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Mad Mobs and Englishmen? Myths and Realities of the 2011 Riots by Steve Reicher, Cliff Stott
Specifically, the Commission has found no evidence that all or any of the disorders or the incidents that led up to them were planned or directed by any organization or group, international, national or local.’66 Agitator theories were equally popular in explaining the UK riots of the 1980s. Following the Brixton riots of July 1981, the Conservative MP William Shelton blamed left-wingers, saying that ‘they believe that in our inner cities they have found the Achilles heel of our society’. More specifically, he blamed ‘the same hooded and masked men and the same motor cycle riders’ who had been spotted at similar events.84 Again an enquiry was set up to investigate these and other claims. The Scarman report into the Brixton riot concluded that while it was certainly true that outsiders tried to take advantage of circumstances and that they may have urged radical action, there was nothing to suggest that the events had been planned, organized or led by conspirators.67 By 1992, in LA, focus had shifted from outside extremists to local gang members who were organizing events to serve their own disreputable purposes – although there was little evidence to actually support this contention.36 Equally, in 2011, the focus was on gangs, however it didn’t take long for that claim to fall apart.
Others may focus on different targets, such as outsiders or the rich (as in the Tron riots). Yet others may come along once the police are out of the way, to take advantage of the situation: to steal, to settle old scores, to gain profit from bogus insurance claims. These are very different phenomena involving different dynamics, arising from different motivations and involving different groups of people. The Scarman report acknowledged the same complexities in the Brixton riot of 1981.67 However, for all the complexities involved, and the difficulties of separating out who participated and for what reason, Kerner’s team still drew a clear picture of the ‘typical’ rioter: He was not a migrant. He was born in the state and was a life-long resident of the city in which the riot took place. Economically his position was about the same as his Negro neighbours who did not actively participate in the riot ... he was somewhat better educated than the average inner-city Negro ... he takes great pride in his race ... he is substantially better informed about politics than Negroes who were not involved in the riots.66 Further studies of the US riots contributed to this picture.
What turns potential into reality? Something is still needed to kick things off – but what something? That is the question to which we now turn. How do Riots Start? Iconic Events Nearly everyone uses the metaphor of tinder and spark when it comes to describing the inception of a riot. Many examples could be brought to bear, but consider just this one, from the Scarman report into the 1981 Brixton riot. Lord Scarman argues that indignation, resentment and suspicion of the police ‘produced the attitudes and beliefs which underlay the disturbances, providing the tinder ready to blaze into violence on the least provocation, fancied or real, offered by the police.’112 This is a powerful metaphor – dare we say it, a poetic metaphor. It chimes with the images of burning buildings which become the stock representation of riots every time one is mentioned, whether in LA or in Brixton or in L8 – or (as we have seen) in Tottenham.
No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, John Bercow, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Live Aid, loadsamoney, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sloane Ranger, South Sea Bubble, spread of share-ownership, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional
Whitelaw and his party were jeered by residents, and within half an hour another riot had started as police clashed with a crowd outside a burnt-out pub in Railton Road. No buildings were set on fire that night, but there was some organized looting; it was thought that white criminal gangs had moved in to profit from the disturbances. By the end of the evening, another 165 people had been arrested, it was reported that another 122 police officers and 3 members of the public had been injured, and 61 police vehicles and 26 private cars were damaged.19 The Brixton riots were given a vast amount of publicity, making it an obvious risk that copycat riots would break out somewhere. In fact, there were six quiet weeks before riots suddenly broke out in almost every city centre in England. On Friday, 3 July, a group of white skinheads from London’s East End turned up for a concert at a pub called the Broadway, in Southall, West London, an area with a large Asian population.
For the remainder of his time as the environment secretary, Heseltine aimed to visit the region once a week. His influence and restless energy helped push through several major construction projects in Liverpool and in Knowsley, including the building that now houses Granada Television and the 1980s housing in Stockbridge Village. Lord Scarman, who was asked by the government to report on the causes of the Brixton riot, took the Heseltine view and made several recommendations to improve relations with the police, including positive discrimination. All this was ignored, but the government enshrined in legislation his more punitive recommendations, including the creation of a new offence of ‘disorderly conduct’, introduced in the 1986 Public Order Act, which was widely seen as an attempt to bring back the notorious ‘sus’ law under a new name.
It does have within it practices and procedures and even individuals who adhere to and practice racism.’34 None of this improved Labour’s prospects in the 1987 election. There were two seats, in Lewisham and Nottingham, where the arithmetic suggested Labour would win but the black candidates lost, perhaps because of the Atkin affair. However, the bigger news was that for the first time since the 1920s, blacks and asians – Abbott, Boateng, Grant and Vaz – had made it to the House of Commons. After the Brixton riots, a lawyer named Rudy Narayan was chosen to head a new Brixton Defence Committee, until the local youths decided that he was too much of an establishment figure and replaced him with the beat poet Linton Kwesi Johnson, who had arrived in Britain from Jamaica in 1963 as an eleven-year-old boy. The poetry that Johnson began publishing early in the 1970s was highly political and drew a bleak picture of the lives of immigrants.
The London Compendium by Ed Glinert
1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nick Leeson, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket
Many left home, and not wishing to move out of the area, took up places in the local squats, where their refusal to conform to the established social codes and to respect (white) authority provoked hostility from the police. The Brixton riots On three occasions – 1981, 1985 and 1995 – Brixton has witnessed considerable unrest as simmering local tension, mostly caused by policing methods, has boiled over into serious violence. The first Brixton riots, 10–13 April 1981 Early in 1981 plainclothes police stop nearly 1,000 people (mostly black) in Brixton on suspicion (‘sus’) that they have committed or are about to commit a crime, arresting 118 people in one six-day burst. Although the police try to justify the operation by citing a 138 per cent increase in local crime between 1976 and 1980, compared with 38 per cent across London as a whole, they ruin their case by using the operation as an excuse to indulge in racial harassment that causes much resentment locally, resulting in the first Brixton riots. • Friday 10 April 1981.
South-west London BELGRAVIA, SW1 (i) The Cadogan Estate Brompton Road Lennox Gardens Pont Street Sloane Square Sloane Street (ii) Upper Belgravia Belgrave Mews West Belgrave Square Eaton Square Knightsbridge Wilton Crescent (iii) Lower Belgravia Chester Square Lower Belgrave Street BRIXTON, SW2, SW9 Electric Avenue Gresham Road Jebb Avenue CHELSEA, SW3, SW10 (i) north of King’s Road Cale Street Fulham Road (ii) King’s Road King’s Road (iii) Chelsea village Cheyne Row Glebe Place Oakley Street Old Church Street Radnor Walk Royal Avenue Royal Hospital Road Swan Walk Tite Street (iv) Cheyne Walk Cheyne Walk EARL’S COURT, SW5 Warwick Road SOUTH KENSINGTON, SW7 (i) north of Cromwell Road Brompton Road Ennismore Gardens Mews Exhibition Road Kensington Gore Prince’s Gate (ii) south of Cromwell Road Cromwell Place Gloucester Road Harrington Road Queen’s Gate Reece Mews Selwood Terrace The Brixton riots BELGRAVIA, SW1 Belgravia, the flower boxes, and the awnings over doors, and the front walls painted different shades of cream. The gracious living in red with huge green squares outside the windows – Absolute Beginners, Colin MacInnes (1958) An ostentatiously wealthy district dominated by stucco-clad nineteenth-century properties, Belgravia was developed after Lord Grosvenor paid £30,000 in the 1820s for what was then known as the Five Fields a swamp through which the River West-bourne flowed and ‘a place where robbers lie in wait’, as Addison wrote in the Tatler – and obtained an Act of Parliament to drain, clear and raise the land.
The prime minister, Margaret Thatcher, rubbishes suggestions that unemployment and racism lie beneath the Brixton disturbances: ‘Nothing, but nothing, justifies what happened,’ she says, and rejects calls for increasing investment in the area with the claim ‘Money cannot buy either trust or racial harmony.’ Lord Scarman, who is in charge of the inquiry into the disturbances, finds that the riots were spontaneous and that there was no premeditated plan by outside agitators to destroy the area. The second Brixton riots, 28 September 1985 Four years later Brixton erupts again as police officers and youths, mostly black, clash following a police raid on 22 Normandy Road, home of a black man, Michael Groce, who is wanted for illegal possession of a shotgun. During the raid Groce’s mother, Cherry, is wounded by an officer, who later explains how he ‘shot the first black shape I saw’, and is permanently paralysed.
London: The Autobiography by Jon E. Lewis
YOUNG Speakers’ Corner, c. 1963 HEATHCOTE WILLIAMS Winston Churchill Lies in State, January 1965 JOHN STEWART COLLIS The Sixties: Swinging London, April 1965 JOHN CROSBY Gangland: The Shooting of George Cornell at the Blind Beggar, 9 March 1966 RONALD KRAY Grosvenor Square, 17 March 1968 DICK POUNTAIN AND MICK FARREN Oh! Calcutta! 18 August 1970 FRANCES PARTRIDGE The Sex Pistols Play Their First Gig, St Martin’s Art College, 6 November 1975 VARIOUS Wade Wins Wimbledon, 1 July 1977 FRANK KEATING Enter Mrs Thatcher, 4 May 1979 MARGARET THATCHER The SAS Storm the Iranian Embassy, Prince’s Gate, May 1980 ANONYMOUS SAS TROOPER The Brixton Riots, 10–12 April 1981 MARTIN HUCKERBY Docklands: Days in the Life of a Bethnal Green GP, c. 1986–90 DAVID WIDGERY The Funeral Procession of Diana, Princess of Wales, September 1997 DEBORAH BULL Arisen from the Wreckage: 30 St Mary Axe, December 2003 JONATHAN GLANCY The London Bombings, 7 July 2005 VARIOUS Sources and Acknowledgements Index Illustrations 1 Map of Roman London with its grid of straight roads.
Equally, there are some unpleasant surprises in the shaded crannies of London’s past life. Mayhew’s depiction of Victorian ‘toshers’ (those who subsisted by trawling the city’s sewers for saleable refuse) makes for squeamish reading, while the long-standing xenophobia of London is deeply disquieting, stretching back as it does to the massacre of the Jews in 1189. Indeed, violence of all sorts seems imprinted in London’s DNA. The Brixton riots of 1981 were just one part of a chain of Mob outbursts against the Establishment, beginning with the Tallage riots of 1194. The Krays, meanwhile, would have recognized the professional violence of the Edwardian gangster Arthur Harding, who in turn would have appreciated the menacing technique of the highwaymen who robbed the Duke of Ormond in 1674. Similarly, there should be no astonishment in the twenty-first century over antisocial teenagers, because they have been in London’s makeup for centuries: in 1326 the Calendar of the Coroners’ Rolls recorded the death of Roger Styward, an eel-seller, who was kicked to death by Simon de Peckham, an apprentice; in 1712 Lady Stafford was one of many terrorized by the street gang known as the ‘Mohocks’.
Before moving out through the front door of number 14 to the waiting Avis hire van, we had a dramatic visit from Home Secretary William Whitelaw, old Oyster Eyes himself. He stood before us, tears of joy unashamedly running down his cheeks, wringing his hands in relief. He thanked the assembled team members for what they had done for the country that day. ‘This operation will show that we in Britain will not tolerate terrorists. The world must learn this.’ It was a fine personal gesture and rounded the operation off perfectly. The Brixton Riots, 10–12 April 1981 Martin Huckerby Huckerby was a journalist on The Times. AT 8 PM on Saturday night Brixton was burning. A pillar of smoke, hundreds of feet across, rose into the darkening sky; its base was tinged with red from the fires in Railton Road. Further north more smoke climbed from the blazing buildings in Brixton centre. Police in strength occupied the north end of Railton Road, and screened some of the side roads, but along much of the length of this street of sleazy shops, old terraced houses and derelict sites the mob ran wild.
Migrant City: A New History of London by Panikos Panayi
Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, financial intermediation, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, multicultural london english, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white flight
London Metropolitan Archives. 9. An Italian ice cream seller in Victorian London. John Thomson and Adolphe Smith, Street Life in London (London, 1877). 10. A Jewish old-clothes man, 1850s. 11. An Irish street seller, 1850s. 12. Sir Edgar and Lady Leonora Speyer, 1921. Historic Collection / Alamy Stock Photo. 13. Anti-German riots in East London, May 1915. Chronicle / Alamy Stock Photo. 14. The Brixton riots, 1981. © Metropolitan Police Authority / Mary Evans / Mary Evans Picture Library Ltd / age fotostock. 15. Racist activity in East London during the 1970s. Kenneth Leech, Brick Lane 1978: The Events and their Significance (London, 1994). 16. Residents of the Strangers Home for Asiatics, Africans and South Sea Islanders, 1880s. The Graphic, 1889. 17. A Hindu tract seller, 1850s. 18. St George’s German Church, Little Alie Street.
The background to the rioting was a housing shortage that became synonymous with the exploitative activities of the Jewish holocaust survivor Peter Rachman, who purchased properties en masse, as well as resentment at interracial relationships, which acted as the spark for the riots.122 Although Notting Hill declined in importance as a West Indian area after the riots, Brixton would remain the symbolic home of this group during the second half of the twentieth century. Like the East End Jewish ghetto, Brixton symbolized both deprivation, which ultimately led to the Brixton riots of the early 1980s123 accentuated by a type of police persecution which Jews never experienced, and a reconstruction of the homeland. This was encouraged both by religious activity and by the foundation of community groups,124 but also by the way in which West Indian settlement had transformed the nature of street life in Brixton.125 Because of the association with violence and racism, Brixton became the most visible ghetto in post-war London.
Over 100,000 racial attacks may have taken place on a nationwide basis during 1993,80 the year of the murder of Stephen Lawrence, while sixty-three racist killings may have occurred in Britain between 1970 and 1985.81 In 1986 one in four black residents living in the London Borough of Newham ‘had been victims of some form of racial harassment in the previous twelve months’.82 Such violence took place against the background of both official and unofficial prejudice with a race-obsessed media constantly campaigning for a reduction in black and Asian immigration.83 The deprivation and police indifference and victimization, especially the use of stop-and-search tactics, which had characterized relations between the police and the black population, played a major role in the outbreak of the Brixton riots in April 198184 and the Broadwater Farm disturbances in Tottenham in October 1985 following the death of Cynthia Jarrett during a search of her home in 1985.85 Essays written by students at the Metropolitan Police Training School in Hendon in 1982 revealed statements such as: ‘quite frankly I don’t have any liking whatsoever for wogs, nig nogs and Pakis’; and ‘I think all blacks are pains and should be expelled from our country’.86 The issue of police racism came to the forefront again following the murder of Stephen Lawrence by a gang of white youths in Eltham in April 1993, in a case resembling the killing of Kelso Cochrane.
Posh Boys: How English Public Schools Ruin Britain by Robert Verkaik
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alistair Cooke, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Brixton riot, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, G4S, gender pay gap, God and Mammon, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, loadsamoney, mega-rich, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, trade route, traveling salesman, unpaid internship
Yet another colleague described how, at a Combined Cadet Force camp organised by the college, Farage and others had marched through a quiet Sussex village very late at night shouting Hitler-youth songs.’4 At the time, far-right groups were stirring up racist hatred against Britain’s immigrant communities. The National Front held marches in south London which had sparked violent clashes, and during the 1981 Brixton riots, not far away from the school, part of the grounds of Dulwich College were used as an operational base by the police. Emms later said he didn’t remember receiving Deakin’s letter: ‘I didn’t probe too closely into that naughtiness, but the staff were fed up with his cheekiness and rudeness. They wanted me to expel him, but I saw his potential, made him a prefect, and I was proved right.’5 Others were far from convinced.
I too think that things can be in the past and that people grow up from being naughty schoolchildren. Heaven help us if they didn’t, let’s face it, but heaven help us if we believe all children do.6 Farage was quick to defend the general thrust of the claims made against him: ‘To say that this is going over old ground is an understatement. The period during which I was at Dulwich was highly politically charged with the rise of Thatcherism and the Brixton riots just down the road. There were many people of that time who were attracted to extreme groups on both sides of the debate.’ He told the Independent: ‘Whoever sent you this [letter] must be a little [out] of touch to say that I supported Oswald Mosley as he believed in a United States of Europe. Some people need to get over Brexit.’7 At the time Dulwich College did not comment on any of the allegations.
Hello World: Being Human in the Age of Algorithms by Hannah Fry
23andMe, 3D printing, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Brixton riot, chief data officer, computer vision, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, ransomware, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, Shai Danziger, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web of trust, William Langewiesche
(TV show) 97–9 John Carter (film) 180 Johnson, Richard 50, 51 Jones Beach 1 Jones, Robert 13–14 judges anchoring effect 73 bail, factors for consideration 73 decision-making consistency in 51 contradictions in 52–3 differences in 52 discretion in 53 unbiased 77 judges (continued) discrimination and bias 70–1, 75 intuition and considered thought 72 lawyers’ preference over algorithms 76–7 vs machines 59–61 offenders’ preference over algorithms 76 perpetuation of bias 73 sentencing 53–4, 63 use of algorithms 63, 64 Weber’s Law 74–5 Jukebox 192 junk algorithms 200 Just Noticeable Difference 74 justice 49–78 algorithms and 54–6 justification for 77 appeals process 51 Brixton riots 49–51 by country Australia 53 Canada 54 England 54 Ireland 54 Scotland 54 United States 53, 54 Wales 54 discretion of judges 53 discrimination 70–1 humans vs machines 59–61, 62–4 hypothetical cases (UK research) 52–3 defendants appearing twice 52–3 differences in judgement 52, 53 hypothetical cases (US research) 51–2 differences in judgements 52 differences in sentencing 52 inherent injustice 77 machine bias 65–71 maximum terms 54 purpose of 77–8 re-offending 54, 55 reasonable doubt 51 rehabilitation 55 risk-assessment algorithms 56 sentencing consistency in 51 mitigating factors in 53 substantial grounds 51 Kadoodle 15–16 Kahneman, Daniel 72 Kanevsky, Dr Jonathan 93, 95 kangaroos 128 Kant, Immanuel 185 Kasparov, Gary 5-7, 202 Kelly, Frank 87 Kerner, Winifred 188–9 Kernighan, Brian x Killingbeck 145, 146 Larson, Steve 188–9 lasers 119–20 Leibniz, Gottfried 184 Leroi, Armand 186, 192–3 level 0 (driverless technology) 131 level 1 (driverless technology) 131 level 2 (driverless technology) 131, 136 careful attention 134–5 level 3 (driverless technology) 131 technical challenge 136 level 4 (driverless technology) 131 level 5 (driverless technology) 131 Li Yingyun 45 Lickel, Charles 97–8 LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) 119–20 life insurance 109 ‘Lockdown’ (52Metro) 177 logic 8 logical instructions 8 London Bridge 172 London School of Economics (LSE) 129 Loomis, Eric 217n38 Los Angeles Police Department 152, 155 Lucas, Teghan 161–2, 163 machine-learning algorithms 10–11 neural networks 85–6 random forests 58–9 machines art and 194 bias in 65–71 diagnostic 98–101, 110–11 domination of humans 5-6 vs humans 59–61, 62–4 paradoxical relationship with 22–3 recognising images 84–7 superior judgement of 16 symbolic dominance over humans 5-6 Magic Test 199 magical illusions 18 mammogram screenings 94, 96 manipulation 39–44 micro-manipulation 42–4 Maple, Jack 147–50 Marx, Gary 173 mastectomies 83, 84, 92, 94 maternity wards, deaths on 81 mathematical certainty 68 mathematical objects 8 McGrayne, Sharon Bertsch 122 mechanized weaving machines 2 Medicaid assistance 16–17 medical conditions, algorithms for 96–7 medical records 102–7 benefits of algorithms 106 DeepMind 104–5 disconnected 102–3 misuse of data 106 privacy 105–7 medicine 79–112 in ancient times 80 cancer diagnoses study 79–80 complexity of 103–4 diabetic retinopathy 96 diagnostic machines 98–101, 110–11 choosing between individuals and the population 111 in fifteenth-century China 81 Hippocrates and 80 magic and 80 medical records 102–6 neural networks 85–6, 95, 96, 219–20n11 in nineteenth-century Europe 81 pathology 79, 82–3 patterns in data 79–81 predicting dementia 90–2 scientific base 80 see also Watson (IBM computer) Meehl, Paul 21–2 MegaFace challenge 168–9 Mercedes 125–6 microprocessors x Millgarth 145, 146 Mills, Tamara 101–2, 103 MIT Technology Review 101 modern inventions 2 Moses, Robert 1 movies see films music 176–80 choosing 176–8 diversity of charts 186 emotion and 189 genetic algorithms 191–2 hip hop 186 piano experiment 188–90 algorithm 188, 189–91 popularity 177, 178 quality 179, 180 terrible, success of 178–9 Music Lab 176–7, 179, 180 Musk, Elon 138 MyHeritage 110 National Geographic Genographic project 110 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 135 Navlab 117 Netflix 8, 188 random forests 59 neural networks 85–6, 95, 119, 201, 219–20n11 driverless cars 117–18 in facial recognition 166–7 predicting performances of films 183 New England Journal of Medicine 94 New York City subway crime 147–50 anti-social behaviour 149 fare evasion 149 hotspots 148, 149 New York Police Department (NYPD) 172 New York Times 116 Newman, Paul 127–8, 130 NHS (National Health Service) computer virus in hospitals 105 data security record 105 fax machines 103 linking of healthcare records 102–3 paper records 103 prioritization of non-smokers for operations 106 nuclear war 18–19 Nun Study 90–2 obesity 106 OK Cupid 9 Ontario 169–70 openworm project 13 Operation Lynx 145–7 fingerprints 145 overruling algorithms correctly 19–20 incorrectly 20–1 Oxbotica 127 Palantir Technologies 31 Paris Auto Show (2016) 124–5 parole 54–5 Burgess’s forecasting power 55–6 violation of 55–6 passport officers 161, 164 PathAI 82 pathologists 82 vs algorithms 88 breast cancer research on corpses 92–3 correct diagnoses 83 differences of opinion 83–4 diagnosing cancerous tumours 90 sensitivity and 88 specificity and 88 pathology 79, 82 and biology 82–3 patterns in data 79–81, 103, 108 payday lenders 35 personality traits 39 advertising and 40–1 inferred by algorithm 40 research on 39–40 Petrov, Stanislav 18–19 piano experiment 188–90 pigeons 79–80 Pomerleau, Dean 118–19 popularity 177, 178, 179, 183–4 power 5–24 blind faith in algorithms 13–16 overruling algorithms 19–21 struggle between humans and algorithms 20–4 trusting algorithms 16–19 power of veto 19 Pratt, Gill 137 precision in justice 53 prediction accuracy of 66, 67, 68 algorithms vs humans 22, 59–61, 62–5 Burgess 55–6 of crime burglary 150–1 HunchLab algorithm 157–8 PredPol algorithm 152–7, 158 risk factor 152 Strategic Subject List algorithm 158 decision trees 56–8 dementia 90–2 prediction (continued) development of abnormalities 87, 95 homicide 62 of personality 39–42 of popularity 177, 178, 179, 180, 183–4 powers of 92–6 of pregnancy 29–30 re-offending criminals 55–6 recidivism 62, 63–4, 65 of successful films 180–1, 182–3, 183 superiority of algorithms 22 see also Clinical vs Statistical Prediction (Meehl); neural networks predictive text 190–1 PredPol (PREDictive POLicing) 152–7, 158, 228–9n27 assessing locations at risk 153–4 cops on the dots 155–6 fall in crime 156 feedback loop 156–7 vs humans, test 153–4 target hardening 154–5 pregnancy prediction 29–30 prescriptive sentencing systems 53, 54 prioritization algorithms 8 prisons cost of incarceration 61 Illinois 55, 56 reduction in population 61 privacy 170, 172 false sense of 47 issues 25 medical records 105–7 overriding of 107 sale of data 36–9 probabilistic inference 124, 127 probability 8 ProPublica 65–8, 70 quality 179, 180 ‘good’ changing nature of 184 defining 184 quantifying 184–8 difficulty of 184 Washington Post experiment 185–6 racial groups COMPAS algorithm 65–6 rates of arrest 68 radar 119–20 RAND Corporation 158 random forests technique 56–9 rape 141, 142 re-offending 54 prediction of 55–6 social types of inmates 55, 56 recidivism 56, 62, 201 rates 61 risk scores 63–4, 65 regulation of algorithms 173 rehabilitation 55 relationships 9 Republican voters 41 Rhode Island 61 Rio de Janeiro–Galeão International Airport 132 risk scores 63–4, 65 Robinson, Nicholas 49, 50, 50–1, 77 imprisonment 51 Rossmo, Kim 142–3 algorithm 145–7 assessment of 146 bomb factories 147 buffer zone 144 distance decay 144 flexibility of 146 stagnant water pools 146–7 Operation Lynx 145–7 Rotten Tomatoes website 181 Royal Free NHS Trust 222–3n48 contract with DeepMind 104–5 access to full medical histories 104–5 outrage at 104 Rubin’s vase 211n13 rule-based algorithms 10, 11, 85 Rutherford, Adam 110 Safari browser 47 Sainsbury’s 27 Salganik, Matthew 176–7, 178 Schmidt, Eric 28 School Sisters of Notre Dame 90, 91 Science magazine 15 Scunthorpe 2 search engines 14–15 experiment 14–15 Kadoodle 15–16 Semmelweis, Ignaz 81 sensitivity, principle of 87, 87–8 sensors 120 sentencing algorithms for 62–4 COMPAS 63, 64 considerations for 62–3 consistency in 51 length of 62–3 influencing 73 Weber’s Law 74–5 mitigating factors in 53 prescriptive systems 53, 54 serial offenders 144, 145 serial rapists 141–2 Sesame Credit 45–6, 168 sexual attacks 141–2 shoplifters 170 shopping habits 28, 29, 31 similarity 187 Slash X (bar) 113, 114, 115 smallpox inoculation 81 Snowden, David 90–2 social proof 177–8, 179 Sorensen, Alan 178 Soviet Union detection of enemy missiles 18 protecting air space 18 retaliatory action 19 specificity, principle of 87, 87–8 speech recognition algorithms 9 Spotify 176, 188 Spotify Discover 188 Sreenivasan, Sameet 181–2 Stammer, Neil 172 Standford University 39–40 STAT website 100 statistics 143 computational 12 modern 107 NYPD 172 Stilgoe, Jack 128–9, 130 Strategic Subject List 158 subway crime see New York City subway crime supermarkets 26–8 superstores 28–31 Supreme Court of Wisconsin 64, 217n38 swine flu 101–2 Talley, Steve 159, 162, 163–4, 171, 230n47 Target 28–31 analysing unusual data patterns 28–9 expectant mothers 28–9 algorithm 29, 30 coupons 29 justification of policy 30 teenage pregnancy incident 29–30 target hardening 154–5 teenage pregnancy 29–30 Tencent YouTu Lab algorithm 169 Tesco 26–8 Clubcard 26, 27 customers buying behaviour 26–7 knowledge about 27 loyalty of 26 vouchers 27 online shopping 27–8 ‘My Favourites’ feature 27–8 removal of revealing items 28 Tesla 134, 135 autopilot system 138 full autonomy 138 full self-driving hardware 138 Thiel, Peter 31 thinking, ways of 72 Timberlake, Justin 175–6 Timberlake, Justin (artist) 175–6 Tolstoy, Leo 194 TomTom sat-nav 13–14 Toyota 137, 210n13 chauffeur mode 139 guardian mode 139 trolley problem 125–6 true positives 67 Trump election campaign 41, 44 trust 17–18 tumours 90, 93–4 Twain, Mark 193 Twitter 36, 37, 40 filtering 10 Uber driverless cars 135 human intervention 135 uberPOOL 10 United Kingdom (UK) database of facial images 168 facial recognition algorithms 161 genetic tests for Huntington’s disease 110 United States of America (USA) database of facial images 168 facial recognition algorithms 161 life insurance stipulations 109 linking of healthcare records 103 University of California 152 University of Cambridge research on personality traits 39–40 and advertising 40–1 algorithm 40 personality predictions 40 and Twitter 40 University of Oregon 188–90 University of Texas M.
Protest and Power: The Battle for the Labour Party by David Kogan
Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, Brixton riot, centre right, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, falling living standards, financial independence, full employment, imperial preference, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, open borders, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War
Index Abbott, Diane here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Abrahams, Debbie here Adams, Gerry here Adonis, Andrew here, here Afghanistan war here, here, here, here Al Qaeda here Alexander the Great here Alexander, Sir Danny here Alexander, Douglas here, here Alexander, Heidi here Ali, Rushanara here Ali, Tariq here Alliance for Workers’ Liberty here, here, here Allied Union of Engineering Workers (AUEW) here, here all-women shortlists here, here, here Another Europe is Possible (AEIP) here, here, here, here, here, here antisemitism row here, here, here, here, here, here Arab Spring here Armstrong, Hilary here, here Article 50 here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also Brexit; EU referendum Ashdown, Paddy here Ashworth, Jonathan here, here, here, here, here, here, here al-Assad, Bashar here Association of London Government here, here Atkinson, Norman here, here Attlee, Clement here, here, here, here austerity here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Austin, Ian here, here, here Baldwin, Tom here Balls, Ed here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Bank of England here, here Banks, Tony here, here, here, here Barclay, Stephen here Barenboim, Daniel here Barnet council here Basnett, David here, here, here BBC here, here, here, here, here, here, here and Iraq war here Beckett, Margaret here, here, here, here, here, here Benn, Emily here Benn, Hilary here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Benn, Tony here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here compared with Corbyn here death here, here deputy leadership election (1981) here, here, here, here, here, here, here economic programme and NEC here, here general election defeat (1983) here, here and Iraq war here, here and Kinnock leadership here, here, here, here and Kosovo intervention here and Northern Ireland here Berger, Luciana here, here, here, here, here, here Berlin Wall, fall of here Bermondsey by-election here, here, here Best for Britain here, here, here, here Beveridge, William here bin Laden, Osama here Bishops Stortford meeting here Black September group here Black, Ann here, here, here, here, here Black Wednesday here Blair, Tony here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and antisemitism row here and Brown here, here, here, here, here and Brown premiership here, here enters parliament here and EU referendum/Brexit here, here, here general election victory (1997) here, here, here and international events here and Iraq war here, here, here, here, here leadership election (1994) here, here, here leadership style here, here and London mayoral election here and Miliband leadership here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and New Labour here, here, here, here, here, here, here and public services here, here stands down as leader here and trade unions here vetoes Corbyn deselection here Blears, Hazel here Blunkett, David here Board of Deputies of British Jews here, here Bond, Jack here, here, here, here Bond, Pete here Bono here Brabin, Tracy here Bradshaw, Ben here Brady, Sir graham here Bretton Woods here Brexit here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Irish border issue here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also Article here; EU referendum Brixton riots here Brooks, Rebekah here Brown, Gordon here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and antisemitism row here, here and Blair here, here, here, here, here and Blair leadership here, here economic policies here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and EU referendum here, here and financial crisis here, here general election defeat (2010) here, here Gillian Duffy incident here, here leadership election (1994) here, here leadership election (2007) here, here and Miliband leadership here, here, here, here, here, here, here and New Labour here, here, here, here, here, here, here parallels with Callaghan here, here parallels with Osborne here premiership here refuses to join Euro here, here, here, here and Scottish referendum here and trade unions here Brown, Ron here Burden, Richard here Burgon, Richard here, here, here Burnham, Andy here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here leadership election (2015) here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Bush, George H.
How to Be a Liberal by Ian Dunt
4chan, Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, bounce rate, British Empire, Brixton riot, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, invisible hand, John Bercow, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Mohammed Bouazizi, Northern Rock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, working poor, zero-sum game
See also USA (United States of America) American Civil War 1 American Revolution 1, 2, 3, 4 British colonialism 1 Declaration of Independence 1, 2, 3 exclusion 1 independence and France 1 slavery 1 Amish community 1 ancient constitution 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Andrews, Kehinde 1 Angelina, Pasha 1 anti-racism 1, 2 Anti-Semitic League, France 1 anti-semitism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 apartheid 1 Arab Spring 1, 2 Aristotle 1, 2, 3 Article 50 1, 2 Articles of Confederation 1, 2 Asch, Solomon 1 al-Assad, Bashar 1, 2 asset-backed commercial paper 1 assignats 1, 2, 3 asylum seekers 1, 2, 3 atheism 1, 2 Atlantic Charter 1 Augustine, St 1 Auschwitz 1 austerity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Austria 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 authentic self 1, 2 automatic stabilisers 1, 2, 3 autonomy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Azam, Sher 1 Babcock, Barbara 1 Bagehot, Walter 1 Bailey, Michael 1 balanced budgets 1, 2, 3 Bank of America 1, 2 banks anti-semitism 1 deregulation 1, 2 emergency rescue measures 1 Greece financial crisis 1 interest rates 1 post-war policy 1 securitisation 1, 2 securitisation risks 1 securitisation system collapse 1 Wall Street Crash 1 Bannon, Steve 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Baraka, Amiri 1 Barroso, José Manuel 1 Barry, Brian 1 Bartlett, Jamie 1 Bartolo, Pietro 1 Bastille 1, 2, 3 Bastwick, John 1 Bear Stearns 1, 2, 3 Beigui, Dariush 1 belonging Berlin on 1, 2, 3, 4 identity 1, 2, 3 Orwell on 1, 2 Belzec camp 1 Ben Ali, Zine El Abidine 1 Benedict, Ruth 1 Bentham, Jeremy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Beradt, Charlotte 1 Bercow, John 1 Beria, Lavrentiy 1 Berlin, Isaiah development of liberal values 1 early life 1 group identity 1, 2, 3, 4 identity and belonging 1, 2 Jewish identity 1, 2 liberal theory 1 on Mill 1 pluralism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Second World War work 1 Berlusconi, Silvio 1, 2 Bernanke, Ben 1, 2 Berners-Lee, Tim 1 Bespalov, Vitaly 1, 2 Bible 1, 2 bicameral legislature 1, 2, 3 Bill of Rights 1, 2 Black, Hannah 1 black identity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 black women 1, 2 Blair, Tony 1, 2 bloggers 1 BNP Paribas 1, 2 Boer War 1 Bolsheviks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Bonaparte, Joseph 1 Bonaparte, Napoleon 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 books 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Borchard, Ruth 1 Boston (Tea Party) 1 Bouazizi, Mohamed 1, 2 Bradford Council for Mosques 1 Breitbart 1, 2, 3 Breivik, Anders 1 Brexit EU referendum 1 government response and May 1 Johnson as prime minister 1 Trump and nationalism 1 Bridges, George 1 Brixton riots 1 Brown, Gordon 1, 2 brownshirts 1, 2, 3, 4 Brown, Winthrop 1 Bruno, Giordano 1 Buchenwald camp 1 Burghart, Devin 1 Burke, Edmund 1 Burton, Henry 1 call-out culture 1 Cambridge Analytica 1 Cameron, David 1, 2, 3 cancel culture 1 capital goods theory 1, 2 capitalism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Carlyle, Thomas 1, 2, 3 Carrier, Jean-Baptiste 1 Carter, Jimmy 1 The Case of the Army Truly Stated 1, 2, 3 Castile, Philando 1 Catholicism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 CDOs (collateralised debt obligations) 1, 2, 3, 4 Cecil the lion 1 censorship 1, 2, 3, 4 Central America 1 Charles I 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 Charles II 1, 2 Charrière, Isabelle de 1 Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 1 Chelmno camp 1 child separation 1 China 1 Churchill, Winston 1, 2, 3, 4 Church of England 1, 2, 3 cities 1, 2 City of London 1, 2, 3 Civil Rights Act 1 class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 classical economics 1, 2, 3 climate change 1 Clinton, Bill 1, 2 collateralised debt obligations (CDOs) 1, 2, 3, 4 collateral rehypothecation 1 Collini, Stefan 1 colonialism 1, 2, 3 Combahee River Collective 1, 2 commercial paper 1, 2, 3 communism emergence of 1 Germany 1, 2 identity and belonging 1 Marx 1 post-war economics 1, 2 Russia 1, 2, 3, 4 Soviet Union collapse 1 Communist Party 1, 2, 3 community of the free 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 concentration camps 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 conformity 1, 2, 3 consent 1, 2, 3 Conservative party 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Constant, Benjamin Adolphe 1, 2 affairs 1, 2 ‘le benjamin’ constitution 1, 2 character and thinking 1 development of liberal values 1, 2, 3 early years 1 and Hardenberg 1 and Madame de Staël 1, 2, 3, 4 and Mill 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and Napoleon 1, 2, 3, 4 Principles of Politics Applicable to All Governments 1 property rights 1, 2, 3 on Rousseau 1 The Spirit of Conquest and Usurpation and Their Relation to European Civilisation 1 Constant, Juste 1, 2, 3 Conway, Kellyanne 1 Copernicus, Nicolaus 1, 2, 3 On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres 1 Cornwallis, Charles 1 Council of Europe 1, 2 Cox, Jo 1 credit rating agencies 1, 2, 3 Creighton, Mandell 1 Crenshaw, Kimberlé 1 Cromwell, Oliver 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Cult of the Supreme Being 1 cultural appropriation 1, 2 cultural identity 1, 2 cultural relativism 1, 2 culture war 1, 2, 3 Cummings, Dominic 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Curtin, John 1 customs border 1 customs union 1, 2, 3 DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) 1 Dachau camp 1, 2 Danton, George 1, 2, 3, 4 Darwin, Charles On the Origin of Species 1 Davis, Michele 1 debt restructuring 1, 2, 3 Declaration of Independence 1, 2, 3 Declaration of the Rights of Man 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 deep state 1, 2, 3, 4 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) 1 demand 1, 2, 3 democracy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Denmark 1, 2 Department of Homeland Security 1, 2 deregulation 1, 2 Descartes, René birth of liberalism 1, 2, 3 birth of science 1 character 1 Cogito 1, 2, 3, 4 Discourse on the Method 1 doubt 1, 2, 3 dreams 1 evil demon theory 1, 2 Meditations on First Philosophy 1, 2, 3, 4 religion 1, 2 senses 1 The World 1 difference 1, 2, 3 disability 1 discrimination 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 disinformation 1, 2 dissent 1, 2 divine right 1, 2, 3 Dorsey, Jack 1 doubt Constant 1 Descartes 1, 2, 3 Mill 1, 2, 3 Milton 1 Puritans 1 Rousseau 1 social media outrage 1 Douglas, Lord Alfred 1 Downs, Jim 1 Dreamers 1 Dreyfus, Alfred 1, 2, 3 Dreyfus Affair 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 drug use 1 Drumont, Édouard 1, 2 Duclos, Benoit 1 ECB (European Central Bank) 1, 2, 3, 4 echo chamber 1 ECHR (European Convention on Human Rights) 1, 2 economic growth 1, 2, 3 economics Hayek and Keynes 1, 2 Mill and Taylor 1 post-war rebuilding 1 Smith 1 Eden, Anthony 1 education 1, 2, 3, 4 egalitarian liberalism 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Egypt 1 Eicke, Theodor 1 Eisenhower, Dwight 1 Electoral College 1 Eleven Years’ Tyranny 1 Eliot, TS 1 elite 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 empathy 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 end of history 1 enemies of the people EU referendum 1, 2 French Revolution aftermath 1 nationalism 1 Russia 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 enemies of the state 1 English Civil War Constant on 1 effects 1, 2 events of 1, 2 origins of liberalism 1 printing 1 English Defence League 1 Enragés (Enraged Ones) 1 Environmental Protection Agency 1 epistemology 1 equality 1, 2, 3, 4 equal pay 1 Erdogan, Recep Tayyip 1, 2 Estates General 1, 2, 3 Esterhazy, Charles 1, 2 ethnic minorities 1, 2, 3 ethnocentrism 1 ethno-nationalism 1 ethnopluralism 1 EU.
A History of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr
air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Beeching cuts, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brixton riot, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, congestion charging, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, loadsamoney, market design, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open borders, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Piper Alpha, Red Clydeside, reserve currency, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War
The government had prepared more carefully than Scargill. An early dispute with the NUM had been settled quickly because the battlefield was not yet ready. For two years the National Coal Board had been working with the Energy Secretary, Nigel Lawson, to pile up supplies of coal at the power stations; stocks had steadily grown, while consumption and production both fell. After the Toxteth and Brixton riots the police had been retrained and equipped with full riot gear without which, ministers later confessed, they would have been unable to beat the miners’ pickets. Meanwhile, Thatcher had appointed a Scottish-born American, Ian MacGregor, to run the NCB. He had a fierce reputation as a union-buster in the United States and had been brought back to Britain to run British Steel where closures and 65,000 job cuts had won him the title ‘Mac the Knife’.