9 dash line

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The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

At one point the Impeccable executed a direct stop to avoid a collision. South China Sea China is claiming most of the South China Sea with its Nine-Dash Line map, leading to tension with Southeast Asian countries and the United States. Two months later, in May 2009, in response to a dispute over the sea with Vietnam and Malaysia, China delivered a “Note Verbale” to the United Nations declaring its “indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea and the adjacent waters.” Of special significance in the note was a short parenthetical phrase that was anything but parenthetical in importance—“see attached map.” That was the 9-Dash Line map, based on Bai Meichu’s 1936 map—officially introduced as part of a legal document and a key moment in the “game of maps.” In June 2009, almost exactly a month later, a Chinese nuclear submarine collided with a sonar array being towed by the USS John S.

., Transforming Society: The Making of a Modern Academic Discipline in Twentieth Century China (Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong Press, 2011), pp. 310–17, 331–32 (more patriotic). 8. Tonnesson, “The South China Sea in the Age of European Decline,” p. 29. 9. Philip Short, Mao: A Life (New York: Henry Holt, 2000), pp. 418–420 (“stood up”); Zheng Wang, “The Nine-Dashed Line: ‘Engraved in our Hearts’,” The Diplomat, August 25, 2014. Chapter 19: The Three Questions 1. Position Paper of the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Matter of Jurisdiction in the South Sea Arbitration Initiated by the Republic of the Philippines, December 7, 2014. 2. Zhiguo Gao and Bing Bing Jia, “The Nine-Dash Line in the South China Sea: History, Status, and Implications,” American Journal of International Law 107, no. 1 (January 2013), p. 101; Bill Hayton, The South China Sea: The Struggle for Power in Asia (New Haven Yale University Press, 2014), pp. 24–26; Florian Dupuy and Pierre-Marie Dupuy, “A Legal Analysis of China’s Historic Rights Claim in the South China,” American Journal of International Law 107, no. 1 (January 2013), pp. 124, 136–41; Robert Beckman, “The UN Convention of the Law of the Sea and the Maritime Disputes in the South China Sea,” American Journal of International Law 107, no. 1 (January 2013), p. 143; U.S.

In 2012, 123 miles off the coast of the Philippines, China took control of the Scarborough Shoal (named for an unfortunate British tea clipper shipwrecked there in 1784) and closed it off to Philippine ships. The Philippines hardly had any military of its own with which to respond. So it used the only weapon available to it—the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea. It brought a case challenging the 9-Dash Line to an international tribunal established in The Hague. Vietnam associated itself with the claim. In 2016, the tribunal delivered its verdict—wholly in the Philippines’ favor. It rejected the legal and historic claims of the 9-Dash Line. China denounced the decision and made clear that it it would not recognize it, let alone abide by it or the Philippines’ “illegal claims.” The decision changed nothing.6 At this point, there seems to be no definitive means to resolve the differences among the different countries.


pages: 535 words: 151,217

Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment

Yet in the South China Sea (one and a half million square miles of shipping lanes and oil and gas fields and untold seafloor mining possibilities), more than mere rhetoric is being employed, and a flash point is being born, a danger to all. For at the heart of the new South China Sea problem is another demarcation zone made up of scores of tiny islands that constitute what since 1947 has been known to the Chinese as, somewhat bizarrely, the Nine-Dash Line. The outside world each year sends thousands of its cargo vessels and oil tankers through the crowded shipping lanes here. But Beijing says this territory belongs to China, and its leaders are taking extraordinary and dangerous-looking steps to make sure this is so. If a flash point is in the process of being made, then its axis is the Nine-Dash Line.5 This dashed, or dotted, line was first drawn onto maps in 1947, by officials of what was then the Chinese Nationalist government, the Kuomintang. The intention was to show the world that, under the terms of the Cairo and Potsdam declarations, China was taking charge of those islands in the South China Sea that were once seized by Japan and had now been surrendered.

(There were eleven dashes on the original map, with two more drawn in the gulf between Hainan and Vietnam; these two were later erased.) Informal though that first Kuomintang map may have been, its boundaries were immediately adopted by the Communist government when the People’s Republic was declared in 1949. The Nine-Dash Line became, by the stated policy of the Politburo, the outer limit of Chinese sovereignty, and it has remained so through successive Beijing regimes, no matter what others might say. The Nine-Dash Line, drawn by China as a series of penciled lines on a postwar map of the South China Sea, showed the area of ocean still claimed by the Chinese as their own. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy insists it can act with impunity within the line; others, the United States included, dispute the claim, hotly.* [UNCLOS and CIA.]

MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS Map of the Pacific—Political The plutonium bomb Helen of Bikini Alvin Graves Masaru Ibuka Movie poster for Gidget Duke Kahanamoku Hobart Alter Colonel Charles Bonesteel III The USS Pueblo The Pueblo’s surviving crewmen, led by Captain Lloyd Bucher Youngsters’ performance in North Korea The RMS Queen Elizabeth, in her heyday The RMS Queen Elizabeth, sabotaged in Hong Kong Helicopter during the evacuation of Saigon Hong Kong’s “retrocession” Destruction by Cyclone Tracy in the city of Darwin Typhoon Haiyan Sir Gilbert Walker Map of the Pacific—Physical The El Niño Phenomenon Gough Whitlam Jørn Utzon Alvin The tectonic architecture of the Pacific Ocean Black smokers Inhabitants of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef A Hawaiian feather cloak, an ahu’ula The short-tailed, or Steller’s, albatross “The Pacific Garbage Patch” The eruption of Mount Pinatubo The carrier USS Kitty Hawk and a Chinese Song-class diesel attack submarine Map of the Western Pacific: U.S. and Chinese Military The Nine-Dash Line Chinese constructions in the South China Sea The USNS Impeccable Admiral Liu Huaqing Andrew Marshall Hokule‘a PROLOGUE: THE LONELY SEA AND THE SKY Here from this mountain shore, headland beyond stormy headland plunging like dolphins through the blue sea-smoke Into pale sea—look west at the hill of water: it is half the planet . . . arched over to Asia, Australia and white Antarctica: those are the eyelids that never close; this is the staring unsleeping Eye of the earth; and what it watches is not our wars.


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

China has been in the process of establishing ‘facts on the ground’ – or, more accurately, ‘facts on reclaimed reefs’ – through the construction of airstrips, the provision of a mobile phone network and even the erection of a lighthouse. In July 2016, and following protests by the Philippines, the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague declared much of this unlawful. In the Tribunal’s words, there was ‘no legal basis for China to claim historic rights to resources, in excess of the rights provided for by the Convention, within the sea areas falling within the “nine-dash line” ’.13 It went on to say that China had ‘breached its obligations under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea’ and had ‘violated its obligations to refrain from aggravating or extending the Parties’ disputes during the pendency of the settlement process’.14 There were just two problems with the rulings: first, the Chinese simply refused to recognize the Court’s authority, and, second, following the election of Rodrigo Duterte as the sixteenth president of the Philippines, the former American colony suddenly chose to realign itself with China.

In the Tribunal’s words, there was ‘no legal basis for China to claim historic rights to resources, in excess of the rights provided for by the Convention, within the sea areas falling within the “nine-dash line” ’.13 It went on to say that China had ‘breached its obligations under the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea’ and had ‘violated its obligations to refrain from aggravating or extending the Parties’ disputes during the pendency of the settlement process’.14 There were just two problems with the rulings: first, the Chinese simply refused to recognize the Court’s authority, and, second, following the election of Rodrigo Duterte as the sixteenth president of the Philippines, the former American colony suddenly chose to realign itself with China. The icing on the cake – if that’s the right phrase – was Duterte’s decision to label Barack Obama the ‘son of a whore’, an accusation Duterte later stated ‘wasn’t personal’. Heading north along the nine-dash line, both China and Vietnam claim the Paracel Islands. China and the Philippines are in dispute over the Scarborough Shoal, largely because of its plentiful supply of fish. Both China and Taiwan claim sovereignty over the Pratas Islands (and China, meanwhile, sees Taiwan itself as Chinese). The Senkaku Islands – currently occupied by Japan, but, as the Diaoyu, regarded as sovereign territory by China – are another ‘hotspot’: their sovereignty ultimately rests on whether they were terra nullius (unoccupied and unclaimed territories) when the Japanese got their hands on them in 1895, or whether the Japanese occupied them only as a result of the spoils stemming from China’s submission following the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95.

He simply pointed out that if country A was absolutely better at producing goods X and Y than country B, but was relatively better than B at producing X than Y, it would make sense for country A to specialize in X, country B to specialize in Y and for the two countries to trade with each other: they would both be better off than before. 11.For a useful discussion of the economic effects of TPP, see P. Petri and M. Plummer, The Economic Effects of the Trans-Pacific Partnership: New estimates, Peterson Institute for International Economics Working Paper 16-2, Washington, DC, January 2016. 12.The US offers Trade Adjustment Assistance, but the jury is out regarding its effectiveness. 13.The nine-dash line was originally an eleven-dash line that first appeared on Taiwanese maps in 1947. The People’s Republic of China thereafter adopted a similar approach: both cases in effect make territorial claims on disputed parts of the South China Sea. 14.The press release accompanying the ruling can be found at https://pca-cpa.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/175/2016/07/PH-CN-20160712-Press-Release-No-11-English.pdf 15.Tibetans might well disagree, but while the Tibetan landmass is huge, it is sparsely populated: at the last count, there were around 3.2 million inhabitants, of whom 90 per cent were ethnically Tibetan.


pages: 371 words: 98,534

Red Flags: Why Xi's China Is in Jeopardy by George Magnus

3D printing, 9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Malacca Straits, means of production, megacity, money market fund, moral hazard, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, old age dependency ratio, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, speech recognition, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade route, urban planning, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

China wants to keep the US Pacific fleet as far away from China as possible with an immediate focus on the so-called ‘first island chain’, comprising islands off Russia’s peninsula of Kamchatka down past Japan to Taiwan, and then to the Philippines and Malay peninsula. Eventually, we might imagine, China could seek to extend its naval influence further and perhaps as far away as Indonesia or even Australia. It has already clashed with Japan over uninhabited but strategically placed islands it calls the Diaoyu but which Japan calls the Senkaku. It has also asserted sovereignty over the seas, islands, rocks and reefs that fall inside the so-called Nine-Dash Line in a questionable Chinese map of the South China Sea. China claims historical rights over the entire area bounded by this line, which looks like a giant U-shape, starting off the coast of Vietnam and running all the way down to Malaysia, where it turns north, passes Brunei and goes up to the northernmost part of the Philippines. Since 2014, substantial dredging projects have been undertaken to reclaim land on around a half-dozen or so reefs and turn them into sea-based runways, ports and anti-aircraft and anti-missile battery systems.

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rebalancing (i), (ii) as embraced by Deng Xiaoping (i) fiscal, foreign trade and finance (i), (ii) Hukou (i) of ownership (i) state-owned enterprises (i) third plenum announcements (i) in Xi Jinping’s China (i) ‘Reform and Opening Up’ (Deng Xiaoping) (i), (ii), (iii) regulations and regulatory authorities (financial) (i), (ii) Reinhart, Carmen (i) Renminbi (i) 2015 mini-devaluation and capital outflows (i), (ii) appreciates (i) banking system’s assets in (i) bloc for (i) capital flight risk (i) devaluation (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) dim sum bonds (i) efforts to internationalise (i) end of peg (i) foreign investors and (i) fully convertible currency, a (i) growing importance of (i) IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (i) Qualified Institutional Investors (i) in relation to reserves (i) Renminbi trap (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) share of world reserves (i) significance of (i), (ii) Special Drawing Rights and (i), (ii) US dollar and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) repo markets (i), (ii) research and development (R&D) (i), (ii) Resources Department (i) retirement age (i) Rhodium Group (i) rimland (i) Robinson, James (i) robots (i) Rogoff, Kenneth (i) Roman Empire (i) Rotterdam (i) Rozelle, Scott (i) Rudd, Kevin (i) Rudong County (i) Rumsfeld, Donald (i) Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (i) rural workers (i) Russia see also Soviet Union 19th century acquisitions (i), (ii) ageing population (i) BRI and (i) BRICS (i), (ii), (iii) C929s (i) China’s view of (i) early attempts at trade (i) fertility rates (i) Human Freedom Index (i) middle income trap and (i) Pacific sea ports (i) Polar Silk Road (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) Ryukyu Islands (i) Samsung (i) San Francisco (i) SASAC (i), (ii) Saudi Arabia (i) savings (i), (ii), (iii) Scarborough Shoal (i) Schmidt, Eric (i) Schumpeter, Joseph (i) SCIOs (i) Second Opium War (i) Second World War China and Japan (i), (ii) economic development since (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) US and Japan (i) Senkaku islands see Diaoyu islands separatism (i), (ii) Serbia (i) service sector (i), (ii) Seventh Fleet (US) (i) SEZs (special economic zones) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) shadow banks (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) n18 see also banks Shandong (i), (ii) Shanghai 1st Party Congress (i) arsenal (i) British influence in (i) central bank established (i) Deng’s Southern Tour (i) firms halt trading (i) income per head (i) interbank currency market (i) PISA scores (i) pollution (i) property price rises (i) stock market (i), (ii), (iii) Western skills used (i) Shanghai Composite Index (i), (ii) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai Free Trade Zone (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai–Hong Kong Bond Connect Scheme (i) Shanghai–Hong Kong Stock Connect Scheme (i), (ii) Shanghai World Financial Centre (i) Shenzhen first foreign company in (i) n3 (Intro.)

–China Strategic and Economic Dialogue (i) Hua Guofeng (i) Huangpu district (Shanghai) (i) Huawei (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) hukou (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Human Freedom Index (i) Human Resources and Social Security, Ministry of (i) Hunan (i) Hungary (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) ICORs (incremental capital-output ratios) (i), (ii), (iii) n4 IMF Article IV report (i) on broadening and deepening of financial system (i) China urged to devalue (i) China’s integration and (i) concern over smaller banks (i) concern over WMPs (i) credit gaps (i) credit intensity (i) GP research (i) ICOR (i) n4 laissez-faire ideas (i) pensions, healthcare and GDP research (i), (ii), (iii) Renminbi reserves (i) risky corporate loans (i) Special Drawing Rights (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) WAPs (i) immigrants see migrants income inequality (i) India Adam Smith on (i) ASEAN (i) BRI misgivings (i) BRICS (i), (ii) comparative debt in (i) demographic dividend (i) economic freedom level (i) frictions with (i) Nobel Prize (i) pushing back against China (i) regional allies of (i) SCO member (i) Indian Ocean access to ports (i) African rail projects and (i) Chinese warships enter (i) rimland (i) shorelines (i) Indo-Pacific region (i), (ii) Indonesia Asian crisis (i) BRI investment (i) debt and GDP (i) GDP (i) rail transport projects (i) RCEP (i) retirement age (i) trade with China (i) Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (i), (ii) Industrial Revolution (i), (ii) industrialisation (i), (ii) Industry and Information Technology, Minister of (i) infrastructure (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) (i) Inner Mongolia (i), (ii) innovation (i), (ii) Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith) (i) Institute for International Finance (i) institutions (i), (ii) insurance companies (i), (ii), (iii) intellectual property (i) interbank funding (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) investment (i), (ii), (iii) Iran (i) Ireland (i), (ii), (iii) Iron Curtain (i) ‘iron rice bowl’ (i) Israel (i), (ii) Italy (i), (ii), (iii) Jakarta (i), (ii) Japan acts of aggression by (i) aftermath of war (i) ASEAN (i) between the wars (i) bond market (i) Boxer Rebellion and (i) Chiang Kai-shek fights (i) China and (i) China’s insecurity (i) credit gap comparison (i) dispute over Diaoyu islands (i), (ii) export-led growth (i), (ii) financial crisis (i) friction with (i) full-scale war with China (i), (ii) growth (i) high-speed rail (i) India and (i) Liaodong peninsula (i) Manchuria taken (i), (ii), (iii) Mao fights (i) middle- to high-income (i) migrants to (i) Okinawa (i) old-age dependency ratio (i) pensions, healthcare and GDP research (i) pushing back against China (i) RCEP (i) Renminbi block, attitude to (i) research and development (i) rimland (i) robots (i) seas and islands disputes (i) Shinzō Abe (i) TPP (i) trade and investment from (i) yen (i) Jardine Matheson Holdings (i) Jiang Zemin 1990s (i) Deng’s reforms amplified (i), (ii), (iii) influence and allies (i) Xiao Jianhua and (i) Johnson, Lyndon (i) Julius Caesar (i) Kamchatka (i) Kashgar (i) Kashmir (i) Kazakhstan (i), (ii) Ke Jie (i) Kenya (i) Keynes, John Maynard (i) Kharas, Homi (i) Kissinger, Henry (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Korea (i), (ii), (iii) see also North Korea; South Korea Korean War (i), (ii) Kornai, János (i), (ii), (iii) n16 Kowloon (i), (ii) Krugman, Paul (i) Kunming (i) Kuomintang (KMT) (i), (ii) Kyrgyzstan (i) Kyushu (i) labour productivity (i) land reform (i) Laos (i), (ii), (iii) Latin America (i), (ii), (iii) Lattice Semiconductor Corporation (i) leadership (i) Leading Small Groups (LSGs) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Lee Kuan Yew (i) Lee Sodol (i) Legendary Entertainment (i) Lehman Brothers (i) lending (i) Leninism governance tending to (i) late 1940s (i) party purity (i) Xi’s crusade on (i), (ii) Lenovo (i), (ii) Lewis, Arthur (i) Lewis turning point (i) LGFVs (local government financing vehicles) (i) Li Keqiang (i), (ii) Liaodong peninsula (i), (ii) LinkedIn (i) Liu He (i), (ii), (iii) Liu Xiaobo (i) local government (i), (ii), (iii) London (i), (ii), (iii) Luttwak, Edward (i), (ii), (iii) Macartney, Lord George (i), (ii), (iii) Macau (i), (ii) Made in China 2025 (MIC25) ambitious plans (i) importance of (i) mercantilism (i) priority sectors (i) robotics (i) Maddison, Angus (i), (ii), (iii) n3 (C1) Maghreb (i) major banks see individual entries Malacca, Straits of (i) Malay peninsula (i) Malaysia ASEAN member (i) Asian crisis (i) high growth maintenance (i) Nine-Dash Line (i) rail projects (i), (ii) Renminbi reserves (i) TPP member (i) trade with (i) Maldives (i) Malthus, Thomas (i), (ii) Manchuria Communists retake (i) Japanese companies in (i) Japanese puppet state (i), (ii), (iii) key supplier (i) North China Plain and (i) Pacific coast access (i) Russian interests (i) targeted (i) Manhattan (i), (ii) see also New York Mao Zedong arts and sciences (i) China stands up under (i) China under (i) Communist Party’s grip on power (i) consumer sector under (i) Deng rehabilitated (i) Deng, Xi and (i) east wind and west wind (i) Great Leap Forward (i) industrial economy under (i) nature of China under (i) People’s Republic proclaimed (i) positives and negatives (i) property rights (i) women and the workforce (i) Xi and (i) Maoism (i) Mar-a-Lago (i) Mark Antony (i) Market Supervision Administration (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) Marxism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Mauritius (i) May Fourth Movement (i) McCulley, Paul (i) n18 Mediterranean (i) Menon, Shivshankar (i) mergers (i) MES (market economy status (ii)) Mexico completion of education rates (i) debt comparison (i) GDP comparison (i) NAFTA (i) pensions comparison (i) TPP member (i) US border (i) viagra policy (i) Middle East (i), (ii), (iii) middle-income trap (i), definition (i) evidence and argument for (i) governance (i) hostility to (i) hukou system (i) lack of social welfare for (i) low level of (i) migrant factory workers (i) patents and innovation significance (i) significance of technology tech strengths and weaknesses (i) total factor productivity focus (i) vested and conflicted interests (i) ultimate test (i) World Bank statistics (i) migrants (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Ming dynasty (i) Minsky, Hyman (i) mixed ownership (i), (ii) Modi, Narendra (i) Mombasa (i) monetary systems (i) Mongolia (i), (ii) Monogram (i) Moody’s (i) Morocco (i) mortality rates (i) see also population statistics mortgages (i) motor cars (i), (ii) Moutai (i) Mundell, Robert (i) Muslims (i) Mutual Fund Connect (i) Myanmar ASEAN (i) Chinese projects (i) disputes (i) low value manufacturing moves to (i) Qing Empire in (i) ‘string of pearls’ (i) ‘Myth of Asia’s Miracle, The’ (Paul Krugman) (i) NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) (i) Nairobi (i) Namibia (i) Nanking (i) Treaty of (i), (ii) National Bureau of Statistics fertility rates (i) GDP figures (i) ICOR estimate (i), (ii), (iii) n4 SOE workers (i) National Cyberspace Work Conference (i) National Development and Reform Commission (i), (ii), (iii) National Financial Work Conferences (i) National Health and Family Planning Commission (i) National Medium and Long-Term Plan for the Development of Science and Technology (i) National Natural Science Foundation (i) National People’s Congress 2007 (i) 2016 (i) 2018 (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) National People’s Party of China (i) National Science Foundation (US) (i) National Security Commission (i) National Security Strategy (US) (i), (ii) National Supervision Commission (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Needham, Joseph (i) Nepal (i), (ii) Netherlands (i) New Development Bank (i), (ii) New Eurasian Land Bridge (i) New Territories (i), (ii) New York (i) see also Manhattan New Zealand (i), (ii), (iii) Next Generation AI Development Plan (i) Nigeria (i) Nine-Dash Line (i) Ningpo (i) Nixon, Richard (i) Nobel Prizes (i), (ii) Nogales, Arizona (i) Nogales, Sonora (i) Nokia (i) non-communicable disease (i) non-performing loans (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) North China Plain (i) North Korea (i) see also Korea Northern Rock (i) Norway (i) Nye, Joseph (i) Obama, Barack Hu Jintao and (i) Pacific shift recognised (i) Renminbi (i) US and China (i), (ii) OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) China’s ranking (i) GDP rates for pension and healthcare (i) GP doctors in (i) tertiary education rates (i) US trade deficit with China (i) Office of the US Trade Representative (i) Official Investment Assistance (Japan) (i) Okinawa (i) old-age dependency ratios (i), (ii), (iii) Olson, Mancur (i) Oman (i) one-child policy (i), (ii) Opium Wars financial cost of (i) First Opium War (i), (ii), (iii) Qing dynasty defeated (i) Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Shanghai (i) Pacific (i), (ii), (iii) Padma Bridge (i) Pakistan Economic Corridor (i) long-standing ally (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) ‘string of pearls’ (i) Paris (i) Party Congresses see numerical list at head of index patents (i) Peking (i), (ii), (iii) see also Beijing pensions (i) People’s Bank of China see also banks cuts interest rates again (i) floating exchange rates (i) lender of last resort (i), (ii) long term governor of (i) new rules issued (i) new State Council committee coordinates (i) places severe restrictions on banks (i) publishing Renminbi values (i) Renminbi/dollar rate altered (i) repo agreements (i) sells dollar assets (i) stepping in (i) Zhou Xiaochuan essay (i) People’s Daily front-page interview (i), (ii) on The Hague tribunal (i) riposte to Soros (i) stock market encouragement (i) People’s Liberation Army (i), (ii) Persia (i) Persian Gulf (i), (ii) Peru (i) Pettis, Michael (i) n12 Pew Research (i) Peyrefitte, Alain (i) Philippines (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Piraeus (i) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) (i) Poland (i), (ii), (iii) ‘Polar Silk Road’ (i) Politburo (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) pollution (i) Polo, Marco (i) Pomeranz, Kenneth (i) population statistics (i) see also ageing trap; WAP (working-age population) consequences of ageing (i) demographic dividends (i), (ii) hukou system and other effects (i) low fertility (i), (ii), (iii) migrants (i), (ii) old-age dependency ratios (i), (ii), (iii) one-child policy (i), (ii) places with the most ageing populations (i) rural population (i) savings trends (i) technology and (i) under Mao (i) women (i) Port Arthur (i) Port City Colombo (i), (ii) Portugal (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) pricing (i), (ii) private ownership (i), (ii) productivity (i), (ii) Propaganda, Department of (i) property (i) property rights (i) Puerto Rico (i) Punta Gorda, Florida (i) Putin, Vladimir (i) Qianlong, Emperor (i) Qing dynasty (i), (ii), (iii) Qingdao (i) Qualcomm (i) Qualified Domestic Institutional Investors (i), (ii) Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors (i), (ii) Qiushi, magazine (i) rail network (i), (ii) RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) (i), (ii), (iii) real estate (i), (ii) reform authoritative source warns of need for (i), (ii) different meaning from West (i) of economy via rebalancing (i), (ii) as embraced by Deng Xiaoping (i) fiscal, foreign trade and finance (i), (ii) Hukou (i) of ownership (i) state-owned enterprises (i) third plenum announcements (i) in Xi Jinping’s China (i) ‘Reform and Opening Up’ (Deng Xiaoping) (i), (ii), (iii) regulations and regulatory authorities (financial) (i), (ii) Reinhart, Carmen (i) Renminbi (i) 2015 mini-devaluation and capital outflows (i), (ii) appreciates (i) banking system’s assets in (i) bloc for (i) capital flight risk (i) devaluation (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) dim sum bonds (i) efforts to internationalise (i) end of peg (i) foreign investors and (i) fully convertible currency, a (i) growing importance of (i) IMF’s Special Drawing Rights (i) Qualified Institutional Investors (i) in relation to reserves (i) Renminbi trap (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) share of world reserves (i) significance of (i), (ii) Special Drawing Rights and (i), (ii) US dollar and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) repo markets (i), (ii) research and development (R&D) (i), (ii) Resources Department (i) retirement age (i) Rhodium Group (i) rimland (i) Robinson, James (i) robots (i) Rogoff, Kenneth (i) Roman Empire (i) Rotterdam (i) Rozelle, Scott (i) Rudd, Kevin (i) Rudong County (i) Rumsfeld, Donald (i) Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (i) rural workers (i) Russia see also Soviet Union 19th century acquisitions (i), (ii) ageing population (i) BRI and (i) BRICS (i), (ii), (iii) C929s (i) China’s view of (i) early attempts at trade (i) fertility rates (i) Human Freedom Index (i) middle income trap and (i) Pacific sea ports (i) Polar Silk Road (i) Renminbi reserves (i) SCO member (i) Ryukyu Islands (i) Samsung (i) San Francisco (i) SASAC (i), (ii) Saudi Arabia (i) savings (i), (ii), (iii) Scarborough Shoal (i) Schmidt, Eric (i) Schumpeter, Joseph (i) SCIOs (i) Second Opium War (i) Second World War China and Japan (i), (ii) economic development since (i) Marshall Plan (i), (ii) US and Japan (i) Senkaku islands see Diaoyu islands separatism (i), (ii) Serbia (i) service sector (i), (ii) Seventh Fleet (US) (i) SEZs (special economic zones) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) shadow banks (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) n18 see also banks Shandong (i), (ii) Shanghai 1st Party Congress (i) arsenal (i) British influence in (i) central bank established (i) Deng’s Southern Tour (i) firms halt trading (i) income per head (i) interbank currency market (i) PISA scores (i) pollution (i) property price rises (i) stock market (i), (ii), (iii) Western skills used (i) Shanghai Composite Index (i), (ii) Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai Free Trade Zone (i), (ii), (iii) Shanghai–Hong Kong Bond Connect Scheme (i) Shanghai–Hong Kong Stock Connect Scheme (i), (ii) Shanghai World Financial Centre (i) Shenzhen first foreign company in (i) n3 (Intro.)


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

It may be able to surface a sub next to a US carrier group, but its underwater fleet is too noisy to hunt enemy submarines. While it works on this problem it is deploying anti-submarine ships and is busy installing a network of underwater sensors in the East and South China Seas. Between China and the Pacific is the archipelago that Beijing calls the “first island chain.” There is also the “nine-dash line,” more recently turned into ten dashes in 2013 to include Taiwan, which China says marks its territory. This dispute over ownership of more than two hundred tiny islands and reefs is poisoning China’s relations with its neighbors. National pride means China wants to control the passageways through the chain; geopolitics dictates it has to. It provides access to the world’s most important shipping lanes in the South China Sea.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Wary of North Atlantic Treaty Organization expansion to its borders, and facing Muslim insurgencies in the Caucasus, Russia is actively defending its areas of historical influence. The change in policy has altered its relationship with the West, and is seen by some as the start of a new cold war. Feted as an economic superpower, China increasingly seeks commensurate political influence. Relying on the nine-dash line, a U-shaped series of markings on a map published in the then Republic of China on December 1, 1947, it is in dispute with the Philippines, Brunei, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam over claims to large parts of the South China Sea and its mineral resources, including oil. There are also territorial disputes between China, South Korea, and Japan over parts of the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan.


pages: 850 words: 224,533

The Internationalists: How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World by Oona A. Hathaway, Scott J. Shapiro

9 dash line, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, bank run, Bartolomé de las Casas, battle of ideas, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, humanitarian revolution, index card, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, spice trade, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, zero-sum game

The series of images ends with the emergence of a new island over one square mile in area housing numerous buildings, roads, and runways. The images are fascinating but also terrifying. For most of these “reclamations” are taking place on contested territory. No shot has yet been fired, but China has been seeking to establish its claims by gradual occupation. China’s claim in the South China Sea is the most audacious by far—including a vast area within what it has dubbed the “Nine-Dash Line” and others have called the “Cow’s Tongue Line”—an accurate description of its shape but also of the appetite it represents. Though China claims it has exercised sovereignty over the area within the Cow’s Tongue Line for centuries, its neighbors vehemently disagree. Coastal states such as Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam point to their own spotty and incomplete historical records to establish their claims to the Paracel Islands, the Pratas Islands, Scarborough Shoal, and the Spratly Islands, among many others.

., 210, 254–56 Morrison, Charles Clayton, 123–24 Moscow Declarations (1943), 250 Moses, 74 Mossadegh, Mohammad, 329 “most favored nation” principle, 378–79, 481n–82n Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 28 Muhammad, 411–12 Mukden, 164 Munich Agreement (1938), xiii Murad I, Caliph, 398 murder, xi, 48, 58–62, 63, 72, 74–77, 250, 256, 274, 280, 288–89, 352, 365, 454n Muslim Brotherhood, 403–4, 405, 407 Mussolini, Benito, xii–xiii, 249, 258–59, 263–64 Myth of the Twentieth Century, The (Rosenberg), 279 Nagasaki, 134–35, 213 Nagasaki, bombing of (1945), 213 Nagato, Prince of, 481n Nakamura Shintarō, 154 Nanking, 175 Napoleon I, Emperor of France, 45, 64–69, 251, 262, 410 Napoleon III, Emperor of France, 69 Napoleonic Wars, 64–69, 76 Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 404–5, 407–8, 410 National Defense Strategy (2005), 372–73 nationalism, xiv, 9, 19, 22, 26, 31, 53, 68, 148, 171, 184, 214, 223, 244, 316, 345–48, 365, 372, 407, 410–11, 412 Native Americans, 17, 49–51, 56–63, 76, 136, 456n natural rights, 11, 18, 22, 28, 29–30, 97, 143, 146–47, 409–10, 435n, 462n Nazism, 162, 176, 184, 185, 191, 204, 218, 224–36, 254, 278–80, 286, 318–19, 403, 508n–9n, 526n Nelson, Horatio, Lord, 210 nemo dat quod non habet (“one cannot give that which one does not have”), 16 Nepal, 312 Netherlands, 3–23, 19, 26–27, 51, 76, 78, 142–43, 252, 328, 329, 346, 349, 379, 381, 436n–37n, 439n see also Dutch Republic Neumann, Franz, 229, 295 Neurath, Konstantin von, 238, 290 neutrality, 21, 23, 41, 54, 81, 85–92, 96, 97, 102–4, 109, 119, 125, 136, 165, 167, 168–82, 190, 191, 194, 238, 239, 246–48, 263, 267, 273, 287–89, 304, 332, 377, 415, 421, 459n, 460n, 463n Neutrality Acts, 171, 174, 176, 177, 179, 190 New Deal, 189 New England, 49–50 Newfoundland conference (1941), 189–91 New Republic, 108, 109–10 New World Order, xvii–xix, xx, xxi, 172–75, 192, 213, 247, 258, 272, 287, 303–4, 309–415, 415–16, 418, 419, 421–22 New Yorker, 277 New York Herald Tribune, 128–29 New York Stock Exchange, 107 New York Times, xiii, 107, 121, 185, 230, 242, 250, 265, 386 New York World, 59 New Zealand, 212 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 223, 256 Nigeria, xiii, 318, 328, 368 Night of the Long Knives, The, 236, 293 Nijhoff, Martin, 95 “Nine-Dash Line,” 359–63, 360 Nine Years’ War, 32, 447n Nishi Amane, xx, 141–50, 159, 417, 483n-84n Nobel Prize for Peace, x, 120, 125, 129, 130, 211, 471n, 476n nonrecognition policy, 166–69, 172, 173, 287, 330, 341, 492n, 493n Nootka Crisis (1790), 40–41 Norris, Ernest E., 197 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 43, 313, 343, 344, 392, 419 North Korea, 381, 387, 418 Northumberland, HMS, 67 Norway, 185, 188, 541n Notter, Harley, 194 “No-War Pact,” 158 see also Kellogg-Briand Pact No Water, 58–59, 61 nuclear weapons, 205, 394–95, 532n nullum crimen sine lege (no crime without law), 252 nullum crimen sine poena (no crime without punishment), 252, 516n-17n Numbers, Book of, 74 “Nuremberg Defense,” 248 Nuremberg Laws (1935), 277 Nuremberg Trial (International Military Tribunal), 215–17, 247, 248–99, 300, 523n Obama, Barack, 389, 391, 392 Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), U.S., 388–90 Office of Military Government of the United States (OMGUS), 275 oil reserves, 179–82, 361–62, 365, 366, 393, 419 Okinawa Island, 532n Oldenbarnevelt, Johan van, 19–20 Old World Order, xv–xvii, xviii, xix, xx, xxii, 3–97, 103, 105, 106, 108, 114, 126, 133–34, 136, 138, 143, 146, 151–52, 158–59, 160, 163, 165, 169–70, 180–82, 192, 213, 253, 266, 294, 300, 303–4, 314, 316, 322, 328–29, 330, 335, 338, 341, 344–45, 353, 354, 369, 370, 382, 415, 420, 421, 423 Oliver Wendell Holmes Lectureship, 245 On the Law of War (Vitoria), 64 On War (Clausewitz), xv Open Door Policy, 151–53, 166 Operation Argonaut, 202–9 Opium War (First), 133–34 Opium War (Second), 140 Oppenheim, Lassa, 79, 239, 246–47, 248, 260, 377, 465n–66n Oriente, 323 Origins of Totalitarianism, The (Arendt), 236 Ottoman Empire, 65, 102, 204, 313, 317, 323–24, 349, 356, 382–83, 398–99, 410, 411, 492n Ouidah, 324–28 “outcasting,” 370, 371–95, 418–19, 420, 422 Outlawry of War: A Constructive Policy for World Peace, The (Morrison), 123–24 “outlawry of war” movement, 109, 110, 111, 112–27, 130, 161, 167, 169, 170, 192, 195, 199, 217, 218, 219, 222–24, 238, 239, 247, 248, 250, 253, 272, 273, 294, 303, 311, 313, 315, 316, 331, 333, 334, 338, 341–46, 350–54, 368, 370, 395, 408, 415, 420, 469n see also Levinson, Salmon O.


pages: 518 words: 128,324

Destined for War: America, China, and Thucydides's Trap by Graham Allison

9 dash line, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, game design, George Santayana, Haber-Bosch Process, industrial robot, Internet of things, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, long peace, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, one-China policy, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade route, UNCLOS, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

In 1956, for example, Taiwan occupied Itu Aba, the largest feature in the Spratly Islands, and garrisoned hundreds of troops there.62 In September 1973, South Vietnam formally annexed ten of the Spratly Islands and deployed hundreds of troops to them to defend its claim.63 Fearful that its interests were being trampled by its neighbors, in 1974 China seized control of the islands closest to its border—the Paracels—from Vietnam.64 In 2012, China took control of Scarborough Shoal from the Philippines. Since then, it has enlarged its claims, asserting exclusive ownership of the entire South China Sea and redefining the area by redrawing the map with a “nine-dash line” that encompasses 90 percent of the territory. If accepted by others, its neighboring countries have observed that this would create a “South China Lake.” China has also undertaken major construction projects on features throughout the sea, building outposts on seven different features in the Spratly Islands. By June 2015, China had reclaimed more than 2,900 acres of land, compared to Vietnam’s 80, Malaysia’s 70, the Philippines’ 14, and Taiwan’s 8.65 As part of its efforts, China has built ports, airstrips, radar facilities, lighthouses, and support buildings,66 all of which expand the reach of its ships and military aircraft and allow Beijing to blanket the region with radar and surveillance assets.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Now that China has acquired this latest technology, it is no longer dependent on foreign oil companies less willing to partner with it in disputed waters; it can just go it alone. China is building far more HYSY-like platforms than it is aircraft carriers. China, Vietnam, and the Philippines are all signatories to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, widely considered the “constitution for the seas,” yet historical claims stemming from previous wars and bilateral agreements have trumped respect for its provisions. China’s now infamous “9-dash line” map—most recently issued with ten dashed lines—depicts sovereign claims hanging downward like a tongue along the Vietnamese coast, along Borneo island, and past the Philippines to Taiwan. It would be like America claiming the entire Caribbean to Venezuela’s coast as its own—which was indeed the gist of the early twentieth-century Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. But China’s aggressive maps and aerial defense identification zones are meant not to deny others’ usage of the South China Sea but rather to position itself to better harvest as much as possible of the estimated thirty trillion cubic meters of natural gas and ten billion barrels of oil deposited under disputed waters.


The Outlaw Ocean: Journeys Across the Last Untamed Frontier by Ian Urbina

9 dash line, Airbnb, British Empire, clean water, Costa Concordia, crowdsourcing, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, forensic accounting, global value chain, illegal immigration, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Maui Hawaii, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, standardized shipping container, statistical arbitrage, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Congress, Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 2013) found that in 2012 a third of the assaults reported on these ships were against minors. CHAPTER 12 FLUID BORDERS And while it’s easy to portray: China also claimed the sea’s gas-rich Natuna Islands, and most of the offshore scuffles involving Chinese fishing boats occurred in an area that security analysts call the nine-dash line, which covers more than 80 percent of the South China Sea. Though the designation is not recognized under international law, China declared this region in the 1940s part of its “traditional fishing grounds.” “If the boy is there”: I later also visited another detention center or “shelter” in Batam, and conditions were similar. It held about 240 detainees, most of whom were Vietnamese. Some of the detainees had been there for over a year and a half.