britain, 127 ISIS, 242, 247 Islam: achievements, 237; pro-natalism, 233; role in Middle East and North Africa, 231–2; see also Muslims Israel: conflict with Palestinians, 245–7; fertility rate, 32, 250–1, 271; and Gaza Strip, 252–3; immigration, 248–9, 251; Russian Jews migrate to, 170, 184, 248; territories, 252; water supply and consumption, 238; see also West Bank Italy: emigration declines, 124; emigration to USA and Argentina, 87, 109; fertility rates, 137, 145–6; future population decline, 279; immigrants in France, 110; large family size, 86; low extra-marital births, 147; median age, 207; population increase, 124; population policy under Fascism, 124; settlers in North Africa, 228; women’s work handicaps, 147 Ivory Coast see Côte d’Ivoire Jacobite rising (1745–6), 46 Japan: adopts European practices, 120; centenarians, 208; death rate, 30, 33; defeat (1945), 211; defeats Russia (1904–5), 162, 195–6, 201; demographic transition, 196, 199; economic decline, 209; economy and population size, 24, 203; extra-marital births, 204; falling birth rates, 18, 205–6; fertility rate falls, 204–5, 207; government debt, 209; high life expectancy, 151, 206–7; inadequate early data, 197; infanticide in, 198; low emigration, 202; low marriage and sex relations, 205; median age and ageing population, 33, 207–9, 275–6; modernisation and rise to power, 196–201; modest immigration, 207; not seen as threat, 83; orderly society, 242; population trend, 14, 206–7; post-war baby boom, 204; post-war pacifist policy, 209; pressure on pensions system, 206; pro-natalist policies, 203; reliance on agricultural imports, 202; small family sizes, 206, 208; stable population, 197; status and education of women, 204–5; territorial expansion and settlement question, 203; as threat to Australia, 116–17; twentieth-century population increase, 199, 202; wartime losses, 203; Western alarm at rise of, 203 Jefferson, Thomas, 64, 66, 134–5 Jews: birth rate, 251; emigrate from Soviet Russia to Israel, 170, 184, 248; flee Germany and Italy, 110–11; immigrants in England, 46; migrants to USA, 77, 87, 108–9; numbers, 248; persecuted in Russia, 110; see also Israel; Zionism Jihadism, 240 Kazakhstan, 171 Kenya: female literacy, 270; fertility rate, 269; population growth, 36 Keynes, John Maynard: The Economic Consequences of the Peace, 101–2 Khameini, Ali, 234 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 233 Kingsley, Charles, 53 Kipling, Rudyard, 83 Kirk, Dudley, 112 Knowlton, Charles: The Fruits of Philosophy, 74 Koch, Robert, 73 Kollontai, Alexandra, 122 Korea: migrants in Japan, 202 Korea, North: Soviet-style policies, 178 Korea, South: falling birth rates, 222; fertility rate, 217; life expectancy, 222; median age, 223, 274 Kosovo, 190 Kravitz, Lenny: ‘Rock and Roll is Dead’ (song), 138 Ku Klux Klan, 114 Kurds: and Armenian massacres, 227; Turkish attitude to, 28 Lagos, Nigeria, 272 Lancet, The, 75, 90–1 Latin America: Catholicism in, 262; cultural and geographical differences, 255–6; demographic pattern, 255–6; falling infant mortality, 256; fertility rates, 257–8; immigrants in USA, 143, 153–5; population growth, 260; Spanish empire in, 57–8 Latvia: population decline, 279 Lazarus, Emma, 135 League of Nations: data collection, 107; formed, 130; mandates in Middle East, 228 Lebanon: conflict in, 28 Lenin, Vladimir I., 122, 165, 169 Le Pen, Marine, 159 Leroy-Beaulieu, Paul: La question de la population, 120 Lesotho: fertility rate, 268 LGBTQ: effect on demography, 282 liberalism: decline after First World War, 122 Libya: civil breakdown, 247; fertility rate, 230; median age, 275 life expectancy: calculation, 283–4; and death rates, 33; increase, 5, 7–8, 107, 148–9; male–female differences, 180 Lister, Joseph, 1st Baron, 73 Lithuania: fertility rate, 148 Lloyd George, David, 89, 120 London: conditions in nineteenth century, 4–5, 72–3; differences in birth rates in boroughs, 90; sewage system and public hygiene, 73; suburbs develop, 45 Lönne, Friedrich, 93 Louisiana Purchase (1804), 65 Luxembourg: economy, 24, 55–6 McCain, John, 25 McCleary, G.

In Egypt, for example, a study in the early 1970s found that barely one in ten married women had attended a family planning clinic, at that stage still overwhelmingly the most common way in which contraception was obtained.27 Once policies were adopted, however, they could be very effective. The speed with which fertility rates fell in Iran has already been noted, and although this may have happened anyway, it was certainly prompted by the Islamic Republic. Indeed, Iran makes an interesting case study, which in some ways resembles China. The Khomeini regime which took power in 1979 was at first pro-natalist, as was Mao’s–again like Mao’s basing this stance on its ideology. The Shah’s family planning programmes were partly discontinued and, with the outbreak of war with Iraq in 1980, the permitted age of marriage was lowered. There was a modest rise in what was already a high fertility rate and by the end of the decade the Mullahs were starting to get alarmed at the burgeoning population growth.


pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

Although the Reagan administration was more realistic about Ethiopia than was the Carter administration, the former did precious little with its realism. If ever a Third World country were a candidate for the Reagan Doctrine, it was Ethiopia. But Ethiopian politics plays to an empty house in the United States. There is no personality to capture the crowd's attention. Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam has proved himself to be more ruthless and more cunning than either Muammar Gaddafi or Ayatollah Khomeini. By the standards of several human rights reports, Mengistu is the world's cruelest leader. But like many communist rulers, he is a faceless bureaucrat. The vast majority of the U.S. populace wouldn't even recognize him. Mengistu had a predecessor whose face was known throughout the world—Haile Selassie. To many, Ethiopia—a Greek word meaning the land of the “burned faces”—still brings to mind that other image in addition to the one of the starving child: Haile Selassie, the little dark man with the beard, as small as he was larger than life.


pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

The list of attacks that came before the walls went up is long. There have been more than 150 in the wider Middle East this century, including compounds in Riyadh housing foreign workers; hotels across Egypt’s Sinai province and in Jordan’s Amman; oil facilities in Yemen and Algeria; churches in Baghdad; the US Consulate in Benghazi; the Bardo Museum in Tunis; and the Iranian Parliament and shrine of Ayatollah Khomeini. The walls went up in these at-risk urban centres in response to the many attacks. The template for this type of wall construction was the ‘Green Zone’ in Baghdad, whose perimeter was built after the 2003 invasion of Iraq to protect the American-led ‘Provisional Government’ in the post-Saddam years. Comprising a huge area of central Baghdad, the Green Zone was ringed by giant concrete slabs, similar to those we see in the walled section of the West Bank.


pages: 279 words: 72,659

Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians by Ilan Pappé, Noam Chomsky, Frank Barat

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Islamic Golden Age, New Journalism, one-state solution, price stability, too big to fail

Jerusalem Demolition,” Reuters, March 4, 2009. 64 Among others, on Hamas see Ismail Haniyeh, “Aggression Under False Pretenses,” Washington Post, July 11, 2006; Khalid Mish’al, “Our Unity Can Now Pave the Way for Peace and Justice,” Guardian, February 13, 2007. Guy Dinmore and Najmeh Bozorgmehr, “Iran ‘Accepts Two-state Answer’ in Mideast,” Financial Times, September 2, 2006; “Leader Attends Memorial Ceremony Marking the 17th Departure Anniversary of Imam Khomeini,” The Center for Preserving and Publishing the Works of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei, June 4, 2006, http://english.khamenei.ir/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=442&Itemid=2. See also Iran scholar Ervand Abrahamian, “Khamenei Has Said Iran Would Agree to Whatever the Palestinians Decide,” in David Barsamian, ed., Targeting Iran (San Francisco: City Lights, 2007), 112. Hassan Nasrallah has repeatedly expressed the same position. 65 For brief review of the record, and sources, see Failed States.


pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

Over the years, these attempts have always failed. But after the failures in Iraq, and to the extent that the United States could neither revive the balance of power nor leave Iran the dominant power in the Persian Gulf region, it would be natural enough for the Americans to consider some kind of attack to oust the Iranian government. The fact that this regime is split between old clerics who came to power with Ayatollah Khomeini and younger, nonclerical leaders such as Ahmadinejad adds to Iranian worries. But the leaders’ primary concern is that they have seen other U.S.-sponsored uprisings succeed, particularly in the former Soviet Union, and they cannot take the chance that the United States won’t get lucky again. The Iranians noted the manner in which North Korea had managed a similar problem in the 1990s, when its government feared that the collapse of Soviet communism would lead to its own collapse.


pages: 368 words: 120,794

The Ten Million Dollar Getaway: The Inside Story of the Lufthansa Heist by Doug Feiden

air freight, Ayatollah Khomeini, large denomination, urban decay

Until then, the FBI was in a real bind, although its latest predicament was also quite comical. The Bureau had to talk one man out of a crew of eighteen hard-core, hard-boiled, hardbitten mobsters into first turning canary, and then turning state’s evidence. Good luck. The agents’ first target was Tony Ducks. They should have known better. Getting him to join the Federal Witness Program was like getting the Ayatollah Khomeini to enroll in a rabbinical school. When the five G-men came calling at his Queens home, Tony Ducks invited them in for a glass or two of red wine, which they dutifully refused. Then he motioned them into the study, where he ran his business operations, and they sank deep into his plushly cushioned mahogany chairs. Then Tony Ducks, surrounded by his battery of high-priced lawyers, waved his hands and grandly opened the floor to questions.

Informed by his advance men that one of the city’s boroughs mysteriously takes an article before it, Jackson, apparently confusing Queens with the Bronx, spoke eloquently about “the needs of the people here in the Queens.” He was virtually laughed out of town and never had a chance at the polls. In many ways, Queens is a political anomaly. Its Ninth Congressional District is geographically close to Manhattan’s chic and liberal Upper East Side, but the Ninth is as far away in spirit from John Lindsay’s “silk-stocking district” as it is from the Iran of the Ayatollahs. This is Archie Bunker country, and to the conservative homeowners who live here, Manhattan is always referred to as “the City”—as if it were some faraway and exotic land. It is. While the wealthy East Side voted fifty-eight percent for George McGovern in the 1972 presidential election, the Ninth went seventy-three percent for Richard Nixon. Thus, in the heart of supposedly Democratic New York City—“the citadel of liberalism,” as George Wallace once called it—the Ninth gave Nixon the largest margin he got anywhere in New York State.


pages: 450 words: 134,152

The Deal of the Century: The Breakup of AT&T by Steve Coll

Ayatollah Khomeini, cross-subsidies, George Santayana, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

More than two hundred of them signed on as cosponsors of CCRA in early 1976, and of those, probably less than ten fully understood the recent history of competition in the telephone industry. The congressmen had good reason to be frightened. With a million employees spread around the country and a sizable political war chest at its disposal, the phone company was able to raise a terrible sound and fury about the Bell Bill. Its attack on Congress resembled a charge by Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iranian army, for what it lacked in strategic planning, it made up for with waves of human flesh. Bell lobbyists, who became known on Capitol Hill as “shepherds” for the hovering attention they paid to their congressional flock, were flown into Washington by the planeload. They were unusual lobbyists. They shunned Italian pinstripes and fancy Washington bistros, and few of them were lawyers.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The Shah didn’t know that the apparently failed coup had actually rallied key factions of the military to his cause. Faced with an upsurge of support for the Shah, Mossadegh fled, and the younger Pahlavi returned from his brief exile to regain his throne. The Shah protected British and American oil interests in Iran until 1979, when he was overthrown by a popular revolution and replaced by an Islamic fundamentalist regime led by Ayatollah Khomeini. Until his downfall, the Shah’s decades-long rule of Iran was marked by the same brutality that defined Moammar Gadhafi’s regime in Libya and Hosni Mubarak’s years in Egypt. Now deposed, these three rulers also shared another trait: each made sure the oil kept flowing into world markets. For years, these regimes counted on steady oil production to bring cash into the country and keep Western powers so happy that they would tolerate what these men were doing to their own citizens.


pages: 340 words: 81,110

How Democracies Die by Steven Levitsky, Daniel Ziblatt

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Nate Silver, Norman Mailer, old-boy network, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, universal basic income

Through a new political action committee, GOPAC, Gingrich and his allies worked to spread these tactics across the party. GOPAC produced more than two thousand training audiotapes, distributed each month to get the recruits of Gingrich’s “Republican Revolution” on the same rhetorical page. Gingrich’s former press secretary Tony Blankley compared this tactic of audiotape distribution to one used by the Ayatollah Khomeini on his route to power in Iran. In the early 1990s, Gingrich and his team distributed memos to Republican candidates instructing them to use certain negative words to describe Democrats, including pathetic, sick, bizarre, betray, antiflag, antifamily, and traitors. It was the beginning of a seismic shift in American politics. Even as Gingrich ascended the Republican leadership structure—becoming minority whip in 1989 and Speaker of the House in 1995—he refused to abandon his hard-line rhetoric.


pages: 670 words: 169,815

Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng

Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

In his pomp and vanity, Saddam saw himself as a ‘new Saladdin’, a Nebuchadnezzar or a Sargon the Great.44 The cult of Saddam began in those years, and he would enter the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s most frequently painted head of state.45 The vast increase in oil revenues, the new possibilities which wealth offered the Iraqi people, stirred Saddam’s ambition. On 17 September 1980, fully resplendent in the uniform of the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Saddam stood before the National Assembly of Iraq. He renounced the 6 March 1975 agreement which he had signed with the Shah relating to border and other disputes between the two countries. The Iranian revolution of 1979 had put into power a radical Shi’ite cleric, the Ayatollah Khomeini, a religious figure totally opposed to the secular Arab nationalism that Saddam and, before him, Nasser had espoused. Saddam denounced the Iranians as ‘racist’ and ‘Persian’ and launched a war against them.46 The Iran–Iraq conflict was a new manifestation of the age-old conflict between Ottomans and Safavids, between Arabs and Persians, which had shaped the region for many centuries. But in this act of aggression Saddam badly miscalculated.

More than a year before the Agreement had been signed, Sheikh Muhammad Shirazi, a Shia cleric, had issued a fatwa, in January 1919, proclaiming that ‘a non-Muslim could not be allowed by Muslims to rule over the followers of the Prophet’. In March 1920 he was even more explicit, promulgating another fatwa forbidding Muslims to accept any office in the heart of the British administration.30 Later that month, Ayatollah Shirazi took the decision to launch a general uprising against the British. The revolt of 1920 has taken on a mythic status among Iraqis. Even foreigners, who have tried to compare the events of that long hot summer with subsequent occupations, have misunderstood it. To the British, it was often depicted as a case of ungrateful, ill-disciplined natives exploiting imperial weakness. To Wilson, the revolt was a typical example of the Arab ‘kicking a man when he is down’, which he believed was the ‘most popular pastime in the East’.31 Too often British and American historians, often Middle East specialists, have focused exclusively on the Iraqi angle of the revolt.

The fact that both Sunni and Shia had combined during the revolt surprised British officials like General Haldane and Arnold Wilson, who had clearly underestimated ‘the strength of the nationalist movement’.34 Wilson himself, in his memoirs, readily admitted that the ‘deep prejudices which separate the Sunni and Shi’ah sects’ had been ‘temporarily overcome’ during the revolt.35 Despite the overt nationalism, which we, influenced by President Nasser and the Ba’athists of the 1950s, anachronistically regard as a largely secular movement, there was a strong religious element to the uprising. The Ayatollah Shirazi, the Shia cleric whose fatwa had started the trouble, ‘enjoyed unprecedented prestige’ among the Shia community, while his fellow Shia clerics clearly saw their struggle as a holy war.36 Gertrude Bell agreed. Writing to her stepmother in September 1920, she remarked that the British were ‘now in the middle of a full-blown Jihad’, a term we translate as ‘holy war’. She added that this meant that ‘we have against us the fiercest prejudices of a people in a primeval state of civilisation’.37 Of course, the revolt was both religious and nationalistic.


pages: 525 words: 146,126

Ayn Rand Cult by Jeff Walker

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Elliott wave, George Gilder, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, price stability, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, school vouchers, Torches of Freedom

Keith Edwards, former Objectivist turned Libertarian Party activist, states that “Leonard Peikoff and Peter Schwartz have proved that if you act snarky and abuse the people who want to learn your philosophy you are going to lose them. . . . You cannot communicate by excommunicating.” Bidinotto draws a cruel parallel with Atlas Shrugged: Objectivism’s best brains are draining out of it. The Peikoffians, Bidinotto points out even more cruelly given their anti-Khomeini ad in support of Salman Rushdie in The New York Times, “view Objectivism as a mental refuge . . . a door to slam shut against a threatening, revolting world,” yet Objectivism “emphatically does not need a secular Ayatollah, who props up a shaky self-image with denunciations instead of deeds . . . an ideological policeman, whose only evident gratification is the bitter, endless, self-righteous pursuit of ‘evildoers’—no matter how petty their alleged offenses, no matter what their contexts of knowledge.” Crueller still, Bidinotto compares Peikoff to the villain of Hugo’s Les Misérables, Inspector Javert, driven by a petty bureaucratic moralism.

Then he announced one day . . . that his wife had been going through some of Ayn’s papers and had discovered it was true.” Adds Joan Blumenthal, “I constantly thought from the time of the Break that it was impossible that Leonard didn’t know. And yet . . . if you won’t know, you won’t know.” Announced Peikoff: “I certainly do not recommend this book. . . . I have not read it and do not intend to do so.” (Peikoff comes across no better in Passion than does the Ayatollah figure in Salman Rushdie’s The Satanic Verses.) Peikoff dismisses Passion as non-cognitive, prompting libertarian David Brown’s sarcastic inference that closing one’s eyes to the evidence while pronouncing judgment represents cognition at its best. In 1983 Peikoff was damning some early draft of Barbara Branden’s 1986 biography. There are “willful falsehoods motivated by malice mixed into the text,” he told his students, and he would never comment on it.


pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, sexual politics, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

America's exuberant democracy is raucously diverse and secular yet it is simultaneously the last and the probably the greatest ever Christian power - and its evangelicals continue to look to the End Days in Jerusalem, just as US governments see a calm Jerusalem as key to any Middle Eastern peace and strategically vital for relations with their Arab allies. Meanwhile Israel's rule over al-Quds has intensified Muslim reverence: on Iran's annual Jerusalem Day, inaugurated by Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979, the city is presented as more than an Islamic shrine and Palestinian capital. In Tehran's bid for regional hegemony backed by nuclear weapons, and its cold war with America, Jerusalem is a cause that conveniently unites Iranian Shiites with Sunni Arabs sceptical of the ambitions of the Islamic Republic. Whether for Shiite Hezbollah in Lebanon or Sunni Hamas in Gaza, the city now serves as the rallying totem of anti-Zionism, anti-Americanism and Iranian leadership.

* An imam is the leader of a mosque or community but in Shia, imams can be spiritual leaders, chosen by God and blessed with infallibility. The Twelver Shiites of Iran believe in the first twelve imams descended from Muhammad's son-in-law Ali and his daughter Fatima and that the Twelfth Imam was 'occulted' - hidden by God - and will return as the Madhi, the Chosen messianic redeemer of Judgement Day. The Islamic Republic of Iran was founded by Ayatollah Khomeini on this millenarian expectation: the clergy rule only until the Imam's return. * Jerusalem's importance lessened as Mecca's grew: if Jerusalem had perhaps at one point approached Mecca and Medina as part of the haj -'You shall only set out for the three mosques Mecca,Medina, and al-Aqsa,' declared one of the hadith of al-Khidri - now under the Abbasids,Jerusalem was reduced to a ziyara, a pious visit

Jerusalemites looked back at this time as a golden age ruled by the ideal high priest who, they said, resembled 'the morning star in the midst of a cloud'.28 SIMON THE JUST: THE MORNING STAR When Simon* emerged from the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement, the High Priest 'was clothed in the perfection of glory, when he went up to the holy altar'. He was the paragon of the high priests who ruled Judah as anointed princes, a combination of monarch, pope and ayatollah: he wore gilded robes, a gleaming breastplate and a crown-like turban on which he sported the nezer, a golden flower, the symbol of life and salvation, a relic of the headdress of the kings of Judah. Jesus Ben Sira, the author of Ecclesiasticus and the first writer to capture the sacred drama of the flourishing city, described Simon as 'a cypress tree which groweth up to the clouds'. Jerusalem had become a theocracy - the very word was invented by the historian Josephus to describe this statelet with its 'entire sovereignty and all authority in the hands of God'.


pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, post-work, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

The highest-profile victim of MOIS foreign operations, assassinated in Paris in 1991, was the Shah’s last Prime Minister, Shahpur Bakhtiar, an outspoken critic of the Islamic Republic established by the Ayatollah Khomeini twelve years before.7 The fact that none of the killings took place in the UK8 probably owed much to successful Security Service and Special Branch surveillance and periodic disruption of MOIS operations against dissidents. The main target of MOIS UK operations during the 1990s, some of them assisted by its Lebanese Shia ally, Hizballah (‘Party of God’),9 was one of Britain’s best-known writers, the Indian-born Salman Rushdie, author of the novel The Satanic Verses, whose title referred to the medieval legend (deeply insulting to most Muslims), retold by Rushdie, that some of the Quran’s original verses originated with Satan and were later deleted by Muhammad. In February 1989, four months before his death, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa condemning Rushdie and his publishers to death for blasphemy: ‘I call on zealous Muslims to execute them quickly, wherever they find them, so that no one will dare to insult Islam again.’

M. 378, 428 Jones, Sir Elwyn 525, 530, 543 Jones, Jack 379, 535–6, 587, 588–9, 657, 711 Jones, Sir John: Deputy Director General 552, 555; appointment as DG (1981) 555–6; background and character 556, 696; management style 556–7, 688, 696, 721; reputation as DG 556; and Massiter case 559; on industrial subversion 591, 658–9, 854; and counterterrorism 613, 616–17, 621, 696, 701–2, 734; and alleged plot against Wilson 640; and peace movement 674, 676; and Bettaney case 720; and Spycatcher affair 761, 762 Jordan 607–8, 609, 808 Joseph, Sir Keith 671, 672 Joyce, William 193–4, 225 Joynson-Hicks, Sir William 154, 155–6 July 2005 terrorist attacks (London) 821–3, 858 K Branch 548, 584, 713, 745; KI0B 788; K3 708; K4 714, 715, 716; K6 441, 710, 718, 731; K7 571; K8 731, 732; see also Appendix 3 Kagan, Sir Joseph 627–30, 631, 639 Kapitsa, Pyotr 167–8, 172, 854 Kaufman, Sir Gerald 756–7, 758 Keeler, Christine 494–5, 496, 497–8, 499, 500 Kell, Constance, Lady 23, 108; ‘Secret Well Kept’ 41, 42, 50, 56, 66, 71–2, 98, 113–14, 218 Kell, Sir Vernon: recruitment 3, 21, 22, 24, 25–8; and Cumming 3, 25–6, 27–8, 96, 97; and Haldane 15; background and character 21–3, 29, 82, 120; development of MO5(g) 28, 29–30, 31, 48–9, 52, 58; and Churchill 29–30, 37, 88, 239; contacts with chief constables 29–30, 31, 35, 48, 50–51, 191, 239, 861, 858; pre-First World War German espionage investigations 30–52, 861; and Defence of the Realm Act 53, 142; division of MO5(g) 56–8; and counter-subversion 65–6, 95, 96–7, 103, 129, 140, 142, 185, 268; and opposition to First World War 66; and First World War German espionage and sabotage attempts 67, 70–72, 77, 861; and forensic science 70–71; and censorship 71; rivalry with Thomson 81–3, 106–7, 108, 115; domestic life 97–8, 108, 132–3; health problems 97–8, 108, 219; quarrel with Drake 98; knighthood 109; fights for survival of MI5 114–16, 117, 121–2; and Makgill 122–3; founds Intelligence and Police dining club 125; and General Strike 125–6; management style 133; and recruitment of staff 133, 135; relations with Whitehall officials 136–7, 154; and classification of subjects by race 143; and Labour Party 146; and Zinoviev letter 149, 154; and ARCOS raid 154; and dockyard sabotage 177–8; reports on Fascist movement 191, 192, 193; and Ustinov 196; and investigation of Auslands Organisation 197; on Hitler 198; memorandum on Nazi Germany (1936) 198; and Munich crisis 203, 206, 853; and outbreak of Second World War 207; wartime economy measures 217–18; question of succession as head 218–19, 228, 237; wartime shortcomings 219, 222–3, 227, 855, 859; dismissal as director (1940) 227, 237; on Kenyatta’s time in Moscow 455; views on recruitment 549 Kellar, Alex 350–51, 448–9, 450, 456, 468–9, 478–9 Kennedy, John F. 477, 478, 490, 493, 494, 497, 500, 504, 509, 532 Kennedy, Joseph 225, 226 Kennedy, Robert 500, 509 Kent, Bruce 673, 675 Kent, Tyler 224–5, 226, 230 Kenya 454, 456–8, 466–8, 472–3, 474, 475, 803, 808, 809, 856 Kenyatta, Jomo 176, 454–7, 466, 467–8 Kerrigan, Peter 386, 410, 853 KGB (Soviet intelligence agency): disinformation department 90; use of forgery 90; Second World War codenames 349; and American Communist Party 366; Wilson and 417, 418–19; mishandling of Cambridge Five 420–21, 426, 433, 434, 856–7; African operations 452, 470; growth of London residency 491, 565–7; contacts with British trade union movement 536, 589, 657; mass expulsion of London personnel (Operation FOOT) 565–7, 571–3, 574–5, 576, 579, 585–6, 732, 859; Department V (sabotage and covert attack) 567–9, 573–4, 605; resumes operations after expulsions 579–86; ‘psycho-physiological’ testing of agents 585; supply of arms to PFLP and IRA 605–6, 622; and Middle Eastern terrorism 648; and peace movement 673, 674–5, 675–6; and Libyan terrorism 701; Operation RYAN 709, 722–3, 861; Lines in KGB residencies 710; First Chief Directorate 713; Third Directorate 713; recall of illegals from Britain 726, 727; expulsion of agents following Gordievsky defection 727, 730, 736; return of illegals to Britain 727–8; monitoring of Jewish dissidents 728; effect of British visarefusal policy 732, 733 Khan, Mohammed Siddique 822–3 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah 685, 800 Khrushchev, Nikita 326, 327, 404, 417, 445, 497 King, John 174, 263–6, 268, 854 Kinnock, Neil 642, 663, 664, 667, 681, 766 Kipling, Rudyard 855; Kim 4, 401 Kirby Greene, Philip 463, 464 Kirke, Sir Walter 25, 71 Klugmann, James 404, 438, 538–9 Knight, (Charles Henry) Maxwell: background and character 123, 132; eccentricities 123; exotic pets 123; infiltration of Fascist movement 123–4, 132, 191, 193; member of IIB 123–4; penetration of Right Club 124, 221, 224–7; political views 124; Communist subversion investigations 128–9, 132, 165, 179–80, 221, 401; recruited by SIS 128–9; Special Branch surveillance of 129; transferred to MI5 131–2; working methods 132, 179; women agents 221, 401; recruitment of Himsworth 273 Knightsbridge bombing (1982) 697, 699 Knouth, Betty (Gilberte/ Elizabeth Lazarus) 355–7 Kollek, Teddy 353, 354 Korean War 388, 407, 488, 489 Korovin (Nikolai Rodin; KGB resident) 520 Kriegsnachrichtenstelle (German war intelligence centre) 66–8, 72–3, 76 Krivitsky, Walter 180, 220, 263–8, 272, 341 Kroger, Peter and Helen see Cohen, Morris and Lona Krüger, Otto 245, 246 Labouchere, Frank 96, 97 Labour Party: suspicions about Security Service 116, 146, 522, 525–6, 531, 758, 793, 847; control of Daily Herald 125; Conservative agents in Labour HQ 126; first Labour government (1924) 146–9, 159, 186, 319, 847; 1924 election 150, 151; 1929 election 160; 1945 election landslide 319, 411, 847; and extension of vetting system 380, 381–2, 392, 393; 1950 and 1951 elections 391, 412; International Department 407; NEC 411, 536, 577–8, 660–61, 663–4; search for crypto-Communist MPs 411–15, 522, 526, 531, 660, 847–8, 84; 1964 election 480, 520; 1966 election 527; Communists’ attempts to penetrate NEC 577–8; 1974 elections 578, 627, 633; Communists’ influence on left wing 656, 657, 668–9; Militant Tendency 660–64, 667, 680, 681–2; 1979 election 667; 1987 election 681; policy for establishment of intelligence and security committee 755; and Interception of Communications Act (1985) 756–7; 1997 election landslide 791, 797 Labour Party Young Socialists (LPYS) 661–2, 664 labour unrest 65–6, 95–7, 107, 122–3, 125–6, 147–8, 588–99, 594, 656, 664–7, 670–73; see also strikes; trade unions Lakey, Arthur see Allen, Albert Lamphere, Robert 372, 387 Lander, Sir Stephen: background and character 561, 789–90, 811; training reforms 561; on John Jones 696; on European security and intelligence collaboration 748; and Irish Republican terrorism investigations 751, 773, 775–6; on Rimington 774; on budget and staffing cuts 781, 786–7; installation of new computer systems 781; and Northern Ireland peace process 783, 795, 797; and acquisition of new work 787, 788, 794; apppointed DG 788–9; and recruitment advertising 791; and Shayler affair 792–3; on counter-terrorism and terrorism threat 797, 855–6; and Islamist terrorism 807, 809–12, 814; relations with Blair 811–12; retirement (2002) 814 Landman, Samuel 359–61 LARGE, Operation 806–7 Lazarus, Gilberte/Elizabeth (Betty Knouth) 355–7 le Carré, John (David Cornwell) 131, 350 Le Queux, William 4, 8–9, 13–14, 18, 20–21, 23, 47, 54–5 Leander, Torsten 759–60, 766, 767 Lenin, Vladimir 99–100, 139, 141, 144, 147, 853 Libya: support for PIRA 622–3, 649, 699, 703, 737–8; funding for NUM 679, 680; Qaddafi’s assassination campaigns against émigre´s 688–90, 700–702; sponsorship of Abu Nidal 691, 734, 735; Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with 701; US air-raid on (1986) 735; Lockerbie (PanAm 103 bombing) 746–8 Libyan embassy/People’s Bureau (London) 689; siege (1984) 700–701, 702 Liddell, Guy: early career 118, 130; joins MI5 118, 120, 130; background and character 130–31, 190, 229; private life 131; management style 133, 323; and Zinoviev letter 158; and Kapitsa investigation 168; visits Berlin (1933) 189–90; recruitment of agents 190, 219, 329; and Munich crisis 206; and outbreak of war 213; and wartime aliens’ investigations 222; on ‘fifth column’ fears 224, 229–30; and Kent–Wolkoff case 225, 226; establishment of RSLOs 230; made head of B Division 236–7, 255; wins respect of wartime recruits 238; on Putlitz 242; on interrogation of TATE 251–2; and GARBO 254, 310; member of Twenty Committee 255, 256; on Krivitsky’s interrogation 264, 265; offers job to Blunt 269; and recruitment of Burgess 270, 272, 856; and wartime Soviet espionage 277, 278, 280, 856; and Churchill 287, 289, 308; on threat of V-weapons 313–14; onVE Day 316–17; and postwar double agents 317–18; on Sillitoe’s appointment as DG 319–2; on Attlee 321–2; and Sir Norman Brook 322; retirement from Security Service 323; and Gouzenko defection 340, 345–6, 347–8; and Volkov attempted defection 343; and Zionist extremists 353–4, 358; and Special Relationship 365–6; and VENONA 366, 371, 372; and vetting system 381–2; and atom spies 383–4, 385, 387, 389; and investigations into CPGB 401; and crypto-Communists on Labour’s backbenches 411; on Burgess’s behaviour 422; refuses Philby’s approach to become Washington SLO 423; establishment of SLO in India 442, 443; and Malayan Emergency 448; on African nationalist movements 452, 453; double-agent allegations 706 Lines (departments) of Soviet residencies 710; Line F 569, 574; Line KR 714–15; Line PR 675, 679, 709, 710–12, 730; Line X 579–86, 710, 730, 732 Litvinov, Maksim 95, 145, 175, 281 Lloyd George, David 37, 96, 98, 99, 101, 106, 139, 144, 145, 147 Lockerbie (PanAm 103 bombing; 1988) 746–8 Lod Airport massacre (1972) 609–10, 613, 614 Lody, Carl 64–5, 67, 68, 89 London Controlling Section (LCS) 284, 318 London Reception Centre (LRC) 250–51 Long, Leo 269, 280, 348–9 Long, Walter 107, 109 Lonsdale, Gordon (Konon Trofimovich Molody) 485–8, 520, 728 LORELEI, Operation 553 ‘Lost Sheep’ 411–15, 522, 847–8 Loyalist paramilitaries 600, 619, 624, 653–4, 683–4, 738, 852 LUCKY ALPHONSE, Operation 463 Lyalin, Oleg 567–71 573–4, 584, 605, 627, 710 Lynskey Tribunal (1948–9) 361–2 Lyttelton, Oliver 449, 454, 460 M Section 131–2, 134; see also Appendix 3 Macassey, Sir Lynden 9, 96 McCann, Danny 739, 740, 741, 742–3, 744–5 McCarthy, Joseph 393, 440, 460 MacDonald, A.

On 30 April 1980 six armed terrorists burst into the Iranian embassy at Prince’s Gate in Knightsbridge and seized twenty-six hostages, one of whom was a member of the Metropolitan Police’s Diplomatic Protection Group.13 The terrorists, who called themselves the ‘Group of the Martyr’ and supported the movement for autonomy in Iranian ‘Arabistan’, demanded that ninety-one members of the movement imprisoned by the Khomeini regime (which had taken power in Iran after the fall of the Shah) should be released, that the regime should recognize the ‘legitimate rights of the Iranian peoples’, and that a special plane should be provided to carry the terrorists and their hostages to an unspecified Middle East country. If their demands were rejected, they threatened to destroy the Iranian embassy and kill the hostages. According to Margaret Thatcher’s memoirs, she and the Home Secretary, Willie Whitelaw, were agreed from the outset on their counterterrorist strategy: ‘We would try patient negotiation; but if any hostages were wounded we would consider an attack on the embassy; and if a hostage were killed we would definitely send in the Special Air Service (SAS).’14 During the eighteen months before the hostage crisis there had been increasing contact between the Security Service and SAS, due in part to the personal friendship between David Sutherland, head of a C Branch section, and Brigadier (later General Sir) Peter de la Billière, the SAS director.15 After the terrorist attack on the Iranian embassy, Security Service officers took part, as usual, in the COBR crisis-management group in the Cabinet Office, chaired by the Home Secretary, which was manned around the clock throughout the hostage crisis.16 COBR was told there was reliable intelligence that the terrorists had been recruited and trained by the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq, then at war with Iran.17 Though the regime, unsurprisingly, did not admit responsibility for the operation, the terrorists’ demands were publicly supported by the government-controlled Iraqi press.18 Following the Service’s well-rehearsed procedures for dealing with terrorist hostage-taking, an intelligence team together with a large A Branch technical support group was quickly deployed to the scene of the embassy siege to support the Metropolitan Police and to obtain intelligence to help plan an assault on the Iranian embassy.19 A variety of ingenious eavesdropping devices were used to gather intelligence on the state of mind of the terrorists and their captives, as well as to identify their precise locations in a six-floor embassy with over fifty rooms.20 The Arabic- and Farsi-speaking transcribers who listened in to the conversations inside the embassy were asked to work long and exhausting shifts in the belief that ‘it was preferable for a small number of linguists to build up a detailed mental picture of the gunmen and their hostages, their attitudes and actions, rather than a larger number of linguists being deployed with a resulting loss of continuity’.21 A Branch deployed a total of thirty-five staff in its technical support team, supplemented by sixteen staff seconded from other parts of the intelligence community.22 Thanks to astute negotiation by the police, assisted by intelligence from the Security Service, a series of deadlines set by the terrorists came and went without incident.


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Roller-Coaster: Europe, 1950-2017 by Ian Kershaw

airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, centre right, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, illegal immigration, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour market flexibility, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, young professional

This followed the revolution in Iran in January that year when, following months of massive unrest that even the brutality of the secret police could not bring under control, the Shah of Iran had been deposed. Little more than the puppet of the United States, the Shah’s power had been shored up in 1953 following successful machinations by the CIA and the British MI6 to depose the democratically elected government. The regime was detested by most of the population. The exiled spiritual leader of the Shiite opposition to the Shah, Ayatollah Khomeini, was received by rapturous crowds in Teheran on 1 February on return from exile in France and proclaimed an Islamic republic. This inaugurated new and lasting great political turmoil, not just in the region but across the world. A consequence of the upheavals was a sharp drop in Iranian oil production. Although Saudi Arabia increased production, memories of the previous crisis were enough to cause a new panic.

In December NATO reached a ‘twin-track resolution’: to deploy, mainly in West Germany and Britain, hundreds of cruise and Pershing II missiles (capable of reaching Moscow within ten minutes), while at the same time continuing to work with the Soviet Union towards nuclear arms control. The clouds were already darkening by this time. The Islamic revolution swiftly swept over Iran after the deposition of the Shah and return of Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979. Its consequences would be felt, in Europe and the world beyond, for the rest of the century and beyond. So would what happened in Afghanistan, washed over by outlying waves from the Iranian revolution. An Afghan communist leader, Mohammed Taraki, had seized power in Kabul in April 1978 and set up a communist government. Taraki was himself murdered by a rival, Hafizulla Amin, in September 1979.


pages: 511 words: 148,310

Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide by Joshua S. Goldstein

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business cycle, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, failed state, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of writing, invisible hand, land reform, long peace, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, selection bias, Steven Pinker, Tobin tax, unemployed young men, Winter of Discontent, Y2K

Those wars generally cause more death and destruction than do the more common civil wars—including all of today’s remaining wars—in which a government army on one side fights rebel militia groups (usually more lightly armed) on the other side. The Iran-Iraq War was massively brutal and futile. Iran’s ayatollahs sent teenagers by the thousands to their deaths, promising them paradise. Iraqis electrified swamps to kill Iranians wholesale. They used chemical weapons—the only such case in recent decades—and found them lethally effective. Both sides rained missiles on each other’s cities. And in the end, hundreds of thousands of the deaths and a wasted decade later, the border was right where it had started, and both regimes were still in power, Saddam Hussein and Ayatollah Khomeini. Within a few years Saddam had invaded another of his neighbors, Kuwait. How does that world of the 1980s compare to today’s world? In Lebanon, the civil war finally ended in 1990.


pages: 1,073 words: 314,528