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The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith
Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, G4S, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K
UNCLOS was negotiated over a nine-year period from 1973 to 1982 and has emerged as one of the most sweeping, stabilizing international treaties in the world. As of 2009 it was ratified by 158 countries, with many more in various stages of doing so. Of the eight NORC countries, seven have ratified UNCLOS. The one glaring holdout—the United States of America—is obeying all UNCLOS rules and sending signals that it will eventually ratify the treaty. It therefore constitutes one of the most agreed-upon rulebooks in international law and is a highly effective agent of order. The cornerstone of UNCLOS is the creation of an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extending from a country’s coastline for 200 nautical miles (about 230 statute miles) outward into the ocean.
These data would prove that the Lomonosov Ridge—an underwater mountain chain, rising some three thousand meters above the seafloor, that bisects the Arctic Ocean—was geologically attached to Russia’s continental shelf. This would win her sovereignty of a huge chunk of ocean floor—possibly including the North Pole—in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). UNCLOS and geology are critically important to this story, as we shall see shortly. But in late 2007 the world’s eyes were transfixed by that flag, not sediment samples. The great global economic contraction was still a year away. Energy demand was soaring and resurgent Russia, fueled by hundred-dollars-a-barrel oil and Putin’s steely gaze, was growing increasingly assertive on the world stage.
Instead, there is in place a remarkably civil international network, one that is working cooperatively and effectively at many levels of governance. The Rule of Law The second reason to doubt the eruption of an Arctic War lies in UNCLOS, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Contrary to popular perception the Arctic is not a ruptured piñata. On land, its international political borders are uncontested. For the Arctic Ocean, there are now clear procedural rules for laying claim to its seabed, and indeed any other seabed. Most importantly, just about every country in the world seems to be following them. UNCLOS was negotiated over a nine-year period from 1973 to 1982 and has emerged as one of the most sweeping, stabilizing international treaties in the world.
The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World by Jay Bahadur
Marie Woolf, “Pirates Can Claim UK Asylum,” Times (London), April 13, 2008, http://www.thetimes.co.uk. 2. Preceding the UNCLOS treaty of 1982, Somalia was one of a handful of states to claim a territorial sea of two hundred nautical miles, through its Law No. 37 of 1972. One of the primary motivators behind UNCLOS was the need to standardize the width of territorial seas, which the convention achieved by limiting its signatories to a territorial sea of twelve nautical miles. Though Somalia was amongst the first countries to ratify UNCLOS, Law No. 37 was never subsequently repealed, leaving an ambiguity surrounding the status of Somalia’s territorial seas.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) permits the seizure of “pirate ship[s] or aircraft” without actually catching the occupants in an act of piracy but also without clarifying what constitutes adequate grounds to do so. This omission is especially problematic given that a Somali fishing boat with a few Kalashnikovs stashed in the bottom could as easily contain legitimate fishermen as pirates. The danger is that by prosecuting suspects for “conspiracy to commit piracy,” countries would be giving an unprecedented interpretation to UNCLOS, one that unfairly targets all seafaring Somalis.
* * * Although his appeal was rejected, Hassan’s lawyer raised an interesting legal challenge. At the time, the Kenyan penal code contained no explicit provisions specifying how to treat suspects captured on the high seas; in essence, Kenya had never implemented its obligations under UNCLOS and the SUA Convention in its domestic legal system. This all changed in February 2009, when the Kenyan parliament passed the Merchant Shipping Act. Adopting the UNCLOS definition of piracy, the legislation explicitly assumed jurisdiction over piracy offences regardless of “whether the ship … is in Kenya or elsewhere,” whether the offences were “committed in Kenya or elsewhere,” and irrespective of the nationality of the person committing the act.12 By unilaterally extending its extraterritorial jurisdiction over non-nationals, argues Kenyan legal scholar James Gathii, the Kenyan government “exceed[ed] the bases for jurisdiction in the SUA Convention.”13 It was precisely to avoid this kind of conflict that the UN had advocated the shiprider option; with Kenyan law enforcement representatives posted on foreign warships to arrest pirate suspects at the source, Kenya’s jurisdiction over them would not be in question.
Seasteading: How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity From Politicians by Joe Quirk, Patri Friedman
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Biosphere 2, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Celtic Tiger, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Dean Kamen, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, financial intermediation, Garrett Hardin, Gini coefficient, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen special economic zone , Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, stem cell, trade route, Tragedy of the Commons, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, young professional
Beyond 200 nautical miles is the high seas, where ocean industries in cooperation with international governing bodies have developed a polycentric system of rules managing 45 percent of the planet’s surface that is unclaimed by countries. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an international agreement signed by 167 countries—excluding the United States, which generally takes the position that most of the substantive portions of UNCLOS reflect long-standing customary international law. UNCLOS defines the limits of a nation’s jurisdiction at sea in three zones of decreasing sovereignty. The first 12 nautical miles are a nation’s “territorial waters,” where land-based governments have the same power they have on land.
Accessed July 13, 2016. www.shell.com/global/aboutshell/media/news-and-media-releases/2013/shell-floats-hull-for-worlds-largest-floating-facility.html. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS): Part V—Exclusive Economic Zone (II). (n.d.). United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 489-510. Online version: PREAMBLE TO THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA. (n.d.), accessed February 17, 2016, www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/part5.htm. 45 percent of the planet’s surface that is unclaimed by countries: Global Ocean Commission, (n.d.). “Governing the High Seas,” accessed February 17, 2016, www.globaloceancommission.org/the-global-ocean/the-global-governance-gap.
When people love seasteads as much as they love cruise ships, permanent voluntary societies will evolve from the temporary voluntary societies we have now. The cruise ship industry has already profitably pioneered the market niche of mobile crafts with de facto legal autonomy that compel land nations to compete to please them. Q: Isn’t the ocean an untamed wilderness? Landlubbers don’t hear much about UNCLOS, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. This is evidence of how well it functions. Myriad ocean industries in concert with maritime lawyers have already civilized the seas, fostering global cooperation among diverse cultures. We wish we could say that for some old land cities. The untamed wildernesses today are lawless lands, not oceans.
Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall
9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game
Grydehøj, Anne, Adam Grydehøj, and Maria Akrén. “The Globalization of the Arctic: Negotiating Sovereignty and Building Communities in Svalbard, Norway.” Island Studies Journal 7, no. 1 (2012), 99–119. United Nations Convention of Law of the Sea, Part V: Exclusive Economic Zone, UNCLOS Treaty. http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/part5.htm. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, The Arctic: Exploration Timeline, Polar Discovery, 2009. http://polardiscovery.whoi.edu/arctic/330.html. INDEX A note about the index: The pages referenced in this index refer to the page numbers in the print edition.
However, the financial and strategic gains to be made mean that the big players will try to stake a claim to the territories and begin drilling, and that the potential environmental consequences are unlikely to stop them. The claims to sovereignty are not based on the flags of the early explorers but on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). This affirms that a signatory to the convention has exclusive economic rights from its shore to a limit of two hundred nautical miles (unless this conflicts with another country’s limits), and can declare it an exclusive economic zone (EEZ). The oil and gas in the zone are therefore considered to belong to the state.
In 2012, it had to rely on a Russian ship to resupply its research base in Antarctica, which was a triumph for great-power cooperation, but simultaneously a demonstration of how far behind the United States has fallen. No other nation presents a challenge, either: Canada has six icebreakers and is building a new one; Finland has eight; Sweden, seven; and Denmark, four. China, Germany, and Norway have one each. The United States has another problem. It has not ratified the UNCLOS treaty, effectively ceding two hundred thousand square miles of undersea territory in the Arctic because it has not staked a claim for an EEZ. Nevertheless, it is in dispute with Canada over potential offshore oil rights and access to the waters in the Canadian archipelago. Canada says they are an “internal waterway,” the United States says they are a strait for international navigation not governed by Canadian law.
Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George
Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, Jones Act, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
Seafaring can be a good life. And it can go wrong with the speed of a wave. On paper the seas are tightly controlled. The Dutch scholar Grotius’s 1609 concept of mare liberum still mostly holds: a free sea that belongs to no state but in which each state has some rights. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is known as the umbrella convention with reason: its 320 articles, excluding annexes, aim to create ‘a legal order for the seas and oceans which will facilitate international communication, and will promote the peaceful uses of the seas and oceans, the equitable and efficient utilization of their resources, the conservation of their living resources, and the study, protection and preservation of the marine environment’.
Other interested parties were also trying to get answers, from the FCO to Nautilus International, the UK seafarers’ union of which Captain Milloy had been a member. Still nothing appeared, because there was nothing to oblige Panama to do anything. The procedure that should follow a marine casualty is clearly laid out by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), all the major instruments of international maritime law. All specify that flag states should carry out prompt investigations into any accident involving loss of life.
. $1.3 billion a year, Bloomberg Businessweek, editorial, ‘How the Jones Act blocks natural disaster relief’, 1 January 2013. – US fleet has declined by 82 per cent since 1951 ‘Comparison of US and foreign-flag operating costs’, US Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, September 2011, p.26. 9 A legal order for the seas and oceans United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), Preamble, p.25. 10 Consensual but rough Baroness Jane Campbell has called for an inquiry into Akhona’s death on the grounds that Safmarine Kariba was a UK-flagged ship. As she said in the House of Lords in 2011, ‘For women, living and working on board ship requires great dedication, tolerance and self-belief.
A World in Disarray: American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order by Richard Haass
access to a mobile phone, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, central bank independence, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, global pandemic, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, immigration reform, invisible hand, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, open economy, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, Steven Pinker, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War
The Report of the Harvard-LSHTM Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola,” Lancet 386, no. 10009 (November 22, 2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00946-0. 11. “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,” December 10, 1982, United Nations, www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf. The United States signed but never ratified the Law of the Sea Treaty, which established rules for territorial seas, navigational rights, economic zones, and resource exploitation. U.S. strategic interests would be well served by ratification and full participation in arrangements relating to the treaty, but the Senate has refused to do so, alleging (unconvincingly) that the treaty would infringe U.S. sovereignty.
U.S. strategic interests would be well served by ratification and full participation in arrangements relating to the treaty, but the Senate has refused to do so, alleging (unconvincingly) that the treaty would infringe U.S. sovereignty. See Stewart M. Patrick, “Everyone Agrees: Ratify the Law of the Sea,” The Internationalist (blog), CFR.org, June 8, 2012, http://blogs.cfr.org/patrick/2012/06/08/everyone-agrees-ratify-the-law-of-the-sea/; and Thomas Wright, “Outlaw of the Sea: The Senate Republicans’ UNCLOS Blunder,” ForeignAffairs.com, August 7, 2012, www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/oceans/2012-08-07/outlaw-sea. 12. It is for this reason that China’s rejection of the ruling administered by the Permanent Court of Arbitration on the South China Sea in July 2016 was to be expected. See “Press Release: The South China Sea Arbitration,” The Hague, July 12, 2016, Permanent Court of Arbitration, https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/2990864/Press-Release-on-South-China-Sea-Decision.pdf; and “Full Text of Statement of China’s Foreign Ministry on Award of South China Sea Arbitration Initiated by Philippines,” Xinhua, July 12, 2016, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-07/12/c_135507744.htm. 11.
Brexit: What the Hell Happens Now?: The Facts About Britain's Bitter Divorce From Europe 2016 by Ian Dunt
For more on the beef industry’s reliance on subsidies: (http://beefandlamb. ahdb.org.uk/wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/p_cp_inthebalance.pdf) In practical terms that means we control economic activity taking place up to 200 miles out to sea. The 200 miles rule is part of the UN Law of the Sea Convention (http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e. pdf#page=37) This would not suit the British palate. UK vessels land around 400,000 tonnes of fish each year in the UK, alongside up to 300,000 tonnes abroad. Britain remains a net importer of fish, however, with net imports of around 220,000 tonnes in 2014, worth £1.2bn. (http://researchbriefings.files.parliament.uk/documents/SN02788/SN02788.pdf) This partly explains why the fishing industry was so stridently pro-Brexit during the campaign.
Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett
British Empire, cable laying ship, Dava Sobel, defense in depth, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, low earth orbit, Malacca Straits, North Sea oil, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS
When piracy takes place in the waters of one nation—no matter the national origin of ship, crew, or cargo—that country wants to call it a robbery at sea and they expect to handle it. This was and still is part of the problem: Many piratical events today under the law are territorial matters. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) definition is very specific: Any illegal acts of violence or detention, or any act of depredation, committed for private ends by the crew or the passengers of a private ship or a private aircraft and directed: On the high seas, against another ship or aircraft, or against persons or property on board such a ship or aircraft, or against a ship, aircraft, persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of any State; any act of voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft . . .
When police attempted to board, they were attacked by the desperate immigrants armed with parangs and axes. 35 These boats exchange cut timber, copra, and palm oil from Indonesia for cartons of soft drinks, live chickens, and kerosene in Malaysia, an age-old tradition of commerce between the two nations. 36 Article 105 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) allows the seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft: On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates and arrest the persons and seize the property on board. Article 111 permits hot pursuit within limits: The hot pursuit of a foreign ship may be undertaken when the competent authorities of the coastal State have good reason to believe that the ship has violated the law and regulations of that State.
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks Shamal Shaw, Graham Shell Shell Malaysia Trading She-tou (the Snakeheads) Shikishima Shipboard Procedures Operating Manual (Petroships) Ship hijackings Alondra Rainbow Anna Sierra Cheung Son Fu Tai Hualien No. 1 Inabukwa Ship hijackings, (continued) organized crime syndicates and Petchem Petro Ranger Selayang Ten-yu ShipLoc tracking device Singapore Singapore Bay Singapore Marine Police Singapore Straits Singh Slocum, Joshua Slutsk Socotra Somalia So San South China Sea Southern Boarding Ground Southern Red Sea Spain Special Air Service (SAS) Spotswood, Alexander Spratly Islands Sri Lanka Star Aquarius Staten Island Ferry Stevenson, Doug Stolt Nielsen Company Stolt Venture Stowaways Straits of Hormuz Stresa Suez Canal Suharto regime Suicide bombers Suli Sumarlin, Ade Sumatra Sunda Straits Surabaya, Indonesia Swain, Captain John SWAT teams Syria Taiwan Tamil guerrillas Tanjung Balai Tanker War Tanzania Tarapore, Homi Ten-yu Terra-Marine Agencies Terrorism (see also Piracy) Achille Lauro seizure by Basque separatists container ships and manning policies and Ocean Silver attack relationship to piracy river traffic and September 11, 2001, attacks suicide bombers and training and USS Cole attack Thailand Than Maung Myint, Captain Theresa Tides Tirta Niaga IV Titanic Titanic (movie) Traffic Separation Scheme Travnik, Viktor Twillinger Two-hull system Udoye, Vincent Chibueze U Ne Win Unicorn United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority Constabulary (UKAEAC) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) United Philippines Lines Unmanned Machinery Space system Uranium U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Oil Pollution Act of 1990 U.S. Seventh Fleet U.S. Sixth Fleet U.S. Special Forces U.S. State Department USNS Niagara Falls USS Cole Val de Loire Valiant Carrier attack on Vessel Particulars Questionnaire Vessel Traffic Information Service VHF radio Vietnam Vietnamese boat people Vietnam War Vung Tau, Vietnam Wahhabism Walking the plank Warlords Warren, James Wasim Water ballast tanks Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) Weather Wellington, HQS Wellington Offshore, Ltd.
Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij
agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS
The end of the Cold War led to the end of many of those dictatorships, but the new threat of Islamic terrorism, in part the direct result of an earlier foreign-policy error in Afghanistan, created a new set of circumstances only the outlines of which are visible today. Although there is much concern about the supposedly novel unilateralism in American policy today, this is nothing new. The United States may not have signed on to the Kyoto protocols or other recent treaties, but neither did it ratify the much older UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) or a number of other international agreements with pre-2000 datelines. What is new, however, is worldwide American interven-tionism in response to the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, a byproduct of which is an inconsistent campaign to install or advocate democracy in countries ruled by authoritarian regimes (inconsistent because it exempts stronger regimes such as China as well as others whose resources are crucial to the American economy, such as Saudi Arabia).
Over the years, various attempts to settle the issue have failed, despite generous offers by the Japanese to fund development projects in the Russian Far East, help develop ports and infrastructure, and initiate joint ventures. About 50,000 Russians have settled there, and when the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) took effect, the islands acquired not only a 12-mile territorial sea but also a 200-mile maritime exclusive economic zone (EEZ), enhancing their value. As to the Japanese, for all their bluster they cannot afford to play hardball with a Russia whose energy resources they badly need. The Russians will be on their Kurile outposts for awhile yet.
Certainly the United States could and should do better; in terms of per capita aid to poorer countries, for example, the American government ranks near the lowest among the rich countries (but private donations are among the most generous). The United States' decision not to participate in the Kyoto, UNCLOS, International Criminal Court, and other current muhinational initiatives may be justifiable in the context of their particular impact on this superpower, but to the world it appears to place national interests before global concerns. Inconsistencies in the pursuit of doctrines regarding freedom and democracy create worldwide political uncertainties on which America's adversaries are capitalizing.
The Outlaw Ocean: Journeys Across the Last Untamed Frontier by Ian Urbina
9 dash line, Airbnb, British Empire, clean water, Costa Concordia, crowdsourcing, disinformation, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, forensic accounting, Garrett Hardin, global value chain, illegal immigration, independent contractor, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Maui Hawaii, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, standardized shipping container, statistical arbitrage, Tragedy of the Commons, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
For more of Greenberg’s perspective on the subject, see Paul Greenberg, Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food (New York: Penguin Books, 2011); Paul Greenberg, “Ocean Blues,” New York Times Magazine, May 13, 2007. The nineteenth-century British: Carlos Espósito et al., Ocean Law and Policy: Twenty Years of Development Under the UNCLOS Regime (Leiden: Koninklijk Brill NV, 2017). This belief carried into the twentieth century: Daniel Hawthorne and Minot Francis, The Inexhaustible Sea (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1954). Since the 1990s, ships: “Automatic Identification System Overview,” U.S. Coast Guard Navigation Center website, Oct. 23, 2018.
CHAPTER 9 THE NEXT FRONTIER Arguably the least policed: Oversight of the ocean subsurface is fractured, and rules vary by depth. Although the water column and the seabed below two hundred meters are interconnected, they are managed on a sector-by-sector basis. The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is an umbrella framework for international ocean management. Multilateral regional fishery management organizations regulate commercial fisheries harvests; the International Maritime Organization manages shipping; and the International Seabed Authority regulates mining of the international seabed.
., “BNP Activist Slaughtered,” Independent, Nov. 19, 2003; “4 Kidnapped Fishermen Rescued in Sundarbans,” United News of Bangladesh, Feb. 4, 2014; “4 Pirates Held in Laxmipur,” United News of Bangladesh, Aug. 31, 2013; “5 Kidnapped Fishermen Rescued in Sundarbans,” Financial Express, July 7, 2014; “8 Fishermen Injured by Bullets in Bay,” Financial Express, Feb. 17, 2015; “10 Suspected Terrorists Killed in Bangladesh Gun Battle,” Japan Economic Newswire, Sept. 30, 2004; “25 Fishermen Kidnapped in Sundarbans,” United News of Bangladesh, May 24, 2014; “40 Fishermen Kidnapped in Sundarbans; 15 Hurt,” United News of Bangladesh, Feb. 17, 2014; “50 Fishermen Kidnapped,” Dhaka Herald, Nov. 3, 2013; “68 Fishermen Kidnapped in Sundarbans, Sea,” Bangladesh Chronicle, Sept. 15, 2013; “70 Abducted Fishermen Rescued, 26 Boats Seized,” New Nation, Oct. 4, 2013; “100 Fishermen Abducted,” New Nation, Aug. 18, 2013. Moni’s claims pivoted: It’s worth fleshing out the fuller list of terminology. Under UNCLOS, Article 101, for an act to be considered piracy, it must meet all the following criteria: That the attack (1) involved either (a) illegal acts of violence or detention, (b) voluntary participation in the operation of a ship or of an aircraft with knowledge of facts making it a pirate ship or aircraft, or (c) the act of inciting or of intentionally facilitating an illegal act of violence or detention, or voluntary participation in the operation of a ship used for piracy; (2) was committed for private ends; (3) was committed by the crew or passengers of a private ship; and (4) occurred on the high seas or outside the jurisdiction of any State (meaning more than twelve nautical miles from a country’s shoreline).
Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester
9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment
The Nine-Dash Line, drawn by China as a series of penciled lines on a postwar map of the South China Sea, showed the area of ocean still claimed by the Chinese as their own. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Navy insists it can act with impunity within the line; others, the United States included, dispute the claim, hotly.* [UNCLOS and CIA.] And they say a great deal. There are scores of islands within the line, most notably the Spratly Islands down south, close to the Philippines, and the Paracel Islands up north, near Hainan. The governments of Malaysia, the Philippines, Brunei, Vietnam, and even Taiwan all insist they have historic claim to the Spratlys.
., 31, 39–42, 46–47, 66–67 Truro Shoal, 396 Tsingtao beer, 9n Tsing Yi Island, 195, 200 tsunamis, 62, 259, 379, 382 Tuamotu Islands, 438 tube worms (Riftia pachyptila), 324–25 Tumbes, Peru, 249 tuna, 366, 368 Tung Chao Yung, 194–201 Tung Chee Hwa “C. H.,” 198, 200–201 Tupaia, Raiatean priest, 431–32 Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands), 214, 272 Twain, Mark, 132 typhoons, 22, 237–46, 248, 254, 258–59, 261, 378. See also cyclones; hurricanes defined 236n Haiyan, 237–43, 240, 245, 254, 264 Tip, 237, 246 Yunya, 383 Ukraine, 407, 410 UNCLOS Exclusive Economic Zone, 394 undersea resources, 28 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 79, 289, 346, 350 Unification Church, 25 United Flight 154, 1–4, 6–8, 11–12, 20–21 United Nations, 201, 297 Able test and, 59 headquarters, 105 Command Military Armistice Commission, 171, 175 Commission of Inquiry report on North Korea, 181n deep-sea mining and, 333 United States, 295 China and, 118–19, 378, 386–425 colonies and, 190 El Niño and, 261 Hawaii becomes colony of, 351–52 Japan and, 88, 91, 115–16, 118 Korea and, 155, 178, 183 Marshall Islands and, 12–17, 45–46 Micronesia and, 11–12 military bases, 379–81, 390–91, 418–19 missile tests and, 375 nuclear tests and, 12–14, 17, 19, 32–33, 41, 46–64 ocean protection and, 367 Pueblo and, 152–76, 187 surfing and, 134–37, 142 Vietnam War and, 27, 206–11, 211 U.S.
The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks
affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise
To demonstrate its solidarity with ASEAN, Washington encouraged the establishment of a binding code of conduct in the disputed areas, in accordance with the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea and the relevant provisions of international law, specifically the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Although not a direct party to the UNCLOS, the US nevertheless maintains that in practice it observes it and encourages signatories, particularly China, to behave within the boundaries of international law and related treaty obligations. Washington’s critics, however, maintain that the US is using the maritime disputes as a pretext to isolate China, increase arms exports to allies, and justify as well as further expand its already significant military presence in the region.
The Long Game: China's Grand Strategy to Displace American Order by Rush Doshi
American ideology, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Bretton Woods, capital controls, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, defense in depth, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, energy security, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, global pandemic, global reserve currency, global supply chain, global value chain, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, kremlinology, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, offshore financial centre, positional goods, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special drawing rights, special economic zone, trade liberalization, transaction costs, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, zero-sum game
China’s institutional involvements demonstrated Beijing’s willingness to work multilaterally rather than bilaterally where it had an advantage and to let ASEAN be in the driver’s seat for Asian regionalism, thereby enhancing the credibility of its claims of benign intentions. By 2008, China had a total of forty-six institutionalized mechanisms with ASEAN, compared to America’s fifteen.135 China also made concrete political concessions. In 1995, it accepted that competing claims should be resolved through UNCLOS rather than by force.136 In 2002, China signed the “Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea” with ASEAN States: it acknowledged (rather than ignored) ASEAN claims; created precedents for multilateral solutions where China’s leverage would be weaker; and renounced violence to change the status quo (which it had previously used against Vietnam).
See Gulf War; Soviet collapse; Tiananmen Square Massacre Trump, Donald, 2, 4, 43–44, 155–56, 262, 263, 266, 268, 269, 273–74, 280, 284–85, 332 Tsai, Wen-Hsuan, 34 Tsongas, Paul, 332 Turkey, 192–93, 201, 208–9, 228 Turkmenistan, 129 2035 Standards Plan, 290 Twomey, Christopher, 70–71 Type 055 Renhai destroyer, 199–200 Type 071 landing platform docks, 203 Type 071 LPD, 203 Type 075 landing helicopter docks, 203 Type 918 minelayers, 87–88 Udaloy class destroyers, 199 Uganda, 285–86 Ukraine, 192–93 UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), 282–83 UN General Assembly, 229 unilateral accommodation, 303–4, 306 United Kingdom. See Britain and the United Kingdom United Nations (UN), 105, 165–66, 322 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 125–26 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 273–74 Universal Credit Rating Group (UCRG), 256–57 Universal Postal Union, 273–74 UN Security Council, 132–33, 216–17, 294–95 Uruguay, 282–83, 322 Uruguay Round of trade agreements, 152 US Air Force, 68 US Congress, 138, 140, 148, 155, 321, 327, 328 US Department of Commerce, 328 US Department of Defense, 328 US Department of Justice, 320–21, 328 US Department of State, 328 US Naval War College, 207 US Navy, 4, 84, 86–87, 99, 302 U.S.
Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder
3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, foreign exchange controls, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Shenzhen special economic zone , smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game
So there is ample reason for a rising China to think of that strategic waterway possessively, as the United States has historically regarded its own nearby Caribbean.18 Several nations in Southeast Asia, including Vietnam, Malaysia, and the Philippines, have traditionally taken a very different view, supported by the United States.19 In January 2013, the Philippines instituted arbitration proceedings against the PRC under UNCLOS Annex VII with the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) in The Hague. China adopted a position of nonacceptance and nonparticipation in the proceedings.20 China also responded with land reclamation in the Spratlys, including the construction of artificial islands for military purposes, and by erecting oil rigs in the Paracels.21 In July 2016 the PCA rendered its ruling in favor of the Philippines.
If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disinformation, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The future is already here, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game
These treaties, effectively nullified by America’s refusal to infringe its sovereign rights, include the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty; the Kyoto Protocol; the Convention on Discrimination Against Women; the Conventions on the Rights of the Child; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Chemical Weapons Convention; the Land Mine Ban Treaty; the International Criminal Court; and the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Here then is the paradox: sovereignty, the state’s defining essence and greatest virtue, is impressively impervious to encroachment, resistant to pooling, and defiant in the face of the brute facts of our new century’s interdependence. Never before has sovereign power been used so effectively to impede and thwart collective action.
The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin
3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, super pumped, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce
LNG, 39–40 withdrawal from Paris Agreement, 382 Tunisia, 236 Turkey and Eastern Mediterranean petroleum resources, 257 and global order after First World War, 200–202 and Iraqi oil infrastructure, 232 and ISIS, 269 and Khashoggi affair, 305 and Qatar and Russian gas pipelines, 85, 104 and Saudi Arabia, 306–7 and Syrian civil war, 245 Turkmenistan, 120, 179–80 Turkomans, 202 Tusk, Donald, 102 Twitter, 237, 382 Uber, 358–65, 367, 369, 372 Uchiyamada, Takeshi, 338 Uighurs, 180 Ukraine and collapse of Soviet Union, 73–74 and current geopolitical challenges, 426 and East-West tensions, 90–93 and gas supplies to Europe, 110 and Gazprom, 80–82 and politics of U.S. shale production, 55 and Russian annexation of Crimea, 94–98 and Russian gas exports, 102, 104–5, 107–8, 110, 112, 113 and Russian geopolitical strategy, 78–80 and Russian political isolation, 246 United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Arab Spring protests, 241 and Iranian nuclear ambitions, 225, 228 and price war among petroleum producers, 313 and Saudi Arabia, 300–302, 306 and Yemen conflict, 251–52 United Arab Republic, 243 United Kingdom. See Britain and the United Kingdom United Nations, 148, 203, 226, 239, 251–52, 284, 379–80 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 144–46, 152 United Nations Security Council, 223 United States abundance of natural gas, 420 and China, 150, 165–76, 188–89, 425–26 and first oil imports from the Middle East, 52 as gas exporter, 31–40 and green deal proposals, 321–23, 391–93 and Iran, 209, 220–28 and Iraq War, 217 and ISIS, 267, 270–71 and Latin American energy markets, 41–45 manufacturing renaissance, 25–28, 29–30 and mujahedeen fighters in Afghanistan, 297 and Nasser’s Arab nationalism, 203, 204 oil and gas production leadership, xiv, 114 and Persian Gulf conflicts, 210–19 and pipeline battles, 46–48, 49–51, 50 pivot to Asia, 181 and price war among petroleum producers, 314, 316 and push for renewable energy sources, 398–99 and Russian geopolitical strategy, 78–80, 95–96, 114, 115–16, 118, 122 and Russian interests in Central Asia, 124–25 and Saudi Arabia, 303, 308 Security Council, 223 and shale gas and oil production, xiii–xiv, 3–6, 9–10, 14–17, 24, 52–57, 58–66 and Syrian civil war, 246 terrorist attacks against, 208, 216, 221, 222, 226, 228, 237, 249, 264–65 as top oil producer, 65 and Ukrainian independence, 80 and varied approaches to climate change, 413–14 and Yemen conflict, 249, 251 See also specific U.S. institutions U.S.