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Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner
Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, creative destruction, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, different worldview, digital map, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory
Beaglehole for the Hakluyt Society, 1955–67 (London: Penguin Books, 2003), ccclxvi. 7 “the Machiavelli”: Joan Druett, Tupaia: Captain Cook’s Polynesian Navigator (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2011), xii. 8 arioi, an elite society: Anne Salmond, The Trial of the Cannibal Dog: Captain Cook in the South Seas (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003), 37. 8 “in search of what chance”: Ibid., 107. 9 “These people sail”: Ibid., 105. 10 “the above list”: Druett, Tupaia, 121 10 “Shrewd, Sensible, Ingenious”: Cook, The Journals of Captain Cook, 189–90. 11 Now I am still alive: David Lewis, We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific (Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 1994), 55. 11 “the first Polynesian navigator”: Ibid., 31. 11 “almost alone”: Ibid. 11 “I became his pupil”: Ibid. 12 the mysteries of Polynesian migration: On the history of the various Polynesian navigation theories, see Ben Finney, Voyage of Rediscovery: A Cultural Odyssey Through Polynesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 18–23; and Finney, “Myth, Experiment, and the Reinvention of Polynesian Voyaging.” 12 “Most people believe”: Andrew Sharp, Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964), 53. 13 “would be nothing for a seaman of his caliber”: Lewis, We, the Navigators, 355–6. 14 The Polynesian navigator’s primary tool: For an excellent concise overview of Polynesian navigation techniques, see Oliver Kuhn, “Polynesian Navigation,” CSEG Recorder, September 2008, http://csegrecorder.com/features/view/science-break-200809. 17 “embed the route”: Reginald G.
., 31. 11 “almost alone”: Ibid. 11 “I became his pupil”: Ibid. 12 the mysteries of Polynesian migration: On the history of the various Polynesian navigation theories, see Ben Finney, Voyage of Rediscovery: A Cultural Odyssey Through Polynesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994), 18–23; and Finney, “Myth, Experiment, and the Reinvention of Polynesian Voyaging.” 12 “Most people believe”: Andrew Sharp, Ancient Voyagers in Polynesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964), 53. 13 “would be nothing for a seaman of his caliber”: Lewis, We, the Navigators, 355–6. 14 The Polynesian navigator’s primary tool: For an excellent concise overview of Polynesian navigation techniques, see Oliver Kuhn, “Polynesian Navigation,” CSEG Recorder, September 2008, http://csegrecorder.com/features/view/science-break-200809. 17 “embed the route”: Reginald G. Golledge, “Human Wayfinding and Cognitive Maps,” in Wayfinding Behavior: Cognitive Mapping and Other Spatial Processes, edited by Reginald G. Golledge, 5–45 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 6–7.
Lewis, an Australian physician, adventurer, and master sailor, had won a university fellowship to sail the Pacific in search of anyone who still practiced the ancient art of Polynesian navigation. It was a dispiriting experience, as Lewis discovered that the practices had died out, superseded by modern methods. Then he met Tevake, a man in his seventies who had begun his navigational training when he was seven or eight years old. In his younger years, Tevake would regularly sail a 30-foot outrigger canoe on a journey of 300 miles or more. Age had slowed Tevake somewhat, but he still traveled solo between his atoll and nearby islands. Tevake was “the first Polynesian navigator I ever sailed with,” Lewis remembered, as well as “one of the greatest.” This gifted navigator lived on an atoll in the Santa Cruz Islands, part of the Solomon Islands, a country in the area of the Pacific called Melanesia, west of the Polynesian triangle.
Sextant: A Young Man's Daring Sea Voyage and the Men Who ... by David Barrie
centre right, colonial exploitation, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, lone genius, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, polynesian navigation, South China Sea, trade route
See also Polynesian navigation Pacific Northwest, 143 Pacific Ocean, 87, 233–36. See also specific locations Pandora, 43–44, 134 Papua New Guinea, 158 parallax, 76, 300n6 Paris Observatory, 65 Parliament (British), xvii, 215 Pasley, Thomas, 159 pendulum clocks, 59, 63, 65 Peru, xiv, 210 Philip II, 62 Philip III, 62, 64 Philippines, xiv, 55–56, 126 Piailug, 263 Picard, Jean, 60, 65 Pitcairn Island, 1, 44 Pitt, Thomas, 142–43, 155–56 Plains of Abraham, Battle of, 10 planets, 16 Pleiades, 17, 24, 271 pocket watches, 146 Polaris and Alcyone’s crossing to Azores, 273–74 and altitude/latitude relationship, 25, 25–26, 26n, 57 and animal migrations, 23 and Nautical Almanac star charts, 16 Shakespeare on, 26–27n pollution, 47 Polo, Marco, 27 Polynesian navigation, xix, 118, 262–65, 303n1 Polynesian Triangle, 90 Porpoise, 177–80 Port Dalrymple, 162 Port Discovery, 149 Port Famine, 196–97, 199–200 Port Jackson, 159–61, 163, 166–67, 172–75, 180–81 Port Royal, 304n16 Port Tamar, 229 Portland Yacht Club, 8 Portuguese navigators, 27–28, 58–59 Practical Navigator (Moore), 237 The Practice of Navigation and Nautical Astronomy (Raper), 83–84, 221 precession of equinoxes, 58n predecessors of the sextant, 27–32 prehistoric humans, 23–24, 284–85 prime meridian, 59 Prince of Wales, 45, 301n1 Prinz Eugen, 301n1 prizes for longitude solution, 62–66, 67, 75, 78 Providence, 157–58, 159 provisions for sea journeys and Alcyone’s crossing to Azores, 271 and Cook’s explorations, 89, 94, 95 and Mendaña’s explorations, xiv and preparations for Atlantic crossing, 11 and routine at sea, 48 and the Shackleton expedition, 242–43 Ptolemy, 17, 58 “PZX Triangle,” 69, 71 Quadra, Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega y, 152–53 quadrants, xv, 35, 61, 66, 105, 125 Quebec, 10 Queensland, 97, 173 Quirós, Pedro Fernández de, xvi Raban, Jonathan, 142 radar, 9, 268 radio communication and Lloyd’s Register of Ships, 219n radio direction-finding (RDF), 5, 9, 46, 47, 267, 268, 273 radiotelephones, 46–47 reach of BBC broadcasts, 193 and Saecwen’s Atlantic crossing, 137, 218–19, 219n, 240 and safety at sea, xiii and time signatures, 226 The Rake’s Progress (Hogarth), 66 Ramillies, 51 Ramsden, Jesse, 75 Raper, Henry, 83–84, 221 reflecting circle, 74, 188, 188n reflecting quadrant, 31, 31–32 Regulus, 274 relativity theory, 279 relevance of celestial navigation, 282 Reliance, 159–60, 168 religion, xiii–xiv Requisite Tables, 80, 82 Resolution and Bligh’s background, 37 and Cook’s explorations, 90–91, 93, 94 in Kamchatka, 129 in New Zealand, 106–7 timekeeping equipment of, 104 and Vancouver’s career, 138, 145–46 revival of interest in sextants, xx Richards, George, 217 Riddle of the Sands (Childers), 240 The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (Coleridge), 104 Ring of Brodgar, 303n7 Rio de Janeiro, 211 Ripple Passage, 151 “The Roar” (sandbank), 167 Robinson Crusoe (Defoe), 159, 232 Robinson Crusoe Island, 54–55 Roches Douvres reef, 7 Roden Crater, 283–84 Rogers, Jeremy, 270 Rolla, 181 Roman culture, 58, 303n1 Rossel Island, 120 “rotator log,” 233 Round Island, 267 Royal Naval Academy, 82 Royal Naval College, 200, 226 Royal Naval Reserve, 241 Royal Navy and Bougainville’s explorations, 115 and Cook’s explorations, 88 and hydrography, 86 and marine chronometers, 226 and McMullin, 6 officer salaries, 82 and the Shackleton expedition, 242 and the Straits of Magellan, 194 royal observatories, 60, 65, 187 Royal Society and Bougainville’s explorations, 113 and Cook’s explorations, 88, 89, 94 Harrison proposed for admission, 78 and La Pérouse’s explorations, 125 and lunar-distance method, 76 and Vancouver’s explorations, 154 “running survey” method, 96, 146, 169, 203 Ruskin, John, 269–70 Russian Empire, 129 Sable Island, 13, 14–15, 229 Saecwen and close passing of other ships, 122–23 landfall in England, 267–70 McMullin’s acquisition of, 5–7 navigation equipment, 45–47, 68–70 and North Atlantic weather, 109–13 and preparations for Atlantic crossing, 8, 11–12 and “rotator log,” 233 “sag,” 34 Sailing Alone Around the World (Slocum), 229–30 Sakhalin, 126 Samoa, 129, 238 San Cristóbal, xv Sands, Bobby, 274 Santa Clara, São Miguel, 276 Santa Cruz Islands, xviii, 134 Santa Isabel, xv São Miguel, 275–76 satellite navigation systems, 279–83, 299n11, 302n3.
Because it is such a wide subject, I have focused on those who worked in the Pacific, which was then the subject of greatest interest; the examples I have chosen illustrate some of their most remarkable achievements* as well as the many challenges they faced.9 I have also squeezed in the stories of three exceptional small-boat voyages, each of which depended crucially on skillful celestial navigation: Captain Bligh’s journey from Tonga to Indonesia after the Bounty mutiny, Joshua Slocum’s circumnavigation of the world in his yacht Spray, and Sir Ernest Shackleton’s remarkable rescue mission crossing the Southern Ocean in the James Caird, piloted by Frank Worsley. To speak of the “discovery” by European navigators of lands that had long been inhabited by other peoples is obviously absurd, if not insulting, but since the focus of this book is a European invention, Europeans unavoidably take center stage. By way of contrast, I have mentioned briefly the extraordinary skills of the Polynesian navigators, who found their way across the wide expanses of the Pacific using neither instruments nor charts long before the arrival of Western explorers. Their achievements deserve to be better known, but they have been well described by others,10 and this is not the place in which to discuss them more fully. This is not a “how to” guide to celestial navigation, but I hope I have given enough information to enable the reader to grasp its basic principles.
It was extraordinary skills like these that enabled people not only to settle nearly all the islands of the Pacific, but to develop and maintain a cohesive culture embracing this vast area of ocean over many centuries.27 Cook was so impressed by the navigational knowledge displayed by one Tahitian navigator that he agreed to take him aboard the Endeavour. Tupia, as he was called, helped Cook explore the neighboring islands and later to communicate with the native Maori population of New Zealand—with whom, it turned out to everyone’s amazement, he shared a common language. Sadly he was among those who succumbed to illness contracted in Batavia. Cook and his colleagues do not appear to have made any serious attempt to understand Polynesian navigation, and it was only much later—when the traditional techniques had almost died out—that Westerners began to study the subject seriously. THE INVENTION OF the sextant allowed the navigator for the first time to attach a numerical value both precise and accurate to the height of a heavenly body above the horizon. It thereby opened up new realms of navigational possibility for Western seafarers.
Pacific: Silicon Chips and Surfboards, Coral Reefs and Atom Bombs, Brutal Dictators, Fading Empires, and the Coming Collision of the World's Superpowers by Simon Winchester
9 dash line, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Frank Gehry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land tenure, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, uranium enrichment
The white mess into which all this eventually disintegrates is the surf—from the Anglo-Saxon term suff, indicating the inrush of water toward the shore. 2 Heyerdahl wanted to show that Polynesia could have been settled by South American boatmen who drifted with the currents, and that the cultural basis for the Pacific islands is thus all incontrovertibly Incan. Later research showed that Polynesians knew very well how to navigate without instruments, and had long sailed the often considerable distances between the ocean’s islands. DNA results disprove Heyerdahl’s theories, and show that Polynesia was settled from the west, from Asia. His 1947 expedition is seen now as little more than an amusing, though courageous, stunt. 3 The first of three, whose grandson, Hiram Bingham III, was an early claimant to finding the ruins of the Incan citadel of Machu Picchu, in the Peruvian Andes. 4 Ireland has tried hard, though with scant success, to claim George Freeth.
And as a coda: the complexities of the Pacific as battle space are nicely explained in an essay in the Washington Post of August 1, 2012, by the paper’s defense writer Greg Jaffe. EPILOGUE The journey of the Hawaiian wa’a Hokule‘a is being reported until 2017, and in great daily detail, by the Polynesian Voyaging Society in Honolulu. Much background to the story can be found in Sam Low’s book on the Hawaiian Renaissance, Hawaiki Rising; in Ben Finney’s explanations of Polynesian navigation, Sailing in the Wake of the Ancestors; and most fascinating of all, in David Lewis’s account, We, the Navigators. BIBLIOGRAPHY Armitage, David, and Alison Bashford, eds. Pacific Histories: Ocean, Land, People. New York: Palgrave, 2014. Bain, Kenneth. The Friendly Islanders. London: Hodder, 1967. Ballard, Robert. The Eternal Darkness: A Personal History of Deep-Sea Exploration. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
See also Taiwan Chinese migrants, 21, 441 Australia and, 295 Hawaii and, 5 Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), 182, 394, 407–25 Chinese Politburo, 393 Chouinard, Yvon, 148 Christian, Fletcher, 216, 219 Christian, Steve, 219 Christian missionaries, 44, 50, 130–31, 212 Christmas Island (later Kiritimati Island) nuclear tests, 18, 37 refugee camp, 300–302 tragedy of 2010, 302 Churchill, Sarah, 108 Churchill, Winston, 108, 203–5 Chuuk Island, 4, 10–11, 434 Cicero, 24 Ciliberti, Vincent, 108 Cincinnati Enquirer, 75 clams, deep-sea, 319–21, 324, 328–29 Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, 333 Clark, George “Grubby,” 143–47 Clark Air Base, 381–86, 384, 389 Clark Foam, 145–46 climate change, 262–65, 364, 366 coral reefs and, 342, 346–48 El Niño (ENSO) and, 254, 262 Madden-Julian Oscillation, 263 typhoons and cyclones and, 242–47 Clinton, Bill, 295 Clipperton Island, 216n coal, 270, 348–50 Cocos Plate, 313, 316 Cohen, Albert, 85 Cold War, 33, 153, 381 Cold War, term introduced, 153n Colombia, 21, 316 colonialism. See also specific colonies and colonial powers end of, 27–28, 201, 190, 211–29 Hawaii and, 351–52 Micronesia and, 8–9, 43–45 Polynesian navigation and, 433–34 Columbia Pictures, 123 Communism. See Cold War; and specific countries Compact of Free Association, 16 computers, 111 consumer electronics, 110–19 container shipping, 19, 117–18, 200, 363, 392, 393n continental drift, 311–14 Cook, James, 3, 130, 212, 343n, 352, 431–32, 437 Cook Islands, 6 Copland, Aaron, 290n copra plantations, 9, 19 coral polyps, 345 Coral Princess (ocean liner), 5 coral reefs, 22, 339–50 bleaching events, 340–42, 341, 345–47, 443 Chinese building on, 399 Coral Sea, 342 Coriolis, Gustave, 263 Corliss, Jack, 320–22 Corona del Mar, California, 140 Coward, Noël, 108 Cowpens, USS (destroyer), 407–9 crabs, deep-sea, 321, 324 Crescent Group, 396 Crick, Francis, 102 Crosby, Bing, 210 Crowley, Aleister, 291 crown-of-thorns starfish, 347–48 Cruise of the Snark, The (London), 133 Cuba, 347n, 401n Cunard Line, 190–95, 191, 199–200 currents, 255 Curtiss, USS (seaplane tender), 70 Cyana (minisubmarine), 328 cyclones, 22, 232–37, 246–48, 253, 261.
The Year 1000: When Explorers Connected the World―and Globalization Began by Valerie Hansen
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, financial innovation, Google Earth, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, polynesian navigation, seigniorage, South China Sea, trade route, transatlantic slave trade
In the year 1000, most sailors navigated by dead reckoning, meaning that they depended on the naked eye and their knowledge of the movements of the sun, moon, and stars to choose their course. The important exceptions were Muslim navigators who used sextants, and the Chinese, who were making magnetic shipboard compasses just around the year 1000. Skilled Polynesian and Viking mariners were able to set their course by careful observation of waves, seaweed, birds’ flying patterns, and the contours of land. Mau Piailug, a Micronesian who studied the traditional Polynesian system of navigation, taught it in the 1980s to Steve Thomas, then an avid navigator, and later the host of the television show This Old House. When the weather was clear, he used the stars to navigate, Mau explained, and when the sky was cloudy, he used the shapes of the waves to determine his course. Like the Polynesian explorers, the Vikings used no instruments. Why did they travel to new places in the year 1000?
Manguin reasons that the sailors going from the Malay Peninsula to Madagascar used vessels whose wooden planks were joined together in this way. With multiple masts and sails, these vessels have been archeologically recovered in the South China Sea and Southeast Asian waters. The Phanom Surin shipwreck, the largest boat of this type found so far, measured some 115 feet (35 m) long. At present we have no way of knowing whether these early sailors used double canoes or larger boats with multiple sails. We are certain that Polynesian navigators ventured east into the Pacific at the same time as the Malay voyages to Madagascar. Starting from Micronesia, the Polynesians gradually fanned out, reaching Fiji, Samoa, Hawaii, Easter Island (Rapa Nui), and New Zealand, the last place on earth to be occupied by humans, in around AD 1300. The settlers left behind shards of distinctive pottery, which make it possible to trace their route, though controversy still surrounds the exact date when each island was settled.
The new chronology explains why various tools, such as fishhooks from distantly dispersed Pacific islands, look so similar: the Polynesians who had left the Society Islands around 1190 carried identical items with them, whether they headed for Hawaii, Easter Island, or New Zealand. In the late 1700s, Cook’s men noticed that the Polynesians were traveling great distances on fishing expeditions for large mammals, probably orca or bottlenose dolphins. When they made their map together, Cook realized how knowledgeable Tupaia was about local geography, but Cook didn’t record precisely how the Polynesian found his way around the islands. Detailed information about Polynesian navigation techniques came in the late twentieth century from anthropologists working on the more remote Pacific islands. These scholars recorded traditions that had died out on the more centrally located islands. One of the best informed mariners was Mau Piailug. He was born in 1930 and grew up on the Micronesian island of Satawal in the Caroline Island chain, where he learned how to navigate from tribal elders.
Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Kurlansky
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, desegregation, European colonialism, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, working poor
The Cherokee had lost their faith in nonviolence and put to death the leaders of the small contingent that had signed the removal treaty. But in a remote corner of the far-flung British Empire, there was a people who took on the British with classic nonviolent activism. The far South Pacific seems to have been one of the last places settled by humans. The few islands beyond Australia are not near anyone else nor on the way to anywhere. The first people to go there were Polynesians. In 950, a Polynesian navigator named Kupe discovered the islands, which are today New Zealand. Following his discovery there was a sizable migration of Polynesians to these un-inhabited islands. Polynesians are usually portrayed in movies as a gentle, peaceful people. But this was often not the case, and certainly not the case with the ones who settled New Zealand and called themselves the Maori, which means “Children of Heaven.”
The Interstellar Age: Inside the Forty-Year Voyager Mission by Jim Bell
Albert Einstein, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, gravity well, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Kuiper Belt, Mars Rover, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, polynesian navigation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking
After moving to Hawaii from Caltech, I was doubly fortunate to find two amazing families there in the islands—one made up of close friends and mentors who helped me in my work world at the university, and the other made up of close friends and mentors who helped me after hours when I learned how to paddle as part of a Hawaiian outrigger canoe club. Paddling with my brothers and sisters in the waves off Waikiki Beach, learning about ancient Polynesian navigation and other local traditions, and kicking back afterward to soak in some “island style” music and food taught me not just a new word—ohana, Hawaiian for “family”—but the inner spirit behind the word as well. If any one person was the embodiment of ohana, it was Fraser Fanale, a professor (now retired) of planetary science who specialized in thinking about the history of water and other “volatile” molecules in the solar system—on Mars, on the satellites of Jupiter . . . anywhere.
Plans start to be formulated about a more permanent monument to be built around the spacecraft when they arrive at their new home world. In a little less than 300,000 years, Voyager 2 will pass about 270,000 AU (about 4.3 light-years) from the famous young, hot, blue star called Sirius. Sirius is famous partly because it is the brightest star in the sky, aside from the sun, and partly because ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians, Greeks, and Polynesians used Sirius for timekeeping and navigation. Voyager 2 will be half as far away from Sirius as we are now, and so what many of us call the Dog Star (the heart of the constellation Canis Major) will be four times brighter to the spacecraft. An impressive sight that would be, if we could somehow plan to turn the cameras back on in the year 298,015. Beyond then, it’s hard to know exactly what the Voyagers will pass and when, because of uncertainties in the relative motions of the sun and the nearby stars.
Discover Kaua'i Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
The Hawaiian language had nearly died out, land was impossible for most Hawaiians to buy, and most of the traditional ways of life that had supported an independent people for over 2000 years were lost. Without these, Hawaiians lost much of their own identity and even felt a sense of shame. The 1970s introduced a cultural awakening, due largely to two events: in 1974 a small group called the Polynesian Voyaging Society (http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/) committed themselves to building and sailing a replica of an ancient Hawaiian voyaging canoe, to prove that the first Polynesian settlers were capable of navigating the Pacific without the use of Western technology such as sextants and compasses. When the Hokule'a made its maiden 4800-mile roundtrip voyage to Tahiti in 1976, it instantly became a symbol of rebirth for Hawaiians, prompting a cultural revival unparalleled in Hawaiian history. The same year, a small grassroots group, the Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana (PKO), began protesting against the treatment of Kaho'olawe, an island the US military had used as a training and bombing site since WWII.
However, winter weather still takes its toll, preventing landings at Nu'alolo Kai, and limiting snorkeling opportunities. PREPARATIONS Book Na Pali sea tours as early in your trip as possible, as high surf or foul weather may lead to cancellations. If you are prone to seasickness – a very real issue – inquire about sea conditions, take medication ahead of time, and opt for the catamaran. Morning trips generally have the calmest seas. Sailing Given all of those Polynesian navigators, you might think that Kaua'i would be a great place to rent a sailboat. But the mighty Pacific is no Caribbean Sea, friendly to bareboaters. The lack of harbors and anchorages, and the magnitude of the waves, particularly in winter, translates into no sailboat rentals. That does not mean there is no sailing to be had; there are numerous companies who will take you on a catamaran tour of the Na Pali Coast, and this is a wonderful experience, as long as your stomach agrees ( Click here ).
Atlantic: Great Sea Battles, Heroic Discoveries, Titanic Storms & a Vast Ocean of a Million Stories by Simon Winchester
British Empire, cable laying ship, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, friendly fire, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Isaac Newton, Louis Blériot, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, supervolcano, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, undersea cable
Until the fifteenth century, no sailor—whether Spaniard, Portuguese, or Venetian, whether Dane or Phoenician, and by all existing accounts no African sailors, either—had ever successfully rounded Cape Bojador from the Atlantic Ocean side. All the early navigational academies of Europe regarded the sea beyond Bojador as quite impassable. Its very existence stands as one of the reasons why the central Atlantic Ocean, despite having almost certainly the world’s most populous shores, was the last of the great seas to be properly navigated. Polynesian navigators had long before crisscrossed the Pacific; Persians and Gulf Arab sailors had taken their reed-and-creosote sailing craft across upper parts of the Indian Ocean; Chinese sailors knew the intricacies of the eastern Indian Ocean and their various littoral seas; and the Vikings knew the navigational complexities of the far north. But traditional navigation seemed not to work so well or so speedily in the Atlantic as it did elsewhere, and Cape Bojador, so far as the literature records, was one of the reasons why.
Fodor's Hawaii 2012 by Fodor's Travel Publications
Teaching Hawaiian language was banned from schools and children were distanced from their local customs. But Hawaiians are resilient people, and with the rise of the civil rights movement they began to reflect on their own national identity, bringing an astonishing renaissance of the Hawaiian culture to fruition. The people rediscovered language, the hula, the chant or mele, and even the traditional Polynesian art of canoe building and wayfinding (navigation by the stars without use of instruments). This cultural resurrection is now firmly established in today’s Hawaiian culture, with a palpable pride that exudes from Hawaiians young and old. The election of President Barack Obama has definitely done its share of fueling not only Hawaiian pride but also ubiquitous hope for a better future. The president’s strong connection and commitment to Hawaiian values of diversity, spirituality, family, and conservation have restored confidence that Hawai‘i can inspire a more peaceful, tolerant, and environmentally conscious world.
Going With a Guide Arnott’s Lodge & Hiking Adventures. A bit cheaper than the others at $125 per person, Arnott’s tours leave from Hilo; their tour does not include dinner, they do not bring warm clothing for guests, and they do not have their own telescope. Focusing more on the experience of the mountain than astronomy, Arnott’s brings binoculars for each guest and provides an informative lesson on major celestial objects and Polynesian navigational stars. | 808/969–7097 | www.arnottslodge.com. Hawai‘i Forest & Trail. This outfitter stops for dinner along the way at a historic ranch, and brings parkas, gloves, and their own telescope along. Cookies and hot chocolate make cold stargazing more pleasant. The price is $189 per person. | 808/331–8505 or 800/464–1993 | www.hawaii-forest.com. Jack’s Tours. Jack’s follows the same itinerary as the other tours—sunset on the summit, followed by stargazing from the Visitor Center.
Fodor's Hawaii 2013 by Fodor's
Teaching Hawaiian language was banned from schools and children were distanced from their local customs. But Hawaiians are resilient people, and with the rise of the civil rights movement they began to reflect on their own national identity, bringing an astonishing renaissance of the Hawaiian culture to fruition. The people rediscovered language, hula, chanting, and even the traditional Polynesian arts of canoe building and wayfinding (navigation by the stars without use of instruments). This cultural resurrection is now firmly established in today’s Hawaiian culture, with a palpable pride that exudes from Hawaiians young and old. The election of President Barack Obama definitely increased Hawaiian pride and inspired a ubiquitous hope for a better future. The president’s strong connection and commitment to Hawaiian values of diversity, spirituality, family, and conservation have restored confidence that Hawaii can inspire a more peaceful, tolerant, and environmentally conscious world.
Operators provide transportation to and from the summit, and expert guides; some also provide parkas, gloves, telescopes, dinner, hot beverages, and snacks. Excursion fees range from $90 to $189. Going With a Guide Arnott’s Lodge & Hiking Adventures. Arnott’s Mauna Kea summit tour focuses more on the experience of the mountain than astronomy. Each guest gets to use a pair of binoculars while the guide provides an informative lesson on major celestial objects and Polynesian navigational stars. The excursion departs from Hilo and costs $175 per person, including parkas and hot beverages. The outfitter also offers lava and waterfall tours. | Hilo | 808/969–7097 | www.arnottslodge.com. Hawaii Forest & Trail. This outfitter leaves from Kona and also picks up guests at the Hilton Waikoloa Resort and at the Paniolo Greens Condominiums in Waikoloa Village. You’ll stop for dinner along the way at a historic ranch.
You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard
A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl
HUMAN TRAVELERS BUILD GRADIENT MAPS WITH SNOW, SAND, AND STORY In the Arctic, reliable landmarks or inukshuks that can be used to guide trekkers on the tundra are not always around. In the huge central Arctic Barrens, a traveler is more likely to be confronted with nothing more than flat fields of white ground that extend as far as the eye can see in all directions. In this sense, Barrens navigators are in a situation not very different from that of Polynesian seafarers. Though Inuit navigators can use some simple celestial information such as the position of the sun or moon for navigation, they rely less commonly on sophisticated star maps than their more southerly counterparts. One reason for this is that much travel takes place in the summer months, when the periods of darkness can be very short or even nonexistent. Fortunately, the Inuit have some other resources to help them find their way.
Frommer's Hawaii 2009 by Jeanette Foster
airport security, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, glass ceiling, gravity well, haute couture, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Maui Hawaii, place-making, polynesian navigation, South China Sea, sustainable-tourism, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Yogi Berra
Since then she has been totally restored, and now visitors can wander across her decks and through the cargo area below. The world’s only remaining fully rigged, four-masted ship is on display as a After viewing the Falls of Clyde, wander over National Historic Landmark. Still afloat, to the: the 266-foot, iron-hulled ship was built 5 Hokulea in 1878 in Glasgow, Scotland. Matson If you’re lucky, the 60-foot Polynesian Navigation bought the ship in 1899 to canoe will be docked, but it’s often out on 09_285558-ch05.qxp 222 8/11/08 10:39 PM Page 222 C H A P T E R 5 . OA H U, T H E G AT H E R I N G P L AC E jaunts. In 1976, this reproduction of the traditional double-hulled sailing canoe proved to the world that the Polynesians could have made the 6,000-mile roundtrip from Tahiti to Hawaii, navigating only by the stars and the wave patterns.
You Are Here: From the Compass to GPS, the History and Future of How We Find Ourselves by Hiawatha Bray
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, digital map, don't be evil, Edmond Halley, Edward Snowden, Firefox, game design, Google Earth, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, license plate recognition, lone genius, openstreetmap, polynesian navigation, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFID, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thales of Miletus, trade route, turn-by-turn navigation, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Zipcar
By the first millennium AD, the Polynesians had settled in New Zealand, Easter Island, Hawaii, and other islands, separated from one another by thousands of miles of blank blue water. These voyages, unrecorded and unrecalled, rank among the greatest of human explorations. How did they manage such remarkable journeys without so much as a compass? Sailors relied on nature, reading the subtle but plentiful signs of wind, waves, and wildlife. Anthropologist David Lewis, who worked with modern Polynesians trained in traditional navigational techniques, witnessed their ability to steer in part by the rolling of the sea. Years of experience had taught them to sense their location and direction by feeling the motions of the waves.3 Residents of the Marshall Islands recorded this profound knowledge of the sea in three-dimensional maps of sticks and shells. The shells represented islands, while the shape and placement of the sticks illustrated the wave patterns in nearby waters.
Collapse by Jared Diamond
clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, prisoner's dilemma, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men
The first expansion wave of Lapita potters ancestral to Polynesians spread eastwards across the Pacific only as far as Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga, which lie within just a few days' sail of each other. A much wider gap of ocean separates those West Polynesian islands from the islands of East Polynesia: the Cooks, Societies, Marquesas, Australs, Tuamotus, Hawaii, New Zealand, Pitcairn group, and Easter. Only after a "Long Pause" of about 1,500 years was that gap finally breached—whether because of improvements in Polynesian canoes and navigation, changes in ocean currents, emergence of stepping-stone islets due to a drop in sea level, or just one lucky voyage. Some time around A.D. 600-800 (the exact dates are debated), the Cooks, Societies, and Marquesas, which are the East Polynesian islands most accessible from West Polynesia, were colonized and became in turn the sources of colonists for the remaining islands. With New Zealand's occupation around A.D. 1200, across a huge water gap of at least 2,000 miles, the settlement of the Pacific's habitable islands was at last complete.
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond
clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men
The first expansion wave of Lapita potters ancestral to Polynesians spread eastwards across the Pacific only as far as Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga, which lie within just a few days’ sail of each other. A much wider gap of ocean separates those West Polynesian islands from the islands of East Polynesia: the Cooks, Societies, Marquesas, Australs, Tuamotus, Hawaii, New Zealand, Pitcairn group, and Easter. Only after a “Long Pause” of about 1,500 years was that gap finally breached—whether because of improvements in Polynesian canoes and navigation, changes in ocean currents, emergence of stepping-stone islets due to a drop in sea level, or just one lucky voyage. Some time around A.D. 600-800 (the exact dates are debated), the Cooks, Societies, and Marquesas, which are the East Polynesian islands most accessible from West Polynesia, were colonized and became in turn the sources of colonists for the remaining islands. With New Zealand’s occupation around A.D. 1200, across a huge water gap of at least 2,000 miles, the settlement of the Pacific’s habitable islands was at last complete.
Hawaii by Jeff Campbell
airport security, big-box store, California gold rush, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, commoditize, creative destruction, Drosophila, G4S, haute couture, land reform, lateral thinking, low-wage service sector, Maui Hawaii, polynesian navigation, risk/return, sustainable-tourism, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, wage slave, white picket fence
Displays on early tourism include a reproduction of a Matson liner stateroom and historical photos of Waikiki from the early 20th century, when only the Matson-built Moana and Royal Hawaiian hotels shared the horizon views with Diamond Head. The museum’s centerpiece is Hokule′a, a traditional double-hulled sailing canoe that has repeatedly sailed from Hawaii to the South Pacific and back, retracing the routes of the islands’ original Polynesian settlers using only ancient methods of wayfaring (navigation that relies on the sun, stars and wind and wave patterns; Click here). Outside, climb aboard the Falls of Clyde, the world’s last four-masted, four-rigged ship. Built in 1878 in Glasgow, the ship once carried sugar and passengers between Hilo on the Big Island of Hawai′i and San Francisco, then oil, before finally being stripped down to a barge. Today you can stroll the deck and explore the cargo holds of this restored, floating National Historic Landmark.
The museum’s more modern wing, the Castle Memorial Building, has changing traveling exhibitions next door. Across the Great Lawn, the state-of-the-art, family-oriented Science Adventure Center uses interactive multimedia exhibits and demonstrations to explain Hawaii’s natural environment, letting kids walk through an erupting volcano or take a minisub dive. The museum is also home to O′ahu’s only planetarium (848-4136), which highlights traditional Polynesian methods of wayfaring (navigation), along with astronomy and the telescope observatories atop Mauna Kea. Shows are usually held at 11:30am, 1:30pm and 3:30pm, and are included in the museum admission price. A gift shop off the lobby sells books on the Pacific not easily found elsewhere, as well as some high-quality Hawaiian crafts and souvenirs. On-site parking is free. From Waikiki or downtown Honolulu, take TheBus 2 School St-Middle St or B City Express!
The Age of Wonder by Richard Holmes
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, British Empire, Copley Medal, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Etonian, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Harrison: Longitude, music of the spheres, placebo effect, polynesian navigation, Richard Feynman, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unbiased observer, University of East Anglia, éminence grise
Unfamiliar Fishes by Sarah Vowell
This led to one of Cook’s most intriguing insights, the identification of what is now called the Polynesian Triangle, that immense stretch of ocean between New Zealand, Easter Island, and Hawaii—including Samoa, Tonga, and Tahiti—with related dialects and customs. For instance, the New Zealand natives call themselves Maori, while native Hawaiians’ name for themselves is Kanaka Maoli. “Same language, same people, same culture,” the Hawaiian activist Kekuni Blaisdell told me. Cook asked, “How shall we account for this Nation spreading itself so far over this Vast ocean?” Answer: the ancient Polynesians were some of the most skilled and talented natural-born navigators the world has ever known. Which is how the natives of Tahiti and the Marquesas settled the Hawaiian Islands at least a millennium ago—eyeballing stars from their double-hulled canoes for 2,600 miles. The missionary Hiram Bingham dismissed the Polynesians’ sailing expertise, writing off the migration to Hawaii as dumb luck, supposing that they arrived “without much knowledge of navigation” just as “trees from foreign countries repeatedly land on their shores.”
Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman
British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade