QR code

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pages: 960 words: 140,978

Android Cookbook by Ian F. Darwin

crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, openstreetmap, QR code, social software, web application

Figure 20-9 shows how my own document list looks. Figure 20-9. List of Google documents 20.7. Sharing SL4A Scripts in QR Codes Rachee Singh Problem You have a neat/useful SL4A script and want to distribute it packed in a Quick Response (QR) code. Solution Use http://zxing.appspot.com/generator/ or one of several other QR code generators to generate a QR code that contains your entire script in the QR code graphic, and share this image. Discussion Most people think of QR codes as a convenient way to share URL-type links. Indeed, the printed edition of this book uses QR codes for individual downloads of sample applications. However, the QR code format is much more versatile, and can be used to package all sorts of things, like VCard (name and address) information.

Here we use it to wrap the “plain text” of an SL4A script so that another Android user can get the script onto his device without retyping it. QR codes are a great way to share your scripts if they are short (QR codes can only encode 4,296 characters of content). Follow these simple steps to generate a QR code for your script: Visit http://zxing.appspot.com/generator/ in your mobile device’s browser. Select Text from the drop-down menu. In the “Text content” box, put the script’s name in the first line. From the next line onward, enter the script. As an alternative to these steps, copy the script from an SL4A editor window and paste it into the “Text content” box in the browser. Choose Large for the barcode size and click Generate. Figure 20-10 shows how this looks in action. Figure 20-10. Barcode generated from the SL4A script Many QR code readers are available for Android.

Barcode generated from the SL4A script Many QR code readers are available for Android. Any such application can decipher the text that the QR code encrypts. For example, with the common ZXing barcode scanner, the script is copied to the clipboard (this is controlled by a “When a Barcode is found...” entry in the Settings for ZXing). Then start the SL4A editor, pick a name for your script, ideally the same as the original if you know it—depending on how it was pasted into the QR code generator it may appear as the first line—then long-press in the body area and select Paste. You are now ready to save the script and run it! It should look like Figure 20-11. Figure 20-11. The script, downloaded I was able to run the script from the QR code with no further work other than commenting out the script name in the body and typing it into the filename field, then clicking “Save and Run” (see Figure 20-12).


pages: 359 words: 96,019

How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional

In September 2014, Snapchat paid $50 million to acquire Scan, a Provo, Utah, startup that specialized in QR code (a type of barcode) scanning. Garrett Gee started Scan as a student project at Brigham Young University, where he captained the varsity soccer team. Gee, Kirk Ouimet, and Ben Turley became obsessed with QR code scanners and the idea of using your smartphone to interact with the physical world. But every QR code scanner they had downloaded and used was terrible. So they built Scan, a simple, intuitive way to use your phone as a remote control for the physical world. Users could hover over an advertisement and pull up a one-pager on a product and purchase it. People could create their own QR code for their website or social media accounts. When the three founders were at a party at BYU, someone mentioned they had cracked twenty-seven downloads.

In February 2014, Gee appeared on ABC’s Shark Tank, where entrepreneurs pitch their startups to a panel of expert investors, including billionaire Mark Cuban. Shark Tank prohibited contestants from displaying URLs on camera but allowed Scan to use a big presentation board featuring a QR code for a demonstration. Before the show aired, Gee changed the end address that the QR code would lead to from a dummy URL that they’d used for filming to Scan’s Instagram page. While Scan ultimately did not receive funding from the Sharks, over three thousand people watching the show scanned the QR code, hundreds of whom followed their Instagram. A little over a year later, Gee was in Hawaii when Evan reached out to him about bringing Scan into the fold. He hopped on a flight to LA, met Evan on the beach in Venice, and explained his vision of using Scan to bridge the physical and digital worlds.

While Facebook had never paid content creators before, it now handed out seventeen contracts worth over $1 million; the highest bounty went to BuzzFeed for a little over $3 million for a year. Even celebrities like Kevin Hart, Gordon Ramsay, and Russell Wilson took checks from Facebook. As Snapchat grew ever more popular with media companies and celebrities, many took to making their profile pictures on Facebook and Twitter a Snapcode—a Snapchat-generated QR code that allows one user to add a second user on Snapchat if the first user takes a snap of the second’s QR code. Facebook and Twitter didn’t like these influencers using their sites to grow their Snapchat followings. Facebook suggested to one media company that if they didn’t stop using a Snapcode as their profile picture, it could affect their posts’ rankings in the all-important Facebook News Feed. Facebook then updated its policies, informing media companies and celebrities that they could only share sponsored content if their profile pictures and cover photos didn’t feature third-party brands or sponsors.


pages: 332 words: 97,325

The Launch Pad: Inside Y Combinator, Silicon Valley's Most Exclusive School for Startups by Randall Stross

affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, always be closing, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, index fund, inventory management, John Markoff, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, transaction costs, Y Combinator

“NFC seems like it’s going to be something real, more so than maybe QR codes,” says Buchheit. “Because it’s useful for payments or whatever.” “I guess so,” says Ralston. “The thing about QR codes is I’m starting to see them in places that are really surprising to me.” “They’re all over the place,” Buchheit agrees. “But I’ve never seen someone use them. I think they still might be a fad. Because it takes effort.” NFC seems to him more practical, as he imagines using it to pay for things or unlock the door of his house with a wave of his cell phone. “QR codes are so much cheaper than these things. So much cheaper,” says Graham. Ralston is unconvinced that tapping an NFC tag is considerably easier than scanning a QR code. Not so, says Buchheit. NFC is nothing but a tap. But a QR code requires several steps: “Let me unlock my phone, launch the app that does that, line it up—it’s a completely different product in my mind.

You knew it immediately.” He does not feel the same about scanning QR codes, though. “Oh, no, no,” says Buchheit, making clear he did not mean to imply that QR codes are the same as the CueCat. “But it’s that same dream, ‘Oh, this is great, ’cause our customers want to interact with advertisements.’ I think the answer is, ‘Not really.’ I think marketers are deluding themselves about the extent to which their customers want to interact with the advertisements.” Ralston gets his phone out to see how long it takes him to scan a QR code. He succeeds quickly. “That was surprising,” Graham says, impressed. Buchheit tries it himself but does not succeed as quickly. Whether the QR code is easy to scan or not, Ralston does not want to see Tagstand pursue QR codes and outdoor advertising simply because the founders regard it as a decent business opportunity for the moment.

Taggar describes their intention to buy advertising space at bus stops in San Francisco and then offer it to YC companies like Dropbox and Airbnb. Graham has not heard of this plan. “No shit? Bus stop advertising!” “On the guerrilla side of that, we’ve actually printed up these labels, which are like, ‘Tap here’ or ‘Scan a QR code.’ We’re going to put them up on MUNI stops around San Francisco. Just to see what people do.” Geoff Ralston speaks up. “Aren’t a lot of people doing that kind of thing?” He knows that there is a startup in this batch that is doing QR codes—Paperlinks. “Isn’t that really a crowded space? Or becoming one?” Graham tries to turn the conversation back to the question: how is the company going to generate revenue? “You’ve got to figure out some plan for making money so you can survive.” Ralston speaks for Tagstand: “Selling tags.”


Mastering Blockchain, Second Edition by Imran Bashir

3D printing, altcoin, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, connected car, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, Debian, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, full stack developer, general-purpose programming language, gravity well, interest rate swap, Internet of things, litecoin, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, Network effects, new economy, node package manager, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, prediction markets, QR code, RAND corporation, Real Time Gross Settlement, reversible computing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, single page application, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, web application, x509 certificate

The request can be sent by sending the receivers Ethereum address to the sender. For example, there are two users, Bashir and Irshad. If Irshad requests money from Bashir, then she can send a request to Bashir by using QR code. Once Bashir receives this request he will either scan the QR code or manually type in Irshad's Ethereum address and send Ether to Irshad's address. This request is encoded as a QR code shown in the following screenshot which can be shared via email, text or any other communication methods. You can download Jaxx wallet from https://jaxx.io. QR code as shown in the blockchain wallet application Once Bashir receives this request he will either scan this QR code or copy the Ethereum address in the Ethereum wallet software and initiate a transaction. This process is shown in the following screenshot where the Jaxx Ethereum wallet software on iOS is used to send money to Irshad.

As an example, the Blockchain wallet is shown here where a payment request is created: bitcoin payment request (using Blockchain wallet) The sender either enters the receiver's address or scans the QR code that has the Bitcoin address, amount and optional description encoded in it. The wallet application recognizes this QR code and decodes it into something like Please send <Amount> BTC to the Bitcoin address <receiver's Bitcoin address>. This will look like as shown here with values: Please send 0.00033324 BTC to the Bitcoin address 1JzouJCVmMQBmTcd8K4Y5BP36gEFNn1ZJ3. This is also shown in the screenshot presented here: Bitcoin payment QR code The QR code shown in the preceding screenshot is decoded to bitcoin://1JzouJCVmMQBmTcd8K4Y5BP36gEFNn1ZJ3?amount=0.00033324 which can be opened as a URL in Bitcoin wallet. In the wallet application of the sender, this transaction is constructed by following some rules and broadcasted to the Bitcoin network.

The following is an example of a private key: A3ED7EC8A03667180D01FB4251A546C2B9F2FE33507C68B7D9D4E1FA5714195201 When it is converted into WIF format it looks like this: L2iN7umV7kbr6LuCmgM27rBnptGbDVc8g4ZBm6EbgTPQXnj1RCZP Interested readers can do some experimentation using the tool available at the following website: http://gobittest.appspot.com/PrivateKey Also, mini private key format is sometimes used to create the private key with a maximum of up to 30 characters in order to allow storage where physical space is limited, for example, etching on physical coins or encoding in damage-resistant QR codes. The QR code becomes more damage resistant because more dots can be used for error correction and less for encoding the private key. The private key encoded using mini private key format is also sometimes called minikey. The first character of mini private key is always uppercase letter S. A mini private key can be converted into a normal size private key but an existing normal size private key cannot be converted into a mini private key. This format was used in Casascius physical bitcoins. Interested readers can find more information here https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Casascius_physical_bitcoins. A Casascius physical bitcoin's security hologram paper with minikey and QR code The Bitcoin core client also allows the encryption of the wallet that contains the private keys.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

This is why, in May 2012, Barclays went one step further and launched Barclays’ Pingit for Corporates. Now they’re pushing for merchants to offer Pingit via simple QR codes and Corporate Identifiers. The idea of the Corporate ID is that firms can buy Pingit accounts such that customers just put in “Tesco” or “Waterstones” and the payment is made without needing to know the company’s account numbers or other details. That’s pretty cool. Even better is that you can embed all the data you need in a QR code. So, as you walk past an ad for a charity campaign, hold your phone over the QR code and make an immediate donation or, even better for the utility firms, send out a bill to a customer with a QR code embedded that includes all the payment details and the payment amount. All the customer needs to do then is hold their phone over the code, check the payment amount is correct and Pingit.

This is one of the most talked about developments in mobile applications in the USA. Meanwhile, in Asia, images are being used along with QR codes[18] to support completely automated banking. For example, Jibun Bank and eBank in Japan both accept account opening on the basis of just a photograph via mobile of your driving licence. The driving licence is read by a character recognition system and checked with the government’s driving database. As long as all is aligned, the account is opened. More recently, Barclays Bank in the UK introduced QR codes to their P2P payments app, Pingit. The app allows billing companies to send paper payment requests to customers with a QR code and, if the customer uses their smartphone to read the code, all of the billing information and customer account information is embedded with the code so that the customer purely has to confirm payment.

Once you’ve transferred the coins you can buy all sorts of stuff from pizzas to houses, although the number of outlets accepting Bitcoins has been limited to date. Nevertheless, it is gradually expanding in usage and, as mentioned, you can use Bitcoins at Point-of-Sale. For example, Verifone launched a Point-of-Sale (PoS) system in 2011 that will allow Bitcoins to be traded on merchants terminals in stores. The system is based upon QR codes – digital barcodes for mobile – and these are printed by the Verifone terminal. The customer can then scan this into their phone. Equally, they can make a Bitcoin payment by presenting the QR code on their phone for the merchant to scan. This does not mean that Bitcoins emergence into the public domain has been without issue. For example, one key challenge is liquidity and the fact that this is a limited market today. The average price to purchase a Bitcoin was $70 in August 2013. In April 2013, the values peaked at over $250 per coin compared with $33 in June 2011 and under $2 in October 2011.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

With your address, anyone can send you Bitcoins (just as anyone can send you email with your email address). To send someone else Bitcoins, you need his address and the private-key part of your wallet where the software checks that you have control over the Bitcoins you would like to spend or transfer. To send someone Bitcoins, you scan his wallet address QR code or otherwise obtain his address characters or QR code (e.g., by email or SMS). The sender scans the QR code address of the receiver’s wallet and uses the wallet application to enter additional information about the transaction, such as amount, transaction fee (usually affirming the amount prespecified by the wallet software), and any other parameters to send the receiver Bitcoins. When the sender submits the transaction, a message is broadcast from the owner of the sending address to the network that x number of coins from that address now belong to the new address.

Smartphones could unlock upon reaffirming a user’s digital identity encoded in the blockchain. The doors of physical property such as vehicles and homes could be “smartmatter”-enabled through embedded technology (e.g., software code, sensors, QR codes, NFC tags, iBeacons, WiFi access, etc.) so that access could be controlled in real time as users seeking entry present their own hardware or software token to match that of the asset. Absent preconfigured access tokens, when the user submits a real-time access request, the blockchain smart contract could send an acknowledgment or token access mechanism to the physical asset or user ewallet, such as a one-use QR code to open a rental car or hotel room. Blockchain technology offers the ability to reinvent identity authentication and secure access in ways that are much more granular, flexible, and oriented to real-time demand than are currently possible, elegantly integrating physical-world hardware technologies with digital Internet-based software technologies.52 Smart property transacted with blockchains is a completely new kind of concept.

OneName is an open source protocol built on the Namecoin protocol that puts users in charge of their digital identity verification, rather than allowing centralized social media sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter to be the de facto identity verification platform, given that many websites have opted to authenticate users with social media APIs.88 A similar project is BitID, which allows users to log in to websites with their Bitcoin address. Instead of “Login with Facebook,” you can “Connect with Bitcoin” (your Bitcoin address). BitID is a decentralized authentication protocol that takes advantage of Bitcoin wallets as a form of identification and QR codes for service or platform access points. It enables users to access an online account by verifying themselves with their wallet address and uses a mobile device as the private-key authenticator.89 Another proposed digital identity verification business is Bithandle, which was developed as a hackathon project. Bithandle offers short-handle registration, verification, and ecommerce service. As with Onename and BitID, users can register an easy-to-use handle—for instance, “Coinmaster”—that is linked to a wallet address via a public or private real-life identity check and a Bitcoin blockchain transaction.


The Complete Android Guide: 3Ones by Kevin Purdy

car-free, card file, crowdsourcing, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, John Gruber, QR code, Skype, speech recognition, telemarketer, turn-by-turn navigation

Whether you upgrade, or replace the phone you dropped in the pool, you can always re-download any app you've paid for, unless the developer has released a version so new and different that they've cut off access. Then again, a kind email can often rectify that kind of oops-too-late hang-up. Alternate App Finding: QR Codes QR Code Because searching is so non-specific in the Market, and because apps can share common names and descriptions, many developers have taken to providing direct Market links to their apps through QR codes. They're like bar codes with another dimension thrown in, and you'll need an app to scan them from a web page or paper document. Search for Barcode Scanner in the Market, find the one made by ZXing Team, and install it (it's one of the 10 things we suggest new Android owners should do right away).

As of this writing, audiobook maker Audible has a beta version of its player for Android that can't be had in the Market, but which made listening to Girl with the Dragon Tattoo possible on a recent car trip. To install it, you need to download the installer, or grab it using a QR code, and have your phone set to allow non-Market installations. I've also installed a little-known application, Chrome to Phone, that can instantly beam web URLs, Maps locations, and even text I've selected in my laptop browser right to my Android phone. Enabling Non-Market App Installation To unlock a non-Market app installation, head to your Settings, into the "Applications" menu, check the box next to "Unknown sources," and confirm in the pop-up warning dialogue that you're aware of what you're doing. From now on out, you can install any application any which way you want—through QR codes on unofficial app sites, by loading .apk files onto your SD card and installing them from there (using the help of a file manager like Astro), or some other fancy means we've yet to come across

This author has yet to meet an Android enthusiast who's been able to say more than “meh” or “it works” about the stock Music app—though that may change when a forthcoming update enables over-the-internet desktop music streaming. Regardless, you'll be glad to give a slicker player a try. 7 - Install a Barcode Scanner QR Code Open the Market app, search for “Barcode Scanner,” and install the app from the ZXing Team. Why? Soon enough (late fall of 2010, actually), Google will offer a way for Android owners to simply click on an application they want on the internet, then have it instantly beam over the air to their phone. In the meantime, there are QR Codes. They look like alien barcodes, they're all over the geekier parts of the internet and a growing number of magazines. You'll need an app like Barcode Scanner to scan them, which in turn loads the right Market page you can install from. 8 - Create an unlock pattern, PIN, or password Unlock Gesture Pattern Hit your Menu button from the home screen, choose Settings, select “Location & security,” then pick “Change screen lock.”


Designing Search: UX Strategies for Ecommerce Success by Greg Nudelman, Pabini Gabriel-Petit

access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, augmented reality, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, information retrieval, Internet of things, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, social web, speech recognition, text mining, the map is not the territory, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Semapedia makes it possible to tag any item in the physical world with a QR (“Quick Response”) two-dimensional matrix barcode that contains a link to the appropriate Wikipedia Web page. A person can use a mobile phone with the free mobile QR code reader app (such as NeoReader or RedLaser) to read the link’s URL and navigate to the Web page providing Wikipedia content about the object or place that a person is looking at. Other historic landmarks are developing their own solutions. As reported by an on-line magazine 2d code, the Italian city of Senigallia has declared itself a “QRCity” by tagging all the historic buildings with QR codes. When scanned with a mobile phone, these QR codes transfer the user to the city’s mobile site with extensive tourist information in Italian and English. Figure 14-9 shows a QR Code in the plaque on the Senigallia’s Palazzo Comunale. Figure 14-9: Senigallia’s Palazzo Comunale historical site tagged with a Semapedia barcode Another example of the capability of mobile barcode-recognition technology comes from the Suntory Company in Japan, which tagged its beer cans with a QR code.

Figure 14-9: Senigallia’s Palazzo Comunale historical site tagged with a Semapedia barcode Another example of the capability of mobile barcode-recognition technology comes from the Suntory Company in Japan, which tagged its beer cans with a QR code. Scanning this barcode with a QR code reader app navigates consumers to a mobile Web site where visitors can register to offset 100g of CO2 emissions once per day and get tips for mitigating their own greenhouse gas emissions. Both of these examples demonstrate that we are moving ever faster toward a world populated by smart objects, which Bruce Sterling dubbed spimes—a word made up by combining space and time. We can track spimes’ history of use and interact with them through a mesh of real and virtual worlds created by pervasive RFID and GPS tracking. Mobile picture search is certainly emerging as the input device of choice for connecting the real and the virtual worlds to create the Internet of Things (see sidebar).

For example, they already know the specific brand and model of grill they want. Some search features that might support fact finding include the following: alphanumeric string correction—which uses fuzzy matching so users can mistype a model name and still find it autophrasing—which detects when multiword combinations are likely compounds, automatically boosting the relevancy of those results barcode or QR code scanners—which use a mobile phone’s camera to directly retrieve product information At the other extreme of the continuum is discovery, where people don’t yet know what they want or even how to describe it. For example, they know they want a more durable grill, but they don’t yet know the attributes that make a grill durable or the brands they trust to build a reliable one. Some search features that support discovery include the following: faceted search—which shows people results having particular attributes and lets them browse and refine the results user-review search—which lets people read the frank feedback of other consumers and possibly exposes the attributes of the reviewers through faceted search buying guide, product-info sheet, or demo video search—which incorporate features of document search like text mining and advanced relevancy to show supplemental information alongside results from the product catalog Context of the Channel People’s expectations of search features vary according to the context of the channel.


pages: 273 words: 72,024

Bitcoin for the Befuddled by Conrad Barski

Airbnb, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buttonwood tree, cryptocurrency, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Isaac Newton, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, node package manager, p-value, peer-to-peer, price discovery process, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, software as a service, the payments system, Yogi Berra

In turn, when you share your address with others, they can send you bitcoins. Because Bitcoin addresses are cumbersome to type, many people use quick response (QR) codes to represent their address (see Figure 2-1).2 For convenience, you can put your Bitcoin address, either typed or as a QR code (or both), on your business card, personal website, or storefront (if you’re a merchant). Although you need an Internet connection to send bitcoins, you don’t need to be connected to receive them. For example, if you work for a charity and pass out thousands of business cards containing your Bitcoin address and a statement like “Please consider donating in bitcoins,” your organization can collect bitcoins while you sleep. Figure 2-1: QR codes can be used to represent arbitrary data. They are easy to scan with smartphones and so are convenient for sharing the long strings of characters used for Bitcoin addresses.

Although no personal information is on the ledger, if you share your Bitcoin address with your friends or post it in a public place that others can associate with your identity, your Bitcoin balance at that address will be known to everyone (including all incoming and outgoing transactions). To enhance your privacy, you can use many Bitcoin addresses but publicly share only some of them.3 So how do you move bitcoins from one address to another (i.e., spend them)? Well, this action requires a private key. The Private Key A private key, like a Bitcoin address, is a long string of numbers and letters (usually beginning with the number 5). As with Bitcoin addresses, QR codes are often used to represent private keys because of their length. Each private key is paired with a single Bitcoin address and is able to unlock the bitcoins at that address (i.e., move them elsewhere).4 The following is an example of a private key: 5J2ae37Jwqzt7kSp9rE17Mi2LbkHXx4tzNSzbq7xDp2cQJCzhYo Whereas a Bitcoin address is similar to a bank account number, a private key is more like a PIN: You need it to authorize a withdrawal or an expenditure.

But for storing some spending cash on your smartphone, SPV wallets are an ideal solution. Other Common (and Not So Common) Bitcoin Wallet Features In addition to features dictated by the underlying design of different wallet architectures, some Bitcoin wallets have a variety of other basic and advanced features. Some basic features you should expect to see include password protection, the ability to make backups of your private keys, QR code scanning and generation, and the ability to generate and import paper wallets.4 A somewhat advanced feature that is common to many Bitcoin wallets is the ability to sign messages with your private key. Recall that Chapter 7 discussed how digital signatures are used to sign Bitcoin transactions with your private key. The same digital signatures can be used to sign arbitrary messages, and many Bitcoin wallets make this an easy-to-use feature because it is useful when you need to prove you are the owner of a particular Bitcoin address (for example, if you are trying to get preapproved for a loan from a bank and it wants you to prove you have bitcoins as collateral).5 Other advanced features you might see in some Bitcoin wallet programs include multi-signature transactions, in which multiple private keys are required to spend bitcoins from one Bitcoin address, and a feature called coin control, which provides fine-grained control over which bitcoins you use for making any specific purchase (see “An Advanced Bitcoin Wallet Feature: Coin Control” below).


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

WeChat is super innovative—it combines the functions of Facebook, Twitter, Skype, WhatsApp, Instagram, and Amazon. WeChat has more than 1 billion users worldwide, and it’s hard to beat it for work or for play. A San Francisco venture capitalist completed a term sheet for an investment deal in Beijing entirely on WeChat. Fans surrounding a Bay Area venture investor speaking at a Shenzhen conference connected instantaneously with him by scanning his WeChat QR code from their smartphones. Even beggars in China’s major cities carry smartphones with QR codes to receive donations. Cash and email are things of the past in China. WeChat is just one of many Chinese innovations that is revolutionizing the future with advances that are still rare in the West. China’s e-commerce startup Pinduoduo makes online shopping on your mobile for bargains truly social and fun. China’s 15-second video streaming app TikTok amuses tweens and can make online performers into rich celebrities—it’s what comes after YouTube and Instagram.

Pivot to Israel Alibaba’s Ma has turned his kung fu–like skills to seeking and funding startups in the “Startup Nation” of Israel. On his first trip to Israel in May 2018, he led a delegation of 35 Alibaba executives to visit investors and check out startups in Israel’s stronghold of cyber-security as well as augmented reality, online gaming, QR codes, and AI. Alibaba promptly invested $26 million in big data company SQream Technologies, co-invested $40 million in mass transit software startup Optibus, and added to its $30 million co-investment in safe driving technology startup Nexar. These deals were on top of its first Israeli deal, an acquisition of personalized QR code designer Visualead in 2017 to establish a Tel Aviv research and development center. China to Israel deals are a growing trend, marrying capital and market potential. In a further move in Israel, Alibaba expanded its high-tech research lab DAMO (discovery, adventure, momentum, and outlook) Academy to Israel.

A patented dispatching technology analyzes big data to find the shortest routes and nearest couriers and to avoid traffic jams and accident sites. An intelligent voice assistant lets couriers receive and report orders when delivering without having to operate their mobile phones while riding. Such advances have helped Meituan to shave seven minutes off its average delivery times since 2016. Other techie stuff Meituan has built in are security checks that identify and verify riders by QR code and an advanced electronic record management system to confirm business licenses of merchants on its platform by connecting with a government supervision database. The system also can synchronize data to track food safety and hygiene and check and analyze customer reviews by time period, location, and product category to spot any trouble. The huge digital screens provide a good overview of the company’s leadership of the food delivery service market that has sprung up in China with urbanization, technology development, widespread mobile internet usage, and increased consumer spending.


pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

Smartphone users can scan QR codes, now pervasive in magazines, billboards, labels, and even the things we buy, to directly connect to a website or some other online source of additional information. Just wave your smartphone in front of the QR code to connect. Innovators from a number of different fields are embracing the codes. Pat Pruitt, a metalsmith from New Mexico, won the Innovation Award at the Santa Fe Indian Market in 2011 for his concho belt that used QR code as decoration. Each of the nine conchos had its own code, stylistically inscribed as an abstract piece of art. When you scanned it with your phone, a line of a poem written by Pruitt appeared, as well as a link to Pruitt’s website. There are billboards for Calvin Klein with no picture, no model, no advertising—just a huge QR code and the words: “Get It Uncensored.”

There are billboards for Calvin Klein with no picture, no model, no advertising—just a huge QR code and the words: “Get It Uncensored.” When you scan the code, you obtain access to a racy video of models in Calvin Kleins. Like a secret handshake, QR codes are an exclusive form of engaging. The art world, too, is embracing the use of QR codes. In 2011 MoMA featured an exhibit called Talk to Me, curated by Paola Antonelli, Senior Curator of Architecture and Design at the museum. We’re used to museum exhibits that feature beautiful and sometimes provocative things hanging on walls or projected onto screens; our engagement is typically limited to our response to what’s in front of us. But Antonelli’s exhibits focus more on our interaction with the objects around us. Nearly all the items in Talk to Me had QR codes that gave people a chance to interact more deeply with the exhibit. In their 1999 book The Experience Economy, Joseph Pine and James Gilmore argued that we were evolving from an economy that valued things to an economy that valued experiences.

Winners are announced, and they, along with hundreds of other artists, sell their art under a cloud of white tents set up in the streets of Santa Fe. If you want a special work of art, you have to line up in the dead of night. I got to Pat Pruitt’s tent at 4 a.m. to buy his concho belt in the summer of 2011. I use it in my classes to illustrate the power of aura and the need for strong engagement between people and objects. 105 There are billboards for Calvin Klein: Giselle Tsirulnik, “Calvin Klein Activates Billboards with QR Codes Pushing Mobile Video Ad,” Mobile Marketer, July 29, 2012, accessed September 12, 2011, http://www.mobilemarketer.com/cms/news/ advertising/6933.html. 105 The art world, too, is embracing: I’ve worked with Paola Antonelli in the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council on Design and she has spoken in my Design at the Edge class several times. Her exhibits at the MoMA, from her first, Mutant Materials, showcased the engagement between people and design.


pages: 398 words: 105,032

Soonish: Ten Emerging Technologies That'll Improve And/or Ruin Everything by Kelly Weinersmith, Zach Weinersmith

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, connected car, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, market design, megastructure, microbiome, moral hazard, multiplanetary species, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, personalized medicine, placebo effect, Project Plowshare, QR code, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, Skype, stem cell, Tunguska event

One early way to add virtual objects to actual life was the “fiducial marker.” Basically, a fiducial marker is an object placed in reality that is easy for a computer to recognize visually. Visualize something like the now common QR code. Imagine you have a table with a QR code in its middle. For simplicity, let’s imagine you are wearing an augmented reality headset that projects images into your eye. The headset’s cameras see the QR code and determine two things: (1) that its pattern codes for “put a vase here,” and (2) that you’re looking at the QR code from a particular angle. As you move, the headset detects the changing orientation of the QR code and adjusts the vase accordingly. If it works right, you perceive a vase sitting on your table, even if you walk around or jump up and down. In other words, the fiducial marker serves as a simple bridge between augmented reality and actual reality.

As you come closer, you see it has a fern growing on it and is infected by some gall wasps. Your headset displays information about these things too. It also tells you that, by the way, a Civil War battle happened in this forest in 1864, and offers you the option to see a virtual reenactment laid over. This is all awesome, but it would ruin the mood (and be hard to set up) if you had to put a QR code on every object the user might be interested in. So a big area of current research is how to use regular ambient markers to determine all the stuff a QR code might tell you. That way, instead of putting markers all over the Eiffel Tower, you’d have a device that just recognizes the Eiffel Tower. “But wait,” you say. “I’ll just use my GPS. My GPS knows where the Eiffel Tower is.” Nope. Won’t work. GPS only tells where you are on the surface of the Earth, and it’s only accurate within about a meter.

., 13 “magic book,” 176 MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) project, 87–88 “magnetic confinement”-type reactors, 85 magnetic levitation (MagLev) trains, 24–25, 30, 327 magnetosphere, 59 magnets, 5 MakerBot, 162 malaria, 198–203, 207 mammoth genome, 222–24 Mankins, John, 320 marble, 144 marching bands, 119–20 Mars, 19, 40, 45n, 52, 55, 158–59 Mars One project, 45n Masiello, Carrie, 210–11 Massachusetts General Hospital, 242 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 102, 103, 104, 106, 107n, 108, 214, 216 Mediated Matter lab at, 146 Plasma Science and Fusion Center at, 91 matching markets, 275–81 Matthews, Kirstin, 250 Maus, Marcela, 242–43 Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology, 212 µBiome, 2 M-blocks, 118 MD Anderson Cancer Center, 232, 234 Mediated Matter lab, 146 medical tourism, 272 medical trials, 254–55, 268–69 medicine, 221 augmented reality in, 179, 185–86 bioprinting and, see bioprinting origami robots in, 106–7 programmable matter in, 127–28 synthetic biology in, 198–207 see also precision medicine Meetup.com, 175, 179 MEG (magnetoencephalography), 289–90, 291 Meissner effect, 326 meltdown, 91–92 memory, 220, 304, 307–8, 311 Mendelsohn, John, 232, 234 Meng, Yan, 122 Menges, Achim, 104 Menon, Sandeep, 235 messenger RNA, 193 metabolome, 244–46 meteorites, 53, 67 Michigan Array, 296, 298 microRNA, 239–40, 246–47 Microsoft, 272 Miller, Jordan, 261, 269, 270–71, 274 miniaturization, 176 “Minibuilders,” 151–52 miRBase, 240 mirror humans, 332–35 MIT Technology Review, 6n molds, configurable, 134 molecular scissors, 212, 213–14 molecules, mirror, 334 monogenic traits, 196–97 mononucleosis, 230 moon, 55 moon landing, 19 moral hazard, 273–74 Moravec’s Paradox, 139 mosquitoes, 200, 203, 218 Mossad, 50 motion sickness, 168 movies, 183 MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), 290–91 M-type (metal) asteroids, 53, 54 mucociliary escalator, 187–88 mucus, 236 Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila, 210 multiverse, 329 Munger, Steven, 334–35 Musk, Elon, 19 mutation breeding, 191–92 mutations, 219, 236–37 Mycoplasma genitalium, 214–15 Mycoplasma laboratorium, 215 Mycoplasma mycoides, 215n Nagasaki bombing, 98 nano-bio-machines, 3 nanobots, 118 nanotechnology, 221 NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC), 25, 31, 35 nasal cycle, 186–89 nasal venous sinusoids, 188 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), 20, 47, 60, 65, 92, 158, 159–60 National Academy of Sciences, 203 National Cancer Institute, 238 National Defence Department, Canada, 47 National Ignition Facility (NIF), 86–87 National Institutes of Health, 214, 234, 235 Native Americans, 196n natural gas, 73, 98–99 Nebraska, University of, 176 Neufert, Ernst, 135 neural dust, 299 neural implants, 310 Neurobridge, 312 neuro-cyber-connection, 312–13 neurons, 286–87, 290, 298, 306 EEGs and, 287–90 NeuroPace, 302 neuroprosthetics, 311, 315, 322, 324 neurotrophic electrodes, 297–98, 315, 316 Neutron Club, 80 neutron gun, 80–81 neutrons, 73, 91 New Jersey, 299 New Mexico, 96 nickel, 54 Nocera, Dan, 208 North Carolina State University, 63 Norway, 22n nostrils, 186–89 Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy, 100 nuclear reactors, 58 Nucleon (concept car design), 97 nucleus, 192, 193 nutrition, 245–46 Olestra, 334 Oliver, John, 326n Open Humans Foundation, 252n “optical mining,” 63 orbiting factory, 24 organ donation, 257n organ markets, 274, 275–81 Organovo, 268 organ rejections, 275 organ sales, 258, 280–81 organ transplant list, 257–58, 272 organ transplants, 206–7 origami robots, 105–8, 129 OSIRIS-REx, 65 “Our Friend the Atom” (Disney cartoon), 97 Outer Space Treaty (1967), 63–64 oxidizer, 20 Oxman, Neri, 146, 148 oxygen, 208–9 oxygen deprivation, 205 oxygen gas, 82 Pacific Ocean, 35–36 Paddon, Chris, 199 Palo Alto Research Center, 116 Panama Canal, 97 pancreas, 236 parallel universe, 329 paralysis, 312 Parkinson’s disease, 301 patenting, 124 patent law, 272 peacekeepers, 181 Pennsylvania, University of, 108 Personal Genome Project, 252–53 personal security, 124–25 PERVs, 207 pesticides, 200 Petersen, Kirstin, 149, 150–51 Pfizer, 235 phobias, 179 Phobos (moon of Mars), 55 phosphenes, 306 photosynthesis, 208 Picon, Antoine, 138 pigs, 206 Piraha (Amazonian tribe), 140n Pitt, Brad, 167 Plait, Phil, 36, 38 plants, 125 Chinese sweet wormwood, 198–99 plasma, 85, 88 Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 91 platinum, 52, 55 pluripotent stem cells, 273 plutonium, 58 pogo sticks, 27 Pokémon GO, 8n, 166, 182–83 pollution, 94 porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), 207 positive transcriptional autoregulation, 205n potassium iodide pills, 60 poverty, 157 precision medicine, 229–56 benefits of, 254–56 cancer diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring in, 238–44 concerns about, 248–53 data collection in, 234–35 genetic disorders and, 235–37 metabolome and, 244–46 privacy issues in, 248, 250–53 Precision Medicine Initiative Cohort Program, 234 predictive ability, 1–2 Princeton University, 142, 271 privacy issues, 130, 182, 248 of AR, 180–81 in brain-computer interfaces, 309–10 in precision medicine, 248, 250–53 programmable matter, 101–32 benefits of, 125–29 computers as, 101 concerns about, 122–25 in everyday life, 105 hacking of, 122–23 military applications of, 123–24 origami robots as, 105–8 power for, 118 reconfigurable houses and, 109–11 see also robots programmed materials, 103–5 Project Babylon, 48–49 Project Esper, 185 Project HARP (High Altitude Research Project), 47, 48 Project Plowshare, 96–100 Project Rulison, 98 Promobot, 129 Promobot IR77, 129 propellants, 14–15, 18, 20, 23 prostate cancers, 239n, 247 prosthetics, advanced, 322–24 proteins, 193, 194, 195, 221, 234, 239, 332 protium, 73 protons, 73, 77 Pryor, Richard, 328n QR code, 169–71 quantum computing, 328–30 quantum mechanics, 329, 330 Quinn, Roger, 151n radiation, 59–60, 62, 99 radiation therapy, 241 radioactive waste, 91 railgun, electromagnetic, 24–25 ramjet, 21, 22, 26 Reaction Engines, 22 Recognizer, 180 Reconfigurable House exhibit, 111 recycled fecal matter, 160 recycling, 128 Reece, Andrew, 247 refining, 56 refrigeration, 4 “Registry of Standard Biology Parts,” 216 Reichert, Steffen, 104 Reiss, Louise and Eric, 99 RepRap, 269–70 “repugnance,” in markets, 276 reuse, 128 ribosome, 193–94, 195 Rice University, 200n, 210, 250, 261 rigid airship, 29–30 Ringeisen, Bradley, 259 RNA, 193–94, 195, 332 RNS System, 302 Robinette, Paul, 130 Robot Baby Project, 120n robotic construction, 134–63 benefits of, 156–59 concerns about, 153–56 and space travel, 158–59 swarm robots in, 149–53 3D printing for, 144–49 robots, 102, 129–32 autonomous, 113–16 as construction workers, 139–44 coordinating movement of many, 119–22 evolving of, 120–22 generalization in, 142 industrial, 136 in medicine, 127–28 modular, 112–16 neuroprosthetics and, 311 origami, 105–8, 129 termite-inspired, 150–51 see also programmable matter rocket launches, 3 rockets, 23, 39 air-breathing, 19–24 aircraft-launched, 29–30 cost of, 14 laser ignition for, 27–29 propellant for, 14–15, 18, 20, 23 reusable, 14, 15, 18–19, 39 simplicity of, 22 stages of, 18n rocket sled, 25, 26 rockoon, 29 rod from God, 38 roller coaster, 23, 42 Romanishin, John, 118 Roombots, 112–13, 121, 127 Roth, Alvin, 276, 277, 279, 280 “Ruby Red” grapefruit, 192 Rus, Daniela, 106–7, 108, 118, 128 Russia, 67, 99, 217n SABRE (Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine), 22 Saddest Generation, 166 Safe Is Not an Option: Overcoming the Futile Obsession with Getting Everyone Back Alive That Is Killing Our Expansion into Space (Simberg), 44 Sahara Desert, 321 SAM (robot), 141, 142, 153–54 Sandia Labs, 85, 87 San Francisco, Calif., 154 sanitation, 157 satellites, 20, 34, 41, 47 Schalk, Gerwin, 313 Schall, Gerhard, 177 Schrödinger’s cat, 329 Schrödinger’s Killer App (Dowling), 330n Schwenk, Kurt, 187 See No Evil, Hear No Evil (film), 328n seizures, 300, 301, 302 Select Sires, Incorporated, 197n self-driving cars, 123 Sensorama, 168 Shapiro, Beth, 222, 223–24 Shotwell, Gwynne, 19 Shtetl-Optimized (blog), 330n Siberia, 224 sickle cell amenia, 237 Silberg, Joff, 210–11, 218–19 silicon, 52, 54 Silver, Pamela, 204, 205–6, 208–10, 219 Simberg, Rand, 44 Skylon, 22 Skype, 314 Skywalker, Luke (char.), 324 Slingatron, 25–26 slums, 157 smallpox, 216, 217 Smart Helmet, 179 “smart homes,” 111 smartphones, 169 smell, sense of, 174–75, 186–89, 334 Smith, Noah, 153n, 154 snakes, 187 social media, 248, 250 privacy issues of, 180–81 software, 102, 104–5, 124 hacking of, 122 solar flares, 60 solar panels, 58 cost of, 320 solar photovoltaic cells, 92, 208 solar power, space-based, 319–21 solar wind, 37 Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, 162 solid rocket boosters, 39 solid tumors, 238, 240–41 Solomon, Scott, 200n sound, speed of, 21 South Africa, 48 Southern California, University of, 145, 308 Soviet Union, 38, 58, 99, 100, 135 space cannon, 23–26 space debris, 39–40 space elevators, 31–38, 39, 41, 42–43, 314, 320 spaceflight, 13–50 air-breathing rockets and spaceplanes for, 19–24 benefits of, 41–45 concerns about, 38–40 cost of, 41, 44–45 present cost of, 13–14 reusable rockets for, 18–19 space elevators and tethers for, 31–38 starting at high altitude, 29–30 spaceplanes, 19–24, 39 space settlements, 40 Space Shuttle, U.S., 18, 39 space tethers, 31–38 space tourism, 42 space travel: fusion energy in, 94 supergun for, 23–26 SpaceX, 8n, 18–19, 30 spatial resolution, 288, 289, 292–93 spearmint, 334 spinal damage, 312 Sputnik, 39 SR-71 spy plane, 21 Starbucks, 180 Star Trek franchise, 34, 86 Star Wars franchise, 78n, 82, 263 steam turbine, 76 stem cells, 263, 272–73 Stevens Institute of Technology, 92, 122 STL-file, 267 storytelling, 178 stratospheric spaceport, 29–30 straw, reconfigurable, 103–4 stress, 246 stroke, 247 strong nuclear force, 77 strontium-90 (Sr-90), 99 Stuttgart, University of, 104, 143 S-type (stony) asteroids, 53, 54 sugar molecules, 210 sugar sintering, 270–71 sun, 59, 78 Sung, Cynthia, 108, 119, 127 superconducting levitation, 326–27 superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), 4, 6, 290 superconductors, 4–6 room-temperature, 325–28 supergun, 46–50 supersonic ramjet (“scramjet”), 21–22, 26, 126 Sure Shot Cattle Company, 197n surgery, 185–86 Surrey, University of, 122 swarm bots, 119–20, 121–22 SWARMORPH project, 113–15 swarm robots, 149–53 switchgrass, 209–10 Switzerland, 22n SYMBRION, 115 Syn 3.0, 215 synthetic biology, 190–225 benefits of, 220–21 concerns about, 216–19 environmental monitoring by, 210–12 fuel production by, 208–10 generalizing of, 212–14 grassroots approach to, 216 “Synthetic Biology for Recycling Human Waste into Food, Nutraceuticals, and Materials: Closing the Loop for Long-Term Space Travel” project, 160 synthetic materials, 101–2 syphilis, 230n Syria, 156 Systems & Materials Research Consultancy, 159 T cells, 242–43 technology, 3–4 asteroid-moving, 67 contingent nature of development of, 3–7 discontinuous leaps in, 2 Telegraph, 183 Teller, Edward, 98 temporal resolution, 288, 292–93 Terminator (film), 103 termites, 120, 149, 150–51 terrorism, 36, 38, 217 Tethers Unlimited, 63 tetracycline, 200 theft, 130 3D printers, 144–49, 151–52, 259 prosthetics and, 322 3D printing, 125, 152 of food, 159–63 of organs, see bioprinting software for, 267 3554 Amun, 53 Throw Trucks with Your Mind (game), 312 thyroid, 60 Tibbits, Skylar, 103–5, 118, 123, 126 titanium, 35 “tokamak” configuration, 88, 92 tornados, 25 touch, sense of, 175 Tourette’s syndrome, 301 transcranial magnetic stimulation, 302, 304 transfer RNA, 193–94, 195 Transformers series, 102 The Tree of Life (Web site), 234n tritium, 74, 77n, 91 tumor cells, 205 tumors, 290 “Tunable Protein Piston That Breaks Membranes to Release Encapsulated Cargo, A” (Silver, et al.), 206 “Tunguska event” (1908), 67 turbofan engine, 20–21, 22 Turner, Ron, 35, 36, 37 23andMe, 251, 252 Twitter, 20n, 187, 250 Two and a Half Men (TV show), 310 Type II superconductors, 326 Umbrellium (Haque Design + Research), 111 Underground Railroad, 178 UN-Habitat, 157 Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing (UFNB), 189 United Nations, 96 United States, 39, 135–36 Universal Semen Sales, Inc., 197n uranium, 58 U.S.


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AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order by Kai-Fu Lee

AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, ImageNet competition, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, new economy, pattern recognition, pirate software, profit maximization, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, special economic zone, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Y Combinator

So China’s internet juggernauts turned those phones into mobile portals for payments. The idea was simple, but the speed of execution, impact on consumer behavior, and resulting data have been astonishing. During 2015 and 2016, Tencent and Alipay gradually introduced the ability to pay at shops by simply scanning a QR code—basically a square bar code for phones—within the app. It’s a scan-or-get-scanned world. Larger businesses bought simple POS devices that can scan the QR code displayed on customers’ phones and charge them for the purchase. Owners of small shops could just print out a picture of a QR code that was linked to their WeChat Wallet. Customers then use the Alipay or WeChat apps to scan the code and enter the payment total, using a thumbprint for confirmation. Funds are instantly transferred from one bank account to the other—no fees and no need to fumble with wallets.

One woman on the country’s most popular dating show captured the materialism of the moment when she rejected a poor suitor by saying, “I’d rather cry in the back of a BMW than smile on the back of a bicycle.” And then, suddenly, China’s alternate universe reversed the tide. Beginning in late 2015, bike-sharing startups Mobike and ofo started supplying tens of millions of internet-connected bicycles and distributing them around major Chinese cities. Mobike outfitted its bikes with QR codes and internet-connected smart locks around the bike’s back wheel. When riders use the Mobike app (or its mini-app in WeChat Wallet) to scan a bike’s QR code, the lock on the back wheel automatically slides open. Mobike users ride the bike anywhere they want and leave it there for the next rider to find. Costs of a ride are based on distance and time, but heavy subsidies mean they often come in at 15 cents or less. It’s a revolutionary, real-world innovation, one made possible by mobile payments.

By the end of 2017, 65 percent of China’s over 753 million smartphone users had enabled mobile payments. Given the extremely low barriers to entry, those payment systems soon trickled down into China’s vast informal economy. Migrant workers selling street food simply let customers scan and send over payments while the owner fried the noodles. It got to the point where beggars on the streets of Chinese cities began hanging pieces of paper around their necks with printouts of two QR codes, one for Alipay and one for WeChat. Cash has disappeared so quickly from Chinese cities that it even “disrupted” crime. In March 2017, a pair of Chinese cousins made headlines with a hapless string of robberies. The pair had traveled to Hangzhou, a wealthy city and home to Alibaba, with the goal of making a couple of lucrative scores and then skipping town. Armed with two knives, the cousins robbed three consecutive convenience stores only to find that the owners had almost no cash to hand over—virtually all their customers were now paying directly with their phones.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Rather, it is designed to make you a “Jack of all trades” or a “B student” in Bitcoin. You will understand it, you will understand how to use it, you will know where it came from, and you will have an idea of where it is going. However you have obtained this book, I thank you for taking the time to read it and I hope you find it helpful in some way. If you would like to donate to the author, you can do so with the following QR code: Bitcoin Address: 3Bi1fhng5LfoDzue5MTfGw9PgHNKKgRkVt Disclaimer: Although I have attempted to make this book as accurate as possible, cryptocurrencies are complex and constantly evolving. So it is worth mentioning right off the bat: do your own research—things can change from month to month and week to week. I also make no claim to the legitimacy of the companies mentioned in this book, as their status can change at any time.

It creates Bitcoin addresses based on random actions you perform in your browser—moving the mouse, typing keys, whatever—then allows you to create an address from that. For a more secure wallet, it is recommended that you download the software itself (a link is provided on the site that lets you do this). After that, simply print out the wallet and use your previously created web wallet to send bitcoins to the public address that was created for your paper wallet using the QR code (or by manually entering the public address). There is, of course, the option of doing everything yourself; that is what Bitcoin is all about, after all: money without third-parties. By downloading your own copy of Bitcoin Core—about which we will talk more in a moment—and the blockchain, you can have a Bitcoin wallet that is as secure as the computer you put it on and help secure the Bitcoin network while you are at it.

The details of how this works will be covered in another chapter but the first use case of Bitcoin and the blockchain is the ability to transfer value on the Internet as easily as sending an email and almost as cheaply. More uses for the blockchain are being developed every day but this is the most obvious. Many experts have called money transfer the first “application” of the blockchain; however, even that one application has near-endless uses. Using the QR code found in the front of this book, any reader with a Bitcoin wallet can send bitcoins to me, the author. No banking institution needs to approve it; it doesn’t matter where you are or when you are reading this. If I still have access to the wallet, I can receive the money. In fact, regardless of whether I have access to that wallet, any user can send money to that address at any time for as long as the Bitcoin blockchain is in existence.


pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

Note that this calculation is conservative, because it assumes that 100 percent of US iPhone 6 and 6 Plus sales were to consumers between the ages of eighteen and sixty-five, and because it uses a (reasonably tight) upper-bound estimate for US iPhone 6 and 6 Plus sales. 26. Nandita Bose, “In ‘Year of Apple Pay,’ Many Top Retailers Remain Skeptical,” Reuters, June 5, 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/06/06/us-apple-pay-idUSKBN0OL0CM20150606. 27. The cost for a merchant to implement QR code technologies is lower than for implementing NFC technologies. Cynthia Merrit, “QR Codes versus NFC: Cheaper, but Worth the Risk?” Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, February 27, 2012, http://takeonpayments.frbatlanta.org/2012/02/qr-codes-versus-nfc-cheaper-but-worth-risk.html. 28. Luke Dormehl, “Starbucks Mobile App Payments Now Represent 16% of All Starbucks Transactions,” Fast Company, January 23, 2015, http://www.fastcompany.com/3041353/fast-feed/starbucks-mobile-app-payments-now-represent-16-of-all-starbucks-transactions.

One large retailer noted in June 2015 that “the company hasn’t adopted Apple Pay … because not even a ‘small percentage’ of its customers have asked for it.”26 This lack of consumer interest limited the positive feedback between the two sides of the Apple Pay platform and prevented the “cool” new payment method from gaining momentum. Apple Pay had difficulty getting to critical mass. Starbucks, by contrast, launched a mobile payment app in 2011 for use in its stores. A “quick response” or “QR” code, which carried the consumer’s payment credentials, appeared on the smartphone screen when consumers went to pay. This worked with all major smartphones. Consumers pointed the phone at a QR code reader at the checkout counter at Starbucks. Virtually all Starbucks shops already had one of these.27 By the end of its first year, more than 2 percent of the transactions at Starbucks were made using its smartphone app. That had increased to 16 percent by 2014.28 Apple Pay could still ignite. Merchants are gradually installing new point-of-sale terminals that have the capability of accepting NFC.

Over time, positive feedback effects could kick in and get consumers and merchants more interested in Apple Pay. Apple could also change its strategy. It could take steps to increase positive feedback effects and enhance the likelihood of ignition. It could, for example, develop additional features for Apple Pay that address more substantial frictions than just paying at the point of sale. It could also give retailers incentives to make NFC terminals available to consumers. Apple could also move to QR codes or some other approach that increases the portion of merchants that could accept it. Samsung Pay, which was available on Samsung 6 phones as of September 2015, has technology that enables people to use it at older mag-stripe terminals. Unlike most platform pioneers, Apple Pay has a large enough bank account and a strong enough reputation to weather a slow ignition phase and eventually reach critical mass.


pages: 200 words: 47,378

The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos

AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, financial exclusion, global reserve currency, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, Marc Andreessen, Oculus Rift, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, QR code, ransomware, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, the medium is the message, trade route, underbanked, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Is that a way to build user experience? Is that a way to introduce new users? I mean, it just throws it at you. You’re not ready for that. Please open your phone and display your QR code. You’re like, “What? What’s a QR code? . . . Hang on, let me go to Google Play and search for ‘QR code.’ There’s an app that scans them, . . . maybe I should use that one. Shouldn’t use that one. Maybe I should use a bitcoin wallet. Oh, there are 26 of them. Which one’s the best? I don’t know. I’ll use Circle. . . . Oh, that requires a pre-existing relationship, whoops. I’ll use Coinbase. . . . Oh, that requires a pre-existing relationship, oops. . . .” Finally, I’ve got my wallet and I display the QR code, put some money in, and I’ve got the bitcoin. What am I going to do with it? I have all these questions. Who takes bitcoin? Where can I spend this?


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

D.C. lobbying firm Peck Madigan Jones to lobby Congress: Olga Kharif and Elizabeth Dexheimer, “MasterCard Lobbyist Adds Bitcoin to List of Topics,” Bloomberg, April 30, 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-04-30/mastercard-lobbyist-adds-bitcoin-to-list-of-topics.html. Jason Oxman, the CEO: Jason Oxman, interviewed by Michael J. Casey, June 24, 2014. supports payments at retail outlets via QR codes: Donna Tam, “PayPal Offers QR Codes Retail-Store Purchases,” CNET, October 8, 2013, http://www.cnet.com/news/paypal-offers-qr-codes-for-retail-store-purchases/. Facebook is widely believed to be working: Samuel Gibbs, “Facebook Prepares to Launch e-Money Transfer Service in Europe,” Guardian, April 14, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/apr/14/facebook-e-money-transfer-service-europe. only now coming to the United States: John Ginovsky, “EMV a Work in Progress in U.S.,” ABA Banking Journal, August 24, 2014, http://www.ababj.com/blogs-3/making-sense-of-it-all/item/4859-emv-a-work-in-progress-in-u-s/.

Each of these addresses, brought into being when a past transaction occurred, represents what cryptographers call a public key. As the owner of such an address, you are free to share it with outsiders and invite them to make a deposit there. But only you have the power to make a withdrawal, which you can do with the aid of a wallet. Here’s how you might carry that out: You could open a smartphone app that’s linked to your online wallet and then use its built-in QR code-scanner to import a merchant’s address into the “To” line of a transaction window. You would then type in the desired payment amount and hit “Send,” thereby instructing the wallet software to find a sufficient bitcoin balance in one or more of your preexisting addresses and send that balance to the merchant.* To do this, the wallet program accesses an embedded passcode that’s known as the private key; each private key is uniquely associated with one address.

When paired with “smart property”—where deeds, titles, and other certifications of ownership are put in digital form to be acted upon by software—these contracts allow the automatic transfer of ownership of a physical asset such as a house or a car, or an intangible asset, such as a patent. Similarly, the software initiates the transfer when contractual obligations are met. With companies now busily putting bar codes, QR codes, microchips, and Bluetooth antennae on just about every gadget and piece of merchandise, the emerging “Internet of Things” should make it possible to transfer ownership in many kinds of physical property in this manner. One creative solution applies to cars purchased on credit. Right now, if an automobile owner misses his or her payments, it’s laborious and costly for the finance company to reclaim both the title to and physical possession of the car, involving lawyers, collection agencies, and, in worst cases, repo men.


pages: 960 words: 125,049

Mastering Ethereum: Building Smart Contracts and DApps by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood Ph. D.

Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, continuous integration, cryptocurrency, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, Google Chrome, intangible asset, Internet of things, litecoin, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, node package manager, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, sealed-bid auction, sharing economy, side project, smart contracts, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vickrey auction, web application, WebSocket

Transfer the unsigned transaction to an “air-gapped” offline device for transaction signing, e.g., via a QR code or USB flash drive. Transmit the signed transaction (back) to an online device for broadcast on the Ethereum blockchain, e.g., via QR code or USB flash drive. Figure 6-7. Offline signing of Ethereum transactions Depending on the level of security you need, your “offline signing” computer can have varying degrees of separation from the online computer, ranging from an isolated and firewalled subnet (online but segregated) to a completely offline system known as an air-gapped system. In an air-gapped system there is no network connectivity at all — the computer is separated from the online environment by a gap of “air.” To sign transactions you transfer them to and from the air-gapped computer using data storage media or (better) a webcam and QR code. Of course, this means you must manually transfer every transaction you want signed, and this doesn’t scale.

References to Companies and Products All references to companies and products are intended for educational, demonstration, and reference purposes. The authors do not endorse any of the companies or products mentioned. We have not tested the operation or security of any of the products, projects, or code segments shown in this book. Use them at your own risk! Ethereum Addresses and Transactions in this Book The Ethereum addresses, transactions, keys, QR codes, and blockchain data used in this book are, for the most part, real. That means you can browse the blockchain, look at the transactions offered as examples, retrieve them with your own scripts or programs, etc. However, note that the private keys used to construct the addresses printed in this book have been “burned.” This means that if you send money to any of these addresses, the money will either be lost forever or (more likely) appropriated, since anyone who reads the book can take it using the private keys printed herein.

-Full Node Advantages and Disadvantages local blockchain simulation advantages/disadvantages, Local Blockchain Simulation Advantages and Disadvantages MetaMask and, Quick Glossary public testnet advantages/disadvantages, Public Testnet Advantages and Disadvantages NFTs (see nonfungible tokens) NIST (National Institute of Science and Technology), Ethereum’s Cryptographic Hash Function: Keccak-256 nodedefined, Quick Glossary transaction propagation, Transaction Propagation Node.js, Installing the Truffle framework non-fungible tokens (NFTs), Tokens and FungibilityERC721 non-fungible token standard, ERC721: Non-fungible Token (Deed) Standard-ERC721: Non-fungible Token (Deed) Standard non-repudiation, The Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm nonces, The Transaction Nonce-Concurrency, Transaction Origination, and Noncesconcurrency, Concurrency, Transaction Origination, and Nonces confirmation, Gaps in Nonces, Duplicate Nonces, and Confirmation defined, Quick Glossary duplicated, Gaps in Nonces, Duplicate Nonces, and Confirmation gaps in sequence of, Gaps in Nonces, Duplicate Nonces, and Confirmation keeping track of, Keeping Track of Nonces transaction origination, Concurrency, Transaction Origination, and Nonces world state and, Ethereum State nondeterministic (random) wallets, Wallet Technology Overview-Nondeterministic (Random) Wallets nonfungible tokens (NFTs)Auction DApp and, A Basic DApp Example: Auction DApp defined, Quick Glossary O offline signing, Separating Signing and Transmission (Offline Signing)-Separating Signing and Transmission (Offline Signing) ommer, defined, Quick Glossary one-way functions, Public Keys, Cryptographic Hash Functions open source licenses, Using Code Examples OpenAddressLottery honey pot, Real-World Examples: OpenAddressLottery and CryptoRoulette Honey Pots OpenSSL cryptographic library, Elliptic Curve Libraries OpenZeppelin, Preventative Techniques, Contract Libraries, OpenZeppelin-OpenZeppelin oracles, Oracles-Conclusionsand data authentication, Data Authentication broadcast/multicast, Oracle Design Patterns client interfaces in Solidity, Oracle Client Interfaces in Solidity-Oracle Client Interfaces in Solidity computation oracles, Computation Oracles-Computation Oracles data authentication with, Data Authentication decentralized, Decentralized Oracles design patterns, Oracle Design Patterns-Oracle Design Patterns immediate-read, Oracle Design Patterns publish-subscribe, Oracle Design Patterns reasons for using, Why Oracles Are Needed request-response, Oracle Design Patterns use cases/examples, Oracle Use Cases and Examples Oraclize, Data Authentication, Computation Oracles, Oracle Client Interfaces in Solidity-Oracle Client Interfaces in Solidity overflow, Arithmetic Over/Underflows-Real-World Examples: PoWHC and Batch Transfer Overflow (CVE-2018–10299)defined, The Vulnerability protecting against, Protecting Against Overflow Errors at the Compiler Level P Paritybasics, Parity defined, Quick Glossary for first synchronization, Running Geth or Parity installing, Installing Parity libraries for, Software Requirements for Building and Running a Client (Node) nonce counting, Keeping Track of Nonces Parity Multisig Walletfirst hack, Real-World Example: Parity Multisig Wallet (First Hack) second hack, Real-World Example: Parity Multisig Wallet (Second Hack)-Real-World Example: Parity Multisig Wallet (Second Hack) passphrases, Optional passphrase in BIP-39 password stretching algorithm, Nondeterministic (Random) Wallets payable function, Functions payment, Transaction Value and Data PBKDF2 function, From mnemonic to seed Populus, Testing Smart Contracts PoS (see proof of stake) PoW (see proof of work) PoWHC (see Proof of Weak Hands Coin) pre-image, Cryptographic Hash Functions prime factorization, Public Key Cryptography and Cryptocurrency private blockchain, Local Blockchain Simulation Advantages and Disadvantages private function, Functions private keys, Keys and Addresses, Private Keys-Generating a Private Key from a Random Number(see also keys and addresses) defined, Quick Glossary extended, Extended public and private keys generating from random number, Generating a Private Key from a Random Number hardened child key derivation, Hardened child key derivation wallets and, Choosing an Ethereum Wallet, Control and Responsibility PRNG (pseudorandom number generator) contracts, Real-World Example: PRNG Contracts proof of stake (PoS)Casper as Ethereum PoS algorithm, Casper: Ethereum’s Proof-of-Stake Algorithm consensus via, Consensus via Proof of Stake (PoS) defined, Quick Glossary Proof of Weak Hands Coin (PoWHC), Real-World Examples: PoWHC and Batch Transfer Overflow (CVE-2018–10299) proof of work (PoW)consensus via, Consensus via Proof of Work defined, Quick Glossary Ethash as Ethereum PoW algorithm, Ethash: Ethereum’s Proof-of-Work Algorithm propagation of transactions, Transaction Propagation prototype of a function, Transmitting a Data Payload to an EOA or Contract proxy, ZeppelinOS pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) contracts, Real-World Example: PRNG Contracts public function, Functions public key cryptography, Public Key Cryptography and Cryptocurrency-Public Key Cryptography and Cryptocurrency public key recovery, The Signature Prefix Value (v) and Public Key Recovery public keys, Public Keys-Elliptic Curve Libraries(see also keys and addresses) defined, Quick Glossary elliptic curve cryptography and, Elliptic Curve Cryptography Explained-Elliptic Curve Cryptography Explained extended, Extended public and private keys generating, Generating a Public Key public testnets, Public Testnet Advantages and Disadvantages publish-subscribe oracles, Oracle Design Patterns pure function, Functions Q QR codes, Ethereum Addresses and Transactions in this Book R race conditions, Race Conditions/Front Running(see also front-running security threat; reentrancy attack) random (nondeterministic) wallets, Wallet Technology Overview-Nondeterministic (Random) Wallets random numbers, private key generation from, Generating a Private Key from a Random Number receipt, defined, Quick Glossary Recursive Length Prefix (RLP), Quick Glossary, The Structure of a Transaction reentrancy attacks, Reentrancy-Real-World Example: The DAOblind calls and, Raw call, delegatecall defined, Quick Glossary preventative techniques, Preventative Techniques real-world example: DAO attack, Real-World Example: The DAO vulnerability, The Vulnerability-The Vulnerability reentrancy bug, The Reentrancy Bugattack flow, Attack Flow technical details, Technical Details reentrancy honey pot security threat, Real-World Example: Reentrancy Honey Pot-Real-World Example: Reentrancy Honey Pot reference specification, Components of a Blockchain registering a name, Registering a Name-Registering a Name Remix IDE, Compiling the Faucet Contract, Creating the Contract on the Blockchain-Creating the Contract on the Blockchain remote clients, Remote Ethereum Clients-Mistbrowser wallets, Browser Wallets mobile wallets, Mobile (Smartphone) Wallets wallet compared to, Should I Run a Full Node?


pages: 420 words: 130,503

Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges and Leaderboards by Yu-Kai Chou

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, functional fixedness, game design, IKEA effect, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, loss aversion, Maui Hawaii, Minecraft, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs

On its own, this statue looks fairly abstract and doesn’t seem to resemble anything. During noon time, however, the magic starts to happen. When the sun reaches its greatest height at noon, the shadow of this statue suddenly transforms into a perfect QR Code where people can scan with their mobile phones and see unique content. Isn’t that cool? Because the QR Code can only be scanned within a limited window between 12PM to 1PM, people are now rushing to get there in time. Honestly, at that point, it doesn’t matter what the QR Code is about – the scarcity and intrigue (stemming from Core Drive 7: Unpredictability & Curiosity) is enough to get people to show up. In the case of eMart, the QR code links to a coupon that consumers can redeem immediately for a purchase online. This tactic reportedly improved eMart’s noon time sales by 25%. Not bad when you are already the largest player in the industry.

New York, NY. 2010.↩ Jesse Schell. The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses. p180. CRC Press. Boca Raton. 2008.↩ Kevin Johnson. Wikia Farmville. URL: http://farmville.wikia.com/wiki/File:Farmville-mona-lisa-by-kevin-johnson-300x186.png↩ Jenny Ng. Games.com Blog. “FarmVille Pic of the Day: Embrace of Swan Lake at Liveloula46’s farm.” 03/01/2012.↩ Amy-Mae Elliott. Mashable.com. “15 Beautiful and Creative QR Code”. 11/7/23.↩ Wikipedia Entry “Minecraft”: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minecraft↩ Raph Koster. A Theory of Fun. 2nd Edition. p122. O’Reilly Media. Sebastopol, CA. 10/2013. ↩ Chapter 8: The Fourth Core Drive - Ownership & Possession Ownership & Possession is the fourth Core Drive in Octalysis Gamification. It represents the motivation that is driven by our feelings of owning something, and consequently the desire to improve, protect, and obtain more of it.


pages: 404 words: 95,163

Amazon: How the World’s Most Relentless Retailer Will Continue to Revolutionize Commerce by Natalie Berg, Miya Knights

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business intelligence, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, computer vision, connected car, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Elon Musk, gig economy, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, market fragmentation, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, QR code, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, remote working, sensor fusion, sharing economy, Skype, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, trade route, underbanked, urban planning, white picket fence

It would go on to launch new grocery formats such as AmazonFresh Pickup and Amazon Go, which we’ll discuss in the coming chapters, while also partnering with existing bricks and mortar retailers such as Kohl’s, Best Buy and less well-known examples like mattress start-up Tuft & Needle. Tuft & Needle – another retailer that started life online – has worked with Amazon to enhance the customer experience as it moves further into physical retailing. Its Seattle store features tablets for shoppers to read product reviews on Amazon, Echo devices to answer customer questions and QR codes that allow for one-click purchasing through the Amazon app. Daehee Park, Tuft & Needle’s co-founder, said that after much debate about how to go head-to-head with Amazon, they decided to go in the exact opposite direction. ‘We’ve decided, why not just embrace them? It is the future of retail and e-commerce… We focus on what we’re good at and plug in Amazon technology for the rest.’44 This could be a model for other brands that are already reliant on Amazon for online sales (Tuft & Needle generates around 25 per cent of its sales through Amazon).45 Similarly, we believe that Amazon will look to forge more retail partnerships as a means of addressing the ticking time bomb that is online returns.

In future, harnessing this connection at the shelf edge to deliver complementary product recommendations, reviews and offers to inform the customer experience will become more important. An ESL can drive further positive engagement by offering more detailed pricing, origin and allergy information, etc than is possible to display on a traditional shelf-edge label. Some retailers have already deployed large-sized ESLs for their capacity to present more information, accompanied with QR codes that direct customers to more information online. European home improvement retailer Leroy-Merlin deployed ESLs to solve the accuracy, productivity and pricing velocity challenges already associated with paper-based labels. But it also used its ESLs to offer customers automatic and real-time geolocation of products inside the store. Digital points of purchase Wi-Fi, beacons, VLC, ESLs and AR can all turn various elements of the store into digital points of purchase.

Customers order and pay for products at a special terminal or wirelessly with their smartphones. The retrieval of goods and cleaning of tables is done solely by robotic arms attached to the appliances. Other unmanned prototypes include Auchan China’s Minute and BingoBox stores and the self-driving Wheelys MobyMart, which rely on the customer using an app to access the store and pay for goods by scanning QR codes, or computer vision that debits the customer’s account on exit. There’s also the 7-Eleven Signature concept in South Korea. These rivals to Amazon are setting the standard, but it is unlikely we will see the store of the future dominated by unmanned, robot-run boxes. The high cost of the technology involved limits them to small-footprint, convenience formats, and the human touch will always be most prized in sectors that require more consultative sales.


pages: 229 words: 68,426

Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing by Adam Greenfield

augmented reality, business process, defense in depth, demand response, demographic transition, facts on the ground, game design, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, James Dyson, knowledge worker, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, profit motive, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method

At present, one of the most interesting uses of 2D codes is when they're used as hyperlinks for the real world. Semacode stickers have been cleverly employed in this role in the Big Games designed by the New York City creative partnership area/code, where they function as markers of buried treasure, in a real-time playfield that encompasses an entire urban area—but what 2D coding looks like in daily practice can perhaps best be seen in Japan, where the QR code has been adopted as a de facto national standard. QR codes can be found anywhere and everywhere in contemporary Japan: in a product catalogue, in the corner of a magazine ad, on the back of a business card. Snap a picture of one with the camera built into your phone—and almost all Japanese keitai are cameraphones—and the phone's browser will take you to the URL it encodes and whatever information waits there. It's simultaneously clumsy and rather clever.

This is a country where, more so than just about anywhere else, people plan gatherings, devise optimal commutes, and are advised of the closest retailers via the intercession of their phones. Given the facts on the ground, Japanese developers wisely decided to concentrate on the ubiquitous delivery of services via keitai—for example, the RFID-tagged streetlamps of Shinjuku already discussed, or the QR codes we'll be getting to shortly. And as both phones themselves and the array of services available for them become more useful and easier to use, we approach something recognizable as the threshold of everyware. This is a culture that has already made the transition to a regime of ambient informatics—as long, that is, as you have a phone. As a result, it's a safe bet to predict that the greater part of Japanese efforts at designing everyware will follow the mobile model for the foreseeable future.


pages: 250 words: 64,011

Everydata: The Misinformation Hidden in the Little Data You Consume Every Day by John H. Johnson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Black Swan, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, obamacare, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, publication bias, QR code, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, statistical model, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thomas Bayes, Tim Cook: Apple, wikimedia commons, Yogi Berra

In his Ad Contrarian blog, Bob Hoffman wrote about an oft-repeated statistic that 60 percent of people say they use QR (quick response) codes.22 “This statistic was obviously total bullshit,” noted Hoffman, “and yet serious people seemed to be taking it seriously. Anyone who spent any time in the real world could see that no one was using QR codes.”23 So where did the 60 percent come from? Perhaps, as Hoffman theorizes, this was the percentage of people who have ever used a QR code. In framing the data without context, Hoffman notes that, “a truth is technically being told, but reality is being radically misrepresented.” Here’s the lesson—if you take data at face value, you may not be getting the full story. You don’t know if the data is being misrepresented—or omitted—unless you ask. MILES TO GO Sometimes, data is purposefully misrepresented to help you rather than mislead you.

Last Week Tonight with John Oliver, Episode 3: “Climate Change Debate,” Last Week Tonight video, 4:27, HBO, May 11, 2014, http://www.hbo.com/last-week-tonight-with-john-oliver/episodes/01/03-may-11-2014/video/climate-change-debate.html?autoplay=true. 21. Bryan Beverly, “3 Old Tricks for the Analytics Hall of Shame,” All Analytics website, November 25, 2013, http://www.allanalytics.com/author.asp?section_id=1828&doc_id=269454&f_src=allanalytics_sitedefault&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter. 22. A quick response (QR) code is a type of bar code that users can scan using their smartphones to get video and other content. 23. Bob Hoffman, “How Marketers Lie to Themselves,” Ad Contrarian blog, April 20, 2015, http://adcontrarian.blogspot.com/2015/04/how-marketers-lie-to-themselves.html. 24. John Stossel, “Running on Empty,” ABC News website, June 5, 2008, http://abcnews.go.com/2020/Stossel/story?id=3989000. 25. Lauren Brennan, Mando Watson, Robert Klaber, Tagore Charles, “The Importance of Knowing Context of Hospital Episode Statistics When Reconfiguring the NHS,” BMJ 2012; 344:e2432. 26.


pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, different worldview, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, IKEA effect, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, longitudinal study, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, twin studies, World Values Survey

If you haven’t switched, don’t feel too bad: you’re not alone. But in mid-2015 something changed. As a result of a new consumer power pushed by BIT, energy companies were required to make it easier for customers to access information. In particular, they were required to print on bills a QR code that summarised the customers’ details, patterns of use and their current tariff (see Figure 26). In technical terms, this makes the customers’ data machine-readable. In everyday terms, it means that all customers need to do to save some money is to scan the QR code with their mobile phone, and a switching site app can search the market for the best tariff for them. Instead of switching being a task that would take a few hours, it can be done in a few seconds. You don’t have to be a top economist to see why this seemingly small change is a game-changer.

This applies not only to electricity and gas markets, but to many other everyday services such as mobile phones and banking products. Until recently, the UK’s main six energy suppliers had more than 500 tariffs between them. For mobile phones, where there is a choice of networks, tariffs and handsets, the choices facing consumers run into the millions. These vast numbers make it very hard for a consumer to figure out what is the best choice for them. Figure 26. A stylised illustration of how having QR codes on bills makes switching easier. This illustration, together with an early prototype developed by one of the switching sites, was shown to Ministers in 2012 and helped make the case to wider, behaviourally based changes in the regulation of consumer markets in the UK and beyond. In a classic economic view, this shouldn’t much matter. Consumers should be able to sort through the options and, even without ‘perfect information’, the magic of the market should weed out the weaker and lower value offerings over time, while the better products and companies should thrive.

Several of the big energy companies, despite growing public frustration about how their prices seemed to ‘go up like a rocket and down like a feather’, continued to drag their feet. Some moved to make consumers’ data possible to download, but still rather difficult. As illustrated in Chapter 3, every extra friction can have a big impact. In the end, the PM’s patience snapped. We introduced a requirement for the big companies to print the data as QR codes on bills, and drove for common application program interfaces (APIs) to enable consumers, with the help of switching sites, to compare and switch more easily. This also opens the door to enable consumers to opt for ‘auto-switching’, so that a site can check the market for the best tariff automatically when their contract ends and switch if a better deal is found. The midata approach is a game-changer, with the potential to turn markets upside down.


pages: 134 words: 41,085

The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, universal basic income, Washington Consensus

16 Asian governments are stealing a march on America in using the internet of things to monitor smart infrastructure. In Singapore, water pipes report back to the authorities if they spring a leak, while lampposts gather data on temperature, humidity, and traffic flow. Some American states are getting better at communicating with people through mobile phones and apps: but again, Covid underlined how far ahead East Asia is. In Shanghai, each subway car has its own QR code (or bar code) that you scan when you get on, so that if one of the passengers gets sick, only people who have traveled in that particular car need to be contacted.17 Of course there are privacy concerns with this, but the main barrier to this happening in America is technological. The New York subway system only started introducing Asian-style cashless payments in 2019. And on the subject of cashless systems, China is building the infrastructure for a digital currency that some people think might unseat the dollar.18 The United States has stinted on high-tech infrastructure for the same two reasons that it has let its bridges and roads crumble: because entitlements absorb so much cash and because nobody counts the dilapidation in the national accounts.

Press, 2020), 4. 14.David Himmelstein, Terry Campbell, and Steffie Woodhandler, “Health Care Administrative Costs in the United States and Canada, 2017,” Annals of Internal Medicine, January 21, 2020. 15.OECD, PISA results for 2018, released December 3, 2019; https://www.oecd.org/pisa/publications/pisa-2018-results.htm. 16.Department of Health and Human Services, “Strategic Objective 5.3: Optimize Information Technology Investments to Improve Process Efficiency and Enable Innovation to Advance Program Mission Goals,” February 25, 2019, https://bit.ly/2WLdL8W. 17.“Shanghai Introduces QR Codes on Subway to Track Potential Contact with Coronavirus,” South China Morning Post, February 28, 2020. 18.Aditi Kumar and Eric Rosenbach, “Could China’s Digital Currency Unseat the Dollar?” Foreign Affairs, May 20, 2020. 19.Bloomberg: The Huawei barometer graphic. CONCLUSION: MAKING GOVERNMENT GREAT AGAIN 1.Daniel P. Moynihan, Coping: Essays on the Practice of Government (New York: Random House, 1973), 255–56. 2.John Authers, “How Coronavirus Is Shaking Up the Moral Universe,” Bloomberg, March 29, 2020, and “The Golden Rule Is Dying of Covid,” Bloomberg, May 30, 2020. 3.John Stuart Mill, Three Essays (Oxford: Oxford Univ.


pages: 275 words: 84,980

Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin: From Money That We Understand to Money That Understands Us (Perspectives) by David Birch

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, creative destruction, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, large denomination, M-Pesa, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, Northern Rock, Pingit, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Real Time Gross Settlement, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, social graph, special drawing rights, technoutopianism, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, Washington Consensus, wikimedia commons

That’s nearly $3 trillion a year in mobile payments, fed by the simple and widespread use of QR codes. As an aside, the telcos are hoping that ‘new’ technology will bring them back into the game. China Mobile, the country’s biggest carrier, is focusing on NFC, but I suspect that Bluetooth, WiFi and other technologies will come along too. The ‘last millimetre’ problem is fading. Chinese e-payment volumes, 2Q16. (Source: China Daily, November 2016.) Meanwhile, as shown in figure 29, banks are not doing too well out of the mobile-centric electronic payments revolution in China. The country provides a window into the ‘cardmageddon’ (the time at which cards will cease to dominate non-cash retail payments by volume) that is approaching in developed markets. Since Chinese consumers switched to using those third-party QR code services, the banks lost something in the region of $20 billion in fees income in 2015 (Wildau 2016).

To my surprise and delight the clerk told me that they did not accept cash after 7 pm and that it was cards only, so I bought a large chocolate bar as well to reward the store for their forward-thinking policy. There was not a single shop, restaurant, taxi or fast-food joint that I visited on my trip that needed cash. I saw plenty of contactless terminals and even a couple of vending machines that accepted mobile payments, contactless cards and (bizarrely) coins. I wanted to give a local QR code payment service, QuickTap, a try as well because it looked quite interesting but when I tried to download the app nothing happened. Maybe you have to be logged in to the NZ iTunes store or something ridiculous like that. Anyway, now that banks and the mobile operators have got together to launch an NFC service, I’ll use that instead. New Zealand is an advanced country that illustrates one of my all-time favourite quotes, from William Gibson’s ‘cyberpunk’ masterpiece Count Zero, about a future in which ‘it wasn’t actually illegal to have [cash], it was just that nobody ever did anything legitimate with it’.


Bit by Bit: How P2P Is Freeing the World by Jeffrey Tucker

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, altcoin, bank run, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, informal economy, invisible hand, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, obamacare, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, TaskRabbit, the payments system, uber lyft

Or maybe his regression theorem is proof that bitcoin is just an empty mania with no staying power, because it can’t be reduced to its value as a useful commodity. And yet, you don’t have to resort to complicated monetary theory in order to understand the sense of alarm surrounding bitcoin. Many people, as I did, just have a feeling of uneasiness about a money that has no basis in anything physical. Sure, you can print out a bitcoin on a piece of paper, but having a paper with a QR code or a public key is not enough to relieve that sense of unease. How can we resolve this problem? In my own mind, I toyed with the issue for more than a year. It puzzled me. I wondered if Mises’s insight applied only in a predigital age. I followed the speculations online that the value of bitcoin would be zero but for the national currencies into which it is converted. Perhaps the demand for bitcoin overcame the demands of Mises’ scenario because of a desperate need for something other than the dollar.

But then you have to get an email address, and you have to pay some fairly high fees, and the service isn’t really set up for casual friend-to-friend payments. It can happen but not without some difficulty. The other night I was out with friends at a bitcoin conference. At this event, most everyone had a bitcoin wallet. When the check came, it was super easy and wonderfully fun to split. You hold up your phone, scan the QR code from another phone or allow your code to be scanned, and send or receive whatever amounts are necessary to pay what you need to pay. The process is a delight. This works even if the establishment doesn’t accept bitcoin. One person accepts the bill and everyone else pays via bitcoin. No more excuses about lacking cash or promises to pay later. The whole problem of the shared check is solved right there on the spot.


pages: 478 words: 146,480

Pirate Cinema by Cory Doctorow

airport security, citation needed, Internet Archive, place-making, QR code, smart cities, Thomas Bayes

Now we were first, and we'd have to stay up and running for as long as we could. I didn't know what was going on with my zeroed-out mates, but I was surely hoping that they got it sorted quickly. I texted another "1" to the projector crew and held my breath. Then I let it go in a whoosh as the opening frames of my beautiful, wonderful, perfect video started rolling on the crenelated walls of the Commons. We'd superimposed a QR code on the top right corner of the frame, and it rotated every ten seconds; each 2D barcode translated into the URL of a different mirror of the video with the embedded TheyWorkForYou stats. The little battery-powered video player plugged into the projector was programmed to roll the video, wait a random interval between ten and two hundred seconds, then roll it again. The first time it ran, I craned my neck around 26's trembling biceps to see if I could see the crowd reacting.

"Let's go," I said. It was only when we got to the Bridge Street corner that we dared to turn around. The crowd that had gathered had already started to disperse, but we could see it was in the hundreds. More importantly, when I powered up my own mobile and looked at the server logs for our video landing pages, I could see that we'd got fifteen thousand views in the past ten minutes -- as people picked up the QR code and sent them around to their mates, and so on -- and this was accelerating. Now the mission phone buzzed again. It was the rooftop, also transmitting 1. I wondered what was happening to Rob in the garage. As it turned out, he was being arrested. Having dropped the reflector and smashed it to flinders, Rob found himself without much to do. So he fell back to plan Z: he rang Aziz on his own phone and told him what had happened.

When Hester and Lenny sidled up alongside of us with their sheepish grins, we knew we weren't the only ones who lacked the discipline of hardcore urban paramilitary guerrillas. This was our greatest opening ever, and we wanted to be there. Luckily, there was a damn huge crowd to get lost in. Westminster Bridge was well rammed with gawpers, staring at the looping video on the side of Parliament, holding up their phones to video it or get the QR code and visit the site. "How'd you go, then?" Hester said, her eyes shining. "I think we did all right," I said. "Brilliantly," 26 confirmed. "How about you?" Hester assumed a mien of absolute nonchalance. "Nothing too collywobbly," she said. "Bit of running around, though, yeah?" She gestured at Lenny. "This one could bring home the gold for Great Britain in the half-mile men's depulsion.


Backbone.js Cookbook by Vadim Mirgorod

Airbnb, create, read, update, delete, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MVC pattern, QR code, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, web application

PhoneGap allows you to create one private application for free. 7. After the project is pulled out from the GitHub repository, click on the Ready to Build button, which launches the building process for multiple platforms. To build an application for iOS or Blackberry, you are required to enter a developer's key. 235 Special Techniques 8. Now, the project is ready to be downloaded. You can do it by scanning the QR code on a mobile device. The QR code contains a link to your application. However, for many platforms, you need to place the built app on a special application market 9. When you are ready to build a new version of the application, click on the Update Code button, and then click on the Rebuild All button. See also ff Please refer to official PhoneGap docs at http://docs.phonegap.com/en/ edge/index.html Organizing a project structure with Require.js In this recipe, we are going to use the Asynchronous Module Definition (AMD) technique that is implemented in Require.js, the JavaScript library, which helps to bring more order into your project.


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

Ever since we abandoned the gold standard, all national currencies have run on trust. We accept sterling or dollars because we believe others will. And people trust bitcoin and the maths that underpins it. At the institute’s cafe the staff were paid in bitcoin; rent collected for their co-working space was paid in bitcoin, too. I was given a little plastic card with a QR code, and transferred bitcoin on to it using one of three yellow ATM machines. From that point on, every time I wanted anything I just scanned the QR code. A coffee. Ping! A Red Bull. Ping! Some goulash. Ping! A postcard of Edward Snowden. Ping! I didn’t use my koruna once.* Bitcoin is more than just money, though: it’s a new way of handling information. Bear with me on this short-but-important technical detour. Every time someone sends a bitcoin payment to a recipient, a record of the transaction is stored in something called the blockchain, a huge database of every bitcoin transaction ever made.


Beautiful Visualization by Julie Steele

barriers to entry, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, database schema, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, index card, information retrieval, iterative process, linked data, Mercator projection, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, semantic web, social graph, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, web application, wikimedia commons

The Visual Principle This motivation led me first to explore dense pixel mosaic displays (Keim 2000), following the idea that I would like to see one visual marker for each individual submission. To get a sense of how many points I could fit on a standard screen, I did some quick tests using random data (see Figure 13-9). Figure 13-9. Experimenting with dense pixel displays I found the results quite encouraging and decided to investigate further by looking at QR codes.[5] Could we actually build QR codes with meaningful URLs that also worked as area- or pixel-based data graphics? Another idea was to do something along the lines of Wattenberg’s (2005) colored segments of space-filling curves to produce diagrams similar to treemaps (so-called “jigsaw maps”). The real eureka moment, however, came when I remembered a placement algorithm I had used in an earlier project. Computed on the basis of the golden angle (the angle corresponding to a “golden section” of a full circle, or 137.5 degrees), it imitates the arrangement of sunflower seeds—the most efficient and visually mesmerizing way of packing small elements into a large circle.

Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society. [1] See http://well-formed-data.net/archives/306/dbcounter-quick-visual-database-stats. [2] See http://www.tableausoftware.com. [3] See http://berglondon.com/blog/2009/10/23/toiling-in-the-data-mines-what-data-exploration-feels-like/. [4] See http://flare.prefuse.org. [5] See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/QR_Code. [6] See http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2008/08/04/sports/olympics/20080804_MEDALCOUNT_MAP.html. [7] See http://mapspread.com. [8] All visualizations are documented online at http://vis.mediaartresearch.at. [9] A term first coined by Lev Manovich and explicated in detail in Lau and Vande Moere (2007). [10] As defined by William Lidwell (2009).


pages: 260 words: 67,823

Always Day One: How the Tech Titans Plan to Stay on Top Forever by Alex Kantrowitz

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, hive mind, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, new economy, Peter Thiel, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, wealth creators, zero-sum game

He grabbed a product from a rack, dropped it into a bin, the robot scurried off, the next robot stopped by, a section of the rack lit up, he grabbed a product from that section, and off the robot went. It all moved very quickly. Advanced software under the hood makes the process run smoothly. The robots move through the FC by reading QR codes scattered across the floor. When a robot passes over a code, it’s instructed either to wait or to move to the next QR code, where it’s given more instructions. The system knows how fast each picker and stower works, and automatically sends more robots to the faster workers and fewer to the slower ones. At another FC I visited, in Kent, Washington, the robots stop in front of cameras that scan the racks, assess the amount of space left (using computer vision), and determine when they should be sent back for more stowing (or sent to a problem-solving team when items look askew).


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

This means that big data is coming to marketing, and the insights that we will soon have available to us—at the business level—will make what we’re spending on computers, servers, and capital infrastructure pale in comparison. This will finally give us true knowledge of what it takes to acquire customers and keep them. Consumers are already demonstrating their desires in this area by using their smartphones to do everything from scanning QR codes to sharing their experiences with their peers on Facebook and Twitter. When you combine their usage (the linear data) with the circular data (what they’re doing in their social graph), and with all of this new big data trending information, it’s easy to see how much this will affect everything we know about connecting to our consumers. BE ACCOUNTABLE TO YOUR BRAND. Imagine a day when you could have all of the data and analytics you have ever wanted.

The big difference in these subway virtual stores was that the shopping was 100 percent mobile. Homeplus is the number two supermarket in South Korea (after E-Mart) and was looking for a new and innovative way to become number one without increasing their number of stores. Because of the intense work ethic of Koreans, Homeplus decided to bring the store to these very busy people. Shoppers could download the Homeplus app, and by scanning the QR codes beneath each food item on these virtual walls, Koreans could turn their waiting time into productive shopping time. If orders were placed before the afternoon, Homeplus would be able to deliver the groceries on the same day. Yes, Koreans are early technology adopters and have a culture that engenders this type of technological sampling, but it speaks volumes to our ever-changing world and adoption of mobile technology.


pages: 411 words: 127,755

Advertisers at Work by Tracy Tuten

accounting loophole / creative accounting, centre right, crowdsourcing, follow your passion, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, QR code, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs

We have work airing in China. It is far and away the hardest thing we have done. We’ve worked on it both night and day. We’re really proud of what our team and our clients have created. Tuten: When you look around the industry, what’s most surprising to you? Raih: There is a sea change when you look around the industry seemingly daily. You know, even a month ago, we would talk about QR codes 7 and I would argue that QR codes are already passé. That is just one example of how quickly tools and platforms and ways to tell stories are changing. We as an industry have been asked to be creative in the medium and now that is not enough. We need to be creative in the delivery of the message. Tuten: With the nonstop news and industry developments, how do you stay up-to-date on what’s happening? Raih: At Zambezi, we try to keep the collective IQ high.

Everything kind of took care of itself—knee bone connected to the hip bone and here come the sales. Now there are so many tools, choices, and opportunities to avoid or ignore paid media. To overcome this, the trend is to provoke and to try to create the belief in relevance around the brands you are working with. The key is to really try to distill the problem and solutions. We are always after a good idea. A good idea is a good idea. With it, we can figure out what screen to put it on. A QR code is not a good idea. It is one potential arrow in the quiver. It is not an idea. Start with the idea. Then we will find the right production partners to put it on the most pertinent screens. Tuten: Give me an example of one of Zambezi’s great ideas. Raih: I would say one piece that was pretty funny is our work with vitaminwater. We worked with vitaminwater last fall on a fantasy football campaign.


pages: 378 words: 94,468

Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power

air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

Just ten years previously, most drug users could choose from heroin, cocaine, LSD, marijuana and hashish, and amphetamines or Ecstasy. Matthew sold five different kinds of synthetic marijuana, a heroin analogue, several hallucinogens, three or four versions of drugs that were like cocaine and many more. He was an early adopter of Twitter, using the microblogging site to inform customers of sales and offers and promotions, and was one of the first people in any trade to use QR codes – the scannable, almost bitmapped black-and-white icons that, when scanned and decrypted, would send customers to secret URLs on his site that had special deals. He remained sober while working, and ensured that all of his staff did too. His own drug habits while not working are a topic he chooses not to discuss. The real enabler in the whole trade, he says, was the willingness of Canadian e-wallet firm AlertPay to process credit card payments for these drugs.

., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Niemoller, Mark, 1 nitrous oxide, 1 Nixon, Richard, 1, 2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), 1 nootropics, 1 norephrenine, 1 norketamine, 1, 2 Norris, Charles, 1 NRG-1 and NRG-2, 1 nuclear magnetic resonance, 1, 2, 3 nutmeg, 1 Nutt, David, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2, 3, 4 Operation Adam Bomb, 1 Operation Ismene, 1, 2, 3 Operation Kitley, 1 Operation Pipe Dream, 1 Operation Web Tryp, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 opium, 1 O’Reilly, Tim, 1 organized crime, 1, 2, 3 Orthopedics, 1 Osmond, Humphrey Fortescue, 1, 2, 3 Otwell, Clayton, 1 Oxycodone, 1 packet-switching, 1, 2 Panorama, 1 paracetamol, 1 Parkinson’s, 1 Parry, Simon, 1 party pills, 1 PayPal, 1, 2, 3, 4 Payza, 1 Pecunix, 1 pentylone, 1, 2 pesticides/herbicides, 1, 2 peyote, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 pharmacokinetics, 1 phenazepam, 1 phenethylamines, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Pillreports.com, 1 Pink Floyd, 1 piperazines, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 piperidines, 1 piperonal, 1 piracetam, 1 Platt, Lord, 1 PMA, 1, 2 PMK, 1 Poland, 1, 2 Poppo, Ronald, 1 Portugal, 1 potassium permanganate, 1 Preisler, Steve (Uncle Fester), 1, 2 Price, Gabrielle, 1 Princess Bride, The, 1 Project MKultra, 1 Prozac, 1, 2 psilocin, 1, 2 Psilocybe cubensis, 1 Psilocybe semilanceata (liberty caps), 1 psilocybin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 see also magic mushrooms psychiatric patients, treated with LSD, 1 Punch, 1 punks, 1 Pursat, 1 QR codes, 1 Quick Kill, 1 Rachmaninov, Sergei, 1, 2 Ramsey, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Reding, Viviane, 1 Register, The, 1 Reid, Brian, 1 Reid, Fergal, 1 Research Chemical Mailing List (RCML), 1 research chemicals, 1 arrival of legal highs, 1 custom syntheses, 1, 2 growth in availability, 1 and law enforcement, 1 new compounds statistics, 1 online sales, 1 overdoses and mislabelling, 1, 2, 3 and retail market, 1 and substance displacement, 1 users, 1 Reynolds, Simon, 1 ring substitution, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Ritalin, 1 Robbins, Joshua, 1 Robinson-Davis, Trevor, 1 Rolling Stone, 1 Russia, 1 Ryan, Mark, 1 Sabag, Doron, 1 Sabet, Kevin, 1 safrole, 1, 2, 3, 4 salmonella, 1 Saltoun, Lord, 1 Salvia divinorum, 1, 2 Sandison, Ronald, 1 sannyasin, 1 Santos, Juan Manuel, 1 sapo, 1 sarin, 1 Saunders, Nicholas, 1, 2 Saunders, Rene, 1 Schumer, Senator Charles, 1 sclerotia (truffles), 1 scopolamine, 1 Scroggins, Justin Steven, 1 Second World War, 1 Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA), 1, 2, 3 serotonin, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 serotonin syndrome, 1, 2 Shafer, Jack, 1 Shamen, the, 1 Shanghai, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Shen-Nung, Emperor, 1 Shepton Mallet, 1, 2 Shulgin, Alexander creation of MDMA, 1, 2, 3, 4 creation of methylone, 1 and drug legislation, 1 internet presence, 1 PIHKAL and TIHKAL, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and sex, 1, 2 The Shulgin Index, 1 Shulgin, Ann, 1 Shultes, Richard Evans, 1 Silk Road, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 SKUNK!


pages: 135 words: 26,407

How to DeFi by Coingecko, Darren Lau, Sze Jin Teh, Kristian Kho, Erina Azmi, Tm Lee, Bobby Ong

algorithmic trading, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, buy and hold, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, information retrieval, litecoin, margin call, new economy, passive income, payday loans, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, smart contracts, tulip mania, two-sided market

You will be given a Secret Backup Phrase NEVER lose it NEVER show it to anyone If you lose the phrase, you can’t retrieve it If anyone else has it, they are able to access your wallet and do anything with it Step 6 You will be prompted to write the given secret backup phrase to confirm that you have noted it down Step 7 Congratulations! Your wallet is now created! You can use it to store Ethereum and ERC20 tokens Step 8 Below is your public key or your Ethereum address to your wallet Your QR code can be scanned if anyone wants to send you coins. ~ Recommended Readings Argent: The quick start guide (Matthew Wright) https://medium.com/argenthqargent-the-quick-start-guide-13541ce2b1fb A new era for crypto security (Itamar Lesuisse) https://medium.com/argenthq/a-new-era-for-crypto-security-57909a095ae3 A Complete Beginner’s Guide to Using MetaMask (Ian Lee) https://www.coingecko.com/buzz/complete-beginners-guide-to-metamask MyCrypto’s Security Guide For Dummies And Smart People Too (Taylor Monahan) https://medium.com/mycrypto/mycryptos-security-guide-for-dummies-and-smart-people-too-ab178299c82e Part Three: Deep Diving Into DeFi Chapter Five: Decentralized Stablecoins The prices of cryptocurrencies are extremely volatile.


pages: 571 words: 106,255

The Bitcoin Standard: The Decentralized Alternative to Central Banking by Saifedean Ammous

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, conceptual framework, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, delayed gratification, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Gilder, global reserve currency, high net worth, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, iterative process, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, market clearing, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Network effects, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, QR code, ransomware, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, secular stagnation, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Stanford marshmallow experiment, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging‐in‐Publication Data is Available: ISBN 9781119473862 (Hardcover) ISBN 9781119473893 (ePDF) ISBN 9781119473916 (ePub) Cover Design: Wiley Cover Images: REI stone © Danita Delimont/Getty Images; gold bars © Grassetto/Getty Images; QR code/Courtesy of Saifedean Ammous To my wife and daughter, who give me a reason to write. And to Satoshi Nakamoto, who gave me something worth writing about. About the Author Saifedean Ammous is a Professor of Economics at the Lebanese American University and member of the Center on Capitalism and Society at Columbia University. He holds a PhD in Sustainable Development from Columbia University.

Chapter 10 Bitcoin Questions With the economic basics of the operation of Bitcoin explained in Chapter 8, and the main potential use cases of Bitcoin discussed in Chapter 9, a few of the most salient questions surrounding Bitcoin's operation are examined here. Is Bitcoin Mining a Waste? Anyone who joins the Bitcoin network generates a public address and a private key. These are analogous to an email address and its password: people can send you bitcoins to your public address while you use your private key to send bitcoins from your balance. These addresses can also be presented in Quick Response (QR) code format. When a transaction is made, the sender broadcasts it to all other network members (nodes), who can verify the sender has enough bitcoins to fulfill it, and that he has not spent these coins on another transaction. Once the transaction is validated by a majority of the CPU behind the network, it is inscribed onto the common ledger shared by all network members, allowing all members to update the balance of the two transacting members.


pages: 390 words: 109,870

Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett

Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism

Afghanistan—and then a similar experience working in Libya with rebels fighting Gaddafi—turned her into a fully committed anarchist who thought state power was the root of most of the world’s problems.17 In 2013 a former US military employee told her about bitcoin, and she immediately thought that it was a way to circumnavigate the state entirely. Bitcoin, which was invented in 2009, is digital cash, just a string of numbers. Anyone can download a bitcoin wallet or QR code on to their computer or phone, buy bitcoins with traditional currency from a currency exchange and use them to buy or sell a growing number of products and services as easily as sending an email. Transactions are secure, fast and free, with no central authority controlling value or supply, and no middlemen taking a slice. You don’t even have to give your real name to start up an account. Bitcoin wrestles control of the money supply away from the state.

All I had to do was agree with the Bitnation constitution, which is a twelve-line poem, and sign up on the site.22 I input my age, height and a photo, two witnesses watched and typed in their names, and that generated a ‘World Citizenship ID’. A ‘hash’ of this ID (a unique string of numbers that can be used, in conjunction with a key, to re-create the original file) was then uploaded onto a blockchain, where it will now stay, unchanged, forever. Here’s my QR code: Several services are available to the Bitnation citizen. As I was travelling across Europe with Tommy Robinson and Pegida UK, campaigning against Angela Merkel’s open stance toward refugees, Susanne was working on a project to help them. She realised most refugees had no ID, which meant they couldn’t prove who they were or access any services. She started offering IDs to refugees, in the hope that countries would accept them (she even presented it to the United Nations, but little came of it).


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

One of the primary reasons the credit card was invented was to give people with money the ability to increase the utility of that money by giving them a card that could be used to make a purchase, rather than their having to go to their bank to withdraw the necessary amount of cash. In the modern world, credit cards also enable them to act on impulse. Let’s look at another scenario. Tesco in South Korea created a virtual store in the subway where commuters can buy their groceries out of a virtual wall. Consumers only need to scan QR codes with their smartphones and products are added to their virtual cart and then delivered to their homes as soon as they are back. Figure 6.3: Tesco subway customer in South Korea ordering groceries on his phone Therefore the mobile’s real strength lies in the device’s ability to plug the individual into the utility of money in a way that is contextual to the purchase use case. There is far less risk in our daily Starbucks purchase than the purchase of a new 60-inch LED TV, therefore the user experience should reflect the complexity and context of each individual situation.

Suddenly Chip and PIN is not an issue for the US as it skips an entire generation of technology and goes straight to mobile-enabled POS. Ironically, the second viable technology utilising either an application IP-based or call-based solution is workable right now today, without any development of a supporting platform. There are already providers in the market that supply secure authentication utilising both methods without even the need for a POS terminal at all. We’ve discussed Square, PAYware, PayPalHere and others such as QR-code-based payment options already. Which of these two methods, i.e. NFC or phone-based, or application/call-based will come out on top? Neither. It will be a combination of the two, but over time the simplicity of NFC will win out for real-time interactions at the retailer’s store or at the train station, for example, whereas application technology will work for virtual stores. QR/Semacodes and other such methods could also be used, as could a Google Glass-type technology with our camera in our app phone, where we take an image of an advertisement we see on a billboard and have the option of purchasing that item or product through the mobile internet.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Using Guardtime’s large scale keyless data authentication, in combination with a distributed ledger, citizens carry their ID credentials which unlock access to their healthcare records in real-time. From that point forward, the blockchain ensures a clear chain of custody, and it keeps a register of anyone who touches these records, while ensuring that compliance process is maintained.9 Other healthcare usages might include: Using a combination of multisignature processes and QR codes, we can grant specific access of our medical record or parts of it, to authorized healthcare providers. Sharing our patient data in the aggregate, while anonymizing it to ensure privacy is maintained. This is helpful in research, and for comparing similar cases against one another. Recording and time-stamping delivery of medical procedures or events, in order to reduce insurance fraud, facilitate compliance and verification of services being rendered.


pages: 458 words: 135,206

CTOs at Work by Scott Donaldson, Stanley Siegel, Gary Donaldson

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, centre right, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, distributed generation, domain-specific language, glass ceiling, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, pattern recognition, Pluto: dwarf planet, QR code, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, thinkpad, web application, zero day, zero-sum game

We did this video that was kind of funny. It was a spoof of “Star Wars,” and one of the things we did was about QR [quick response] codes. Suppose a device stopped working. Well, what I would normally have to do is go look at the device number, go log on. Basically, we had an app where you could take a picture of the QR code with your cell phone, and it would go into the asset management system, pull up the record, and then you could take a picture of your badge, which had a QR code on it, and then that would tell you who the submitter was. My advanced technology group team did a proof of concept of using facial recognition with a cell phone camera for authentication. So it allows things like this that you would never have been able to do before. But one trend that is really profound has two facets.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The giant retailer is also expanding its Scan and Go self-checkout system in 40 of its stores in the Denver, Colorado, area. Shoppers scan the bar code of the products they take off the shelves on their iPhone app before putting them in their shopping carts. When they are finished shopping, they press the “done” button and the app provides them with a custom QR (quick response) code. The self-checkout terminal scans the QR code on the smart phone, adds up the price of the items, and asks the customer to pick a payment option.26 Despite efforts by brick-and-mortar retailers to automate more and more of their operations to reduce their labor costs, they continue to lose ground to online retailers whose marginal labor costs are heading to near zero. On the surface, brick-and-mortar sales appear healthy, if not robust.

., 122–123 Personal Genome Project, 180 The Philosophy of Money (Simmel), 259 phone, importance of, 49–51 population, key to stabilization of, 285 poverty, 21, 107–112, 209, 264, 275–278, 283–286 print, and the impact it had on the way we do business, 35–36, 178–179 printing press(es), 33–37, 44–45 privacy, age of, 75–77 property relations, notion of, 30–32 prosumer(s) ascent of the, 135–151 beyond governments and markets, 150–151 and the clean web, 144–147 definition of, 4, 90 and free wi-fi for everyone, 147–149 and power to the people, 138–144 protests to reclaim the public Commons, 187–188 QR code, 127 Quigg, Donald J., 166 rallying around free software, 174–177 Raspberry Pi, 80 Raymond, Eric S., 176–177 RelayRides, 228 rental(s)/renting. see social capital and the sharing economy reputation rankings on the web, 257–259 reviews, consumer-generated, 248–249 Rifkin, Milton, 305–306, 309 rise in collaborative innovation, 21 Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, 212–213 Rockefeller, John D., 48–49 Rose, Carol, 157–158 Rowe, Jonathan 190 Royal Dutch Shell, 49, 54, 142 Ruben, Andy, 237–238 Rural Electric Administration (REA), 209–210 Say, Jean-Baptiste, 3 Say’s Law, 3 scarcity. see abundance Schelgel, Heather, 262 Scherzer, Norman, 243 Schlatter, Richard, 30, 62 Schor, Juliet, 280 Schumacher, E.


pages: 353 words: 355

The Long Boom: A Vision for the Coming Age of Prosperity by Peter Schwartz, Peter Leyden, Joel Hyatt

American ideology, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, computer age, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, hydrogen economy, industrial cluster, informal economy, intangible asset, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, open borders, Productivity paradox, QR code, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Y2K

HE could EVEN RelEAse ThE SOURCE CodE foR WiwdoWS ANd ThEREfoRE his SO'CAllgd MONOpoly of TliE pER' SON A! COMpUTER WOfild. This OPTION could ACTUAlly help solve SOME NAqqiNq psoblEMs. COMPUTER code WAS bEcowiNq so cowplex ThAT ThE bEST WAy TO solve ThE pRoblews ARisiNq FROM cowplExiiy WAS TO open The code up TO All ACROSS ThE NET. Also CUSTOMERS WER dEMANdiNq iNTEROpERAbiliTy ANd The AbiliTy TO TAJ|QR codE TO ThEiu NEtds. By 36 The Lowq BOOM purrinq ITS codi ON T!HE INTERNET, MICROSOFT would fully MOVE INTO the INTERNET ERA ANd IEAVE behiNd Ths PC ERA T!W IT hAd dowiiWEd, Ths cowpANy woul ThfiN COMPETE ON The QUAliTy ANd PRICE Of ITS AppliCATIONS ThAT RAN ON T^E COM' WON BASE code, IT would Rise Awd fftll ON ITS SERVICE ANd The QENUINE value IT bRouqhT TO ThE MAfikerplACE. IT would Rely ON ITS AbiliTy TO coNSTANTty INNOVATE ANd REINVENT JTSilf.


pages: 144 words: 55,142

Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook by Cherie L. Weible, Karen L. Janke

Firefox, information retrieval, Internet Archive, late fees, optical character recognition, pull request, QR code, transaction costs, Works Progress Administration

This collection presents a complete view of the interlibrary loan (ILL) process, with contributions from all areas of the technical services community, providing • Guidance on how to do ILL efficiently and effectively, with advice on being a considerate borrower and lender • Details of preferred staffing and management techniques, showing how best practices can be implemented at any institution • Discussion of important issues that can fall between the cracks, such as hidden copyright issues, and the logistics of lending internationally As consortia and other library partnerships share ever larger fractions of their collections, this book gives library staff the tools necessary for a smoothly functioning ILL system. InterlibrarY Loan Practices handbook, 3rd Ed. You may also be interested in InterlibrarY Loan Practices handbook Third Edition Weibleâ•… /â•… Janke American Library Association / alastore.ala.org 50 E. Huron Street, Chicago, IL 60611 1 (866) SHOPALA (866) 746-7252 Scan this QR code to go to the ALA Online Store from your smartphone (app required). ISBN 978-0-8389-1081-8 9 780838 910818 Edited by Cherié L. Weible & Karen L. Janke


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, longitudinal study, means of production, Mitch Kapor, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, QR code, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

TSC is arming major retailers like Walmart, Tesco, Marks & Spencer, and Ahold, among others, to work with their suppliers to change how we as consumers can access more sustainable products. They are creating the infrastructure to support sustainable products at a massive scale. The market-moving power of TSC is tremendous—together they employ well over fifty-seven million people and their combined revenues total over $1.5 trillion.7 The goal is eventually to communicate this information directly to consumers through a product label or scannable QR code, much like the nutrition labeling that is required in many markets today. In the not-so-distant future, when buying a T-shirt, laundry detergent, or even wine, consumers will be able to make informed choices in a much more standardized way than they can now. And though the sustainable goods market is now crossing over to the more risk-averse populations, there is still much more work to be done before it can reach the hardest-to-reach groups.


pages: 561 words: 163,916

The History of the Future: Oculus, Facebook, and the Revolution That Swept Virtual Reality by Blake J. Harris

4chan, airport security, Anne Wojcicki, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, computer vision, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, financial independence, game design, Grace Hopper, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Peter Thiel, QR code, sensor fusion, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, white picket fence

Iribe and Abrash were, by far, the most sensitive with regard to simulator sickness at their respective companies. Each could only spend about a minute in DK1 without feeling queasy. So as much as he admired Abrash, and knew Abrash to be above technological exaggeration, Iribe was skeptical that Valve had put together a demo that wouldn’t turn his stomach. That skepticism heightened when Abrash brought him into a small, low-ceilinged room that was empty save for the following: Dozens of black-and-white QR-code-like fiducial markers plastered up and down the wall A bulky headset with exposed circuit boards and loose cables A man seated in the corner of the room, sitting behind a computer: Atman Binstock “I’m going to run you through the demo,” Binstock explained, then typed a few commands into his computer and suddenly—whoosh!—Iribe was transported to a virtual space where hundreds of small cubes hung suspended in the air.

Amidst applause from the audience, and the Valve logo now lighting up the screen behind Chou, he talked about how “Virtual reality will become a mainstream experience for the consumer” and then introduced HTC’s first-generation consumer VR product: the HTC Vive. In contrast to the “seated experience” that the Oculus Rift would offer, the HTC Vive promised a “room scale experience”—allowing users to move freely around an environment of up to 15 x 15 feet. In this respect, the Vive appeared to be almost like a next-gen version of the “Valve Room”; and this time, instead of all those crazy QR codes, the Vive needed only a pair of “SteamVR base stations” to track an entire room. “But that’s not all . . .” announced HTC’s Executive Director of Global Marketing, after following Chou on stage. “We realize that the promise of virtual reality only truly becomes real when we can put product in the hand of consumers. To that end, we are thrilled to share that HTC will deliver a consumer product before this year ends.”


pages: 254 words: 69,276

The Metric Society: On the Quantification of the Social by Steffen Mau

Airbnb, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, connected car, crowdsourcing, double entry bookkeeping, future of work, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, mittelstand, moral hazard, personalized medicine, positional goods, principal–agent problem, profit motive, QR code, reserve currency, school choice, selection bias, sharing economy, smart cities, the scientific method, Uber for X, web of trust, Wolfgang Streeck

Giving the thumbs up or down, allocating marks or scores and compiling league tables, as opposed to describing, weighing up or simply absorbing impressions. Examples are legion: every day, we are prompted to rate the cleanliness of public toilets, the quality of hotel breakfast buffets (with eight subcategories) or the friendliness of taxi drivers. Passengers on the Deutsche Bahn are invited by a scannable QR code sticker on the seat in front of them to ‘Please rate your journey with us today’. In public places – whether at the bank or in the airport customs queue – we find more and more HappyOrNot terminals (‘Our Smileys for your business – because happy customers inspire change’) where we can register our satisfaction or dissatisfaction by pressing a button. The evaluation cult is rife, binding us continually to metrics of measurement, evaluation and comparison.


pages: 246 words: 68,392

Gigged: The End of the Job and the Future of Work by Sarah Kessler

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, financial independence, future of work, game design, gig economy, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, law of one price, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, payday loans, post-work, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Some of them were rich, some poor, some had power, and some didn’t. Its impact on each of them was different. The chapters of this book alternate between five of their stories. It’s not intended to be a complete, bird’s-eye view of the gig economy. Any economy is built by humans, and this book is about them. PART I THE END OF THE JOB CHAPTER 1 A VERY OLD NEW IDEA At South by Southwest 2011, the napkins featured QR codes. Flyers rained down from party balconies, and the grilled cheese—provided by group messaging app GroupMe—was free. Startups looked forward to the tech-focused “Interactive” portion of the famous music festival in Austin, Texas, like a popular high school student looks forward to the prom. One of the new companies among them, it was widely assumed, would be crowned a “breakout hit,” just as Twitter had once “broken out” by introducing its app to the tech-savvy SXSW crowd.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

As usual they wanted to increase their profits, the typical approach would require them to build more stores in order to reach E-marts level of distribution in the country; but they decided to opt for a different strategy, one that uses more automation and less workers. Picture yourself in Korea going to work. You have got a few things to buy for dinner, but have no time. So you take the subway, and while waiting for the next train to arrive you see the walls covered with displays that look exactly like a supermarket. Just grab your cell phone, chose what you want, scan the QR code, checkout. When you come back home, you will find your grocery delivered on your doorstep. Quite convenient, is not it? Here are the results of the experiment that took place last year: online sales between November 2010 and January 2011 increased by 130%, with the number of registered members rising by 76%. Home plus had become the number one online store and has raised the stakes in the offline market40.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

Satoshi tends to use British spellings – so the American ‘labor’ or ‘flavor’ will be ‘labour’ and ‘flavour’; the American ‘modernize’ or ‘formalize’ will be ‘modernise’ and ‘formalise’114 – although he is inconsistent in this regard. For example, ‘decentralized’ is sometimes spelt with a ‘z’. In UK English, either is acceptable. Several times he refers to a ‘mobile’ rather than the American ‘cell phone’. For example, ‘The cash register displays a QR-code encoding a bitcoin address and amount on a screen and you photo it with your mobile.’115 He says ‘maths’ not the American ‘math’.116 He refers to ‘flats’ rather than ‘apartments’.117 Consider the following quote from Satoshi: ’Sorry to be a wet blanket. Writing a description for (Bitcoin) for general audiences is bloody hard. There’s nothing to relate it to.’118 The use of ‘bloody’ as an expletive is common in Britain, Australia and even parts of Canada, but it is not so common in the United States, except among Anglophiles.


pages: 271 words: 62,538

The Best Interface Is No Interface: The Simple Path to Brilliant Technology (Voices That Matter) by Golden Krishna

Airbnb, computer vision, crossover SUV, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, impulse control, Inbox Zero, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, QR code, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator, Y2K

,” CNN, April 30, 2012. http://earlystart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/04/30/whats-trending-want-to-know-how-attractive-you-are-theres-an-app-for-that/ 23 Eoghan Macguire, “Save the Whales? There’s an App for That,” CNN, April 23, 2012. http://edition.cnn.com/2012/04/22/world/whale-iphone-app/index.html 24 “Dead? There’s an App for That,” CNN, April 18, 2012. http://www.cnn.com/video/?/video/us/2012/04/18/dnt-in-qr-code-tombstones.wlfi&iref=allsearch&video_referrer= 25 Paromita Shah, “Opinion: Being Arrested? Yes, there’s an App for That,” CNN, March 17, 2012. http://inamerica.blogs.cnn.com/2012/03/17/opinion-undocumented-immigration-being-arrested-app-for-that/ 26 Sanjay Gupta, MD, “Are You Sick? There’s an App for That!,” CNN, January 16, 2012. http://edition.cnn.com/videos/bestoftv/2012/01/16/exp-are-you-sick-theres-an-app-for-that.cnn 27 Karin Caifa, “New Year’s Eve: There’s an App for That,” CNN, December 30, 2011. http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/bestoftv/2011/12/30/nr-new-years-apps.cnn.html 28 Shanon Cook, “Sting’s Career?


Smart Cities, Digital Nations by Caspar Herzberg

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, business climate, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, demographic dividend, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, hive mind, Internet of things, knowledge economy, Masdar, megacity, New Urbanism, packet switching, QR code, remote working, RFID, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart meter, social software, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, X Prize

Bangalore’s workforce of 8,500 is young indeed, the single greatest concentration of Generation Y and Millennials in the global company. The “seamless” experience of IT applies here in a quality of work/life balance. The campus is open; workstations can be assigned by an employee’s preference for a particular day (as well as monitored for light, temperature, and other features) via personal devices and QR codes. Rather than unyielding forests of cubicles, employees can choose to work in gardens or conduct meetings in gaming centers or telepresence rooms. With an intramural system keeping track of the “reservations” for workspace, the campus is able to maximize space usage (it stands at approximately 58 percent as of late 2014).4 Bangalore’s promise lies in its combination of fluidity and density. The best of S+CC communities will contain their functions and sprawl to create tight, kinetic environments that are fluid and interactive.


pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, Joan Didion, John Gruber, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

what the future will look like a prescription for change epilogue why they’re not coming back acknowledgments notes and sources author’s note Dear Reader, This is not just a book but a unique reading experience. Online, through a computer or smart phone, you can access additional content for each chapter: videos, links to articles and research, and interactive experiences that enable you to delve deeper into the topics covered in that chapter, taking you beyond the printed page. At the beginning of each chapter you will see an image called a QR Code, just like the one above. Using a free application you can download from nickbilton.com you will be able to snap an image of these codes that will then take you to the additional content directly on your mobile phone. Become part of the I Live in the Future community by commenting on chapters of interest and joining a continuing discussion with me and your fellow readers online at nickbilton.com and with the free I Live in the Future app for iPhone and iPad.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, IKEA effect, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, private space industry, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

The CAD design of the object contains all the information the 3-D printer needs to figure out how to make it. The Homebrew Printing Club This all started in industrial tooling companies in the 1980s, but over the past decade the technology has spread to regular folk, just as the PC did. To see how, take the subway to an otherwise undistinguished part of Third Avenue in Brooklyn, and knock on the metal door with the big mobile-phone readable QR code on it. Wait for some stylishly disheveled young man to open it and let you in. Welcome to the Botcave. In this converted brewery, Bre Pettis, Zach Smith, and their team of hardware engineers at MakerBot Industries are making the first mainstream $1,000 3-D printers. Rather than using a laser, the MakerBot Thing-O-Matic printer builds up objects by squeezing out a 0.33-mm-thick thread of melted ABS plastic, which comes in multi-colored reels.


pages: 244 words: 81,334

Picnic Comma Lightning: In Search of a New Reality by Laurence Scott

4chan, Airbnb, airport security, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, clean water, colonial rule, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, housing crisis, Internet of things, Joan Didion, job automation, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, Productivity paradox, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, Y2K

In this gap between attraction and repulsion, we can feel the fluidity of our desires, their exquisite feebleness, and our own lack of both will and ability to be transported fully into the past. On one of these walking tours in particular, as a different collection of mortals straggle around Hodge, I see that the plinth bears a new sign. He has been enrolled in a ‘Talking Statues’ scheme. If you scan the QR code on the sign, you will receive a phone call. The cat will explain himself, in the meowing voice of Nicholas Parsons. Rather than being aloof, the statue has arrived in the present with a revived neediness. ‘Take a good15 look at me,’ he purrs, ‘examine my expression.’ In one sense, Parsons is taking over the job of our guide, an example of automation undermining the need for real-life, taxpaying workers.


Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, WikiLeaks, Works Progress Administration

Universal product codes (upc ), often referred to as barcodes, and quick response (qr ) codes (matrix or two-­dimensional barcodes) work as a sort of inverse in alignment with captcha , since barcodes are specifically designed for “the algorithmic eyes” of a machine and not for human eyes, while they additionally position users as the subjects of databases as well as of systems, institutions, and bureaucracies.88 Indeed, pattern codes like these represent an endgame of sorts for the genre of the document, a displacement of docer into the realm of the machine: not the end, but rather an end imagined within the repertoire of the so-­called posthuman. Scan the barcode on a product label or the qr code on an airline boarding pass, and the know-­show function of the document in question is in a sense self-­allegorized by numerical processing within the relevant system architecture.89 Not quite text (from a reader’s standpoint) and not entirely image (at the scanner), barcodes like these require a fixity that makes them perfect content for pdf s as well as for paper. So the document persists. Like Harpel’s specimens of ink shaped by specimens of labor, barcodes must inhabit or adhere to a page or page image, like the product label stuck on a tangerine or the boarding pass held open on a smartphone.


pages: 304 words: 91,566

Bitcoin Billionaires: A True Story of Genius, Betrayal, and Redemption by Ben Mezrich

"side hustle", airport security, Albert Einstein, bank run, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buttonwood tree, cryptocurrency, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, game design, Isaac Newton, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, offshore financial centre, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, QR code, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, zero-sum game

The kid was something else; he was clearly smart and scrappy but a total whirling dervish. One thing was for sure, this wasn’t some startup in the Valley looking to court seed funding from the cabal of pleated khaki pants on Sand Hill Road—this was different. “Bitcoin, the digital currency, with a lowercase b,” Voorhees said, pointing to the miniature barrel. “As Charlie implied, you send bitcoin with a lowercase b from your digital wallet to the address embedded in the QR code printed on the side of the can. It’s that simple, but that’s only a tiny part of the story.” Cameron knew from his research that the first documented time bitcoin had ever been used to purchase a product happened on May 22, 2010. On that historic day, a Florida programmer named Laszlo Hanyecz was hungry for pizza and had decided he would use some of the bitcoin he’d accrued to quash his hunger; there was only one problem: no merchants accepted bitcoin as payment at that time.


Principles of Corporate Finance by Richard A. Brealey, Stewart C. Myers, Franklin Allen

3Com Palm IPO, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbus A320, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black-Scholes formula, break the buck, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, compound rate of return, computerized trading, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, equity premium, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, fudge factor, German hyperinflation, implied volatility, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, inventory management, Iridium satellite, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, linear programming, Livingstone, I presume, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, market friction, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Real Time Gross Settlement, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the rule of 72, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, VA Linux, value at risk, Vanguard fund, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The biggest change in this edition is not to the printed text but to the Beyond the Page digital extensions and applications (see Pedagogical Features, below). These pieces are an integral part of the e-versions of the book, but they are also easily accessible via the Web using the QR codes and shortcut URLs provided. They provide additional examples, applications, spreadsheet programs, and opportunities to explore topics in more depth. BEYOND THE PAGE ● ● ● ● ● Principles of corporate finance mhhe.com/bma The QR codes are easy to use. First, use your smartphone to download any QR-enabled barcode reader from your provider’s marketplace. Focus your smartphone’s camera on any code in the book, and you’ll be able to access the online chapter content instantly. Try the code above now! Additional examples include: • Chapter 2 Do you need to learn how to use a financial calculator?

Numbered Examples Numbered and titled examples are called out within chapters to further illustrate concepts. Students can learn how to solve specific problems step-by-step and apply key principles to answer concrete questions and scenarios. “Beyond the Page” Interactive Content and Applications New to this edition! Additional resources and hands-on applications are just a click away. Students can scan the in-text QR codes or use the direct Web address to learn more about key concepts and try out calculations, tables, and figures when they go “Beyond the Page.” Excel Treatment Spreadsheet Functions Boxes These boxes provide detailed examples of how to use Excel spreadsheets when applying financial concepts. Questions that apply to the spreadsheet follow for additional practice. Excel Exhibits Select tables are set as spreadsheets, and the corresponding Excel files are also available on the book’s website at www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/textbooks/brealey End-of-Chapter Features Problem Sets For the eleventh edition, topic labels have been added to each end-of-chapter problem to enable easy assignment creation for instructors and reinforcement for students.

Online Support ONLINE LEARNING CENTER www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/textbooks/brealey Find a wealth of information online! This site contains information about the book and the authors as well as teaching and learning materials for the instructor and student, including: • “Beyond the Page” content A wealth of additional examples, explanations, and applications are available for quick access on the website. Each “Beyond the Page” feature is called out in the text with a QR code or icon that links directly to the OLC. • Excel templates There are templates for select exhibits, as well as various end-of-chapter problems that have been set as Excel spreadsheets—all denoted by an icon. They correlate with specific concepts in the text and allow students to work through financial problems and gain experience using spreadsheets. Also refer to the valuable Useful Spreadsheet Functions Boxes that are sprinkled throughout the text for some helpful prompts on working in Excel


pages: 305 words: 101,743

Trick Mirror: Reflections on Self-Delusion by Jia Tolentino

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, big-box store, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, financial independence, game design, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Norman Mailer, obamacare, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, QR code, rent control, Saturday Night Live, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, wage slave, white picket fence

The story broke in another enormous schadenfreude tsunami, with the joke falling first on the Mast Brothers and then, ultimately, as it always does, on the dummies who bought their product. This is what you gentrifiers get with your hard-ons for artisanal garbage! the tweets and blog posts cackled. This is what you Instagram addicts get for paying three months’ rent money for a festival no one had ever heard of! This is what you get for being so rich that you need a QR code to make a glass of fucking juice! Right around this vicious and satisfying point in the scam news cycle, popular identification often begins to slide toward the scammer, who, once identified, can be reconfigured as a uniquely American folk hero—a logical endpoint of our national fixation on reinvention and spectacular ascent. Stories about blatant con artists allow us to have the scam both ways: we get the pleasure of seeing the scammer exposed and humiliated, but also the retrospective, vicarious thrill of watching the scammer take people for a ride.


pages: 349 words: 102,827

The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-Hackers Is Building the Next Internet With Ethereum by Camila Russo

4chan, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, altcoin, always be closing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asian financial crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Donald Trump, East Village, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hacker house, Internet of things, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, mobile money, new economy, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X

He checked everything a million times and clicked on “Continue.” Step 4 told him to “move his mouse around the screen to generate a random wallet, and once you’re done you will be moved on to the next screen.” “This is so weird,” he thought, as he complied, his anxiety surging when he realized there was no back button. Next he clicked on a button that downloaded an Ethereum wallet to his computer, and then there was a Bitcoin wallet address and QR code for him to send his bitcoin to. He went to his Bitcoin wallet, copied the address—a jumbled-up string of numbers and letters—and letting out a muffled scream, “Aaaahhh!” he clicked send. And just like that, he had parted with half of his perfectly good bitcoin, which were now traveling into some cryptographic maze. “Into the ether!” he couldn’t help thinking. This was one of the scariest moments of his life.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buy and hold, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

Mark would later say that during this time he was spending his daylight hours at the office and his nights at his apartment, alone with his cat Tibanne, furiously working his way through hundreds of pieces of paper containing the private keys to Mt. Gox’s Bitcoin wallets. He had driven around in his car and collected the papers from the three locations in Tokyo where he had stored them (he had kept the keys on paper so they would not be vulnerable to hackers). Once he was back in his apartment with the QR codes—essentially complex bar codes—he began scanning in the private keys one at a time, with his computer’s webcam. A combination of fear and sickness slowly overtook him as each one of the wallets he scanned in showed up on his computer screen as empty. It would be hard for others to verify Mark’s narration of what happened during those days because he kept such tight control over all the exchange’s accounts.


pages: 453 words: 114,250

The Great Firewall of China by James Griffiths;

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, gig economy, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mobile money, Occupy movement, pets.com, profit motive, QR code, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, zero day

Instead of focusing on building the largest social network in the world, WeChat has focused on building a mobile lifestyle – its goal is to address every aspect of its users’ lives, including non-social ones.5 The cornerstone of this model is WeChat’s payments system, which has utterly transformed the way in which many Chinese cities and even smaller towns operate. Along with Alibaba’s similar, competing service, WeChat Pay took mobile payments from a niche and often annoying practice to absolute dominance in a matter of years. Such is the popularity of mobile payments in China that foreigners often find it difficult to pay with cash, and even buskers print QR codes to allow people to donate money electronically. While not enough credit is given to Chinese consumers and merchants for being faster in adopting and propagating mobile payments than their counterparts in many other countries, Tencent still deserves a huge amount of recognition, creating not only a platform for this growth, but also subsidising it at times to encourage the use of mobile payments.


pages: 501 words: 114,888

The Future Is Faster Than You Think: How Converging Technologies Are Transforming Business, Industries, and Our Lives by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, digital twin, disruptive innovation, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental economics, food miles, game design, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hive mind, housing crisis, Hyperloop, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, loss aversion, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mary Lou Jepsen, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mobile money, multiplanetary species, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, QR code, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, X Prize

Amazon introduced Americans to it in January 2018, when the initial Amazon Go store opened for business in Seattle. The following year Amazon Go opened seven more stores and has plans for three thousand more by 2021. The New York Times describes passing through the store’s turnstiles as “similar to entering the subway, with an [in-store] experience that is more closely akin to shoplifting.” Upon entering, visitors scan a QR code on their phone and the AI does the rest. Cameras track customer movement down the aisles and weight sensors built into the shelves do the same for the products. Just grab what you want, drop it into your backpack and head home. On your way out the door, the cost is automatically charged to your Amazon account. Once again, this is about frictionless shopping. Long lines deter customers. Plus, cashiers cost money.


pages: 492 words: 118,882

The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

It aims to provide the same services that governments provide, but in a decentralized and voluntary manner, unbound by geography. Cryptid Identity Cryptid takes data provided by institutions, encrypts it, and permanently stores it on the Blockchain. The user is provided with a password and a unique Cryptid identification number that points to the information on the block chain. The ID can be stored on almost anything from magnetic stripes to QR codes making it easier to use. Case Identity and Case is a multisignature, multifactor Bitcoin wallet, which KYC is biometrically secured. A transaction can only occur if validation from two of three keys is confirmed. In a way, it is a collation of 2FA, biometrics, and Bitcoin technologies. By generating and storing each key in a different location they avoid any risk of single point of failure. (continued) BRACKETS: Blockchain-based Release of funds, that Are Conditionally Key-signed, and Triggered by Signals. 25 69 Chapter 2 ■ Fragmentation of Finance Table 2-2.


pages: 468 words: 124,573

How to Build a Billion Dollar App: Discover the Secrets of the Most Successful Entrepreneurs of Our Time by George Berkowski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, QR code, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Travis Kalanick, ubercab, Y Combinator

Square is a master at partnerships. In August 2012 it announced a deal with Starbucks, whereby the coffee giant would accept the Square Wallet app at all 7,000 of its locations (at the same time Square took a $25 million investment from the company).2 The Square Wallet app stores your credit-card information, and then allows you to pay at any store accepting Square payments by simply scanning the Square App (in this case a QR code) on a Starbucks register. The key to success in this type of partnership is sustainable mutual benefit: Square clearly benefits from a high-profile partner, masses of PR, and great in-store positioning for its super-easy-to-use payments app; Starbucks gets a huge image boost as a progressive, technology-friendly company that already offers free wi-fi in all its stores, making it yet more attractive for the coffee-dependent tech crowd.


Lonely Planet Amsterdam by Lonely Planet

3D printing, Airbnb, haute couture, haute cuisine, post-work, QR code, Silicon Valley, trade route, tulip mania, young professional

MacBike ( GOOGLE MAP ; %020-620 09 85; www.macbike.nl; De Ruijterkade 34b; bike rental per 3/24hr from €11/14.75; h9am-5.45pm; j1/2/4/5/9/13/16/17/24 Centraal Station) Among the most touristy of companies (bikes are bright red, with logos), but has a convenient location at Centraal Station, plus others at Waterlooplein and Leidseplein. Big assortment of bikes available. Bike Sharing & Apps Donkey Republic (www.donkey.bike) Unlock/lock a bike via Bluetooth. Rates per 24 hour are €12. You'll need to return the bike to the same location, or pay €20 extra. FlickBike (www.flickbike.nl) Locate bikes around town via this app; rental per 30 minutes costs €1. Scan the QR code to unlock/lock the bike. It can be returned to any Amsterdam bike rack. Spinlister (www.spinlister.com) Like Airbnb for bikes: rent a bike straight from an Amsterdammer. Prices vary. Bike Tours A bike tour is an ideal way to get to know Amsterdam. Bike rental is included in prices (tour companies also rent bikes). Be sure to reserve in advance. Great options include the following: Orangebike ( GOOGLE MAP ; %06 4684 2083; www.orange-bike.nl; Buiksloterweg 5c; tours €22.50-37.50, hire per hr/day from €5/11; h9am-6pm; fBuiksloterweg) Traditional city and countryside tours (including a beach tour), plus themed options such as food or architectural tours.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

It lowered the barriers to entry for entrepreneurs and gave the disadvantaged access to opportunities and basic information. That’s not enough. There are still two billion49 people without a bank account, and in the developed world, prosperity is actually declining as social inequality continues to grow. In developing economies, mobile is often the only affordable means of connecting. Most financial institutions have mobile payment apps that combine cameras and QR codes. However, the fees needed to support these intermediaries make micropayments impractical. Consumers at the bottom of the pyramid still can’t afford the minimum account balances, minimum payment amounts, or transaction fees to use the system. Its infrastructure costs make micropayments and microaccounts unfeasible. Breakthrough: Satoshi designed the system to work on top of the Internet stack (TCP/IP), but it could run without the Internet if necessary.


pages: 554 words: 149,489

The Content Trap: A Strategist's Guide to Digital Change by Bharat Anand

Airbnb, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Minecraft, multi-sided market, Network effects, post-work, price discrimination, publish or perish, QR code, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, two-sided market, ubercab, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

“Moments,” according to Zhang, “was a feature that single-handedly undermined Weibo [Tencent’s Twitter-like microblog]: It allowed you to upload your pictures and comment on friends’ pictures—except that your comments were private: Only your direct friends could see them. This is a major difference from Weibo and Facebook. Users feel they are in control.” Features continued to be added to WeChat: first, a news service; then QR Code, a feature that allowed users to scan a bar code and purchase a product through Tencent’s e-commerce platform with one click. (Some described this as the first real threat to Alibaba.) By 2013 WeChat had more than 300 million users. That December it went international, gaining nearly 100 million users outside China within a year. Zhang is not known for shouting from the rooftops. But in 2012 he described the nature of WeChat and the principles followed in developing this connected product.


We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory by Christine Lagorio-Chafkin

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, East Village, game design, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technoutopianism, uber lyft, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

With their Reddit T-shirts, with aliens and mail icons in the bright Reddit orange-red color, avid Redditors had stood out to one another in the National Mall. But here there were alien icons everywhere. Slowe later recalled, “Whenever we would say we’re from Reddit it was like freaking rock stars walking around the place.” The venue was cavernous: a series of dimly lit rooms connected by narrow hallways. In each room, a group of Redditors perched on banquettes and around tables, exchanging contact information, scanning each other’s QR codes for a Reddit-powered game, and completing scavenger hunts designed to foster in-person conversations among usually pseudonymous Redditors. At 1:30 a.m., Angel finally pulled herself away from a conversation and ducked out of the bar, her head buzzing. To her surprise, the streets were still dense with people—was it really as late as she thought? She checked her watch. She’d heard from many people inside that the Metro was jam-packed, impossible to ride on this day.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

By taking a photo of the 2D code with a cellphone users can establish a secure/authenticated link to the device using a smart phone as their personal crypto token [319]. Alternatively, if the device has display capabilities, it can generate a barcode on-demand on its display, providing a channel that’s very difficult for an attacker to intercept or spoof [320][321]. Barcode-based interaction with cell-phones (although not for security purposes) is already widespread in Japan in the form of quick-response (QR) codes printed in magazines, posters (sometimes the entire poster consists of little more than a gigantic QR code and perhaps some teaser text), business cards, and similar locations, although they haven’t spread much to other countries yet. Pretty much anything can be pressed into service as a form of location-limited channel mechanism, even something as basic as the time-to-live (TTL) or hop limit counter on IP packets [322]. Even if a remote attacker manages to craft a packet so that it arrives with TTL=1 to make it appear local, the response will also go out with TTL=1 and so will never reach them.


Lonely Planet Chile & Easter Island (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn McCarthy, Kevin Raub

California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, centre right, Colonization of Mars, East Village, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, land reform, low cost airline, mass immigration, New Urbanism, off grid, place-making, QR code, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white picket fence

Trekking and fly-fishing are big draws here, as is birdwatching and the chance of spotting pudú (small deer), puma and condors. There are three basic but well-made alerce refugios (rustic shelters) with bathrooms and wood-burning stoves in the park, built along its 16km of trails that traverse rivers via well-built wooden bridges. It’s all very high-tech as well – iPod Touches are available for rent (CH$15,000 per day), and can be used to read Quick Response (QR) codes throughout the park. To get here, catch the once-a-day Lago Tagua-Tagua–bound bus from Puerto Montt (7:45am) or Puerto Varas (8:20am), which meets the ferry at the edge of Lago Tagua-Tagua. Make sure you have called ahead to park officials, who will meet you on the other side of the Tagua-Tagua ferry crossing for the final 10-minute boat ride to the park. Camping Río Puelo CAMPGROUND $ ( 099-744-7861; Puelo Alto; campsites per person CH$4500, r per person CH$11,500; ) The bathrooms are makeshift but nice on the inside at this basic campground with lovely Andes views.