smart cities

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Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

In this new computational arms race, poor communities will be at the mercy of those who can measure and control them from a distance. Even if there is peace and equality, the smart city may come crashing down under its own weight because it is already buggy, brittle, and bugged, and will only become more so. Smart cities are almost guaranteed to be chock full of bugs, from smart toilets and faucets that won’t operate to public screens sporting Microsoft’s ominous Blue Screen of Death. But even when their code is clean, the innards of smart cities will be so complex that so-called normal accidents will be inevitable. The only questions will be when smart cities fail, and how much damage they cause when they crash. Layered atop the fragile power grid, already prone to overload during crises and open to sabotage, the communications networks that patch the smart city together are as brittle an infrastructure as we’ve ever had.

Miller, “Infrastructure 2011: A Strategic Priority,” Urban Land Institute and Ernst & Young, 2011, http://www.uli.org/ResearchAndPublications/%7E/media/Documents/ ResearchAndPublications/Reports/Infrastructure/Infrastructure2011.ashx. 29Ian Marlow, lecture, “X-Cities 4: Cities-as-Service,” Columbia University Studio-X, New York, April 19, 2012. 30“Global Investment in Smart City Technology Infrastructure,” Pike Research. 31“Smart City Technologies Will Grow Fivefold to Exceed $39 Billion in 2016,” ABI Research, last modified July 6, 2011, http://www.abiresearch.com/press/3715-Smart+City+Technologies+Will+Grow+Fivefold+to+Exceed+$39+Billion+in+2016. 32Colin Harrison, remarks, Ideas Economy: Intelligent Infrastructure, The Economist, New York City, February 16, 2011. 33“Smart Cities: Transforming the 21st century city via the creative use of technology,” ARUP, last modified September 1, 2010, http://www.arup.com/Publications/Smart_Cities.aspx. 34Stephen Graham, “The end of geography or the explosion of place? Conceptualizing space, place and information technology,” Progress in Human Geography 22, no. 2 (1998): 165–85. 35“International Energy Outlook 2011,” DOE/EIA-0484(2011), U.S.

I think the more important and interesting question is, “what do you want a smart city to be?” We need to focus on how we shape the technology we employ in future cities. There are many different visions of what the opportunity is. Ask an IBM engineer and he will tell you about the potential for efficiency and optimization. Ask an app developer and she will paint a vision of novel social interactions and experiences in public places. Ask a mayor and it’s all about participation and democracy. In truth, smart cities should strive for all of these things. There are trade-offs between these competing goals for smart cities. The urgent challenge is weaving together solutions that integrate these aims and mitigate conflicts. Smart cities need to be efficient but also preserve opportunities for spontaneity, serendipity, and sociability.


Demystifying Smart Cities by Anders Lisdorf

3D printing, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital twin, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Google Glasses, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Masdar, microservices, Minecraft, platform as a service, ransomware, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, self-driving car, smart cities, smart meter, software as a service, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

All of these themes are already being pursued by standard political means such as legislation and taxation and having hospitals and fire and police stations. The crucial part about the smart city is how technology can add to these existing ways a city pursues its goals. Actors in the Smart City In order to understand how smart city solutions are developed, implemented, and maintained in practice, we need to consider the actors in a city. We need to understand the interests and goals of different types of actors that make smart city implementations possible or impossible. Even though the end goal of a functioning city may be the same, the motivations, power, and interests are very different. These groups follow very different logics, and a failure to understand this is a cause of many failures of smart city implementations resulting in an inability to harvest the full potential of technology.

Phone 1-800-SPRINGER, fax (201) 348-4505, e-mail orders-ny@springer-sbm.com, or visit www.springeronline.com. Apress Media, LLC is a California LLC and the sole member (owner) is Springer Science + Business Media Finance Inc (SSBM Finance Inc). SSBM Finance Inc is a Delaware corporation. Table of Contents Chapter 1:​ Introduction The history and future of cities The Smart City landscape Actors in the Smart City Areas of application of Smart City technology Outline of the book Summary Part I: Understanding smart cities Chapter 2:​ Connectivity Network topologies Point-to-point topology Tree topology Bus topology Star topology Mesh topology Connecting devices The anatomy of a connection Solution spotlights LinkNYC The Things Network:​ LoRaWAN NYC Mesh Summary Chapter 3:​ Devices What is a device?​

Today the use and application of technology has not been sufficiently adopted in our cities. This book is a guide to how we can change that. The Smart City landscape The concept of a smart city is not a self-explanatory one. Smart city projects are frequently airy visions fueled by vendor marketing. Mega vendors like IBM, GE, Siemens, Citrix, Samsung, and Hitachi have been banging the drums for a decade, but while their ideas are visionary, there is a huge gap between the ideas and the realization of them. Some may have heard of futuristic cities like Songdo in South Korea or Masdar in Abu Dhabi. They were envisioned as the smart cities of the future. However, they appear more like greenfield exhibits similar to Versailles than the real-life pulsating cities most people live in and want to live in.


Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

Perry for his help and advice on converting many years of contracts, negotiations, and travel into a narrative form. CONTENTS FOREWORD BY JOHN CHAMBERS MAP KEY SMART CITY PROJECTS, 2006-2017 CHAPTER 1 THE OPPORTUNITY AND NECESSITY OF THE SMART CITY CHAPTER 2 THE FLUID DEFINITION OF A SMART CITY— AND WHAT IT DOES CHAPTER 3 GENESIS: SAUDI ARABIA, 2005–2008 CHAPTER 4 SECOND CHANCE: SONGDO, KOREA, AND THE CITY LAB OF TOMORROW CHAPTER 5 ENTER THE DRAGON: CHINA’S CITIES OF THE FUTURE, TODAY CHAPTER 6 TRANSFORMING INDIA INTO A DIGITAL NATION, THE DEMOCRATIC WAY CHAPTER 7 THE INTERNET OF EVERYTHING TRANSFORMS BROWNFIELDS AND BEYOND CHAPTER 8 EGYPT, 2015: THE SMART CITY AS A PROMISING PERSPECTIVE CHAPTER 9 THEORIES ON SMART CITIES: SUSTAINABILITY IN A CROWDED WORLD CHAPTER 10 BEYOND SONGDO AND THE FUTURE OF THE CITY CONCLUSION INDEX ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOREWORD FOR THE HUMAN RACE TO SUCCEED, our cities must succeed.

Others, such as Barcelona, Hamburg, and Guayaquil, are becoming smarter gradually, bringing intelligence to their streets, utilities, education, and health infrastructures, and in some cases, creating brand-new districts that offer the full array of digital services. So while there is no single formula for successful digital modernization, ground has been broken on many new smart cities, and many more are planned in nations that desperately need them. This book identifies the challenges of smart cities and then explores their design and implementation, illustrated by firsthand experiences. And while much of the literature on smart cities focuses on what happens in the West, important contributions to the emergence of smart and globally connected cities have been made by a couple of daring, ambitious new cities in emerging and newly emerged countries. These new smart cities engage high-tech industrial pioneers to provide the digital infrastructure, and companies such as Cisco are finding success providing the Internet “plumbing” in this age of massive digital expansion.

. _____________________________________________ 1 “Global Health Observatory (GHO) data,” World Health Organization, 2016, www.who.int/gho/urban_health/situation_trends/urban_population_growth_text/en/. 2 “Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific,” Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and Asian Development Bank, October 2013, www.adb.org/sites/default/file/publication/30429/energy-outlook.pdf. 3 John Chambers and Wim Elfrink, “Cisco CEO: Why the future of the Internet is already here,” Fortune, July 14, 2014, http://fortune.com/2014/07/16/cisco-ceo-why-the-future-of-the-internet-is-already-here/. 4 Richard Dobbs, Sven Smit, Jaana Remes, James Manyika, Charles Roxburgh, Alejandra Restrepo, “Mapping the economic power of cities,” McKinsey Global Institute, March 2011, http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/urbanization/urban-world-mapping-the-economic-power-of-cities. THE FLUID DEFINITION OF A SMART CITY—AND WHAT IT DOES IN 2005, the smart city was more of a concept than a reality. A decade later, we have seen the first actual smart cities take shape, with many existing cities becoming more responsive and interactive with their residents. In another five years, it will be defined in new, often unexpected ways. This is progress, not dysfunction. Creation of a new technology is often messy and tangled at the outset. Nonetheless, for our purposes, we can establish a few definitions of what the smart city is today. The technology networking architecture companies produce and enable has far-reaching implications for every community it sup ports.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

., Pichler-Milanović, N. and Meijers, E. (2007) Smart cities: Ranking of European medium-sized cities. Centre of Regional Science, Vienna UT, available from: www.smart-cities.eu/download/smart_cities_ final_report.pdf [accessed 12 October 2015]. Gitelman, L. (ed.) (2013) ‘Raw Data’ is an Oxymoron. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Goss, J. (1995) ‘“We know who you are and we know where you live”: the instrumental rationality of geodemographics systems’, Economic Geography 71: 171–198. Graham, S. (2005) ‘Software-sorted geographies’, Progress in Human Geography 29: 562–580. Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (2001) Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition. New York: Routledge. Greenfield, A. (2013) Against the Smart City. New York: Do Publications. Harris, R., Sleight, P. and Webber, R. (2005) Geodemographics, GIS and Neighbourhood Targeting.

Ramirez, E. (2013) ‘The privacy challenges of big data: A view from the lifeguard’s chair’, Technology Policy Institute Aspen Forum, 19 August, available from: http//ftc.gov/ speeches/ramirez/130819bigdataaspen.pdf [accessed 11 October 2013]. Söderström, O., Paasche, T. and Klauser, F. (2014) ‘Smart cities as corporate storytelling’, City 18(3): 307–320. Stroud, M. (2014) ‘The minority report: Chicago’s new police computer predicts crimes, but is it racist?’, The Verge, 19 February, available from: www.theverge. com/2014/2/19/5419854/the-minority-report-this-computer-predicts-crime-but-is-itracist [accessed 4 December 2016]. Townsend, A. (2013) Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. New York: W.W. Norton. Vanolo, A. (2014) ‘Smartmentality: The smart city as disciplinary strategy’, Urban Studies 51(5): 883–898. Wolfram, M. (2012) ‘Deconstructing smart cities: An intertextual reading of concepts and practices for integrated urban and ICT development’, in M.

New York: Basic Books. 16 Beyond quantification A role for citizen science and community science in a smart city Mordechai (Muki) Haklay Introduction The underlying assumptions of smart cities and the production of urban big data, namely the over-valuation of efficiency and productivity need to be examined and critically assessed (Su et al. 2011; Chourabi et al. 2012; Greenfield 2013; Nam and Pardo 2011). This requires an examination of how specific values get embedded in technologies deployed in the city. This chapter argues that human and environmental values should also be part of the design and implementation of smart city systems, especially since these systems influence the way cities operate. A good starting point for unpacking embedded values is to take notice of how cities are portrayed within smart city discourses. Historically, cities have been portrayed as either tame or feral, as ordered and chaotic, as natural or engineered.


Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett

Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

In the modern city, how might high tech make us smarter, or dumb us down? IV. THE TWO SMART CITIES – PRESCRIBE OR COORDINATE There are two kinds of smart city, closed and open. The closed smart city will dumb us down, the open smart city will make us smarter. * * * Prescribe The closed smart city is a Googleplex enlarged, filled with Tocquevillian individuals, fuelled by user-friendly technology which stupefies its citizens. In this dystopia, as the Dutch planners Maarten Hajer and Ton Dassen write, ‘urban technologies will make cities safer, cleaner and, above all, more efficient … Smart cities will “sense” behaviour via big data and use this feedback to manage urban dynamics and fine-tune services.’ To them, as for the technologist Adam Greenfield, such a smart city is really driven by the politics of centralized control that prescribes how people should live; this tech-nightmare is dramatized in Dave Eggers’ novel about Google, The Circle.

Bill Mitchell in the Media Lab was an early believer in this solution, convinced that the smart city could set right social relations. Since he wrote City of Bits, ‘the’ smart city has in fact become two different kinds of city. In the one, advanced technology prescribes how people should use the spaces they inhabit; the ville dictates to the cité. In the other, high-tech coordinates but does not erase messier activities in the cité. The prescriptive smart city does mental harm; it dumbs down its citizens. The coordinating smart city stimulates people mentally by engaging them in complex problems and human differences. The contrast fits within our larger frame: the prescriptive smart city is closed; the coordinative smart city is open. To draw out this contrast, we need first to reach back into the Ice Age of technology, the 1830s.

Generation effects, abductions and focal attentions played no role in its design; instead, user-friendly ruled. It might seem that smart cities of the Songdo type should also share a Googleish embrace of serendipity – but exactly not. Prescription is meant to foresee, in advance, how the city will function, to lay out its workings precisely in space and built form. Smart cities of the Songdo type fear chance. As one of my assistants put it, the smart city ‘litened’ the experience of place. In part this suspended sense of place owes something to Corbusier. The Plan Voisin was a manifesto for the mechanical age, in which form and function fitted tightly together. Lewis Mumford’s Technics and Civilization, published in 1934, cautioned against soulless technology along Corbusier’s line; still, his version of the smart city was also of a place in which form and function mesh perfectly mechanically – everything has a place and a rationale, all the elements of living are laid out precisely in the tight radial design.


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Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

“Opinion: How the US Embassy Tweeted to Clear Beijing’s Air,” Wired Science, 6th March 2015 Government and corporate bureaucracy can also intentionally hamper progress towards smart city status by demanding excessive red tape and obscuring data on progress. Citizen action groups and social media can help this situation by reporting government abuses. Such reporting revealed that government offices in Odessa in Ukraine routinely charged bribes of US$7,000 for foreign businesses to get residency permits, and delayed imports of high-tech equipment with similar demands. The resultant delays interfered with the smart city plans of Mikheil Saakashvili, the governor of the region. Consequently, he fired almost the entire staff that was involved and replaced it with a more streamlined organisation. Citizen engagement via social media and through personal smart devices is critical to smart cities; in fact, prominent smart city experts such as Mark Deakin consider that a smart city is not possible without it.

The people in paintings can appear to “walk off the walls” and tell their story, statues can give their history and skeletons of dinosaurs and other animals can come alive to delight and educate young and old alike. Smart cities can use AR to educate their citizens and keep alive cultural roots and traditions. City support of such efforts can include forming partnerships with educational centres teaching videogame, VR, AR, ICT and related technologies and city assets such as museums, outdoor art displays, monuments, cultural centres and high-traffic areas to not only help develop job skills and innovation but also bring the smart city to life. The emergence of PHUD units like Meta or Magic Leap will certainly enable smart cities to be creative with the use of AR. Figure 11.7: NatGeo and Seef Mall in Dubai have incorporated AR into the shopping experience. (Credit: National Geographic) Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Smart Cities The employment of UAVs for civilian tasks is increasing rapidly.

A more nuanced definition should include elements such as: • An urban area that uses information and communications technologies (ICT) to improve the performance of urban services, to reduce the costs and consumption of resources, and that engages with its citizens as stakeholders.5 • Specific sectors that have been transformed with such technology include government services, traffic management, energy, health care and reduced air and water pollution.6 Smart cities are smart not only because of the services they offer their citizens, but also because of their responsiveness to critical issues such as natural disasters and their day-to-day utilisation of resources. As the effects of climate change impact more and more cities, the ability of a city to respond will be a key differentiator. However, the temptation will be for governments to focus on areas like support for start-ups with technology hubs or a few smart, green buildings and to then proclaim they are now a smart city. A real smart city will have to be re-engineered from the ground up around an urban environment that uses technology to make life better for its citizens, offers smart employment, transportation and living and enables a positive environmental impact (reversing pollution, etc.) including independence from fossil fuel generation.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

On the day Obama announced there were 77 million blogs.”3 Back in 2004, Facebook was still a Harvard undergraduate’s experiment in girl-watching, it now has a half billion or more subscribers throughout the world. Yet even today, Trippi writes, “government seems to be the last place that’s taking advantage of it.” Except in cities. New, cutting edge smart cities. Smart cities are in the first instance simply tech-savvy towns that utilize digital innovation to do their business. But smart cities are also self-consciously interdependent cities that use technology to enhance communication, hoping to make smart cities wireless nodes in a global network and reinforce their natural inclination to connectivity and collaboration. For civic entities defined as much by interaction, creativity, and innovation as by place, maps, and topographical boundaries, the cloud isn’t a bad place to be.

Corporations have a fiscal obligation to their shareholders to make money off their urban technology, but cities need to be aware that the smart-city portion of the business sector was estimated to have earned as much as $34 billion in 2012 and has been projected to be able to earn $57 billion by 2015. Tech companies do not embrace smart-city initiatives disinterestedly in the name of public goods, though that certainly does not mean their partnerships cannot also serve such goals.11 A cursory hunt on any search engine under “smart cities” turns up multiple listings that mirror City Protocol’s Barcelona-Cisco partnership. IBM Smarter Cities, for example, is working with IBM in Birmingham, England, on mapping inputs and outputs on policy decisions. Then there is Siemens Smart Cities, along with dozens of other companies putting commercial applications to apparent political purposes, including Schneider Electric, the Thales Group, Oracle Corporation, and Wonderware.

See also Lee Kuan Yew; Tan, Tony Skyscrapers, 44 “Skyworlds,” 16–17 Slavery vs. class inequalities, 72 Slums: cities as, 182–183; of developed vs. developing countries, 179–180, 187–189; population of, 178–179, 183. See also Inequality Smart cities, 241–267; and City Protocol, 241, 243–244; and civic engagement, 248, 388n14; corporations benefitting from, 246; defined, 242, 246–247; electronic connection in, 262–267; enthusiasm and skepticism of, 248–259; information and communication technology in, 247; in partnership with tech firms, 247; top ten, 247–248. See also Digital technology “Smart City Campus,” 244 The Smart City Council, 247, 388n13 Social capital, 69 Social contract, 23, 155, 156, 160–161, 330 Social media networks, 249, 256 Social movements, 225 Soda ban, 8, 149 Soft governance and power, 148, 152 Sovereignty, 145–171; in decline, 147, 168–169, 374n3; failure of, 157–163; and failure of nationality, 154–157; of nation-states, 9–11, 75–77; pooled, 156; popular, 155; and why cities can rule world, 163–166; and why states can’t rule world, 153–154; and why states can’t stop cities from ruling world, 166–171 Spain, electronic networks, 263–264 Special interests, 149, 374n7 State of nature, 60–61 States.


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The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth by Jeremy Rifkin

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, failed state, ghettoisation, hydrogen economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, megacity, Network effects, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, renewable energy credits, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Jim Balsillie, “Sidewalk Toronto Has Only One Beneficiary, and It Is Not Toronto,” Globe and Mail, October 5, 2018, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/opinion/article-sidewalk-toronto-is-not-a-smart-city/ (accessed February 14, 2019). 33.  Ibid. 34.  Ibid. 35.  Vipal Monga and Jacquie McNish, “Local Resistance Builds to Google’s ‘Smart City’ in Toronto,” Wall Street Journal, August 1, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/local-resistance-builds-to-googles-smart-city-in-toronto-1533135550 (accessed February 2, 2019). 36.  Ibid.; Ava Kofman, “Google’s ‘Smart City of Surveillance’ Faces New Resistance in Toronto,” The Intercept, November 13, 2018, https://theintercept.com/2018/11/13/google-quayside-toronto-smart-city/ (accessed February 2, 2019). 37.  Jennings Brown, “Privacy Expert Resigns from Alphabet-Backed Smart City Project over Surveillance Concerns,” Gizmodo, October 23, 2018, https://gizmodo.com/privacy-expert-resigns-from-alphabet-backed-smart-city-1829934748 (accessed February 14, 2019). 38.  

At the press conference announcing the new partnership between Sidewalk Labs and Toronto, Schmidt thanked Canada for allowing Google in, saying that his company’s long-held dream had come true: for “someone to give us a city and put us in charge.”32 Writing in the Globe and Mail a year later, Jim Balsillie, the former chairman and co-CEO of Research In Motion, a company that commercializes intellectual property in more than 150 countries, summed up the significance of this first trial run in creating a privatized smart city that so excited Schmidt. Balsillie pointed out that “‘smart cities’ are the new battlefront for big tech because they serve as the most promising hotbed for additional intangible assets that hold the next trillion dollars to add to their market capitalizations.” The real commercial value, according to Balsillie, is that “‘smart cities’ rely on IP and data to make the vast array of city sensors more functionally valuable, and when under the control of private interests, an enormous new profit pool.”33 In the year since the official announcement, it has become even clearer that Sidewalk Labs wants Toronto’s blessing, but it does not relish the city’s active involvement and oversight in the build-out and management of the smart neighborhood on the waterfront.

What made her resignation particularly meaningful is that she was commissioned by Sidewalk Labs to help establish a “privacy by design” protocol for the development, only to find out later that third parties might enjoy access to “identifiable data.” In her resignation letter, Cavoukian said, “I imagined us creating a smart city of privacy as opposed to a smart city of surveillance.”37 The problem does not lie with Sidewalk Labs’ expertise. The company boasts some of the best talent available for establishing digitally connected, efficient, and environmentally sustainable smart cities. All to the good. Rather, it is the business model that is at fault, as is the case with any public-private partnership in which the commercial interest of the developer is primarily in securing lucrative revenue streams and profit over time; more often than not, this compromises the notion that infrastructure should be treated as a public good and a service everyone relies on and therefore best belongs in the hands of local governments that represent the will of all the citizenry.


The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

The latest incarnation of such an ICT-led vision of urban development is the notion of smart cities, which conceives of places being increasingly composed of and monitored by pervasive and ubiquitous computing and whose economy and governance is driven by innovation, creativity and entrepreneurship, enacted by smart people. The smart city is densely instrumented and can be understood and regulated in real-time; it produces, shares, integrates, consumes and acts on big data (Kitchin 2014). Such big data provide a fine-grained, dynamic, cohesive understanding of cities and the inputs for systems that will create more liveable, secure, functional, competitive and sustainable places (Hancke et al. 2013; Townsend 2013). Such a smart city vision is being heavily promoted by a number of the world’s largest software services and hardware companies (e.g., IBM, CISCO, Microsoft, Intel, Siemens, Oracle, SAP) and being enthusiastically adopted by municipal, national and supranational institutions who foresee smart city technologies producing socio-economic progress and renewing urban centres as hubs of innovation and work (Kourtit et al. 2012).

Tolle (eds), The Fourth Paradigm: Data-Intensive Scientific Discovery. Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, pp. xvii–xxxi. Hilbert, M. and López, P. (2011) ‘The world’s technological capacity to store, communicate, and compute information’, Science, 10(331): 703–05. Hill, D. (2013) ‘On the smart city: or, a “manifesto” for smart citizens instead’, City of Sound, 1 February, http://www.cityofsound.com/blog/2013/02/on-the-smart-city-a-call-for-smart-citizensinstead.html (last accessed 5 February 2013). Hollands, R.G. (2008) ‘Will the real smart city please stand up?’, City, 12(3): 303–20. Hon, W.K., Millard, C. and Walden, I. (2011) The Problem of ‘Personal Data’ in Cloud Computing – What Information is Regulated?, Queen Mary University of London, School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 75/2011, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?

Such a smart city vision is being heavily promoted by a number of the world’s largest software services and hardware companies (e.g., IBM, CISCO, Microsoft, Intel, Siemens, Oracle, SAP) and being enthusiastically adopted by municipal, national and supranational institutions who foresee smart city technologies producing socio-economic progress and renewing urban centres as hubs of innovation and work (Kourtit et al. 2012). Whilst some smart city projects are being built from the ground up (e.g., Songdo or Masdar City), most are piecemeal and consist of retrofitting existing infrastructure with digital technology and data solutions. The key function of big data in both cases is to provide real-time analytics to manage how aspects of the city function and are regulated. Such real-time surveillance and data analytics have been employed for a number of years in some sectors. For example, many cities have implemented intelligent transport systems, where data concerning the movement of traffic around a system, generated by a network of cameras and transponders, are fed back to a central control hub and are used to monitor and regulate flow, adjusting traffic light sequences and speed limits and automatically administering penalties for traffic violations (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a).


pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

If it’s really true that the use of a simple GPS system for wayfinding might cause changes in the organization of our brains, impoverishing neural systems through lack of use, then what effects would more comprehensive systems envisioned by smart city planners bring about? It’s hard not to imagine that a feeling of helpless dependence and infantilization might be one of them. Just as worrisome to me is the possibility that one-size-fits-all formulas imposed on cities from on high and designed for the generic human being might actually become self-fulfilling. Cushioned by a system of feedback loops that “protects” us from ourselves, it seems entirely possible—likely, in fact—that residents of a smart city, as envisioned by the current generation of smart city technology providers, might regress toward the mean. Though there will always be mavericks and dissidents who will struggle against the status quo and hack their environments to assert their own individuality, the corporate smart city will throw some prodigious new barriers in their way.

What could be more appealing than the idea that we could wire everything together, attach it to a gleaming mission control headquarters filled with gargantuan computing devices that can comprehend and orchestrate all of the city’s business, leaving us free to bask in the care of a city that works automatically and in the best possible way? Nobody has done a better job of outlining the risks of smart city developments as they are currently envisioned than director of New York’s design practice Urbanscale, Adam Greenfield. In his pamphlet Against the Smart City, Greenfield pores through the public relations material offered by the big players in the smart city market—Siemens, Microsoft, and Cisco—to try to deconstruct what these techno-giants might envision for our near future.14 In his incisive analysis, he points out first that the schemes offered by these companies, at least according to the vision that they are trying to sell to the public and to the administrators of cities, appear to consist of one-size-fits-all system software designed to harness the collective power of the Internet of Things to optimize the function of a city using a set of all-encompassing algorithms.

Rather than concerning themselves with the wiring together of a few household appliances to make our morning routines easier, massive corporations like Siemens and Microsoft are pushing hard to develop comprehensive systems that can do for an entire city what a Nest thermostat, which learns to turn down the heat when you leave your house and can talk to you via your phone, does for an individual abode. Indeed, entire cities such as Songdo City in Korea or Masdar in the United Arab Emirates, are beginning to spring from the ground complete with so-called smart city infrastructure. The utopian vision of the smart city is one in which the entire place is networked together to realize every possible efficiency. There is no traffic congestion, there are instant automated responses to emergencies, adaptive HVAC systems manage energy balances in the most efficient way possible, and other systems designed all the way down to the minute details of the lives of individual residents are there to take care of us.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

When ride-matching services like Uber and Lyft treat city streets as a free good, they’re just repeating the same conceptual mistake that the original champions of motordom did during the 1920s—the argument that, while streetcars and trains were responsible for maintenance of “their” right-of-way, streets were free for everyone. Smart cities shouldn’t insist on stupid regulation. But that doesn’t mean they can do without regulation at all. On Alice’s second trip through the looking glass, she meets Humpty Dumpty, who tells her that the word glory means the same thing as “a nice knock-down argument.” When she objects, he tells her, “When I use a word, it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.” Smart city is like that. Ever since the term smart cities started appearing in the early 2000s, it’s been used in a dozen different senses, from describing the sort of place that attracts creative industries like publishing, design, R&D, and advertisingg to one that is able to adapt to changing circumstances, to one that offers a more sustainable quality of life.

This phenomenon illustrates, as well as anything I know, what the Street Smart program is all about. Until very recently, nearly everyone made travel decisions—Shall we walk or ride? Depart this morning or this afternoon?—using a very limited number of tools that were mostly just a combination of habit and guesswork. In many parts of the world, that’s still the case. In smart cities, though, these limits don’t exist anymore. In them, giant oceans of information about schedules, prices, and routes are easily navigated by just about everyone. It’s not that smart cities are filled with nothing but smart people (though it may be that they’re the first to realize the advantages of living in them). It’s that you don’t have to be a genius to get the most out of smart buses, smart streetcars, smart sidewalks, and, of course, smart streets. In August of 2014, I used the car service known as Uber for the first time.

Like the old-fashioned grid, a modern smart grid can shunt power to different portions of the network automatically, but it can also manage consumption. There are dozens of analogies for this kind of data collection and management in a smart city’s transportation grid. The four-thousand-plus sensors that Zurich Public Transport uses to manage automobile and streetcar traffic are one of them. Like an electrical utility adjusting the cycle of an industrial air conditioner because the system is operating at peak demand, Zurich allows only as many cars into its center city as can be accommodated without congestion. Just as important, though, for a smart city’s transportation system is the ever-growing network of hundreds of millions of GPS-enabled smartphones. Those mobile devices aren’t just providing travelers with maps, turn-by-turn directions, and the occasional restaurant review.


World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen

active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

Stringent national Coastal Regulation Zone norms set by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests have so far restricted development despite land scarcity. The relaxation of these norms may allow land reclamation and the unlocking of development potential, especially for tourism. Complementing smart cities with smart governance agenda The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, has initiated serious thinking about smart cities as he looks to boost smaller satellite cities and kick start inland industrial growth. The scheme promises to deliver public money in pri­ vate sector partnerships to deliver water supply, modern sewerage systems, solid waste management and infrastructure, if city bodies are able to execute them effectively (The Times of India, 2014). The attention directed at smart cities is welcome in incentivising better standards, but is just the start of a deeper process of reform. For these projects to translate into a broader agenda for Mumbai and India’s larger cities, attention towards smart governance is needed in order to tackle co‐ordination failures.

The central government now fully recognises Tokyo’s role as Japan’s world city and is prepared to support its regeneration and repositioning in order to drive the national economy. Japan also positions Tokyo and other Japanese cities as pioneers of smart urban development, which attracts a great deal of interest from other national governments. Japanese smart city concepts (such as Kashiwa‐no‐ha, transit‐oriented development and urban area management) are welcomed by the national ministries, and are demonstrated to other countries in eastern and southern Asia for how cities can embed disaster 88 World Cities and Nation States prevention, health innovation and new cluster incubation (Kashiwa‐No‐Ha Smart City, 2015). The national system of cities: Tokyo and Japan Today, Tokyo is the only city in Japan governed as a metropolitan prefecture, and is one of 47 prefectures in Japan. The TMG has a powerful governor and metropolitan assembly that preside over 23 Wards (population 9 million), each with its own mayor and local government, and 26 suburban cities to the west (population 4 million).

Govt seeks to amend Rent Control Act to keep out larger houses. The Indian Express. Available at http://indianexpress.com/article/cities/mumbai/govt‐ seeks‐to‐amend‐rent‐control‐act‐to‐keep‐out‐larger‐houses/#sthash.okQXJPrV.dpuf. Accessed 2016 Feb 9. 256 References The Times of India (2014). Govt plans to attract private players to help develop Smart Cities. The Times of India. Available at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india‐business/ Govt‐plans‐to‐attract‐private‐players‐to‐help‐develop‐Smart‐Cities/articleshow/44735719. cms. Accessed 2016 Feb 9. World Bank (2014). Data by country. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/. Accessed 2016 Feb 9. World Economic Forum (2015). The Global Competitiveness Report 2015–16. Geneva: World Economic Forum. Available at http://www3.weforum.org/docs/gcr/2015‐2016/Global_ Competitiveness_Report_2015‐2016.pdf.


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Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

It is more like colonial conquest, this new and very unilateral form of political economy. A Glorious, Collisionless Manner of Living The vision of smooth-flowing mobility that is offered on behalf of driverless cars can be fully laid out only as part of a larger vision, that of the “smart city.” The idea is that our movements through the city, the infrastructure we depend on, the police protections, trash collection, parking, deliveries and all the other services that make a city work, will be orchestrated by an “urban operating system.” As part of the smart city vision, driverless cars are thus one element in a striking intellectual movement. It is striking not least for its revival of a long-standing modernist ambition, that of transformative urban planning. The goals of such planning are usually public health, efficiency, beauty, and, something more elusive, order.

For Hobbes, life needed to be governed by laws that would be excogitated (by him) from scratch, according to clear principles, not by the haphazard accumulation of informal usages and understandings.1 Rather than seeking the reasons latent in our unthought practices, and from them trying to reverse engineer the logic of a city (as Jane Jacobs did), the smart city epigones of Hobbes place their trust in their own powers of apriori reason. What would it mean to make a city more like a smartphone? Presumably such a city would be one in which a glassy façade of high design opens into a cornucopia of apps tailored to my needs, to be satisfied with maximum efficiency and minimum effort on my part, through mechanisms that are utterly unknown to me. This is a trajectory we have investigated in the context of automobile design. But it has also become prominent in institutional life, through the increasing role of algorithmic decision-making. The smart city, and our movements through it, would likely share in some of the difficulties that have emerged on this front.

Lucsko, Junkyards, Gearheads, and Rust: Salvaging the Automotive Past (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2016), p. 128. 2.David Freiburger, “Patina,” Hot Rod Magazine, April 2007, p. 61, as quoted by Lucsko, Junkyards, Gearheads, and Rust, p. 128. 3.The 2017 Lexus NX hybrid gets a combined 31 city/highway mpg and has an MSRP of $39,720. 4.Lucsko, Junkyards, Gearheads, and Rust, p. 133. 5.Zelda Bronstein shows how light industry gets chased out of cities under the banner of progressive urbanism. Whole ecosystems of industrial know-how that took long to develop are vacated, to be replaced with urban landscapes devoted to “lifestyle” consumption, art galleries, and all the rest. Zelda Bronstein, “Industry and the Smart City,” Dissent, Summer 2009, https://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/industry-and-the-smart-city. Bronstein, whom I count a friend, is in her seventies and exemplifies an older left: her sympathies lie with production over consumption, and labor over rentiers. In this she has found herself out of joint with some of today’s progressives who seem to worry about gentrification, not out of a concern to preserve space for productive activities, but to block incursions of what they take to be a malignant force directed against innocents, a moral drama understood in racial terms. 6.Lucsko, Junkyards, Gearheads, and Rust, p. 134. 7.Michael Oakeshott, “On Being Conservative,” Rationalism in Politics (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund Press, 1991), p. 414. 8.Lucsko, p.


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

If this imperative holds at the scale of domestic objects and the smart home, it becomes more urgent still when the same set of techniques and practices is applied to the management of urban experience. At this largest scale, the internet of things appears to us as a body of rhetoric around the performance and behavior of the so-called “smart city.” This is a place where the instrumentation of the urban fabric, and of all the people moving through the city, is driven by the desire to achieve a more efficient use of space, energy and other resources. If the ambition beneath the instrumentation of the body is a nominal self-mastery, and that of the home convenience, the ambition at the heart of the smart city is nothing other than control. Most of us are by now at least distantly aware that our phones, smart or otherwise, are constantly harvesting information about our whereabouts and activities. But we tend to be relatively ignorant of the degree to which the contemporary streetscape itself has also been enabled to collect information.

The most prominent advocates of this approach appear to believe that the contingency of data capture is not an issue, nor is any particular act of interpretation involved in making use of whatever data is retrieved from the world in this way. When discussing their own smart-city venture, senior IBM executives argue,37 in so many words, that “the data is the data”: transcendent, limpid and uncompromised by human frailty. This mystification of “the data” goes unremarked upon and unchallenged in the overwhelming majority of discussions of the smart city. But surely these intelligent and experienced professionals know better. Different values for air pollution in a given location can be produced by varying the height at which a sensor is mounted by a few meters. Perceptions of risk in a neighborhood can be transformed by slightly altering the taxonomy used to classify reported crimes.38 And anyone who’s ever worked in opinion polling knows how sensitive the results are to the precise wording of a survey.

Examples like this counsel us to be wary of claims that any autonomous system will ever be entrusted with the regulation and control of civic resources—just as we ought to be wary of claims that the application of some single master algorithm could result in an Pareto-efficient distribution of resources, or that the complex urban ecology might be sufficiently characterized in data to permit the effective operation of such an algorithm in the first place. As matters now stand, the claim of perfect competence that is implicit in most smart-city rhetoric is incommensurate with everything we know about the way technical systems work. But it also flies in the face of everything we know about how cities work. The architects of the smart city have utterly failed to reckon with the reality of power, and the perennial ability of various elites to suppress policy directions they find uncongenial to—that word again—their interests. At best, the technocratic notion that the analysis of sensor-derived data would ever be permitted to drive resource-allocation decisions and other acts of municipal policy is naive.


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Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Outside Abu Dhabi, an ambitious new city, Masdar, is being designed by Foster + Partners, which promises to be the smartest zero-carbon city on the planet. But this vision of the smart city raises many questions and concerns. What happens when the whole city runs on one type of software and you want to use another – will you be thrown off the grid? What if you want to develop your own code, adapting some of the city’s software – will you end up in court for hacking? Who owns the city when it runs on someone else’s software? Can it continue to develop and change when the digital infrastructure is copyrighted? What if, as Anthony Townsend warns, ‘one company comes out on top, cities could see infrastructure end up in the control of a monopoly whose interests are not aligned with the city or its residents.’20 There is lots of money to be made from talking about the smart city. From theorists prophesying their visions, architects with their design innovations, management consultants who wish to sell their solutions, software companies who have developed the proprietary code to run the new world, making and marketing the smart city is big business.

This was also integrated with weather and public-transit information. As a result, in testing, the new smart grid improved 60–70 per cent of all taxi trips and made them significantly faster. The smart city is being built from a combination of big city-hall projects alongside major software companies as well as more humble schemes that can be found on the 3 or 4G mobile in your pocket or the sat nav on the dashboard. Yet the city of the future, however connected it may be, is only ever going to be as smart as the people who use it. Information is not an end in itself, it is a means to come up with better solutions to the problems of urban life. Yet it is surprising how thinking about the smart city forces us to reconsider other aspects of the city. Does technology help us face the problems of congestion? Can smart building make the city of the future more sustainable?

Can the rules that allow for the greening of roofs be used to promote more efficient building practice, both in terms of construction and maintenance? We certainly have the technology to improve the buildings in which we work and live. The very same innovation that is creating the smart city (see Chapter 8) can also be used to monitor and regulate energy usage and find efficiencies. As a result, the smart building can control lighting and heating and it uses the latest materials to reduce energy leakage. Once again, the big software firms like IBM and Siemens are investing heavily in promoting the concept of ‘smart building’ as a component of the smart city. In the US the LEED national standards for sustainable building were created, in the main, for developers constructing new homes or for the rich who can afford expensive turbines and solar panels to improve the value of their homes on the real-estate market.


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The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

In London, the one-million-square-foot Google Campus in King’s Cross is a short walk from Central St Martin’s and will grow to at least 4,500 people. The impact on job creation of smart cities with their highly skilled workers can be significant. In fact, according to Enrico Moretti5 of Berkeley, every one smart job creates five others. Some of these other jobs are highly skilled too, such as lawyers, accountants or consultants. Others are low-paid, such as gardeners, artisanal manufacturers, baristas or yoga teachers. At this rate, smart cities will become a better place to generate employment than the old manufacturing hubs. This growing importance of smart cities is also driven by social phenomena. The last few decades have seen a striking increase in what sociologists call assortative mating. In other words, marriage partners are more alike now in terms of education and income than they were in the past.

The rise of the factory and then the office inevitably led to a more formal separation of work and leisure. As we look forward we see more opportunities for the emerging ecosystems of work to erode this separation and enable work and life to be reintegrated. Flexible, smart cities will rise It is not just who you work for that will change, but also where you work. We are currently witnessing the most extraordinary migration that humanity has ever experienced. This is the migration from the countryside to the city. In 2010, 3.6 billion of the world population lived in cities. By 2050 the number is projected to be 6.3 billion – equivalent to the movement of 1.4 million people every week. Living in a city – and especially a smart city – is growing in importance and seems likely to continue. Why are people moving to cities in such numbers? After all, the great promise of the internet was that distance would become unimportant, freeing people to live wherever they desired.

Part of the story of migration to the cities is that in the emerging markets of the world, people move from the rural sector and agriculture into the cities and industry. However, this is not the only story of migration. In advanced economies, people are also moving to the cities and this reflects the growing importance of proximity on ideas and high-level skills. So while some industrial cities such as Detroit have suffered from decline, other ‘smart cities’ like San Francisco, Seattle and Boston have flourished and their population has risen. These smart cities are becoming a nexus of people who have ideas and high-level skills and who want to be close to other highly skilled people. They know that innovation is occurring at a faster pace, and they want to be close to other smart people to push and challenge one another. These clusters initially formed from groups graduating from universities and specialist colleges.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Source: “Rosie or Jarvis: The future of the smart home is still in the air”, Richard Nieva, 14 January 2015, http://www.cnet.com/news/rosie-or-jarvis-the-future-of-the-smart-home-is-still-in-the-air/ Shift 10: Smart Cities Tipping point: The first city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and no traffic lights By 2025: 64% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred Many cities will connect services, utilities and roads to the internet. These smart cities will manage their energy, material flows, logistics and traffic. Progressive cities, such as Singapore and Barcelona, are already implementing many new data-driven services, including intelligent parking solutions, smart trash collection and intelligent lighting. Smart cities are continuously extending their network of sensor technology and working on their data platforms, which will be the core for connecting the different technology projects and adding future services based on data analytics and predictive modelling.

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Collaborative_Innovation_report_2015.pdf 45 World Economic Forum, Global Information Technology Report 2015: ICTs for Inclusive Growth, Soumitra Dutta, Thierry Geiger and Bruno Lanvin, eds., 2015. 46 World Economic Forum, Data-Driven Development: Pathways for Progress, January 2015 http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEFUSA_DataDrivenDevelopment_Report2015.pdf 47 Tom Saunders and Peter Baeck, “Rethinking Smart Cities From The Ground Up”, Nesta, June 2015. https://www.nesta.org.uk/sites/default/files/rethinking_smart_cities_from_the_ground_up_2015.pdf 48 Carolina Moreno, “Medellin, Colombia Named ‘Innovative City Of The Year’ In WSJ And Citi Global Competition”, Huffington Post, 2 March 2013 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/02/medellin-named-innovative-city-of-the-year_n_2794425.html 49 World Economic Forum, Top Ten Urban Innovations, Global Agenda Council on the Future of Cities, World Economic Forum, October 2015.

Impact 3.1 Economy 3.1.1 Growth 3.1.2 Employment 3.1.3 The Nature of Work 3.2 Business 3.2.1 Consumer Expectations 3.2.2 Data-Enhanced Products 3.2.3 Collaborative Innovation 3.2.4 New Operating Models 3.3 National and Global 3.3.1 Governments 3.3.2 Countries, Regions and Cities 3.3.3 International Security 3.4 Society 3.4.1 Inequality and the Middle Class 3.4.2 Community 3.5 The Individual 3.5.1 Identity, Morality and Ethics 3.5.2 Human Connection 3.5.3 Managing Public and Private Information The Way Forward Acknowledgements Appendix: Deep Shift 1. Implantable Technologies 2. Our Digital Presence 3. Vision as the New Interface 4. Wearable Internet 5. Ubiquitous Computing 6. A Supercomputer in Your Pocket 7. Storage for All 8. The Internet of and for Things 9. The Connected Home 10. Smart Cities 11. Big Data for Decisions 12. Driverless Cars 13. Artificial Intelligence and Decision-Making 14. AI and White-Collar Jobs 15. Robotics and Services 16. Bitcoin and the Blockchain 17. The Sharing Economy 18. Governments and the Blockchain 19. 3D Printing and Manufacturing 20. 3D Printing and Human Health 21. 3D Printing and Consumer Products 22. Designer Beings 23. Neurotechnologies Notes Introduction Of the many diverse and fascinating challenges we face today, the most intense and important is how to understand and shape the new technology revolution, which entails nothing less than a transformation of humankind.


Autonomous Driving: How the Driverless Revolution Will Change the World by Andreas Herrmann, Walter Brenner, Rupert Stadler

Airbnb, Airbus A320, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, carbon footprint, cleantech, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, demand response, digital map, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer rental, precision agriculture, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Zipcar

In the meantime, Ford too has a series of mobility services designed for urban use, including a parking app (GoPark), a car-sharing service (GoDrive), a shuttle service (GoRide) and a mobility app (FordPass). SMART-CITY CHALLENGES Around the world, there have already been a number of smart-city challenges, all intended to improve the flow of traffic, reduce CO2 emissions and improve the quality of life in dramatically growing megacities. By the year 2030, some 50 per cent of the population of India will live in urban areas, with all of the challenges that entails for the traffic infrastructure, which is already overwhelmed. Consequently, India’s Ministry of Urban Development held a smart-city contest calling for solutions to severe traffic problems using the latest technology. The objective is to develop traffic models that can be then applied to other cities if they prove to be viable.

Industrial policy concepts are needed for the formation of clusters so that cities, regions and even countries can succeed in the competition for jobs, earnings and wealth. INTEGRATING AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES IN CITIES Many metropolises are currently on their way to becoming smart cities, accompanied by numerous competitors and benchmark studies. A feature of this initiative is the use of resource-saving technologies in order to become independent of fossil fuels. For this purpose, the infrastructure, buildings and mobility should be connected intelligently so that resources (energy, water and land) can be used efficiently. A smart city features more than an intelligent transport system in which future autonomous vehicles such as robo-cars play a major role. The Audi Urban Future Initiative is an example of how autonomous mobility can be embedded in the completely new design of a city.

The German cities have not grown at this speed and they have welldeveloped public transport and good roads. Nevertheless, for ecological and economic reasons, everything should be done to make traffic more fluid. Digitisation makes car driving more comfortable, it ensures more traffic safety and less congestion. This is why the German automotive industry is so heavily involved in this field of innovation. transport. Robo-cars are the future of transporting passengers in the centres of smart cities. It will be possible to request such a car from the train using an app, and then to be picked up and driven home. The car will know the train timetable, the traveller’s final destination, and will find the best, fastest or shortest route to that destination, taking traffic conditions into consideration. In the future, railroad companies may operate fleets of autonomous vehicles to supplement their existing services.


pages: 389 words: 87,758

No Ordinary Disruption: The Four Global Forces Breaking All the Trends by Richard Dobbs, James Manyika

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, business cycle, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, demographic dividend, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Great Moderation, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, Zipcar

Wallaby, a venture-backed US firm, recommends which credit card to use for different types of purchases in order to maximize rewards. BillGuard pulls together information from all its users’ credit card transactions to highlight transactions and payments that are unwanted or even fraudulent to its users. The global smart city technology market—smart energy, water, transportation, buildings, and government—is expected to grow from $9 billion in 2014 to $27.5 billion by 2023.58 Companies are already working with pioneering cities such as San Francisco, Barcelona, and Amsterdam. The growth in the global smart city technology market has fueled growth in adjacent sectors, such as video surveillance. An opportunity also exists to capitalize on the search by governments for partners to provide public services. Such partnerships span countries and sectors. In some of the world’s most water-stressed areas, including parts of Africa and Latin America, Coca-Cola has partnered with international agencies such as the World Wildlife Fund and the United Nations Development Programme to improve access to water and sanitation, protect watersheds, provide water for productive use, and raise awareness about water issues.

Eric Braverman and Mary Kuntz, “Creating a ‘coalition of the positive’ in India: An interview with Nandan Nilekani” and Elana Berkowitz and Blaise Warren, “E-government in Estonia” in “Innovation in government: India and Estonia,” McKinsey & Company, June 2012. 57. Marcos Cruz and Alexandre Lazarow, “Innovation in government: Brazil,” McKinsey & Company, September 2012. 58. Smart Cities, Navigant Research, 2014, www.navigantresearch.com/research/smart-buildings/smart-cities.bus%20visi. 59. Vestas Annual Reports, 2005, 2009, and 2013. 60. Draft Grundfos response to the European Commission’s public consultation on resource efficiency, Grundfos, February 24, 2012, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/resource_efficiency/pdf/Grundfos.pdf; From solo enterprise to world leader, Danfoss Trata, www.trata.danfoss.com/xxNewsx/2b005275-98ff-4165-a0a5-78efe146264a_CNP1.html.

foreign direct investments from, 76 goods and services customization for, 103, 104–105 new competitor entry of, 170 new consuming class of, 96, 97–98 operational complexity management in, 29 public-private partnerships in, 198–199 renewable energy plan of, 126 smart city technology in, 41 space exploration by, 2–3 urbanization speed and scale in, 20 (fig.), 131–132 Indian cities Bangalore, 29, 105 Mumbai, 29, 131–132 Pune, 41 Surat, 25 Industrial Revolution, 16, 18, 33, 202 Infrastructure data and productivity gains, 196–197 deficit, 131–132, 133, 135–136 energy storage and, 36 financing partnerships, 29–30 policy and new business opportunity, 197–199 private partnerships for, 27–28, 29–30, 198–199 public spending, 188–189, 191–193 repurposed services for, 28 smart city technology and, 28, 41, 198 urban innovation in, 23, 28 See also Transportation Inner Mongolia, China, 135 Innovation acceleration of, 33–34, 35 (fig.), 42 ripple effect of, 202 time and betting on, 50–51 urbanization and, 23, 25–28 Instacart, 25 Insurance industry, 46 (fig.), 50, 173 Interconnection.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Settlements organized in this way can be easily navigated and searched, their populations identified, taxed, conscripted, arrested, and otherwise processed.12 Though significant, the evolution from the higgledy-piggledy city of the middle ages to the planned metropolis of modernity will be dwarfed by the next phase of urban evolution: ‘smart cities’ embedded with dense networks of sensors that allow authorities to keep track of a dazzling array of variables, from noise, temperature, light, air toxicity, and utility usage, to the movement, location, and activity of vehicles and people. In the future, technology will allow authorities to monitor events and incidents not on paper maps but using surveillance and feedback systems that detail the activity of the city’s inhabitants. Even compared to the gridcities of the last few centuries, smart cities will be scrutable to an almost unimaginable degree. Very little public activity will be untraceable. Consider now the scrutability of the individuals inhabiting these cities.

Economist,‘How Cities Score’, 23 May 2016 <https://www.economist. com/news/special-report/21695194-better-use-data-could-make- OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 30/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS Notes 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 381 cities-more-efficientand-more-democratic-how-cities-score> (accessed 30 November 2017). Kitchin, Data Revolution, 92; Margarita Angelidou, ‘Smart City Strategy: PlanIT Valley (Portugal)’, Urenio, 26 January 2015 <http:// www.urenio.org/2015/01/26/smart-city-strategy-planlt-valleyportugal/> (accessed 30 November 2017). Economist, ‘How Cities Score’. Greengard, Internet of Things, 48. Jane Wakefield, ‘Google, Facebook, Amazon Join Forces on Future of AI’, BBC News, 28 September 2016 <http://www.bbc.com/news/ technology-37494863> (accessed 30 November 2017). Margaret A. Boden, AI: Its Nature and Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 41.

‘Epidermal electronics’—small stretchy patches worn on the skin—will be able to record your sun exposure, heart rate, and blood oxygenation.14 Meanwhile, when you toss a ball around the garden, the pigskin itself will record the distance, velocity, spin rate, spiral, and catch rate for post-game analysis.15 In public, smart waste bins will know when they are full, highways will know when they are cracked, and supermarket shelves will know when they are empty. Each will feed information back to the persons (or machines) responsible for fixing the problem. Smart signs, streetlamps, and traffic lights will interact with the driverless cars that pass by.16 ‘Smart cities’ are expected to grow in number. Authorities in Louisville, Kentucky, have already embedded GPS trackers inside inhalers to measure which parts of their cities are hotspots of air pollution.17 Connective As well as permeating the physical world, technology will continue to grow more connective, facilitating the exchange of information between people, between people and machines, and between machines themselves.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Thus, when traveling in the territory of Ersilia, you come upon the ruins of abandoned cities, without the walls which do not last, without the bones of the dead which the wind rolls away: spiderwebs of intricate relationships seeking a form. —Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities2 It is not the line that is between two points, but the point that is the intersection of many lines. —Gilles Deleuze, Pourparlers3 Whenever I hear the term smart cities, I reflexively think of Jacques Tati's satires on the follies of automated modern architecture. However dark the humor, for master-controlled megacities and stale visions of bland efficiency, mega-hijinks are sure to follow. The poverty of off-the-shelf smart city strategies is all the more distressing given how important the intelligent composition of computational systems at urban scale actually is, especially for new platform sovereignties. Instead, however, if we view these supposedly futuristic digital technologies in relation to more primordial relationships with territory, we may conclude that our meandering, rootless itinerancy through the surpriseless pathways of junkspace, gripping our mobile Cloud platform tethers (aka “phones” and tablets and so on) scanning, sorting, poking, and choosing as we go, is a far less modern way of being urban than we assume.4 Humans, as a species, have physically evolved very little in the last hundred thousand years, and barely at all since the appearance of writing.

We imagine Cedric Price's Fun Palace (1961) turned inside out by North Korean stadium pageants where the audience itself is the media content, but instead of free to play, each actor is instead rendered into disciplined pixel within a larger choreography of the spectacular image. We could mark an ancestral trace from Yona Friedman's La Ville Spatiale to the new Asian smart cities such as New Songdo City (“a ubiquitous city,” says its brochure) in South Korea's Incheon development, or see Paolo Soleri's Arcology as a first pass at Masdar, the massive “green” smart city in Abu Dhabi. (Both Songdo and Masdar were built with Cisco and IBM as key partners.) Is Situationist cut-and-paste psychogeography reborn or smashed to bits by Minecraft? What binds the hyperlibertarian secessionism of the Seasteading Institute, which would move whole populations offshore to live on massive ships floating from port to port unmolested by regulation and undesired publics (Facebook funder Peter Thiel is a key funder) with Archigram's Walking City project from 1967, which plotted for Star Wars Land Walker–like city machines to get up and amble away to greener pastures as needed?

As such, software may need theory at least as much as theory needs software. As for the geopolitics of computation, we can point to another shift, around 2008 or so. Before this break, the growth of planetary-scale computing systems was seen more generally as a beneficent blossoming. The old order would be swept away and a new day illuminated with the power of networks, iStuff, Twitter revolutions, “Internet freedom,” and smart cities. After this break, however, the sky darkened, and now the Cloud portends instead state surveillance, tax evasion, structural unemployment, troll culture, and flash crashes. Reality, however, is actually more radical in both directions. The thesis of this book holds that the official utopia and the official dystopia are not particularly useful frames of reference, and that neither provide a robust and intelligent program for art, design, economics, or engineering.


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

CHAPTER 18 The Totalitarian Urban Future The new urban paradigm elevates efficiency and central control above privacy local autonomy class diversity and broad-based property ownership. The same oligarchs who dominate our commercial culture, seek to profit from manipulating our moods, and influence the behavior of our children want to structure our living environment as well.1 Major tech firms—Y Combinator, Lyft, Cisco, Google, Facebook—are aiming to build what they call the “smart city.” Promoted as a way to improve efficiency in urban services, these plans will also provide more opportunity for oligarchs to monitor our lives, as well as sell more advertising. The “smart city” would replace organic urban growth with a regime running on algorithms designed to rationalize our activities and control our way of life.2 This urban vision appeals to tech oligarchs’ belief that their mission is to “change the world,” not simply make money by meeting customers’ needs and desires.

The British academic David Lyon sees the all-immersive data-driven city as part of a “surveillance society,” where all individual activities are under the gaze of the ruling classes.31 These “smart cities” will prove to be essentially the opposite of the real thing, substituting machine-driven interfaces for the free and spontaneous human interactions that are the glory of the traditional city.32 Averting the arrival of this contrived and controlled urban form, or at least slowing its development, will require new measures to limit the power of the oligarchic tech companies, and of the clerisy who promote their agenda.33 Europeans may be in the lead here, seeking to curb information monopolies and to limit intrusions into personal lives; EU citizens are being given the tools to “erase” personal data collected by tech services.34 Some people will no doubt see pushback against the “smart city” as a case of rejecting technology or impeding efficiency, or shackling free enterprise and seizing intellectual property.

Ross, “In Silicon Valley, Age Can Be a Curse,” SFGate, August 20, 2013, https://www.sfgate.com/business/bottomline/article/In-Silicon-Valley-age-can-be-a-curse-4742365.php. 17 Susan Crawford, “Beware of Google’s Intentions,” Wired, February 1, 2018, https://www.wired.com/story/sidewalk-labs-toronto-google-risks/; Sidewalk Toronto, “Toronto Tomorrow,” https://sidewalktoronto.ca/#documents; Vipal Monga, “Toronto Oicials Question Alphabet Unit’s Ambitions for ‘Smart City,’” Wall Street Journal, June 24, 2019, https://www.wsj.com/articles/toronto-officials-question-alphabet-units-ambitions-for-smart-city-11561412851. 18 “Sidewalk Labs’s vision and your data privacy: A guide to the saga on Toronto’s waterfront,” Globe and Mail, June 24, 2019, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/toronto/article-sidewalk-labs-quayside-toronto-waterfront-explainer/. 19 Crawford, “Beware of Google’s Intentions.” 20 “Albert Gidari,” Center for Internet and Society, Stanford Law School, http://cyberlaw.stanford.edu/about/people/albert-gidari. 21 Yulia Gorbunova, “Online and On All Fronts,” Human Rights Watch, July 18, 2017, https://www.hrw.org/report/2017/07/18/online-and-all-fronts/russias-assault-freedom-expression; Leopord Hakizimana and Dr.


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Cities now examine data (or, more accurately, a computer-aided interpretation of it) to anticipate spikes in electricity demand or to synchronize streetlights to prevent traffic snarls. In the urban context, information feedback loops are making it easier for us to optimize the ways our cities work. The so-called smart city we all keep hearing about is being built on a fundamental premise: With enough data and powerful analytical tools, we can make our cities better. Smartphones put this process into overdrive; they’re already collecting and sharing the sort of information that will underpin the future smart city. We can get directions, learn transit times, or find parking thanks to our Internet-equipped mobile phones. As smartphones advance technologically, their owners will become — knowingly or not — integral nodes in this vast and dynamic network. Indeed, the citizen sensor is already reality.

Through visuals in the dashboard and physical cues like seat vibrators, the test cars are able to notify their drivers when they’re veering out of a lane too close to other cars or driving too fast toward stopped cars ahead. The goal of the test is to determine how well this technology can increase road safety, eventually paving the way for a requirement that all automakers install this type of car-to-car communication capability. For now, the sensors of choice for the smart city are our smartphones. Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Senseable City Lab have been exploring the potential of various mobile devices for nearly a decade. Through several research projects, the lab has investigated ways to use sensors in the urban environment for understanding the dynamics and patterns of mobility and economics. One effort tapped into anonymized cell phone data to map the movement of people throughout Rome on a given night.

The call to action is always the same: “Better planning, better management!” That call, though, rests on an unquestioned assumption about cities. In this modern age, we think of cities as large institutions or machines. We talk about their failures as failures of management, coordination, governance. We think we could have “better” cities if we could only tune the machine to make it more “efficient.” The machine model is implicit in the popular language around “smart cities.” The promise is that shiny, smart boxes will figure out how to make our cities tick by smoothing traffic flow, monitoring crime, and allocating power through smart grids. Cities will be run by supersized versions of 2001: A Space Odyssey’s HAL crunching continuous streams of big data. As Donald Fagen of Steely Dan sang, “A just machine to make big decisions / Programmed by fellows with compassion and vision.”


pages: 340 words: 97,723

The Big Nine: How the Tech Titans and Their Thinking Machines Could Warp Humanity by Amy Webb

Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Sanders, bioinformatics, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Flynn Effect, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Inbox Zero, Internet of things, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, New Urbanism, one-China policy, optical character recognition, packet switching, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, uber lyft, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

AI is used to spot patterns and anomalies in data, leading journalists to surface new stories in the public interest. Rather than aiding and abetting misinformation bots, AI can ferret out propaganda, misleading claims, and disinformation campaigns. Our democracies are stronger as a result. The G-MAFIA studied the Chinese cities where smart city initiatives were piloted—such as Rongcheng, Beijing, Shenzhen, Shanghai—and identified best practices to pilot in the United States. We now have a few American smart cities—Baltimore, Detroit, Boulder, and Indianapolis—that are testing out a wide range of AI systems and services. Networks of cubesats overhead—tiny satellites the size of a Rubik’s Cube—feed real-time data into AI systems that can recognize objects, unique light patterns, and heat signatures. This, in turn, allows city managers to predict power outages, monitor and reroute traffic, manage water reserves, and clear ice and snow off the roads.

Like Amazon, Alibaba also has a smart speaker—it’s called the Genie X1, and it is smaller and squatter than Amazon’s Alexa and Google’s Home devices. It uses neural network–based voiceprint recognition technology to identify users, automatically authenticating them so they can shop and make purchases. More than 100,000 of Alibaba’s speakers are being installed in Marriott hotels throughout China. Alibaba has a bigger vision for AI, which it calls its ET City Brain. The program crunches huge amounts of local data, from smart city cameras and sensors to government records and individual social media accounts. Alibaba uses its AI framework for predictive modeling: to suss out in advance traffic management, urban development, public health needs, and whether there might be social unrest on the horizon. Under Ma’s direction, Alibaba has made inroads into delivery logistics, online video, data centers, and cloud computing, investing billions of dollars into various companies in an attempt to build a sprawling digital behemoth, connecting commerce, home, work, cities, and government.

GAIA meets regularly, making all of its work transparent, while its multinational working groups are comfortably keeping pace with technological advancement. Middle-class homes rely on AI to make life a little bit easier. Devices, platforms, and other services are interoperable even between countries, where decades earlier licensing and data restrictions prevented access across borders. Smart washers and driers use less energy, are more efficient, and synch up to our smart city systems to share data. With consent, we allow our laundry to be done when it causes the least amount of strain on our public water and electric utilities. ANI supports sensory computation, which means that we can collect and query the real world using sensory data: sight, smell, hearing, taste, and touch. You use handheld scanners, outfitted with smart cameras and computer vision, in your kitchen.


pages: 550 words: 124,073

Democracy and Prosperity: Reinventing Capitalism Through a Turbulent Century by Torben Iversen, David Soskice

Andrei Shleifer, assortative mating, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, implied volatility, income inequality, industrial cluster, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, means of production, mittelstand, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, passive investing, precariat, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, speech recognition, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban decay, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

But where a city had ab initio a range of professional service sectors and strong universities it has typically grown into a major cosmopolitan metropolis. Size is not necessarily everything: what were originally just university towns (Chapel Hill or Austin in the United States, for example, and York, Norwich, or Brighton in the UK) with an initial range of higher value-added service sectors, can also become on a smaller scale graduate agglomerations, sometimes referred to as “smart cities.” By contrast, those cities or towns which had been prosperous in the Fordist era largely on the basis of single industrial sectors have found survival and growth much harder. Thus Baltimore, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Akron, and Detroit, as well as many more mainly industrial smaller towns, contrast with what are now highly skilled agglomerations like New York, Boston, Chicago, Washington, San Francisco, and San Diego.

By contrast the probability that in-migrants in 1995 had not come to enroll in higher education was unrelated (not statistically significant) to the graduate percentage, while the probability that out-migrants in 2000 had not come (originally) to enroll there in higher education was significantly positive. (Winters also notes interestingly that the bulk of in-migrants for higher education into a “smart city” come from within the state in question; so, of relevance to our subsequent discussion of populism, this geographical segregation between successful and left behind cities may be widely spread across the United States.) In equilibrium, a higher in-migration for the purpose of education and the lower outmigration of graduates will lead to a concentration of the high-skilled in cities, which is what has happened.

Technological Innovation and Multinational Corporations. Oxford: Blackwell. Cantwell, John, and Simona Iammarino. 2003. Multinational Corporations and European Regional Systems of Innovation. London: Routledge. Cantwell, John, and Ram Mudambi. 2005. “MNE Competence-Creating Subsidiary Mandates.” Strategic Management Journal 26 (12): 1109–28. Caragliu, Andrea, Chiara Del Bo, and Peter Nijkamp. 2011. “Smart Cities in Europe.” Journal of Urban Technology 18 (2): 65–82. Card, David. 2001. “Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems.” Econometrica 69 (5): 1127–60. Carlin, W., and David Soskice. 2014. Macroeconomics: Institutions, Instability and the Financial System. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Casper, Steven. 2007. Creating Silicon Valley in Europe: Public Policy Towards New Technology Industries.


pages: 317 words: 87,566

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

In other circumstances, this data is being ‘opened up’ on the basis that it is a public good. After all, we the public created it by swiping our smart cards, visiting websites, tweeting our thoughts, and so on. Big data should therefore be something available to all of us to analyse. What this more liberal approach tends to ignore is the fact that, even where data is being opened up, the tools to analyse it are not. As the ‘smart cities’ analyst Anthony Townsend has pointed out with regard to New York City’s open data regulations, they judiciously leave out the algorithms which are used by e-government contractors to analyse the data.6 While the liberal left continues to worry about the privatization of knowledge as enacted by intellectual property rights, a new problem of the privatization of theory has arisen, whereby algorithms which spot patterns and trends are shrouded in commercial secrecy.

This is a new type of power dynamic altogether, which is difficult to characterize purely in terms of surveillance and privacy. The accumulation of psychological data occurs unobtrusively in such a society, often thanks to the enthusiastic co-operation of individual consumers and social media users. Its rationale is typically to make life easier, healthier and happier for all. It offers environments, such as smart cities, which are constantly adapting around behaviour and real-time social trends, in ways that most people are scarcely aware of. And in keeping with Bentham’s fear of the ‘tyranny of sounds’, it replaces dialogue with expert management. After all, not everybody can inhabit a laboratory, no matter how big. A powerful minority must play the role of the scientists. We received a glimpse of this future in June 2014, when Facebook published a paper analysing ‘emotional contagion’ in social networks.13 The public response was similar to that of JWT’s survey subjects in Copenhagen and London in 1927: outrage.

Human resource management is one of the latest fields to be swept up in data euphoria, with new techniques known as ‘talent analytics’ now available, which allow managers to evaluate their employees algorithmically, using data produced by workplace email traffic.20 The Boston-based company Sociometric Solutions goes further, producing gadgets to be worn by employees, to make their movements, tone of voice and conversations traceable by management. ‘Smart cities’ and ‘smart homes’, which are constantly reacting to and seeking to alter their inhabitants’ behaviour, are other areas where the new scientific utopia is being built. In an ironic twist in the history of consumerism, it has emerged that we could soon be relieved even of the responsibility for our purchasing decisions thanks to ‘predictive shopping’, in which companies mail products (such as books or groceries) directly to the consumer’s home, without being asked to, purely on the basis of algorithmic analysis or smart-home monitoring.21 The rhetoric of the data merchants is one of enlightenment: of moving from an age of guesswork to one of objective science, echoing how Bentham understood the impact of utilitarianism on law and punishment.


pages: 301 words: 85,126

AIQ: How People and Machines Are Smarter Together by Nick Polson, James Scott

Air France Flight 447, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, basic income, Bayesian statistics, business cycle, Cepheid variable, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Charles Pickering, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Flash crash, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, index fund, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, late fees, low earth orbit, Lyft, Magellanic Cloud, mass incarceration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Moravec's paradox, more computing power than Apollo, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, North Sea oil, p-value, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, speech recognition, statistical model, survivorship bias, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

.‡ In AI, this means scanning a stream of data points and identifying ones that don’t match the typical pattern. This can save lives and money, and it can lead to new insights about your data: • Banks use software that looks for anomalous spending patterns to detect that your credit card has been stolen. • Big companies monitor their networks for anomalous traffic to search for cybersecurity breaches. • Data analysts in “smart cities” look for anomalous concentrations of crime in a given area to improve policing strategies. • Investigators look for anomalies in medical-claims data to detect Medicare fraud. • Sports teams monitor the data from their players’ wearable gadgets, searching for anomalies that suggest a risk of injury. In all these applications of AI, and in thousands more, detecting anomalies is just as much about understanding the variability in your data as it is about understanding what’s typical.

Yet in 1696 he gave up the life of a professor, moved to London, and accepted a sinecure offered by his powerful friends in government: warden of the Royal Mint. Overall, Newton performed admirably in his new job—except on one crucial point, where he erred badly, by misunderstanding an important statistical principle that was staring him in the face for the better part of five years. Today, that principle sits at the heart of every real-time monitoring system powered by AI: in Silicon Valley, in smart cities, in the analytics office of every sports team, and in the fraud-prevention office of every bank. So if you want to understand any of these things, then you need to understand three major strands in the story of Newton at the Royal Mint. 1. A late-seventeenth-century crisis in the English economy, in which the Mint played a subtle but fundamental role. 2. The Great Recoinage of 1696, a drastic step in English monetary policy designed to stanch the crisis, and which Newton had to rescue from disaster. 3. 

Facebook and Google, warehouses and grocery stores, airlines and oil rigs, senators and stock traders, the Cleveland Cavaliers and the weekend warriors … they all take measurements and average them together, algorithmically searching for anomalies in massive data sets. While the speed and scale of these systems have changed a lot in three centuries, the fundamental principle hasn’t: to detect an anomaly, you have to understand variability. Smart Cities: Big N, Big D Just ask the folks who work at the Mayor’s Office of Data Analytics, or MODA, in New York City. MODA was created in 2013 by then-mayor Michael Bloomberg to analyze the vast troves of municipal data collected by the city government—everything from 911 calls to building-inspection forms to horticultural reports on the city’s 5.2 million trees. The richness and scale of MODA’s various data sources reveal an important fact about the intersection of big data with artificial intelligence.


pages: 303 words: 81,071

Infinite Detail by Tim Maughan

3D printing, augmented reality, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, friendly fire, global supply chain, Internet of things, Mason jar, off grid, Panamax, post-Panamax, ransomware, RFID, security theater, self-driving car, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning

“Not a big one for small talk, huh, Chris?” Chris smiles. “Pretty brave of you really, coming here.” “To Crown Heights? Seems like a nice neighborhood.” “You know what I mean.” “Actually, no, Chris. Not sure I do.” “Well, I’d have thought you’d be pretty high up Homeland Security’s stop lists, what with the Republic being attached to that Boeing e-mail leak last month. Rush-zero-zero, the legendary smart city hacker. And that’s without even taking into account how often your name has personally been attached to all those high-level Anon and Dronegods ops.” It was the first time anyone had mentioned the Republic to him in days. “You shouldn’t believe everything you read on the Internet, Chris. In fact, I hear some of the people that write for the Internet are completely full of shit.” “You’ve got joint nationality, right?

Neal chuckles next to her, shakes his head. “I tell you what, girl, I hope it’s worth it.” “What?” “Whatever you’re going to Bristol for. I hope it’s worth all this shit.” “Yeah,” she says. “Yeah. So do I.” 4. BEFORE Dumb City: The Neighbourhood That Logged Off 7 July 2021 Neeta Singh BBC News magazine In a hip neighbourhood in Bristol, a controversial group of anarchists are rebelling against the smart city by blocking out the internet. Neeta Singh visits the People’s Republic of Stokes Croft to find out what life off-grid looks like in the centre of one of the UK’s most connected cities. The whole world around me is cycling with colours—every building down this busy Bristol street is covered with animated patterns: flocks of birds scroll across their surfaces; intricate, alien-looking plants burst forth from the architecture; and stylised faces look down on me with cool disdain.

In fact, I can’t connect to the internet at all. I can’t even send a text message or make a voice call. My spex have been completely hijacked by secret, almost mystical, technologies hidden in the buildings around me, and I’ve no choice but to try and enjoy the ride. Welcome to the People’s Republic of Stokes Croft, a two-mile-long digital no-man’s-land right in the centre of Bristol, one of the UK’s leading smart cities. Part hippyster commune, part permanent art installation, and part political protest, the Croft (as the locals call it) claims to be a refuge from the physical and digital surveillance we associate with everyday life both in major cities and online. “Your first reaction might be ‘oh god, I can’t connect to anything,’ but the reality is that you’ve actually disappeared,” explains Rushdi Manaan, anti-surveillance activist and the PRSC’s most infamous founder.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

Travel distances drop, shared transportation rises, and less infrastructure—hospitals, schools, garbage collection—is required. The result is that cities are cleaner, more energy efficient, and emit less carbon dioxide. And smart cities could take this further. A 2018 McKinsey study found smart city solutions could reduce urban greenhouse gases some 15 percent, solid waste by 30 to 130 kilograms per person per year, and save water—some twenty-five to eighty gallons per person per day. In fact, using today’s technology, we could achieve 70 percent of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals merely by transitioning to smart cities. Now the downside: Calamity is a definite possibility. Unplanned urbanization is a fantastic recipe for crime, disease, the cycle of poverty, and environmental devastation. Yet, as this book makes clear, our tools are equal to those challenges.

Glaeser and Wentao Xiong, “Urban Productivity in the Developing World,” National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2017. See: https://www.nber.org/papers/w23279.pdf. London and Paris: Ibid. Santa Fe Institute physicist Geoffrey West: Jonah Lehrer, “A Physicist Solves the City,” New York Times, December 17, 2010. See: https://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html. 2018 McKinsey study: Katie Johnson, “Environmental Benefits of Smart City Solutions,” Foresight, July 19, 2018. See: https://www.climateforesight.eu/cities-coasts/environmental-benefits-of-smart-city-solutions/. Virtual Worlds three billion hours a week: Jane McGonigal, “We Spend 3 Billion Hours a Week as a Planet Playing Videogames. Is It Worth It? How Could It Be MORE Worth It?,” Ted, 2011. See: https://www.ted.com/conversations/44/we_spend_3_billion_hours_a_wee.html. In 2005, the BBC reported: “S Korean Dies After Games Session,” BBC News, August 10, 2005.

In this smart community slated for Toronto’s industrial waterfront, robots deliver the mail, AI uses sensor data to manage everything from air quality to traffic flow, and the entire cityscape is “climate positive,” that is, built to green standards and sustainably powered. But what makes this project more than just interesting real estate news is that all of the software systems developed for Quayside will be open sourced, so anyone can use them, speeding up progress in smart cities everywhere. Will any of this—from NASA’s asteroid detection plans to the Netherlands’ water-friendly redesign to Estonia’s nimble e-governance—be enough to de-risk exponential risk? The answer is somewhere between “not close” and “not yet.” But there are three reasons for optimism. First, technological empowerment. Five hundred years ago, the only people capable of addressing these sorts of global, grand challenges were royalty.


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

The Chinese have arrived and are succeeding at: •buying into US cutting-edge startups, coinvesting with Sand Hill Road venture capital firms, and spanning out to Southeast Asia and Israel to counter American domination •fast-tracking and popularizing innovative business models in China that the West is copying: virtual gifts, social commerce, AI-powered news and video apps, and one-stop superapps •building giant consumer and enterprise ecosystems of mobile payments, online shopping, deliveries, games, and videos that new entrants can’t penetrate •owning and using technologies for smart cities, smart homes, smart workplaces, and smart cars •inventing the future for mass commercialization of electric cars and self-driving, errand-running humanoid robots, and combined AI and big data to improve cancer diagnoses and care China has shed its image as the world’s low-cost producer and flagrant copier of Western internet and mobile brands to become a breeding ground in today’s tech-centric world for disruptive breakthroughs not seen to such an extent since the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Like Mark Zuckerberg, Jeff Bezos, and Larry Page, who confront a tech backlash and constant challenges to their clout, China’s leaders face daunting issues that could weaken them: privacy concerns, counterfeit charges, restrictions on their most addictive products, and competitive threats. Baidu faces a possible reentry of Google to the Middle Kingdom some 10 years after googling didn’t knock out China’s search leader. Baidu’s bid to own the future for AI with self-driving cars and facial recognition for payments is uncertain after Li lost two experts in a row who were leading Baidu’s AI charge while rivals chip into the sector: Alibaba in smart-city traffic management, Tencent in medical imaging and diagnostic tools, and startups SenseTime and Face++ with AI-enhanced face-matching technologies for IDs and public security. Alibaba’s lead in e-commerce is challenged too, by social commerce upstart Pinduoduo with an app that combines bargain bin merchandise, prizes, social sharing features, and gaming. Alibaba also must fight a Tencent-funded gang of e-commerce contenders, including giant JD.com.

Dressed in his classic white shirt emblazoned with a Baidu logo, he put a positive spin on Baidu’s latest innovations in artificial intelligence—not so easy to be upbeat since he had to step back into the CEO seat after his star hire Lu left in May 2018 to launch and run a China offshoot of US accelerator Y Combinator. And that was only a year after AI superstar Andrew Ng departed Baidu for a new AI mission in Silicon Valley. As Li spoke, flashy surround-sound videos displayed Baidu’s new technologies for autonomous driving, smart-city projects in Beijing and Shanghai, and voice-activated speakers and lights. The crowd at the packed ballroom of the China World Hotel cheered loudly and clapped with each introduction: a pilot launch of 100 self-driving taxis in China’s central city Changsha, a partnership with Volvo to develop self-driving electric vehicles for the large China market, and an alliance with China’s large auto manufacturer FAW Group to produce autonomous passenger vehicles and start testing them in 2019 in Beijing and the northeast Chinese city Changchun.


pages: 297 words: 83,651

The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Naturally, these structures can be used by political authority to promote governing norms, but they can also work as more insidious forms of control. The emerging ideal of the ‘smart city’, where sensors and data collectors determine the allocation of resources and assets, is a case in point. Such cities are already being built in Canada, China and India. While the Chinese government wants to use the technology to promote a ‘social credit’ scheme rewarding good behaviour, Google’s plans in Toronto are seemingly driven by human need. To be called Quayside, Google’s ‘smart city’ will use data collection and sensors to monitor traffic, weather, pollution and noise, to adjust the roads, paving and architecture in response to emerging issues.77 This has met stiff local opposition, for fear of what will be done with the data. However, the benevolent face of the ‘smart city’, the way it seems to make life easier, is also its dark side.

For an excellent dissection of ‘cloud’ ideology, see Tung-hui Hu, A Prehistory of the Cloud, MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, 2015. 76. . . . ‘everyware’ . . . Greenfield wrote of this trend long before the ubiquitous ownership of smartphones and similar devices. Adam Greenfield, Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing, New Riders: Berkeley, CA, 2006. 77. . . . Google’s ‘smart city’ . . . Ava Kaufman, ‘Google’s “Smart City Of Surveillance” Faces New Resistance In Toronto’, The Intercept, 13 November 2018; Nancy Scola, ‘Google Is Building a City of the Future in Toronto. Would Anyone Want to Live There?’, Politico, July/August 2018. 78. It closely resembles . . . Gilles Deleuze, ‘Postscript on the Societies of Control’, October, Vol. 59 (Winter, 1992), pp. 3–7. 79. As Donna Haraway once wrote . . .


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

“Less Energy, More Growth: Prosperity through Efficiency,” Lean Energy Cluster and Monday Morning (www.leanenergy.dk/media/44595/less_energy_ more_growth_lean_energy_publikation_printvenlig.pdf); “Copenhagen, Beyond Green: The Socioeconomic Benefits of Being a Green City,” Green Growth Leaders and Monday Morning (www.sustainia.me/resources/publications/mm/CPH%20 Beyond%20Green.pdf). 10-2151-2 notes.indd 242 5/20/13 7:00 PM NOTES TO PAGES 204–08 243 14. Bruce Katz, “Why the U.S. Government Should Embrace Smart Cities,” Brookings, July 26, 2011 (www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2011/07/26-cities-katz). See also Boyd Cohen, “Singapore Is on Its Way to Becoming an Icon Smart City,” Fast Company, May 2012 (www.fastcoexist.com/1679819/singapore-is-on-its-wayto-becoming-an-iconic-smart-city); Greg Lindsay, “Cisco’s Big Bet on New Songdo: Creating Cities from Scratch,” Fast Company, February 1, 2010 (www.fastcompany. com/1514547/ciscos-big-bet-new-songdo-creating-cities-scratch). 15. “Latin America’s Bus Rapid Transit Boom: Lessons for U.S. Public Transportation,” panel discussion, Brookings, March 8, 2011 (www.brookings.edu/ events/2011/03/08-bus-rapid-transit). 16.

The center will also work with private industry partners, including IBM, Cisco, ConEdison, National Grid, Siemens, Xerox, AECOM, Arup, IDEO, Lutron, and Microsoft, and government labs, including the Livermore, Los Alamos, and Sandia National Laboratories. 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 28 5/20/13 6:48 PM NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY 29 NEW YORK CITY’S APPLIED SCIENCES CAMPUSES 02-2151-2 ch2.indd 29 5/20/13 6:48 PM 30 NYC: INNOVATION AND THE NEXT ECONOMY In July 2012 Columbia University’s new Institute for Data Sciences and Engineering, located at its Morningside Heights and Washington Heights campuses in New York City, became the third Applied Sciences campus.37 At Columbia, students and faculty will focus on applications for new media, smart cities, health analytics, cybersecurity, and financial analytics, among other areas. Columbia’s deal, like NYU’s, includes $15 million in various forms from the city. In a rapidly urbanizing world, with more than 6 billion people expected to populate cities and metropolitan areas over the next several years, smart and sustainable municipal services, or what NYU is calling “urban science,” will be in high demand. Thus it’s no surprise to find that a “smart cities” or “built environment” thread runs through all the institutions selected for the Applied Sciences initiative. In particular, innovations in products and processes that use less energy or develop different kinds of energy will be especially sought after in the coming decades.

David King, Michael Manville, and Donald Shoup, “The Political Calculus of Congestion Pricing,” Transport Policy 14, no. 2 (2007), p. 114. 17. Janna Anderson, Jan Lauren Boyles, and Lee Rainie, “The Future of Higher Education” (Washington: Pew Internet and American Life Project, July 2012). 18. See Techonomy website (www.techonomy.com) and Code for America website (www.codeforamerica.org). 19. Bruce Katz, “Why the U.S. Government Should Embrace Smart Cities,” Brookings, July 26, 2011 (www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2011/07/26-cities-katz). 20. Alan Berube and Carey Anne Nadeau, “Metropolitan Areas and the Next Economy: A 50-State Analysis” (Brookings, 2011). 21. Ibid. 22. In 1776 the United States had a population of about 2.5 million; Philadelphia was the largest city, with 40,000 residents. See Lawrence Yun, “Largest Cities in the United States in 1776, and in 2076,” National Association of Realtors, July 3, 2012 (http://economistsoutlook.blogs.realtor.org/?


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50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

ISBN 978-1-62365-195-4 Distributed in the United States and Canada by Random House Publisher Services c/o Random House, 1745 Broadway New York, NY 10019 www.quercus.com Contents Introduction POLITICS & POWER 01 Ubiquitous surveillance 02 Digital democracy 03 Cyber & drone warfare 04 Water wars 05 Wane of the West ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT 06 Resource depletion 07 Beyond fossil fuels 08 Precision agriculture 09 Population change 10 Geo-engineering THE URBAN LANDSCAPE 11 Megacities 12 Local energy networks 13 Smart cities 14 Next-generation transport 15 Extra-legal & feral slums TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 16 An internet of things 17 Quantum & DNA computing 18 Nanotechnology 19 Gamification 20 Artificial Intelligence HEALTH & WELL-BEING 21 Personalized genomics 22 Regenerative medicine 23 Remote monitoring 24 User-generated medicine 25 Medical data mining SOCIAL & ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS 26 Living alone 27 Dematerialization 28 Income polarization 29 What (& where) is work?

the condensed idea Locally produced and distributed energy timeline 1816 First energy company established in USA 1821 First electric motor 1839 Discovery of photovoltaic effect 1882 First hydroelectric power plant 1888 Tesla invents AC alternator 1892 General Electric founded 1980 First US wind farm 2030 Wind farms start to be demolished 2035 Most homes engaged in local energy trading 2040 Personal energy harvesters become mandatory 13 Smart cities Stuff that was once “dumb” is becoming smart. Pipes, roads, buildings and even whole cities are no exception. Whether it’s smart meters for water supply, appliances that work out when it’s best to be switched on, or dynamic tolling for roads, we can expect more efficiency, less waste, faster fixing and more pricing that’s responsive to real-time demand. Back in the 1990s, David Gelernter, a professor of computer science at Yale University, wrote a book called Mirror Worlds.

Anthony Downs, writer Add a few similar ideas and we’ll soon have cities that generate as much electricity as they consume, converting rubbish into energy, diverting heavy traffic automatically and processing sewage to make fuel. Wind cones will help to cool buildings and provide natural lighting, while drinking water will be harvested from rain collected from roofs and walls. “The bias lurking behind every large-scale smart city is a belief that bottom-up complexity can be bottled and put to use for top-down ends.” Greg Lindsay, Rudin center for Transportation Policy and Management, New York University Changing road use As for roads, thanks to GPS, CCTV and other devices it’s easily possible to work out, in real time, how busy roads are and where particular cars are going. This means that vehicles can be charged for entering specific areas or fined for going where they shouldn’t.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

Not all attacks are malicious or motivated by financial or personal gain; some are just done for the sake of it. For example, the Godzilla Attack is a perfect example of a potential industrial Internet-type security exploit on a smart city traffic system where the attacker gained access to the traffic lights and digital overhead messaging system. In May 2014, the overhead traffic signs on San Francisco’s Van Ness Avenue were photographed by a passerby showing the flashing traffic warning “Godzilla Attack! Turn Back”. This humorous attack highlights just one of many traffic light hacks that have come about, but it could have serious implications for traffic management systems, in the context of smart cities. If traffic lights are vulnerable and an attacker can easily exploit them, it is only a matter of time before a malicious attacker can take advantage of the vulnerability to bring about massive traffic congestion or create potentially dangerous traffic flows that could lead to injury or even death.

As a typical use of Big Data processing is to extract meaning from unstructured data so that it can be input as structural data into an application and this requires cleaning it up. Sensor data is notoriously dirty as timestamps are often missing or lost in communications and therefore requires considerable tidying up before processing. An example of this real-time insight into Big Data handling of sensor data is found in Smart City projects. For example, if a traffic monitoring system detects congestion or an accident from its roadside sensors, it can instantaneously send control feedback to change traffic lights, thereby easing traffic flows to reduce congestion. Industry 4.0 Veracity The problems with Big Data appear when we go beyond collecting and storing vast amounts of data and analyze the data stores using the 3 Vs and consider, is the data actually true.

If traffic lights are vulnerable and an attacker can easily exploit them, it is only a matter of time before a malicious attacker can take advantage of the vulnerability to bring about massive traffic congestion or create potentially dangerous traffic flows that could lead to injury or even death. It is not just smart cities, and industrial companies and facilities that are appetizing targets. Sometimes the products are so intelligent that they themselves become the object of research and potential exploitation, as both Chrysler and Boeing discovered with the now-famous Jeep and aircraft hacks. Both of these celebrated attacks came about on systems thought to be unsusceptible to cyber-attacks. The manufacturer’s belief of invulnerability came about predominantly based on the technical assurance that both the jeep and the Boeing aircraft had isolated control systems. Both use the vehicle standard CAN (control area network) bus for interconnecting in-car and in-flight systems and modules, that are not connected to any IP networks.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Warm thanks to Avner de-Shalit and participants in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem workshop on the “spirit of cities”: Jeremy Adelman, Gilles Campagnolo, Kateri Carmola, and Susan Clarke. From Tianjin Eco-city to Guangzhou Knowledge City, thank you to the many dozens of officials who have hosted me at “smart cities” and special economic zones in China. I am similarly grateful to the managers of many other new urban developments on all continents for sharing their ambitious plans with me. Your projects are not yet on the map but surely will be thanks to your tireless efforts. Thanks also to Tony Reynard and Lincoln Ng of the Singapore Freeport for an insightful tour and conversation. At the Barcelona Smart City Expo 2014, I’d like to thank Ugo Valenti, Álvaro Nicolás, and Folc Lecha Mora. I appreciate learning about the inner workings of the City of London and its global strategy from Mark Boleat, Giles French, Anita Nandi, and Andrew Naylor.

It is yet another sign of the shift from a political to a supply chain world that cities are increasingly named not after people or scenery—think Jefferson or Ocean View—but instead for what role they play in the global economy: Dubai Internet City, Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority, Cayman Enterprise City, Guangzhou Knowledge City, Malaysian Multimedia Super Corridor, and about four thousand more. According to conventional maps, I’ve spent the past half decade visiting dozens of places that don’t exist. Whether industrial parks or “smart cities,” these supply chain nodes are popping up so quickly that most are not yet on our maps. Such zones used to be places where people just went to work; now they are communities in which people live. For hundreds of millions of workers and their dependents, the supply chain has become a way of life, an all-encompassing existence in the service of the global economy and their society’s desire to be connected to it.

China’s mayors and city officials farm out to Copenhagen, Tokyo, and Singapore to learn how to combine innovation with livability to gain an edge on each other. (Indeed, much of the substance of European diplomacy with China today is direct interactions between the business associations of major cities and the trade in commercial technology that increases China’s efficiency and sustainability.) To learn how to get arguably the world’s top priority of sustainable urbanization right, you go to the World Cities Summit in Singapore or the Smart City World Congress in Barcelona—or visit the many online portals where experts, activists, and managers from hundreds of cities share information—not the UN General Assembly. “Diplomacity” is already embodied in organizations such as the United Cities and Local Governments and more than two hundred other inter-city learning networks that together already outnumber all the international organizations in the world.11 Because cities define themselves in part by their connectedness rather than their sovereignty, one can imagine a global society emerging much more readily from intercity relations than international relations


pages: 238 words: 75,994

A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh

A. Roger Ekirch, big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, off grid, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning

Despite these hacks and spoofs, the power to control a city’s traffic usually lies firmly in the hands of the police, with their arsenal of blockades, traffic stops, and road closures. Police powers are increasingly woven deep into the fabric of the built environment and will only grow more pervasive as “smart city” technology becomes widespread. Cantankerous Belorussian technology critic Evgeny Morozov has written that the surveillance powers of the state are so dramatically amplified by the ubiquitous sensors, cameras, and remote-control technology associated with the smart city that urban space risks becoming little more than an inhabitable police barricade. “As both cars and roads get ‘smart,’” Morozov wrote in a 2014 op-ed for The Observer, “they promise nearly perfect, real-time law enforcement. Instead of waiting for drivers to break the law, authorities can simply prevent the crime.”

However, if all cities already contain the crimes that will occur there, then, taken to its logical conclusion, this suggests there might be a kind of Moby-Dick of crime, a White Whale of urban burglary: a town or city so badly designed that the entire place can be robbed in one go. The stakes would be massive. I spoke to an urban information technology adviser, for example, who has worked on several new “smart city” projects under construction around the world, primarily in northeast Asia. When I asked him what burglary might look like in these cities of the future, his answer was shocking. Requesting that he remain anonymous due to the nature of his answer, he explained that the operating system of New Songdo City, Korea—or what he described more specifically as the software that supports the technical fabric of the city, allowing communications between buildings, urban infrastructure, and portable devices—was legally required to be backed up and held in a safe-deposit box (alas, he would not tell me where).

Streetlights were one of many new patrol tools implemented by Louis XIV’s lieutenant general of police, Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie. De la Reynie’s plan ordered that lanterns be hung over the streets every sixty feet—with the unintended side effect that Paris soon gained its popular moniker, the City of Light. The world’s most romantic city takes its nickname from a police operation. Morozov warns that we are living through a kind of digital upgrade of Haussmann’s universal street-control project: the inauguration of a smart city that will be able to anticipate—and, more important, interrupt or preempt—certain behaviors, whether that means speeding, committing a burglary, or violating curfew. So-called predictive policing has been much discussed over the past few years, whereby authorities use detailed statistics and algorithms—a city’s criminal patterns and rhythms—to “predict” when and where a crime is most likely to occur.


pages: 379 words: 108,129

An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Leonard Kleinrock, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, off grid, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize

‘One of the things that is so great about being at a place like MIT and the Media Lab,’ Cynthia tells me later, ‘is that we’re not just a pure engineering group. We have skills and abilities that range from the aesthetic to the highly technical and scientific. That’s unusual and it means we can answer questions that other labs find hard.’ It’s a fair point. Where else, I wonder, will you find research groups with titles like Affective Computing, Biomechatonics, eRationality, Information Ecology, Lifelong Kindergarten, Smart Cities, and, sharing the same lab space as Cynthia’s Personal Robotics Group, Opera of the Future (this last looks at ‘how musical composition, performance, and instrumentation can lead to innovative forms of expression, learning, and health’), all nestled up against one another? It’s bonkers, in all the right ways. It’s also an unholy mess. Cynthia’s lab reminds me of the scene in Blade Runner when genetic designer J.

This technology is going nowhere.”’ The implication is obvious. The days of an electricity system dominated by centrally-generated power are coming to an end, that solar could do for electricity what synthetic biofuels might achieve for gasoline: create a world where our energy sources are hyper-local. While I was at MIT talking to roboticist Cynthia Breazeal I’d taken the opportunity to meet with Bill Mitchell, head of the Smart Cities Group there. ‘We’re clearly going to see a movement away from old-fashioned centralised electrical grids to a much more decentralised system that looks a lot like the Internet,’ he’d said. It’s a nice idea, but there’s still a huge distance to cover. Solar power remains expensive and there’s a lot of inertia in our existing infrastructure. Rick agrees. ‘I won’t say when it’ll happen, that’s for the futurists to think about.

Cynthia tends not to give face-to-face interviews so I’m particularly grateful to her for agreeing to meet and introducing me to her sociable robots and the ideas they unleash. I still think her lab needs a tidy up, though. Do a search for ‘Leo Robot’ on YouTube and be amazed. (Thanks too to Dan Stiehl for showing me the cuddly machines.) While I was at the Media Lab I also spent a fascinating hour and half with Bill Mitchell of the Smart Cities group, a true outback kid now heading up one of the most interesting labs in America. Thanks Bill. Hod Lipson couldn’t have been friendlier, and took it upon himself to keep me up-to-date with his work long after I’d been to see him at Cornell University. His curiosity about curiosity is invigorating. Eric Drexler, like Cynthia Breazeal, gave me a rare face-to-face interview. Beyond that he took extreme care to explain many subtleties concerning nanotechnology in long email exchanges following our meeting.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

The current emerging paradigm for this decade could be the connected world of computing relying on blockchain cryptography. The connected world could usefully include blockchain technology as the economic overlay to what is increasingly becoming a seamlessly connected world of multidevice computing that includes wearable computing, Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors, smartphones, tablets, laptops, quantified self-tracking devices (i.e., Fitbit), smart home, smart car, and smart city. The economy that the blockchain enables is not merely the movement of money, however; it is the transfer of information and the effective allocation of resources that money has enabled in the human- and corporate-scale economy. With revolutionary potential equal to that of the Internet, blockchain technology could be deployed and adopted much more quickly than the Internet was, given the network effects of current widespread global Internet and cellular connectivity.

More unified API development environments will be needed that include the many diverse and growing parts of the blockchain ecosystem (storage, file serving, messaging, wallet interactions, mobile payments, identity confirmation, and reputation). There is also an opportunity to link blockchain development environments out to other major segments like the machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and Internet-of-Things (IoT) networks infrastructure for rapid application development. An example of an advanced integrated application of this kind envisioned for the farther future could be a smartwatch that can interact with smart-city traffic-sensor data to automatically reserve and pay for lane space with a Bitcoin-denominated smart contract. Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation There is a need for a decentralized ecosystem surrounding the blockchain itself for full-solution operations. The blockchain is the decentralized transaction ledger that is part of a larger computing infrastructure that must also include many other functions such as storage, communication, file serving, and archiving.

An example of personalized governance services might be that one resident pays for a higher-tier waste removal service that includes composting, whereas a neighbor pays for a better school package. Personalization in government services, instead of the current one-size-fits-all paradigm, could be orchestrated and delivered via the blockchain. One example of more granular government services could be a situation in which smart cities issue Roadcoin to compensate passing-by drivers for lost #QualityofLife in road construction projects. Likewise, there could be Accidentcoin that those involved in an accident pay to similarly compensate passing-by drivers for lost #QualityofLife; payment could be immediate, and shifted later as insurance companies assess blame. In science-fiction parlance, it could be said that franchulates as envisioned in Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash are finally on the horizon.106 Franchulates are the concept of a combination of a franchise and consulate, businesses that provide fee-based quasigovernmental services consumed by individuals as any other product or service, a concept that blockchain governance could make possible.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

., 193–194 Frydman, Gilles, 242 Gaia hypothesis, 184 Gandhi, Mahatma, 104–108 Gates, Bill, 171, 174 GDP, 17, 20–22, 54, 74, 123, 129, 240, 266 General Electric (GE), 13, 14, 54, 73–74, 165, 210, 234 General Motors, 53, 54, 228–230 General Public Licenses (GPL), 94, 175–176 Germany and cooperatives, 213–216 flood in, 287 and Google, 201 and renewable energy, 82–83, 101, 141, 253, 257 and 3D printing, 101–102 Gershenfeld, Neil, 94 Gillespie, Tarleton, 203 Girsky, Stephen, 228–229 globalization versus reopening the global commons, 187–192 GM, teams up with RelayRides, 228–229 GNU operating system, 174–176 God of oil. see Hall, Andy Google cashes in on selling Big Data, 199–200 and control of the U.S. media market, 54 and driverless vehicles, 230 energy usage, 85 favors free Wi-Fi connection, 148 market share and revenue generated by, 201 as natural monopoly, 202–205 Ngram Viewer, 18 primary revenue stream is weakening, 251 as tracking tool, 245 Gore, Al, 219 Gorenflo, Neal, 238 Gou, Terry, 124 “The Governing of the Commons” (Ostrom), 158–162 Gram Power, 103–104 Green Button initiative, 146 Great Chain of Being, 30, 58–59, 61 Great Recession, 20, 122–129, 233, 255–262, 281–282 green feed-in tariff(s), 139, 206 Guardian, 104, 116 guilds by trade, 36–37 Gutenberg, Johannes, 35–37 hacker(s) connotations of the term, 93 and cyberterrorists, 291–292 and environmentalist(s), 170–172, 187–188 and the Free Culture Movement, 173–174 and the Makers Movement, 99–104 and 3D printing, 95 Hall, Andy, 87 Hansen, James, 287 Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (Layard), 277 Haque, Umair, 253 Hardin, Garrett, 155–159 Hazen, Paul, 213 healthcare, 13, 74, 130, 240–247 hedonistic treadmill, 276 Hegel, Georg Friedrich, 279, 301 Heilbroner, Robert, 5, 105 Herr, Bill, 129 higher education. see massive open online courses (MOOCs) The High Price of Materialism (Kasser), 277 high-tech Armageddon. see cyber attacks/cyberterrorism Hoch, Dan, 243–244 Hotelling, Harold, 136–137, 150, 206–211 how best to judge economic success, 20–21 Hoyt, Robert, 58 human race empathetic sensibility of, 278–286, 301 and Enlightenment, 60–65 and human nature through a capitalist lens, 57–65 liberating the, 7, 70 and ostracism, 163 rethinking salvation, 58–59 what makes us happy, 276–285 Hume, David, 62, 308 hybrid economy. see capitalism; Collaborative Commons IBM, 13, 14, 80, 130, 234, 250 infofacture vs. manufacture, 90 Infrastructure: The Social Value of Shared Resources (Frischmann), 193–194 Integrated Transportation Provider Services (ITPS), 228 Intel, 79, 148 Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), 195–196 the Internet of Everything, 14, 73 the Internet generation, 132, 145, 179, 226, 230 the Internet of Things (IoT), 11–16, 65 and Big Data. see Big Data and the chief productivity officer (CPO), 15 as a double-edged sword, 78, 267 and healthcare. see healthcare made up of, 11, 14–15 and near zero marginal cost society, 73–78 negatives associated with, 14 obstacles that slowed the deployment of, 74 and smart cities. see smart cities as source of employment, 267–268 and use of sensors, 11–13, 73–74, 143, 219, 230 Internet of Things European Research Cluster, 11 infrastructure, requirements of, 14 Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Cyber Fighters, 292 Jakubowski, Marcin, 102–103 James, William, 279–280 Jennings, Ken, 130 Jobs, Steve, 305, 308 Jumpstart Our Business Start Ups Act, 257 Kaku, Michio, 79 Kasser, Tim, 277 Keynes, John Maynard, 5–7, 105, 268 Khoshnevis, Dr.

Other sensors track the whereabouts of products shipped to retailers and consumers and keep tabs on the amount of waste being recycled and processed for reuse. The Big Data is analyzed 24/7 to recalibrate supply chain inventories, production and distribution processes, and to initiate new business practices to increase thermodynamic efficiencies and productivity across the value chain. The IoT is also beginning to be used to create smart cities. Sensors measure vibrations and material conditions in buildings, bridges, roads, and other infrastructure to assess the structural health of the built environment and when to make needed repairs. Other sensors track noise pollution from neighborhood to neighborhood, monitor traffic congestion on streets, and pedestrian density on sidewalks to optimize driving and walking routes. Sensors placed along street curbs inform drivers of the availability of parking spaces.

As briefly touched on in chapter 1, to function, every society requires a means of communication, a source of energy, and a form of mobility. The coming together of the Communications Internet, the Energy Internet, and the Logistics Internet in an Internet of Things provides the cognitive nervous system and physical means to integrate all of humanity in an interconnected global Commons that extends across the entirety of society. This is what we mean when we talk about smart cities, smart regions, smart continents, and a smart planet. The linking up of every human activity in an intelligent global network is giving birth to a wholly new economic being. The old being of the First and Second Industrial Revolutions relied on a communication/energy matrix and logistics grid that required huge sums of capital, and therefore had to be organized in vertically integrated enterprises under centralized command and control to achieve economies of scale.


Driverless: Intelligent Cars and the Road Ahead by Hod Lipson, Melba Kurman

AI winter, Air France Flight 447, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, digital map, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, hive mind, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, intermodal, Internet of things, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, lone genius, Lyft, megacity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, performance metric, precision agriculture, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed

The great irony of federal plans to develop V2X networks is that the benefits of connected cars emerge only when every single car on the road is fully autonomous. Perhaps in the future, a new generation of hardware devices could reduce the cost of creating intelligent highways. As the number of connected devices has exploded in the past few years, the Internet of Things has become a popular phrase in technology circles. A report by Gartner predicts that in 2016, smart cities will use 1.6 billion connected devices, a 39 percent increase from the year before. In 2018, Gartner predicts that the number of connected devices in smart cities will number 3.3 billion.12 Most of these connected devices will be used for security (e.g., cameras) or to control the indoor climate in commercial buildings and public spaces such as shopping malls, offices parks, and airports. In homes, connected devices will be smart entertainment devices and security and climate controls.

Federal Highway Administration, “Demo ’97: Proving AHS Works,” Public Roads Magazine 61, no. 1 (July/August 1997), https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/97july/demo97.cfm 10. “Proposed Rules,” Federal Register 79, no. 161 (Wednesday, August 20, 2014). 11. Susan Zimmerman, Nelsie Alcoser, David Hooper, Crystal Huggins, Amber Keyser, Nancy Santucci, Terence Lam, Josh Ormond, Amy Rosewarne, and Elizabeth Wood, GAO Report. 12. Pedro Hernandez, “Smart Cities Will Drive IoT Device Demand in 2016: Gartner,” Datamation.com, http://www.datamation.com/cloud-computing/smart-cities-will-drive-iot-device-demand-in-2016-gartner.html?google_editors_picks=true 13. Tsz-Chiu Au, Shun Zhang, and Peter Stone, “Autonomous Intersection Management for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles,” Handbook of Transportation, ed. Dušan Teodorović (New York: Routledge 2015). 14. Daimler Press Release, “AUDI AG, BMW Group and Daimler AG agree with Nokia Corporation on Joint Acquisition of HERE Digital Mapping Business,” August 3, 2015, http://media.daimler.com/dcmedia/0-921-656186-1-1836824-1-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0-0.html 15.


The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021 by Greg Clark

Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, congestion charging, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global value chain, haute cuisine, housing crisis, industrial cluster, intangible asset, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rent control, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

Initiatives (or lack thereof) in the areas of heritage, pollution, sustainable development and carbon footprint are increasingly visible, and will affect the living choices of more knowledge workers and location decisions of NGOs and other public institutions. The financial crisis has also accelerated a new debate on the prospects of smart cities. New partnerships and projects with multinational technology firms offer world cities the opportunity to make urban transport, security, telecommunications, banking and energy systems more joined-up and interoperable. Smart city initiatives can, in principle, lower city operating expenses and make the urban environment more seamless and productive for citizens and workers. In the next generation, global cities will seek to build these intelligent systems and facilitate the long-term embedding of innovation. 8.

At the same time as the Investment Plan has been devised, a new Smart London board has also been formed. The board aims to harness technology and data to solve city system challenges – across transport, utilities, housing, trade networks and labour markets. Chaired by Imperial College Professor David Gann and reporting to the Mayor, its delivery arm brings together infrastructure organisations with entrepreneur solutions to shape London’s path as a smart city and create a pipeline of projects for potential investment. Smart London constitutes the “first time London is leading with a coherent, holistic and highly ambitious plan” to employ data as a city service (Gann, 2013: 3). It perhaps signals a stepchange in the way London’s infrastructure needs are approached – from siloed and reactive incrementalism to proactive systems integration. Section III London today and in the future 10 World cities today London operates within a dynamic competitive framework with many other urban agglomerations, now widely known as world cities.

More tax flexibility would allow the governments to use tax variables to incentivise enterprise and private investment, and negotiate individual deals with firms and sectors to assist with their development. London currently has limited ability to integrate different investment streams and flows. Its two-tier system of government exacerbates the fragmentation, making it difficult for London to follow ‘smart city’ style integration of the city’s infrastructural systems (transport, energy, telecoms, water, waste), despite the progress witnessed within individual systems such as TfL’s successful Oystercard and Barclays Bike Hire schemes. Fragmentation reduces inter-operability and opportunities for integrative co-investment into London’s ‘systems of systems’, especially relative to other, more sustainable cities.


pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

Just within academia itself there is a dizzying array of separate departments, centers, and institutes representing a broad spectrum of alternative ways of perceiving cities: urban geography, urban economics, urban planning, urban studies, urbanomics, architectural studies, and many more, each with its own culture, paradigm, and agenda, though rarely interacting with one another. The situation is rapidly changing as new developments are being initiated, many stimulated by the advent of big data and the vision of smart cities, both somewhat naively touted as panaceas for solving all of our urban problems. But tellingly, there are as yet no explicit departments of “urban science” or “urban physics.” These represent a new frontier as the urgency to understand cities from a more scientific perspective emerges. This is the context of what I am presenting here, namely using scale as a powerful tool for opening a window onto the development of a quantitative conceptual integrated systemic framework for understanding cities.

Many of the thinner segments, the “capillaries,” represent noninterstate roads whereas the thicker segments, the main “arteries,” are larger roads. Compare this with the cardiovascular blood transport system shown in chapter 3. Unfortunately, no one has performed a similar analysis within cities, primarily because we don’t have the detailed statistics on traffic flow for every street in the city. The advent of smart cities with the promise of countless detectors on every street corner monitoring traffic will eventually provide sufficient data to carry out similar analyses on all cities to reveal the dynamical structure of their transportation system, much like the map here. This would provide a detailed quantitative valuation of traffic patterns and the attractiveness of specific locations as well as other metrics that are crucial for planning purposes such as in successfully developing new areas of a city or deciding on the placement of new malls or stadiums.

It is no surprise that proportionally the greatest percentage of mobile phone usage occurs in developing countries. So analyzing massive data sets of cell phone calls can potentially provide us with new and testable quantitative insight into the structure and dynamics of social networks and the spatial relationships between place and people and, by extension, into the structure and dynamics of cities. This unforeseen consequence of mobile phones and other IT devices has ushered in the era of big data and smart cities with the somewhat hyperbolic promise that these will provide the tools for solving all of our problems. And not just the infrastructural challenges in cities: the promise extends to all aspects of life from health and pollution to crime and entertainment. This is just one manifestation of the rapid emergence of “smart” industries based on the availability of enormous amounts of data that we ourselves unwittingly generate, whether through our mobile devices, our mobility, or our health records.


City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

For the old cities of Europe, retrofitting these new technologies will take time and the cost may well force planners to reconsider how infrastructure is designed so that cities can quickly adapt to change in the future.8 Increasingly, the infrastructure of tomorrow’s smart cities will be controlled by computers. Already some of the largest technology and computing companies, such as Cisco and IBM, are designing software that will integrate all the vital systems that ensure cities run smoothly. By bringing these disparate systems together, IBM claims it will allow cities to ‘operate like living organisms, sensing and responding quickly to potential problems before they occur to protect citizens, save resources and reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions’.9 Cities are already being built around the requirements of the new information technologies. In the city of New Songdo in South Korea, Cisco is implementing its vision for the smart cities of the future. Under construction since 2001, New Songdo is being built on a man-made island in the Yellow Sea, forty miles south-west of Seoul.

Every home will be equipped with TelePresence screens, which will be the citizen’s interface with the urban operating system and a communications system for everything from booking a restaurant table to talking to your doctor. The city’s data and services will be instantly available without the need to step outside your apartment. New Songdo City is due for completion in 2015. It is viewed by its developers, the New York-based Gale International, as the first of many such smart cities across the region. And who knows – as the technology improves, maybe eventually you will have an app for your city. One day the city itself may even talk to its citizens. Air Mail As well as in Paris, there were also pneumatic networks beneath the streets of American cities. In 1893, Philadelphia had a system for delivering not time, but mail. Compressed air was used to propel a two-foot-long cylinder containing letters through a six-inch cast-iron pipe, linking two post offices some half a mile apart.

For older cities, the route to sustainability will be costly and complex. But the price of doing nothing will be immeasurably greater. As urban ecologist Herbert Girardet has said, ‘there will be no sustainable world without sustainable cities’.27 Cities everywhere are indeed taking steps to reduce their carbon footprint. The European Union recently announced that it will pioneer innovative energy-saving technologies in twenty-five to thirty ‘smart cities’. Existing houses will be highly insulated and as far as possible energy will be generated from waste, sun and wind, which will then be used to power an integrated transport system of electric cars, trams and buses. There are energy savings to be made simply by changing a city’s light bulbs. LEDs (light-emitting diodes) can reduce energy usage by 40 per cent compared with sodium lighting. Although they cost more to install, they have a longer lifespan.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The spread of smart devices into the urban environment produces more data for estimating crowd movements from one moment to the next, but this is not quite the same thing as offering a conclusive figure. You can study the number of mobile-phone signals in a given place at a given time, or equip urban infrastructure (such as street lights) with smart sensory devices, but the data that is captured remains fleeting in nature. It’s good for sensing surges of activity and movement, which is what such “smart city” interventions are principally designed for, but a crowd remains an intrinsically difficult thing to grasp objectively. As absurd as the statements of Trump, Spicer, and Conway may have sounded, there is something telling about the fact that this inaugural spat arose around this particular topic: a matter of great emotional significance, but where experts are comparatively powerless to resolve differences.

The analyst’s value lies in pruning vast quantities of useless data, leaving only that which deserves our attention.16 But if they lack any intrinsic interest in the topic at hand (other than the mathematics), they also have no view of their own regarding what “something meaningful” means—they are therefore in the service of a client. Alternatively, their biases and assumptions creep in, without being consciously reflected on or criticized.17 The clients for data science are multiplying all the time. “Quants” can make big money working for Wall Street banks and hedge funds, building algorithms to analyze price movements. “Smart city” projects depend on data scientists to extract patterns of activity from the frenetic movements of urban populations, resources, and transport. Firms such as Peter Thiel’s Palantir help security services identify potential security threats, by isolating dangerous patterns of behavior. And then there are the murky cases of consultancies, such as Cambridge Analytica, who worked for political clients to help tailor messaging to particular voters.

Twitter, for example, makes a considerable amount of its data “stream” available for public analysis, while Google allows users to search trends in search data. Companies such as Facebook have hired academics to analyze their data, and many of these experts are still permitted to publish in academic journals. But these developments remain hindered by the ambiguities of public–private partnerships. For example, the IT infrastructure used to build e-government projects or “smart cities” comes from the commercial sector, and the companies that provide it often retain control over the data that results. The US government outsources IT services in areas of the greatest importance to national security, with Amazon Web Services hosting classified systems for the CIA for example. Among the things we don’t know is quite how effective platforms are in influencing our behavior, emotions, and preferences.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Soon, we may no longer have to contend with websites and apps but, more and more, with 5G wireless services (more mobile work), protocols, and AI. We have to design for tomorrow’s labor market. In the absence of rigorous democratic debates, online labor behemoths are producing their version of the future of work right in front of us. We have to move quickly. Together with cities like Berlin, Barcelona, Paris, and Rio de Janeiro, which have already pushed back against Uber and Airbnb, we ought to refine the discourse around “smart cities” and machine ownership. We need incubators, small experiments, step-by-step walkthroughs, best practices, and legal templates that online co-ops can use. Developers will script a WordPress for platform co-ops, a free-software labor platform that local developers can customize. Ultimately, platform cooperativism is not merely about countering destructive visions of the future, it is about the marriage of technology and cooperativism and what it can do for our children, our children’s children, and their children into the future. 5.

PUBLIC POLICIES FOR DIGITAL SOVEREIGNTY FRANCESCA BRIA The scale of the transition to platform capitalism is massive. The builders of emerging online platforms aim to become pervasive across all productive sectors, and to permeate every level of society: the level of the individual (with smartphones and wearable technology, lenses, glasses); the level of the home (“smart homes,” smart power meters and Internet-connected sensors); and the level of “smart cities” (driverless cars, networked transportation services; energy grids, drones, ubiquitous digital services). Platforms are reshaping not just the Internet but the economy as a whole, and governments have a responsibility to ensure that this new economy serves more than the platform-builders’ profits. We are seeing a shift of power, for instance, from service intermediaries to information intermediaries, a kind of “Uberization” of services.

The city has called for a popular assembly for responsible tourism where citizens can discuss best practices and business models. The new government is also promoting new policies to foster a collaborative economy that generates social benefits locally. Besides these types of initiatives, Ada Colau has also promised a shift toward re-municipalization of infrastructure and public services. This is grounded in a very critical understanding of the neoliberal, surveillance-driven “smart city” model being promoted by big tech corporations. The ambition, instead, is for a shift to a democratic, green, and commons-based digital city built from bottom up. This vision of re-municipalization of critical public services and network infrastructures is of growing global appeal, leading to a new alliance between public utilities and cooperative online platforms. A number of cities and regions across the world are attempting to put water supply, waste disposal, and energy provision contracts back into public hands, prioritizing community interests over private commercial objectives.


pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

The Google parent’s “urban innovation” arm, known as Sidewalk Labs, which works with local governments to place sensors and other technologies around cities (ostensibly to improve city services, but also, of course, to garner data for Google), is working on creating a “smart city” in the Canadian city. The high-tech neighborhood, which is being created from scratch along twelve acres of the city’s waterfront, will have sensors to detect noise and pollution, as well as heated driveways for smart cars. Robots will deliver mail through underground corridors, and all materials used in the city will be green.27 Whether you find such an idea intriguing or creepy, the planning of the entire project has been opaque. Neither the city nor Google released all the details of the project immediately; rather, they’ve been leaked by investigative journalists. A February 2019 Toronto Star piece revealed that the plans for the smart city were much broader than the public had first thought: Google was actually planning to build its own mass transit line to the area, in exchange for a share of the property taxes, development fees, and increased land value that would ordinarily go into the city coffers.28 Think about that for a minute: One of the richest companies in the world is asking a city government, the sort of entity that it regularly petitions for better infrastructure, education, and services, to give up the money that would help it provide exactly that.

There is a possibility,” Soros said, “that once lost, people who grow up in the digital age will have difficulty in regaining it.” He feared the risk of “alliances between authoritarian states and these large, data-rich IT monopolies that would bring together nascent systems of corporate surveillance with an already developed system of state-sponsored surveillance.”15 He’s right to be fearful. China has its own FAANGs, known as the “BATs”—Baidu, Alibaba, and Tencent—that routinely monitor the Chinese people in “smart cities,” a deceptively innocent moniker for 24/7 surveillance areas that are wired up with sensors (in fact, Soros gave his 2019 Davos speech on the dangers posed by the Chinese surveillance state).16 And the technology that powers these cities, it’s worth noting, is produced and installed not only by Chinese firms such as Huawei, but also by American companies like Cisco. The resulting information is, of course, part of the Chinese government’s own efforts to move ahead in areas like artificial intelligence that depend on massive amounts of data, or used in the Middle Kingdom’s creepy system of “social credits,” in which citizens are monitored and given scores that can influence everything from their ability to get loans to where they can live.

Sarah Brayne, “Big Data Surveillance: The Case of Policing,” American Sociological Review 82, no. 5 (2017). 27. Aria Bendix, “Activists Say Alphabet’s Planned Neighborhood in Toronto Shows All the Warning Signs of Amazon HQ2-Style Breakup,” Business Insider, April 14, 2019. 28. Marco Chown Oved, “Google’s Sidewalk Labs Plans Massive Expansion to Waterfront Vision,” Toronto Star, February 14, 2019. 29. Anna Nicolaou, “Future Shock: Inside Google’s Smart City,” Financial Times, March 22, 2019. 30. Ryan Gallagher, “Google Dragonfly,” Intercept, March 27, 2019. 31. Shannon Vavra, “Declassified Cable Estimates 10,000 Killed at Tiananmen Square,” Axios, December 24, 2017. 32. Matt Sheehan, “How Google Took On China—and Lost,” MIT Technology Review, December 18, 2018. 33. Mark Warner, “Warner, Colleagues Raise Concerns About Google’s Reported Plan to Launch Censored Search Engine in China,” press release, August 3, 2018. 34.


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The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Both the Aware Home and the telemedicine design assume that all behavioral data are reinvested in service to the human being who is the subject of these arrangements, providing serenity, trust, and dignity: a chance for real knowledge and empowerment. Many articles on health monitoring continue to emphasize its utility for the elderly, but the conversation has decisively moved on from this earlier state of grace. Some researchers anticipate the fusion of “smart cities” and what’s now called “m-health” to produce “smart health,” defined as “the provision of health services by using the context-aware network and sensing infrastructure of smart cities.”45 Toward that end, there are now reliable sensors for rendering an increasing range of physiological processes as behavioral data, including body temperature, heart rate, brain activity, muscle motion, blood pressure, sweat rate, energy expenditure, and body and limb motion. There are sensors that can render audio, visual, and physiological data during postsurgical patient recovery and rehabilitation.

Google City. 83. Google City. 84. See Budds, “How Google Is Turning Cities into R&D Labs.” 85. Jessica E. Lessin, “Alphabet’s Sidewalk Preps Proposal for Digital District,” I nformation, April 14, 2016, https://www.theinformation.com/sidewalk-labs-preps-proposal-for-digital-district. 86. Eliot Brown, “Alphabet’s Next Big Thing: Building a ‘Smart’ City,” Wall Street Journal, April 27, 2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/alphabets-next-big-thing-building-a-smart-city-1461688156. 87. Shane Dingman, “With Toronto, Alphabet Looks to Revolutionize City-Building,” Globe and Mail, October 17, 2017, https://beta.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/with-toronto-alphabet-looks-to-revolutionize-city-build ing/article36634779. CHAPTER EIGHT 1. Jan Wolfe, “Roomba Vacuum Maker iRobot Betting Big on the ‘Smart’ Home,” Reuters, July 28, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/irobot-strategy/roomba-vacuum-maker-irobot-betting-big-on-the-smart-home-idUSL1N1KJ1BA; Melissa Wen, “iRobot Shares Surge on Strong Sales of Roomba Vacuum Cleaners,” Reuters, July 26, 2017, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-irobot-stocks/irobot-shares-surge-on-strong-sales-of-roomba-vacuum-cleaners-idUSKBN1AB2QW. 2.

To the Ground Campaign Google’s declarations; surveillance capitalism’s dominance over the division of learning in society and its laws of motion; ubiquitous architectures of extraction and execution; MacKay’s penetration of inaccessible regions while observing unrestrained animals with methods that elude their awareness; the uncontract and its displacement of society; Paradiso’s ubiquitous sensate environment; dark data; the inevitabilism evangelists: there is one place where all these elements come together and transform a shared public space built for human engagement into a petri dish for the reality business of surveillance capitalism. That place is the city. Cisco has 120 “smart cities” globally, some of which have embraced Cisco Kinetic, which as Jahangir Mohammed, the company’s vice president and general manager of IoT, explains in a blog post, “is a cloud-based platform that helps customers extract, compute, and move data from connected things to IoT applications to deliver better outcomes.… Cisco Kinetic gets the right data to the right applications at the right time… while executing policies to enforce data ownership, privacy, security and even data sovereignty laws.”73 But, as is so often the case, the most audacious effort to transform the urban commons into the surveillance capitalist’s equivalent of Paradiso’s 250-acre marsh comes from Google, which has introduced and legitimated the concept of the “for-profit city.”


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The New Silk Roads: The Present and Future of the World by Peter Frankopan

active measures, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, cashless society, clean water, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, ransomware, Rubik’s Cube, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

It is important, however, to recognise that both bring growing pains as well. Building infrastructure to support booming populations is logistically difficult, expensive to do and requires not just advance planning but a considerable degree of luck in being able to anticipate what the future will look like in terms of what energy, technology and transport needs might be. Ironically, therefore, building smart cities from scratch can be easier than upgrading existing urban centres. In Bangalore, for example, difficulties caused by rapid urbanisation and the success of the city’s IT sector has put an extraordinary strain on water resources. While the city’s water board has prepared detailed proposals that they claim can not only improve supply for the current population of around 8 million but also a population that is forecast to more than double by 2050, some senior officials have spoken about the need to have a plan to evacuate the city before ‘Day Zero’ – the day that all taps run dry – which might come as early as 2025.52 Bangalore is an extreme case, but it is illustrative of the wider challenges facing urban growth as well as economic, demographic and even political stability in the future.

In today’s world, while we think what matters is what goes on in Washington, London and Brussels, a new world is taking shape – a world that is changing quickly, a world that is commercially vibrant, a world that is being galvanised not only by enormous investment but by the shared belief that tomorrow will be better than today. Talk of the Silk Roads of the past is helpful in providing a common narrative that binds peoples and cultures together; but so too are the practical steps to create the Silk Roads of the future. These include initiatives that seek to use artificial intelligence, nanotechnology and quantum computing to help create smart cities, part of an effort to find solutions to the challenges presented by the high densities of urban populations in Asia; using big data and satellite imagery to measure air pollutants and gases multiple times daily; and work on disaster-risk reduction across the centre of Asia, which is prone to regular earthquakes and natural disasters. This has led to the establishment of a Chinese-led digital belt and road science program which will use earth observation science and technology and big earth data to assist with ‘infrastructure improvement, environmental protection, disaster risk reduction, water resource management, urban development, food security, coastal zone management, and the conservation and management of natural and cultural heritage site management’.

R. here Macron, Emmanuel here, here Maio, Luigi di here Major, John here Malaysia here, here, here, here Maldives here, here Mandela, Nelson here Mao Zedong here, here Mattis, James here, here, here, here, here May, Theresa here Milanović, Branko here Mirziyoyev, Shavkat here Mittal, Lakshmi here Mnuchin, Steve here, here Modi, Narendra here Mohammad bin Salman, Prince here, here, here Mohammadi, Ebrahim here Moshiri, Farhad here Mugabe, Robert here Mumbai terrorist attacks here Myanmar here, here, here, here, here, here Nabilllina, Elvira here Nagel, Yaakov here Nakasone, Lt General Paul here nanotechnology here NATO here, here, here, here Navarro, Peter here, here al Nayhan, Abdullah bin Zayed here al Nayhan, Mansour bin Zayed here Nazarbayev, Nursultan here, here Netanyahu, Benjamin here New Zealand here, here, here, here, here Nicholson, General John here Nike here, here North Korea here, here, here, here, here Northern Powerhouse here Nye, Joseph here Obama, Barack here, here, here Obasanjo, Olusegun here oil and gas prices here, here, here, here oil reserves here Oman here, here opium poppies here Orbán, Viktor here Ottoman Empire here Pakistan China and here, here, here, here, here, here intimidation of journalists here military exercises here relations with China here relations with India here, here relations with Russia here retail market here water resources here see also TAPI pipeline Panama here, here Paris Climate Accord here Parrikar, Manohar here Pence, Mike here, here Peru here Philippines, China and here Piraeus port here Pohiva, Akalisi here Poland, judicial reforms here Polimeks here Pompeo, Mike here, here, here, here, here, here Porter, Lisa here Prabal Dostyk exercises here press freedom here property prices here Putin, Vladimir here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here meeting with Trump here Pyne, Christopher here Qatar, relations with Saudi Arabia here Qatar Airways here, here quantum computing here Radiohead here Rahmon, Emomali here rare earths here Ravat, General Bipin here Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership here Rice, Susan here Richthofen, Ferdinand von here RIMPAC exercise here robotics here Rosneft here, here Ross, Wilbur here Rouhani, Hassan here, here, here, here, here, here rules-based international order here, here Russia annexation of Crimea here, here, here, here crackdown on corruption here and Djibouti here intervention in Ukraine here, here, here, here military exercises here, here relations with China here, here relations with India here relations with Iran here relations with Saudi Arabia here relations with Turkey here, here technology development here and UK foreign policy here US intelligence and here and US foreign policy here Rwanda here S-500 air defence system here Safari, Mehrdad here Salman, King here São Tomé e Príncipe here Sarajevo here Saudi Arabia and Djibouti here reforms and arrests here relations with China here relations with Iran here relations with Israel here and US foreign policy here Vision 2030 plan here Seely, Bob here Senkaku Islands here Serbia here Sessions, Jeff here Shanghai Cooperation Organisation here, here, here Sherzai, Gul Agha here silicon here Siliguri Corridor here Silk Roads (the term) here Singapore here smart cities here Sochi Winter Olympics here Soleimani, Major General Qasem here, here Solomon Islands here Somalia here, here, here South China Sea here, here, here, here, here, here South Korea here Soviet Union here, here, here, here, here, here Soylu, Suleyman here space race here Space-X here Srebrenica massacre here Stalingrad, Battle of here Starr, S. Frederick here Steel, Sir Christopher here Steinitz, Yuval here Stoltenberg, Jens here Strait of Hormuz here Strait of Malacca here Sudan here, here Sullivan, John here Syria here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Taiwan here, here, here Tajikistan here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Talbott, Strobe here Taliban here, here, here, here TAPI pipeline here, here Tashkent, city gates here Thailand here, here, here, here, here al-Thani, Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman here Tillerson, Rex here, here, here, here Tonga here Total here, here Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP) here Trans-Pacific Partnership here, here, here Trudeau, Justin here Trump, Donald here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and China here, here, here, here and Iran nuclear deal here, here, here, here, here, here, here meeting with Putin here and Paris Climate Accord here and Russia here, here, here, here, here and Saudi Arabia here unilateralism here, here Trump, Ivanka here Turkey crackdown on dissent here crisis in relations with US here and Djibouti here expansionism here Middle Corridor initiative here relations with China here relations with Iran here, here relations with Russia here, here relations with Turkmenistan here Turkmenabat, Silk Road sculpture here Turkmenabat-Farab bridge here Turkmenbashi port here Turkmenistan here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also TAPI pipeline Turkmenistan–China pipeline here Turnill, Richard here Tusk, Donald here, here Uighurs here Ukraine here, here, here, here, here, here, here ultra-large container vessels (ULCVs) here UN Human Rights Council here United States Africa policy here, here ‘America First’ policy here and Central Asian republics here and Chinese technology here confused foreign policy here Cuba deal here India policy here, here international isolation here Iran nuclear deal here, here, here, here prohibition on arms sales here and risk of escalation with Iran here, here rivalry with China here, here, here Russia policy here treatment of immigrant children here unilateralism here urbanisation here Urumqi Glacier here US Air Force here US Navy here, here, here, here Usmanov, Alisher here USS Zumwalt here Uzbekistan here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Vaezi, Mahmoud here Vanuatu here Venezuela here, here Vietnam here, here, here, here, here, here Vnukovo airport here Volga–Don canal here Volodin, Vyacheslav here Vostok-18 military exercises here Waldhauser, General Thomas D. here, here walnut seeds, fossilised here Wang Jianlin here Wang Yi here Warner, Senator Mark here water resources here, here Wei Fenghe, General here Welti, Philippe here Wilde, Oscar here wine industry here Wng Yi here women’s rights here Woolf, Lord here World Trade Center bombing here World Trade Organisation (WTO) here, here Wray, Christopher here Xi Jinping here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Xinjiang here, here Xu Guangyu here Xu Zhangrun here Yan Xuetong here, here Yangtze River Delta here Yeltsin, Boris here Yemen here, here, here, here Yiddish here Zarif, Mohammad Javad here, here, here Zeybecki, Nihat here Zhao Wei here Zheng, Eric here Zhou Xiaochuan here Zimbabwe here Zimmerman, Cornelius here Zuckerberg, Mark here A Note on the Author Peter Frankopan is Professor of Global History at Oxford University where he is also Senior Research Fellow at Worcester College, Oxford, and Director at the Centre for Byzantine Research.


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99%: Mass Impoverishment and How We Can End It by Mark Thomas

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, complexity theory, conceptual framework, creative destruction, credit crunch, declining real wages, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, gravity well, income inequality, inflation targeting, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, wealth creators, working-age population

Even recreation will be changed out of all recognition: sports clothing and equipment will improve dramatically; musical instruments will be 3-D printed at low cost and high quality; and virtual reality will transform the experience of playing computer games. These new technologies also enable a wide range of services to be automated – from care of the elderly16 to manning the telephones in call-centres.17 In Japan, there is already a hotel staffed almost entirely by robots.18 Perhaps even more importantly, new business models become possible. Smart cities, for example, which aim, in the words of the Smart Cities Council, to improve: 1. Liveability: Cities that provide clean, healthy living conditions without pollution and congestion. With a digital infrastructure that makes city services instantly and conveniently available anytime, anywhere. 2. Workability: Cities that provide the enabling infrastructure – energy, connectivity, computing, essential services – to compete globally for high-quality jobs. 3.

., 2017 18 Greenfield & Marsh, 2018 19 Fleming, 2018 20 Wikipedia, 2018 Wikipedia, 2018 21 Mayer, 2016 22 Freedland, 2017 Chapter 5: The Fork in the Road 1 Carney, Mark, ‘Keeping the patient alive: Monetary policy in a time of great disruption’, World Economic Forum, 6 December 2016 2 Miller, 2014 3 US Census Bureau, 2015 4 Rigby, 2016 5 Royal Academy of Engineering, 2013 6 University of Manchester, 2016 7 Walsh, 2016 8 Kirkpatrick & Light, 2015 9 Driverless car market watch, 2016 10 Yadron, 2016 11 Bostrom, Superintelligence: paths, dangers, strategies, 2014 12 United Nations, 2016 13 ITER, 2016 14 Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, 2016 15 Noakes, 2016 16 Hudson, 2013 17 Murgia, 2016 18 Rajesh, 2015 19 Smart Cities Council, 2016 20 The Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2016 21 Andersen, 2006 22 Allen R. C., Capital Accumulation, Technological Change, and the Distribution of Income During the British Industrial Revolution, 2005 23 Allen R. C., Pessimism Preserved: Real wages in the British Industrial Revolution, 2007 24 Schwab, 2015 25 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015 26 Frey & Osborne, 2013 27 Faroohar, 2018 28 Manyika, et al., 2017 29 Heath, 2018 30 Cowen, 2013 31 Murphey, 1999 Chapter 6: Wealth, Power and Freedom 1 Chaggaris, 2012 2 Churchill, 1947 3 Piketty, Capital in the 21st century, 2014 4 Stein, 2006 5 Humanities Texas, 1963 6 Rucker, 2008 7 Lawler, 2015 8 Lewis S. , 2013 9 Jones, The Establishment, 2014 10 Swinford, 2014 11 Supreme Court of the United States, 2010 12 Greenhouse, 2012 13 NASA, 2016 14 Ipsos MORI, 2014 15 Brulle, 2013 16 Fischer, 2013 17 Mayer, 2016 18 Jones, The Establishment, 2014 19 Rosenberg, 2018 20 Supreme Court of the United States, 2010 21 Roosevelt, Franklin D., State Of The Union Address, 1941 22 Berlin, 2018 23 OECD, 2010 24 Office for National Statistics, 2015 25 Wolff, 2012 26 The Economist, 2014 27 Stein, 2006 28 Bigman, 2015 29 Tudor Jones, 2015 30 Soros, George, ‘Billionaire George Soros: I Should Pay More In Taxes’, ThinkProgress, 13 February 2012 31 Freeland, 2014 Chapter 7: Eight Scenarios 1 Bank of England, 2016 2 Allen, Monaghan, & Inman , 2017 3 Thomas N. , 2016 4 Corlett, Finch, Gardiner, & Whittaker, 2016 5 Institute on Taxation and Economic Policy, 2017 Part 2: Why We Don’t Act 1 Alston, 2018 Chapter 8: Going Post-Fact 1 Moynihan, n.d. 2 Noble & Lockett, 2016 3 Goebbels, 1928 4 History.com, 2009 5 ONS, 2015 6 Political Science Resources, 2016 7 The Conservative Party Archive / Getty, 2009 8 Godley, Seven unsustainable processes, 1999 9 Baker, 2002 10 Rodrik, 1997 11 Greenspan, 2008 12 Alford, 2010 13 King, 2003 14 Brown, 1999 15 BBC, 2009 16 Bernanke, 2007 17 Greenspan, 2008 18 Cassidy, 2010 19 Wallace, 2015 20 Goff & Parker, 2011 21 Connolly, 2016 22 Pariser, 2011 23 Kuchler, 2016 24 BBC, 2016 25 Dilnot, 2016 26 OECD, 2014 27 Nickell & Saleheen, 2015 28 Lewis H. , 2016 29 Benton, 2016 30 Boczkowski, 2016 31 Carney, Mark, ‘Keeping the patient alive: Monetary policy in a time of great disruption’, World Economic Forum, 6 December 2016 32 Agerholm, 2016 33 BBC, 2016 34 Harris & Eddy, 2016 35 Spiegelhalter, 2016 36 Harris & Eddy, 2016 37 Phys.org 2016 38 Yeats, 1920 39 Suskind, 2004 40 Nyhan & Reifler, 2006 Chapter 9: Myths and Metaphors 1 Popper, 1953 2 OECD, 2019 3 Library of Congress, 2015 4 OECD, 2010 5 Cowen, 2013 6 Blanchard & Leigh, Growth Forecast Errors and Fiscal Multipliers, 2013 7 Batini, Eyraud, & Weber, 2014 8 Cameron, Economy: There is no alternative TINA is back, 2013 9 Bank of England, 2015 10 Sky News, 2009 11 McLeay, Radia, & Thomas, 2014 12 Merkel, 2008 13 Federal Reserve Bank of St Louis, 2019 14 Office for National Statistics, 2016 15 Bennett, 2016 16 Rothwell, 2014 17 Payscale.com 2018 18 Smith, 1776 19 Chang, 2010 20 Hughes, 2017 21 Say, 1821 22 Kumar, 2015 23 Nalebuff & Bradenburger, 1996 24 Edward S.


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

The Maritime Silk Road was proposed before the Indonesian parliament in October 2013. The Chinese terminology for the two has never changed, although the original English express (“One Belt One Road”), a literal translation of the Chinese, was changed to “Belt and Road Initiative” in English during 2015. 67. On these synergistic relationships between the Belt and the Road, see, for example, Kent E. Calder, Singapore: Smart City, Smart State (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2016); and Jacopo Maria Pepe, Continental Drift: Germany and China’s Inroads in the “German-Central Eastern European Manufacturing Core”: Geopolitical Chances and Risks (Washington, DC: Edwin O. Reischauer Center for East Asian Studies, 2017). 68. See, for example, Yiwei Wang, The Belt and Road Initiative: What Will China Offer the World in Its Rise?

See US High Speed Rail Association, “High Speed Rail Around the World,” accessed October 23, 2018, http://​www​.ushsr​.com/​hsr/​hsrworldwide​.html. 50. Ibid. 270 Notes to Chapter 4 51. Rail freight, however, was growing at a faster pace (10.7 percent annually) than highway traffic (10.1 percent). See “China’s Freight Growth Steady in 2017, “China Daily, February 1, 2018, http://​www​.chinadaily​.com​.cn/​a /​201802/​01/​ WS5a72a540a3106e7dcc13a316​.html. 52. For details, see Kent E. Calder, Singapore: Smart City, Smart State (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2016), 155 –56. 53. Jacopo Maria Pepe, Beyond Energy: Trade and Transport in a Reconnecting Asia (Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer, 2018), 279. Data from Manin Askar’s presentation at the Seventh 1520 Business Forum, June 2012. 54. Ibid. 55. Ibid. 56. Jakóbowski et al., The Silk Railroad, 69. 57. See Sina Tavsan, “‘Iron Silk Road’ Threatens to Sidetrack Russia,” Nikkei Asian Review, October 31, 2017, https://​asia​.nikkei​.com/​Economy/​Iron​-silk​-road​-threatens​-to​ -sidetrack​-Russia. 58.

See Suzanne Nam, “Thailand’s 40 Richest,” Forbes, September 1, 2010, https://​www​ .forbes​.com/​2010/​09/​01/​thailands​-richest​-dhanin​-wealth​-thailands​-rich​-10​_lander​.html. 8. Yenni Kwok, “The Memory of Savage Anticommunist Killings Still Haunts Indonesia, 50 Years On,” Time, September 29, 2015, http://​time​.com/​4055185/​indonesia​ -anticommunist​-massacre​-holocaust​-killings​-1965/. 9. On Singapore’s approach to relations with China, and its historical background, see Kent E. Calder, Singapore: Smart City, Smart State (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2016), 13 –14. 10. On these issues, see ibid., 151–56. 11. Official figures are conflicting, but reliable estimates indicate at least seven thousand Chinese military deaths and at least ten thousand Vietnamese civilian fatalities, plus Vietnamese military casualties. See Xiaoming Zhang, “China’s 1979 War with Vietnam: A Reassessment,” China Quarterly, no. 184 (December 2005): 851–74, http://​www​.jstor​ .org/​stable/​20192542. 12.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Brasília, of course, was an instant disaster: grandiose, monstrously overscale, and immediately encircled by slums. New Songdo has to be much better, because there’s a lot more riding on it than whether Gale can repay his loans. It has been hailed since conception as the experimental prototype community of tomorrow. A green city, it was LEED certified from the get-go, designed to emit a third of the greenhouse gases of a typical metropolis its size. It’s supposed to be a “smart city” studded with chips talking to one another, running the place by remote control. Its architects borrowed blueprints from Paris, Sydney, Venice, and London, sketching what might become the prettiest square mile in Korea. (Nearby Seoul is a forest of colossally ugly apartment blocks.) New Songdo isn’t so much a Korean city as a Western one floating offshore. Smart, green credentials aside, it was chartered as an “international business district”—a hub for companies working in China.

When Stan Gale looks at a departure board, he sees a treasure map. And when he gazes upon his creation, he sees potentially dozens of new cities, each next to a dot on that map. “There’s a pattern here, repeatable,” he said that summer, stunning his partners with plans to roll out cities across China, using New Songdo as his template. Each will be built faster, better, and more cheaply than the ones that came before. “It’s going to be a cool city, a smart city!” he promised. “We start from here and then we are going to build twenty new cities like this one, using this blueprint. Green! Growth! Export!” Their jaws dropped. “China alone needs five hundred cities the size of New Songdo,” Gale told me, and he is planning to break ground on the next two. How many will be umbilically connected to the nearest airport? “All of them.” To the jaundiced American eye, New Songdo and its clones might appear to be fantasies left over from the Bubble.

If all goes according to plan, New Songdo’s carbon footprint will be a third of a city its size—a big step toward the reductions needed to halt global warming. There is, of course, the environmental absurdity of erecting a sustainable city on former wetlands, but Jamie von Klemperer would counter it’s a better alternative than clear-cutting mountains. Not content to be green and an aerotropolis, it’s meant to be a “smart city” too. As preached by technology companies such as IBM and Cisco, the Internet will be the next big utility, tying the others together. If you hook cities up to the right mix of sensors and software, their thinking goes, who knows what efficiencies might be revealed? When buildings, power lines, gas lines, roadways, cell phones, residential systems, and so on are able to talk to one another, that information can expose hidden patterns of waste and ways to avoid it.


pages: 505 words: 147,916

Adventures in the Anthropocene: A Journey to the Heart of the Planet We Made by Gaia Vince

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, bank run, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, mobile money, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, supervolcano, sustainable-tourism

Distributed energy and water systems are just some of the ways that citizens of the Anthropocene will interact with their urban environment. Rather than being passive users of municipal services, citizens – and the city itself – will generate real-time responses from providers, who can make continual adjustments to improve efficiency, minimise waste and generate a more intuitive personalised operation. So-called ‘smart cities’ communicate through sensors embedded in infrastructure, or information sent by individuals that is either automatically generated or deliberately sent. These networked cities – including New Songdo City currently being built in South Korea, and PlanIT Valley in Portugal – generate intelligent adjustments to everything from street lighting to mass transit routes and times, based on real-time feedbacks.

Masdar plans to be carbon neutral and is powered by an enormous solar station and wind farms, with buildings that incorporate smart shading, solar panels and architecture to maximise cooling breezes. The city, which aims to be completed by 2020, is car-free with above- and below-ground driverless electric transport pods that operate like a personal rapid transit system. The human network is key to next-generation smart cities, to reducing energy consumption and more effective use of the city in all ways. Crowd-sourcing and collaborative mapping are two such techniques that over the past few years have revolutionised information creation on the Internet without the need for massive infrastructure projects to plant sensors across cities. For example, data points on Google Maps are built by a large network of hundreds of millions of anonymous phone-users whose devices continually send GPS-based status-updates.

By registering their existence on Google Maps the group has doubled the rate of polio vaccination from 40% to 80%, decreased diarrhoea and malaria rates in the slum, and is lobbying for electricity.16 Rio’s slums are doing similar: favela children are mapping their neighbourhood from the air by flying kites that have glass bottles suspended from them with a camera inside. They identify problem areas, such as buildings in danger of collapse or landslides, sanitation or garbage issues, or hazardous powerlines, and take images with GPS-enabled smartphones, prompting intervention. Rigging cities with sensors is just a first step, though. The designers and engineers planning smart cities a decade ago could not have predicted the way humanity would become an integral part of the network. Now that the technology exists for individuals to communicate instantly with companies, government departments, to broadcast to millions or to specific groups over the Internet, the city has gained an entirely new dimension. This ‘virtual city’ of communities formed online, using social networks like Twitter or Facebook, is incredibly powerful and not limited by the geographical contours of the real city.


pages: 254 words: 69,276

The Metric Society: On the Quantification of the Social by Steffen Mau

Airbnb, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, connected car, crowdsourcing, double entry bookkeeping, future of work, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, mittelstand, moral hazard, personalized medicine, positional goods, principal–agent problem, profit motive, QR code, reserve currency, school choice, selection bias, sharing economy, smart cities, the scientific method, Uber for X, web of trust, Wolfgang Streeck

Data have advanced to become the ultimate raw material of the information and knowledge economy, and the increasing datafication of society is causing ever new business areas to spring up now that the relevant information can be used to win customers, determine people's commercial utility or steer their decisions. Even the most private things, such as hobbies, family relationships, emotional states or behavioural habits have suddenly become measurable. In ‘smart cities’ and ‘smart homes’, social environments are merging with digital technologies; emotion scanners tell us how we are feeling; digitally equipped fitness studios store our training data in the cloud; locative media pinpoint our location and track our every move; algorithms calculate our trustworthiness and intelligence based on digital photos, and so on. The potential for encoding those social or personal domains we once thought of as the antithesis of the rationalized world of data and objectivity is virtually unlimited.

Index ‘20-70-10’ rule 155 academics 139 and altmetrics 77–8 and h-index 75–6, 139, 144 self-documentation and self-presentation 76–7 status markers 74–8 accountability 3, 91, 115, 120, 134, 147, 159 accounting, rise of modern 17 activism alliance with statistics 127 Acxiom 164–5 ADM (automated decision-making) 63 Aenta 108 Airbnb 88 airlines and status miles 71–2 algorithms 7, 64, 127, 167 and nomination power 123–5, 126, 141–2 AlgorithmWatch 127 altmetrics 77–8 Amazon 96, 150, 156 American Consumers Union 167 apps 99, 105, 150 finance 66–7 fitness and health 68, 102–3, 104, 107 Moven 65–6 Asian crisis (1997) 57 audit society 24–5 automated decision-making (ADM) 63 averages, regime of 155–7 Barlösius, Eva 113 Baty, Phil 48 Bauman, Zygmunt 143 behavioural reactivity 131 benchmarks, regime of 155–7 Berlin, television tower 40 Better Life Index 20 Big Data 2, 79, 123 biopolitics 19 of the market 70 biopower 19 Boam, Eric 104 body images, regime of 156–7 Boltanzki, Luc 125–6 border controls 73–4 borders, smart 74 Bourdieu, Pierre 111, 114, 115, 162 BP 108 Bude, Heinz 37 bureaucracy 18 calculative practices 11, 124 expansion of 11, 115 and the market 15–17 Campbell, Donald T. 130–1 Campbell's Law 130–1 capitalism 15, 54, 55 digital 150 capitalists of the self 163 Carter, Allan 48 Chiapello, Ève 125–6 Chief Financial Officer (CFO) 17 China Sesame Credit 67 Social Credit System 1, 166 choice revolution 118–19 class and status 33 class conflict switch to individual competition 168–70 classification 60–80 see also scoring; screening collective body 104–6 collective of non-equals 166–8 commensurability 31–3, 44, 159 Committee of Inquiry on ‘Growth, Wealth and Quality of Life’ (Germany) 127 commodification 163, 164 Community (sitcom) 96 companies 16–17 comparison 7, 26–39, 159 and commensurability/incommensurability 31–3 and competition 28 dispositive(s) of 7, 28–31, 159, 169 new horizons of 33–5 part of everyday life 27 prerequisites for social 35–6 registers of 135–9 and self-esteem 30 shifts in class structure of 33 and status 29–30, 36–7 universalization of 27–8 COMPAS (Correctional Offender Management Profiling or Alternative Sanctions) 79 competition 6, 7, 115–19, 159–60 and comparison 28 increasing glorification of 159 and neoliberalism 23 and performance measurement 115–19 and quantification 116–17 and rankings 45 switch from class conflict to individual 168–70 competitive singularities 169 consumer generated content (CGC) 85–6 control datafication and increased 143, 147, 169 individualization of social 143 levers of social 144 relationship between quantification and 78 conventionalization 128 Cordray, Julia 97 Correctional Offender Management Profiling or Alternative Sanctions (COMPAS) 79 Corruption Perceptions Index 26 cosmetic indicators 135 Couchsurfing 88 credit risk colonialization 64 credit scoring 63–7 and social status 67 criminal recidivism, scoring and assessment of 62–3, 79 criteria reductionism 22 cumulative advantages, theory of 174 CureTogether 106 customer reviews 82–6, 87, 88 Dacadoo 68 Daily Telegraph 149 darknet 87 data behaviourism 171 data leaks 152 data literacy 21 data mining 4, 22, 163 data protection 72, 142 data repositories 62, 73–4 data storage 22, 73, 135 data voluntarism 4, 152, 153, 159 dating markets and health scores 70 de Botton, Alain 30 decoupling 133, 136, 174–5 democratization and digitalization 166 difference 2 visibilization and the creation of 40–3 ‘difference revolution’ digitalization giving rise to 166–7 digital capitalism 150 digital disenfranchisement of citizens 151 digital health plans 70 digital medical records 67 digitalization 2, 7, 21–2, 25, 63, 73, 80, 111, 123, 180 and democratization 166 giving rise to ‘difference revolution’ 166–7 as ‘great leveller’ 166 quantitative bias of 124 disembedding 13 distance, technology of 23–4 diversity versus monoculture 137–40 doctors, evaluation of by patients 92–3 Doganova, Liliana 5–6 double-entry bookkeeping 15, 163 e-recruitment 61 eBay 87 economic valuation theory 5 economization 22–4, 38, 115, 117 and rise of rankings 46 education and evaluation 89–91 evaluation of tutors by students 89–90 law schools 44, 138–9 output indicators and resource allocation in higher 132 and Pisa system 122, 145–6 Eggers, Dave The Circle 41, 82–3 employer review sites 83 entrepreneurial self 3, 154 epistemic communities 121 equivalence 16, 27 Espeland, Wendy 44, 139 esteem 29, 30 and estimation 15, 38 see also self-esteem Etzioni, Amitai The Active Society 20 European Union 122 evaluation 81–98 connection with recognition 38 cult and spread of 7, 97–8, 134 education sector 89–91 loss of time and energy 136 and medical sector 91–3 peer-to-peer ratings 87–8 portals as selectors 84–6 pressure exerted by reviews 147–8 and professions 89–93 qualitative 117 satisfaction surveys 82–4 and social media 93–8 of tutors by students 89–90 evidence-basing 3 exercise and self-tracking 101–4 expert systems 7 transnational 121–2 experts, nomination power of 119–23, 126 Facebook 94 FanSlave 95 Federal Foreign Office (Germany) 53 feedback power of 147–8 and social media 93–4 Fertik, Michael 66 Fitch 56 fitness apps 68, 102–3, 104, 107 Floridi, Luciano 105 Foucault, Michel 19 Fourcade, Marion 163–4 Franck, Georg 29 fraud 137 Frey, Bruno ‘Publishing as Prostitution’ 146 ‘gaming the system’ 132 GDP (gross domestic product) 14 dispute over alternatives to 127–8 General Electric 155 Germany Excellence Initiative 51 higher education institutes 52–3 Gerstner, Louis V. 130 Glassdoor.com 83 global governance 122 globalization 34, 73 governance 12 self- 19, 37, 105 state as data manager 17–20 ‘government at a distance’ 145 governmentality 112 GPS systems 150 Granovetter, Mark ‘The strength of weak ties’ 147 gross domestic product see GDP h-index 75–6, 139, 144 halo effect 90 Han, Byung-Chul 154 Hanoi, rat infestation of 130 happiness and comparison 30 Hawthorne effect 107 health and self-tracking 101–4 health apps 68, 102–3, 104, 107 health scores 67–71 health status, quantified 67–71 Healy, Kieran 163–4 Heintz, Bettina 14, 33, 34 hierarchization/hierarchies 1, 5, 6, 11, 33, 39, 40–59, 174 and rankings 41–2, 43, 44, 48 higher education, output indicators and resource allocation 132 Hirsch, Jorge E. 75 home nursing care 135–6 hospitals and performance indicators 131 Human Development Index 14 hyperindividualization 167–8 identity theory 29 incommensurability 31–3 indicators 2, 3, 5, 20, 23–4, 34, 114, 159 and competition 116–17 and concept of reactive measurements 129–33 cosmetic 135 economic 7 governance by 24 politics of 14 status 35, 75 see also performance indicators individualization of social control 143 industrial revolution 19 inequality 6, 8, 158–76 collectives of non-equals 166–8 establishment of worth 160–2 inescapability and status fluidity 170–4 reputation management 162–6 switch from class conflict to individual competition 168–70 inescapability of status 170–4 information economy 2 information transmission interfaces, between social subsystems 165–6 institutional theory 113 insurance companies 72, 108, 151, 152, 167 International Labour Organization 122 investive status work 36–7 Italian Job, The (film) 138 justice 126 Kaube, Jürgen 2 Kula, Witold 16 Latour, Bruno 34 law schools 44, 138–9 league tables 35, 43, 46, 47, 51, 52, 53, 91, 138, 139, 146, 162, 175 legitimate test, concept of 125–6 Lenin, Vladimir 116 lifelogging 99, 109, 153 Luhmann, Niklas 166 Lyon, David 142 McClusky, Mark 101 McCullough, Nicole 97 Mann, Steve 153 market(s) calculative practices of 15–17 and neoliberalism 23 and rating agencies 55–6 Marron, Donncha 65 Matthew effect 174–5 measurement, meaning 10 media reporting 33 medical sector and evaluation 91–3 hospitals and performance indicators 131–2 MedXSafe 70 meritocracy 23, 161 Merton, Robert K. 161, 174 ‘metric revolution’ 16 Miller, Peter 112 mobility 71–4 border controls 73 digital monitoring of 72 and scoring 71–4 smart cars 72 and status miles 71–2 money as means of exchange 16 monoculture versus diversity 137–40 mood, self-tracking of 101–4 Moody's 56 motivation 106–10 and rankings 45 Moven 65–6 Münch, Richard 145 Nachtwey, Oliver 150 naturalization 113 neoliberalism 3, 12, 23, 25 basic tenets of 23 New Public Management 3, 117, 136, 155 NHS (National Health Service) 118 nomination power 111–28 and algorithms 123–5, 126, 141–2 critique of 125–8 and economization 115 of experts 119–23, 126 performance measurement and the framing of competition 115–19 and the state 112–15 non-equals, collectives of 166–8 normative pressure 144–6 North Korea 144 ‘number rush’ 2 numbers 13–14, 15 numerical medium 8, 14, 16, 18, 28, 33, 113, 160, 166 objectivization 35, 154, 160 OECD 122 Offe, Claus 175 Old Testament 17 omnimetrics 9 O’Neil, Cathy Weapons of Math Destruction 79 optimization 12, 25 Oral Roberts University (Oklahoma) 108 Peeple app 96–7 peer-to-peer ratings 87–8 Pentland, Alex 151 people analytics 150–1 performance enhancement 12 performance indicators 12, 38, 53, 74, 118, 119, 120, 129, 155 and hospitals 131–2 performance measurement 23, 38, 115–19 performance-oriented funding allocation 22 performance paradox 132 performance targets 4 Personicx 165 Pisa system 122, 145–6 politicians 14, 120 politics 114 portals 84–6, 88, 90–1 power of nomination see nomination power prestige 8, 29, 67, 144 principal–agent problem 147–8 private consultancy services 117 professional control, loss of 133–4 professionalization 19, 133 professions and evaluation 89–93 publicity 33 QS ranking 52 qualitative evaluation 117 quantification advantages of 8 engines of 21–5 history 11 impact and consequences of 5, 6 meaning 10, 12–15 risks and side-effects 7, 129–40 role of 35 quantified self 99–110 Quantified Self (network) 99–100 quantitative evaluation see evaluation quantitative mentality 11–12 quasi-markets 116, 118–19 race and assessment of criminal recidivism risk 79 rankings 47–53, 58–9, 60, 144 and competition 45 and compliance 44 differences between ratings and 42–3 disadvantage of 43–4 economization and rise of 46 and evaluation portals 84–6 and hierarchies 41–2, 43, 44, 48 and image fetishization 47 and motivation 45 as objectivity generators 41 performance-enhancing role 46 popularity of 41 as positional goods 45 purpose of 45 and reputation 48, 49, 50, 52 as social ushers 42 and status anxiety 46–7 university 6, 7, 43, 47–53, 144, 175 Welch's forced 155–6 rating agencies, market power of 53–9 ratings 41–3, 53–9, 60 definition 54 differences between rankings and 42–3 and evaluation portals 84–6 as objectivity generators 41 peer-to-peer 87–8 as social ushers 42 rationalization 5, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 105, 110, 154, 163 Raz, Joseph 31–2 reactive measurements 129–33 recommendation marketing 85 recruitment, e- 61 reference group theory 29 reputation 29, 39, 66, 74, 121 academic 75–6 cultivating good 47 and rankings 48, 49, 50, 52 rating of 87–8 signal value of 87 social media and like-based 93–8 reputation management 4, 50, 162–6 reputation scoring 87–8 research community 146 and evaluation system 146 and review system 146–7 ResearchGate 77 reviews 136 customer 82–6, 87, 88 doctor 92 high demand for 136 lecturers/tutors 90 performance 25, 149 pressure exerted by popular 147 Riesman, David 37 risks of quantification 129–40 loss of professional control 133–5 loss of time and energy 135–7 monoculture versus diversity 137–40 reactive measurements 129–33 Rosa, Hartmut 94, 173 Rose, Nikolas 112 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 28–9 running apps 107 Runtastic app 107 satisfaction surveys 82–4 Sauder, Michael 44, 139 Schimank, Uwe 134 Schirrmacher, Frank 152 Schmidt, Eric 147 schools and choice 118–19 evaluation of 90–1 league tables 46 and Pisa system 122, 145–6 scoring 7, 60, 61, 78–80 academic status markers 74–8 and assessment of criminal recidivism 62–3 credit 63–7 health 67–71 mobility value 71–4 pitfalls 79 screening 7, 60–1, 78–9 border controls 73–4 e-recruitment 61–2 function 60–1 smart cars 72 self-direction 105, 121, 143 self-documentation 153 and academic world 76–7 self-enhancement 3, 137 self-esteem 29, 37, 170 and comparison 29, 30 rankings and university staff 50–1 self-governance 19, 37, 105 self-image 37, 47, 50, 89 self-management 3, 20, 25 self-observation 25, 42 quantified 99–110 self-optimization 3, 19, 104, 109, 163 self-quantification/quantifiers 4, 13, 25, 101, 154–5, 156 self-reification 105 self-responsibility 25, 110 self-tracking 4, 7, 99, 100, 106, 109–10 collective body 104–6 as duty or social expectation 108 emotions provoked 109 health, exercise and mood 101–4 and motivation 106–10 problems with wearable technologies 103–4 running and fitness apps 68, 102–3, 104, 107 and sousveillance 153 as third-party tracking 154 self-worth 29, 36, 38, 47, 51, 170 and market value 67 Sesame Credit (China) 67 Shanghai ranking 47 ‘shared body’ 105 shared data 142, 152–3 Simmel, Georg 28 ‘small improvement argument’ 32 smart borders 74 smart cars 72 smart cities 21 smart homes 21 ‘social accounts’ 20 Social Credit System (China) 1, 166 social engineering 20 social management 20 social media 93–8, 153, 166 drivers of activity 93 and feedback 93–4 forms of connection 93 likes 93–5 and online disinhibition 153 and reputation building 95 resonance generated by 94 and running/fitness apps 107 social research 19–20 social security systems 19 social status see status social worth see worth socio-psychological rank theory 46 sociometrics/sociometers 2, 5, 36, 74, 141, 150–1 Sombart, Werner Modern Capitalism 15–16 sousveillance 153 sport 33 rise of world 35 Staab, Philipp 149–50 Stalder, Felix 124 Standard & Poor's 54, 56 statactivism 127 state as data manager 17–20 nomination power of the 112–15 statistics 14 origins of word 17 status and class 33 and comparison 29–30, 36–7 and credit scoring 67 inescapability from 170–4 and life satisfaction 30 seeking of 36 status anxiety 30 and rankings 46–7 status competition 26–39 status data 2, 80, 159, 161–2, 169, 174 functioning as symbolic data 8, 162 status fluidity 170–4 status insecurity 4 status miles 71–2 status sets 161–2 status symbols 158 status work 4, 36–7, 174 Stiglitz-Sen-Fitoussi Commission (France) 127 Streeck, Wolfgang 171–2 subprime crisis (2007) 57, 64 surveillance 8, 142, 152 interdependence of self- and external 153–5 and neoliberalism 23 workplace and technological 149–51 surveys, satisfaction 82–4 symbolic capital 174 status data as 8, 162 target setting 22 tariff models 152–3 technological surveillance, in the workplace 149–51 technologies of the self 25 tertium comparationis 32 Thomas theorem 59 Thompson, David C. 66 Times Higher Education ranking 47, 48, 53 tourism portals 85 tracking as double-edged sword 142 see also self-tracking trade relations 16 transnational expert systems 121–2 transparency 3, 91, 141–3, 144, 147 Transparency International 26 ‘transparent body’ 105 TripAdvisor 85 Trustpilot 86 Turkey 54 tutors evaluation of by students 89–90 Uber 156 űbercapital 163–4 UN Sustainable Development Goals 20 United Nations 122 university lecturers evaluation of 89–90 object of online reviews 90 university rankings 6, 7, 43, 47–53, 144, 175 valorization 5, 58, 124, 161 valuation 5–6 value registration 161 Vietnam War 131 visibilization, and the creation of difference 40–3 Webb, Jarrett 104 Weber, Max 15, 16, 154 Weiß, Manfred 119 Welch, Jack 155 ‘winner-take-all society’ 136 Wolf, Gary 99–100 Woolgar, Steve 34 workplace technological surveillance in the 149–51 World Bank 122 worth 5–6, 7, 11, 78–80, 170 assessments of 27 establishment of 160–2 orders of 11, 15, 29 self- 29, 36, 38, 47, 51, 67, 170 Young, Michael 161 The Rise of Meritocracy 23, 161 Zillien, Nicole 105 Zuckerberg, Mark 158 POLITY END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT Go to www.politybooks.com/eula to access Polity's ebook EULA.


pages: 281 words: 69,107

Belt and Road: A Chinese World Order by Bruno Maçães

active measures, Admiral Zheng, autonomous vehicles, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, cloud computing, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, global value chain, industrial cluster, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, one-China policy, Pearl River Delta, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade liberalization, trade route, zero-sum game

The mobile technology is so important that it was highlighted in the Government Work Report delivered by Premier Li Keqiang during the National People’s Congress session in March 2017 and a report by the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology predicted that 5G will drive 6.3 trillion yuan of economic output in the country by 2030. Massive overseas investment fits with China’s ambition to boost key technologies in artificial intelligence, big data, smart cities, the industrial internet and cloud computing. An early benefit will come from new opportunities for its e-commerce companies. Many of the Belt and Road countries are yet to experience a thriving e-commerce sector due to a lack of good digital infrastructure. Partly as a result of the initiative, Chinese online retail giants such as Alibaba will be spearheading the development of a truly global e-commerce market.

INDEX Abbasi, Zafar Mahmood, 126 Abe, Shinzo, 118, 137 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 68 Aden Gulf, 72 Adil, Umer, 60 Advancing the Development of the One Belt, One Road Leading Group, 39 aerospace, 88, 103 Afghanistan, 53, 107, 127, 128, 129, 135, 172 Africa, 3, 8, 25, 44, 124, 163 Djibouti, 4, 12, 46, 63, 67–8, 101, 117 Ethiopia, 46, 68, 154, 170, 186 manufacturing, 68, 77 Maritime Silk Road, 23, 26, 45, 62 oil, 64 Partnership for Quality Infrastructure, 138 piracy, 72 telecommunications, 101, 170–71 aging population, 75 Agricultural Bank of China, 48 agriculture, 11, 61, 76, 99–100, 103 Ahmedabad, Gujarat, 138 aircraft, 81, 91, 103 Akto, Xinjiang, 60 Aktogay, East Kazakhstan, 103 Alibaba, 44 Allison, Graham, 7–8 Alps, 189 aluminum, 17, 20, 88 Andalusia, Spain, 189 Andijan, Uzbekistan, 54 anti-dumping, 92, 113 Antwerp, Flanders, 65 Apollo program, 9 aquaculture, 71 Arabian Sea, 72, 106 Arctic, 4, 62, 66, 188 artificial intelligence (AI), 44, 75, 88 Arunachal Pradesh, India, 111 Asian Development Bank, 45, 137 Asian Financial Forum, 49 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, 48 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 122 Astana International Exchange, 56 Astana, Kazakhstan, 25–6, 39, 56, 58 asteroids, 187 Athens, 8 Atlantic Ocean, 3, 115, 119, 138, 139 Atushi, Xinjiang, 60 Australia, 5, 12, 25, 119, 121, 122, 132–3, 135 automated vehicles, 88, 90, 186, 187, 190 automobile industry, 74, 81, 86, 90–91, 97, 104 Autor, David, 177 aviation, 81, 91, 103 Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), 60 Azerbaijan, 186 Badakhshan, Afghanistan, 128 Baidu, 188 Baldwin, Richard, 74, 80 Balkans, 8, 12, 140 Balochistan, Pakistan, 60, 105 Gwadar port, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 105–7, 117 separatism and terrorism, 106, 127, 128 Baltic Sea, 51 Bangkok, Thailand, 65, 136–7 Bangladesh, 48, 53, 64, 109, 134, 136, 138, 150, 189 Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM-EC), 52, 62 Bank of China, 48 banking, 46–51 bargaining theory, 152–3 Bay of Bengal, 22, 64, 72, 119 Beijing, China, 20, 28, 48, 126, 165 Beijing University, 183, 188 Belgium, 56, 65 Belgrade, Serbia, 143 Belt, see Silk Road Economic Belt Belt and Road Advancing the Development of the One Belt, One Road Leading Group, 39 backlash against, 12, 108, 121–4, 130–46, 155 bridges, 40, 54, 156, 173, 186 Buddhism, 112 cities, 11, 43, 44, 48, 149–52, 187–8 ‘community of shared destiny’, 26–9, 33, 36, 43, 45, 170 connectivity (wu tong), 42, 43, 52–3, 127, 158, 167 currency integration, 26 data, 44 debt, 12, 46, 47, 108, 109, 124, 126, 130, 132, 153–62 digital infrastructure, 43–4, 59, 86 e-commerce, 44, 59 economic corridors, 2, 11, 51–4, 55, 62 economic policy coordination, 28 energy, 11, 17, 19, 20–23, 40, 46, 48, 49, 52, 61, 64, 86, 92, 188 financing, 11, 36, 46–51, 54, 108–9, 124, 126, 130, 132, 138, 141, 153–64 Forum for International Cooperation (2017), 12, 108, 143, 152 impatience, 152–3 inauguration (2013), 11, 17, 23 industrial capacity cooperation, 85–8 industrial parks, 10, 43, 55, 61, 67, 99, 102 infrastructure, see infrastructure internal discontent, 163 international court, 28, 190 loans, 11, 36, 46–7, 54, 108–9, 124, 126, 130, 132, 138, 141, 153–62, 163 maps, 2–6, 24, 41, 64, 69 Maritime Silk Road, 24, 26, 28, 39, 41 market integration, 41 military bases, 12, 67, 71, 72, 101, 117, 126–7 overcapacity, 19 ports, see ports railways, 9–10, 11, 12, 18, 43, 46, 52, 53–4, 68, 86, 122, 130 roads, 9, 19, 40, 43, 52, 54 security, 127–9 Silk Road, 2, 9–10, 23–6, 45, 82, 138 Silk Road Economic Belt, 24, 25–6, 28, 39, 51–62, 83 success, definition of, 164, 174 telecommunications, 43–4, 52, 86, 101, 170–71 timeline, 10 TIR Convention, 55 transnational industrial policy, 81, 84 transport infrastructure, 9–10, 11, 18, 19, 25, 26, 40, 48, 49, 53–4, 83 urban development, 11, 43, 44, 48, 149–52 Vision and Actions document (2015), 40, 41, 45, 49, 50, 52, 62, 67, 78 Vision for Maritime Cooperation (2017), 62 Bering Strait, 66 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 110 Bhat, Vinayak, 107 Bhutan, 107–8 big data, 44 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 127 Blackwater, 128 blue economic passage, 62 Boao Forum for Asia (2015), 27, 32 Brahmaputra river, 136 Brazil, 174 Brewster, David, 63 BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India and China), 19, 174 bridges, 40, 54, 156, 173, 186 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 188 Budapest, Hungary, 143 Buddhism, 111–12 Bush, George Walker, 169 California, United States, 64 Cambodia, 52, 54, 70, 129, 132, 155 Cameroon, 68, 187 Canada, 136 car industry, see automobile industry Caribbean, 25 Carr, Robert ‘Bob’, 122 Cartagena, Spain, 92 Caspian Sea, 186 Caucasus, 20, 129 CDMA (code-division multiple access), 89 cement, 17, 49–50, 83 Center for Strategic and International Studies, 19, 123 center of gravity, 115 Central African Republic, 186 Central Asia, 9, 20, 25, 51, 52, 82–3, 188 energy, 22, 106 Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), 57–9 India, trade with, 107 industrial capacity cooperation, 104 Islamism, 127 Russia, relations with, 57–9, 129, 133 steel industry, 82–3 terrorism, 127 textile industry, 101 transport infrastructure, 9, 54 Central Huijin Investment, 49, 50 Central Military Commission, 166 century of humiliation (1839–1949), 165, 186 Chabahar, Sistan-Baluchistan, 106–7 Chalay Thay Saath, 60 Chao Phraya River, 65 ChemChina, 48 Chengdu Economic Daily, 129 China Abbasi’s visit (2018), 126 Academy of Information and Communications Technology, 44 aging population, 75 Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission, 50 Bishkek Embassy bombing (2016), 127 Boao Forum for Asia (2015), 27, 32 Buddhism, 111–12 century of humiliation (1839–1949), 165, 186 Doklam plateau dispute, 107–8, 113 energy, see energy EU-China summit (2015), 138 five-year plan (2016–20), 41 Food and Drug Administration, 114 Foreign Policy Center of the Central Party School, 7 Gants Mod crossing closure (2016), 36 General Navigation Office, 69 ‘Going Out’ strategy, 86 Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group bankruptcy (2016), 16 Guiding Opinion on Promoting International Industrial Capacity (2015), 86 Guiding Opinion on Standardizing the Direction of Overseas Investment (2017), 86 incremental approach, 7 Indian Dilemma, 21 Institute of International Studies, 92 International Trust and Investment Corporation, 132 Investment Corporation, 48 keeping a low profile (tao guang yang hui), 15, 18, 32 labour shortages, 75 Macron’s visit (2018), 146–7 Made in China 2025 strategy, 85, 87, 90–92, 93 Malacca Dilemma, 21–2, 64, 131 Merchants, 68–9 middle-income trap, 75–7, 85 migrant workers, 75 military, 12, 13, 59, 67, 71, 72, 101, 117, 126–7 minimum wage, 75 Ministry of Commerce, 21, 40, 93 Ministry of Communications, 69 Ministry of Finance, 49 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 40 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 19 Ministry of Transportation, 14 Modi–Xi summit (2018), 135 National Bureau of Statistics, 75 National Congress, 28, 29, 44, 165, 181 National Cybersecurity Work Conference (2018), 84 National Development and Reform Commission, 40, 98 National Health Commission, 114 Opium War, First (1839–1842), 165 overcapacity, 16, 19–20, 88 Overseas Chinese Affairs Office, 19 Overseas Investment Industrial Guiding Policy, 86 People’s Navigation Company, 69 Ports-Park-City model, 67 presidential term limits repeal (2018), 164, 174 real estate market, 16, 75 reform and opening up, 13–15, 73 renminbi, 22–3, 159 responsible stakeholder, 169 shipbuilding, 14, 17 soft power, 111, 170 Soviet Union, relations with, 13, 14, 15 State Administration of Foreign Exchange, 48 State Council, 19, 39, 40, 49, 66, 86 state-owned companies, 42, 153, 160–61, 189 steel industry, 16–17, 18, 20, 82–4, 86, 88 striving for achievement, 18 Swaraj’s visit (2018), 135 Taiwan, relations with, 14, 26, 142 technology transfers, 85–92, 97, 177–8 Thucydides’ trap, 8 Tianxia, 26–7, 29, 31–5, 78, 79, 192–3 TIR Convention, 55 Trump’s visit (2017), 124 ‘two heads abroad’ (liangtou zai haiwai), 17 United States, relations with, see Sino–US relations Working Conference on Neighborhood Policy (2013), 17–18 China Construction Bank, 48 China Development Bank, 16, 48, 49, 97, 98, 99, 103, 160 China Export & Credit Insurance Corp, 104 China Export-Import Bank, 46, 47, 48, 49, 103, 154 China Fantasy, The (Mann), 177 China Global Television Network, 188 China Nonferrous Metals Industry Group, 103 China Three Gorges Corp, 48 China-Indian Ocean-Africa-Mediterranean Sea Blue Economic Passage, 62 China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor, 51, 52, 54, 62 China-Oceania-South Pacific, 62 China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), 52, 59, 60, 62, 105–7, 108 Chinese Communist Party Advancing the Development of the One Belt, One Road Leading Group, 39 and Australia, 133 Constitution, 41, 164 founding of (1921), 165 National Congress, 18th (2012), 28 National Congress, 19th (2017), 29, 44, 165, 181 and New Zealand, 132 Politburo, 39, 40, 165 reform and opening up, 13–15 and steel industry, 16 Third Plenum of the 18th Party Central Committee (2013), 39 Chongyang Institute for Financial Studies, 106 Christianity, 128 Churchill, Winston, 183 cities, 11, 43, 44, 48, 149–52, 187–8 climate change, 4, 66, 85, 171 Clinton, William ‘Bill’, 177 cloud computing, 44 CloudWalk Technology, 44 Club Med, 189 CNN, 188 cobalt, 81, 104 Cold War, 2, 14, 21–2, 36, 40, 125, 171 Colombo, Sri Lanka, 156, 162 colonialism, 120, 162 ‘community of shared destiny’, 26–9, 33, 36, 43, 45, 135, 170 Confucianism, 31, 34 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 81, 104 connectivity, 42, 43, 52–3, 109, 122, 127, 146, 158, 167 Connectivity Platform, 139 construction, 18, 75, 86, 98 convergence, 4, 14, 166, 167, 169, 174, 177 copper, 103, 104 corridors, see economic corridors corruption, 133, 155–6, 158, 187 cosmopolitan neighborhoods, 4 Country Garden, 151 Cowboys and Indians, 188 cultural exchanges, 42, 43, 56–7 currency, 22–3, 26, 159–60 customs cooperation, 55, 57, 59, 63 Cyprus, 140 Dalai Lama, 36, 112 Dalian, Liaoning, 55, 93 Daming Palace, Xi’an, 147 Dangal, 111 data, 44 Davidson, Phillip, 125–6 Davos, Switzerland, 168 Dawn of Eurasia, The (Maçães), 185, 191 Dawood, Abdul Razak, 158 debt, 12, 16, 46, 47, 108, 109, 124, 126, 130, 132, 153–62 democracy, 125, 133, 166, 171, 172, 174, 175, 176, 181–3 Democratic Republic of Congo, 81, 104 Deng Xiaoping, 13–15, 18, 31, 32, 69, 73, 183 Diaoyu Islands, 187 digital infrastructure, 43–4 division of labor, 53, 78, 79, 80 Djibouti, 4, 12, 46, 63, 67–8, 101, 117, 186 Doklam plateau, 107–8, 113 Doraleh, Djibouti, 63, 67–8 DP World, 68 dry ports, 57 Dubai, UAE, 62, 68, 160 Dudher Zinc project, 127 Duterte, Rodrigo, 156 DVD (digital versatile disc), 89 e-commerce, 44, 59 East China Sea, 118 economic corridors, 2, 11, 51–4, 55 economic nationalism, 102 economic policy coordination, 28 Economist, The, 190 Egypt, 101 electric cars, 81, 104 electricity, 40, 46, 49, 52, 61, 98, 156, 188 end of history, 36 energy, 4, 11, 17, 19, 20–23, 48, 49, 82, 86, 92, 188 electricity, 40, 46, 49, 52, 61, 98, 156, 188 gas, 21, 22, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 hydropower, 48 oil, 21, 22, 23, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 renewable, 21, 187, 188 English language, 111, 188 Enhanced Mobile Broadband coding scheme, 89 Enlightenment, 193 environmental sustainability, 75 Erenhot, Inner Mongolia, 55 Ethiopia, 46, 68, 154, 170, 186 Eurasia, 1–5, 11, 20, 26, 45, 52, 57, 63, 120, 121, 138 Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), 57–9 Eurasian Resources Group, 103 European Commission, 143, 145 European empires, 120–21 European Union (EU), 5, 29, 57, 58, 138–47, 159, 176, 179 and Belt and Road, 10, 12, 30, 138–47 Connecting Europe and Asia strategy (2018), 145–6 and Djibouti, 67 economic policy coordination, 28 5G mobile networks, 43 immigration, 187 steel industry, 17 tariffs, 83 technology transfers, 87–8, 178 transnational framework, 81 Turkey, relations with, 4 Export-Import Bank of China, 46, 47, 48, 49, 103, 154 exports, 15, 17, 19, 79 Facebook, 188 facial recognition, 44, 190 fashion industry, 101 fate, 34 Fergana Valley, 54 fertilizers, 19 fibre-optic connectivity, 101 fifth generation (5G) mobile networks, 43–4, 89 finance, 11, 36, 46–51, 54, 126, 138, 141, 153–64 Financial Times, 10, 63, 143, 154, 157, 158, 159 five-year plan (2016–20), 41 Folding Beijing (Hao), 150 food imports, 76 foreign direct investment, 46, 144–6 foreign exchange, 16, 94, 153 Forest City, Johor, 149–51, 155 France, 11, 96, 129, 141, 144, 146–7, 189 free and open order, 125 free-trade zones, 11, 42, 55–6, 71 freedoms of speech, 172, 189 French Foreign Legion, 129 French, Howard, 13 Frontier Services Group, 128–9 Fu Chen, 129 Fu Ying, 140 Fukuyama, Francis, 184–5 Gabon, 96 Gabriel, Sigmar, 142 Gang of Four, 14 Gants Mod crossing closure (2016), 36 gas, 21, 22, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 General Navigation Office, 69 generic drugs, 114 Genghis Khan, 2, 25 Georgia, 58 Germany, 11, 65, 80, 87–8, 90, 100, 141–2, 144, 189 ghost ships, 186 Gibraltar, 92 Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, 54, 60, 108 Gland Pharma, 113 glass, 17, 83 Global Energy Interconnection, 188 global financial crisis (2008), 16–17, 85, 161, 178 Global Infrastructure Center, 190 Global Times, 67, 109, 131 global value chain revolution, 74 global warming, 4, 66, 85 globalization, 19, 28, 66, 78, 102, 124, 144, 168, 174, 192 ‘Going Out’ strategy, 86 good governance, 183–4 Google, 152, 188 Goubet, Djibouti, 67 government procurement, 12, 59 Grand Palace, Bangkok, 65 Grand Trunk Road, 53 Greece, 30, 31, 65, 140, 141, 142 GSM (Global System for Mobile communications), 89 Guangdong, China, 28, 75, 151 Guangxi Beibu Gulf International Port Group, 67 Guangxi Nonferrous Metals Group, 16 Guiding Opinion on Promoting International Industrial Capacity (2015), 86 Guiding Opinion on Standardizing the Direction of Overseas Investment (2017), 86 Guo Chu, 33 Gwadar, Balochistan, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 105–7, 117 Hainan, China, 71 Hambantota, Sri Lanka, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 117, 162 Hamburg, Germany, 65 Hamilton, Clive, 133 Han Empire (206 BC–220 AD), 25 Hao Jingfang, 150 ‘harmonious world’, 33, 36 Havelian, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 54 He Yafei, 19, 168 heavy industry, 75, 82 Hebei, China, 83 Heilongjiang, China, 55 Hesteel, 83 high-speed railways, 18, 53–4, 83, 89, 98, 122, 130, 137, 138, 143, 186–7 highways, see roads Hillman, Jonathan, 8 Hobbes, Thomas, 27 Holslag, Jonathan, 189 Hong Kong, 49, 103 Hongshi Holding Group, 49 Horgos, Xinjiang, 55, 55–6, 57 Horn of Africa, 3 Hu Huaibang, 49, 97 Hu Jintao, 21, 33, 70 Hu Xiaolian, 154 Huang Libin, 19 Huangyan Island, 187 Huawei, 89–90, 101, 171 Hub, Balochistan, 127 hukou (household registration), 76 human rights, 141–2, 170, 171, 189 Hun Sen, 155 Hungary, 30, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144 Huntington, Samuel, 184 Hussain, Chaudhry Fawad, 157 hydropower, 48 Ibrahim Ismail, Sultan of Johor, 151 immigration, 187 impatience, 152–3 imports, 17, 19, 22, 79–84 India and the Indian Ocean (Panikkar), 118 India, 3, 5, 64, 105–25, 134–6, 174, 179 Bangladesh Liberation War (1971), 109 and Belt and Road, 11, 12, 52, 72, 105–15, 130, 133 Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (2017), 12, 108 British Raj (1858–1947), 107 Buddhism, 111–12 cosmopolitan neighborhoods, 4 cultural mission to China (1952), 113 Doklam plateau dispute, 107–8, 113 economic autarchy, 110, 117 free and open order, 125 Grand Trunk Road, 53 imports, 113–14 and Indian Ocean, 3, 116–19 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125 Japan, relations with, 118 Kashmir dispute, 108–9, 117 Malabar naval exercises (2018), 135 and maritime hegemony, 72 migrant workers, 150 military bases, 3, 131 Modi–Xi summit (2018), 135 Mumbai-Ahmedabad high-speed railway, 138 nuclear tests (1998), 109 Pakistan, relations with, 105–7, 108–9, 117, 134 pharmaceuticals, 113, 114 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), 105–6 and Sabang Island, 131 Siliguri Corridor, 107–8 Southeast Asia, 113, 117–18 Swaraj’s visit to China (2018), 135 Tibet, relations with, 111–12, 117, 136 United States, relations with, 119, 121–2, 134, 135 Indian Dilemma, 21 Indian Ocean, 3, 8, 9, 26, 51, 62, 63, 66, 68, 71–2, 116–19 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125, 126 and Japan, 4 Kra Isthmus canal proposal, 65, 186 meticulous selection, 72 Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, 64, 72 oil, 21, 64 and Pakistan, 59, 61, 64 individualism, 27, 189 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125, 126 Indo-Pacific Business Forum, 122 Indo-Pacific Command, US, 126 Indochina, 51, 52, 54, 62 Indonesia, 2, 5, 18, 26, 39, 48, 83, 117, 131 Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, 48, 49, 103 industrial capacity cooperation, 85–8, 98, 102–4 industrial internet, 44 industrial parks, 10, 43, 55, 61, 67, 99, 102 Industrial Revolution, 84 information technology, 43–4, 74, 81, 86, 90, 94, 111, 170–71, 190 infrastructure, 3, 23, 26, 30, 40–45, 48, 50, 55, 58, 63, 86, 88, 124, 139, 141, 162, 167, 186 Afghanistan, 135 communications, 81, 118 digital, 43–4 European Union, 10, 141, 145 India, 64, 118, 135 Japan, 4, 136–8 Maritime Silk Road, 66, 67 Mediterranean, 65 Pakistan, 54, 62, 99, 105 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Southeast Asia, 18–19, 70, 117, 130, 132 steel industry, 18 transportation, see transportation value chains, 96 Xinjiang, 20, 54 Inner Mongolia, China, 55 innovation, 76 Institute for International Finance, 153 intellectual property, 59, 88–9, 91, 97, 180, 190 international courts, 28, 190 international industrial capacity cooperation, 85–8, 98, 102–4 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 15, 156–7, 158–9, 172 Internet, 43–4, 86, 170–71 internet of things, 90, 94 Iran, 4, 22, 105–6 Iraq, 24 Irkeshtam, Xinjiang, 55 iron, 17 Islamabad, Pakistan, 60, 99, 101, 127, 157 Islamic State, 128 Islamism, 127–9 Istanbul, Turkey, 4, 24, 65 Italy, 48, 65, 140, 189 Izumi, Hiroto, 137 Jadhav, Kulbhushan, 105–6 Jakarta, Indonesia, 2, 5, 26, 39 Japan, 1, 5, 22, 123, 133, 136–8, 145, 165, 166, 169, 189 Buddhism, 111 Cold War, 21–2 India, relations with, 118 Indian Ocean, 4 infrastructure development, 4, 136–8 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Second World War (1937–45), 119, 165 Javaid, Nadeem, 46 Jiang Qing, 14 Jiang Shigong, 183–4 Jiang Zemin, 15 Jiangsu Delong, 83 Jin Qi, 98 Jinnah Town, Quetta, 128 Johor, Malaysia, 149–51 Joint Statement on Cooperation on EEU and Silk Road Projects (2015), 57–8 joint ventures, 97 Journey to the West, 186, 188 Juncker, Jean-Claude, 138 Kaeser, Joe 170 Karachi, Sindh, 59, 100, 105, 106, 127 Karakoram Highway, 54, 60, 64 Kashgar, Xinjiang, 54, 59, 60, 64, 101 Kashmir, 60, 108–9, 117 Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo, 104 Kaz Minerals 103 Kazakhstan, 8, 55–9, 129, 189 Astana International Exchange, 56 China–EEU free-trade agreement signing (2018), 58 and Eurasian Economic Union, 57 gateway to Europe, 56 Horgos International Cooperation Center, 55–6 industrial capacity cooperation, 103–4 railways, 54 Xi’s speech (2013), 23, 25–6, 39 Kazakhstan Aluminum, 103 keeping a low profile (tao guang yang hui), 15, 18, 32 Kenya, 101, 138, 171 Khan, Imran, 157–8 Khawar, Hasaan, 53 Khunjerab Pass, 101 Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, 54, 60, 100 Kizilsu Kirghiz, Xinjiang, 60 knowledge, 74, 76, 87 Kolkata, West Bengal, 64 Kortunov, Andrey, 135 kowtow, 35 Kra Isthmus, Thailand, 65, 186 Kuala Linggi Port, Malacca, 63 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 130 Kuantan, Pahang, 63, 67 Kudaibergen, Dimash, 57 Kunming, Yunnan, 188 Kyaukpyu, Rakhine, 63, 64, 132, 154 Kyrgyzstan, 53, 54, 55, 103, 127 labor costs, 74, 83, 85, 99 labor shortages, 75 Lagarde, Christine, 158–9 Lahore, Punjab, 100, 157 Laos, 50, 52, 54, 129, 132 Latin America, 25, 187, 188 Leifeld Metal Spinning AG, 88 Lenin, Vladimir, 6, 78 Lenovo, 89–90 Li Hongzhang, 69 Li Keqiang, 44 Li Ruogu, 47 Liaoning, China, 55 liberal values, 123, 125, 133, 170 liberal world order, 141, 144, 167–86, 190, 192 Lighthizer, Robert, 91 lignite, 61 liquefied natural gas (LNG), 48, 66 Lisbon, Portugal, 2, 5 lithium-ion batteries, 81 Liu Chuanzhi, 89–90 Liu He, 92 loans, 11, 36, 46–7, 54, 108–9, 124, 126, 130, 132, 138, 141, 153–63, 190 London, England, 65, 160 Lord of the Rings, The (Tolkien), 1 Lou Jiwei, 76 Luo Jianbo, 7 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 31–4 machinery, 81, 90, 98, 156 Mackinder, Halford, 120 Macron, Emmanuel, 146–7 Made in China 2025 strategy, 85, 87, 90–92, 93 Mahan, Alfred, 120 Mahathir Mohamad, 130–31, 151, 155 Malabar naval exercises (2018), 135 Malacca, Malaysia, 3, 63 Malacca Strait, 21–2, 64, 65, 72, 117, 131 Malay Mail, 155 Malaysia, 3, 70, 117, 130–31, 154 debt, 154 Forest City, 149–51, 155 high-speed railways, 54, 130 Mahathir government (2018–), 130–31, 151, 155 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal (2015–), 155 ports, 63, 67 Maldives, 134, 155 Mali, 129 Malik, Ashok, 109 Malta, 140 Mandarin, 107, 149, 188 Manila, Philippines, 122 Mann, James, 177 manufacturing, 11, 19, 68, 77, 85, 99 outsourcing, 68, 99 value chains, 3, 43, 64, 73–4, 79–82, 84–5, 94–104, 141 Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia, 55 Mao Zedong, 13–14, 31, 183 maps, 2–6, 24, 41, 64, 69 Maritime Silk Road, 24, 26, 28, 39, 41, 53, 62–72, 117 market integration, 41 Mars, 187 Marshall Plan, 40 Marx, Karl, 6 Marxism, 78 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 177 Matarbari port, Bangladesh, 138 matchmaking services, 11 Mattis, James, 124 McMahon Line, 111 Mediterranean Sea, 4, 51, 62, 65, 119 Mei Xinyu, 21 Mekong Delta, 8 mergers and acquisitions, 42 Merkel, Angela, 88, 141, 144 meticulous selection, 72 Middle East, 4, 6, 22, 64, 120, 129, 163, 171 middle-income trap, 75–7, 85 migrant workers, 75 Milanovic, Branko, 173 military, 3, 12, 67, 71, 72, 101, 117, 126–7 Ming Empire (1368–1644), 163 Ming Hao, 30 minimum wage, 75 Ministry of Commerce, 21, 40, 93 Ministry of Communications, 69 Ministry of Finance, 49 Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 40 Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 19 Ministry of Transportation, 14 Minmetals International Trust Co, 16 mobile payments, 193 Modi, Narendra, 106, 135–6 Mohan, Raja, 3, 121 Mombasa, Kenya, 138 Mongol Empire (1206–1368), 2, 25 Mongolia, 8, 36, 52, 55, 111 Moon, 187 Moraes, Frank, 112–13 Moscow, Russia, 4 Most Favored Nation status, 15 Mozambique, 138 multinationals, 74, 88–9 multipolar world system, 179 Mumbai, Maharashtra, 4, 105, 138 Myanmar, 52, 54, 63, 64, 72, 129, 132, 138, 154 Nacala, Nampula, 138 narcotics trade, 127 Nathan, Andrew, 159 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 9 National Bureau of Statistics, 75 National Congress 18th (2012), 28 19th (2017), 29 National Cybersecurity Work Conference (2018), 84 National Development and Reform Commission, 40, 98 National Health Commission, 114 National League for Democracy, Myanmar, 132 National Museum of China, Beijing, 165, 166 National Party of New Zealand, 132 National People’s Congress, 44 National Rescue Party of Cambodia, 155 Nazarbayev University, 25–6 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 113 Nepal, 134, 135, 150 Netherlands, 56, 65 New Zealand, 132–3 Nigeria, 68 Ning Jizhe, 137 Nordin, Astrid, 42 Northern Sea Route, 66 Northwest Passage, 66 NPK fertilizer, 99 nuclear power/weapons, 21, 83, 88, 109, 166, 187 oil, 21, 22, 23, 40, 52, 64, 72, 106 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal (2015–), 155 One China policy, 142 Open Times, 183 Opium War, First (1839–1842), 165 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 79 Osh, Kyrgyzstan, 54 overcapacity, 16, 19–20, 88 Overseas Chinese Affairs Office, 19 Overseas Investment Industrial Guiding Policy, 86 Pacific Command, US, 125–6 Pacific Journal, 71 Pacific Ocean, 3, 5, 9, 26, 45, 62, 116, 117, 125–6, 139 Indo-Pacific, 116–23, 125, 126 Pakistan, 12, 20, 46, 48, 52, 59–62, 64, 98–102, 105, 126–9, 133–4, 155, 156–8 Abbasi’s Beijing visit (2018), 126 agriculture, 99–100 balance of payments crisis, 156–8 Economic Corridor, 52, 59, 60, 62, 105, 108, 156–8 electricity production, 61 fibre-optic connectivity, 101 gateway to the Indian Ocean, 59 Grand Trunk Road, 53 Gwadar port, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 105–7, 117 hydropower, 48 IMF loans, 156–7 India, relations with, 105–7, 108–9, 117, 134 investment, 48 Jadhav arrest (2016), 105–6 Karakoram Highway, 54, 60, 64 Kashmir dispute, 108–9 loans, 46, 54, 156–8 manufacturing, 99 safe city project, 101 Tehreek-e-Insaf, 157–8 television, 101 terrorism, 106, 127–8, 135 textiles, 100 Thar desert, 61 value chains, 98–102 Pakistan-East Africa Cable Express, 101 Pandjaitan, Luhut, 131 Panikkar, Kavalam Madhava, 118 Pantucci, Raffaello, 134 Partnership for Quality Infrastructure, 137–8 patents, 88–9, 190 Pavlodar, Kazakhstan, 103 Peak Pegasus, 93 Pearl River Delta, China, 152 Peking University, 183, 188 Penang, Malaysia, 63 People’s Daily, 57 People’s Liberation Army (PLA), 32, 169 People’s Navigation Company, 69 Pericles, 8 Persian Gulf, 51, 64, 72 Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 100 petcoke, 103 Petrochina, 103 pharmaceuticals, 113, 114 Phaya Thai Station, Bangkok, 137 Philippines, 19, 70, 117, 122, 156 philosophy, 40, 183 Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 70 phosphate, 19 piracy, 72 Piraeus, Greece, 65 Pirelli, 48 Plato, 150 Poland, 58, 140 Polar Silk Road, 66 Politburo, 39, 40, 165 political correctness, 182 Polo, Marco, 2, 10 Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka, 156 Pompeo, Michael, 122–3, 157 ports, 9, 10, 12, 19, 36, 40, 46–7, 57, 63–5, 67–9, 96 Chabahar, Iran, 106–7 Doraleh, Djibouti, 63, 67–8 Gwadar, Pakistan, 46, 59, 61–2, 63, 64, 99–100, 101, 117 Hambantota, Sri Lanka, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 117, 162 Kuala Linggi, Malaysia, 63 Kuantan, Malaysia, 63, 67 Kyaukpyu, Myanmar, 63, 64, 132, 154 Mediterranean, 65 Mombasa, Kenya, 138 Nacala, Mozambique, 138 Penang, Malaysia, 63 Ports-Park-City model, 67 Portugal, 2, 3, 5, 140, 163 power, see energy Prince, Erik, 128–9 property bubbles, 75 protectionism, 102, 114 public procurement, 12, 59 Punjab, Pakistan, 60, 99, 100, 157 Putin, Vladimir, 3, 57 Pyrenees, 189 Qing Empire (1636–1912), 107, 178 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Qualcomm, 89 Quetta, Balochistan, 128 Raikot, Gilgit-Baltistan, 54 railways, 9–10, 11, 12, 18, 43, 52, 53–4, 57, 68, 83, 86, 89, 98, 100, 135 Addis Ababa–Djibouti, 46, 68 Bangkok–Chiang Mai, 137 Belgrade–Budapest, 143 Djibouti–Yaoundé, 68, 186–7 Islamabad–Gwadar, 60 Kashgar–Andijan, 54 Kuala Lumpur–Singapore, 130 Lahore overhead, 157 Mumbai–Ahmedabad, 138 United States, 122 Yunnan–Southeast Asia, 54 Rawat, Bipin, 108 RB Eden, 92 real estate market, 16, 75 reciprocity, 178–80 Red Sea, 72 reform and opening up, 13–15, 73 Ren Zhengfei, 90 Renaissance, 7 renewable energy, 21, 187, 188 Renmin University, 106 renminbi, 22–3, 159 Rennie, David, 190 Republic (Plato), 150 Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), 105–6 responsible stakeholder, 169 Rio Tinto, 36 Road Towards Renewal exhibition (2012), 165 Road, see Maritime Silk Road roads, 9, 19, 40, 43, 52, 54, 55, 57, 67, 107–8 robotics, 75, 88, 90 Rogin, Josh, 122 Rolland, Nadège, 188, 190 Ross, Wilbur, 92 Rotterdam, South Holland, 65 Ruan Zongze, 92 rule of law, 28, 109, 111, 183–4 Russia, 5, 51, 52, 55, 133, 134, 139, 174, 175–6, 180, 181 and Central Asia, 57–9, 129, 133 energy, 22, 23 Eurasian Economic Union, 57–9 Eurasianism, 3–4 Joint Statement on Cooperation on EEU and Silk Road Projects (2015), 57–8 Pacific Fleet, 118 and renminbi internationalization, 23 Soviet era, see under Soviet Union steel industry, 82 Ukraine crisis (2013–), 176 Western values, rejection of, 175, 180, 181 Yamal LNG project, 48, 66 Sabang, Indonesia, 131 safe cities, 101, 171 salt, 67, 71 San Francisco, California, 151–2 Saravan, Sistan-Baluchistan, 105 Sargsyan, Tigran, 59 Sassanian Empire (224–651), 4 satellites, 187 second unbundling, 74 Second World War (1939–45), 165 self-driving vehicles, 88, 90, 186, 187, 190 Serbia, 83, 143 Set Aung, U, 132 Shandong University, 163 Shanghai, China, 2, 20, 92 Shanghai Cooperation Organization, 136 Shanghai Fosun Pharmaceutical, 113 Shanghai Pudong Development Bank, 16 Shanghai Stock Exchange, 50, 56, 103 Sharif, Nawaz, 133–4 sharp power, 170 sheet glass, 17, 83 Shenwan Hongyuan Securities, 16 Shenzhen, Guangdong, 28, 151 shipbuilding, 14, 17, 81, 186 Sichuan, China, 149 Siemens, 170 silicon dioxide, 103 Siliguri Corridor, India, 107–8 Silk Road, 2, 9–10, 23–6, 45, 53, 82, 138 Silk Road Economic Belt, 24, 25–6, 28, 39, 51–62, 83 Silk Road Fund, 48, 56, 98 silk, 23–4 Sindh, Pakistan, 59, 60, 99, 100, 101, 105, 106, 127 Singapore, 54, 77, 92, 119, 130, 150, 151, 160 Sino–Myanmar oil and gas pipeline, 64, 72 Sino–US relations, 116, 119, 121–6, 136, 179–80 and Belt and Road, 5–6, 11, 12, 15, 72, 121–4, 130, 136, 168 and Cold War, 14 and foreign exchange reserves, 16 and Indo-Pacific, 116, 119, 121–3, 125, 126 and Kra Isthmus canal proposal, 65 and Malacca Dilemma, 21–2, 64 and maritime hegemony, 70, 72 and Most Favored Nation status, 15 and Pakistan, 157 and reciprocity, 179–80 and reform and opening up, 14–15 and renminbi internationalization, 23 and South China Sea, 70 and steel, 17 Strategic and Economic Dialogue, 39 and Taiwan, 14 and tariffs, 83, 90–94 and technology transfers, 90–92, 178 Thucydides’ trap, 8 and trade deficit, 90, 92 trade war, 92–4, 173 war, potential for, 5, 8, 13, 14 Yangtze River patrols (1854–1937), 165 and ZTE, 94 Sirisena, Maithripala, 155–6 Sistan-Baluchistan, Iran, 105, 106–7 SLJ900/32, 54 Small, Andrew, 59, 158 smart cities, 44, 151–2 Smederevo, Serbia, 83 soft power, 111, 170 solar power, 187, 188 Somalia, 72 Somersault Cloud, 186 sorghum, 92 South Africa, 101 South America, 25, 187, 188 South China Sea, 21, 62, 65, 69–71, 118, 142, 170, 179 South Korea, 1, 77, 96, 97, 128 South Sudan, 186 Southeast Asia, 6, 8, 12, 18, 100, 131–2, 189 Buddhism, 111 China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor, 51, 52, 54, 62 Indo–Chinese relations, 113, 117–18 Kra Isthmus canal proposal, 65, 186 Maritime Silk Road, 26 phosphate market, 19 South China Sea dispute, 21, 69–71, 142, 170, 179 textile industry, 100 Soviet Union, 1, 13, 14, 15, 21–2, 57, 104 soybeans, 90, 93 space travel, 187 Spain, 92, 140, 189 Sparta, 8 Sri Lanka, 12, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 89, 117, 134, 155–6, 162 Hambantota port, 46–7, 63, 64, 68, 117, 162 Sirisena’s grant announcement (2018), 156 standards, 89–90 State Administration of Foreign Exchange, 48 State Council, 19, 39, 40, 49, 66, 86 state-owned companies, 42, 153, 160–61, 189 steamships, 69 steel industry, 16–17, 18, 20, 67, 82–4, 86, 88 striving for achievement, 18 Stuenkel, Oliver, 167 subprime mortgage crisis (2007–10), 153 Suez Canal, 3, 66, 68, 72, 119 Suifenhe Port, Heilongjiang, 55 Sukkur, Sindh, 99, 101 Sulawesi, Indonesia, 83 Sumatra, Indonesia, 3 Sun Pharmaceuticals, 114 Sun Wenguang, 163 Surkov, Vladislav, 3–4 surveillance, 44, 101, 171, 187, 190 Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, 137 Swamy, Subramanian, 110 Swaraj, Sushma, 135 Switzerland, 160, 168 Syria, 24 Tadjoura gulf, Djibouti, 67 taikonauts, 187 Taiwan, 14, 142 Tajikistan, 48, 127 Tanjung Pelepas Johor, 150 Tanzania, 138 tao guang yang hui, 15, 18, 32 Taoism, 11, 51 tariffs, 17, 56, 58, 79, 82, 83, 179 Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh, 111 tax holidays, 61 TBM Slurry, 54 technology transfers, 85–92, 97, 118, 177–8 Tehreek-e-Insaf, 157–8 telecommunications, 43–4, 52, 86, 89–90, 98, 101, 170–71 television, 101 terrorism, 106, 127–9, 135, 171 Texas, United States, 92 textiles, 86, 100–101 Thailand, 18, 54, 65, 83, 89, 129, 132, 136–7, 186 Thakot, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 54 Thar desert, 61 Thein Sein, 132 Thilawa special economic zone, Myanmar, 138 throw-money diplomacy, 163 Thucydides’ trap, 8 Tianjin, China, 129 Tianxia, 26–7, 29, 31–5, 78, 79, 192–3 Tibet, 36, 111–12, 117, 136, 189 Tibetan Academy of Buddhism, 112 Tillerson, Rex, 11, 123, 125 timber, 96 Times of India, 109 Tinbergen, Jan, 20 TIR (Transports Internationaux Routiers) Convention, 55 titanium dioxide, 103 Tokyo, Japan, 137 Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel, 1 tourism, 10, 11, 61, 71 trade wars, 92–4, 113–14, 173 trains, 9–10, 11, 12, 18, 43, 46 Trans-Siberian railway, 10 Transatlantic trade, 3, 139 transnational industrial policy, 81, 84 Transpacific trade, 3, 139 transparency, 12, 28, 109, 143, 144, 146, 157, 173, 193 Transpolar Route, 66 transportation, 9–10, 19, 25–6, 48–9, 52–4, 63–4, 81–3, 99, 103, 104, 118, 143, 162, 186 maritime, 63 railways, see railways roads, 9, 19, 40, 43, 52, 54, 55, 57, 67, 107–8 tributary system, 34–5 Trieste, Italy, 65 Trump, Donald, 83, 91, 93, 122, 124, 167, 179 Tsinghua University, 76, 163 Tsingshan Group Holdings, 83 Tumshuq, Xinjiang, 60 Turkey, 4, 24, 65, 82 Turkmenistan, 186 Twitter, 188 ‘two heads abroad’ (liangtou zai haiwai), 17 Ukraine, 11, 82, 176 United Arab Emirates, 62, 68, 160 United Kingdom, 2, 3, 17, 43, 65, 107, 112, 160, 165, 189, 193 United Nations, 29, 55, 72, 142, 172 United States, 1–2, 5–7, 8, 11, 12, 121–6, 161, 166–9, 176, 185–6 Apollo program, 9 Bush administration (2001–9), 169 Camp Lemonnier Djibouti, 68 China, relations with, see Sino–US relations Clinton administration (1992–2001), 177 Cold War, 14 immigration, 187 India, relations with, 119, 121–2, 134, 135 industrial output per person, 193 and International Monetary Fund (IMF), 157 Marshall Plan, 40 midterm elections (2018), 12–13 National Defense Strategy (2018), 116 National Security Strategy (2017), 179–80 Pacific Command, 125–6 Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, 121–2 Senate Armed Services Committee, 124 State Department, 123–4 steel industry, 17 subprime mortgage crisis (2007–10), 153 Taiwan, relations with, 14 Trump administration (2017–), 83, 90–94, 122–4, 167, 179 universal values, 175, 181, 184 Urdu, 128 Urumqi, Xinjiang, 20, 101, 188 Uyghurs, 20 Uzbekistan, 53, 54, 129 value chains, 3, 43, 64, 73–4, 79–82, 84–5, 94–104, 141 vanadium pentoxide, 103 Venice, Veneto, 65 Vietnam, 19, 54, 70, 100, 117, 132 Vision and Actions document (2015), 40, 41, 45, 49, 50, 52, 67, 78 Vision for Maritime Cooperation (2017), 62 Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, 118 Wakhan corridor, Afghanistan, 128 Wallerstein, Immanuel, 78 Wang Changyu, 112 Wang Huning, 40 Wang Jisi, 31, 76 Wang Yang, 39 Wang Yi, 40, 60, 123 Wang Yingyao, 50–51 Wang Yiwei, 26 Wang Zhaoxing, 50 Warsaw, Poland, 140 Washington Post, 122 Wei Fenghe, 126 Weibo, 188 Weissmann, Mikael, 42 Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 83 West Asia corridor, 51, 52 West Germany (1949–90), 22, 166 Western world, 5, 30, 31, 165–86, 190–93 Asia-Pacific region, 13 Cold War, 1, 2 cultural imperialism, 28 democracy, 125, 133, 166, 171, 172, 174, 176, 181–3 end of history, 36 global financial crisis (2008), 16–17, 161 individualism, 27, 189 liberal world order, 141, 144, 167–86, 190, 192 Machiavellianism, 31–4 market economies, 16 Marxism, 78 polis, 31 rule of law, 183 rules-based order, 11, 35, 179 separation of powers, 182 soft power, 111 standards, 89 technology, 15, 87, 177–8 telecommunications, 101 and Tianxia, 30–34, 78, 192 value chains, 95, 96, 100, 104 values, 123, 125, 133, 167, 175, 177–8 white elephants, 51 Wickremesinghe, Ranil, 47 win-win, 27–8, 33, 37 wind power, 188 Witness to an Era (Moraes), 113 Working Conference on Neighborhood Policy (2013), 17–18 World Bank, 15, 172 World Economic Forum, 168 World Trade Organization, 170, 177 world-systems theory, 78 Wright, Thomas, 174 Xi Jinping, 11, 183 Astana speech (2013), 23, 25–6, 39 Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation (2017), 152 Boao Forum for Asia speech (2015), 27, 32 and Constitution, 164 Davos speech (2017), 168 Duterte, relationship with, 156 Jakarta speech (2013), 23, 26, 39 Joint Statement on Cooperation on EEU and Silk Road Projects (2015), 57 London visit (2015), 43 Mahathir’s letter (2018), 130–31 Modi, summit with (2018), 135 National Congress, 19th (2017), 29, 181 National Cybersecurity Work Conference (2018), 84 presidential term limits repeal (2018), 164, 174 Road Towards Renewal exhibition (2012), 165 Sirisena, grant to (2018), 156 and state-owned companies, 42, 153 Sun Wenguang’s letter (2018), 163 telecommunications, 43 Trump’s visit (2017), 124 and value chains, 94 Wang Huning, relationship with, 40 and Western democracy, 166, 181 Working Conference on Neighborhood Policy (2013), 17–18 Xi’an, Shaanxi, 24, 28, 147, 188 Xinhua, 24, 41, 64 Xinjiang, 20, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 100–101, 128–9, 188, 189 Xiong Guangkai, 32 Xu Jin, 33 Xu Zhangrun, 163–4 Yamal LNG project, 48, 66 Yang Jian, 132 Yang Jiechi, 39, 171 Yang Jing, 40 Yangtze River, 165 Yao Yunzhu, 169–70 Ye Peijian, 187 yuan, see renminbi Yunnan, China, 54, 129, 149, 188 Zeng Jinghan, 181 zero-sum, 27 Zhang Gaoli, 39 Zhang Qian, 25 Zhang Weiwei, 182–3, 184 Zhao Tingyang, 27 Zheng He, 162–3 Zhi Zhenfeng, 84 Zimbabwe, 12, 44 Zoellick, Robert, 169 ZTE, 94, 170–71 Zurich, Switzerland, 160 First published in the United Kingdom in 2018 by C.


pages: 252 words: 74,167

Thinking Machines: The Inside Story of Artificial Intelligence and Our Race to Build the Future by Luke Dormehl

Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, borderless world, call centre, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, drone strike, Elon Musk, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Nest splits the cost savings with the utility company – with users getting nothing. Over time, Nest’s revenue from deals with utility companies will dwarf the amount it makes from sales of its thermostats. The company’s smart devices are still serving their master; it’s just a different master to the one we may have expected. Related challenges may be faced as user data is gathered by smart devices and used to shape cities. Instead of smart cities becoming increasingly cohesive, they could be made more divided, depending on how AI is employed. One deep learning project created at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) found that it could predict the crime rate in an area simply by looking at an image. Trained on 4 million images from Google Street View in addition to aggregated crime data from organisations like San Francisco CrimeSpotting, the deep neural net focused less on what was present in a particular image and more on inferences.

Grey Walter Biographical Sketch’, Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003): sulcus.berkeley.edu/wjf/CJ_W_Grey_Walter.pdf 9 Wooldridge, Michael, An Introduction to Multi-Agent Systems (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2009). 10 blog.ifttt.com/post/2316021241/ifttt-the-beginning 11 Clark, Liat, ‘Speech Algorithm Detects Early Parkinson’s Symptoms’, Wired, 26 June 2012: wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012–06/26/parkinsons-voice-diagnosis 12 Townsend, Anthony, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2013). 13 http://www.seasteading.org/2011/03/walking-city-archigram/ 14 Stockton, Nick, ‘Boston Is Partnering with Waze to Make its Roads Less of a Nightmare’, Wired, 20 February 2015: wired.com/2015/02/boston-partnering-waze-make-roads-less-nightmare/ 15 Weiser, Mark, ‘The Computer for the 21st Century’, Scientific American, September 1991: ics.uci.edu/~corps/phaseii/Weiser-Computer21stCentury-SciAm.pdf 16 http://www.antiquetech.com/?


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize

They could be paralyzed by hackers, or by bugs in labyrinthine software.”38 Likewise, in Dave Eggers’s The Circle,40 a fictitious Silicon Valley company representing an evil hybrid of Facebook, Google, and Apple, pulls together personal e-mails, banking information, purchases, social networking, and a universal operating system to portray what extreme loss of privacy can induce, such as placing chips in children to prevent kidnappings.41,42 Anthony Townsend has a more sanguine view in Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia.43 He believes the electronic surveillance is great and that we’re reinventing cities with a smartphone platform. With all the data flowing, there’s big business following. The “data brokers” are the companies that collect and analyze our personal information and sell it without our knowledge.44 Acxiom, using twenty-three thousand computer servers and processing more than fifty trillion data transactions per year, is the largest company in this multibillion dollar industry.

Eggers, The Circle (San Francisco, CA: McSweeney’s Books, 2013). 41. M. Atwood, “When Privacy Is Theft,” New York Review of Books, November 21, 2013, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/nov/21/eggers-circle-when-privacy-is-theft/?pagination=false&printpage=true. 42. J. Nocera, “A World Without Privacy,” New York Times, October 15, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/15/opinion/nocera-a-world-without-privacy.html. 43. A. Townsend, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co., 2013). 44. S. Kroft, “The Data Brokers: Selling Your Personal Information,” CBS News, March 9, 2014, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-data-brokers-selling-your-personal-information/. 45. A. E. Marwick, “How Your Data Are Being Deeply Mined,” New York Review of Books, January 9, 2014, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/jan/09/how-your-data-are-being-deeply-mined/?

See also Imaging; Scans Radiation Right campaign, 116 Ramamurthy, Lakshman, 65–66 RAND Corporation, 125(quote), 130–131 Reconstructive surgery after double mastectomy, 58–59 Records, medical Blue Button Initiative, 129–130 human phenome, 82–83 hype in health information technology, 130–132 OpenNotes project, 127–129 patient access to DNA data, 22 patient ownership, 125–126 See also entries beginning with Data Regulatory procedures, 288–289 Reinhardt, Uwe, 139(quote), 142 Religion, 13–14, 17–18, 50, 52 Relman, Arnold “Bud,” 176 Research, personal, 17 Respect, culture of, 20–21, 27–30 Revolution 2.0 (Ghonim), 13 Revolutions, social networks contributing to, 43–44 Rheumatoid arthritis, 144–145, 204 Rifkin, Jeremy, 49 Risk calculation Global Burden of Disease, 258–261 ionized radiation tests, 113–116 leading causes of disease and risk factors for death and disability, 260(table) predictive analysis, 249–250 TBI and gene variants, 94–95 traditional epidemiology, 70–71 RNA, 86, 98, 255–256 Roche, 215 Rosenberg, Tina, 139(quote) Rosenthal, Elisabeth, 140, 142, 148 Rubenstein, David, 37 Rush, Benjamin, 20 Ruthven, David, 189 Sabar, Ariel, 105(quote) Sage Bionetworks, 199–200 Sayfer, Steven, 190–191 Scans alternatives to radiation, 116 miniaturization of, 118–120 MOOMs, 204–205 patient access to test results, 120–121 portable devices for, 118–120 See also Imaging; Lab tests Schekman, Randy, 209–210 Schwamm, Lee, 167–168 Science, modern, 44–46 Seife, Charles, 71–72 Seigler, Mark, 20 Seinfeld (television program), 4 Semmelweis, Ignaz, 275 Sensor Project, 269 The Shallows (Carr), 40 Sharing Clinical Reports Project, 75 Shenkin, Budd, 127 Shortage of physicians, 173(fig.), 270–271 Side effects of drugs, 100–101 Sidereus Nuncius (Galilei), 44–45 The Signal and the Noise (Silver), 40 The Silent World of Doctor and Patient (Katz), 18–19 Silver, Nate, 40 Simon, Elena, 9, 10(fig.), 212 Siri, 164–165, 244 Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia (Townsend), 223 Smart patients, 8–10 Smartphones attachment scopes, 122 biosensors, 83 boredom and, 48–49 compared to printing press, 40 conducting a full physical exam with, 121–123 data archiving, 48 declining cost of, 273(fig.) declining doctor visits, 162–163 diagnosis through, 4–7 DIY activities, 47 global health impact, 261–267 iBlueButton apps, 130 imaging and the anatome, 84 lab on a chip, 109–111 medical revolution stemming from, 50–54 nuclear magnetic resonance device, 119 office visits, 165(fig.)


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Internet companies like Google and Facebook know us particularly well—even more intimately, so they boast, than we know ourselves. No wonder Xochi Birch offers her privileged, wealthy members “privacy” from the data-infested world outside the Battery. In an “Internet of Everything” shadowed by the constant surveillance of an increasingly intelligent network—in a future of smart cars, smart clothing, smart cities, and smart intelligence networks—I’m afraid that the Battery members may be the only people who will be able to afford to escape living in a brightly lit village where nothing is ever hidden or forgotten and where, as data expert Julia Angwin argues, online privacy is already becoming a “luxury good.”23 Winston Churchill was right. We do indeed shape our buildings and thereafter they have the power to shape us.

“The primary business model of the Internet is built on mass surveillance,” notes Bruce Schneier, a leading computer security expert, “and our government’s intelligence-gathering agencies have become addicted to this data.”62 So rather than an aberration, Silicon Valley’s involvement with the NSA’s Prism surveillance program conforms with the Internet’s core identity. Data, as the EU’s Meglena Kuneva reminds us, is the new oil of the digital economy. So whether it’s Google’s attempt to embed tiny cameras in networked contact lenses63 or the networked home with its detailed knowledge of our comings and goings,64 or smart cities that track everything from our driving to our shopping habits,65 surveillance remains the Internet’s main business model. “Cities are our paradises of anonymity, a place for self-erasure and self-invention,” the veteran technology reporter Quentin Hardy reminds us.66 So what becomes of self-erasure and self-invention in today’s digital panopticon, with products like the aptly named Panono ball camera that films everything it sees?


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

Personal fitness and health will be Peers Inc. People who are watching their weight, improving their sleep and exercise regimens, and following doctor’s orders will contribute their personal data via sophisticated and user-friendly devices, as is already happening today. Some of that will be anonymized and become part of large population databases that will transform public health and the delivery of health care. Smart health, smart cities, and big data (together becoming the Internet of Things) are in fact all grounded in Peers Inc: repurposed data that is collected by all kinds of peers and organized and analyzed by various Incs, empowering individuals and cities to make better decisions, learn faster, evolve more quickly, and have a different relationship with our environment. We can see the transition happening today. Google is wholly a Peers Inc configuration.

“Airbnb Disaster Response,” https://www.airbnb.com/disaster-response. 27. Ibid. 28. Guifi.net website, https://guifi.net/en. 29. Veniam, the company I most recently co-founded, is building the networking fabric for the Internet of Moving Things. Combining cellular, Wi-Fi and vehicle-to-vehicle communications, Veniam turns every vehicle into a hotspot, as well as collector and conveyor of sensor data for smart cities and ports. 30. Noam Cohen, “Red Hook’s Cutting-Edge Wireless Network,” New York Times, August 22, 2014. 31. Ibid. CHAPTER 11: WHAT HAPPENS NEXT? 1. Bill Joy, Linus Torvalds, and Eric Raymond have all been given credit for this observation. 2. Nicholas Gruen articulated this idea to me. 3. David Reed inspired me with this sentence from his blog: “Each member of the Internet who contributed to the mutual enterprise gained connectivity disproportionate to the member’s contribution.”


Smart Grid Standards by Takuro Sato

business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, data acquisition, decarbonisation, demand response, distributed generation, energy security, factory automation, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Iridium satellite, iterative process, knowledge economy, life extension, linear programming, low earth orbit, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, performance metric, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, Thomas Davenport

In March 2012, the European Union issued the Smart Grid SRA 2035 SRA Update of the Smart Grid SRA 2007 for needs by the year 2035 [45]. The SRA 2035 describes the research topics and priorities that will be necessary for further development of the electricity system from 2020 to 2035 and beyond. The European Union promotes low-carbon related technology, bio energy, carbon capture and storage, power grid, hydrogen and fuel cells, nuclear power, smart city, solar power, and wind power based on the European Strategic Energy Technologies (SETs) Plan. In June 2012, the European Union founded the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E) to represent all electric Transmission Smart Grid Standards 22 System Operators (TSOs) in the European Union. In ENTSO-E, the TSOs cooperate with each other regionally or on the European scale, and activities were organized through three committees: the System Development Committee, the System Operations Committee, and the Market Committee.

As for the Smart Grid, one particular reason for favoring fiber optics against some other broadband technologies like LTE (Long-Term Evolution), WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), or distributed radio frequency (RF) Mesh, is the aggregate data bandwidth for two-way communication for Smart Grid-related data in large cities and dense populations. When serving hundreds of thousands of households or even more, the aggregate bandwidth rises to several gigabytes per second [24]. Other use cases, when fiber-optic network deployment is of particular interest, are smart city deployments and multiservice solutions (e.g., community-owned utilities, combining various services including voice, video Internet, and Smart Grid services by service or utility providers)[25]. Another aspect and advantage of fiber optics is its very high bandwidth that can accommodate various bandwidth-demanding applications in the future without the need for replacement or upgradation of the infrastructure.

WAVE2M technology supports a mesh network topology configuration with very high scalability, although the end-to-end delay grows with the number of clusters in the network. It is based on the Fast FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) with data interleaving and forward error correction. The ultralow power consumption is realized by an MAC layer, and a network layer supports IPv6 as well as RPL protocol for routing. The main target market segments for WAVE2M open standard is AMI-to-AMI communication, home and building automation, and smart cities. 6.4.3.6 Weightless Weightless in another long-range technology designed for M2M communication. This technology standard is maintained by the Weightless Special Interest Group (SIG) and although the standard is available, the patents are licensed only to qualified devices, thus this technology can be considered as a proprietary solution. It uses low-frequency unlicensed spectrum and the key target is the TVWS bands.


Driverless Cars: On a Road to Nowhere by Christian Wolmar

Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, BRICs, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, deskilling, Diane Coyle, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Tesla Model S, Travis Kalanick, wikimedia commons, Zipcar

Phrases such as ‘the upcoming driverless car revolution’ and ‘the disappearance of the privately owned car’ started to pepper their speeches. Some even assumed that the advent of driverless cars was imminent and that transport policies therefore needed to be adapted urgently. The driverless car revolution was upon us, and those who ignored it were simply doing the three monkeys trick. They were Luddites, losers. Had not the PC, the smartphone and the internet already changed our lives? ‘Smart cities’ were all the rage and driverless cars were one of their obvious key building blocks. Judging by my response to Deborah’s email, I had clearly swallowed this line too. But then my brain started to engage. It was precisely that tone of inevitability which began to make me wonder whether this revolution in transport would really soon be upon us. Hold on a second, I thought: is this really something that is bound to happen?


pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

It can also reduce air pollution. Nearly one-third of locally produced particulate matter in our air comes from heating fuel. Public health can improve quickly as a result of efforts that improve air quality and building efficiency. New York may be looking to learn from others, but it’s also hoping to serve as an example of best practices. Steve Hammer also serves as an adviser to the Energy Smart Cities mayoral training program being developed by the Joint U.S.–China Cooperation on Clean Energy, a nonprofit with offices in Shanghai and Beijing. The training program is a three-year initiative that will introduce Chinese mayors to the best practices of the West, with the goal of helping cities reduce their energy intensity by 20 percent by 2010. Energy intensity, the ratio of energy use to output, is a way to measure the overall energy efficiency of an economy.

See Central Valley, California; Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta Delta fish, 122–24, 131–32 Delta levees, 117–21, 125–27, 140, 146–47 Delta Plan (Delta Works), 238–39 deMenocal, Peter, 263 Denver, hot days in, 293 Desertec-Africa, 85–87 desertification, 67–68 desiccation, 66–67 Detroit, hot days in, 290 deuterium, 187 DeVantier, Lyndon, 91 Dhaka, Bangladesh, 197–225 adaptation strategies, 214–19 climate migration, 204–8 flood forecasting, 200–204, 222–23 forty-year forecast, 219–25 global warming and, 203, 211–14 map, 196 rising sea levels, 208, 211–14 water at the heart of problems, 208–19 Diamond, Jared, 269 dipoles, 198 drought mechanisms, 69–71 droughts, 54–55, 89, 210–11 Central Valley, 137–47 Mesopotamia, 264 New York City, 244–45 Sahel region, 66–68, 69–72 earthquakes, 121–27, 133–34, 146–47 Earth-system Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC), 266 Easter Island, 268–69 Eddy, David, 227–28 Eemian, 181–83, 185–87 Egede, Hans, 176, 178 El Niño (EN), xiv–xv, 197, 249 Andes Mountains, 159–60 California, 134, 138–40 Great Barrier Reef, 96, 97, 111 Sahel region, 71 El Niño Advisory, 138–39 emissions reductions (mitigation), 58, 109, 235–36 Energy Smart Cities, 246 equations, 32–33, 35–36, 38–39 equilibrium runs, 39–40, 42 Erik the Red, 173, 175–76 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), 201–2 European heat wave of 2003, 51–53, 281 evolution, 64–66 extinction, 17, 65, 66 Delta fish, 122–23, 132 extreme weather, 50–56 Great Barrier Reef, 98–99 New York City, 233–34 Exxon Mobil, 177 famine, 78–79, 81–87, 204–5 farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR), 77–78 feedback, 21–22 Finding Nemo (movie), 103 Flood Forecasting Warning Center (FFWC), 202–3 floods (flooding), 54–55, 121–22, 221 Bangladesh, 197–204, 208–13, 219–25 Central Valley, 121–22, 124–30 New Orleans, 121–22, 133–34, 249 New York City, 236–44, 255–56, 258 Red River, 3–5, 10 Food Mail, 157 forcings, 21–22, 38, 44–49.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

As the Chinese premier, Wen Jiabao, noted in a speech in August 2009 in the city of Wuxi, “Internet + Internet of Things = Wisdom of the Earth.” The Smart City Operating System Those skilled in war are able to subdue the enemy’s army without battle. They capture his cities without assaulting them and overthrow the state without protracted operations. SUN TZU In 1964, Marshall McLuhan presciently predicted that by “means of electric media … all previous technologies … including cities …[would] be translated into information systems.” It might have taken fifty years, but his forecast was spot-on. The Internet of Things has the full potential to transform cities into living, breathing ecosystems of ambient intelligence and connected sensors, vastly improving the quality of life for their inhabitants. In the utopian vision of smart cities, trash cans with embedded sensors will notify the rubbish collectors when they are full, immediately dispatching the closest GPS-equipped garbage truck to whisk them away.

—the Org Chart The Lean (Criminal) Start-Up A Sophisticated Matrix of Crime Honor Among Thieves: The Criminal Code of Ethics Crime U Innovation from the Underworld From Crowdsourcing to Crime Sourcing CHAPTER 11: INSIDE THE DIGITAL UNDERGROUND Passport to the Dark Web A Journey into the Abyss Dark Coins Crime as a Service Crimeazon.com The Malware-Industrial Complex Net of the Living Dead: When Botnet Zombies Attack Committing Crime Automagically CHAPTER 12: WHEN ALL THINGS ARE HACKABLE Where the Wireless Things Are Imagining the Internet of Things Connecting Everything—Insecurely Obliterating Privacy Hacking Hardware More Connections, More Vulnerabilities CHAPTER 13: HOME HACKED HOME Candid Camera From Carjacking to Car Hacking Home Hacked Home What the Outlet Knows Business Attacks and Building Hacks The Smart City Operating System CHAPTER 14: HACKING YOU “We Are All Cyborgs Now” More Than Meets the Eye: The World of Wearable Computing You’re Breaking My Heart: The Dangers of Implantable Computers When Steve Austin and Jaime Sommers Get a Virus Identity Crisis: Hacking Biometrics Fingers Crossed (and Hacked) Your Password? It’s Written All Over Your Face On Your Best Behavior Augmenting Reality The Rise of Homo virtualis CHAPTER 15: RISE OF THE MACHINES: WHEN CYBER CRIME GOES 3-D We, Robot The Military-Industrial (Robotic) Complex A Robot in Every Home and Office Humans Need Not Apply Robot Rights, Law, Ethics, and Privacy Danger, Will Robinson Hacking Robots Game of Drones Robots Behaving Badly Attack of the Drones The Future of Robotics and Autonomous Machines Printing Crime: When Gutenberg Meets Gotti CHAPTER 16: NEXT-GENERATION SECURITY THREATS: WHY CYBER WAS ONLY THE BEGINNING Nearly Intelligent Talk to My Agent Black-Box Algorithms and the Fallacy of Math Neutrality Al-gorithm Capone and His AI Crime Bots When Watson Turns to a Life of Crime Man’s Last Invention: Artificial General Intelligence The AI-pocalypse How to Build a Brain Tapping Into Genius: Brain-Computer Interface Mind Reading, Brain Warrants, and Neuro-hackers Biology Is Information Technology Bio-computers and DNA Hard Drives Jurassic Park for Reals Invasion of the Bio-snatchers: Genetic Privacy, Bioethics, and DNA Stalkers Bio-cartels and New Opiates for the Masses Hacking the Software of Life: Bio-crime and Bioterrorism The Final Frontier: Space, Nano, and Quantum PART THREE SURVIVING PROGRESS CHAPTER 17: SURVIVING PROGRESS Killer Apps: Bad Software and Its Consequences Software Damages Reducing Data Pollution and Reclaiming Privacy Kill the Password Encryption by Default Taking a Byte out of Cyber Crime: Education Is Essential The Human Factor: The Forgotten Weak Link Bringing Human-Centered Design to Security Mother (Nature) Knows Best: Building an Immune System for the Internet Policing the Twenty-First Century Practicing Safe Techs: The Need for Good Cyber Hygiene The Cyber CDC: The World Health Organization for a Connected Planet CHAPTER 18: THE WAY FORWARD Ghosts in the Machine Building Resilience: Automating Defenses and Scaling for Good Reinventing Government: Jump-Starting Innovation Meaningful Public-Private Partnership We the People Gaming the System Eye on the Prize: Incentive Competitions for Global Security Getting Serious: A Manhattan Project for Cyber Final Thoughts Appendix: Everything’s Connected, Everyone’s Vulnerable: Here’s What You Can Do About It Acknowledgments Notes PROLOGUE The Irrational Optimist: How I Got This Way My entrée into the world of high-tech crime began innocuously in 1995 while working as a twenty-eight-year-old investigator and sergeant at the LAPD’s famed Parker Center police headquarters.


pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

This has significant implications for energy consumption, transportation, and parking, as well as public safety and overall urban logistics. Fortunately, thanks to consistently improving Machine-to-Machine technologies, our cities are becoming smarter, too. Sensors and real-time wireless communication allow for better energy management, traffic optimization, and building automation. Anthony Flint22 wrote on the website The Atlantic Cities that smart cities are not just about helping people find a place to park; they are also designed to help cities in the developing world better manage population growth as it affects energy management, transportation, water supply management, and sanitation services. Says Assaf Biderman: The city is becoming like a computer in the open air. All the networks — telecommunications, transportation, energy — are getting digitized for better management.


pages: 134 words: 41,085

The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, universal basic income, Washington Consensus

Should governments offer state employees jobs for life? Should they restrict access to the teaching profession to people with teaching certificates? If video consultation for doctors worked so well during the crisis, why not embrace it in normal times? Should governments pay for students to go to university, when the gains from higher education go overwhelmingly to the privileged? Why hasn’t the West invested in smart cities in the same way that Asia has? Leviathan everywhere could be simplified and improved just by pragmatic modernization. You can get a long way just by repair work, room by room. But Covid gives us a chance to rethink the overall design, something which has not happened for decades. Here the argument changes from pragmatism to ideology, and technological improvement to political theory. What is the state for?


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Smart scales are it,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, http://www.ajc.com/news/health-med-fit-science/want-scale-that-tells-more-than-your-weight-smart-scales-are/XHpLELYnLgn8cQtBtsay6J. 4a smart toilet: Alina Bradford (1 Feb 2016), “Why smart toilets might actually be worth the upgrade,” CNET, http://www.cnet.com/how-to/smart-toilets-make-your-bathroom-high-tech. 4smart light bulbs: Alex Colon and Timothy Torres (30 May 2017), “The best smart light bulbs of 2017,” PC Magazine, https://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2483488,00.asp. 4a smart door lock: Eugene Kim and Christina Farr (10 Oct 2017), “Amazon is exploring ways to deliver items to your car trunk and the inside of your home,” CNBC, https://www.cnbc.com/2017/10/10/amazon-is-in-talks-with-phrame-and-is-working-on-a-smart-doorbell.html. 4a smart bed: Adam Gabbatt (5 Jan 2017), “Don’t lose your snooze: The technology that’s promising a better night’s sleep,” Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jan/05/sleep-technology-ces-2017-las-vegas-new-products. 4Cities are starting to embed smart sensors: Matt Hamblen (1 Oct 2015), “Just what IS a smart city?” Computerworld, https://www.computerworld.com/article/2986403/internet-of-things/just-what-is-a-smart-city.html. 4Smart billboards will recognize you: Tim Johnson (20 Sep 2017), “Smart billboards are checking you out—and making judgments,” Miami Herald, http://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/national/article174197441.html. 5Those spatial metaphors don’t make sense: This is why I am still using the uppercase “Internet” in this book, even though most style guides now prefer lowercase.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Like much of Africa, Gaborone has suffered terribly from AIDS, but the government’s response to the plague—delivering free antiretroviral drugs to everyone—has been humane and moderately effective, raising the life expectancy substantially for those with HIV. No one is going to confuse Gaborone with Paris, but it is a striking success among African cities, primarily because its government is effective. In the world’s poorest places, success above all reflects decent political institutions and investment in education, and that’s what has made Gaborone a well-functioning city. The Smart City: Boston, Minneapolis, and Milan Singapore and Gaborone are imperfect models for cities that are neither independent states nor national capitals. They also can’t serve as examples for places in regions where decent economic policies are the norm. Singapore succeeded, in part, by investing in education and by choosing economic policies that would positively differentiate itself from its neighbors.

Our schools must focus on getting—and keeping—teachers of those skills, like numeracy, that are increasingly critical for success. For cities, investing in schooling yields two payoffs. Students acquire more skills, which eventually makes the place more productive. Better schools also attract better-educated parents, who make the place more productive right away. The single best way to create a smart city is to create schools that attract and train able people. Help Poor People, Not Poor Places The dearth of education in many postindustrial cities helps explain why these places have had such trouble reinventing themselves. They’ve also suffered because their model of having vast firms in a single industry stunts entrepreneurship and innovation. Throughout American history, older areas have always been supplanted by upstart cities.


pages: 496 words: 131,938

The Future Is Asian by Parag Khanna

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Basel III, blockchain, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, energy security, European colonialism, factory automation, failed state, falling living standards, family office, fixed income, flex fuel, gig economy, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Parag Khanna, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Singapore offers such companies a “living lab” for demonstration projects in using sensor networks to efficiently manage everything from traffic to security for large populations. In Singapore, France’s Dassault Systèmes has created the world’s most advanced 3D geodata platform, where it designs customizable and energy-efficient bridges that it hopes to sell across Asia. Western know-how is therefore accelerating Asia’s claim to be home to the “smart cities” of the future. The Los Angeles–based AECOM, one of the world’s top engineering and design firms, has three thousand staff in China, another three thousand across Southeast Asia, and a growing number in India, with Saudi Arabia and the UAE its fastest-growing offices. The legendary Chicago architecture firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill designed Dubai’s Burj Khalifa, while Gensler of San Francisco designed the Shanghai Tower, currently the world’s second tallest building.

European horizons now encompass all of Asia. After South Korea and Japan, India is the next major economy poised to sign a free trade agreement with the European Union. At the 2017 India-EU Summit, the European Investment Bank (EIB) made its largest commitments ever to flagship Indian initiatives such as Skill India and Digital India, with contracts given to European companies to promote Indian “smart cities” through renewable energy projects. At the same time, both Germany and France are selling military hardware such as new submarines to India. Fresh on the heels of British prime minister Theresa May’s visit to India in 2017, London mayor Sadiq Khan followed with a large delegation to both India and Pakistan. This is how Europe plans to get the upper hand in the race for two of the world’s fastest-growing economies—no longer as colonizers but as trade partners.


Virtual Competition by Ariel Ezrachi, Maurice E. Stucke

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, cloud computing, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, demand response, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, double helix, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Firefox, framing effect, Google Chrome, index arbitrage, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, light touch regulation, linked data, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market friction, Milgram experiment, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price discrimination, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, turn-by-turn navigation, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, yield management

Eden Medina, “The Cybersyn Revolution,” Jacobin 17 (Spring 2015), https://www.jacobinmag.com/2015/04/allende-chile-beer-medina-cybersyn/. Eden Medina, “Designing Freedom, Regulating a Nation: Socialist Cybernetics in Allende’s Chile,” Journal of Latin American Studies 38 (2006): 328 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Notes to Pages 213–215 571–606, http://www.informatics.indiana.edu/edenm/EdenMedinaJLAS August2006.pdf. Laura Tam, “Smart Cities, Limited Resources,” SPUR (October 10, 2012), http://www.spur.org/publications/article/2012-10-10/smart-cities-limited -resources. Ibid. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, SFpark Sensors (2016), http://sfpark.org/how-it-works/the-sensors/. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, SFpark Pilot Project Evaluation Summary (June 2014), http://sfpark.org/wp-content/uploads/2014 /06/SFpark _ Eval _ Summary_ 2014.pdf. San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, SFpark Pricing (2016), http://sfpark.org/how-it-works/pricing/.


pages: 193 words: 47,808

The Flat White Economy by Douglas McWilliams

"Robert Solow", access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, correlation coefficient, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, George Gilder, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, smart cities, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, working-age population, zero-sum game

During the 1970s there seemed to be evidence in the developed economies of a slowing down in the growth of cities. But since then, many cities have had renewed expansion. Glaeser relates this to two key factors: technology and globalisation. He argues that these have both placed a premium on ‘smartness’ and that your smartness depends on your interactions. He points out that there is a disconnect – in less skilled cities there is little correlation between city size and productivity. But in ‘smart cities’ as much as 45% of productivity is a function of the city size as the increased connections that can be made increase the creativity and economic potential of the employees. The underlying thinking is similar to that of the economics of agglomeration and of clustering. In a modern city – and this is increasingly the case – intelligence based work is improved in its quality of thinking, which is partly a function of connections, by increased numbers of interactions.


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

Recent research from the NSPCC found that almost half of all children want to pursue a career in tech. An even more depressing statistic is that 30 per cent hope to become the one-in-a-million YouTuber who actually makes a career of it. Every country wants to build their own Silicon Valley, and every city has ambitions to be a tech ‘hub’. Read any political manifesto from across the spectrum and you’ll find yourself lost in a world of smart cities, lean governments and flexible workers. To seriously criticise any of this puts you at risk of being labelled a Luddite who doesn’t ‘get it’. And to whom do we look in order to solve our collective social problems? It’s no longer the state, but the modern tech-geek superhero. Space travel and climate change has fallen to Elon Musk. We look to Google to solve health problems and sort out ageing.


pages: 195 words: 52,701

Better Buses, Better Cities by Steven Higashide

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, business process, congestion charging, decarbonisation, Elon Musk, Hyperloop, income inequality, intermodal, jitney, Lyft, mass incarceration, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, place-making, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart cities, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

Mark Fisher, the executive who led the Indy Chamber’s transit campaign, told me that throughout the 2010s, as advocates lobbied the Indiana legislature to grant cities the ability to tax themselves for transit, many legislators argued that “‘we don’t need transit because autonomous vehicles are going to be ubiquitous [within] the next three or four years.’ . . . It was way more widespread than I would’ve guessed.” Microtransit, Uber and Lyft, and autonomous vehicles cater perfectly to the futurist instinct. They are cloaked in Silicon Valley mystique, often with big-talking founders and attention paid to branding. The launch event for Swope’s “Intelligent Transit” plan included the CEO of a “smart cities” company, who appeared via teleconference because he was on a business trip in Tokyo, where he had met with the Japanese prime minister. The press release for the plan announced that it included “the world’s first carbon-positive electric vehicles (EV) and autonomous vehicles (AV) for mass transportation on a global basis.”6 Although this tactic looks to the future, it is quite old. For decades, it has been a common tactic of conservative think tanks to fight against plans for high-capacity transit by pointing cities to some other technology instead, such as dynamically priced high-occupancy toll lanes, bus rapid transit (as an argument against proposed rail projects), and personal rapid transit.


pages: 211 words: 55,075

Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city

For decades, so much of urban planning has been focused on devising ways to reorganize human activity into distinct silos, to separate people and things and, by so doing, reduce the risk of conflict. I would like, instead, to focus on how potentially conflicting aspects of everyday existence can be brought together and connected to deliver better quality of life. Perhaps soft city can be considered a counterpoint or even a complement to “smart” city. Rather than looking to complex new technologies to solve the challenges of increasing urbanization, we can instead look to simple, small-scale, low-tech, low-cost, human-centered, gentle solutions that help make urban life easier, more attractive, and more comfortable. Softer may be smarter. This book presents observations about some basic aspects of urban form and urban design that can contribute to more sustainable and resilient communities and healthier and happier lives for the people who live in them.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

But this is just a shadow of what lifelogging will become. In the future, it will include a video record. Google Glass is the first wearable device that has this potential, but others are not far behind. These are examples of the Internet of Things. Environmental sensors will detect pollution levels. Smart inventory and control systems will reduce waste and save money. Internet-connected computers will be in everything—smart cities, smart toothbrushes, smart lightbulbs, smart sidewalk squares, smart pill bottles, smart clothing—because why not? Estimates put the current number of Internet-connected devices at 10 billion. That’s already more than the number of people on the planet, and I’ve seen predictions that it will reach 30 billion by 2020. The hype level is pretty high, and we don’t yet know which applications will work and which will be duds.

Google Glass is the first wearable device: Jenna Wortham (8 Mar 2013), “Meet Memoto, the lifelogging camera,” New York Times Blogs, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/08/meet-memoto-the-lifelogging-camera. Internet of Things: Ken Hess (10 Jan 2014), “The Internet of Things outlook for 2014: Everything connected and communicating,” ZDNet, http://www.zdnet.com/the-internet-of-things-outlook-for-2014-everything-connected-and-communicating-7000024930. smart cities: Georgina Stylianou (29 Apr 2013), “Idea to have sensors track everything in city,” Press (Christchurch), http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/business/the-rebuild/8606956/Idea-to-have-sensors-track-everything-in-city. Victoria Turk (Jul 2013), “City sensors: the Internet of Things is taking over our cities,” Wired, http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/07/everything-is-connected/city-sensors.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, G4S, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

BOULDER AS A LABORATORY Boulder is a small city; as of 2012, there are less than 100,000 actual residents with 250,000 people in the extended metro area, which includes the neighboring towns of Superior, Broomfield, Lafayette, Longmont, and Lyons. Boulder is small enough that you can get your mind around the whole place but big enough to be interesting. As a result, I’ve come to think of Boulder as my laboratory for thinking about startup communities. Boulder is a smart city. The University of Colorado Boulder is located right in the middle of town, and students, faculty, and staff comprise about 30 percent of the population of Boulder. The presence of several national research labs, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) add nicely to the number of PhDs around.


The Non-Tinfoil Guide to EMFs by Nicolas Pineault

Albert Einstein, en.wikipedia.org, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter

The worst part is how crushingly powerless he’ll probably feel while adding “EMFs” to the laundry list of concerns we’re all constantly bombarded with these days — wars, politics, terrorism, GMOs, toxic chemicals, global pollution, and inequalities of all kinds. At this point, I’ll see that he’s clearly had enough doom and gloom for today — and won’t even talk about the fact that things will likely get way worse in the next few years. © 2017 N&G Media Inc. 195 I won’t even tell him that while the imminent rollout of the next-generation 5G cellular network will enable incredible technological advances like self-driving cars,526 smart cities filled with billions of sensors forming what’s called “The Internet Of Things” (IoT)527 and make clean energy cheaper than coal528 — it’s also going to increase the levels of EMF radiation we’re exposed to by orders of magnitude.529 I won’t tell him that while users will be busy enjoying the incredible download speeds 5G will bring to the table (up to 50X faster than the current 4G/LTE), and while the industry will make trillions in profits, 5G technology will also require installing millions of new cellular antennas — possibly one at every street corner,530 and on most traffic light poles.531 And I won’t even tell him that most people working for any industry closely benefiting from a quick rollout of 5G will likely send me hate mail for having the insolence to “slow down human progress”, and accuse me of being a quack — staying completely blind even when faced with the almost-overwhelming scientific evidence showing that non-ionizing radiation is making people sick.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The meta-data about your product will be as detailed as the product itself.206 Logistics firms have long used scanners to track goods through the distribution chain, with a high degree of success. That same level of knowledge is slowly percolating through public sector transport organizations. We no longer lump like things together without knowing where they came from, where they are going or who bought them. Under monikers such as 'smart cities' and 'civic hacking', the use of centrally available data has made inroads into the urban policy sphere, moving from an e-government tool that aimed to increase public sector transparency into new forms of public-private partnerships or urban laboratories that vest analysis and problem-solving in formal or informal institutional arrangements outside of city agencies.207 For many mobility options,208 we now have instantaneous knowledge of how soon a taxi or ridesharing service will provide a pick up.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

It is rather obvious that an energy policy should embrace a sector of energy consumption (transport) that is responsible for 22% of total energy use and that the opportunities offered by spatial planning and accessibility planning to reduce energy consumption as shown in the above table should be fully developed and implemented. This possibility is referred to in the European Commission (2013b, page 80) document: “The key challenges for Smart Cities and Communities are to significantly increase the overall energy efficiency of cities, to exploit better the local resource both in terms of energy supply as well as through the demand side measures.” Sadly, the enormous potential for transport policy, spatial planning and modal shift to increase energy efficiency of cities is absent in the energy policy R&D document. It is remarkable that energy policy does not embrace transport issues in this way and does not embrace urban density and accessibility measures.


pages: 288 words: 64,771

The Captured Economy: How the Powerful Enrich Themselves, Slow Down Growth, and Increase Inequality by Brink Lindsey

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Build a better mousetrap, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, inventory management, invisible hand, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, patent troll, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, software patent, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Washington Consensus, white picket fence, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

Rather, the cities that now feature big wage premiums, and which therefore should attract big influxes of new workers, are human capital hubs, urban areas with large numbers of college graduates. Unfortunately, these very same cities have led the way in constraining housing growth with ever more restrictive land-use regulation. Since the 1970s, college graduates have increasingly tended to congregate in particular urban areas—namely, those that started out with initially high shares of college grads. In other words, education levels in American cities have diverged over time. The smart cities get smarter while other cities fall farther and farther behind. To illustrate this phenomenon, Enrico Moretti of the University of California, Berkeley, cites the examples of Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Seattle, Washington. As it just so happens, the former metro area is where Microsoft was founded in 1975, while the latter has been the company’s headquarters since 1979 (when Bill Gates and Paul Allen made the fateful decision to move back to their hometown).


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

IBM and Nuance Communications Inc. are partnering for the research project to develop a commercial product during the next 18 to 24 months that will exploit Watson’s capabilities as a clinical decision support system to aid the diagnosis and treatment of patients.86 Recall the example of automated radiologists we mentioned earlier. Watson could be fully capable of performing this task if there was ever the intention of doing so, and even then we would be using only a tiny fraction of its immense power. This is just the beginning. Watson-like technologies could be used for virtually anything: legal advice, city planning (IBM and Cisco are already working on smart cities),87 and why not policy-making?88 The Internet of Things is coming, and we had better be ready. Technology is becoming so cheap and so powerful it will be integrated into everyday objects, which will help us make better decisions. With all objects in the world equipped with minuscule identifying devices, daily life on Earth would undergo a transformation.89 Companies would not run out of stock or waste products, as involved parties would know which products are required and consumed.90 Mislaid and stolen items would be easily tracked and located, as would the people who use them.


Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity by Brian Hare, Vanessa Woods

Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Law of Accelerating Returns, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, out of africa, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, smart cities, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, white flight, zero-sum game

With technology flooding every facet of our lives, it is natural to assume that new technologies will be running our societies even better in the near future. The Millennium Project75 is a think tank that ranks the fifteen biggest global challenges every year. For almost every challenge, the Millennium Project proposes solutions involving technology. Climate change causing havoc? Switch to renewable energy and retrofit fossil fuel plants to reuse CO2. Overpopulation bursting the earth at the seams? Build eco-smart cities, grow steak in a petri dish from stem cells, and genetically engineer high-yield drought-resistant crops. Need to make education universal? Develop scalable software for children anywhere in the world to teach themselves reading, writing, and math online in eighteen months flat.76 But as Tim Cook, the CEO of Apple, said, “technology alone isn’t the solution. And sometimes it’s even part of the problem.”


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

They are also portable tools that can turn AI into IA in remarkable new ways so that so many more people, no matter how educated or dexterous, can live above the average adaptability line—and even thrive there. Consider what it is to be a janitor today at the Qualcomm campus in San Diego. Hint: thanks to intelligent assistants, it’s become a knowledge worker job. Ashok Tipirneni, director of product management for Qualcomm’s Smart Cities project, explained to me why: Qualcomm has created a business in showing companies how they can retrofit wireless sensors to every part of their buildings in order to generate a real-time, nonstop sort of EKG or MRI of what is going on deep inside every one of their buildings’ systems. To create a demonstration model, Tipirneni started with six buildings at Qualcomm’s Pacific Center Campus in San Diego, which included parking garages, office spaces, and food courts; the area was about a million square feet in total and used by about 3,200 people.

.; Armed Services Committee of Senegal sensors; in consumer electronics; in dairy farming; definition of; locomotives and September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Serious Man, A (film) Serra Cafema Camp, Namibia Sevareid, Eric sexism Shankar, Sadasivan Sharef, Eleonora sharing economy, trust and Sharon, Ariel Shehata, Zyad Shimizu, Diana Showtime Silver Shirts Sims, Zach Singapore Singh, Prabhjot Sirosh, Joseph skill sets: basic; college degrees and; intelligent assistance and; intelligent assistants and; social; workforce and Skype Slack (messaging app) Sleiman, Ghada Smart Cities project smart machines smartphones Smith, Lee “SMOP” problems social capital, trust as social media; constructive vs. destructive aspects; flow of information on; see also specific platforms social safety net, portability of Social Security social skills social technologies; in age of accelerations; global flows and; innovation in; technological change and; trust and software; APIs and; function of; networking and; open-source, see open-source software software innovation: big data and; collaboration and; computer memory and; integrated circuits and; Microsoft and; Moore’s law and solar energy Solidarity movement Soloway, Jill Solyndra Somalis: in Minnesota; as pirates Somé, Batamaka “Someone Like You” (song) Sony SourceForge South Africa South Carolina South China Sea Southeast Asia South Korea South Vietnam Soviet Union; collapse of space race Spano, Jake Spengler, Oswald spoofing spread spectrum stability, stasis vs.


pages: 230 words: 71,834

Building the Cycling City: The Dutch Blueprint for Urban Vitality by Melissa Bruntlett, Chris Bruntlett

active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, car-free, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, intermodal, Jones Act, Loma Prieta earthquake, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, starchitect, the built environment, the High Line, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

While Dierenfield and her team were not allowed to participate directly in the election campaign, the benefits were well documented in the adopted plan, the news of which advocates were more than happy to spread far and wide. To complement their efforts, Austin mayor Steve Adler declared 2016 the “Year of Mobility,” and in the spring, he participated in a study tour of the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway. Funded by the US Department of Transportation’s “Smart City Challenge,” Adler was joined by Austin’s transportation director Robert Spillar and US transportation secretary Anthony Foxx, who were photographed pedaling e-bikes on the streets of Amsterdam. “Most people aren’t going to get out of their cars anytime soon in Austin,” Adler reflected in a blog post. “But no significant number will ever be ready to get out of their cars unless or until there are alternatives.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Too many cities still think that economic development can occur in a vacuum of golf and giveaways, ignoring the fact that such victories are increasingly rare and don’t always last. After all, the corporation that dumps Philly for Indy thanks to a 5 percent tax cut will happily run off to Cincy for 7.5—and perhaps to Tijuana soon thereafter. Cities whose economic-development strategy is a corporate-capture strategy are typically those whose economic development director and planning director don’t talk to each other. The smart cities, like Lowell, hire a director of planning and development, who is first charged with creating a city where people want to be. Rather than trying to land new office tenants in a shrinking office market, this person understands that future economic growth will take place where the creative people are, and then works to lure more residents downtown. As Adam Baacke suggested, this strategy means building more market-rate housing while also promoting those things that residents want and need: parks and playgrounds, supermarkets and farmers’ markets, cafés and restaurants—and, eventually, good schools—all embraced in a framework of top-notch walkability.


pages: 472 words: 80,835

Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

But in an early example of political lobbying, representatives of motoring interests held most of the leading positions on the committees that worked out the new principles of traffic and determined what would become the new normal for our streets. The Car and Urban Development “I believe mayors, planners and developers have done untold damage to cities in the name of private automobiles that we’ll still be grappling with a century from now” Anthony Townsend, Author, Smart Cities[24] By 2020, the UN estimates that 82.5 percent of Americans will live in urban areas.[25] But the human migration to being a predominantly urban species is a relatively recent phenomenon. The cities of today are a far cry from those that first greeted the car. Cities then were much smaller, largely constrained by available modes of transport - horses and walking. Originally, towns and cities were constrained by how far you could walk in about an hour a day.


pages: 312 words: 84,421

This Chair Rocks: A Manifiesto Against Ageism by Ashton Applewhite

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Downton Abbey, fixed income, follow your passion, ghettoisation, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, obamacare, old age dependency ratio, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning, white picket fence, women in the workforce

Most of the occupations that employ large number of workers—jobs in transportation, retail sales, and management, for example—are easy targets for automation. Millions of people will join olders in becoming unemployable through no fault of their own. Where will the money come from to buy goods and services that are no longer produced by human labor? We need to think now about how to avert a dystopian future and develop new banking and barter systems, “smart cities,” sustainable ecosystems, and solutions that work for all of humanity. Incorporating a third generation, and even a fourth one, into the workforce is only one component of solving this problem. It’s going to require all hands on deck. CHAPTER SEVEN LONG LIFE IS A TEAM SPORT – THE INDEPENDENCE TRAP My best friend, Virginia, has two daughters. She also has siblings and a huge network of loyal friends.


pages: 302 words: 84,881

The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo

Airbnb, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, centre right, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, gig economy, industrial robot, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, post-industrial society, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, software studies, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, WikiLeaks

In their techno-optimistic vision, Pirate Parties have often argued for a rapid diffusion of technological innovations, reforming antiquated laws on copyright and patents, providing people with free internet connection and facilitating a transformation of society with the support of digital tools. This techno-optimism is also visible in the Five Star Movement. One of the highlights of the M5S 2018 election campaign was the promise of making Italy a ‘Smart Nation’, an adaptation of the famous notion of smart cities. In this vision, Italy, one of the most technologically underdeveloped countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) group, will eventually shake years of inaction and sclerotisation and become attractive to digital companies of all sorts. Although not as techno-optimistic as the Pirates and the Five Star Movement, Podemos has also taken a quite positive stance on the promise of technology especially in regards to renewable energy.


pages: 292 words: 92,588

The Water Will Come: Rising Seas, Sinking Cities, and the Remaking of the Civilized World by Jeff Goodell

Airbnb, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, creative destruction, desegregation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, fixed income, Frank Gehry, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, Murano, Venice glass, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, urban planning, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

It will be shaped by decisions we made yesterday and will make tomorrow. For people who live in coastal cities, dealing with sea-level rise will require a lot of difficult choices, including in which neighborhoods to invest in new infrastructure, where to build seawalls, which historic structures to save and which to let go (“You can only save so many lighthouses,” Lisa Craig, the chief of historic preservation in Annapolis, Maryland, told me). Smart cities will develop master plans, articulate long-term strategic visions, revise zoning ordinances, pass tax incentives to shift development to higher ground. But that’s just a start. Of all the hard decisions people who live on vulnerable coasts will have to face, the most difficult one is the idea of retreat. Retreat, after all, is what you do if you’re standing on the beach and the tide comes up too fast.


There Is No Planet B: A Handbook for the Make or Break Years by Mike Berners-Lee

air freight, autonomous vehicles, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, food miles, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Hans Rosling, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, neoliberal agenda, off grid, performance metric, profit motive, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban planning

A few pages back we learned that a piece of land with solar panels on it can power an electric bike about 200 times further than the same land used to grow food for a conventional cyclist. Sad but true. Happily, there is room for both. E-bikes make practical a whole new range of low carbon journeys that are not possible on a conventional bike. They stand to relieve congestion, pollution and noise, and use radically less energy than all the fourwheel alternatives. They are, for example, a massive opportunity for smart city businesses. Having a fleet of these will help your staff turn up to meetings on time, uncrumpled, sweat free, and probably happier, whilst you save money on the side. One note of caution, however. There will need to be a new level of attention turned to cycle safety. At the high powered end of the scale, an e-bike could be as fast and dangerous as a motorbike, as well as harder for pedestrians to hear coming.


pages: 293 words: 90,714

Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

By and large, it was a much more organic process. Engineering responded to the immediate needs of the people who were living there and worked in tandem with them. Necessity was the mother of invention, as it should be. Although no longer, it would seem. We live in an overly tech-horny world where we invent things because we can, not because we actually need them. No one has been able to explain to me what the phrase “smart cities” is supposed to mean. Believe me, I have asked. It’s a fancy, seductive catchphrase but one without any specific definition. In order to plan for our urban future, we need to look closely at our urban past. A few years ago I was watching Back to the Future with my son, who was nine at the time. The film ended and he asked me what year it was made in. I told him it was 1985. He laughed. “So Doc went 30 years into the future … that’s like … NOW!


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

On social media, we think the future will be about integrating Big Data on your CRM to increase the knowledge of your customers and provide a more personalised experience. This Big Data will come from different sources: conversations on social networks, credit card transactions, social reputations like Klout, etc. Another trend will be the evolution of loyalty programs based on mobile, location and gamification, like the foursquare of banking. For the long term, the concept of smart cities and the internet of things will allow us to attach financial services everywhere, because everything will be connected in all metropolitan areas, making transactions easier for customers, merchants and city services. About Pol Navarro Pol Navarro is a highly qualified digital business, customer service and ecommerce strategist, and recognized thought leader, speaking internationally on several Banking, Mobile and Internet conferences.


pages: 305 words: 98,072

How to Own the World: A Plain English Guide to Thinking Globally and Investing Wisely by Andrew Craig

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, bonus culture, BRICs, business cycle, collaborative consumption, diversification, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, index fund, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, mortgage debt, negative equity, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, passive income, pensions crisis, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stocks for the long run, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

This means that there are relatively few who are able, or even inclined, to see the big picture – and it is truly the big picture that you need for consistent investment success. Many investment professionals are just like doctors who tell you how bad drinking and smoking are and then nip to the pub for several drinks and a few cigarettes at the end of their day. Over the years, I have lost count of the number of smart City folk I know who have all their money in the one asset class they know about, with the result that they are heavily punished during any bad year for that asset class. At the risk of being a little on the repetitive side, I must reiterate that one of the most successful investing strategies over many years is being properly diversified. This means that you should ensure you own a wide variety of assets rather than just shares or just property, for instance.


pages: 571 words: 105,054

Advances in Financial Machine Learning by Marcos Lopez de Prado

algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, backtesting, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, Flash crash, G4S, implied volatility, information asymmetry, latency arbitrage, margin call, market fragmentation, market microstructure, martingale, NP-complete, P = NP, p-value, paper trading, pattern recognition, performance metric, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, selection bias, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart meter, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stochastic process, survivorship bias, transaction costs, traveling salesman

Computing and Software for Big Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 1. Jackson, K. R., et al. (2010): “Performance analysis of high performance computing applications on the Amazon Web Services Cloud. Cloud Computing Technology and Science (CloudCom). 2010 Second International Conference. IEEE. Kim, T. et al. (2015): “Extracting baseline electricity usage using gradient tree boosting.” IEEE International Conference on Smart City/SocialCom/SustainCom (SmartCity). IEEE. Kumar, V. et al. (1994): Introduction to Parallel Computing: Design and Analysis of Algorithms. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company. Liu, Q. et al., (2014): “Hello ADIOS: The challenges and lessons of developing leadership class I/O frameworks.” Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, Volume 26, No. 7, pp. 1453–1473. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (2016): Future Directions for NSF Advanced Computing Infrastructure to Support U.S.


pages: 371 words: 98,534

Red Flags: Why Xi's China Is in Jeopardy by George Magnus

3D printing, 9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Malacca Straits, means of production, megacity, money market fund, moral hazard, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, old age dependency ratio, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, speech recognition, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade route, urban planning, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

In telecommunications, Huawei has earned its spurs as a global player. Several other companies are well known internationally, such as ZTE, which is also in telecommunications, and China Telecom, China Unicom, and China Mobile in broadband and communications. Xiaomi, which designs and sells smartphones, mobile apps and laptops is a global top five company in smartphones. Alibaba, the e-commerce giant, has a cloud subsidiary that is working on smart cities. Tencent and Baidu, which are internet services companies, are exploring medical imaging and facial recognition, and autonomous vehicles, respectively. Lenovo computers, Air China, and Moutai, the beverage company, also exemplify Chinese companies that got big in China and turned their attention to foreign markets. A strong domestic focus and large home-market size have certainly helped these and other companies, and there’s no question that they have excelled in more efficient production and in adapting imported technologies and products to local consumer tastes.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Things like knowing exactly when the train will come, being able to go online instead of standing in line to access a government service, and being able to provide real-time feedback that informs how and when city services are delivered. The capability for doing this skews toward very large cities and increasingly involves big data, according to Stephen Goldsmith, a professor and director of the Innovations in American Government Program at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. He directs Data-Smart City Solutions, a project “focused on government efforts to use and blend new technologies, big data analytics and community input.” As cities get tech savvy, this effectively means that global centers with lots of money and the capabilities Goldsmith describes (like New York City, Dubai, London, San Francisco, Tokyo, and Seoul) are those likely to build big data applications that are highly appealing to citizens, and this attracts the “next economy” class.


pages: 431 words: 107,868

The Great Race: The Global Quest for the Car of the Future by Levi Tillemann

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, car-free, carbon footprint, cleantech, creative destruction, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demand response, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, factory automation, global value chain, hydrogen economy, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, market design, megacity, Nixon shock, obamacare, oil shock, Ralph Nader, RFID, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Unsafe at Any Speed, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Indeed, the lines between automotive engineering and automotive fantasy are beginning to blur. Breakthroughs in sensor technology, computer processing power, batteries, chemistry, and elsewhere have laid the groundwork for a future of cars that are smaller, faster, safer, cleaner, and dramatically more efficient; a future not only of electric vehicles, but one that is strikingly reminiscent of the GM-SAIC vision of 2030 at the Shanghai Expo in 2010 (see chapter 1). Clean, smart cities will be navigated by autonomous electric vehicles that zip to and fro while occupants spend their time as they please. It is a future where the blind will drive, mobile offices will become a part of our daily lives, and the concept of a commute will change fundamentally. There are a number of key technological and social signposts that provide clues to how this system is likely to evolve. Most important among these are changes in fuel economy regulations, electrification, new car ownership models, and the rise of autonomous vehicles.


pages: 410 words: 106,931

Age of Anger: A History of the Present by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, informal economy, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, Republic of Letters, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Rather, Xi Jinping, Modi, Putin and Erdogan retrofit old-style nationalism for their growing populations of uprooted citizens, who, like the Germans and Italians of the nineteenth century, have unfocused and often self-contradictory yearnings for belonging, identity and community, as well as for individual autonomy, material affluence and national power. The demagogues promise security in a radically insecure world. And so their self-legitimizing narratives are unavoidably hybrid: Mao-plus-Confucius, Holy Cow-plus-Smart Cities, Putinism-plus-Orthodox Christianity, Neo-liberalism-plus-Islam. * * * ISIS, too, offers a postmodern collage rather than a coherent doctrine. Born from the ruins of two nation states that dissolved in sectarian violence, it is a beneficiary, along with mafia groups, human traffickers and drug lords, of the failure of governments to fulfil their basic roles: to create or maintain a stable political order, protect their citizens from external turbulence, including unruly economic and migratory flows as well as foreign invaders, and maintain a monopoly on violence.


pages: 416 words: 112,268

Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control by Stuart Russell

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Alfred Russel Wallace, Andrew Wiles, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, blockchain, brain emulation, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, Gerolamo Cardano, ImageNet competition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the wheel, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, positional goods, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, Thales of Miletus, The Future of Employment, Thomas Bayes, Thorstein Veblen, transport as a service, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, zero-sum game

With the possibility of sensing on a global scale comes the possibility of decision making on a global scale. For example, from global satellite data feeds, it should be possible to create detailed models for managing the global environment, predicting the effects of environmental and economic interventions, and providing the necessary analytical inputs to the UN’s sustainable development goals.26 We are already seeing “smart city” control systems that aim to optimize traffic management, transit, trash collection, road repairs, environmental maintenance, and other functions for the benefit of citizens, and these may be extended to the country level. Until recently, this degree of coordination could be achieved only by huge, inefficient, bureaucratic hierarchies of humans; inevitably, these will be replaced by mega-agents that take care of more and more aspects of our collective lives.


pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

activist lawyer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate raider, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, undersea cable, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

The Wall Street Journal found forty-five private equity groups wanting to spend over $2 billion in African agriculture in 2010, with London their biggest center of operations. Or rather London and the cloud of tax havens that the last vestiges of the British Empire have bequeathed to the world: the Cayman Islands, British Virgin Islands, Isle of Man, and Channel Islands. I continued my tour of London’s land investors in a mews side street behind the rugby stadium in Twickenham, where I met the “Togo boys.” A group of smart city slickers with nice cars and stubbly chins got lucky with the West African government of tiny Togo. Togo is a generally peaceful country with what looks like elective dynastic rule. When Gnassingbe Eyadema, the victor in a 1960s military coup, died in 2005 after thirty-eight years in the job, his subjects were controversially declared to have elected his son to replace him. The Eyadema clan subsequently gave Philip Peters and Lawrie Smith a ninety-nine-year lease on 6,700 acres of farmland near the town of Agbélouvé, an hour’s drive north of the capital, Lomé.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Early pioneers include AXIOM, the open-source video camera for film makers, made by Apertuso (the ‘O’ stands for ‘open’), which uses standardised components so it can be customised, reassembled, and continually reinvented by its user community.40 Look, too, at the fast-evolving OSVehicle – the open-source future of 100% electric cars – whose parts can be quickly assembled to make an airport buggy, a golf cart, or even a smart city car.41 The OSVehicle was developed in Silicon Valley but open-source circular manufacturing is thriving in far more surprising places too. In the Togolese capital of Lomé, architect Sénamé Agbodjinou and colleagues set up Woelab in 2012, a ‘low-high tech’ workshop making its own design of open-source 3D printers using the component parts of defunct computers, printers and scanners that have been dumped in West Africa.


pages: 458 words: 112,885

The Prodigal Tongue: The Love-Hate Relationship Between American and British English by Lynne Murphy

airport security, British Empire, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, joint-stock company, moral panic, pre–internet, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, young professional

Fall foliage is worth billions to New England’s economy. 2014 (Oct 20). Mashable (Associated Press). http://mashable.com/2014/10/20/fall-foliage-tourism/#GLeFVb6vDqq7 [April 18, 2017]. 16. Spring forward, fall back. The Phrase Finder. http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/spring-forward-fall-back.html [April 18, 2017]. 17. The Druid 1781, reprinted in Witherspoon 1802, p. 463. 18. In Freeman 2009, p. 121. 19. Sante, Luc. 1995 (Jan 30). Smart city. New York Magazine, 34–7, p. 34. 20. The Economist 2010, p. 130. 21. In Kemble 1890. 22. It’s possible that the ‘heed’ sense of mind survives in the US because waves of Irish immigration brought people who still used it. But if that were the case, we’d expect it to be much more prevalent in the areas of the US with heavy Irish immigration, such as the Northeast. That doesn’t seem to be the case. 23.


pages: 409 words: 112,055

The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

,” Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Scams and Frauds, accessed on January 15, 2019, www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/scams-fraudes/ransomware-rancongiciels-eng.htm#fn1. The two Iranians wrote: “SamSam Subjects,” wanted poster, Federal Bureau of Investigation, accessed on January 15, 2019, www.fbi.gov/wanted/cyber/samsam-subjects. declined to pay the fifty-thousand-dollar demand: Chris Teale, “Atlanta Mayor Says Cyberattack Came as ‘Surprise’ to City, Residents,” Smart Cities Dive, May 11, 2018, www.smartcitiesdive.com/news/atlanta-cyberattack-surprise-Keisha-Lance-Bottoms/523323. Chapter 8: Is It Really You? “rely less and less on passwords”: Munir Kotadia, “Gates Predicts Death of the Password,” CNET, February 25, 2004, www.cnet.com/news/gates-predicts-death-of-the-password. President Bush signed: Homeland Security Presidential Directive 12: Policy for a Common Identification Standard for Federal Employees and Contractors, White House, August 27, 2004, www.dhs.gov/homeland-security-presidential-directive-12.


pages: 381 words: 120,361

Sunfall by Jim Al-Khalili

airport security, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Carrington event, cosmological constant, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Attenborough, Fellow of the Royal Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, MITM: man-in-the-middle, off grid, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Turing test

It had begun with home and office appliances linked wirelessly to handheld devices, but eventually everything was networked; sensors, cameras, embedded nano servers and energy harvesters were all ubiquitous and built into the infrastructure of the modern world, from buildings and transport to clothing and household items. Eventually world governments and multinationals woke up to the desperate need for advanced cybersecurity systems, but not before the anonymous hacking of international cryptocurrency banking had brought the world markets crashing down in 2028, followed by the devastating cyberattack six months later on the AI system controlling London, one of the world’s first ‘smart cities’. That onslaught had infected many of the algorithms controlling the city’s transport, commerce and environmental infrastructures, sending ten million people back into the Stone Age for three weeks. These events prompted action and led to the development of the Sentinels, cybersecurity artificial intelligences that would continuously patrol the Cloud, hunting for anomalies, viruses and leaks.


pages: 478 words: 146,480

Pirate Cinema by Cory Doctorow

airport security, citation needed, Internet Archive, place-making, QR code, smart cities, Thomas Bayes

"Hullo, chicken," he said in his bravest voice, but I could hear the edge in it. Jem was tired, and hurting. "Jem! Where are you? Do you need me to come and get you?" "They just sprung us. Sounds like your girlfriend's old man impressed the magistrate. After her hearing, the old darling started to ask the law some tough questions about just why we were being held. There was a fixer from the film industry there, some smart city boy lawyer, kept trying to say something, but the magistrate told him to sit down or he'd have him chucked out of the court. So we're sprung. Only one problem, son, Rabid Dog --" He breathed a deep breath, and I heard a ragged edge in it. "He's not in such good shape. I don't have money for a taxi, and I don't reckon Chester and me can get him home on our own on the bus." I squeezed my eyes shut as hard as I could and counted under my breath.


pages: 442 words: 130,526

The Billionaire Raj: A Journey Through India's New Gilded Age by James Crabtree

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, business climate, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism, young professional

India’s historically rocky finances have turned stable, while its haywire inflation has gradually fallen. Power cuts have grown rarer, foreign investment rules have been liberalized, and a few costly subsidy programs have been trimmed back. The prime minister has proved especially indefatigable in the production of initiatives: Swachh Bharat, to clean streets and build indoor toilets; “Digital India,” to boost online access; and “Skill India,” to train workers. There are to be a hundred “smart cities,” and a new $3 billion scheme to cleanse the sacred but filthy river Ganges. Most important is “Make in India,” a flashy program aiming to jump-start India’s struggling export sector by courting multinationals and fixing rules that have made it hard to run factories. A long-awaited national sales tax, the GST, has been brought in too, part of an effort to turn India into a single subcontinental economy, rather than a collection of twenty-nine separate states.


Mastering Blockchain, Second Edition by Imran Bashir

3D printing, altcoin, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, connected car, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, Debian, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, full stack developer, general-purpose programming language, gravity well, interest rate swap, Internet of things, litecoin, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, Network effects, new economy, node package manager, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, prediction markets, QR code, RAND corporation, Real Time Gross Settlement, reversible computing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, single page application, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, web application, x509 certificate

IoT can be defined as a network of computationally intelligent physical objects (any object such as cars, fridges, industrial sensors, and so on) that are capable of connecting to the internet, sensing real-world events or environments, reacting to those events, collecting relevant data, and communicating it over the internet. This simple definition has enormous implications and has led to exciting concepts, such as wearables, smart homes, smart grids, smart connected cars, and smart cities, that are all based on this basic concept of an IoT device. After dissecting the definition of IoT, four functions come to light as being performed by an IoT device. These include sensing, reacting, collecting, and communicating. All these functions are performed by using various components on the IoT device. Sensing is performed by sensors. Reacting or controlling is performed by actuators, the collection is a function of various sensors, and communication is performed by chips that provide network connectivity.


India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Induced demand, inflation targeting, invisible hand, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, obamacare, Pareto efficiency, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, school choice, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban sprawl, working-age population

It is especially prevalent in the issue of permits at the retail level, the diversion of funds from the government’s transfer programmes, and ‘theft of time’ by government functionaries who are absent when they should be working. Reducing petty corruption will require various methods, including the use of technologies of e-​governance. 48. See The Economist (2015). Examples of completely unrealistic targets are: Clean the river Ganges by 2019; eradicate tuberculosis and measles by 2020; build a hundred ‘smart cities’ by 2020; train 500 million people by 2022; roll out broadband in over 600,000 villages by 2017. 49. For a useful commentary on ‘Make in India’, see Sharma (2015). 50. These are very approximate numbers. See Birdsall (2015), Ninan (2015), and Pew Research Centre (2015). 51. See Kapur and Vaishnav (2014b). 52. The effect of the award of the 14th Finance Commission was to increase untied tax devolution from the centre to the states in 2015/​16 by approximately 1 per cent of GDP, and untied transfers by 0.1 per cent of GDP, but to reduce tied transfers (centrally sponsored schemes) by 0.6 per cent of GDP.


pages: 467 words: 149,632

If Then: How Simulmatics Corporation Invented the Future by Jill Lepore

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, anti-communist, Buckminster Fuller, computer age, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, game design, George Gilder, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, index card, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, job automation, land reform, linear programming, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, Peter Thiel, profit motive, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

The real problem, he pointed out, was that no one was really doing what needed to be done to prevent riots, by addressing the problems that led to them.37 “I am not going to predict rioting here,” Martin Luther King Jr. told the press in Cleveland in June 1967. “This will be determined by the progress and responsiveness by those in positions of leadership.”38 But the fantasy of computer-aided riot prediction endured, as widely and passionately held as the twenty-first century’s fantasy that all urban problems can be solved by “smart cities,” and “predictive policing,” and that ongoing civil unrest and racial inequality and police brutality can be addressed by more cameras, more data, and more computers, and, above all, by predictive, what-if algorithms. The study Simulmatics conducted for the Kerner Commission consisted of two parts. Both parts borrowed from methods Simulmatics had used in Vietnam. One part, headed by Chaneles, involved sending three-man teams to interview “ghetto residents” in seven cities: Tampa, Atlanta, Newark, Detroit, New Haven, Cincinnati, and Milwaukee.


The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

It is striking, too, that hydrogen does not seem to involve geopolitical issues. It is either a tool for countries to meet ambitious decarbonization goals or an opportunity for export, becoming a globally-traded commodity. Advanced manufacturing, including 3D printing, could have a major impact on energy use by reducing transportation costs. New technologies for buildings could make them much more energy efficient. Electric grid modernization and smart cities could apply digital technologies, increase resilience, and create two-way flows between energy suppliers and customers. Of critical importance will be large-scale management of carbon itself. Some dismiss carbon capture because they want a world in which there are no carbon emissions from human activity. But that seems quite unrealistic given what is necessary to get to a “net zero carbon” world.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

“New Frontiers.” Economist, January 11, 2014. “The New Masters and Commanders.” Economist, June 8, 2013. “The Nuclear Deal’s Other Winner.” Economist, July 25, 2015. Rickards, James. Currency Wars: The Making of the Next Global Crisis. New York: Portfolio/Penguin, 2012. “Russia Equity Strategy—Discerning Russia’s Regional Potential.” Deutsche Bank Research, October 4, 2013. Shapiro, Jesse. “Smart Cities: Quality of Life, Productivity, and the Growth Effects of Human Capital.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 11615, September 2005. Sharma, Ruchir. “Europe’s Flying Geese.” Economic Times, November 19, 2007. “The Tricks of Trade: A Structural Change?” UBS Investment Research, November 13, 2013. Zakaria, Fareed. “America’s Prospects Are Promising Indeed.” Washington Post, November 20, 2014.


pages: 680 words: 157,865

Beautiful Architecture: Leading Thinkers Reveal the Hidden Beauty in Software Design by Diomidis Spinellis, Georgios Gousios

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, continuous integration, corporate governance, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, iterative process, linked data, locality of reference, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, smart cities, social graph, social web, SPARQL, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, web application, zero-coupon bond

He also received the ACM Software System Award and the Dahl-Nygaard Award for his work on object technology and Eiffel, and an honorary doctorate from the State Technical University of St. Petersburg. His research interests cover object technology, programming languages, and software verification, including test, concurrency, and formal methods. He is also an active consultant and lecturer. William J. Mitchell is Alexander Dreyfoos Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences at MIT, where he directs the Smart Cities group in the MIT Media Laboratory and the MIT Design Laboratory. He previously served as Dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at MIT. His recent books include World’s Greatest Architect and Imagining MIT (both MIT Press). Derek Murray is a Ph.D. student at the University of Cambridge’s Computer Laboratory. He joined the Xen project in 2006 and worked on improving Xen security by rearchitecting the control stack.


pages: 586 words: 186,548

Architects of Intelligence by Martin Ford

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flash crash, future of work, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, information retrieval, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working-age population,