conceptual framework

261 results back to index


pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

SIZE REALLY MATTERS: SCALING AND NONLINEAR BEHAVIOR In addressing these diverse and seemingly unrelated questions, the lens I shall use will predominantly be that of Scale and the conceptual framework that of Science. Scaling and scalability, that is, how things change with size, and the fundamental rules and principles they obey are central themes that run throughout the book and are used as points of departure for developing almost all of the arguments presented. Viewed through this lens, cities, companies, plants, animals, our bodies, and even tumors manifest a remarkable similarity in the ways that they are organized and function. Each represents a fascinating variation on a general universal theme that is manifested in surprisingly systematic mathematical regularities and similarities in their organization, structure, and dynamics. These will be shown to be consequences of a broad, big-picture conceptual framework for understanding such disparate systems in an integrated unifying way, and with which many of the big issues can be addressed, analyzed, and understood.

The examples shown in Figures 1–4 are just a tiny sampling of an enormous number of such scaling relationships that quantitatively describe how almost any measurable characteristic of animals, plants, ecosystems, cities, and companies scales with size. You will be seeing many more of them throughout this book. The existence of these remarkable regularities strongly suggests that there is a common conceptual framework underlying all of these very different highly complex phenomena and that the dynamics, growth, and organization of animals, plants, human social behavior, cities, and companies are, in fact, subject to similar generic “laws.” This is the main focus of this book. I will explain the nature and origin of these systematic scaling laws, how they are all interrelated, and how they lead to a deep and broad understanding of many aspects of life and ultimately to the challenge of global sustainability.

This book is about a way of thinking, about asking big questions, and about suggesting big answers to some of those big questions. It’s a book about how some of the major challenges and issues we are grappling with today, ranging from rapid urbanization, growth, and global sustainability to understanding cancer, metabolism, and the origins of aging and death, can be addressed in an integrated unifying conceptual framework. It is a book about the remarkably similar ways in which cities, companies, tumors, and our bodies work, and how each of them represents a variation on a general theme manifesting surprisingly systematic regularities and similarities in their organization, structure, and dynamics. A common property shared by all of them is that they are highly complex and composed of enormous numbers of individual constituents, whether molecules, cells, or people, connected, interacting, and evolving via networked structures over multiple spatial and temporal scales.


pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

Engelbart, Douglas. 1962a. ‘Letter to Vannevar Bush and Program on Human Effectiveness’. In From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind’s Machine, edited by James Nyce and Paul Kahn, 235–44. London: Academic Press. . 1962b. ‘Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework’. Report to the Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Menlo Park, CA, Stanford Research Institute. Online: http://www.invisiblerevolution.net/ engelbart/full_62_paper_augm_hum_int.html (accessed April 2013). . 1963. ‘A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man’s Intellect’. In Vistas in Information Handling, Volume 1: The Augmentation of Man’s Intellect By Machine, edited by Paul W. Howerton and David C. Weeks, 1–29. Washington: Spartan Books. . 1986. ‘Interview with Henry Lowood’, Stanford University.

More deeply, this implies that Doug’s revolution requires a reversal of the current relationship between humans and technology; we need to be back in the driver’s seat.3 Hayles (1999) locates a similar contradiction in Norbert Wiener’s work. AUGMENTING THE INTELLECT: NLS 41 In particular, Engelbart feels we need to create tool systems that help us deal with knowledge work in a more effective way. This objective is something he claims he inherited from Bush’s 1945 paper, ‘As We May Think’ (Engelbart 1962), and it formed the basis of the ‘Conceptual Framework for Augmenting Man’s Intellect’ he would later erect to explain and support the development of the oN-Line System (NLS), a prototype hypertext system. As he told me: We need to think about how to boost our collective IQ , and how important it would be to society because all of the technologies are just going to make our world accelerate faster and faster and get more and more complex and we’re not equipped to cope with that complexity.

‘If we don’t get proactive, the human side of [the equation] is going to always get pushed by just the technology’ (Engelbart 1999). He wanted to build a laboratory at SRI filled with psychologists and computer scientists to research the new ‘field’ of intellectual augmentation. Initially, though, SRI was skeptical, and Engelbart was put to work in magnetics. If the project was to have the kind of impact on the engineering community he wanted, he needed the support of his peers. Engelbart decided to write a conceptual framework for it, an agenda that the computing (and engineering) community could understand. It was ‘remarkably slow and sweaty work’ (Engelbart 1988, 190), but he wrote the paper in 1962 and published it in 1963. It is interesting to note here that both Engelbart and Ted Nelson found writing difficult; they were far from prolific, and would draft and redraft multiple times. In Nelson’s case this frustration was largely with the paradigm of paper, and it led him to design an alternative.8 For Engelbart, it appears to be a frustration at expressing his ideas in a form that the computing community would understand.


pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

There were no longer existing assets for Silverstein to manage, but he would continue to receive these fees as provided for in the December 2003 agreement between the PA and the Silverstein lessees. At this point, Silverstein and his company executives were managing what is called “the pre-development” process. Within twenty-four hours the Port Authority sent back a revised Conceptual Framework, and in his response letter of April 26, “accepting all of your key terms,” Silverstein wrote, “We understand each other’s positions clearly, including the need for reasonable certainty of completion and financeability.” He wanted to proceed immediately, he said, toward the documentation of the transaction rather than focus any longer on the Conceptual Framework and its seventeen specific elements.42 The Port Authority commissioners were tentatively scheduled to consider approval of the transaction in September, and the amount of work to be done before then was huge.

Furthermore, the status of insurance claims under Silverstein’s insurance policies had to be clarified, and this was not as straightforward as might have been expected because less than a month after the April Conceptual Framework agreement, seven of the insurers attempted to use the new financial plan as a lever to delay, if not evade, their responsibility to pay the full $4.6 billion for rebuilding. Those insurance policies, as the Times editorialized, “have provoked enough charges, countercharges and court documents to fill a bank vault.”46 Another item yet to be definitively settled was whether Silverstein could get rights to the retail portion of the site, rights that were subject to a resolution clarifying the intent of the PA and Westfield America, which now held a right of first offer to redevelop the retail spaces. From the twelve-page Conceptual Framework, the realignment transaction would balloon into twelve volumes of agreements, hundreds of thousands of words diligently documenting the complex duality of an intergovernmental political arrangement and hard-fought business deal.

No wonder officials aren’t calling it a deal, but a ‘conceptual framework’. ” The Times, more moderate in tone, also condemned “how badly blocked the redevelopment effort in Lower Manhattan has been in the last two years,” though from a different perspective: “There have been many obstructions, including Mr. Silverstein himself. After months of negotiations, the mayor and the governors of New York and New Jersey lined up solidly against the developer last week and offered him two good options and one solid deadline. Mr. Silverstein did the right thing by accepting one of these options, which should turn out to be a profitable deal, not only for his own company, but also for the public.” The amount of money the public was committing to make the Conceptual Framework a reasonable thrust at rebuilding—and ultimately would have to pump into Ground Zero—made the Times’ last concluding phrase suspect from a financial perspective.


Digital Accounting: The Effects of the Internet and Erp on Accounting by Ashutosh Deshmukh

accounting loophole / creative accounting, AltaVista, business continuity plan, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, data acquisition, dumpster diving, fixed income, hypertext link, interest rate swap, inventory management, iterative process, late fees, money market fund, new economy, New Journalism, optical character recognition, packet switching, performance metric, profit maximization, semantic web, shareholder value, six sigma, statistical model, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, telemarketer, transaction costs, value at risk, web application, Y2K

Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. 334 Deshmukh A Conceptual Framework for Online Internal Controls 1 Internal controls, no matter the exotic terminology, have standard objectives. The objectives of online controls can be classified as validity of transactions, mutual authentication of identity, authorization, end-to-end data integrity and confidentiality, non-repudiation and auditability of transactions. These areas are not mutually exclusive, but provide a way to conceptually organize and discuss internal controls in the online world. Let us take a detailed look at elements of the conceptual framework. Some of the controls mentioned below are covered in detail in a later section. • Validity of transactions: The primary question in online transactions is its legal status.

Financial Management, Strategic Management and Digital Accounting ............... 293 Digital Accounting and Accounting Processes .............................................. 293 Corporate Treasury Functions ....................................................................... 295 SunGard Treasury System .................................................................... 297 SAP CFM Tools .................................................................................... 299 Financial Supply Chain .................................................................................. 304 Corporate Performance Management ............................................................ 307 SAP SEM Tools ..................................................................................... 309 Summary .......................................................................................................... 315 References ........................................................................................................ 316 Chapter X. Controls, Security, and Audit in Online Digital Accounting ................................... 318 Internal Controls: What and Why? ................................................................. 318 Security Issues in the Online World ................................................................ 322 A Conceptual Framework for Online Internal Controls ................................ 334 Standard Online Internal Control Techniques ............................................... 336 Security Policy ...................................................................................... 338 Passwords, Security Tokens and Biometics ......................................... 342 Access Control List (ACL) .................................................................... 343 Anti-Virus Software .............................................................................. 344 Defense Against Social Engineering .................................................... 344 Cryptology ............................................................................................ 345 Digital Watermarks .............................................................................. 349 Firewalls ............................................................................................... 350 Web Content Filtering .......................................................................... 352 Virtual Private Network (VPN) ........................................................... 353 Message Security Protocols ................................................................. 355 A Taxonomy of Network Anti-Intrusion Techniques ....................................... 357 Preventive Techniques .......................................................................... 358 viii Preemptive Techniques ......................................................................... 359 Deterrent Techniques ........................................................................... 359 Deflection Techniques .......................................................................... 359 Detection Techniques ........................................................................... 360 System Integrity Techniques ................................................................. 362 Intrusion Countermeasures (ICE) Techniques .................................... 362 A Word on Wireless Networks .............................................................. 362 Anti-Intrusion Products ........................................................................ 364 Automated Control and Compliance Tools .................................................... 364 Searchspace .......................................................................................... 364 TransactionVision ................................................................................ 367 Privacy and Assurance Issues in the Online World ........................................ 369 Trust Services ........................................................................................ 372 Privacy Audits ...................................................................................... 376 Summary .......................................................................................................... 378 References ........................................................................................................ 379 Endnote ........................................................................................................... 383 About the Author ....................................................................................................... 384 Index .......................................................................................................................... 385 ix Preface Accounting and information technology have been constant companions since the days of tabulating machines.

I have primarily used SAP tools to illustrate the functionalities; however, these are supplemented with the latest software tools from other vendors. Chapter IX deals with the role of digital accounting in financial and strategic management. Developments such as financial supply chain and corporate performance management that integrate e-developments in comprehensive managerial philosophies are covered. Finally, Chapter X discusses controls, security, and audit in the online-networked world. This chapter first presents a conceptual framework for internal controls in the online world. Then, various standard control techniques are discussed. The new Web-based anti-fraud and anti-money laundering software is also covered. The discussion of privacy and assurance issues concludes the chapter and rounds off the book. To Whom is This Book Addressed? This book provides a broad introduction to the effects of the Internet and ERP on accounting workflows, processes and controls.


pages: 153 words: 27,424

REST API Design Rulebook by Mark Masse

anti-pattern, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, database schema, hypertext link, information retrieval, web application

In contrast, most of the rules presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 (particularly those that deal with media types and representational forms) are my solutions in the absence of consensus. Note When used in the context of rules, the key words: “must,” “must not,” “required,” “shall,” “shall not,” “should,” “should not,” “recommended,” “may,” and “optional” are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.[16] WRML I’ve invented a conceptual framework called the Web Resource Modeling Language (WRML) to assist with the design and implementation of REST APIs. WRML, pronounced like “wormle,” originated as a resource model diagramming technique that uses a set of basic shapes to represent each of the resource archetypes discussed in Resource Archetypes. The scope of WRML increased with the creation of the application/wrml media type,[17] which has pluggable format and schema components, as described in Media Type Design.

Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels, RFC 2119, RFC Editor, 1997 (http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt). [17] The application/wrml media type’s IANA registration is pending—see http://www.wrml.org for the most up-to-date information. [18] http://www.json.org Recap This chapter presented a synopsis of the Web’s invention and stabilization. It motivated the book’s rule-oriented presentation and introduced WRML, a conceptual framework whose ideas promote a uniform REST API design methodology. Subsequent chapters will build on this foundation to help us leverage REST in API designs. Table 1-1 summarizes the vocabulary terms that were introduced in this chapter. Table 1-1. Vocabulary review TermDescription Application Programming Interface (API) Exposes a set of data and functions to facilitate interactions between computer programs.

Tim Berners-Lee developed the first one, which was able to view and edit HTML documents. Web client (client) A computer program that follows REST’s uniform interface in order to accept and transfer resource state representations to servers. Web component (component) A client, network-based intermediary, or server that complies with REST’s uniform interface. Web Resource Modeling Language (WRML) A conceptual framework whose ideas can be leveraged to design and implement uniform REST APIs. Web server (server) A computer program that follows REST’s uniform interface constraints in order to accept and transfer resource state representations to clients. Web service A web server programmed with specific, often reusable, logic. Chapter 2. Identifier Design with URIs URIs REST APIs use Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) to address resources.


pages: 352 words: 120,202

Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology by Howard Rheingold

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, card file, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, popular electronics, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture

Air Force Office of Scientific Research, ever vigilant for new knowledge about how humans operate machines, provided a small grant. Doug finally got what he wanted -- the freedom to explore a field in which he still had no colleagues. "It was lonely work, not having anybody to bounce the ideas off, but I finally got it written down in a paper I finished in 1962 and published in 1963." Total silence from the community greeted the announcement of the conceptual framework Engelbart had thought about and worked to articulate for over a decade. But the few people who happened to be listening happened to be the right people. Bob Taylor, a young fellow at NASA who was one of the bright technological vanguard of the post-Sputnik era, one of the new breed of research funders who didn't fear innovation as a matter of reflex, pushed some of the earliest funding of Doug's project.

Licklider and Taylor thought Engelbart was just the kind of forward-thing researcher they wanted to recruit for the task of finding new and powerful uses for the computational tools their research teams were creating. They were particularly interested in the same paper of Doug's that the mainstream of computer science had chosen to ignore. The paper that attracted the attention of ARPA and met such a thundering silence from the wider community of computer theorists in 1963 was entitled "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." In its introduction, Engelbart presented the manifesto by which he meant to launch an entire new field of human knowledge: By "augmenting man's intellect" we mean increasing the capability of a man to approach a complex problem situation, gain comprehension to suit his particular needs, and to derive solutions to problems. Increased capability in this respect is taken to mean a mixture of the following: that comprehension can be gained more quickly; that better comprehension can be gained; that a useful degree of comprehension can be gained where previously the situation was too complex; that solutions can be produced more quickly; that better solutions can be produced; that solutions can be found where previously the human could find none.

Training -- the conditioning needed by the individual to bring his skills in using augmentation means 1, 2, and 3 to the point where they are operationally effective. The system we wish to improve can thus be visualized as comprising a trained human being together with his artifacts, language, and methodology. The explicit new system we contemplate will involve as artifacts computers and computer-controlled information-storage, information-handling, and information-display devices. The aspects of the conceptual framework that are discussed here are primarily those relating to those relating to the individual's ability to make significant use of such equipment in an integrated system. The biggest difference between the citizen of preliterate culture and the industrial-world dweller who can perform long division or dial a telephone is not in the brain's "hardware" -- the nervous system of the highlander or the urbanite -- but in the thinking tools given by the culture.


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Instead, stacking the cards against the Shackled Leviathan, their methods of preventing would-be strongmen from ascending to power were complex sets of norms, such as witchcraft, kin-based relations, or the kapu system, that regulated conflict and held back political hierarchy. But once the will to power pierced through these norms, not much of them was left to act as an effective counterweight to the power of the newly emerging state. State builders were also quick to reconfigure norms for their own agenda, as we have seen. Going back to Figure 1 in Chapter 2, summarizing our conceptual framework, we can see this situation as corresponding to the bottom left where both state and society are weak to start with. Without the norms and institutions of society capable of restraining the process of state building once it’s in motion, there is no corridor. Hence, in the face of the will to power, there is nowhere else for society to go but toward the Despotic Leviathan. But this wasn’t all bad.

So public services are vital, not just because they improve the lives of the citizens who gain access to better roads, canals, schools, and benefit from regulation, but also because they underpin broad-based opportunities. This is what the Italian communes achieved, thanks to their ability to found a Shackled Leviathan, and this is what the Allegory of Good Government so brilliantly explains. * * * — The reader who is familiar with our earlier book Why Nations Fail will see strong parallels between what we have just described and the conceptual framework developed in that book. (At least we are not entirely inconsistent with our earlier thinking.) There we referred to institutions that provide broad-based opportunities and incentives for people to invest, innovate, and engage in productivity-enhancing activities as “inclusive economic institutions.” We also stressed that these can only survive in the long haul if they are supported by “inclusive political institutions” that prevent the monopolization of political power by a small segment of society while also enabling the state to enforce laws.

We emphasized that new innovations, technologies, and organizations, though indispensable for sustained economic growth, will often be resisted because they may destabilize an existing order (what we called “political creative destruction”). The best guarantee that we have to prevent some powerful actors blocking new technologies, and in the process stamping out economic development, is to make sure that nobody, and nothing, is powerful enough to be able to do so. Looked at from this perspective, our conceptual framework here expands on Why Nations Fail. The Shackled Leviathan is not just the culmination of the inclusive political institutions necessary for inclusive economic institutions. It also critically depends on the Red Queen effect—the ability of society to contend with, constrain, and check the state and the political elites. This brings into focus the central role of norms that help society organize, engage in politics, and if necessary rebel against the state and elites.


pages: 357 words: 98,854

Epigenetics Revolution: How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, Disease and Inheritance by Nessa Carey

Albert Einstein, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, conceptual framework, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, life extension, mouse model, phenotype, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, stochastic process, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies

Darwin knew nothing about genes when he developed the theory of evolution through natural selection. Mendel knew nothing about DNA when, in an Austrian monastery garden, he developed his idea of inherited factors that are transmitted ‘true’ from generation to generation of peas. It doesn’t matter. They saw what nobody else had seen and suddenly we all had a new way of viewing the world. The epigenetic landscape Oddly enough, there was a conceptual framework that was in existence when John Gurdon performed his work. Go to any conference with the word ‘epigenetics’ in the title and at some point one of the speakers will refer to something called ‘Waddington’s epigenetic landscape’. They will show the grainy image seen in Figure 1.1. Conrad Waddington was a hugely influential British polymath. He was born in 1903 in India but was sent back to England to go to school.

We no longer accept most of his ideas scientifically, but we should acknowledge that he was making a genuine attempt to address important questions. Inevitably, and quite rightly, Lamarck has been overshadowed by Charles Darwin, the true colossus of 19th century biology – actually, probably the colossus of biology generally. Darwin’s model of the evolution of species via natural selection has been the single most powerful conceptual framework in biological sciences. Its power became even greater once married to Mendel’s work on inheritance and our molecular understanding of DNA as the raw material of inheritance. If we wanted to summarise a century and a half of evolutionary theory in one paragraph we might say: Random variation in genes creates phenotypic variation in individuals. Some individuals will survive better than others in a particular environment, and these individuals are likely to have more offspring.

But females randomly inactivate an X chromosome in all their cells. Consequently, at a very fundamental level, all cells in a female body can be split into two camps depending on which X chromosome they inactivated. The expression for this is that females are epigenetic mosaics. This sophisticated epigenetic control in females is a complicated and highly regulated process, and that’s where Mary Lyon’s predictions have provided such a useful conceptual framework. They can be paraphrased as the following four steps: Counting: cells from the normal female would contain only one active X chromosome; Choice: X inactivation would occur early in development; Initiation: the inactive X could be either maternally or paternally derived, and the inactivation would be random in any one cell; Maintenance: X inactivation would be irreversible in a somatic cell and all its descendants.


pages: 178 words: 47,457

A Framework for Understanding Poverty by Ruby K. Payne

conceptual framework, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, impulse control, Isaac Newton, post scarcity, War on Poverty, working poor

These two activities should be part of daily instruction. The procedural self-talk can be written down and eventually will become part of the internal self-talk. Goal-setting addresses several cognitive issues. 4. Teaching conceptual frameworks as part of the content (Marzano and Arredondo, 1986). There are many ways to do this. One is by using graphic organizers. Another is to teach content in an associative way (i.e., teaching it in relationship to what students personally have experienced, rather than in a linear or hierarchical way). Another way to build conceptual frameworks is to take what they know and translate it into the new form. For example, have them write in casual register and then translate into formal register. Or, have them rewrite the story in a poverty structure. In other words, it is an opportunity for students to see the same information in more than one structure.

If a student has moved his/her eyes to a visual position, then the teacher knows that the student is trying to find the information visually. The teacher can enhance the process by asking the student, "What do you see?" If the student is processing from an auditory position, the teacher can ask, "What do you remember hearing?" And so on for the other positions. Eye movements can help the teacher identify how a student tends to store and retrieve information. ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTIONS THAT BUILD CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS AND COGNITIVE STRATEGIES 1. Using graphic organizers (Idol and Jones, i99i, Chapter 3). Graphic organizers give students the ability to identify main concepts, assign specific labels to concepts, and sort relevant and non-relevant cues (see example below). Example: Example: (For a comprehensive, research-based overview, see Idol and Jones, 1991.) 2. Identifying methods of having a systematic approach to the data/text.


pages: 278 words: 74,880

A World of Three Zeros: The New Economics of Zero Poverty, Zero Unemployment, and Zero Carbon Emissions by Muhammad Yunus

active measures, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, distributed generation, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban sprawl, young professional

But their very existence reflects the fact that most members of society feel a genuine obligation to do something to reduce the extreme inequality that leaves so many millions without the resources necessary for a secure and fulfilling life. Charity and welfare programs are well-intended efforts to lessen the damage done by the capitalist system. But a real solution requires a change in the system itself. CAPITALIST MAN VERSUS REAL MAN THE SYSTEMIC PROBLEM STARTS WITH the assumptions we make about human nature. Indifference to other human beings is deeply embedded in the current conceptual framework of economics. The neoclassical theory of economics is based on the belief that a human being is basically a personal-gain-seeking being. It assumes that maximizing personal profit is the core of economic rationality. This assumption encourages a form of behavior toward other human beings that deserves to be described by far harsher words than mere “indifference”—words like greed, exploitation, and selfishness.

THE PROBLEM OF UNEMPLOYMENT—WRONG DIAGNOSIS, WRONG CURE OF COURSE, TODAY’S YOUNG PEOPLE who are struggling to find decent jobs have done nothing wrong—just as the poor women around the world who are trapped in poverty have done nothing wrong. In both cases, the economic system that we designed and have been following with total trust is to blame—and that needs to change. This problem of unemployment is not created by the unemployed people themselves. It is created by our grossly flawed conceptual framework, which has drilled into our heads that people are born to work for a few fortunate capitalists. Since these few job creators are the drivers of the economy, according to the present theory, all policies and institutions are built for them. If they don’t hire you, you are finished. What a misreading of human destiny! What an insult to human beings who are packed with unlimited creative capacity!

Each reform removes some of the barriers that currently discourage creative experimentation with economic change. In the years to come, as the successes of social businesses continue to multiply and expand, more and more people and organizations will join the cause. Eventually, we’ll wonder why it took so long for the world to recognize the obvious demand for an economic system that is truly dedicated to meeting human needs. 11 REDESIGNING THE WORLD OF TOMORROW THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF CAPITALISM was originally laid out by the great Scottish economist and philosopher Adam Smith, primarily in his 1776 book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. This framework has been improved and elaborated throughout its long history, but the basic tenets have remained unchanged. Over time, many alternatives to capitalism have been offered and practiced. In the meantime, the world has changed enormously.


No Slack: The Financial Lives of Low-Income Americans by Michael S. Barr

active measures, asset allocation, Bayesian statistics, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market friction, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, mobile money, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, p-value, payday loans, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked

Sticky defaults are just one of a set of examples we discuss as potential regulatory interventions based on the proposed conceptual framework. As noted above, given market responses to relevant psychological factors in different contexts, regulation may need to take a variety of forms, including some that, while perhaps informed by psychology, are designed not to effect behavioral change but rather to alter the market structure in which relevant choices are made. Given the complexities involved, this chapter’s purpose is not to champion specific policies but rather to illustrate how a behaviorally informed regulatory analysis might generate a deeper understanding of the costs and benefits of particular policies. Behaviorally Informed Financial Regulation We review a set of ideas to illustrate our conceptual framework in three main areas of consumer finance: home mortgages, credit cards, and bank accounts.

Financial 12864-11_CH11_3rdPgs.indd 251 3/23/12 11:57 AM 252 michael s. barr, sendhil mullainathan, and eldar shafir institutions can make it easy for individuals to make infrequent, carefully considered financial-accounting decisions that can prove resistant to later intuitive error or to momentary mental-accounting impulses. In this sense, improving financial institutions can have a disproportionate impact on the lives of the poor. Moving from a payday lender and a check casher to a bank with direct deposit and payroll deduction can have benefits in improved planning, saving, and other outcomes far more important than the transaction cost saved. Behavior, Markets, and Policy: A Conceptual Framework A behavioral perspective allows one to account better for how individuals make decisions and is thus a useful corrective to the rational-agent model. Yet a model focused on individuals is, on its own, incomplete as a basis for policy. The perspective outlined above needs to be embedded in the logic of markets. A framework is required that takes into account firms’ incentives with respect to individual behavior, as well as to regulation.

Pension regulation that penalizes firms whose high-income employees are overrepresented in plan enrollments is an example of how scoring gives firms incentives to enroll low-income individuals without setting particular rules on how this is done. Changing rules and changing scoring often accompany each other, but they are conceptually distinct. Table 11-3 weaves these approaches together, illustrating our conceptual framework for behaviorally informed regulation. The table shows how regulatory choice may be analyzed according to the market’s stance toward human fallibility. On the left side of the table, market incentives align reasonably well with the goal of overcoming consumer fallibility, and society’s goal is to overcome that bias as well. Rules in that context may have a relatively lighter touch: for example, using automatic savings plans as a default in retirement saving or providing for licensing and registration to ensure that standard practices are followed.


The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz

airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, different worldview, facts on the ground, friendly fire, industrial cluster, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, source of truth, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

The opponents voice concern about major changes in current system states by focusing on complexity and on normative values-in other words, their discussion is at Level II (if not Level III). Proponents and opponents both err in failing to recognize that both positions may be at once valid yet incommensurable. Any technology of more than trivial import exhibits behaviors at Levels I and II (and beyond, as we will discuss next), and these behaviors are unavoidable and symbiotic. But more profoundly, by relying on simplistic, anachronistic, and contradictory conceptual frameworks, both sides reinforce concepts and frameworks-Enlightenment certainties-that are not capable of engaging the radical technological transitions that we humans are continually creating. It is to these transitions that we now turn. 4 Level III Technology: Radical Contingency in Earth Systems We have explored two levels of technology. At the shop-floor level, we can see much of the cause-and-ef£ect chain necessary to meet specific and well-defined social goals: a vaccine prevents a particular disease, or a well-designed manufacturing process eliminates the use oftoxic chemicals (and thus workers' potential exposure to them).

Similarly, the Counter Rocket Artillery Mortar (CRAM) system is a computerized machine-gun system currently deployed to defend against rockets and missiles to which humans could not react in time. 9 Does the word "robot" signify a type of artifact, a type of capability, or a certain level of computational competence? Or does this discussion make the point that emerging technologies render dangerously contingent even words and concepts that we think we understand, Killer Apps 151 and thus leave us open to the risk of relying on implicit assumptions, discussions, and conceptual frameworks that are already obsolete? Lethal autonomous robots (LARs) are controversial at every level, but discussion to date is often characterized by category confusion. To begin with, why should such a technology, in any form, be deployed? The immediate response is Level I: "to save soldiers' lives." Indeed, robots, whether lethal and autonomous or simply robotic, do save the lives of soldiers: in Iraq and Afghanistan, many explosive devices that might otherwise have killed and maimed soldiers have been identified and eliminated by robots.

It is illegal for drug companies to advertise an "off-label" use, but it is legal for a physician to prescribe a drug for "off-label" use. It is, however, illegal to sell or trade in "off-label" drugs that have not been specifically prescribed for the individual. 3. This language was on the original website of the World Transhumanist Association, www.transhumanism.org.In 2008, that site was replaced by www.humanityplus.org. 4. The Great Chain of Being is a conceptual framework of the Universe perfected in the Christian medieval period in Europe. It envisions a structured hierarchy, with pure spirit and perfection (God)at the top, and pure matter and imperfection (rocks and other materials) at the bottom. In between, in order, come all things; angels are next to God, while plants are above matter, and beasts above plants. Humans are at the fulcrum point, for they are both spirit and matter.


The Deep Learning Revolution (The MIT Press) by Terrence J. Sejnowski

AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Conway's Game of Life, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, delayed gratification, discovery of DNA, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, Henri Poincaré, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Norbert Wiener, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, PageRank, pattern recognition, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Socratic dialogue, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Life on earth is filled with many mysteries, but perhaps the most challenging of these is the nature of intelligence. Nature abounds with intelligence in many forms, from humble bacterial to complex human intelligence, each adapted to its niche in nature. Artificial intelligence will also come in many forms that will take their particular places on this spectrum. As machine intelligence based on deep neural networks matures, it could provide a new conceptual framework for biological intelligence. The Deep Learning Revolution is a guide to the past, present, and future of deep learning. Not meant to be a comprehensive history of the field, it is rather a personal view of key conceptual advances and the community of researchers who made them. Human memory is fallible and shifts with every retelling of a story, a process called “reconsolidation.” The stories in this book stretch over forty years, and even though some are as vivid to me as if they occurred yesterday, I am well aware that the details have been edited by my memory’s retellings over time.

But, just as clearly, grounded knowledge is essential if we (among other animals) are to survive in the real world. Motivated by the remarkable similarity in the patterns of activity among the hidden units of a trained multilayer Convolutional Learning 133 neural network and those recorded from populations of biological neurons recorded one at a time, Patricia and I wrote The Computational Brain in 1992 to develop a conceptual framework for neuroscience based on large populations of neurons.14 (Now in its second edition, our book is a good primer if you want to learn more about brain-style computing.) James DiCarlo at MIT recently compared the responses of neurons at different levels of the visual cortex hierarchy of monkeys trained to recognize images of objects with the responses of units in a deep learning neural network that could recognize the same images (figure 9.2).15 He concluded that the statistical properties of the neurons in each layer of the deep learning network matched quite closely those of neurons in the cortical hierarchy.

Skinnerians, at this point in the discussion, appeal to “similarity” or “generalization,” but always without characterizing precisely the ways in which a new sentence is “similar” to familiar examples or “generalized” from them. The reason for this failure is simple. So far Figure 17.2 Noam Chomsky in 1977, after he wrote “The Case against B. F. Skinner” for the New York Review of Books. Chomsky’s essay had a profound impact on a generation of cognitive psychologists, who would embrace symbol processing as a conceptual framework for cognition and discount the essential role of brain development and learning in cognition and intelligence. Hans Peters/Anefoto. Nature Is Cleverer Than We Are 249 Figure 17.3 Cover headline for Noam Chomsky’s 1971 takedown of B. F. Skinner in the New York Review of Books. Chomsky’s essay would influence a generation of scientists to abandon behavioral learning and take up symbol processing as a way to explain cognition.


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The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, different worldview, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

For example, performing artists only have a maximum of 365 nights a year on which they can do a show, and can’t become more “productive.” Nurses become arguably less, not more, productive in a meaningful sense if they treat more patients but the statistics work the opposite way. In the online economy, digital products can show infinite productivity—they can be duplicated essentially for free—but if they’re priced for free, they will perhaps not be produced in the desirable quantities. In these varied examples, the conceptual framework of measurement isn’t up to assessing the things we value (in a noneconomic sense), which in turn actually makes it hard to value them in the monetary sense. This leads directly to a second requirement, which is clarity about the values and aims of economic policy and political choices. There is a fundamental set of trade-offs—a “trilemma,” or three-way dilemma—in the management of the economy—using resources as efficiently as possible, sharing them fairly between people, and allowing people as much freedom and self-determination as possible—and it is only possible to hit two of these three aims at any one time.

These increasing returns activities are growing in their extent, as seen in the growth of goods and research-intensive goods as a share of the leading economies’ annual output. The more you think about the measurement problems, the more it becomes clear that the difficulty in measuring is a result not just of failing to collect the right statistics but is actually due to the way we think about such activities. The conceptual framework that lies behind existing economic statistics is a bad fit for an economy that is no longer mass-producing standardized manufactured goods. The structure of the economy is changing, and so is what people value. This is true both in the sense of what they’ll spend their money on in the weightless economy and in the sense of a growing appreciation of the legacy of today’s economy for tomorrow’s society.

So, bizarrely, many previously highly profitable businesses are looking quite a lot like public services in some respects. The zero marginal cost of conveying the song or movie to another user makes it harder to charge anything, but that in turn is undermining the provision of the service. Many businesses are scrabbling to find what it is they can charge for in order to cover their costs and sustain profit margins. This all points toward the conclusion that our conceptual framework for understanding economic value hasn’t kept up with the way the economy has changed. INNOVATION IN STATISTICS Economists and statisticians certainly understand the problem. Questions of measurement have not only reached the public policy debate, they have been explored extensively within the profession. One type of innovation has been the challenge to the monopoly of GDP over policy debates, and the development of either alternative or supplementary indicators.


Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism by Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Cass Sunstein, centre right, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, declining real wages, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, open borders, open economy, post-industrial society, post-materialism, precariat, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, statistical model, stem cell, War on Poverty, white flight, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

We argue that this combination poses the most serious risks for liberal democracy by corroding trust in the established mechanisms safeguarding democratic checks and balances, including the protection of minority rights, the role of the free press, judicial independence, and plural debate in civil society, allowing strongman leaders claiming to speak for the people to step into the vacuum, while simultaneously endorsing social intolerance toward out-­groups. Part IV discusses how this conceptual framework help us understand the appeals of diverse populist social movements, parties, and leaders. 65 66 Varieties of Populism I The concept of populism We define populism minimally as a rhetorical style of communications claiming that (i) the only legitimate democratic authority flows directly from the people, and (ii) established power-­holders are deeply corrupt, and self-­interested, betraying public trust.

Researchers also use a bewildering plethora of labels to classify party families such as ‘radical right,’ ‘far-­right,’ ‘right-­wing populism,’ ‘alt-­right,’ ‘extreme right’ and ‘populist right,’ and so on. The lack of consistency raises red flags. Accordingly, to clear the decks, this chapter clarifies the underlying con­ cepts and presents the party typology used in this book. Part I of this chapter summarizes the conceptual framework and the meaning of both populism and authoritarianism, ideas discussed earlier in Chapter 3. Building on this, Part II discusses the pros and cons of alternative methods for gathering evidence useful to categorize party families. Part III describes how party positions are measured in this study and mapped on a multidimensional issue space. The Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES) is used to create indices of left–right, authoritarian–libertarianism, and populism–pluralism, each measured as continuous standardized scales.

Part IV maps European political parties on these scales – including Authoritarian-­Populist parties – across a wide range of European countries. We also discuss how best to classify presidential leaders. This enables us, in the next chapter, to identify the key determinants of how values translate into voting support for political parties located across the authoritarian and populism indices. I The conceptual framework The meaning of populism continues to be debated but in recent years a broad consensus has emerged among many scholars. Chapter 3 used a minimalist definition of populism as a form of discourse making two core claims, namely that: (i) the only legitimate democratic authority flows directly from the people, and (ii) establishment elites are corrupt, out of touch, and self-­serving, betraying the public trust and thwarting the popular will.


Pirates and Emperors, Old and New by Noam Chomsky

American ideology, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban planning

Similarly, in an anguished review of “extremism” and its ascendance, New York Times Israel correspondent Thomas Friedman includes under this rubric those who advocate a non-racist settlement in accord with the international consensus, while the Western leaders of the rejectionist camp, who also hold a commanding lead in terrorist operations, are the “moderates”; by definition, one might add. Friedman writes that “Extremists have always been much better at exploiting the media.” He is quite right; Israel and the U.S. have shown unparalleled mastery of this art, as his own articles and news reports indicate.9 His convenient version of history and the conceptual framework of his reporting, as just illustrated, provide a few of the many examples of the success of extremists in “exploiting the media”—now using the term in its literal sense. In adopting a conceptual framework designed to exclude comprehension of the facts and issues, the Times follows the practice of Israeli models such as Rabin, who achieve the status of “moderates” by virtue of their general conformity to U.S. government demands. It is, correspondingly, entirely natural that when Friedman reviews “Two Decades of Seeking Peace in the Mideast,” major proposals rejected by the U.S. and Israel are omitted as inappropriate for the historical record.

One stable feature is the Churchillian doctrine: the rich and powerful have every right to demand that they be left in peace to enjoy what they have gained, often by violence and terror; the rest can be ignored as long as they suffer in silence, but if they interfere with the lives of those who rule the world by right, the “terrors of the earth” will be visited upon them with righteous wrath, unless power is constrained from within. The first five chapters below are concerned with the first phase of the “war on terror,” during the Reagan–Bush (No. 1) Administrations. The preface and the first three chapters constitute the original publication: Pirates and Emperors (Claremont, 1986). Chapter 1 is devoted to the conceptual framework in which these and related issues are presented within the reigning doctrinal system. Chapter 2 provides a sample—only a sample—of Middle East terrorism in the real world, along with some discussion of the style of apologetics employed to ensure that it proceeds unhampered. Chapter 3 turns to the role played by Libya in the doctrinal system during those years. Chapter 4 appears in the 1987 edition of Pirates and Emperors (Black Rose, Montreal); it is a transcript of a keynote address at the Arab Association of University Graduates Convention, November 15, 1986.


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Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

For this reason, we’ll ground our discussion in concrete examples in the mold of the Polymath Project and Kasparov versus the World. In part 1 of this book we’ll use these concrete examples to distill a set of principles that explain how online tools can amplify collective intelligence. I have deliberately focused the discussion in part 1 on a relatively small number of examples, with the idea being that as we develop a conceptual framework for understanding collective intelligence, we’ll revisit each of these examples several times, and come to understand them more deeply. Furthermore, the examples come not just from science, but also from areas such as chess and computer programming. The reason is that some of the most striking examples of amplifying collective intelligence—examples such as Kasparov versus the World—come from outside science, and we can learn a great deal by studying them.

In this chapter we’ll see that it’s this ability to restructure expert attention that is at the heart of how online tools amplify collective intelligence. What examples such as InnoCentive, the Polymath Project, and Kasparov versus the World share is the ability to bring the attention of the right expert to the right problem at the right time. In the first half of the chapter we’ll look in more detail at these examples, and develop a broad conceptual framework that explains how they restructure expert attention. In the second half of the chapter we’ll apply that framework to understand how online collaborations can work together in ways that are essentially different from offline collaborations. Harnessing Latent Microexpertise While the ASSET-InnoCentive story is striking, Kasparov versus the World is an even more impressive example of collective intelligence.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. [60] Nature editorial. Dreams of flu data. Nature, 440:255–256, March 16, 2006. [61] Elizabeth L. Eisenstein. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. [62] T. S. Eliot. The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism. London: Methune, 1920. [63] Douglas C. Engelbart. Augmenting human intellect: A conceptual framework. Stanford Research Institute Report, October 1962. [64] Jon Fortt. Top 5 moments from Eric Schmidt’s talk in Abu Dhabi. Fortune Tech (blog), March 11, 2010. http://brainstormtech.blogs.fortune.cnn.com/2010/03/11/top-five-moments-from-eric-schmidt%27s-talk-in-abu-dhabi/. [65] Full cast and crew for Avatar. Internet Movie Database (IMDb). http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0499549/fullcredits


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Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

.* 1530 Paracelsus pioneers the application of chemistry to physiology and pathology 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus’ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium states the heliocentric theory of the solar system Andreas Vesalius’ De humani corporis fabrica supplants Galen’s anatomical textbook 1546 Agricola’s De natura fossilium classifies minerals and introduces the term ‘fossil’ 1572 Tycho Brahe records the first European observation of a supernova 1589 Galileo’s tests of falling bodies (published in De motu) revolutionize the experimental method 1600 William Gilbert’s De magnete, magnetisque corporibus describes the magnetic properties of the earth and electricity 1604 Galileo discovers that a free-falling body increases its distance as the square of the time 1608 Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Jansen independently invent the telescope 1609 1609 Galileo conducts the first telescopic observations of the night sky 1610 Galileo discovers four of Jupiter’s moons and infers that the earth is not at the centre of the universe 1614 John Napier’s Mirifici logarithmorum canonis descriptio introduces logarithms 1628 William Harvey writes Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, accurately describing the circulation of blood 1637 René Descartes’ ‘La Géométrie’, an appendix to his Discours de la méthode, founds analytic geometry 1638 Galileo’s Discorsi e dimonstrazioni matematiche founds modern mechanics 1640 Pierre de Fermat founds number theory 1654 Fermat and Blaise Pascal found probability theory 1661 Robert Boyle’s Skeptical Chymist defines elements and chemical analysis 1662 Boyle states Boyle’s Law that the volume occupied by a fixed mass of gas in a container is inversely proportional to the pressure it exerts 1669 Isaac Newton’s De analysi per aequationes numero terminorum infinitas presents the first systematic account of the calculus, independently developed by Gottfried Leibniz 1676 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek discovers micro-organisms 1687 Newton’s Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica states the law of universal gravitation and the laws of motion 1735 Carolus Linnaeus’ Systema naturae introduces systematic classification of genera and species of organisms 1738 Daniel Bernoulli’s Hydrodynamica states Bernoulli’s Principle and founds the mathematical study of fluid flow and the kinetic theory of gases 1746 Jean-Etienne Guettard prepares the first true geological maps 1755 Joseph Black identifies carbon dioxide 1775 Antoine Lavoisier accurately describes combustion 1785 James Hutton’s ‘Concerning the System of the Earth’ states the uniformitarian view of the earth’s development 1789 Lavoisier’s Traité élémentaire de chimie states the law of conservation of matter By the mid-1600s this kind of scientific knowledge was spreading as rapidly as had the doctrine of the Protestant Reformers a century before. The printing press and increasingly reliable postal services combined to create an extraordinary network, small by modern standards, but more powerful than anything previously achieved by a community of scholars. There was of course a great deal of intellectual resistance, as is always the case when the paradigm – the conceptual framework itself – shifts.28 Indeed, some of this resistance came from within. Newton himself dabbled in alchemy. Hooke all but killed himself with quack remedies for indigestion. It was by no means easy for such men to reconcile the new science with Christian doctrine, which few were ready to renounce.29 But it remains undeniable that this was an intellectual revolution even more transformative than the religious revolution that preceded and unintentionally begat it.

As the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009 made clear, rhetorical pleas to ‘save the planet’ for future generations are insufficient to overcome the conflicts over economic distribution between rich and poor countries that exist in the here and now. We love our grandchildren. But our great-great-grandchildren are harder to relate to. Yet it is possible that this whole conceptual framework is, in fact, flawed. Perhaps Cole’s artistic representation of a civilizational supercycle of birth, growth and eventual death is a misrepresentation of the historical process. What if history is not cyclical and slow-moving but arrhythmic – sometimes almost stationary, but also capable of violent acceleration? What if historical time is less like the slow and predictable changing of the seasons and more like the elastic time of our dreams?

., The Pursuit of Power: Technology, Armed Force and Society since AD 1000 (Chicago, 1982) ———, The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (Chicago, 1991 [1963]) Maddison, Angus, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris, 2001) Melko, Matthew, The Nature of Civilizations (Boston, 1969) Matthews, Derek, ‘The Strange Death of History Teaching (Fully Explained in Seven Easy-to-Follow Lessons’, unpublished pamphlet (January 2009) Morris, Ian,Why the West Rules – For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future (New York, 2010) Mumford, Lewis, The City in History (New York, 1961) Murray, Charles A., Human Accomplishment: The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950 (New York, 2003) North, Douglass C., Understanding the Process of Economic Change (Princeton, 2005) ———, John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast,Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge, 2009) Osborne, Roger, Civilization: A New History of the Western World (New York, 2008) Pomeranz, Kenneth, The Great Divergence: China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy (Princeton, 2000) Putterman, L. and David N. Weil, ‘Post-1500 Population Flows and the Long Run Determinants of Economic Growth and Inequality’, working paper (September 2008) Quigley, Carroll, The Evolution of Civilizations (New York, 1961) Rajan, Raghuram G. and Luigi Zingales, ‘The Persistence of Underdevelopment: Institutions, Human Capital, or Constituencies?’


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From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Nevertheless, as soon as the war ended, they became the basis for a series of massive military research projects, including the Intercontinental Ballistic Missile, the SAGE air defense system, and the Polaris Intermediate Range Missile. All of these projects depended heavily on computers, on interdisciplinary and interinstitutional collaborations, and on a systems approach to engineering.44 Over the next twenty years, cybernetics and systems theory more generally provided a rhetoric and a conceptual framework with which to link the activities of each of these actors to the others and to coordinate their work as a whole. The power of cybernetics and systems theory to facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration emerged in large part thanks to the entrepreneurship of Norbert Wiener and the research climate of World War II. Wiener did not create the discipline of cybernetics out of thin air; rather, he pulled its analytical terms together by bridging multiple, if formerly segregated, scientific communities.

[Computer] intelligence should be directed toward instructing [the user], demystifying and exposing its own nature, and ultimately giving him active control.”25 The concept of building a peer-to-peer information system and the idea that individuals needed to gain control over information and information systems had been features of both the New Communalist movement and the New Left for some time. Yet, the notion of doing these things with computers was relatively new, at least outside the walls of SRI and Xerox PARC. For those who hoped to turn computing machines toward populist ends, the religion of technology espoused by the Whole Earth Catalog offered an important conceptual framework and source of legitimation. In the early 1970s, for example, Lee Felsenstein began to design the Tom Swift Terminal—a freestanding, easy-to-use terminal that would be as easy to repair as a radio. Although it was never built precisely to Felsenstein’s first specifications, the Tom Swift Terminal design ultimately drove the creation of an early personal computer known as the Sol. Felsenstein envisioned the Tom Swift Terminal “as something that could be printed in the Whole Earth Catalog.”

He explained in the first issue that the magazine took its name from the biological theory of “coevolution,” in which two species evolved symbiotically. Brand traced the origin of this idea to a 1965 study of the relationship between certain predatory caterpillars and the plants they ate, conducted by his old teacher Paul Ehrlich and Peter Raven.38 The first issue of CQ prominently featured an article by Ehrlich outlining his conceptual framework, entitled “Coevolution and the Biology of Communities.” Yet, Brand considered coevolution to be more than a biological theory. It was a metaphor— derived from and carrying the legitimacy of science—for a new way of life. That metaphor depended not so much on Brand’s reading of contemporary biology as it did on his reading of the mystical cybernetics of a former anthropologist, psychiatrist, and biological researcher, Gregory Bateson.


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Data Science for Business: What You Need to Know About Data Mining and Data-Analytic Thinking by Foster Provost, Tom Fawcett

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Gini coefficient, information retrieval, intangible asset, iterative process, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, Netflix Prize, new economy, p-value, pattern recognition, placebo effect, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

For example, in this chapter we discussed the principle that data should be thought of as a business asset, and once we are thinking in this direction we start to ask whether (and how much) we should invest in data. Thus, an understanding of these fundamental concepts is important not only for data scientists themselves, but for anyone working with data scientists, employing data scientists, investing in data-heavy ventures, or directing the application of analytics in an organization. Thinking data-analytically is aided by conceptual frameworks discussed throughout the book. For example, the automated extraction of patterns from data is a process with well-defined stages, which are the subject of the next chapter. Understanding the process and the stages helps to structure our data-analytic thinking, and to make it more systematic and therefore less prone to errors and omissions. There is convincing evidence that data-driven decision-making and big data technologies substantially improve business performance.

As discussed in the previous chapter, a useful way to think of a team approaching a business problem data analytically is that they are faced with an engineering problem—not mechanical engineering or even software engineering, but analytical engineering. The business problem itself provides the goal as well as constraints on its solution. The data and domain knowledge provide raw materials. And data science provides frameworks for decomposing the problem into subproblems, as well as tools and techniques for solving them. We have discussed some of the most valuable conceptual frameworks and some of the most common building blocks for solutions. However, data science is a vast field, with entire degree programs devoted to it, so we cannot hope to be exhaustive in a book like this. Fortunately, the fundamental principles we have discussed undergird most of data science. As with other engineering problems, it is often more efficient to cast a new problem into a set of problems for which we already have good tools, rather than trying to build a custom solution completely from scratch.

Since we want to predict the existence (or strength) of a link, we might well decide to cast the task as a predictive modeling problem. So we can apply our framework for thinking about predictive modeling problems. As always, we start with business and data understanding. What would we consider to be an instance? At first, we might think: wait a minute—here we are looking at the relationship between two instances. Our conceptual framework comes in very handy: let’s stick to our guns, and define an instance for prediction. What exactly is it that we want to predict? We want to predict the existence of a relationship (or its strength, but let’s just consider the existence here) between two people. So, an instance should be a pair of people! Once we have defined an instance to be a pair of people, we can proceed smoothly. Next, what would be the target variable?


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Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

But what would you see if you could follow a single reactive molecule, slowed down enough to enable the eye to follow its motions? You might not want to try, because to have good odds of seeing a reaction occur, you’d have to watch for about a billion minutes, which is to say, about two thousand years. Thus, the scaled view that gives such powerful insights into the behavior of rigid nanomachines is essentially useless for understanding solution-phase chemistry. Chemists must work in a different conceptual framework, one seldom concerned with mechanical speed, force, or position.* Thermal energy also dominates motions in biomolecular nanomachines, devices which straddle the gap between the chaos of solution-phase chemistry and the orderly motion of gears, bearings, shafts, and the rest. Many biomolecular components are made of protein, which makes proteins worth a closer look. To imagine a protein at work in water, first make the water molecules transparent to clear away the surrounding solution-phase blur.

Now we are ready to ask what these capabilities imply and what they will enable. We need to start at the bottom, exploring the performance of extraordinary materials in extraordinary forms, then move up to higher levels: components, products, applications, and costs (in the broadest, yet physical sense of the word). The results of this exploration will offer a concrete view of the potential products of radical abundance, providing a conceptual framework for considering its implications. The resulting picture combines radically low-cost production—in terms of labor, capital, materials, energy, and environmental impact—with products that themselves can be radically better in performance, efficiency, and cost of use. ASKING THREE FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS “What can be made?” “What can it do?” “How much will it cost to produce?” These are the fundamental questions that any vision of future technologies must answer.

We’ve seen the emergence of a gift economy in digital products such as software, text, images, and video; the natural course of events would see this pattern extend to APM product-design files, leading (aside from the cost of input materials) to a gift economy in physical objects (but within what mandated constraints?). Considering both similarities and contrasts between the two revolutions can help to build a more robust conceptual framework. Regarding specific problems (a plunge in demand for steel, for example), it’s natural to worry that they might be neglected, simply out of distraction and inertia. In a world in which coherent scenarios have traction, however, specific problems will often be framed as instances of a broader, generic, high-profile problem—steel, after all, won’t be a special case of falling demand. Likewise, concerns about particular hazards of unconstrained applications of APM—this material, that device—won’t arise in isolation.


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What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Even his colleagues had their doubts. A friend told him at one point, “You know, if people really get to know you, it’s one thing. But otherwise, you sound just like all the other charlatans.” He had difficulties getting his ideas across to people throughout his career, but Engelbart persisted. By October 1962, he had sketched out his vision in a summary report for the air force entitled “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” and the following year he condensed his ideas into a chapter in a collection titled Vistas in Information Handling. His “framework” was both a technological and organizational prescription for creating computer-equipped teams of people who could more efficiently work on a broad range of human problems. Augment was thus the personal computer and the Internet rolled into one. In an effort to communicate the power of augmentation to his audiences, Engelbart occasionally relied on the concept of deaugmentation, an approach that was inspired by the same insight that underlay the original scaling ideas that he had come across in his days working around the NACA wind tunnels.

Engelbart Collection, Stanford Special Libraries, Stanford University. 3.Memo, March 14, 1961, Douglas C. Engelbart Collection, Stanford Special Library, Stanford University. 4.Doug Engelbart, “The Augmented Knowledge Workshop,” in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on the History of Personal Workstations, ed. Adele Goldberg (New York: ACM, 1988), p. 190. 5.D. C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” prepared for Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, October 1962, p. 5. 6.Ibid., p. 6. 7.Douglas Engelbart, oral history, interview by John Eklund, Division of Computers, Information, and Society, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institute, May 4, 1994. http://americanhistory.si.edu/csr/comphist/englebar.htm. 8.Oral history, interview by Lowood and Adams. 9.M.

Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. Cowan, Ruth Schwartz. A Social History of American Technology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Coyote, Peter. Sleeping Where I Fall: A Chronicle. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint, 1998. Edwards, Paul N. The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of Discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996. Engelbart, Douglas C. Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework. Director of Information Sciences, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1962. Evans, Christopher Riche. The Micro Millennium. New York: Viking Press, 1980. Farber, David R. The Sixties: From Memory to History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994. ———. The Age of Great Dreams: America in the 1960s. New York: Hill and Wang, 1994. Flamm, Kenneth. Creating the Computer: Government, Industry, and High Technology.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

One day in 1950, while driving to work, he realized that computers might be able to display information on cathode screens the way radar did and that people could use these specially designed symbol manipulating devices to solve complex problems together. From the beginning, he saw a combination of languages, methodologies, and machines supporting new ways to think, communicate, collaborate, and learn. Much of the apparatus was social, and therefore nonmechanical. After failing to recruit support from computer science or computer manufacturers, Engelbart wrote his seminal paper, “A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of a Man’s Intellect,” in order to explain what he was talking about.83 Engelbart came to the attention of Licklider. ARPA sponsored a laboratory at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the “Augmentation Research Center,” where Engelbart and a group of hardware engineers, programmers, and psychologists who shared Engelbart’s dream started building the computer as we know it today.

., 138. 81. J.C.R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics HFE1, March 1960, 4. Reprinted in In Memoriam: J.C.R. Licklider, 19151990 (Palo Alto: Digital Systems Research Center, 1990), 1. 82. M. Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal (New York: Viking, 2001). 83. D. C. Engelbart, “A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man’s Intellect,” in Vistas in Information Handling, vol. 1, ed. D. W. Howerton and D. C. Weeks (Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1963), 129. 84. Wright, Nonzero. 85. Ibid., 16. 86. Ibid., 22. 87. Ibid., 2223, 24. 88. Ibid., 152. 89. Ibid., 154. Index Aaltonen, Aleksi Abrahamsson, Joel Abuzz Web site Active tags Adar, Eytan Ad-hocracies Adorno, Thomas Afghanistan African grasslands Agriculture Ahtisaari, Marko AI (artificial intelligence) AIDS AirSnort Alexa Internet Algorithms Allen, Myles R.

See Wearable computing Clynes, Manfred Coase, Ronald Coaxial cable Coca-Cola Collabnet Collaborative filtering systems Collective action dilemmas Colombia Colonization Columbia University Commons "cornucopia" of the innovation, the Internet as a and reputation systems tragedy of the and wireless networks Communications Act (1934) Communism Communities, virtual in Helsinki LunarStorm community and the open-source movement origins of and reputation systems "The Well" community Community computation. See also p2p (peer-to-peer) computing Competition Computer(s): Altair computer laptop mainframe operating systems for super- tablets See also PCs (personal computer) "Computer for the 21st Century, The" (Weiser) Computer Power and Human Reason (Weizenbaum) Computer Prisoner's Dilemma Tournament "Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of a Man's Intellect, A" (Engelbart) Congress Conn, Grad Constitution (United States) Consume the Net Contextual Computing Group Contracts CoolTown Cooperation theory: and the alchemy of cooperation and cooperation amplification and cooperation catalysts and CPR research and the end-to-end principle and the Internet as an innovation commons and mutual aid and Shelling points and social networks, as driving forces Copyleft license "Cornucopia of the Commons, The" (Bricklin) Counter-power CPUs (central processing units) and ad-hocracies clustering cycles and grid computing Intel, advent of and Moore's Law and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence Crandall, Richard Credit: cards verification services Critical Mass Crown Prince of Tonga Cryptography Cyberman (documentary) Cybernetics See also Cyborgs (cybernetic organisms) Cyberspace Cybiko Cyborgs (cybernetic organisms) Cyborgspace DAN (Direct Action Network) Dance, of bits and atoms See also Bits and atoms DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Darwin, Charles "Dataveillance," Dawkins, Richard Dayton, Sky Deadlock game Defense Department Delarocas, Chrysanthos Democracy in Mongolia and non-zero-sum games and reputation systems and wireless networks Dense-packet radio networks Dery, Mark Digia Digital: cities passport technology Disciplinary methods See also Punishment Disk space: and ad-hocracies sharing Disney (company) Disney, Walt Distributed processing.


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Complexity: A Guided Tour by Melanie Mitchell

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, scientific worldview, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine

Discrete variation in the genes of an organism can result in continuous-seeming variation in the organ-ism’s phenotype—the physical traits (e.g., height, skin color, etc.) resulting from these genes. Darwinism and Mendelism were finally recognized as being complementary, not opposed. One reason the early Darwinists and Mendelians disagreed so strongly is that, although both sides had experimental evidence supporting their position, neither side had the appropriate conceptual framework (i.e., multiple genes controlling traits) or mathematics to understand how their respective theories fit together. A whole new set of mathematical tools had to be developed to analyze the results of Mendelian inheritance with many interacting genes operating under natural selection in a mating population. The necessary tools were developed in the 1920s and 1930s, largely as a result of the work of the mathematical biologist Ronald Fisher.

His work was so good that just five years later he was given the best academic job in the world—a professorship (with Einstein and Gödel) at the newly formed Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton. The institute didn’t go wrong in their bet on von Neumann. During the next ten years, von Neumann went on to invent the field of game theory (producing what has been called “the greatest paper on mathematical economics ever written”), design the conceptual framework of one of the first programmable computers (the EDVAC, for which he wrote what has been called “the most important document ever written about computing and computers”), and make central contributions to the development of the first atomic and hydrogen bombs. This was all before his work on self-reproducing automata and his exploration of the relationships between the logic of computers and the workings of the brain.

Chaos has shown us that intrinsic randomness is not necessary for a system’s behavior to look random; new discoveries in genetics have challenged the role of gene change in evolution; increasing appreciation of the role of chance and self-organization has challenged the centrality of natural selection as an evolutionary force. The importance of thinking in terms of nonlinearity, decentralized control, networks, hierarchies, distributed feedback, statistical representations of information, and essential randomness is gradually being realized in both the scientific community and the general population. New conceptual frameworks often require the broadening of existing concepts. Throughout this book we have seen how the concepts of information and computation are being extended to encompass living systems and even complex social systems; how the notions of adaptation and evolution have been extended beyond the biological realm; and how the notions of life and intelligence are being expanded, perhaps even to include self-replicating machines and analogy-making computer programs.


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Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Translated from Anandavardhana’s Dhvanyaloka (3.41 a) by Luther Obrock. 2. Bronner and Shulman, “’A Cloud Turned Goose’: Sanskrit in the Vernacular Millennium,” 28–29. 3. Pollock, “The Death of Sanskrit,” 394. 4. Dalmia, “Sanskrit Scholars and Pandits of the Old School,” 334. 5. See Srinivas, “Amarabhāratī: Sanskrit and the Resurgence of Indian Civilization,” 41–42. 6. Kapoor and Ratnam, Literary Theory: Indian Conceptual Framework, 1. 7. Ramaswamy, “Sanskrit for the Nation,” 334–35. 8. Ibid., 373. 9. Pollock, “The Cosmopolitan Vernacular,” 29. 10. Merwin, East Window: The Asian Translations, 36. 11. Eliot, The Sacred Wood and Major Early Essays, 58. 12. Eliot, After Strange Gods, 43–44. 13. Sanderson, “Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions,” 675. 14. Christiansen, “Computers.” 15. Pipher, Writing to Change the World, 81. 16.

“Background of the Aṣṭādhyāyī.” In Sanskrit Computational Linguistics, 1–5. Springer, 2009. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-93885-9_1. Kapoor, Kapil. Dimensions of Pāṇini Grammar: The Indian Grammatical System. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 2005. ______. Text and Interpretation: The Indian Tradition. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 2005. Kapoor, Kapil and Nalini M. Ratnam. Literary Theory: Indian Conceptual Framework. New Delhi: Affiliated East-West Press, 1998. Kelly, John D. “What Was Sanskrit For? Metadiscursive Strategies in Ancient India.” In Ideology and Status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the History of the Sanskrit Language, edited by Jan E. M. Houben, 87–107. Leiden: Brill, 1996. Khan, Taslima. “40% of Startups in Silicon Valley Are Headed by India-Based Entrepreneurs.” Business Today, March 21, 2013. http://businesstoday.intoday.in/story/google-executive-chairman-eric-schmidt-on-india/1/193496.html.


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Notes From an Apocalypse: A Personal Journey to the End of the World and Back by Mark O'Connell

Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Carrington event, clean water, Colonization of Mars, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, Elon Musk, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-work, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the built environment, yield curve

When I got to the gallery, Simon Denny, whom Anthony had described to me as “kind of a genius” and “the poster-boy for post-Internet art,” was making some last-minute preparations for the show’s opening. He was a neat and droll man in his mid-thirties, a native of Auckland who had lived for many years in Berlin, where he was a significant figure in the international art scene. He talked me through the conceptual framework for the show. It was structured around games—in theory playable, but in practice encountered as sculptures—representing two different kinds of political vision for New Zealand’s future. The bright and airy ground floor space was filled with tactile, bodily game-sculptures, riffs on Jenga and Operation and Twister. These works, incorporating collaborative and spontaneous ideas of play, were informed by a recent book called The New Zealand Project by a young left-wing thinker named Max Harris, which explored a humane, collectivist politics influenced by Māori beliefs about society.

The man smirked and, without raising his eyes from the board game toward Harris, replied that a lot of people had been asking him just that question. Harris asked the man what he thought of the exhibition, and the man paused a long time before saying that it was “actually a work of phenomenal detail.” He asked Harris if he knew the artist, and Harris said that he did, that he himself was in fact a writer whose work had formed part of the conceptual framework for the show. Of the sheer improbability of these two men—one for whom New Zealand was a means of shoring up his wealth and power in a coming civilizational collapse, one for whom it was home, a source of hope for a more equal and democratic society—just happening to cross paths at an art exhibition loosely structured around the binary opposition of their political views no mention was made, and they went their separate ways.


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A Time to Build: From Family and Community to Congress and the Campus, How Recommitting to Our Institutions Can Revive the American Dream by Yuval Levin

affirmative action, Airbnb, assortative mating, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demand response, Donald Trump, hiring and firing, Jane Jacobs, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method

But because they are failures of sociality, they too often fall into the blind spots of our individualist culture. This crisis of connectedness has been described in a variety of ways. A number of analysts across the political spectrum have argued that it must be ultimately philosophical or metaphysical—essentially that contemporary liberalism is so committed to the ideal of individual liberation that it lacks the conceptual framework to articulate ideals of solidarity or even of community. We depend on these deeper social foundations and yet we lack the tools to maintain or reconstruct them, and we have lost the words with which to speak about what we owe each other.7 Some, mostly on the Right, have suggested that at the core of the crisis is a collapse of family and religion—and that without these preconditions for individual flourishing we are uprooted and adrift.

This is the reigning, if generally implicit, metaphor of American social life. It accords with the individualism of our time even when it argues for community, and it feeds the sense that what we lack are connections and relationships. Thus we talk about breaking down walls or building bridges or casting a unifying vision to strengthen our society. We hope that social media might bind us together this way, or that the ideals of our politics will give us the conceptual framework for cohesion, or that our moral and religious traditions will reinvigorate our sense of solidarity, or that by narrowing the differences between rich and poor we will make our society more whole. There is great appeal in this idea and in these different calls for solidarity. But something crucial is still lacking in this vision of connectedness. There is a missing step between joining together and recovering belonging, trust, and legitimacy.


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Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

His instant answer was statistics, because the ability to understand data would be the most powerful skill in the twenty-first century. The rise of the alpha geeks means the 1 percent is more fiercely educated and the returns on elite education are higher than ever before. One way to understand why we are living in a golden age of the nerds is with a metaphor invented by Jan Tinbergen, joint winner of the first Nobel Prize in economics: the race between education and technology. That idea is the title of and conceptual framework for a recent book by Larry Katz and Claudia Goldin, the Harvard pair who study how the interplay between new technologies and education shapes income distribution. In the nineteenth century, as the first gilded age was reaching its peak, technology raced ahead of education. As a result, if you were what counted as highly educated in that age—which was finishing high school (remember, bestselling author Henry George left school at fourteen)—you could command a premium compared to unskilled workers.

The pivot is about recognizing when you are on the wrong track and changing course—and that, too, is central to Soros’s ability to respond to revolution. Chanos, who leased office space from Soros’s Quantum Fund in midtown New York between 1988 and 1991, agrees. “One thing that I’ve both wrestled with and admired that Soros conquered many years ago is the ability to go from long to short, the ability to turn on a dime when confronted with the evidence. Emotionally that is really hard.” “My conceptual framework, which basically emphasizes the importance of misconceptions, makes me extremely critical of my own decisions,” Soros told me. “I reexamine them all the time and recognize when I am on the wrong track. . . . I know that I’m bound to be wrong and therefore am more likely to correct my mistakes.” “It’s an almost aggressive pessimism about his own ideas, that he is going to be the first person to find out what’s wrong with his theory, rather than what’s right with his theory,” his son Jonathan told me.

the ability to “pivot” Caroline O’Connor and Perry Klebahn, “The Strategic Pivot: Rules for Entrepreneurs and Other Innovators,” Harvard Business Review blog network, February 28, 2011. Flickr’s genesis was in 2002 See Jessica Livingston, Founders at Work: Stories of Startups’ Early Days (Apress, 2007), pp. 257–264. “One thing that I’ve both wrestled with” Chrystia Freeland, “The Credit Crunch According to Soros,” Financial Times, January 30, 2009. “My conceptual framework, which basically emphasizes” CF interview with George Soros, December 16, 2008. “It’s an almost aggressive pessimism about his own ideas” CF interview with Jonathan Soros, July 14, 2009. “The businesses and institutions underpinning” Jennings, “Opportunities of a Lifetime.” “The group of winners is churning at an increasing and rapid rate” “Measuring the Forces of Long-Term Change: The 2009 shift index”, Deloitte Center for the Edge, December 2009, p. 115.


The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the Origins of Art by David Lewis-Williams

Alfred Russel Wallace, centre right, conceptual framework, Isaac Newton, Menlo Park, out of africa, social intelligence, theory of mind

Later, Bishop John Lightfoot refined Ussher’s calculations and announced that creation took place at nine o’clock on the morning of 23 October 4004 BC. Not everyone, even at that time, may have accepted the happy fortuity of creation coinciding so neatly with the beginning of the Cambridge University academic year, but virtually everyone believed that human history started miraculously at a moment that was not so very long ago. De la Vialle had no conceptual framework into which to fit the significance of what he was seeing, so, in effect, he did not ‘see’ it at all. What happened during the years between Time-Byte II and Time-Byte III? Why did Jean-Marie Chauvet and his friends see what de la Vialle missed? The answer is both simple and momentous. The Western world had learned that it had a deep past, its concept of humanity had undergone profound changes, and its yearning to know the truth about its origins had risen to a level of unprecedented intensity: finding evidence for ‘Human Origins’, be it stone artefacts, fossils or genes, had become an absorbing passion.

Darwin himself neatly summed up his central idea thus: ‘…the theory of descent with modification through natural selection’.7 The first printing of 1,250 copies of On the Origin of Species was sold out on the first day, an achievement that few, if any, subsequent scientific writers have been able to equal. By 1872, six editions and 24,000 copies had been published; by 1876, the book had been translated into every European language. Here was the conceptual framework that de la Vialle lacked, a framework that opened up an entirely new perspective on humanity. Suddenly, Westerners who had access to Darwin’s ideas could ‘see’ things that they had never noticed before. The most famous public clash came in 1860 at an Oxford meeting of the British Association. Darwin was again not present. Expectation was running high because it was common knowledge that the Church, as embodied in Bishop Samuel Wilberforce, was, as the Bishop himself said, about to ‘smash Darwin’.

When we notice, perhaps even stumble upon, observations that do not accord with received theory, and then make the leap to a new hypothesis, we are fortunate indeed. We may even be on the threshold of a ‘revolution’. With these important ideas about discovery, theory and evidence in mind we can move on from the antiquity and evolution of humankind to another discovery that many found hard to swallow, even though they had a conceptual framework into which they should have been able to fit it. Acceptance of Stone Age art, even in the adventurous intellectual climate of the late nineteenth century, was another matter altogether. The very idea of Palaeolithic art was deeply disturbing.Was not art one of the great achievements of high civilizations? Controversial art The first pieces of Upper Palaeolithic art came to light as long ago as the 1830s in the Chaffaud Cave (Vienne) in France, but their antiquity was not recognized; Western thought was then still of the order evinced by de la Vialle in 1660.17 The Darwinian Rubicon had not yet been crossed.


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Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, superconnector

Barnett, Mi Feng, and Xaioqu Luo, “Social Identity, Market Memory, and First-Mover Advantage,” Industrial and Corporate Change 22, no. 3 (2012): 585. 116 Fast followers, on the other hand: Reasons for the second-wave advantage were proposed by researchers from Texas A&M only a few years after Lieberman and Montgomery’s initial paper on first movers. “Major shifts in technology for which the first mover is ill-prepared because of its investment in old technology may favor the fast follower that is not burdened with such investments,” write Roger A. Kerin, P. Rajan Varadarajan, and Robert A. Peterson, “First-Mover Advantage: A Synthesis, Conceptual Framework, and Research Propositions,” Journal of Marketing 56, no. 4 (1992): 33–52. “Later entrants’ access to relatively newer cost-efficient technologies enables them to offset or neutralize the first mover’s experience-based cost advantages.” 116 Many of the biggest corporate successes: Steve Blank, writing in Business Insider, makes one of the best-formed arguments on second-wave advantage out there: “You’re Better Off Being a Fast Follower than an Originator,” Business Insider, October 5, 2010, http://www.businessinsider.com/youre-better-off-being-a-fast-follower-than-an-originator-2010-10 (accessed February 16, 2014). 117 The way to predict the best waves: Fernando F.

The Odyssey. Translated by Alexander Pope. George Bell & Sons. 1906. Isaacson, Walter. Steve Jobs. Simon and Schuster, 2011. Jay-Z. Decoded. Spiegel and Grau, 2010. Kahneman, Daniel, and Gary Klein. “Conditions for Intuitive Expertise.” American Psychologist 64, no. 6 (September 2009): 515–26. Kerin, Roger A., P. Rajan Varadarajan, and Robert A. Peterson. “First-Mover Advantage: A Synthesis, Conceptual Framework, and Research Propositions.” Journal of Marketing 56, no. 4 (1992): 33–52. Kluger, Avraham N., and Angelo DeNisi. “The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory.” Psychological Bulletin 119, no. 2 (1996): 254–84. Lehrer, Jonah. Imagine: How Creativity Works. Houghton Mifflin, 2012. Lieberman, Marvin B., and David B.


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What's Wrong with Economics? by Robert Skidelsky

"Robert Solow", additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, global supply chain, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, precariat, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, survivorship bias, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

Thomas Kuhn and Imre Lakatos have described how these defences work. In their view they are applicable to all sciences, but economics has benefited especially from these defensive strategies because of its claim to be like a natural science. Persistence is partly inevitable in all sciences, as practitioners must be ‘indoctrinated’ before being allowed to practise, but it also provides a stable conceptual framework that can be scientifically useful and, perhaps most significantly, protects the positions of the established practitioners. The upshot is that once a ‘normal’ way of doing ‘science’ has been established, it develops strong staying power, however much its scientific claims are questioned. How much more is this likely to be the case in economics, when refutation is almost impossible and vested interests are rampant.

Yet all his case studies are couched in the language of classical microeconomic theory and a postwar competitive business and management theory that he spells out in great detail and with faith in its revealed truths . . . Acton presents his task reasonably, challenging readers to use classical microeconomics to ask whether Athenians ‘might still have operated in practice according to the same set of fundamental economic principles that we are familiar with today’, even though they lacked the language or conceptual framework within which we articulate those principles. For Acton, there’s never any question that ‘the same economic laws prevailed despite the different context’ because the microeconomic ‘framework is timeless’ and because ‘irrespective of conscious motivation by ancient agents, elementary economic principles are heuristically effective and a source of important historical insight.’6 Fine studies of ancient economies, like those of Moses Finlay, show how remote all this is from good history.


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Advances in Artificial General Intelligence: Concepts, Architectures and Algorithms: Proceedings of the Agi Workshop 2006 by Ben Goertzel, Pei Wang

AI winter, artificial general intelligence, bioinformatics, brain emulation, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, epigenetics, friendly AI, G4S, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, John Conway, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Occam's razor, p-value, pattern recognition, performance metric, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, semantic web, statistical model, strong AI, theory of mind, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

Furthermore, precise probabilistic inference would be implemented as a special collection of rules running on top of the underlying NARS inference engine in roughly the same manner that programs may run on top of an operating system. Following up on the uncertain-logic theme, the next chapter by Stephan Vladimir Bugaj and Ben Goertzel moves this theme into the domain of developmental psychology. Piaget’s ideas have been questioned by modern experimental developmental psychology, yet remain the most coherent existing conceptual framework for studying human cognitive development. It turns out to be possible to create a Piaget-like theory of stages of cognitive development that is specifically appropriate to uncertain reasoning systems like PLN, in which successive stages involve progressively sophisticated inference control: simple heuristic control (the infantile stage); inductive, history-based control (the concrete operational stage); inference-based inference control (the formal stage); and inference-based modification P.

All rights reserved. 25 Four Contemporary AGI Designs: a Comparative Treatment September 26, 2006 Stan FRANKLIN, Ben GOERTZEL, Alexei SAMSONOVICH, Pei WANG Introduction (by Ben Goertzel) During his talk at the AGI Workshop, Stan Franklin suggested that his LIDA architecture might fruitfully be considered not only as a specific AGI design, but also as a general framework within which to discuss and compare various AGI designs and approaches. With this in mind, following the workshop itself, I (Goertzel) formulated a list of simple questions intended to be pertinent to any AGI software design, mostly based on the conceptual framework presented in Stan Franklin’s workshop presentation (and represented in this volume by his article “A Foundational Architecture for Artificial General Intelligence”) with a couple additions and variations. All individuals who presented talks on AGI architectures at the workshop were invited to respond to the questionnaire, giving answers appropriate to their own AGI design. Four individuals (myself, Wang, Franklin and Samsonovich) took up this offer, and their answers are reported here – without modification; exactly as they gave them.

And although we do have some external access to the functioning of the brain, through brain mapping techniques, signal interventions and post-mortem examination, our ability to get fine detail, and to link that detail to the cognitive level, is a subject of fierce debate within the cognitive science community [12]; [13]. 4.4. Frameworks and Quasi-Complete Systems What does it mean to engage in a program of “systematic exploration” of the space of cognitive systems? To be systematic, such a program needs to be unified by a common conceptual framework that is explicit enough that it allows the relationships between systems to be clearly seen. The idea of a “framework” is that it defines a set of choices for the broad architectural features of the class of cognitive systems that it expresses. For every one of the various mechanisms that we might anticipate being involved in a complete cognitive system, the framework should have something to say about how that mechanism is instantiated, and how it relates to the rest of the system.


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A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell

addicted to oil, Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, WikiLeaks, working poor

In this, it helps to focus our attention on: the dizzying rates of capitalist growth made possible by oil; the ensuing political transformations that reinforce the oil-dependent economy and block transitions to a safer and fairer way of organizing economic life; and the perpetual state of crisis that is induced by the imperative of expansion, one that simultaneously undermines the supply of non-renewable fuel and—more importantly—the earth’s lifesupport systems. Ultimately, this conceptual framework helps us understand not only how Alberta is intimately connected to global oil crises, and the United States energy market in particular, but also how Canada and especially Alberta are riven with political, economic, and environmental problems in attempts to expand tar sands extraction. Petro-Capitalism At the centre of the analysis of capitalism’s relation to nature is its inherent and unavoidable dependence on fossil fuels, and particularly on oil.

Since capitalism needs infinite economic growth and ever-expanding consumption, its logic essentially compels increasing CO2 emissions that threaten the global ecological system—and indeed life itself.8 The growth imperative drives the continual global search for new (though ultimately finite) oil supplies in ways that often have high energy and resource demands (as in the tar sands, and in hydraulic fracturing for shale oil and gas) and carry a large ecological burden. In sum, the conceptual framework of petro-capitalism centres oil as the lifeblood of global capitalism, with the power to fundamentally reshape political institutions from global to national to provincial levels. Yet it is also a system in permanent crisis due to its intractable role in climate change and environmental degradation, alongside inevitable challenges to oil supplies. Global Petro-Capitalist Crises The contradictory nature of petro-capitalism, which depends upon incessant expansion at ever-higher economic and environmental costs, is coming into sharper focus with the global access to a steady supply of conventional crude oil now in question, and threatening to create a global energy crisis.

James, when Jim Munroe was presenting on the traditional system of keyoh (territory or trapline) holdings, a series of Dakelh terms were rendered illegible in the published transcript: “There are laws around that. There’s terms in our language it’s called (native word) and (native word) and it means they did—people disappear if they don’t respect the land and they don’t ask.”21 This silencing of Indigenous terms from the official record reflects an underlying disregard for Indigenous conceptual frameworks, despite the putative inclusions of Aboriginal traditional knowledge in the hearings. These exclusions are rationalized on the basis that the hearings process is recorded in “either of the official languages [French and English], depending on the languages spoken by the participant at the public hearing.”22 The fact that Indigenous languages are unrecognized as “official” languages underlines how, despite the ostensible inclusion of Indigeneity, the underlying framework of regulation remains an imposed and colonial one.


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Money Changes Everything: How Finance Made Civilization Possible by William N. Goetzmann

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, delayed gratification, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, invention of the steam engine, invention of writing, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stochastic process, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, wage slave

Finance stimulated the development of quantitative models of the future and the maintenance of deep records about the past. Markets taught people about such things as the limitations of the capacity for reason and the dangers of miscalculation. These complex conceptual frameworks augmented and stimulated the development of problem solving, but they also set up a conflict between traditional and quantitative modes of thought. This conflict is heightened during periods of financial innovation and financial disaster. Not only did financial architecture challenge traditional institutions, it also challenged traditional conceptual frameworks for dealing with the unknown. Cultural notions of chance and fortune are embedded in a rich set of symbols, myths, and moral valences. Understanding and managing this conflict remain important challenges to modern society.

Financial technology made possible not just financial contracts but also financial thinking—conceptual ways of framing economic interactions that use the financial perspective of time. Borrowing, lending, and financial planning shaped a particular conceptualization of time, quantifying it in new ways and simplifying it for purposes of calculation. This way of thinking and specialized knowledge, in turn, affected and extended the capabilities of government and enterprise. This conceptual framework is what I refer to as the software of finance in the Introduction. Finance relies on the ability to quantify and calculate and reason mathematically. Thus, much of this chapter focuses on the development of mathematical tools in ancient times. Another basic ingredient of finance is the dimension of time. Finance requires the measurement and expression of time and this chapter explores time technology in some depth.

The Sumerians created tools for explicitly quantifying intertemporal contracts, eliminating ambiguity or disagreement between the parties through the invention of notation for economic units and a flexible number system. Writing and numbers brought clarity and precision to the economic arrangements demanded by the Near Eastern economic system. There is also evidence that financial contracting developed alongside and stimulated conceptual development. Increasing urban density in an economy managed by a common authority required a record system—and a conceptual framework—capable of expressing big numbers. Evidence from early cuneiform appears to document this leap in written expression and perhaps an accompanying shift in arithmetic thought. Likewise, scholars have documented an administrative quantification of time that abstracted from natural, astronomical time. Both of these laid a foundation for the development of further abstractions. The expression of immense quantities was limited only by the human imagination, as was the division of time into infinitesimal slices.


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Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, John Meriwether, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

My hope for more complex and honest debate may sound too wishful, but I was struck in our lengthy interview by Rubin’s willingness to discuss contrary propositions, and by his disarmingly self-effacing and reflective manner (the transcript is posted at www.thenation.com). Several times, I was taken aback when his comments made tentative concessions to the opposition’s argument. He even endorsed, though only in broad principle, some objectives for reforming global trade that his critics have long advocated. I suggest that reformers test his sincerity. In the same spirit, they might try to initiate a conversation about what Rubin calls the “conceptual framework” for reform. He says he would welcome the discussion. The Hamilton Project’s early policy output, I concede, doesn’t encourage a belief that reasoned dialogue with dis-senters is what Rubin has in mind. Advisory board members see themselves as progressive-minded, but they do not stray from the mainstream’s conventional wisdom—lots of Harvard, Princeton and Berkeley, no one from the ranks of “free trade” skeptics.

It’s an imposition of one on the other.” This is a startling statement: The man from Citigroup has articulated the essential reasoning that makes the case for including labor rights in the global trading system. That conversation has convinced me that outgunned reformers ought to make use of Rubin’s musings. Knock on his door and try to initiate a dialogue. If the critics come forward and offer their ideas on a “conceptual framework” for reform, I ask, would the Hamilton Project be willing to discuss them? Rubin reiterates his doubts and reservations. “But the answer is yes,” he says. “The answer is absolutely yes.” Skeptical friends and kindred spirits will probably say to me, You have been conned. I would say back to them, What have you got to lose by talking to the man? The Hamilton Project is a sophisticated example of what I call “deep lobbying”—developing well in advance of the 2008 presidential election an agenda that safely avoids critical challenges to the global system and defines the terms of debate in very limiting ways.


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The Facebook era: tapping online social networks to build better products, reach new audiences, and sell more stuff by Clara Shih

business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, glass ceiling, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, pets.com, pre–internet, rolodex, semantic web, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social web, software as a service, Tony Hsieh, web application

Without online social networks, these otherwise-interested parties might never hear about the opportunity either because they are not closely connected enough to be part of the e-mail distribution or the individual does not notify them out of social protocol and not wanting to bombard their network with mass messages. Social capital is the currency of business interactions and relationships. This chapter provides an important conceptual framework around social capital that will be repeatedly referenced in subsequent chapters on social sales, marketing, product innovation, and recruiting. In particular, there are four important implications for business: First, social networks establish a new kind of relationship that is more casual than what was previously acceptable. Second, online networking is able to fill important gaps in traditional offline networking.

Corporate Governance and Strategy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 12. The Future of Social Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203 A. Snapshot of Top Social Networking Sites, March 2009 . . . . . . . . . .213 From the Library of Kerri Ross This page intentionally left blank From the Library of Kerri Ross 8 Engage Your Customers ith the conceptual frameworks from Part I,“A Brief History of Social Media,” and the functional overviews of social networking in Part II, “Transforming the Way We Do Business,” behind us, the remaining chapters are meant to be an action-oriented guide on how to get started. Before doing anything else, you first need to come up with a strategy for your company’s social network presence. You need a place to drive people to before you invest in ads to drive them there (Chapter 9,“Get Your Message Across”) or have sales reps and recruiters making contact.


Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, different worldview, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, liberation theology, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

And now, at present, there is a resurgence of cooperative currencies and other innovations as the shadow of recession looms, but the dire consequences and tough lessons from these experiences seem to have lapsed from memory. Back in the day when Michael Untergugenberger was elected mayor of Wörgl, in 1931, some 30 percent of the workforce was unemployed, leaving 200 families absolutely penniless. The mayor-with-the-longname, as the renowned U.S. economist Irving Fisher from Yale would call him, was familiar with Silvio Gesell’s work. A German economist and merchant, Gesell’s conceptual framework for demurrage and for other theories made him, some argue, the grandfather of modern-day cooperative currencies. His monetary designs are often referred to as freigelt, or “free money” in English. The mayor decided to put Gesell’s ideas to the test, as there was much to be done around the town and many willing and able-bodied folks looking for work. The rub was, however, that there were only 40,000 Austrian shillings remaining in the bank, just enough to pay the salaries of a couple of dozen people for one month, far short of what was needed.

See also Bank debt; Loan 253 Decentralization: in C3, 128; in CPX, 116; in principled society, 193; subsidiarity and, 69, 231n14; sustainability and, 219 Default, 41, 110, 112. See also Bankruptcy Defection, 196–197 Deflation, 167, 235n12 Democracy: in Bali, 187–188, 190–191; civic and, 147–148; concentration of wealth and, 21–22, 52– 53; in principled society, 193–194; regio and, 191; social capital and, 46 Demurrage: BONUS and, 171; on Chiemgauer, 88; concentration of wealth and, 67– 68; conceptual framework for, 176; saber and, 155; sustainability and, 67, 206; on Terra, 136, 138–139, 206; velocity and, 64, 68– 69; on wära, 179; on Wörgl, 176–177 Denver, 11–12 Development, 33 Disaster relief, 167, 169, 169–172 Discounted cash flow (DCF), 45– 46 Distance tax, 89 Diversity, 32– 33, 62– 63, 70 Divine right of kings, 24 Dixie Dollar, 113 Doctors without Borders, 17–18 Domestic care, 34 Drill and kill, 156, 220–221 Dual currency system, 65– 66, 99–102, 103–107, 162 Earthquake, 167, 169 Earthship model, 165 Ecological disaster, 34, 188 Eco-money, 235n12 Economic Literacy Program, 184 Economics, school of, 28, 35 Economic treadmill, 43, 52 Ecosystem, 32– 33 Ecosystem, monetary, 59– 60, 145, 199–202, 220 Education, 14, 16; for computers, 83; Creative Currencies Project and, 153–155; knowledge exchange network, 184; learning currency, 153–155, 201; in Mae Hong Son, 205; mentoring, 254 INDEX Education (continued) 153–154, 171–172; paradigms in, 220–221; in Paraná, 143–144; Patch Adams Free Clinic and, 165; in principled society, 193; Prussian model of, 216; standards, 43; Time dollars and, 82– 83; university, 153–154, 193, 226–227n13; wispos and, 156–157.


The Impact of Early Life Trauma on Health and Disease by Lanius, Ruth A.; Vermetten, Eric; Pain, Clare

conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, delayed gratification, epigenetics, false memory syndrome, impulse control, intermodal, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, p-value, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, theory of mind, twin studies, yellow journalism

Such complexity as incestuous abuse deserves more time than this chapter can cover. Developmental stage and trauma also deserve more thought than can be covered here. Pynoos and colleagues have developed an elaborate model for childhood traumas that takes into account developmental age, spatial proximity, familial structure and subsequent aggravating or alleviating events. While this model goes beyond childhood abuse by a parent, it is helpful to set this within a conceptual framework. One of the debates that Brymer et€al. [43] engage is that between Anna Freud’s observation that a child’s reaction to trauma is determined by his mother’s reactions [6] and Terr’s observation [7] that certain events€– such as the Chowchilla kidnapping and burial alive of a school bus of children€– are sufficiently powerful that they are traumatic in and of themselves. The model put forward by Pynoos and colleagues [43] takes both these views into account and develops them further.

In locating the source of trauma within the child in the form of attachment dysregulation, however, Bureau and colleagues depart from the focus of both nosologies on external threat as the trigger to the traumatic experience, and return to the classic psychoanalytic emphasis on the child’s internal processing of interpersonal experience as the locus of psychopathology. The authors of Ch. 5 review a range of studies that provide evidence for the long-term impact of early 88 experience on later functioning, including the differential predictive power of maternal depression at different ages in the child’s life on the child’s depressive symptoms at each of those ages. The inclusion of maternal depression and maternal unresponsiveness in the authors’ conceptual framework of “hidden trauma” raises the question of when, in the continuum from stress to trauma, emotionally costly experiences become traumatic experiences, when trauma is framed in the context of classic definitions that involve unpredictability, horror and helplessness [6,7]. In light of these three markers of trauma, can maternal unresponsiveness in the face of ordinary stress be considered traumatic if it becomes the norm rather than the exception in the infant’s emotional life?

This chapter begins by explicating the concept of mentalizing€– in brief, attending to mental states in self and others – before moving on to discuss the intergenerational transmission of mentalizing impairments in the context of attachment disturbance, illustrating how this developmental psychopathology is exemplified in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Finally, mentalizing-focused interventions for BPD and trauma-related symptoms are examined. This chapter aims to present succinctly a coherent conceptual framework for treating attachment trauma and thus entice readers to consult additional literature for more detail [2–7]. Mentalizing Mentalizing has a foreign ring to many ears, and the word does not appear in many dictionaries. Yet its first reÂ�corded use goes back two centuries, and mentalizing first appeared in the Oxford English Dictionary a century ago [3]. The term appeared in the French psychoanalytic literature in the late 1960s [8] and was introduced into the English professional literature in 1989 by Morton [9] to characterize the core deficit in autism.


pages: 95 words: 24,843

From Dictatorship to Democracy by Gene Sharp

Albert Einstein, conceptual framework

FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY FROM DICTATORSHIP TO DEMOCRACY A Conceptual Framework for Liberation GENE SHARP © 2002, 2003, 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 by Gene Sharp All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form, without written permission from the publisher. Requests for permission to reproduce selections from this book should be mailed to: Permissions Department, The New Press, 38 Greene Street, New York, NY 10013. From Dictatorship to Democracy was originally published in Bangkok in 1993 by the Committee for the Restoration of Democracy in Burma, in association with Khit Pyaing (The New Era Journal) Published in the United Kingdom by Serpent’s Tail, London, 2012 Published in the United States by The New Press, New York, 2012 Distributed by Perseus Distribution ISBN 978-1-59558-857-9 (pbk.)


pages: 286 words: 90,530

Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen; Mark Ridley

Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, bioinformatics, cognitive bias, computer age, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Haight Ashbury, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, phenotype, profit maximization, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Another was Trivers’ reciprocal altruism,7 which would work only if a replicator could rely on the returned favour coming back precisely to itself, at least most of the time. The exposition of these and other ideas in The Selfish Gene is not only a tour de force of plain speaking but, by relating them all to the same central argument, itself the best representation of Darwinism available, it established a single conceptual framework within which old and new ideas in adaptationism could be understood. This overarching coherent structure in The Selfish Gene provides the kind of logical foundation and conceptual unity across a broad spectrum of ideas that is usually associated with mathematics. The irony will become clear. First, I want to note that the successes of the book, popular and academic, stem not only from the clarity of exposition and beautiful use of language that are universally acknowledged in Dawkins’ work, but also from the less appreciated, but in intellectual terms much more significant, fundamental contribution to science represented by this foundational structure.

Dawkins, on the other hand, has no hesitation about Hamilton being the core of sociobiology. For him sociobiology is in fact ‘the branch of ethology inspired by Bill Hamilton’.27 Accordingly, The Selfish Gene expounds on such things as The Prisoner’s Dilemma as the prototype model for game theoretical reasoning. It teaches the reader to start thinking in terms of strategies, and it provides a common conceptual framework for the core theorists Hamilton, Williams, John Maynard Smith, and Trivers. The book is full of imaginative examples, some of them involving genetic actors as vivid as if they were humans, all in the service of explaining the logic or mechanism of evolution, and all from a gene’s eye perspective. It fell on Dawkins to be the one to clear up misunderstandings about sociobiology. Wilson had rather soon after Sociobiology moved on to gene-culture coevolutionary models and later on to preserving biodiversity.


pages: 398 words: 86,855

Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum

Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, conceptual framework, database schema, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, selection bias, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, survivorship bias, text mining, too big to fail, web application

Develop and re-use tools for data quality management across a wider variety of scenarios and applications. This chapter outlines a conceptual framework and approach for data quality analysis that will hopefully serve as a guide for how you think about your data, given the nature of your objective. The ideas presented here are born from (often painful) experience and are likely not new to anyone who has spent any extended time looking at data; but we hope it will also be useful for those newer to the data analysis space, and anyone who is looking to create or reinforce good data habits. Framework Introduction: The Four Cs of Data Quality Analysis Just as there are many angles from which to view your data when searching for an answer, there are many viewing angles for assessing quality. Below we outline a conceptual framework that consists of four facets. We affectionately refer to them as The Four Cs of Data Quality Analysis[77]: Complete: Is everything here that’s supposed to be here?


The End of Accounting and the Path Forward for Investors and Managers (Wiley Finance) by Feng Gu

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, inventory management, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, value at risk

In contrast, the modern machinery of accounting, with its numerous noncash revenues and expenses and the marking of assets and liabilities to market (fair values)—which constitutes most of the extensive, worldwide accounting rules and regulations—was intended to improve upon the 18 AND YOU THOUGHT EARNINGS ARE THE BOTTOM LINE “primitive” concept of cash flows. This was made clear by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), the exclusive accounting rule-making body in the United States in its original conceptual framework: Information about enterprise earnings based on accrual [noncash] accounting generally provides a better indication of an enterprise’s present and continuing ability to generate favorable cash flows than information limited to the financial effects of cash receipts and payments.7 Obviously, as our research shows, reported earnings, the end product of accounting measurement and valuation procedures, do not outperform cash flows, at least for their predicted values to generate investment returns.

The yearly adjusted R2 s shown in Figure 3.4 are obtained from the annual regression of sample firms’ market value on their sales, cost of goods sold, selling, The Widening Chasm between Financial Information and Stock Prices 39 general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses, net earnings, total assets, and total liabilities. The samples for all regressions include all US-listed companies with the required data, as retrieved from the intersection of the Compustat and CRSP databases for 1950 to 2013. NOTES 1. FASB, 2010, Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 8, Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting, Chapter 1, Introduction. 2. See Yoree Koh, “Twitter Ad Woes Subside but Growth Stalls,” The Wall Street Journal (July 29, 2015), B1. 3. Some readers, accustomed to the proliferation of surveys and polls in many walks of life, may wonder why we don’t survey investors about the relevance of financial information. First, our main objective is to examine relevance patterns over half a century, which requires consistent surveys from the 1960s, 1970s, and on.


pages: 1,015 words: 170,908

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

We will elaborate the three primary aspects ofimmaterial labor in the contemporary economy: the communicative labor ofindustrial production that has newly be- come linked in informational networks, the interactive labor of symbolic analysis and problem solving, and the labor ofthe produc- tion and manipulation of affects (see Section 3.4). This third aspect, with its focus on the productivity of the corporeal, the somatic, is an extremely important element in the contemporary networks of biopolitical production. The work ofthis school and its analysis ofgeneral intellect, then, certainly marks a step forward, but its conceptual framework remains too pure, almost angelic. In the final analysis, these new conceptions too only scratch the surface of the productive dynamic ofthe new theoretical f ramework ofbio- power.17 Our task, then, is to build on these partially successful attempts to recognize the potential ofbiopolitical production. Precisely by bringing together coherently the different defining characteristics ofthe biopolitical context that we have described up to this point, and leading them back to the ontology ofproduction, we will be able to identify the new figure of the collective biopolitical body, which may nonetheless remain as contradictory as it is paradoxical.

In this way intervention is an effective mechanism that through police deployments contributes directly to the construction ofthe moral, normative, and institutional order ofEmpire. Royal Prerogatives What were traditionally called the royal prerogatives ofsovereignty seem in effect to be repeated and even substantially renewed in the construction ofEmpire. Ifwe were to remain within the conceptual framework of classic domestic and international law, we might be B I O P O L I T I C A L P R O D U C T I O N 39 tempted to say that a supranational quasi-state is being formed. That does not seem to us, however, an accurate characterization ofthe situation. When the royal prerogatives ofmodern sovereignty re- appear in Empire, they take on a completely different form. For example, the sovereign function of deploying military forces was carried out by the modern nation-states and is now conducted by Empire, but, as we have seen, the justification for such deployments now rests on a state ofpermanent exception, and the deployments themselves take the form of police actions.

The institutions that constitute civil society functioned as passageways that channel flows ofsocial and economic forces, raising them up toward a coherent unity and, flowing back, like an irrigation net- work, distribute the command ofthe unity throughout the imma- nent social field. These non-state institutions, in other words, orga- nized capitalist society under the order ofthe state and in turn spread state rule throughout society. In the terms ofour conceptual framework, we might say that civil society was the terrain of the becoming-immanent ofmodern state sovereignty (down to capitalist society) and at the same time inversely the becoming-transcendent ofcapitalist society (up to the state). In our times, however, civil society no longer serves as the adequate point ofmediation between capital and sovereignty. The structures and institutions that constitute it are today progressively withering away.


pages: 592 words: 161,798

The Future of War by Lawrence Freedman

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Glasses, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Markoff, long peace, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, open economy, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, the scientific method, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Depending on the studies consulted, the degree of ethnic heterogeneity or of democratic reform could be aggravating or mitigating factors.27 The early post-1990 scholarship was influenced by the established state-centric approach of international relations, that is instead of looking up from the level of the state to the wider system they looked down to conflict below, and often did so with a similar conceptual framework.28 It took time before serious investigations began on sub-state actors in their own right.29 Over time the best studies were those that kept the statistical work on tap rather than put it on top, combining it with field work and archival research. As a result their conclusions were often less clear-cut, but they were more reliable. IT WAS THE SUPERFICIAL FEATURES OF THE NEW WARS—THEIR savagery, ethnic polarisation, and links with criminal activity—that initially attracted most comment.

The End of War. San Francisco: McSweeney’s, 2012. Horne, John N., and Alan Kramer. German Atrocities of 1914: A History of Denial. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001. Howard, Michael. Studies in War & Peace. London: Temple Smith, 1970. . War and the Liberal Conscience. London: Temple Smith, 1978. . The Invention of Peace. London: Profile Books, 2000. Huber, Thomas M. ‘Compound Warfare: A Conceptual Framework’. Compound Warfare: That Fatal Knot. Ed. Thomas M. Huber. Fort Leavenworth, MS: US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 2002. Hughes, Llewelyn, and Austin Long. ‘Is There an Oil Weapon? National Security Implications of Changes in the Structure of the International Oil Market’. International Security 39.3 (2014/15). Hull, Isabel V. Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and The Practices of War in Imperial Germany.

“Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Wars,” in Naval Institute Proceedings, 132:11 (November 2005). 5. Frank G. Hoffman, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars (Arlington, VA: The Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, 2007). In a similar concept, Thomas Huber identified ‘compound war’ as a developing form of warfare. In 2002, he described it as the ‘systematic, deliberate combining of regular and irregular forces’. Thomas M. Huber, ‘Compound Warfare: A Conceptual Framework’, Compound Warfare: That Fatal Knot, ed. Thomas M. Huber (Fort Leavenworth, MS: US Army Command and General Staff College Press, 2002). 6. Frank G. Hoffman, ‘Hybrid vs. Compound War: The Janus Choice of Modern War: Defining Today’s Multifaceted Conflict’, Armed Forces Journal (2009): 1–2. Erin Simpson used the term ‘hybrid warfare’ to describe a type of conflict that would become more prevalent.


pages: 596 words: 163,682

The Third Pillar: How Markets and the State Leave the Community Behind by Raghuram Rajan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, data acquisition, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, facts on the ground, financial innovation, financial repression, full employment, future of work, global supply chain, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Alan Macfarlane, The Origins of English Individualism (New York: Cambridge University Press 1979), 18. 9. See ibid., 124–26, and H. J. Habakkuk, “English Landownership 1680–1740,” Economic History Review 10, no. 1 (February 1940): 2–17, for comments on the hostility of courts to entails. 10. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 84. 11. Much of this paragraph draws on Jack Goody, The Development of the Family and Marriage in Europe (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 118, 132. 12. Reed and Bekar, “Religious Prohibitions,” 352. 13. D. N. McCloskey, “English Open Fields as Behavior Towards Risk,” ed.

Indeed, if the fear of expropriation was rife, none would buy, being at most willing to pay a rental from the annual income from the property as compensation. A substantial fraction of the seized monastery property was indeed let out for long tenures rather than sold. There was little point in taking these away from the current efficient tenants and looking for new ones. 11. See, for example, Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009). 12. Stone, Crisis of the Aristocracy. 13. See, for instance, Rajan and Zingales, Saving Capitalism, chapter 6, and Andro Linklater, Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership (New York: Bloomsbury, 2013). 14. Robert C. Allen, Enclosure and the Yeoman (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1992). 15.

See, for example, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, The Federalist papers (1788), available at https://www.congress.gov/resources/display/content/The+Federalist+Papers, especially Federalist 10, “The Same Subject Continued: The Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection.” 35. Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2009). 36. Edward Glaeser and Claudia Goldin, “Corruption and Reform: An Introduction,” in Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America’s History, ed. Edward Glaeser and Claudia Goldin (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2006), 14. 37. See, for example, John Joseph Wallis, “The Concept of Systematic Corruption in American History,” in Corruption and Reform, ed.


pages: 551 words: 174,280

The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by David Deutsch

agricultural Revolution, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Bonfire of the Vanities, conceptual framework, cosmological principle, dark matter, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, first-past-the-post, Georg Cantor, global pandemic, Gödel, Escher, Bach, illegal immigration, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kenneth Arrow, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales of Miletus, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, William of Occam, zero-sum game

Both oppose arrogance: the Principle of Mediocrity opposes the pre-Enlightenment arrogance of believing ourselves significant in the world; the Spaceship Earth metaphor opposes the Enlightenment arrogance of aspiring to control the world. Both have a moral element: we should not consider ourselves significant, they assert; we should not expect the world to submit indefinitely to our depredations. Thus the two ideas generate a rich conceptual framework that can inform an entire world view. Yet, as I shall explain, they are both false, even in the straightforward factual sense. And in the broader sense they are so misleading that, if you were seeking maxims worth being carved in stone and recited each morning before breakfast, you could do a lot worse than to use their negations. That is to say, the truth is that People are significant in the cosmic scheme of things; and The Earth’s biosphere is incapable of supporting human life.

The ‘naive’ audience’s mistake is a form of parochialism: they observe a phenomenon – people phoning in because their watches stopped – but they are failing to understand it as part of a wider phenomenon, most of which they do not observe. Though the unobserved parts of that wider phenomenon have in no way affected what we, the viewers, observe, they are essential to its explanation. Similarly, common sense and classical physics contain the parochial error that only one history exists. This error, built into our language and conceptual framework, makes it sound odd to say that an event can be in one sense extremely unlikely and in another certain to happen. But there is nothing odd about it in reality. We are now seeing the interior of the spaceship as an overwhelmingly complex jumble of superposed objects. Most locations on board are packed with people, some of them on very unusual errands, and all unable to perceive each other.

Short-lived rapid changes have always happened: famines, plagues and wars have begun and ended; maverick kings have attempted radical change. Occasionally empires were rapidly created or whole civilizations were rapidly destroyed. But, while a society lasted, all important areas of life seemed changeless to the participants: they could expect to die under much the same moral values, personal lifestyles, conceptual framework, technology and pattern of economic production as they were born under. And, of the changes that did occur, few were for the better. I shall call such societies ‘static societies’: societies changing on a timescale unnoticed by the inhabitants. Before we can understand our unusual, dynamic sort of society, we must understand the usual, static sort. For a society to be static, all its memes must be unchanging or changing too slowly to be noticed.


pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

balance sheet recession, banking crisis, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, G4S, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

Over recent years this relationship has increasingly exhibited what might be described as ‘parasitic’ features, with the private business sector lobbying governments to weaken regulations and cut capital gains taxes, but at the same time reducing its share of investment in basic research and thus relying even more on public spending in this area.21 As we shall show below, future growth will require a very different form of collaboration between public and private sectors, characterised by a healthy symbiosis that is sustainable over the long-term. Orthodox economic theory and the ‘market failure’ approach To meet these challenges and achieve the goal of smart, innovation-led growth, we need to develop a new conceptual framework. For this we need to look beyond the narrow assumptions of mainstream economics, which has paid too little attention to the disequilibrating process of innovation. These models continue to assume that innovation is (a) driven mainly by the individual genius of single entrepreneurs, at best ‘facilitated’ by the public sector; (b) only characterised by predictable risk (which can be precisely quantified ex-ante by means of well-defined probability distributions, as in lotteries) rather than true uncertainty; and (c) has the same probability of occurrence at any moment in time.

And a much more sophisticated approach needs to be taken to integrating endogenous technological and institutional change within them. The modelling community could fruitfully focus attention on the economic processes which generate knowledge and drive innovation and systemic change. This could prove greatly valuable in designing effective policy. Climate change policy A range of policy instruments are required to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Michael Grubb has provided a helpful conceptual framework. He notes how regulatory measures (such as energy efficiency standards) are appropriate where economic activity is characterised by satisficing behaviour; market-based incentives (such as carbon pricing) in the domain of optimising behaviour; and innovation policy (such as deployment subsidies and R&D expenditure) where technological and structural transformation is required.35 Of these, innovation policy is the most complex, and the one where environmental economics has so far had least to say.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, commoditize, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, fixed income, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, global pandemic, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, lifelogging, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

It’s the equivalent of a bicycle for our minds.”3 Jobs was almost assuredly inspired by the late Doug Engelbart in this (who in turn was inspired by MIT computer visionary Vannevar Bush). Engelbart, the inventor of the point-and-click computer user interface, and the mouse to use with it, was perhaps the first to embrace the term augmentation, which in his view involved getting machines to perform the mechanical aspects of thinking and idea sharing. In 1962 he published a widely circulated paper: “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.”4 He even founded an Augmentation Research Center, which in 1969, by the way, constituted one end of the first Internet link ever made. (The University of California, Los Angeles, was the other end.) Jobs borrowed not only Engelbart’s interface ideas, but also his desire to create “wheels for the mind.” Going back further, Norbert Wiener, the MIT colleague of Vannevar Bush whom we mentioned earlier as the author of The Human Use of Human Beings, was expressing his hope already in 1950 that machines would free people from the drudgery of repetitive industrial work so that they could focus on more creative pursuits.

Steve Jobs, in “Memory & Imagination: New Pathways to the Library of Congress” (TV movie), directed by Julian Krainin and Michael R. Lawrence, 1990, Accessed on YouTube, October 29, 2015, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ob_GX50Za6c. Jobs was referring to the article “Bicycle Technology,” by S. S. Wilson, in Scientific American 228, no. 3 (1973). 4. Douglas C. Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” SRI Summary Report AFOSR-3223, prepared for Director of Information Sciences, Air Force, Office of Scientific Research, Washington 25, DC, Contract AF 49(638)-1024, SRI Project No. 3578 (AUGMENT,3906), October 1962, http://insitu.lri.fr/~mbl/ENS/FONDIHM/2012/papers/Englebart-Augmenting62.pdf. 5. Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (New York: Da Capo Press, 1988), 159. 6.


The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa by Calestous Juma

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, double helix, energy security, energy transition, global value chain, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land tenure, M-Pesa, microcredit, mobile money, non-tariff barriers, off grid, out of africa, precision agriculture, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, total factor productivity, undersea cable

Understanding the convergence of these and other fields and their implications for African agriculture is important for effective decisionmaking and practical action. Chapter 3 analyzes the frontiers of agricultural biotechnology, including genetic editing and genetic modification. It examines the benefits of transgenic crops and the challenges of regulating them. Africa must develop its own regulatory system that can analyze each crop on a case-by-case basis and takes into account local context. Chapter 4 provides a conceptual framework for defining agricultural innovation in a systemic context. The use of emerging technology and indigenous knowledge to promote sustainable agriculture will require adjustments in existing institutions. New approaches will need to be adopted to promote close interactions among government, business, farmers, academia, and civil society. It is important to identify novel agricultural innovation systems of relevance to Africa.

Governing agricultural transformation provides African leaders the opportunity to build up the capacity necessary to become innovation states and surpass the limits of the entrepreneurial state, which is usually focused on promoting global competitiveness. An innovation state has the added challenge of addressing more complex challenges such as inclusive growth and sustainable development. 9 PLOWING AHEAD A new economic vision for Africa’s agricultural transformation—articulated at the highest level of govern­ ment through Africa’s Regional Economic Communities— should be guided by new conceptual frameworks that define the continent as a learning society. This shift will entail placing policy emphasis on emerging opportunities such as renewing infrastructure, building human capabilities, stimulating agribusiness development, and increasing participation in the global economy. It also requires an appreciation of emerging challenges, such as climate change, and the ways in which these challenges may influence current and future economic strategies.


pages: 352 words: 96,532

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon

air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy

For example, CATENET would remain a system of independently administered networks, each run by its own people with its own rules. But when time came for one network to exchange data with, say, the ARPANET, the internetworking protocols would operate. The gateway computers handling the transmission couldn’t care about the local complexity buried inside each network. Their only task would be to get packets through the network to the destination host on the other side, making a so-called end-to-end link. Once the conceptual framework was established, Cerf and Kahn spent the spring and summer of 1973 working out the details. Cerf presented the problem to his Stanford graduate students, and he and Kahn joined them in attacking it. They held a seminar that concentrated on the details of developing the host-to-host protocol into a standard allowing data traffic to flow across networks. The Stanford seminar helped frame key issues, and laid the foundation for solutions that would emerge several years later.

The first Sun machines were shipped with the Berkeley version of UNIX, complete with TCP/IP. Berkeley UNIX with TCP/IP would be crucial to the growth of the Internet. When Sun included network software as part of every machine it sold and didn’t charge separately for it, networking exploded. It further mushroomed because of Ethernet. While packet radio and SATNET sparked the thinking about a conceptual framework for internetworking, they were largely experimental. Ethernet—the local area network designed by Bob Metcalfe and his colleagues at Xerox PARC back in 1973—was a practical solution to the problem of how to tie computers together, either on a campus or at a company. Xerox began selling Ethernet as a commercial product in 1980. At around the same time, Bob Taylor’s division at Xerox PARC gave a grant to major research universities in the form of Ethernet equipment, powerful computers, and laser printers.


pages: 321 words: 97,661

How to Read a Paper: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine by Trisha Greenhalgh

call centre, complexity theory, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, deskilling, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, New Journalism, p-value, personalized medicine, placebo effect, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, the scientific method

Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development. Implementation Science 2012;7(1):62. 3 Gurses AP, Marsteller JA, Ozok AA, et al. Using an interdisciplinary approach to identify factors that affect clinicians' compliance with evidence-based guidelines. Critical Care Medicine 2010;38:S282–91. 4 Gagliardi AR, Brouwers MC, Palda VA, et al. How can we improve guideline use? A conceptual framework of implementability. Implementation Science 2011;6(1):26. 5 Evans-Lacko S, Jarrett M, McCrone P, et al. Facilitators and barriers to implementing clinical care pathways. BMC Health Services Research 2010;10(1):182. 6 Michie S, Johnston M. Changing clinical behaviour by making guidelines specific. BMJ: British Medical Journal 2004;328(7435):343. 7 Grol R, Dalhuijsen J, Thomas S, et al.

Whilst there is a wealth of evidence on the sort of organisation that supports evidence-based practice, there is much less evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions to change an organisation to make it more ‘evidence based’—and it is beyond the scope of this book to address this topic comprehensively. Much of the literature on organisational change is in the form of practical checklists or the ‘ten tips for success’ type format. Checklists and tips can be enormously useful, but such lists tend to leave me hungry for some coherent conceptual models on which to hang my own real-life experiences. The management literature offers not one but several dozen different conceptual frameworks for looking at change—leaving the non-expert confused about where to start. It was my attempt to make sense of this multiplicity of theories that led me to write a series of six articles published a few years ago in the British Journal of General Practice entitled ‘Theories of change’. In these articles, I explored six different models of professional and organisational change in relation to effective clinical practice [39–44]: 1.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

Many working within what has recently been called critical data studies (Dalton and Thatcher 2014) have asserted that data must be thought of as material or more-than-material (Dourish and Mazmanian 2011; Wilson 2011; Bates et al. 2016). For example, Dourish and Mazmanian (2011) argue that it is important to push beyond the mere physical fact of data and to encounter them in their use. By focusing on data practices they seek to bring the ‘the historical particularities, cultural specificities, and political consequences’ (Dourish and Mazmanian 2011: 4) of data in the world to the fore. Drawing on the conceptual framework developed by Haraway (1997), Wilson (2011) unpacks the material-semiotics of data and data production. Rather than detail data practices per se, his work interrogates how meaning comes to be associated with specific data within local communities. Somewhat at odds to these approaches however, Bates et al. (2016) push back against the blurring of matter and meaning. For them there remains a useful analytical distinction to be made between the material and the socio-cultural.

This is the case when researchers interrogate the multiple possible meanings and intentions behind the use of like buttons, search engine queries or locations saved on Google maps or when they seek to understand varying patterns in mappings of mobile phone data. In these instances, subjects do not merely follow but interpret, invent and circumvent ways of acting. These questions are especially critical given the tendency to treat digital data as raw. We now have myriad studies that are challenging this by accounting for the relations between people and technologies that come to make it up. But we also need a conceptual framework to understand how these also involve power relations between and amongst embodied subjects and citizens who act through the internet and in doing so are part of the making of cyberspace and data through which we come to know cities. Acknowledgements The framing that I develop in this chapter assembles a number of arguments and then builds on Isin and Ruppert (2015) Being Digital Citizens.


pages: 100 words: 31,338

After Europe by Ivan Krastev

affirmative action, bank run, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, clean water, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, job automation, mass immigration, moral panic, open borders, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, too big to fail, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

In an ideological context driven by such liberal nostrums of human improvement, the refugee crisis forces a questioning of everything from top to bottom. What is radical about the migration crisis is not that it asks us to give different answers to those questions pondered in 1989 but that it changes the questions altogether. We are on a substantially changed intellectual footing than a quarter century ago. In Fukuyama’s conceptual framework, the central questions humanity would need to confront were clear-cut: How can the West transform the rest of the world, and how can the rest of the world best imitate the West? What specific institutions and policies need to be transferred and copied? What books should be translated and reprinted? How can the old institutions be expanded, and what kind of new institutions should be created?


pages: 350 words: 110,764

The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries by Kathi Weeks

basic income, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deskilling, feminist movement, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, late capitalism, low-wage service sector, means of production, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, pink-collar, post-work, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Shoshana Zuboff, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, universal basic income, wages for housework, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Beyond any particular claim or category—beyond any of the specific arguments about the role of the work ethic in sustaining the structures and cultures of work, the legitimacy of basic income, the need for shorter hours, or the utility of utopian thought—the project is meant to raise some basic questions about the organization and meaning of work. The assumptions at the heart of the work ethic, not only about the virtues of hard work and long hours but also about their inevitability, are too rarely examined, let alone contested. What kinds of conceptual frameworks and political discourses might serve to generate new ways of thinking about the nature, value, and meaning of work relative to other practices and in relation to the rest of life? How might we expose the fundamental structures and dominant values of work—including its temporalities, socialities, hierarchies, and subjectivities—as pressing political phenomena? If why we work, where we work, with whom we work, what we do at work, and how long we work are social arrangements and hence properly political decisions, how might more of this territory be reclaimed as viable terrains of debate and struggle?

Moreover, a feminist demand for shorter hours should include a broader accounting of what is recognized as work and feminist analyses of its value. Beyond the assertion of a specific policy proposal, to demand is also, as we have seen, to assert a particular discursive agenda. Considering the demand for shorter hours also in these terms, I want to take into account the ways in which it could provide a vocabulary and conceptual framework for new ways of thinking about the nature, value, and meaning of work relative to other practices. With this in mind, in the pages that follow I will build an argument about what a contemporary feminist movement for shorter hours in the United States could accomplish, and how it might most fruitfully be conceived. The discussion will be organized around three different cases for shorter hours that have recently been advanced: one that demands shorter hours as a means of securing more time for family, and two others that de-emphasize—albeit in different ways—the family as the primary rationale for reducing work.


pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

Of course, collapse in this context doesn’t mean that everybody died, but that their ways of life radically shifted and often much of the population migrated to other regions. In other words, history provides us with no models of sustainable development other than democratic capitalism. Every one of these earlier ultimately unsustainable societies was what economics Nobelist Douglass North and his colleagues call, in Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, “natural states.” Natural states are basically organized as hierarchical patron-client networks in which small, militarily potent elites extract resources from a subject population. The basic deal is a Hobbesian contract in which elites promise their subjects an end to the “war of all against all” in exchange for wealth and power. Natural states operate by limiting access to valuable resources—that is to say, by creating and sharing the rewards of monopolies.

“Sustainable development”: Gro Harlem Brundtland, Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. economic growth proceeded: Angus Maddison, The Maddison Project, Original Maddison Home Page, January 2013. www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm. ultimately unsustainable societies: Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009. concur with the analysis: Daron Acemoğlu and James Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Business, 2012. “Many lines of evidence”: Harvey Weiss and Raymond S. Bradley, “What Drives Societal Collapse?” The Heat Is Online, January 26, 2001. www.heatisonline.org/contentserver/objecthandlers/index.cfm?


pages: 378 words: 107,957

Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody by Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, desegregation, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, late capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, neurotypical, phenotype, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade, white flight, women in the workforce

Universality is therefore queer-impossible, as this would require a common human nature—a concept that queer Theory utterly rejects. With its focus on deconstructive techniques and its conception of knowledge as a construct of power, queer Theory is, arguably, the purest form of applied postmodernism. It underlies much trans activism and makes an appearance in multiple forms of Social Justice scholarship. The conceptual framework of intersectionality formed part of the foundational texts of queer Theory, and although the name “intersectionality” is more associated with critical race Theorist Kimberlé Crenshaw, Butler also spoke of “intersections” with other forms of marginalized identity at the same time as Crenshaw and, seemingly, independently. For her, “gender intersects with racial, class, ethnic, sexual, and regional modalities of discursively constituted identities.”44 Thus, Butlerian queer Theory is easily integrated as a key dimension of intersectional thought.

She gives the example of a male student, who questioned the gender wage gap, Allowing him to express his disagreement and spending time trying to challenge his beliefs often comes at a cost to marginalized students whose experiences are (even if indirectly) dismissed by his claims.42 Critical education Theory holds that it is dangerous to allow students to express such disagreement. This is because of its reliance on the postmodern knowledge principle—social reality and what is accepted as true are constructed by language. Disagreement would allow dominant discourses to be reasserted, voiced, and heard, which Theory sees as not safe. As Applebaum explains, “language constitutes our reality by providing the conceptual framework from which meaning is given.”43 She adds, “Even if one retreats to the position where one only speaks for oneself, one’s speech is still not neutral and still reinforces the continuance of dominant discourses by omission.”44 Given this understanding of the power of language (a postmodern theme) and its impacts on social justice (through the postmodern political principle), it is essential to control what may and may not be said.


pages: 935 words: 267,358

Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, circulation of elites, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index card, inflation targeting, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, market bubble, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, refrigerator car, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, twin studies, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, zero-sum game

Here again, the French experience is quite relevant to today’s world, where many commentators continue to believe, as Leroy-Beaulieu did a little more than a century ago, that ever more fully guaranteed property rights, ever freer markets, and ever “purer and more perfect” competition are enough to ensure a just, prosperous, and harmonious society. Unfortunately, the task is more complex. The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Before proceeding, it may be useful to say a little more about the theoretical and conceptual framework of this research as well as the intellectual itinerary that led me to write this book. I belong to a generation that turned eighteen in 1989, which was not only the bicentennial of the French Revolution but also the year when the Berlin Wall fell. I belong to a generation that came of age listening to news of the collapse of the Communist dicatorships and never felt the slightest affection or nostalgia for those regimes or for the Soviet Union.

Malthus, Young, and the French Revolution Ricardo: The Principle of Scarcity Marx: The Principle of Infinite Accumulation From Marx to Kuznets, or Apocalypse to Fairy Tale The Kuznets Curve: Good News in the Midst of the Cold War Putting the Distributional Question Back at the Heart of Economic Analysis The Sources Used in This Book The Major Results of This Study Forces of Convergence, Forces of Divergence The Fundamental Force for Divergence: r > g The Geographical and Historical Boundaries of This Study The Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Outline of the Book Part One: Income and Capital 1. Income and Output The Capital-Labor Split in the Long Run: Not So Stable The Idea of National Income What Is Capital? Capital and Wealth The Capital/Income Ratio The First Fundamental Law of Capitalism: α = r × β National Accounts: An Evolving Social Construct The Global Distribution of Production From Continental Blocs to Regional Blocs Global Inequality: From 150 Euros per Month to 3,000 Euros per Month The Global Distribution of Income Is More Unequal Than the Distribution of Output What Forces Favor Convergence?

See also Global in­e­qual­ity of wealth; Inheritance, dynamics of Distribution of wealth debate: data and, 2–­3, 11–­13, 16–­19, 27–­30; classical po­liti­cal economy and, 3–­5; scarcity principle and, 5–­7; infinite accumulation principle and, 7–­11; postwar optimism and, 11–­15; in economic analysis, 15–­16; historical sources and, 19–­20; results of current study in, 20–­22; forces of convergence and divergence and, 22–­27; theoretical and conceptual framework and, 30–­33 Distribution tables, 267, 269–­270 Divergence, 22–­27, 424, 571; Eu­rope and North America and, 59–­61; supermanagers and, 333–­335; mechanism of wealth, 350–­353, 431; global, 438–­439, 461–­463; oligarchic, 463–­465, 627n49 Divisia, François, 591n19 Django Unchained (film), 163 Domar, Evsey, 230–­231 Domestic capital, 49; in Britain and France, 117–­119; in Germany, 141, 143; in the United States, 150–­151, 155; in Canada, 157; slavery and, 158–­163, 593n16 Domestic output/production, 44–­45, 598n3 Douglas, Paul, 599n18 Dowries, 392, 418 Duflo, Esther, 634n49 Duncan, G., 632n30 Dunoyer, Charles, 85 Dupin, Jean, 591n19 Durable goods and valuables, 179–­180, 594n13 Durkheim, Emile, 422, 621n55 Duval, Guillaume, 592n6 Earned and unearned income: inheritances and, 377–­379, 390; taxation and, 507–­508 Eastern bloc countries, privatization in, 186–­187 ECB (Eu­ro­pe­an Central Bank), 530, 545, 550–­552, 553, 557–­558, 649n26 “Ecological stimulus,” 568 Economic determinism, 20 Economic flows, 381–­383 Economic growth, 72–­74, 84, 93–­94; stages of, 86–­87; in postwar period, 96; social order and, 96.


pages: 137 words: 36,231

Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Laplace demon, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Pareto efficiency, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto

The term `information theory' is an appealing but unfortunate label, which continues to cause endless misunderstandings. Shannon came to regret its widespread popularity, and I shall avoid it in this context. MTC is the theory that lies behind any phenomenon involving data encoding and transmission. As such, it has had a profound impact on the analyses of the various kinds of information, to which it has provided both the technical vocabulary and at least the initial conceptual framework. It would be impossible to understand the nature of information without grasping at least its main gist. This is the task of the present chapter. The mathematical theory of communication MTC treats information as data communication, with the primary aim of devising efficient ways of encoding and transferring data. 7. The mathematical theory of communication (MTC) It has its origin in the field of electrical engineering, as the study of communication limits, and develops a quantitative approach to information.


pages: 161 words: 39,526

Applied Artificial Intelligence: A Handbook for Business Leaders by Mariya Yao, Adelyn Zhou, Marlene Jia

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, computer vision, conceptual framework, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, new economy, pattern recognition, performance metric, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software is eating the world, source of truth, speech recognition, statistical model, strong AI, technological singularity

AI experts and engineers are well-versed in these details, but most executives who lack technical backgrounds tend to clump all AI technologies together and regard it as a silver bullet. If you haven’t read our opening chapters on basic AI terminology and the Machine Intelligence Continuum, you should do so now. Even if you’re familiar with technical concepts, you’ll benefit from the definitions and conceptual framework that we present in those chapters for thinking about machine intelligence. We focus much of our book on machine learning and deep learning techniques since these algorithms are widely used in enterprise solutions. Many other approaches to AI exist and will be covered at our website, appliedaibook.com. If you haven’t done the exercises from the preceding chapters to help you identify and prioritize implementation opportunities in your business, make sure you do them before jumping to conclusions about which AI solutions you need.


pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Human Security Report. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, figure 1.1. 92. Mark Duffield. 2001. Global Governance and the New Wars. The Merging of Development and Security. London: Zed Books. 93. UNHCR. 2009. 2008 Global Trends: Refugees, Asylum-Seekers, Returnees, Internally Displaced and Stateless Persons. UNHCR: Geneva. 94. Anna Lindley. 2008. “Conflict-Induced Migration and Remittances: Exploring Conceptual Frameworks,” Working Paper Series No. 47, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford. 95. Stephen Castles and Sean Loughna. 2003. “Trends in Asylum Migration to Industrialized Countries: 1990–2001,” UNU-WIDER Discussion Paper No. 2003/31, p. 16. 96. Robert E. B. Lucas. 2005. International Migration and Economic Development: Lessons from Low-Income Countries. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, p. 67. 97.

Human Migration: A Geographical Perspective. New York: Taylor and Francis. Lindert, Peter H., and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 2003. “Does Globalization Make the World More Unequal?” in Michael D. Bordo, Alan M. Taylor, and Jeffrey G. Williamson (eds.), Globalization in Historical Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 227-271. Lindley, Anna. 2008. “Conflict-Induced Migration and Remittances: Exploring Conceptual Frameworks,” Working Paper Series No. 47, Refugee Studies Centre, University of Oxford. Oxford, UK: Refugee Studies Centre. Lluberas, Rodrigo. 2007. “The Untapped Skilled Labour of Latin America,” Towers Watson Technical Paper. Available at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1261978. Losch, Bruno. 2008. “Migrations and the Challenge of Demographic and Economic Transitions in the New Globalization Era,” SSRC Migration & Development Conference Paper No. 12.


pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

To study contemporary capitalism, I argue, sociology must go back before the disciplinary division of labour with economics negotiated on its behalf by its twentieth century founding figure, Talcott Parsons.2 For this it will be helpful to rediscover the sociology in classical economists from Smith to Pareto, Marshall, Keynes and Schumpeter, and the economics in classical sociologists like Weber, Sombart, Mauss and Veblen, to name only a few. Particular interest might usefully be paid to the institutional economics of the Historische Schule and to Marx the social theorist, as opposed to the deterministic economist. The lesson to be learned from all of them is that capitalism denotes both an economy and a society, and that studying it requires a conceptual framework that does not separate the one from the other. How to study contemporary capitalism, then? My first answer is: not as an economy but as a society – as a system of social action and a set of social institutions falling in the domain of sociological rather than today’s standard economic theory.3 This is in fact the tradition of political economy in the nineteenth century. Political-economic theory was to identify the actors and interests underlying, or hiding behind, the ‘laws of movement’ of ‘the economy’, translating economic relations into social relations and showing the former to be a special case of the latter.

For a time, the dependence of politics and political success under democratic capitalism on uninterrupted capital accumulation – or in the technocratic language of standard economics: on economic growth – led inevitably optimistic politicians to place their hopes on riding the tiger and jump on the historical bandwagon towards liberalization and deregulation until the re-formed capitalist economic regime almost crashed as a result of its unfettered progress. It may seem like hairsplitting if I now ask, in Block’s terms as he reconstructs the Polanyian conceptual framework, whether the current crisis was due to the capitalist ‘economy’ having become misembedded or disembedded. Block declares the latter to be impossible, due to economic action always and inevitably being social action. But while one can fully and indeed emphatically agree with this, as I do,26 there is no logical need to conclude from it that a capitalist political economy is governed by a primacy of politics.


pages: 721 words: 197,134

Data Mining: Concepts, Models, Methods, and Algorithms by Mehmed Kantardzić

Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, butter production in bangladesh, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, discrete time, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, finite state, Gini coefficient, information retrieval, Internet Archive, inventory management, iterative process, knowledge worker, linked data, loose coupling, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NP-complete, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, phenotype, random walk, RFID, semantic web, speech recognition, statistical model, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, text mining, traveling salesman, web application

Therefore, two standard tasks are associated with producing a reduced set of features, and they are classified as: 1. Feature Selection. Based on the knowledge of the application domain and the goals of the mining effort, the human analyst may select a subset of the features found in the initial data set. The process of feature selection can be manual or supported by some automated procedures. Roughly speaking, feature-selection methods are applied in one of three conceptual frameworks: the filter model, the wrapper model, and embedded methods. These three basic families differ in how the learning algorithm is incorporated in evaluating and selecting features. In the filter model the selection of features is done as a preprocessing activity, without trying to optimize the performance of any specific data-mining technique directly. This is usually achieved through an (ad hoc) evaluation function using a search method in order to select a subset of features that maximizes this function.

The second part of the book covers theoretical explanations of data-mining techniques that have their roots in disciplines other than statistics. Numerous illustrations and examples enhance the readers’ knowledge about theory and practical evaluations of data-mining techniques. Cherkassky, V., F. Mulier, Learning from Data: Concepts, Theory and Methods, 2nd edition, John Wiley, New York, 2007. The book provides a unified treatment of the principles and methods for learning dependencies from data. It establishes a general conceptual framework in which various learning methods from statistics, machine learning, and other disciplines can be applied—showing that a few fundamental principles underlie most new methods being proposed today. An additional strength of this primarily theoretical book is the large number of case studies and examples that simplify and make understandable concepts in SLT. Engel, A., C. Van den Broeck, Statistical Mechanics of Learning, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001.

The text concludes with a detailed discussion of several important statistical methods such as least-square minimization, ANOVA, regressions, and analysis of time series. Cherkassky, V., F. Mulier, Learning from Data: Concepts, Theory and Methods, John Wiley, New York, 1998. The book provides a unified treatment of the principles and methods for learning dependencies from data. It establishes a general conceptual framework in which various learning methods from statistics, machine learning, and other disciplines can be applied—showing that a few fundamental principles underlie most new methods being proposed today. An additional strength of this primary theoretical book is a large number of case studies and examples that simplify and make understandable statistical learning theory concepts. Hand, D., Mannila H., Smith P., Principles of Data Mining, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001.


pages: 124 words: 40,697

The Grand Design by Stephen Hawking, Leonard Mlodinow

airport security, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, Arthur Eddington, Buckminster Fuller, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, dark matter, fudge factor, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Mercator projection, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, Turing machine

And if a theory called the holographic principle proves correct, we and our four-dimensional world may be shadows on the boundary of a larger, five-dimensional space-time. In that case, our status in the universe is analogous to that of the goldfish. Strict realists often argue that the proof that scientific theories represent reality lies in their success. But different theories can successfully describe the same phenomenon through disparate conceptual frameworks. In fact, many scientific theories that had proven successful were later replaced by other, equally successful theories based on wholly new concepts of reality. Traditionally those who didn’t accept realism have been called anti-realists. Anti-realists suppose a distinction between empirical knowledge and theoretical knowledge. They typically argue that observation and experiment are meaningful but that theories are no more than useful instruments that do not embody any deeper truths underlying the observed phenomena.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This is the principle embedded in the multistakeholder theory (what the World Economic Forum communities often call the Spirit of Davos), which I first proposed in a book published in 1971.70 Boundaries between sectors and professions are artificial and are proving to be increasingly counterproductive. More than ever, it is essential to dissolve these barriers by engaging the power of networks to forge effective partnerships. Companies and organizations that fail to do this and do not walk the talk by building diverse teams will have a difficult time adjusting to the disruptions of the digital age. Leaders must also prove capable of changing their mental and conceptual frameworks and their organising principles. In today’s disruptive, fast-changing world, thinking in silos and having a fixed view of the future is fossilizing, which is why it is better, in the dichotomy presented by the philosopher Isaiah Berlin in his 1953 essay about writers and thinkers, to be a fox than a hedgehog. Operating in an increasingly complex and disruptive environment requires the intellectual and social agility of the fox rather than fixed and narrow focus of the hedgehog.


Tyler Cowen - Stubborn Attachments A Vision for a Society of Free, Prosperous, and Responsible Individuals by Meg Patrick

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, framing effect, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, Peter Singer: altruism, rent-seeking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, zero-sum game

You would feel that maybe, just maybe, you had caused the painful deaths of millions when you speed through a green light; but cheer up, you probably have saved millions of others questions, in the context of military history. Moriarty (2005) considers the implications of the epistemic argument for traditional concepts of desert. My initial crack at thoughts on these topics is Cowen (2006). MacAskill (2014) considers how we ought to maximize across the expected values of possibly conflicting moral theories with possibly conflicting conceptual frameworks. 83 as well. All those lives rested upon your decision. Any moment most of us might be doing something that will lead to truly wonderful results, truly terrible results, or most likely a mix of both at the same time. It seems paralyzing. If you internalized that feeling, all of life would be like walking around on eggshells, except that the eggshells are geopolitical changes, possibly worth millions or even billions of future human lives.


pages: 497 words: 123,778

The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It by Yascha Mounk

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, basic income, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, Parag Khanna, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Following the political scientist Robert Dahl, for example, “procedural minimalists” define a democracy as any system that features: “Free, fair and competitive elections; Full adult suffrage; Broad protection of civil liberties, including freedom of speech, press, and association; and The absence of nonelected ‘tutelary’ authorities (e.g. militaries, monarchies, or religious bodies) that limit elected officials’ power to govern.”2 Dahl’s conceptual framework thus bakes the protection of liberal rights into the very definition of democracy. This makes it impossible to ask whether democracy and liberalism might be coming apart. By focusing on a particular set of historically contingent institutions, it also makes it difficult to ask whether these institutions actually allow the people to rule. In this way, the not-so-minimalist definition of democracy inflates the importance of our political institutions.

At the most basic and urgent, they desire the goods that are key to their survival, including food, shelter, and safety from physical attack. When these basic needs are met, they pay increasing attention to more rarefied desires: They seek love and belonging. They aspire to be esteemed. And they search for ways in which they can achieve what Maslow called “self-actualization.”59 Influential social scientists like Ronald Inglehart have derived a very optimistic vision from this basic conceptual framework. Back when most societies suffered from acute scarcity and violent conflict posed a constant threat, Inglehart argued in the 1970s, the main political cleavages were determined by the lower rungs of Maslow’s hierarchy. The need to procure food and shelter meant that politics was largely organized along class lines, with poorer voters likely to support parties that championed the welfare state and called for redistribution, and more affluent voters likely to support parties that sought to protect their wealth.


pages: 627 words: 127,613

Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990 by Kristina Spohr, David Reynolds

anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, oil shock, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shared worldview, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

As a former Mayor of West Berlin (1957–66), Brandt felt the pain of division as a gut issue, unlike previous chancellors such as Konrad Adenauer (a Rhinelander) and Ludwig Erhard (from Bavaria). Accepting the fait accompli of two states, Brandt nevertheless wanted to prevent total alienation between the peoples of East and West Germany and to keep open the possibility of eventual reunification. The conceptual framework for this policy had been elaborated by his adviser Egon Bahr during the 1960s, built around the slogan of ‘change through rapprochement’ (Wandel durch Annäherung) and the ‘policy of small steps’ (Politik der kleinen Schritte). The Brandt-Bahr partnership proved essential for Bonn’s détente diplomacy, especially after Brandt had acceded to the chancellorship in October 1969. His 1970 meetings with East German leader Willi Stoph in Erfurt and Kassel were a first expression of this neue Ostpolitik—the story of the opening chapter of this book.

Second, reconciliation between Eastern and Western Europe by means of transcending the Cold War division in the long term. Brandt repeatedly insisted that he aimed at ‘reconciliation’ with the East, and thereby specifically included the GDR. While he used the term Aussöhnung for relations with Poland, he sometimes referred to the need for Aussöhnung im Innern (inner reconciliation) with regard to East Germans.10 The peace researcher John Paul Lederach has developed a conceptual framework outlining favourable elements and processes leading to ‘sustainable reconciliation’.11 While Lederach in his examples mostly discusses the period after the Cold War, we argue that some of his broader conclusions also shed useful light on the issues in this chapter. Indeed, to a large extent the general characteristics of the conflicts described by Lederach also apply to the FRG-GDR relationship in 1970: the conflicting groups ‘live as neighbours and yet are locked into long-standing cycles of hostile interaction’; the conflicts are ‘characterized by deep-rooted, intense animosity, fear, and severe stereotyping’; and the conflicting groups ‘have direct experience of violent trauma’.12 Lederach proposes an interesting definition of what actually constitutes reconciliation.


The Limits of the Market: The Pendulum Between Government and Market by Paul de Grauwe, Anna Asbury

"Robert Solow", banking crisis, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, means of production, moral hazard, Paul Samuelson, price discrimination, price mechanism, profit motive, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Simon Kuznets, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, very high income

In Leuven, the city where I used to teach, the deep potholes in the road surfaces are barely repaired anymore. When I am in that historic city I ride a mountain bike to cope with the deep potholes and bumps disfiguring the streets. In many countries rail infrastructure is ageing, with insufficient investment in replacements, resulting in failures, faults, and delays. In this chapter we have provided a conceptual framework which enables us to understand this better. The expansion of the market system encourages individual rationality in each of us, weakening the drive for cooperation. A sort of repressive effect occurs, as the market regards us as individuals. This prompts each of us to act individually. Cooperative behaviour is not rewarded in the same way, so many of us will suppress this behaviour. However, it is a cooperative attitude which is needed to come to collective decisions which make public goods possible.


pages: 165 words: 45,129

The Economics of Inequality by Thomas Piketty, Arthur Goldhammer

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, basic income, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, Gini coefficient, income inequality, low skilled workers, means of production, moral hazard, Pareto efficiency, purchasing power parity, Simon Kuznets, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, very high income, working-age population

If one could precisely measure the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor and the elasticity of the supply of capital, it would be possible in principle to determine the optimal amount of capital-labor redistribution and the best instruments to achieve it. The intellectual and political conflict over redistribution is about more than just the measurement of elasticities, however. Indeed, this whole conceptual framework implicitly assumes that we accept the rules of the market economy and the allocative role of the price system. This is obvious in the case of the elasticity of capital supply (why should society give in to the threat of capitalist households to save less if they deem the rate of return on capital to be too low?). It is just as important, though, when it comes to the elasticity of capital/labor substitution: why should firms use more capital and less labor if the relative price of labor rises?


pages: 159 words: 45,073

GDP: A Brief but Affectionate History by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, clean water, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial intermediation, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, mutually assured destruction, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, new economy, Occupy movement, purchasing power parity, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, University of East Anglia, working-age population

Consumers have moved progressively from purchasing in local stores to shopping in large stores, including discount “big-box” stores—where businesses may also buy some of their supplies. Now spending is shifting online. A third example is estimating the value of income received in the form of deferred stock options, once a small part of total remuneration but now quite significant. The actual number for GDP is therefore the product of a vast patchwork of statistics and a complicated set of processes carried out on the raw data to fit them to the conceptual framework. The “Production Boundary” As if all of this were not enough, there are some important conceptual questions about the GDP definition, some of which will be followed up in later chapters. The definitions have evolved over the years, and there are areas of active debate among national statistics experts. Much of GDP is private-sector output or expenditure measured at the prices charged in the market, as mentioned earlier.


pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

"Robert Solow", air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, Jones Act, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Rosenstein, “The Rise of Maritime Containerization,” pp. 47, 69; Nutter, “The Port of Oakland,” pp. 79–80; Port of Oakland, “60 Years: A Chronicle of Progress,” 1987, pp. 17–18. 12. Erie, Globalizing L.A., p. 89; Walter Hamshar, “Must U.S. Approve All Pier Leases,” Herald Tribune, April 5, 1964. 13. Nutter, “The Port of Oakland,” p. 82; Rosenstein, “The Rise of Maritime Containerization,” pp. 98–104. 14. Ting-Li Cho, “A Conceptual Framework for the Physical Development of the Port of Seattle,” Port of Seattle Planning and Research Department, April 1966, p. 15; Arthur D. Little Inc., Community Renewal Programming: A San Francisco Case Study (New York, 1966), p. 34. 15. Rosenstein, “The Rise of Maritime Containerization,” pp. 65 and 85–86; Worden, Cargoes, 148; Nutter, “The Port of Oakland,” pp. 112, 120; Port of Oakland, “1957 Revenue Bonds, Series P, $20,000,000,” October 17, 1978, p. 15; Erie, Globalizing L.A., p. 90; Seattle Port Commission, “Container Terminals 1970–1975: A Development Strategy,” November 1969, pp. 1, 10. 16.

Outlook for Waterborne Commerce through the Port of New York. 1948. _. The Port of New York. 1952. _. “Proposal for Development of the Municipally Owned Waterfront and Piers of New York City.” February 10, 1948. _. Via—Port of New York. Port of Seattle, Marine Planning and Development Department. “Container Terminal Development Plan.” October 1991. Port of Seattle, Planning and Research Department. “A Conceptual Framework for the Physical Development of the Port of Seattle.” April 1966. Port of Singapore Authority. Annual Report and Accounts. Various years. _. A Review of the Past and a Look into the Future. Singapore: Port of Singapore Authority, 1971. Scottish Executive. “Container Transshipment and Demand for Container Terminal Capacity in Scotland.” Transport Research Institute, Napier University, Edinburgh, December 2003.


pages: 453 words: 132,400

Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, double helix, fear of failure, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Vilfredo Pareto

: Prentice-Hall. Durkheim, E. 1897 (1951). Suicide. New York: Free Press. ——. 1912 (1967). The elementary forms of religious life. New York: Free Press. Easterlin, R. A. 1974. Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence. In P. A. David & M. Abramovitz, eds., Nations and households in economic growth. New York: Academic Press. Eckblad, G. 1981. Scheme theory: A conceptual framework for cognitive-motivational processes. London: Academic Press. Ekman, P. 1972. Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotions. In Current theory in research on motivation, Nebraska symposium on motivation, vol. 19 (pp. 207–83). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Eliade, M. 1969. Yoga: Immortality and freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Emde, R. 1980.

The trilogy of mind: Cognition, affection, and conation. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 16:107–17. Hiscock, E. C. 1968. Atlantic cruise in Wanderer III. London: Oxford University Press. Hoffman, J. E., Nelson, B., & Houck, M. R. 1983. The role of attentional resources in automatic detection. Cognitive Psychology 51:379–410. Hoffman, L. 1981. Foundations of family therapy: A conceptual framework for systems change. New York: Basic Books. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. 1967. The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychometric Research 11:213–18. Howell, M. C. 1986. Women, production, and patriarchy in late medieval cities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Huizinga, J. 1939 (1970). Homo ludens: A study of the play element in culture. New York: Harper & Row. ——. 1954.


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Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2014). 2. An Xiao Mina, “Hashtag Memes: Breaking the Single Story through Humour,” Al Jazeera, March 2013, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2013/03/2013326132026281740.html. 3. Ian Hutchby, “Technologies, Texts and Affordances,” Sociology 35, no. 2 (2001): 441–56; and Sandra K. Evans, Katy E. Pearce, Jessica Vitak, and Jeffrey W. Treem, “Explicating Affordances: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Affordances in Communication Research,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, December 2016. 4. Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2006). 5. Thomas Schelling, The Strategy of Conflict (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960), 69; Medhi Shadmehr and Dan Bernhardt, “Collective Action with Uncertain Payoffs: Coordination, Public Signals, and Punishment Dilemmas,” American Political Science Review 105, no. 4 (2011): 829–51. 6.

George Orwell, “Reflections on Gandhi,” The Orwell Prize, January 1949, http://www.theorwellprize.co.uk/the-orwell-prize/orwell/essays-and-other-works/reflections-on-gandhi/. 5. Elizabeth L. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1980). 6. Sandra K. Evans, Katy E. Pearce, Jessica Vitak, and Jeffrey W. Treem, “Explicating Affordances: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Affordances in Communication Research,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, December 2016; and James J. Gibson, “Theory of Affordances,” in The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception: Classic Edition (New York: Psychology Press, 2014). 7. Raymond Williams, “The Technology and the Society,” in Television: Technology and Cultural Form, 2nd ed. (London: Taylor and Francis, 2005). 8.


Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science) by Thierry Bardini

Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

"The Grail Project: An Experiment in Man-Machine Communication." RM-5999-ARPA. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND. Engelbart, D. C. 196 I. "Special Considerations of the Individual as a User, Genera- tor, and Retriever of Information." AmerIcan Documentation I 2, no. 2: I2I- 2 5. . 1962. "AugmentIng Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework." Report to the Director of Information SCIences, Air Force Office of ScientIfic Re- search. Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, October. . I963. "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." In V,stas in Information Handling, edited by P. W. Howerton and D. C. Weeks, I: 1-29. Washington, D.C.: Spartan. . 1973. "Design Considerations for Knowledge Workshop Terminals." In Pro- ceedings of the AFIPS I973 NatIonal Computer Conference, pp. 221- 2 7.


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Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Ron Hubbard and Scientology, 158–60 Maxwell Maltz and Psycho-Cybernetics, 162–65 culture (continued) personal computer and, 187–89 pseudoscience, 160–62 self-help books, 162–65 Spacewar video game, 181–84 cyber (term) origin stories, ix–xii as prefix, 304, 350 varieties of meaning, xi “Cyber and Justice Holmes, The” (Riley), 87–88 cybercash, 286; See also digital cash cyberculture, 102–3 cyberdelic, 227 cyberespionage, 316–39 cybernated systems, 101; See also cybernation cybernation, 100–102, 105–7, 110–12 Cybernation: The Silent Conquest (Michael), 100–102 “Cybernation and Culture” (McLuhan), 108 cybernetic anthropomorphous machine (CAM), 129–30, 136–38 cybernetic frontier, 181, 194 cybernetic myths, xiii–xvi anthropomorphizing of machines, 342–44 cultural impact of, 157–58 cyberspace and, 345–47 cyberwar and, 305–6 cyborgs and, 344–45 fall of the machines, 340–52 rise of the machines, 110–11 technology’s outperforming of, 349 three stages of, 342–47 cybernetics Gregory Bateson and, 175–76 coining of term, 3 conceptual framework development, 47–53 contradictions in predictions about, 348–49 and control, 47–48 and counterculture, 165–94 development of discipline, 43–72 early scholars of, 52 as emerging field, 68 and enchantment of the machine, 351 evolution of concept, 62 and feedback, 48–49 L. Ron Hubbard and, 158–60 and human-machine interaction, 49–51 irony as pattern in history of, 350–51 new terms as pattern in history of, 349–50 origins of term, xi–xii patterns in history of, 348–51 popularity in 1970s, 157 religious implications of, 90–92 spiritual pattens in history of, 348 three core concepts, 47–51 warnings in history of, 347 Cybernetics, or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (Wiener), xii, 3, 36, 51 inspiration for title, 46 second edition of, 119–20 and Whole Earth Catalog, 169 “Cybernetic War” (Post), 294–98 cybernetic warfare, 306–7; See also cyberwar cyberpunk, 209–12, 246, 297, 298 cybersecurity, global market for, x cybersex, 235–37 cyberspace Austin conference (1990), 231–35 John Perry Barlow and, 224–27 Communications Decency Act, 244–45 cybernetic myths, 345–47 Cyberthon, 240–43 cyberwar, 304–5 “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” 244–45 Habitat game, 228–30 and hackers, 237–40 and military research, 196–206 Operation Sundevil, 238–40 origins of term, 209–10, 219–20 parallels to 19th Century West, 240, 260 in science fiction, 206–8 teledildonics, 235–37 virtual reality, 212–19 virtual space, 195–96 cyberterrorism, 335 Cyberthon, 240–43 cyberwar, 301 Eligible Receiver exercise, 311–14, 322 Moonlight Maze, 316–39 Solar Sunrise, 314–15 “Cyberwar Is Coming” (Arquilla and Ronfelt), 303–5 Cyborg (Halacy), 140–41 Cyborg Handbook, The, 153–54 “Cyborg Manifesto, A” (Haraway), 151–54 cyborg research, 123–27 cyborgs (cybernetic organisms), 113 aviation medicine, 122–23 cybernetic myths, 344–45 feminism and, 151–54 man-machine interaction, 143–48 military research, 128–40 Pedipulator, 132–34 postmodernism, 151–54 quadruped, 134–35 radio-controlled, 138–40 space travel, 124–25, 142–43 “Cyborgs and Space” (Clynes and Kline), 125–26 Cyphernomicon (May), 265, 268–69 cypherpunks and BlackNet, 278–81 and the Clipper Chip, 274–75 early 1990s, 261–76 late 1990s, 277–93 origins of, 247 and The Sovereign Individual, 286–87 D-2 Project, 25–26, 29, 30 Daily Herald, 55 DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), 111 “Darth Vader helmet,” 199–206 Dartmouth College, 29–30 data gloves, 213–15 Davidson, James Dale, 285 Davis, Erik, 242 De Anza College (Cupertino, California), 188–89 “Death of the Ball Turret Gunner, The” (Jarrell), 15 DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation), 181–82, 191 “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” (Barlow), 244–45 Defense, US Department of cryptography, 252–53 cyber attacks, 309 cyberwar, 297 cyborg research, 133–34 DARPA, 111 helmet-mounted sights, 203 Moonlight Maze, 320, 321, 323, 327, 333 SAGE, 97 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 111 Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), 309, 317–19 Defense Intelligence Agency, 323 Defense Week, 329 Degtyarev, Vitaliy, 330–31 delay, organism-environment interaction and, 58–59 Del Duca, Michael, 127 DePuy, William, 299 Design for a Brain (Ashby), 61, 169 deterrence, 75 Detweiler, Lance, 280, 281 Deutsch, John, 310 Deutsch, Karl, 52 DEW (Distant Early Warning) Line, 81 Dianetics (Hubbard), 159–60 Diebold, John, 97–99, 108–10 Diffie, Whitfield, 250–51 digital cash, 257, 281, 286, 287 digital computer, 343–44 Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), 181–82, 191 digital pseudonyms, 281–82 digital voting, 257 direction, 17–18 DISA (Defense Information Systems Agency), 309, 317–19 display fascination, 203 “Diver, the,” See V-1 flying bomb Domain Name System (DNS), 186, 190, 328 domestic surveillance, foreign surveillance vs., 273 Dorsey, Michael, 321, 326, 332 Dramashop (MIT), 83–84 drones, 140 “Drugs, Space and Cybernetics: Evolution to Cyborgs” (Clynes and Kline), 124–25 drug trade, 267 duck hunting, 12–13 Dunkirk, Battle of, 24 Dynamic Simulation Lab (Rockland State Hospital), 124 dystopia in 1990s view of cybernetics, 5–6 Neuromancer, 210–12 thinking machines and, 4 utopia vs., 6 eBay, 244 ecology, 60–61 economic espionage, 281 economic theory, 105 EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer), 115 EES (Escrowed Encryption Standard), 273–74; See also Clipper chips Einstein, Albert, 45 electromagnets, 54 Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), 240, 264, 276 “electronic Pearl Harbor,” 307–8, 310–11, 329, 333, 339 elevation, 22 elevators, 48 Eligible Receiver (cyberwar exercise), 311–14, 322 Ellis, James, 249 e-mail, 255 e-mail attachments, 312 e-mail lists, 263–65 Emirnet, 315 emotions, myths’ appeal to, xv employment, 105–6, 109–10; See also unemployment enchantment of the machine, 351 encryption, xv; See also crypto anarchy; cryptography; cypherpunks Energy, US Department of, 316–17, 320 energy infrastructure, 313 Engelbart, Douglas, 173 Engineering Man for Space: The Cyborg Study (NASA report), 127–28 English Channel, 41 ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), 114–15 entropy, 48 environment organism and, 178 system and, 57–61, 63–67 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 320, 326 equilibrium, 55 Esalen Institute, 174, 221 escapism, 298 Escrowed Encryption Standard (EES), 273–74; See also Clipper Chip espionage Moonlight Maze, 316–39 VT fuse, 28, 34 evolution cyborgs and, 140–41 and mechanical self-reproduction, 117 reproduction and, 116 of self-reproducing programs, 150 technological, 121–22 Evolving Society, The (Hilton), 106 exoskeleton cyborg, 136–37 exosuit, 137 Explorers Club, 158 eye phone, 214 F-15 Eagle, 197 F-16, 197 F-86 Sabre, 299 factoring, 250 facts, myths and, xiv Fall Joint Computer Conference, 173 FANX (Friendship Annex) III, 311–13 Farmer, Randall, 228–30, 234, 241 FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) and BlackNet, 281 and the Clipper Chip, 274 and German espionage, 28 and Moonlight Maze, 318, 319, 321–23, 325–27, 329–32, 334 national infrastructure protection center, 307 and Solar Sunrise, 315 and the WELL, 239, 240 Federalist Papers, 277 feedback cybernetics and, 48–49 cyborgs and, 129–30, 136–37 machines and, 92 radar-controlled artillery and, 20 feedback loops Gregory Bateson and, 176 prostheses and, 50 and Sperry control systems, 36–37 and Whole Earth Catalog, 171–72 feel (tactile sensation/feedback), 129–30, 135, 138 Feinstein, Dianne, 334 feminism, 151–54 fiber-optic cables, 289 fiction, myth and, xv; See also science fiction; specific works Field Manual (FM) 100-5, 299–301 Figallo, Cliff, 194 fighter-bombers, displays in, 197 fig wasp, 146 Final Report on Project C-43 (Koenig), 249 financial transactions, 267 Finney, Hal, 273 fire control prediction, 25–26 firing table, 22 First Amendment, 275, 276 First Austin Conference on Cyberspace (1990), 231–35 “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” (von Neumann), 115 fish, as theoretical cyborg, 125 flight paths/patterns, 13, 29–36, 42 FM (Field Manual) 100-5, 299–301 follower rack, 130 force feedback, 129–30 Ford Motor Company, 38 form, mythologies and, xiv–xv Fort Belvoir (Virginia), 305 Fort Hancock, New Jersey, 20 four-day workweek, 109 Frankenstein (Shelley), 343 Franklin, Benjamin, 277 Freedom of Information Act, 269 Friedman, Avi, 290 Friedman, William, 269, 270 Friendship Annex III (FANX III), 311–13 Frost, Mark, 185 FTP transfer log files, 317–18 Führer Directive number 17, 9–10 full-body data suit, 215 Fuller, Buckminster, 167 functionalism, 62, 64 Furness, Thomas, 198, 201–6 fuse, See proximity fuse future and cybernetic myths, xv–xvi and dystopian/utopian visions, 5 and machines, 4 and myths, xiv Wiener’s view of, 70–71 Fylingsdales Moor, Yorkshire, England, early-warning site, 99 Gagarin, Yuri, 126 gap-filler radar stations, 81 Garcia, Jerry, 227 Gardner, Doris, 321 Gardner, Martin, 252–53, 262 Garfinkel, Simson, 289 Garner, Jay, 306 GCHQ, x, 248, 250, 337 General Electric, 85–86, 128–37 general theory of machines, 4 genetics, 119 geometry, as analogy for cybernetics, 69 Germany, 8–10, 28, 33–34, 39–42 Getting, Ivan, 20 Gibson, William on “collective hallucination,” 196 and cyber as term, ix–x and cyberspace, 209–12 and cyberspace as term, 219, 220 and Cyberthon, 242 and cypherpunk, 266 Neuromancer, 189 Gilmore, John, 263–65, 269–71, 277 global positioning system (GPS), 296 goal-seeking, 56, 61 God, 91–92, 149 God and Golem, Inc.

Grey, 52, 61, 161 War and Anti-war (Toffler and Toffler), 308–9 war/warfare; See also specific wars automation of, 73–82, 96 computer simulation of, 71–72 control and communication during World War II, 8–42 cybernetic myths, 346–47 cyberwar, 294–339 cyborg research, 128–40 Eligible Receiver exercise, 311–14 Moonlight Maze, 316–39 Solar Sunrise, 314–15 Watergate, 254 Wavy Gravy (Hugh Romney), 241 Weaver, Sigourney, 136 Weaver, Warren, 25–26, 29–36 web browsers, 244, 264 Weldon, Curt, 329 WELL (Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link), 191–94, 239–40, 245, 345 Western Electric, 22 whistle-blowers, 284 white-hat hackers, 309 Whitehead, Ennis, 79–80 Whole Earth Catalog, 168–72 and cybernetic myths, 345 Terence McKenna and, 186–87 and the WELL, 190–91 Whole Earth Review crypto anarchy article, 264 and cybernetic myths, 346 and cyberspace, 220 on Cyberthon, 242 end of, 243 Jaron Lanier article, 216–17 and the WELL, 191 whole-systems thinking, 180 “wholism,” 161 Wiener, Norbert on Ashby’s homeostat, 61–62 on automated warfare, 71–72, 75, 96 Gregory Bateson and, 176 on brain–computer similarities, 114 Arthur C. Clarke and, 120, 122 Manfred Clynes and, 124 conceptual framework of cybernetics, 47–53 on cyberculture as term, 103–4 and cybernetic myth, 344 Cybernetics, xii, 3, 36, 51 Cybernetics (2nd edition), 119–20 and “cyber” prefix, 304 and dangers of cybernetics, 46 death of, 104 John Diebold and, 97 and enchantment of the machine, 351 and The Evolving Society, 106 and feedback, 48–49 first encounter with computer, 30 on future of intelligent machines, 70–71 God and Golem, Inc., 89–92 and guided missile development, 44–45 L.


What Kind of Creatures Are We? (Columbia Themes in Philosophy) by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, conceptual framework, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, liberation theology, mass incarceration, means of production, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Turing test, wage slave

Invoking Peirce’s understanding of scientific method and scientific growth that appeals to the concept of abduction, which puts limits on what count as “admissible hypotheses,” he argues that innate structures that are determined by our genetic endowment set limits to the questions that we can formulate. The questions we can tractably formulate are called “problems,” but given the limits within which their formulation is so much as possible, there will be things that escape our cognitive powers; to the extent that we can even think them, we will, given our current conceptual frameworks and knowledge, find ourselves unable to formulate them in a way that a tractable form of scientific inquiry of them can be pursued. These he calls “mysteries.” The title of this book, What Kind of Creatures Are We?, is directly addressed by this, since other sorts of creatures, with a different biological endowment from ours, may be able to formulate problems that remain mysteries to us.


pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

In: Levien RE (ed) Computers in instruction: their future for higher education: proceedings of a conference held in October 1970. A Report Prepared for National Science Foundation and Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, pp 185–99. R-718-NSF/CCOM/RC. Santa Monica, CA; Washington, D.C.: The RAND Corporation; distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse. http://​files.​eric.​ed.​gov/​fulltext/​ED052635.​pdf *Nelson TH (1971) The route to Halftone image synthesis. Comput Decis May. Begins p. 12 Nelson TH (1973) A conceptual framework for man-machine everything. In: Proceedings of the June 4–8, 1973, National Computer Conference and Exposition, m21–26. AFIPS ‘73. ACM, New York. doi:10.​1145/​1499586.​1499776 *Nelson TH (1973) As we will think. In: Online 72: conference proceedings … International conference on online interactive computing, Brunel University, Uxbridge, 4–7 September 1972, pp 439–54. Uxbridge, England: Online Computer Systems, Ltd.


pages: 486 words: 148,485

Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, longitudinal study, mandatory minimum, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

They also tell us what not to look for and what questions not to ask, which is why those astronomers didn’t bother looking for a giant intergalactic battleship warping Uranus’s orbit instead. These are invaluable directives, prerequisite to doing science—or, for that matter, to doing much of anything. As Alan Greenspan pointed out, during a moment in his congressional testimony when he seemed to be coming under fire for merely possessing a political ideology, “An ideology is a conceptual framework, the way people deal with reality. Everyone has one. You have to. To exist, you need an ideology.” Greenspan was right. To exist, to deal with reality, we need a conceptual framework: theories that tell us which questions to ask and which ones not to, where to look and where not to bother. When that framework serves us well—when, say, it spares us the effort of asking what other kinds of long things a giraffe might possess, or taking seriously the proposition that behind a certain shaded rectangle we might encounter a certain naked movie star—we call it brilliant, and call it inductive reasoning.


pages: 543 words: 147,357

Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Blythe Masters, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working poor, zero-sum game, éminence grise

., p. 132 and general discussion. 11 Joel Mokyr (2002) The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy, Princeton University Press; Joel Mokyr, ‘Progress and Inertia in Technological Change’, in John James and Mark Thomas (eds) (1994) Capitalism in Context: Essays in Honor of R. M. Hartwell, University of Chicago Press, pp. 230–54. 12 See Joel Mokyr (2004) The Gifts of Athena: The Historical Orgins of the Knowledge Economy, Princeton University Press. 13 Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast (2009) Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History, Cambridge University Press. 14 James C. Scott (1985) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, Yale University Press. See also James C. Scott (2008) ‘Everyday Forms of Resistance’, Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies 49, at http://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/cjas/article/viewFile/1765/1785. 15 Matthias Doepke and Fabrizio Zilibotti (2006) ‘Patience Capital, Occupational Choice, and the Spirit of Capitalism’, UCLA Department of Economics Working Paper No. 848. 16 William Baumol (1990) ‘Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive’.

See also William Doyle (2009) Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution, Oxford University Press. 3 Joel Mokyr and John Nye (2007) ‘Distributional Coalitions, the Industrial Revolution, and the Origins of Economic Growth in Britain’, paper prepared for the special session in honour of Mancur Olson, Southern Economic Meeting, Charleston. 4 Joel Mokyr (2009) The Enlightened Economy: An Economic History of Britain 1700–1850, Yale University Press. 5 Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson (2000) ‘Political Losers as a Barrier to Economic Development’, American Economic Review 90 (2): 126–30. See also Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson (2006) ‘Economic Backwardness in Political Perspective’, American Political Science Review 100 (1): 115–31. 6 Douglass C. North, John Joseph Wallis and Barry R. Weingast (2006) ‘A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History’, NBER Working Paper No. 12795, p. 32. 7 Cited in Edward L. Glaeser and Andrei Shleifer (2003) ‘The Rise of the Regulatory State’, NBER Working Paper No. W8650. 8 David Warsh (2006) Knowledge and the Wealth Of Nations: A Story of Economic Discovery, W. W. Norton. Chapter Six: Blind Capital 1 John Major (1999) The Autobiography, HarperCollins, p. 311. 2 Recounted in Andrew Rawnsley (2000) Servants of the People: The Inside Story of New Labour, Penguin Press. 3 Margaret Cook (1999) A Slight and Delicate Creature: The Memoirs of Margaret Cook, Orion. 4 Alastair Campbell (2007) The Blair Years: Extracts from the Alastair Campbell Diaries, Hutchinson, p. 78. 5 Philip Gould (1999) The Unfinished Revolution: How the Modernisers Saved the Labour Party, Abacus. 6 For a good introduction to Brown’s political and economic philosophy, see Simon Lee (2009) Boom and Bust: The Politics and Legacy of Gordon Brown, OneWorld. 7 CRESC (2009) ‘An Alternative Report on UK Banking Reform’, ESRC Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change, University of Manchester. 8 See Brown’s foreword in Iain McLean’s (2006) Adam Smith, Radical and Egalitarian: An Interpretation for the 21st Century, Edinburgh University Press. 9 Gertrude Himmelfarb (2004) The Roads to Modernity: The British, French and America Enlightenments, Alfred A.


pages: 863 words: 159,091

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers by Kate L. Turabian

Bretton Woods, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Steven Pinker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, yellow journalism, Zeno's paradox

But evidence shows that it makes them more likely to become criminals. 1. Source claims that X causes Y, but maybe it doesn't. 2. Source claims that X causes Y, but maybe they are both caused by Z. 3. Source claims that X is sufficient to cause Y, but maybe it's not. 4. Source claims that X causes only Y, but maybe it also causes Z. CONTRADICTIONS OF PERSPECTIVE. Most contradictions don't change a conceptual framework, but when you can contradict a standard view of things, you urge others to think in a new way. Smith assumes that advertising is a purely economic function, but it also serves as a laboratory for new art forms. 1. Source discusses X in the context of or from the point of view of Y, but maybe a new context or point of view reveals a new truth (the new or old context can be social, political, philosophical, historical, economic, ethical, gender specific, etc.). 2.

It mirrors the opening context: Although these factors improve our understanding of risk, they do not exhaust the “human” factors in judgments of it. We must also investigate the relevance of age, gender, education, and intelligence. For example, . . . 10.3 Write Your Title Last Your title is the first thing your readers read; it should be the last thing you write. It should both announce the topic of your report and communicate its conceptual framework, so build it out of the key terms that you earlier circled and underlined (review 9.2). Compare these three titles: Risk Thinking about Risk Irrational but Systematic Risk Assessment: The Role of Visual Imagination in Calculating Relative Risk The first title is accurate but too general to give us much guidance about what is to come. The second is more specific, but the third uses both a title and subtitle to give us advance notice about the keywords that will appear in what follows.


On Language: Chomsky's Classic Works Language and Responsibility and Reflections on Language in One Volume by Noam Chomsky, Mitsou Ronat

conceptual framework, finite state, Paul Samuelson, theory of mind

Thus we have a concept of surface structure defined in terms of rules that generate an infinite set of objects, standing in opposition to deep structure, and considerably more abstract than before, in that properties of deep structure are captured through trace theory. On the other hand, suppose one were to discover that the structuralist concept of phoneme plays a very important role, previously unsuspected. Suppose that the arguments that have been advanced against the existence of a phonemic level could be surmounted within another conceptual framework. That would not be a return to an old idea, but an advance to a new idea, giving a new significance to an old concept. That would be progress. When theories and the concepts that appear in them are personalized, one looks to see “who” is wrong; but that is not the correct way of thinking. That “who” may have been right in the context of his or her own time, wrong in the context of a richer theory, and will perhaps prove right once again.

We might try to approach the classic problem of accounting for action that is appropriate to situations but uncontrolled by stimuli in these terms. Given a partially structured system that provides an evaluation of outcomes, choices that are random except for maximizing “value” may have the appearance of free, purposeful, and intelligent behavior—but one must remain skeptical about this approach, though it is the only one that seems to fall within any conceptual framework intelligible to us. Within cognitive capacity, the theory of mind has a distinctly rationalist cast. Learning is primarily a matter of filling in detail within a structure that is innate. We depart from the tradition in several respects, specifically, in taking the “a priori system” to be biologically determined. 6 Outside the bounds of cognitive capacity, an empiricist theory of learning applies, by unfortunate necessity.


pages: 608 words: 150,324

Life's Greatest Secret: The Race to Crack the Genetic Code by Matthew Cobb

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, anti-communist, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, post-materialism, Stephen Hawking

Seven months later, in October 1946, the New York Academy of Sciences held a special meeting on ‘Teleological mechanisms’ at which Wiener spoke, outlining the ideas in the Yellow Peril that had been withheld from public view the year before.25 Wiener explained that underlying all examples of negative feedback control there was a single unifying idea, which he called the message – all control systems involved communication, and could be understood using the same conceptual framework. Inspired by Schrödinger’s What is Life?, Wiener made a link between information and entropy, going even further than Szilárd’s discussion of Maxwell’s Demon, in that he defined entropy as ‘the negative of the amount of information contained in the message’. This was ‘not surprising’, Wiener went on, because ‘Information measures order and entropy measures disorder. It is indeed possible to conceive all order in terms of message.’

It is a process that enables organisms to carry out particular functions by turning stored information into structures or actions, using evolved systems of control. As became clear after the failed attempts to apply the strict mathematical view of information to genetic data, our way of describing information in genetics is primarily metaphorical. Although experimentation is generally the most powerful way of obtaining evidence that can test a hypothesis, to interpret this evidence we need theories and conceptual frameworks, which in turn are made up of words, metaphors and analogies. Understanding the power and limits of such metaphors will help us prepare for the breakthroughs of tomorrow, when we will reinterpret what we know and discover what we have yet to imagine. New technological and scientific developments will provide us with new metaphors, new ways of understanding how life works, and new approaches to manipulating molecules.


pages: 211 words: 58,677

Philosophy of Software Design by John Ousterhout

conceptual framework, fault tolerance, iterative process, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, MVC pattern, revision control, Silicon Valley

This means deciding which aspects of the system are most important, and being able to ignore the low-level details and think about the system only in terms of its most fundamental characteristics. This is the essence of abstraction (finding a simple way to think about a complex entity), and it’s also what you must do when writing higher-level comments. A good higher-level comment expresses one or a few simple ideas that provide a conceptual framework, such as “append to an existing RPC.” Given the framework, it becomes easy to see how specific code statements relate to the overall goal. Here is another code sample, which has a good higher-level comment: if (numProcessedPKHashes < readRpc[i].numHashes) { // Some of the key hashes couldn't be looked up in // this request (either because they aren't stored // on the server, the server crashed, or there // wasn't enough space in the response message). // Mark the unprocessed hashes so they will get // reassigned to new RPCs.


On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Stephen Hawking

The status of the population will be settled “with the coming of peace.” This mode of operation allows Israel to continue to present itself as a “democratic state” and enjoy the many benefits attached to this status in the international arena. Hence “the peace process” and talk about “two states for two peoples” are not in any contradiction with the occupation, not even the “temporary occupation” of 1967. They are a political and conceptual framework designed to enable and perpetuate the status quo for as long as possible. Israel would find it hard to market this façade to the world if it were not assisted by many others, some serving their self-interests and others out of misled good intentions. The leadership of the Palestinian national movement also plays a key role in providing credibility for the fake peace process. It is followed by a large part of the leadership of the Palestinian Arab population within the Green Line.


pages: 210 words: 56,667

The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips

Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, creative destruction, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, megacity, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer rental, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

Hustle is about getting things done, just like Fabian Ruiz did during his period of incarceration. It’s about being resourceful, opportunity-driven, and frugal—learning to do a lot with a little, to create your own destiny. A flexible mind-set allows you to move seamlessly from one world to another, borrowing from one and bringing new perspective to the next. An effective hustler does this seamlessly, transposing conceptual frameworks, making useful and valuable connections, and bringing skills and competencies from one area to another. When you are hustling, there is no master plan; you are improvising and being responsive to what life throws your way. The hustle is about spotting an idea and just going for it. You don’t need massive resources, a perfect team, or the right environment. Much of innovation comes from constraint—from challenge and even scarcity.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

International Migration Review, 31(4), 923–960. Saleebey, D. (2002). Introduction: Power in the people. In Saleebey, D. (ed). The Strengths Perspective in social work practice. 3rd edition. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Segal, U. (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Serageldin, I. (1999). Foreword. In Feldman, T.R. & Assaf, S. Social capital: Conceptual frameworks and empirical evidence. Social Capital Initiative, working paper #5. Washington, DC: World Bank. Tinker, H. (1995). The British colonies of settlement. In Cohen, R. (ed). The Cambridge survey of world migration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 14–20. Tsay, C-l. & Hayase, Y. (eds). (2001). Special issue: International migration and structural change in the APEC member economies.

London, Routledge. 226 Nations with Increasing Immigrant Populations Hughes, G. (2005). Annual Report on Statistics on Migration, Asylum, and Return: Ireland 2002. Dublin, Economic and Social Research Institute. Interdepartmental Committee on Non-Irish Nationals (1987). Interim Report on Applications for Refugee Status 25–11–1993. Dublin, Government Publications. Marx, E. (1990). ‘‘The Social World of Refugees: A Conceptual Framework.’’ Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3. National Economic and Social Council of Ireland (2006). Managing Migration in Ireland: A Social and Economic Analysis; A Report by the International Organisation for Migration for the National Economic and Social Council of Ireland. Report Number 116, Dublin, NESC. Neckerman, K. M., Carter, P., and Lee, J. (1999). ‘‘Segmented Assimilation and Minority Cultures of Mobility.’’

World Bank and Palgrave Macmillan. Schiller, N. G. (1999). Transmigrants and nation states: Something old and something new in the U.S. immigrant experience. In: Hirschman, C., Kasinitz, P., & DeWind, J., The Handbook of International Migration: The American Experience (ch. 5). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Serageldin, I. (1999). Foreword. In: Feldman, T. R., & Assaf, S. (eds.) Social Capital: Conceptual Frameworks and Empirical Evidence (working paper #5). Social Capital Initiative, The World Bank. Segal, E. A., & Brzuzy, S. (1998). Social welfare policy, programs, and practice. Itasca, IL: Peacock. Segal, U. A. (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press. Sherraden, M. (ed.) (2005). Inclusion in the American dream: Assets, poverty, and public policy.


pages: 200 words: 60,987

The Invention of Air: A Story of Science, Faith, Revolution, and the Birth of America by Steven Johnson

Albert Einstein, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, Danny Hillis, discovery of DNA, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kevin Kelly, planetary scale, side project, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

In truth, when things burn in common air, something is being extracted from the air, not the reverse: oxygen molecules are bonding in the heat of combustion with whatever happens to be on fire. This is what we now call oxidation. When the air loses too many oxygen molecules to support the oxidation process, the flame goes out. Priestley, alas, was on the wrong end of the phlogiston paradigm, and so when he happened upon an air in which flames burned more brightly than common air, he interpreted his findings using the conceptual framework of the existing paradigm. Breathable air that also exacerbated combustion was, logically, air that had been entirely emptied of phlogiston. (Or, put another way, it was air primed to be filled with phlogiston.) Within the rules of that conceptual system, Priestley’s dephlogisticated air was a fitting, if ungainly, appellation. Unfortunately, the rules of that system were fundamentally flawed.


pages: 236 words: 62,158

Marx at the Arcade: Consoles, Controllers, and Class Struggle by Jamie Woodcock

4chan, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, anti-work, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, butterfly effect, call centre, collective bargaining, Columbine, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, John Conway, Kickstarter, Landlord’s Game, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Oculus Rift, pink-collar, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, union organizing, unpaid internship, V2 rocket

For example, Steve Bannon, who helped to run Breitbart News and then joined the Trump administration, developed a close knowledge of gamer culture through his involvement in the World of Warcraft gold-mining company Internet Gaming Entertainment (IGE).18 The company employed Chinese workers to grind through repetitive tasks to earn ingame money and items, which would then be sold to wealthier players, mainly in the US. As Joshua Green has argued, Bannon’s time at IGE introduced him to a hidden world, burrowed deep into his psyche, and provided a kind of conceptual framework that he would later draw on to build up the audience for Breitbart News, and then to help marshal the online armies of trolls and activists that overran national politicians and helped give rise to Donald Trump.19 While there has been a rise of reactionary politics on the internet more broadly, commentators like Matt Lees have noted that “the similarities between Gamergate and the far-right online movement, the ‘alt-right,’ are huge, startling and in no way a coincidence.”20 There are clear and concrete links between the alt-right and Gamergate; they are coming together, not just out of a shared interest, but because they are being marshaled into a right-wing political force.


pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, lifelogging, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

A behaviorist running a rat through a maze would discuss the association between stimulus and response but would refuse to speculate in any way about the mind of the rat; now engineers were building mental models of rats out of a few electrical relays. They were not just prying open the black box; they were making their own. Signals were being transmitted, encoded, stored, and retrieved. Internal models of the external world were created and updated. Psychologists took note. From information theory and cybernetics, they received a set of useful metaphors and even a productive conceptual framework. Shannon’s rat could be seen not only as a very crude model of the brain but also as a theory of behavior. Suddenly psychologists were free to talk about plans, algorithms, syntactic rules. They could investigate not just how living creatures react to the outside world but how they represent it to themselves. Shannon’s formulation of information theory seemed to invite researchers to look in a direction that he himself had not intended.

But there had been papers on information theory, life, and topology; information theory and the physics of tissue damage; and clerical systems; and psychopharmacology; and geophysical data interpretation; and crystal structure; and melody. Elias, whose father had worked for Edison as an engineer, was himself a serious specialist—a major contributor to coding theory. He mistrusted the softer, easier, platitudinous work flooding across disciplinary boundaries. The typical paper, he said, “discusses the surprisingly close relationship between the vocabulary and conceptual framework of information theory and that of psychology (or genetics, or linguistics, or psychiatry, or business organization).… The concepts of structure, pattern, entropy, noise, transmitter, receiver, and code are (when properly interpreted) central to both.” He declared this to be larceny. “Having placed the discipline of psychology for the first time on a sound scientific basis, the author modestly leaves the filling in of the outline to the psychologists.”


pages: 221 words: 67,240

The Other Israel: voices of refusal and dissent by Tom Śegev, Roane Carey, Jonathan Shainin

conceptual framework, facts on the ground, Internet Archive, open borders, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

This is what transpired at the moment of truth, the beginning of the new intifada, which shattered the fantasy of "the end of the conflict" and "peace is around the corner." The collapse of the political course imposed by Barak under the auspices of Clinton, the widespread feeling that Israel had put the Palestinians to the test and they had failed it—thus, in effect, betraying the entire peace camp, the violent Palestinian eruption—all these created a situation in which most Israeli Jews were forced to expose the fundamental conceptual framework within which they perceive political reality. This contradictory framework portrays the relationship between the two peoples as a supposedly symmetrical relationship between two national movements of equal standing, at the same time accepting the occupation as a paradigm of asymmetrical power relations and ignoring its continuous history. It dictates a willingness to make "concessions," alongside an imperious demand that the other side gratefully recognize the generous handout.


pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

“I was so linked to the Watson achievement,” he explains, “that I felt I was almost losing my identity.” Working for a hedge fund, he concedes, was never part of his career plan. But the appeal of working in a smaller environment in an entirely new field for him—applying artificial intelligence techniques to modeling the economy—won him over. Bridgewater strives to combine theory with data in a conceptual framework that the investment firm’s founder, Ray Dalio, terms the “economic machine.” That approach to investment, says Ferrucci, is in sync with his current thinking in what he calls “my 30-year journey in artificial intelligence.” Decades ago, the main focus of artificial intelligence research was to develop knowledge rules and relationships to make so-called expert systems. But those systems proved extremely difficult to build.


pages: 218 words: 65,422

Better Living Through Criticism: How to Think About Art, Pleasure, Beauty, and Truth by A. O. Scott

barriers to entry, citizen journalism, conceptual framework, death of newspapers, hive mind, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sexual politics, sharing economy, social web, the scientific method

So why not set a course for one of the biggest and most famous—and by far the most frequently visited—museums in the world? We’re in need of some culture. We’ll go to the Louvre. We may even catch a glimpse of the broken statue that moved Rilke to such lyrical ecstasies. But right away, things start getting confused. Not the travel arrangements or the scheduling of the visits, but the conceptual framework that underwrites the journey. The whole idea of “culture,” that is. In Keywords, his indispensable glossary of modern thought, the literary scholar Raymond Williams observes that “culture is one of the two or three most complicated words in the English language.” In some of its early senses, it is nearly synonymous with education, referring to the growth and tending of young minds. It suggests farming and gardening—agriculture, horticulture, cultivation—but it also carries with it the burdens of civilization.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

They can deal with shocks that might disrupt transport systems (strikes, civil unrest, and severe weather) and also with fuel price hikes that might result from peak oil and global shortages of oil as India, China and Brazil accelerate their “progress” towards Californian or Swedish levels of car ownership and use. It will be a mistake of some considerable historical significance not to build resilient cities. Holger and Dalkmann (2007) have provided a coherent structure that locates e-mobility in the sustainable transport conceptual framework. They call this the “Avoid, Shift, Improve” strategy or for short ASI. A= Avoid so that through land use planning and accessibility planning destinations are co-located with residential areas and distances are kept short. This leads to a lower level of car use and a higher level of use of non-motorised transport. Curitiba in Brazil and Singapore have developed spatial strategies and land use patterns that lead to lower CO2 emissions from transport than cities that pursue low density developments or extensive suburbanisation.


pages: 233 words: 64,702

China's Disruptors: How Alibaba, Xiaomi, Tencent, and Other Companies Are Changing the Rules of Business by Edward Tse

3D printing, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, bilateral investment treaty, business process, capital controls, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, experimental economics, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Lyft, money market fund, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, reshoring, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, wealth creators, working-age population

Chapter 6 asks how international companies can react and adapt to the rise of China’s entrepreneurs and their companies. Both in China and around the world, businesses will inevitably have to become more “Chinese” in their manner of operating. Partly this will call for integrating their China operations into their global operations—indeed, making them a core part of their global operations—and partly this will require a reworking of their organizational and conceptual frameworks to integrate management practices now taking shape in China. Finally, in this book’s conclusion, I look at the wider implications of Chinese entrepreneurship, beyond business, in the realms of political and social disruption. Ever since Deng Xiaoping launched his country’s economic-reform program in the late 1970s, and even more so after he relaunched them in 1992, the entire country has been moving forward on a tide of innovation and risk taking.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

VALUE PRODUCTION FOR COOPERATIVE MODELS OF PRODUCTION Studies of commons-based peer production have not produced a consolidated analytical framework to assess the value that is produced. One fundamental challenge for the development of such a theory of value is the inadequacy of monetary metrics as proxies for value production, since part of what peer producers create, exchange, and consume does not pass through monetary exchanges. Thus, as part of our project, we are developing our own conceptual framework that identifies six dimensions to assess and measure value: 1. Community building 2. Social use-value of the resource created 3. Reputation 4. Achievement of the stated mission 5. Monetary value 6. Ecological value and derivative processes GOVERNANCE AND VALUE Does the type of platform provision—that is, platform cooperativism versus platform capitalism—affect the collaborative community’s capacity to generate value?


pages: 212 words: 65,900

Symmetry and the Monster by Ronan, Mark

Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, conceptual framework, Everything should be made as simple as possible, G4S, Henri Poincaré, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, New Journalism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, V2 rocket

The idea, as I mentioned above, was to show that the size of every symmetry atom is even. This is equivalent to proving that if a group of symmetries has odd size, then it can’t be a symmetry atom, and this was the approach Feit and Thompson took. Fortunately for them, Michio Suzuki – he of the Suzuki family of symmetry atoms – had recently dealt with a special case of this problem, and his methods gave them a conceptual framework to work in. Thompson recalls that ‘By 1959 we were going at it hammer and tongs’, and in collaboration with Marshall Hall at the California Institute of Technology, they extended Suzuki’s result to a less specialized case. In the meantime, Thompson acquired his PhD, and a senior mathematician at the University of Chicago, named Adrian Albert, who had excellent connections to the intelligence establishment, recommended he go to the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA).


pages: 317 words: 71,776

Inequality and the 1% by Danny Dorling

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, buy and hold, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, David Graeber, delayed gratification, Dominic Cummings, double helix, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, family office, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, land value tax, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, mega-rich, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, TaskRabbit, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, very high income, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor

Mukuno, ‘Why Do Leonardo DiCaprio and Richard Branson Lecture Us About Carbon Consumption While Plotting Trips to Space?’ Wall Street Journal, 7 January 2014, at online.wsj.com. 32. L. Dam, ‘Elvin Wyly Speaks at Occupy Vancouver’, UBC Geographer 7: 3 (November 2011), at geog.ubc.ca. 33. J. V. Beaverstock and J. R. Faulconbridge, ‘Wealth Segmentation and the Mobilities of the Super-Rich: A Conceptual Framework’, GaWC Research Bulletin 422 (2013), at lboro.ac.uk. 34. E. Saez, ‘The Evolution of Top Incomes in the United States (Updated with 2012 Preliminary Estimates)’, University of California, Berkeley, press release, 3 September 2013, at elsa.berkeley.edu. 35. E. N. Wolff, ‘The Asset Price Meltdown and the Wealth of the Middle Class’, New York University Working Paper, 26 August 2012, at confex.com. 36.


pages: 229 words: 67,599

The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age by Paul J. Nahin

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, four colour theorem, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, New Journalism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Turing test, V2 rocket

The program, and its input data, exist together on the tape as sequences of symbols. And second, because of the arbitrarily long length of the tape, a Turing machine has the ability to “remember” what has happened in the arbitrarily distant past. In developing this view of a computing machine, Turing was not suggesting it as a practical design for an actual machine. Rather, as a mathematician he used his machines as a conceptual framework in which to study the limits on just what mechanistic devices can actually compute. Indeed, the title of his 1936 paper, “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem’’—that final tongue-twister translates as “the decision problem’’—clearly shows Turing’s intent. His great accomplishment was to show that not all the numbers we can imagine are in fact actually computable.


pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck

affirmative action, anti-globalists, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Scenario 1: from the work society to the knowledge society Many authors chase away, as if it were a troublesome fly, the human concern that the revolutionary rationalization based on information technology is designed, if not to eliminate, then to thin out paid employment. Two basic elements here reinforce each other: the way in which economists think in terms of models (some would say: their model Platonism); and the historical experience of the first modernity, in which the workers' fears that they would be replaced by machines proved for long to be unfounded. The conceptual framework of classical economics excludes in principle the notion that the work society could run out of paid jobs. In the model of homo oeconomicus, only certain prevailing conditions – too high a price for labour, fossilized bureaucratic structures, state intervention – can hinder the creation of new jobs. The historical variant of a capitalism without work does not even come into consideration.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

And whereas the basic income debate under President Johnson had begun when experts signaled unemployment as becoming endemic, Nixon now spoke of joblessness as a “choice.” He deplored the rise of big government, even though his plan would distribute cash assistance to some 13 million more Americans (90% of them working poor). “Nixon was proposing a new kind of social provision to the American public,” writes the historian Brian Steensland, “but he did not offer them a new conceptual framework through which to understand it.”4 Indeed, Nixon steeped his progressive ideas in conservative rhetoric. What, we may well ask, was the president doing? There is a brief anecdote that explains it. On August 7 of that same year, Nixon told Moynihan that he’d been reading biographies of the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli and the statesman Lord Randolph Churchill (the father of Winston).


pages: 244 words: 66,599

Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer That Changed Everything by Steven Levy

Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, information retrieval, information trail, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, rolodex, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush

He had hoped things would change in the early 1960s when he began to publish; he told Bush that he was preparing "more than just a report to a government agency. To me it is the public debut of a dream, and the overdue birth attests to my emotional involvement." In 1963, thirteen years after first adopting Vannevar Bush's vision as his launching pad for the modernization of man, Engelbart published a paper called ''A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." Like Bush before him, Engelbart complained that the accumulated knowledge of humanity had exceeded our ability to handle it. Only by "augmenting man's intellect" could we remedy this situation-resulting in better comprehension of problems, quicker solutions to those problems, and the conquest of previously insoluble problems. And here was the news: The tools to perform this task were at hand.


In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff

affirmative action, American ideology, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, demand response, deskilling, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, fudge factor, future of work, industrial robot, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, job automation, lateral thinking, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, old-boy network, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Shoshana Zuboff, social web, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, zero-sum game

Over the long term, intellective mastery will depend upon being able to develop a tacit knowledge that facilitates the recognition of decision alternatives and frees the mind for the kind of insight that could result in innovation and improvement. Such tacit recognition depends upon first being able to explicitly construct the significance of patterns and relationships in the data. Such meanings cannot be achieved without a level of intellective skill development that allows the worker to solve the problem of reference, engage in reasoning that is both inductive and deductive, and apply a conceptual framework to the information at hand. Meaning must be constructed explicitly in order to become implicit later. Intellective skill is necessary for the creation of meaning, and real mas- tery begins to emerge when such meanings are consolidated in tacit Mastering The Electronic Text 193 knowledge. While the development of mastery in the action medium does not require extensive explication, mastery in the symbolic medium depends upon explicitly constructed meaning, and intellective skill is the means by which this is achieved.

Manufacturing (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986). 3. Margaret B. W. Graham and Stephen R. Rosenthal, "Flexible Manufactur- Notes 451 ing Systems Require Flexible People" (Manufacturing Roundtable, Research Re- port Series, Boston University School of Management, Boston, 1985). 4. Ramchandran J aikumar and Roger E. Bohn, "The Development of Intelli- gent Systems for Industrial Use: A Conceptual Framework" and "The Develop- ment of Intelligent Systems for Industrial Use: An E!Tlpirical Investigation" (Har- vard Business School Working Papers 9-786-024 and 9-786-025, Boston University Graduate School of Business Administration, May 1986); see also the discussion in Larry Hirschhorn, Beyond Mechanization (Cambridge: The MIT Press, 1984). 5. Philip Green, "Considerations on the Democratic Division of Labor," Politics and Society 12 (1983): 451.


pages: 819 words: 181,185

Derivatives Markets by David Goldenberg

Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, commodity trading advisor, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, fudge factor, implied volatility, incomplete markets, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, law of one price, locking in a profit, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market microstructure, martingale, Myron Scholes, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, random walk, reserve currency, risk/return, riskless arbitrage, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, time value of money, transaction costs, volatility smile, Wiener process, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

The text discusses some fairly sophisticated topics not usually discussed in introductory derivatives texts; for example, real-world electronic market trading platforms such as CME’s Globex. On the theory side, there is a much-needed and detailed discussion of what risk-neutral valuation really means in the context of the dynamics of the hedge portfolio. The text is a balanced, logical presentation of the major derivatives classes including forward and futures contracts in Part 1, swaps in Part 2, and options in Part 3. The material is unified by providing a modern conceptual framework and exploiting the no-arbitrage relationships between the different derivatives classes. Some of the elements explained in detail in the text are: • Hedging, Basis Risk, Spreading, and Spread Basis Risk. • Financial Futures Contracts, their Underlying Instruments, Hedging and Speculating. • OTC Markets and Swaps. • Option Strategies: Hedging and Speculating. • Risk-Neutral Valuation and the Binomial Option Pricing Model

On the theory side, a detailed discussion of what risk-neutral valuation really means in the context of the dynamics of the hedge portfolio is provided for the simplest option pricing model. A balanced, logical presentation of the major derivatives classes is given. This includes: Forward and futures contracts in Part 1; Swaps in Part 2; and Options in Part 3. The material is unified by providing a modern conceptual framework and exploiting the no-arbitrage relationships between the different derivatives classes. The goals of the text are to guide the reader through the derivatives markets; to develop the reader’s skill sets needed in order to incorporate and manage derivatives in a corporate or risk management setting; and to provide a solid foundation for further study. This textbook is for students, both undergraduate and graduate, as well as for those with an interest in how and why these markets work and thrive.


Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy by Irvin D. Yalom, Molyn Leszcz

cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, deskilling, epigenetics, experimental subject, impulse control, meta analysis, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, the scientific method, traveling salesman, unbiased observer

I attempt to see clients at least twice before introducing them into the group. But even if I see someone only once, I reserve at least half the time to address each of the foregoing misconceptions and initial problems of group therapy. Misconceptions should be explored in detail and each one corrected by an accurate and complete discussion. I share with the client my predictions about the early problems in therapy and present a conceptual framework and clear guidelines for effective group behavior. Each client’s preparation must be individualized according to the presenting complaints, questions and concerns raised in the interview, and level of sophistication regarding the therapy process. Two situations require particular attention from the therapist: the therapy neophyte and the client who presents with cross-cultural issues. The client who has never been in any form of therapy may find group therapy particularly challenging and may require additional pregroup individual preparation.† Clients from other cultures may be particularly threatened by the intimate personal exposure in the group.

The pregroup preparation sessions provide the therapist the opportunity to explore the impact of the client’s culture on his or her attitudes, beliefs, and identity and to demonstrate the therapist’s genuine willingness to enter the client’s world.65 I have found a preparatory interview with the following objectives to be of considerable value:1. Enlist clients as informed allies. Give them a conceptual framework of the interpersonal basis of pathology and how therapy works. 2. Describe how the therapy group addresses and corrects interpersonal problems. 3. Offer guidelines about how best to participate in the group, how to maximize the usefulness of group therapy. 4. Anticipate the frustrations and disappointments of group therapy, especially of the early meetings. 5. Offer guidelines about duration of therapy.

Moreno, who first used the term group therapy, employed group methods before 1920 but has been primarily identified with psychodrama, which he introduced into America in 1925.13 These tentative beginnings in the use of group therapy were vastly accelerated by the Second World War, when the enormous numbers of military psychiatric patients and the scarcity of trained psychotherapists made individual therapy impractical and catalyzed the search for more economic modes of treatment. During the 1950s, the main thrust of group therapy was directed toward using groups in different clinical settings and with different types of clinical problems. Theoreticians—Freudian, Sullivanian, Horneyan, Rogerian—explored the application of their conceptual framework to group therapy theory and practice. The T-group and the therapy group thus arose from different disciplines; and for many years, the two disciplines, each generating its own body of theory and technique, continued as two parallel streams of knowledge, even though a few leaders straddled both fields and, in different settings, led both T-groups and therapy groups. The T-group maintained a deep commitment to research and continued to identify with the fields of social psychology, education, and organizational development.


pages: 291 words: 77,596

Total Recall: How the E-Memory Revolution Will Change Everything by Gordon Bell, Jim Gemmell

airport security, Albert Einstein, book scanning, cloud computing, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, information retrieval, invention of writing, inventory management, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, lifelogging, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, RAND corporation, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

Computing Surveys (ACM) 3, issue 4es (December). Another pioneer in the 1960s who was inspired by Bush was Douglas En glebart, who founded a research lab with the goal of “augmenting human intellect.” His lab developed a hypermedia groupware system called Augment (originally called NLS). Augment supported bookmarks, hyperlinks, recording of e-mail, a journal, and more. Engelbart, Douglas C. “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework. Summary Report AFOSR-3223 Under Contract AF 49(638)- 1024,” SRI Project 3578 for Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Menlo Park, Calif.: Stanford Research Institute, October 1962. ———. “Authorship Provisions in AUGMENT.” COMPCON ’84 Digest: Proceedings of the COMPCON Conference, San Francisco, California, February 27-March 1, 1984, 465-72. Many others besides us have noted the inadequacy of conventional computer file systems.


pages: 242 words: 245

The New Ruthless Economy: Work & Power in the Digital Age by Simon Head

Asian financial crisis, business cycle, business process, call centre, conceptual framework, deskilling, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, informal economy, information retrieval, medical malpractice, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, supply-chain management, telemarketer, Thomas Davenport, Toyota Production System, union organizing

Managers can peer into subordinates computers with their own, time an employee's work to the nearest second, record and time workers' telephone calls, mark to the nearest second their every movement—to the toilet, the water fountain, or the lunch room. Graphs, statistical tables, pie charts—the latter illuminated with colored segments of green, yellow, and red—all can analyze from every conceivable angle the performance of an employee or group of employees over a period of hours, days, weeks, or years, with up-to-the-minute analysis. Thomas Davenport has provided a conceptual framework that well illustrates the scale and importance of present-day reengineering.29 The subject matter of reengineeiing remains the business process, and Davenport draws a distinction between what he calls operational and managerial processes. Operational processes involve the "day to day carrying out of the organization's basic business purposes" and are the kind of routine activities that feature prominently in Hammer and Champy's reengineering case studies—order fulfillment, customer services, sales, and marketing.


pages: 209 words: 13,138

Empirical Market Microstructure: The Institutions, Economics and Econometrics of Securities Trading by Joel Hasbrouck

Alvin Roth, barriers to entry, business cycle, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, discrete time, disintermediation, distributed generation, experimental economics, financial intermediation, index arbitrage, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, inventory management, market clearing, market design, market friction, market microstructure, martingale, price discovery process, price discrimination, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, second-price auction, selection bias, short selling, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, transaction costs, two-sided market, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

The zero expected profit condition underlying the Roll and asymmetric information models is conditional on a trade, in which event the dealer simply recovers his costs. The exceptions are the inventory control models where the dealer generally prefers to trade in one direction or the other. In this section we investigate a customer’s order choice when there is a preference for trade. The conceptual framework is based on Cohen, Maier, Schwartz, and Whitcomb (1981) (CMSW). Related papers include Angel (1994) and Harris (1998). We can set up a simple order choice situation by building on the model considered in section 11.2. In one version of that model, a dealer already at his portfolio optimum set his bid to include compensation for being pulled away from that optimum. The bid is defined by the condition that the expected utility is the same whether or not a customer actually executes against the bid.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Digital-divide narratives have focused on three key aspects of disempowerment that have led to technological deficits between Whites and Blacks: access to computers and software, development of skills and training in computer technologies, and Internet connectivity—most recently characterized by access to broadband.18 However true the disparities between Whites and non-Whites or men and women in the traditional articulations of the digital divide, often missing from this discourse is the framework of power relations that precipitate such unequal access to social, economic, and educational resources.19 Thus, the context for discussing the digital divide in the U.S. is too narrow a framework that focuses on the skills and capabilities of people of color and women, rather than questioning the historical and cultural development of science and technology and representations prioritized through digital technologies, as well as the uneven and exploitive global distribution of resources and labor in the information and communication ecosystem. Certainly, the digital divide was an important conceptual framework to deeper engagement for poor people and people of color, but it also created new sites of profit for multinational corporations.20 Closing the digital divide through ubiquitous access, training, and the provisioning of hardware and software does address the core criticisms of the digital technology have and have-not culture in the U.S.; but much like the provisioning of other technological goods such as the telephone, it has not altered the landscape of power relations by race and gender.


pages: 255 words: 76,834

Creative Selection: Inside Apple's Design Process During the Golden Age of Steve Jobs by Ken Kocienda

1960s counterculture, anti-pattern, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bash_history, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, HyperCard, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, premature optimization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, zero-sum game

If Don and I had continued working in the Eazel way at Apple, who knows when we would have had a demo to show? At that point in our careers, we simply didn’t know how to bootstrap a big project and set it on a course for success. Richard did. His demo was the lynchpin. He showed us that the Konqueror web browser could work on the Mac. He cut corners to highlight the potential of this code. Of course, Richard’s brilliant software shim made his breakthrough possible, but consider the conceptual framework he’d built around his plan and how he’d cornered all the difficulties of making a browser demo so that one piece of custom programming, his shim, was all that was left to close the circle. The cumulative effect created the illusion of a real browser even when only showing an incomplete portion of one. And it worked. When Don and I saw this demo, it was as if Richard had called us into his office, set a crystal ball down on the table, waved his hand over it, and showed us a vision for the future of our web browser project, one that pointed the way to make the vision real.


pages: 267 words: 72,552

Reinventing Capitalism in the Age of Big Data by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger, Thomas Ramge

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, banking crisis, basic income, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, gig economy, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, land reform, lone genius, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, universal basic income, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

fundamental attribution error: Incheol Choi and Richard E. Nisbett, “Situational Salience and Cultural Differences in the Correspondence Bias and Actor-Observer Bias,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24, no. 9 (September 1998), 949–960, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0146167298249003; Minas N. Kastanakis and Benjamin G. Voyer, “The Effect of Culture on Perception and Cognition: A Conceptual Framework,” Journal of Business Research 67, no. 4 (April 2014), 425–433, http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/50048/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY _Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_Voyer,%20B _Effect%20culture%20perception_Voyer_Effect%20culture%20 perception_2014.pdf. limits of our ability to make optimal decisions: Herbert A. Simon, Models of Bounded Rationality (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982). “dangers of possessing too much information”: Gerd Gigerenzer, Gut Feelings: The Intelligence of the Unconscious (New York: Viking, 2007), 38.


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

But Scratch, he mused, could serve as the perfect vehicle. “It would even be useful in elementary and middle schools, as so many do not have qualified instructors in this area.” In August, Siegel was back at the Media Lab, ready to push things forward. He picked his way around the experimental bicycles, soldering kits, and, of course, LEGO blocks that filled the Lifelong Kindergarten lab. Sitting in Resnick’s office, the two laid the conceptual framework for a project far more ambitious than developing a new programming language: transforming the ways people think about learning and education. Resnick and Siegel both agreed that learning to code wasn’t just about training the computer engineers of the future. It was a terrifically efficient method to learn how to learn. “Learning to code helps you organize, express, and share your ideas—just like learning to write,” says Resnick.


pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, scientific worldview, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

This can be seen through a careful examination of the work of Charles Darwin. The quintessential phase transition in science, and paradigm shift, is that of the theory of evolution by natural selection. Everything in biology prior to evolution was sophisticated stamp collecting, ordering the living world around us and exploring its wonders. With the advent of evolution, biologists finally had a conceptual framework to make sense of the facts surrounding them. But the acceptance of evolution wasn’t immediate. While On the Origin of Species was a bestselling book, it did not find universal agreement within the Victorian populace. The same was true of the scientists themselves. David Hull, a philosopher of science, examined many of Darwin’s well-known contemporaries to see who eventually accepted the theory of natural selection, and how long it took them to do so.


pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

"The future of warfare," the journal of the Army War College declared, "lies in the streets, sewers, highrise buildings, and sprawl of houses that form the broken cities of the world.... Our recent military history is punctuated with city names — Tuzla, Mogadishu, Los Angeles [!], Beirut, Panama City, Hue, Saigon, Santo Domingo — but these encounters have been but a prologue, with the real drama still to come."8 To help develop a larger conceptual framework for MOUT, military planners turned in the 1990s to Dr. Strangelove's old alma mater, the Santa Monica-based RAND Corporation. RAND, a nonprofit think tank established by the Air Force in 1948, was notorious for wargaming nuclear Armageddon in the 1950s and for helping to strategize the Vietnam War in the 1960s. These days RAND does cities: its researchers ponder urban crime statistics, inner-city public health, and the privatization of public education.


Longevity: To the Limits and Beyond (Research and Perspectives in Longevity) by Jean-Marie Robine, James W. Vaupel, Bernard Jeune, Michel Allard

computer age, conceptual framework, demographic transition, Drosophila, epigenetics, life extension, longitudinal study, phenotype, stem cell, stochastic process

According to the explications of Rowe and Kahn, successful aging is found where extrinsic factors either do not contribute to the negative effects of aging or 116 L. W. Poon et al. slow down the effects of aging. Two logical questions are whether and how successful aging contributes to longevity in general on the one hand, and to individual differences in longevity on the other hand. Given this conceptual framework, the search for sensitive predictors of successful aging is a complex task. We have only begun to untangle the web of complexity. At least six levels of complexity need to be addressed in the study of successful aging. One, the outcome criteria of successful aging need to be defined, and they may be different for different purposes. One may define success by its quality or quantity or a combination thereof.


The "Talmud" by Wimpfheimer, Barry Scott.

conceptual framework, trade route

Hypothesized dates for the Stam range from the fourth to the seventh centuries.42 Where Section One is the product of the Stam, Sections Two and Three are comprised largely of material attributed to Rava and Abaye, two prominent fourthgeneration amoraim who were active around the first half of the fourth century. Even in these sections, though, there are gaps between the original fourth-generation material and editorial modifications of this material. The most basic example of the influence of the editor is terminological. Both Rava and Abaye appear to utilize the conceptual framework of the arrow/property liability debate when they use terminology that references that debate. But sensitivity to syntax demonstrates that these terminological references have been added to the inherited material by editors. One cannot know if such additions were conscious. At the same time, there can be little doubt that the reuse of identical terminology lends the entire Talmudic passage a coherence it would otherwise lack.


pages: 252 words: 73,131

The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan

"Robert Solow", Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, creative destruction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, helicopter parent, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

(According to market design guru Al Roth, one theory holds that the term “fraternity/sorority rush,” which today describes the process by which sororities and fraternities recruit new members, comes from the frenzied competition among sororities to lock in new members.4) It’s what prompted medical residency programs to develop a centralized clearinghouse in the 1940s to fend off students receiving exploding offers before they were done with their intro to anatomy course. These allocation problems all now have centralized clearinghouses, many designed with the basic deferred acceptance algorithm as their foundations. But that’s really all that Gale and Shapley provided: a conceptual framework that market designers have, for several decades now, been applying, evaluating, and refining. They’ve learned from its successes and, unfortunately, learned even more from its inevitable failures: modeling real-life exchanges is an imprecise, iterative process in which many of us find ourselves as experimental subjects. The Complicated Job of Engineering Matches Market designer Al Roth likes to use a bridge-building metaphor to explain the contrast between his own work and that of design pioneers like Shapley.


pages: 286 words: 79,305

99%: Mass Impoverishment and How We Can End It by Mark Thomas

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, complexity theory, conceptual framework, creative destruction, credit crunch, declining real wages, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, gravity well, income inequality, inflation targeting, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, wealth creators, working-age population

Ben Bernanke, then Chairman of the Federal Reserve, put it this way: … we believe the effect of the troubles in the subprime sector on the broader housing market will likely be limited, and we do not expect significant spill-overs from the subprime market to the rest of the economy or to the financial system.16 After the peak of the crisis, when such denial was no longer possible, Alan Greenspan explained that his free-market view of reality had been flawed: Well, remember what an ideology is, it is a conceptual framework with the way people deal with reality. Everyone has one. You have to – to exist, you need an ideology. The question is whether it is accurate or not. And what I’m saying to you is, yes, I found a flaw. I don’t know how significant or permanent it is, but I’ve been very distressed by that fact. [I found a] Flaw in the model that I perceived as the critical functioning structure that defines how the world works, so to speak.17 This was remarkably honest – but it did not take long for the old narrative to reassert itself.


pages: 789 words: 207,744

The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons

The same kind of critical thinking infused the works of Sima Guang, whose eight-volume opus on China's history contained thirty chapters of analytical notes.3* This era achieved such great advances in thought that it is recognized as the golden age of Chinese philosophy. Perhaps the greatest contribution of the Song dynasty to posterity was the systematic approach they developed to understand the cosmos. Instead of seeking the source of meaning in transcendence, like their Indian and European contemporaries, Song thinkers found intrinsic value and meaning from the world around them. The conceptual framework developed by the philosophers of the Song dynasty remains relevant to this day and demonstrates remarkable correspondence with modern findings in systems and complexity science.4 Unlike other iconic Chinese innovations such as the compass, paper, printing, and gunpowder, the achievements of the Song philosophers have remained relatively unacknowledged. Apart from small groups of scholars cloistered in academic institutions, their contribution to human thought remains virtually unknown in the West.

It similarly recasts the conventional view of human nature. Instead of seeing each individual as selfish and competitive, seeking only personal advantage, it offers a more nuanced understanding of humanity as also cooperative and altruistic, embedded within larger social and natural networks.41 Scientists at the forefront of systems thinking recognize the far-reaching ramifications of their findings. “We are seeking a new conceptual framework that does not yet exist,” writes researcher Stuart Kauffman. However, while this view of nature is relatively new in science, we have seen in this book how earlier cultures have already explored many of the philosophical implications of a connected cosmos. The wisdom of indigenous worldviews shares much with systems thinking, and the Neo-Confucian investigation of the li—the organizing principles of the universe—offers deep insights to modernity, with its understanding of the Tao as the metapattern of all nature's principles, discoverable in one's own nature as well as in the natural world.42 Remarkably, though, many people today remain unaware of this alternative way of understanding nature.


pages: 698 words: 198,203

The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window Into Human Nature by Steven Pinker

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, fudge factor, George Santayana, Laplace demon, loss aversion, luminiferous ether, Norman Mailer, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, science of happiness, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Thomas Bayes, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, urban renewal, Yogi Berra

Kant tried to forge a synthesis of empiricism and rationalism which, in rough outline, works well in today’s nature-nurture debate. The mind is not a mere associator of sensory impressions (as in the empiricism of his day and the connectionism of ours), nor does it come equipped with actual knowledge about the contents of the world (as in some versions of the rationalism of his day and in the Extreme Nativism of ours). What the innate apparatus of the mind contributes is a set of abstract conceptual frameworks that organize our experience—space, time, substance, causation, number, and logic (today we might add other domains like living things, other minds, and language). But each of these is an empty form that must be filled in by actual instances provided by the senses or the imagination. As Kant put it, his treatise “admits absolutely no divinely implanted or innate representations. . . . There must, however, be a ground in the subject which makes it possible for these representations to originate in this and no other manner. . . .

Metaphorical connections saturate our language, drive our science, enliven our literature, burst out (at least occasionally) in children’s speech, and remind us of things past. On the other hand, when experimentalists lead the horse to water, they can’t make it drink. One factor is simply expertise. Tea ceremonies, radiation treatments, and invading armies are obscure to most students, so they don’t have the needed conceptual framework at their fingertips. Subsequent studies have shown that expertise in a topic can make deep analogies come more easily. For example, when students who had taken a single physics course were shown a bunch of problems and asked which ones were similar, they lumped together the ones that had pictures of the same kinds of objects—the inclined planes in one group, the pulleys in another, and so on.


pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

Good ideas are not conjured out of thin air; they are built out of a collection of existing parts, the composition of which expands (and, occasionally, contracts) over time. Some of those parts are conceptual: ways of solving problems, or new definitions of what constitutes a problem in the first place. Some of them are, literally, mechanical parts. To go looking for oxygen, Priestley and Scheele needed the conceptual framework that the air was itself something worth studying and that it was made up of distinct gases; neither of these ideas became widely accepted until the second half of the eighteenth century. But they also needed the advanced scales that enabled them to measure the minuscule changes in weight triggered by oxidation, technology that was itself only a few decades old in 1774. When those parts became available, the discovery of oxygen entered the realm of the adjacent possible.


pages: 300 words: 79,315

Getting Things Done: The Art of Stress-Free Productivity by David Allen

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, Everything should be made as simple as possible, George Santayana, index card, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex

Merely having the ability to be highly productive, relaxed, and in control doesn’t make you that way. If you’re like most people, you can use a coach—someone to walk you step by step through the experience and provide some guideposts and handy tricks along the way, until your new operational style is elegantly embedded. You’ll find that in part 2. part 2 Practicing Stress-Free Productivity 4 Getting Started: Setting Up the Time, Space, and Tools IN PART 2 we’ll move from a conceptual framework and limited application of workflow mastery to full-scale implementation and best practices. Going through this program often gives people a level of relaxed control they may never have experienced before, but it usually requires the catalyst of step-by-step procedures to get there. To that end, I’ll provide a logical sequence of things to do, to make it as easy as possible for you to get on board and glean the most value from these techniques.


pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, post-work, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

Similarly, to say one wishes to create a “rational” social order implies that current social arrangements might as well have been designed by the inhabitants of a lunatic asylum. Now, surely, all of us have felt this way at one time or another. But if nothing else, it is an extraordinarily intolerant position, since it implies that one’s opponents are not just wrong, but in a certain sense, wouldn’t even know what it would mean to be right, unless, by some miracle, they could come around and accept the light of reason and decide to accept your own conceptual framework and point of view. This tendency to enshrine rationality as a political virtue has had the perverse effect of encouraging those repelled by such pretentions, or by the people who profess them, to claim to reject rationality entirely, and embrace “irrationalism.” Of course, if we simply take rationality in its minimal definition, any such position is absurd. You can’t really make an argument against rationality, because for that argument to be convincing, it would itself have to be framed in rational terms.


pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning

(Amid charges of cocaine use from ex-employees, which Kwatinetz denied, and unexplained absences, Kwatinetz eventually left The Firm.) Bannon didn’t stick around for the revolution. By 2005, he had left Hollywood for the other side of the globe, Hong Kong, where he became involved in what was undoubtedly the strangest business of any in his kaleidoscopic career—one that introduced him to a hidden world, burrowed deep into his psyche, and provided a kind of conceptual framework that he would later draw on to build up the audience for Breitbart News, and then to help marshal the online armies of trolls and activists that overran national politics and helped give rise to Donald Trump. The business centered on a video game, World of Warcraft, a so-called “massively multiplayer online role-playing game” (MMO), whose 10 million subscribers competed against one another in the mythical realm of Azeroth, a fantasy world of elves, dwarfs, trolls, goblins, and dragons.


pages: 246 words: 81,625

On Intelligence by Jeff Hawkins, Sandra Blakeslee

airport security, Albert Einstein, computer age, conceptual framework, Johannes Kepler, Necker cube, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, speech recognition, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Turing test

Would it take one hundred pages of dense mathematics to describe how the brain works? Would we need to map out hundreds or thousands of separate circuits before anything useful could be understood? I didn't think so. History shows that the best solutions to scientific problems are simple and elegant. While the details may be forbidding and the road to a final theory may be arduous, the ultimate conceptual framework is generally simple. Without a core explanation to guide inquiry, neuroscientists don't have much to go on as they try to assemble all the details they've collected into a coherent picture. The brain is incredibly complex, a vast and daunting tangle of cells. At first glance it looks like a stadium full of cooked spaghetti. It's also been described as an electrician's nightmare. But with close and careful inspection we see that the brain isn't a random heap.


The Disciplined Trader: Developing Winning Attitudes by Mark Douglas

Albert Einstein, conceptual framework, fear of failure, financial independence, prediction markets, risk tolerance, the market place

You form your expectations about the future with information technical systems don't take into consideration. Consequently, this sets up a conflict between what your intellect says should be happening and the purely mathematical means of predicting human behavior afforded by your technical system. This is precisely why technical systems are so difficult to relate to and execute. People aren't taught to think in terms of probabilities—and we certainly don't grow up constructing a conceptual framework that correlates a prediction of mass human behavior in statistical odds by means of a mathematical formula. To be able to execute your trading systems properly, you will need to incorporate two concepts into your mental framework—thinking in terms of probabilities and correlating the numbers or the mechanics of your system to the behavior. Unfortunately, the only way you can really learn these things is actually to experience them by executing your system.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Broadly speaking, in tech circles, open systems—like the Internet itself—are always good, while closed systems—like the classic broadcast model—are bad. Open is Google and Wi-Fi, decentralization and entrepreneurialism, the United States and Wikipedia. Closed equals Hollywood and cable television, central planning and entrenched industry, China and the Encyclopaedia Britannica. However imprecisely the terms are applied, the dichotomy of open versus closed (sometimes presented as freedom versus control) provides the conceptual framework that increasingly underpins much of the current thinking about technology, media, and culture. The fetish for openness can be traced back to the foundational myths of the Internet as a wild, uncontrollable realm. In 1996 John Perry Barlow, the former Grateful Dead lyricist and cattle ranger turned techno-utopian firebrand, released an influential manifesto, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” from Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, the annual meeting of the world’s business elite.


pages: 271 words: 83,944

The Sellout: A Novel by Paul Beatty

affirmative action, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, desegregation, El Camino Real, haute couture, illegal immigration, Lao Tzu, late fees, mass incarceration, p-value, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, theory of mind, War on Poverty, white flight, yellow journalism

It’s been drilled into my head ever since I was old enough to play One of These Things Just Doesn’t Belong and my father made me point out the token white guy in the Lakers team photo. Mark Landsberger, where are you when I need you? “The distinguishing feature of Stage II blackness is a heightened awareness of race. Here race is still all-consuming, but in a more positive fashion. Blackness becomes an essential component in one’s experiential and conceptual framework. Blackness is idealized, whiteness reviled. Emotions range from bitterness, anger, and self-destruction to waves of pro-Black euphoria and ideas of Black supremacy…” To avoid detection I go under the table, but the joint’s not hitting right. I can’t get any intake. From my newfound hiding place I struggle to keep the ember burning, while catching odd-angled glimpses of photographs of Foy Cheshire, Jesse Jackson, Sojourner Truth, Moms Mabley, Kim Kardashian, and my father.


pages: 249 words: 81,217

The Art of Rest: How to Find Respite in the Modern Age by Claudia Hammond

Anton Chekhov, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, iterative process, Kickstarter, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Stephen Hawking, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen

Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 50 (3), 310–31 29 Larson, R.W. (2014) ‘A Comparison of Positive and Negative Episodes of Solitude’. Master’s Thesis, Amherst: University of Massachusetts 2 Spending Time in Nature 1 Morris, C. (Ed.) (1949) The Journeys of Celia Fiennes. London: The Cresset Press, 67 2 Korpela, K.M. (2003) ‘Negative Mood and Adult Place Preference’. Environment and Behavior, 35 (3), 331–46 3 Jonson, S.A.K. (2011) ‘The Use of Nature for Emotional Regulation: Towards a Conceptual Framework’. Ecopsychology, 3 (3), 175–85 4 You can hear the interview I did with Richard Mabey in All in the Mind. BBC Radio 4, 26 06 2012. https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/b01k1nl3 5 Ulrich, R.S. (1984) ‘View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery’. Science, 224, 420–1 6 Ulrich, R. et al (1993) ‘Exposure to Nature and Abstract Pictures on Patients Recovering from Open Heart Surgery’.


pages: 333 words: 86,628

The Virtue of Nationalism by Yoram Hazony

Berlin Wall, British Empire, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, Mahatma Gandhi, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, urban planning, Westphalian system

The paradigm determines not only the interpretation that a scientist gives the facts, but also what facts there are to be interpreted: The “facts” that scientists consider admissible for discussion are those that easily conform to the dominant paradigm, or that can be made to conform to it by extending the paradigm or introducing minor repairs into it. Those that cannot be made to conform are overlooked entirely or dismissed as unimportant. Even a mountain of facts, Kuhn suggests, will not change the mind of a scientist who has been trained in a given paradigm, because the conceptual framework through which he views the world is fundamentally incapable of assimilating them. How, then, do scientists come to change their minds? Kuhn argues that in many cases, they never do. The prejudices of the old guard run too deep, and it takes a new generation of scientists, whose commitments are not quite so dogmatic, to be able to consider a new theory fairly.1 Kuhn’s ideas have had an immense impact on the way the scientific enterprise is understood.


pages: 283 words: 81,376

The Doomsday Calculation: How an Equation That Predicts the Future Is Transforming Everything We Know About Life and the Universe by William Poundstone

Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Arthur Eddington, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, digital map, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, Elon Musk, Gerolamo Cardano, index fund, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sam Altman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, Turing test

Perhaps a hacker on the other side of the world could write a virus to usurp the processing power of infected computers all over the globe and launch a home-brew intelligence explosion. This may not require institutional support or a Google budget. The AI-risk think tanks have bright people confronting ethical, political, and philosophical questions that may not be foremost in the minds of AI engineers. The longer the think tanks are able to do that, the more likely they are to come up with conceptual frameworks, options, and solutions that would be useful when an intelligence explosion becomes imminent. Better that than for an isolated team of engineers to have to invent an ethical universe over the weekend that AI becomes all-powerful. As Yudkowsky said, “I don’t think we should ignore a problem we’ll predictably have to panic about later.” In 2018 Jeff Bezos and Amazon hosted a conference in Palm Springs where neuroscientist Sam Harris debated MIT roboticist Rodney Brooks (cofounder of iRobot, known for carpet-cleaning robots).


pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Lambton, and Bernard Lewis, eds., The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. I: The Central Islamic Lands (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970), pp. 64–65. 11 Fred M. Donner, “The Formation of the Islamic State,” Journal of the American Oriental Society 106, no. 2 (1986): 283–96. 12 See, for example, Douglass C. North, Barry R. Weingast, and John Wallis, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), who tend to see the state as a collective action problem among a group of relatively equal oligarchs. 13 One of the practical consequences of this was that monarchs often intervened to lower the predatory taxes imposed by local elites on their dependent populations. Hodgson, The Venture of Islam, pp. 281–82; Donner, “The Formation of the Islamic State,” pp. 290–91. 14 See Bernard Lewis, “Politics and War,” in Schacht, The Legacy of Islam, pp. 164–65. 15 Holt, Cambridge History of Islam, p. 72. 16 Donner, The Early Islamic Conquests, p. 258. 17 Ibid., p. 263. 18 For general background, see David Ayalon, Islam and the Abode of War: Military Slaves and Islamic Adversaries (Brookfield, VT: Variorum, 1994). 19 On the rise of the Abbasids, see Hugh N.

New York: Cambridge University Press. ———. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. New York: Cambridge University Press. ———, and Barry R. Weingast. 1989. “Constitutions and Commitment: The Evolution of Institutions Governing Public Choice in Seventeenth-Century England.” Journal of Economic History 49(4):803–32. ———, Barry R. Weingast, and John Wallis. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press. Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ———. 1982. The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven: Yale University Press. ———. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87(9):567–76.


pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

Scholars across a range of disciplines have documented the rise and dominance of an approach to governance, across a variety of scales, informed by key principles of contemporary neoliberalism, including, most notably, the preeminence of the “free market” in allocating goods and services, the retreat or reconfiguration of the state to accommodate the requirements of transnational market forces, and an emphasis on policies promoting and protecting free trade, foreign direct investment, and private property rights.21 The following section discusses why the urban scale is of particular importance for understanding this project, the politics of urban security governance that are integral to defining it, and the specific role that policing, crime, and the criminal play in its execution; doing so will provide the necessary theoretical and conceptual framework for the subsequent discussion of Cape Town. Neoliberal principles of economic reform originally came to prominence through their application at the national level in the global South. Although change was already afoot in the nations and cities of the global North as well, it was the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in the 1980s and 1990s, and the intimately related prescriptions of the Washington Consensus, that first drew attention and notoriety to the ascent of neoliberalism as a global governance force.22 The requirements for installing this new governance regime were substantial, and their implementation often Introduction╇ ·â•‡ 11 necessitated significant restructuring of the state and the strict management of often intense political resistance to all or part of the project.


pages: 337 words: 93,245

Diaspora by Greg Egan

conceptual framework, cosmic abundance, cosmic microwave background, Fermat's Last Theorem, gravity well, Jacquard loom, stem cell, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing machine

"But they couldn't have avoided making a few assumptions about the way we'd think, and the kind of technology we'd be using-and some of those assumptions are hound to be wrong. I can easily imagine a space-faring civilization that wouldn't have tried the neutron phase experiment in a million years. So maybe the meaning of the rest of the data will be inaccessible to us ... but if it is, that won't be out of malice, and it won't be because their whole conceptual framework was beyond our comprehension. It will just be sheer bad luck." Paulo gave up his smirk of tolerant amusement, as if reluctantly conceding that this was an appealing vision of the Transmuters, however naive. Yatima seized the• moment. "And whatever you think about the map yourself, just remember that Orlando can't dismiss it the way you can. Everything about this drags him back to Lacerta."


The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Thus correlations do not supersede causation, but rather should form the basis for additional research to establish if such correlations are indicative of causation. Only then can we get a sense as to how meaningful are the causes of the correlation. While the idea that data can speak for themselves free of bias or framing may seem like an attractive one, the reality is somewhat different. As Gould (1981: 166) notes, ‘inanimate data can never speak for themselves, and we always bring to bear some conceptual framework, either intuitive and illformed, or tightly and formally structured, to the task of investigation, analysis, and interpretation’. Making sense of data is always framed; examined through a particular lens that casts how it is interpreted. Even if the process is automated in some way, the algorithms used to process the data are imbued with particular values and contextualised within a particular scientific approach.


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, endogenous growth, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Hacker, ‘Military institutions, Weapons, and Social Change: Toward a New History of Military Technology’, Technology and Culture, Vol. 35 (1994), pp. 768–834. 2. J. F. C. Fuller, Armament and History (New York: Scribners, 1945). 3. Van Creveld, for example, is clear that there are differences: ‘since technology and war operate on a logic which is not only different but actually opposed, the conceptual framework that is useful, even vital, for dealing with the one should not be allowed to interfere with the other’. Martin Van Creveld, Technology and War: from 2000 BC to the Present (London: Brassey’s, 1991), p. 320. 4. Bernard Davy, Air Power and Civilisation (London: Allen & Unwin, 1941), p. 116. 5. Ibid., p. 148. 6. H. G. Wells, A Short History of the World (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1946), p. 308. 7.


pages: 374 words: 94,508

Infonomics: How to Monetize, Manage, and Measure Information as an Asset for Competitive Advantage by Douglas B. Laney

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Claude Shannon: information theory, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, digital twin, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, linked data, Lyft, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, performance metric, profit motive, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, smart meter, Snapchat, software as a service, source of truth, supply-chain management, text mining, uber lyft, Y2K, yield curve

With 1.49 billion active monthly users, the value of each active account is about $211. 11 “Ocean Tomo Releases 2015 Annual Study of Intangible Asset Market Value,” Ocean Tomo Insights Blog, 05 March 2015, www.oceantomo.com/blog/2015/03-05-ocean-tomo-2015-intangible-asset-market-value/. 12 “Asset,” Merriam-Webster, accessed 09 February 2017, www.merriam-webster.com/ C:\Users\dlaney\Google Drive\InfonomicsBook\Manuscript\Merriam-Webster. http:\www.merriam-webster.com\dictionary\asset. 13 Investopedia Staff, “Asset,” Investopedia, 01 April 2016, www.investopedia.com/terms/a/asset.asp. 14 “Statement of Financial Accounting, Concepts No. 6, Elements of Financial Statements, a Replacement of FASB Concepts Statement No. 3 (Incorporating an Amendment of FASB Concepts Statement No. 2),” Financial Accounting Standards Board, December 1985, www.fasb.org/resources/ccurl/792/293/CON6.pdf. 15 “The Conceptual Framework for Financial Reporting,” IFRS Foundational Staff, 01 January 2014, www.ifrs.org/IFRSs/Documents/Technical-summaries-2014/Conceptual%20Framework.pdf. 16 “IAS 38—Intangible Assets,” IASPlus, Deloitte, www.iasplus.com/en/standards/ias/ias38. 17 Additionally, information meets each of the IFRS criteria for intangible assets. 18 “Technical Summary, IAS 38 Intangible Assets,” IFRS, 01 January 2014, www.ifrs.org/IFRSs/Documents/Technical-summaries-2014/IAS%2038.pdf. 19 IFRS criteria for intangible assets include: a) an intention to complete and use or sell it, b) an ability to use or sell it, c) it will generate probable future economic benefits and/or there is a market for it, d) an ability to measure reliably the expenditure attributable to it during its development. 20 “Technical Summary, IAS 38 Intangible Assets,” IFRS, 01 January 2014, www.ifrs.org/IFRSs/Documents/Technical-summaries-2014/IAS%2038.pdf. 21 It is generally understood that “similar items in substance” includes information assets. 22 “International Financial Reporting Standard 3, Business Combinations,” IFRS, 18 February 2011, http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/accounting/docs/consolidated/ifrs3_en.pdf. 23 “Discussion Paper, Initial Accounting for Internally Generated Intangible Assets,” The Office of the Australian Accounting Standards Board, 2008, www.saica.co.za/Portals/0/Trainees/documents/DPInitialAccountingInternallyGeneratedIntangibleAssets.pdf. 24 “FASB Invitation to Comment, Agenda Consultation: Financial Accounting Standards Board,” FASB, 04 August 2016, www.fasb.org/cs/ContentServer?


pages: 336 words: 93,672

The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World's Leading Neuroscientists by Gary Marcus, Jeremy Freeman

23andMe, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, bitcoin, brain emulation, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, Drosophila, epigenetics, global pandemic, Google Glasses, iterative process, linked data, mouse model, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, speech recognition, stem cell, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, Turing machine, twin studies, web application

Matteo Carandini cautions us that it is too much to expect to be able to bridge directly from neurophysiology to behavior, and how computation might help fill the gap. Leah Krubitzer reminds us of the risks in assuming that science can be accomplished on a timetable, and Arthur Caplan highlights the practical and ethical concerns, and consequences, of a brain mapping project, including how to fund it, what to do with the data, and how to decide when we’ve succeeded. Finally, Gary Marcus argues that current conceptual frameworks for understanding complex cognition and behavior are impoverished, and that in order to make progress the field of neuroscience must significantly broaden its search for computational principles. Plate 1. a. Allen Reference Atlas plate for a sagittal section (i.e., front to back) of the mouse brain. b. In situ hybridization image of a calcium-binding gene (Calb 1), showing expression in the cortex (top layer of b), striatum (left center), hippocampus (curved shape below cortex), and cerebellum layer (top right in layer).


pages: 297 words: 91,141

Market Sense and Nonsense by Jack D. Schwager

3Com Palm IPO, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Brownian motion, buy and hold, collateralized debt obligation, commodity trading advisor, computerized trading, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, diversified portfolio, fixed income, high net worth, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, merger arbitrage, negative equity, pattern recognition, performance metric, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, selection bias, Sharpe ratio, short selling, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, survivorship bias, transaction costs, two-sided market, value at risk, yield curve

In a chess tournament, a few highly skilled players will win most of the games by exploiting the mistakes of weaker players. Much like chess, it seems only reasonable to expect a few highly skilled market participants to interpret the same information—the current position of the market chessboard, so to speak—differently from the majority, and reach variant conclusions about the probable market direction. In this conceptual framework, mistakes by a majority of less skilled market participants can drive prices to incorrect levels (that is, prices out of line with the unknown equilibrium level), creating opportunities for more skilled traders. Quite simply, equal dissemination of knowledge does not imply equal use of knowledge. Since all market participants pay commissions and are subject to slippage, the majority of participants are doomed to below-average results.


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The experimental tinkering of games—a parallel universe where rules and conventions are constantly being reinvented—creates a new supply of metaphors that can then be mapped onto more serious matters. (Think how reliant everyday speech is on metaphors generated from games: we “raise the stakes”; we “advance the ball”; we worry about “wild cards”; and so on.) Every now and then, one of those metaphors turns out to be uniquely suited to a new situation that requires a new conceptual framework, a new way of imagining. A top-down state could be described as a body or a building—with heads or cornerstones—but a state governed by contractual interdependence needed a different kind of metaphor to make it intelligible. The runaway success of The Game of Chess—first as a sermon, then as a manuscript, and finally as a book—suggests just how valuable that metaphor turned out to be. We commonly think of chess as the most intellectual of games, but in a way its greatest claim to fame may be its allegorical power.


pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

“True success in strategic issues involves manipulating a situation so effectively that the outcome is inevitably in favor of Chinese interests. This emerges from the oldest Chinese strategic thinker, Sun Zi, who argued that ‘every battle is won or lost before it is ever fought.’”18 The United States understands how to handle a traditional military-political advance. After all, this was the nature of the Soviet threat and the Nazi rise to power. The United States has a conceptual framework as well as the tools—weapons, aid packages, alliances—with which to confront such an advance. Were China to push its weight around, anger its neighbors, and frighten the world, Washington would be able to respond with a set of effective policies that would take advantage of the natural balancing process by which Japan, India, Australia, and Vietnam—and perhaps others—would come together to limit China’s emerging power.


pages: 291 words: 90,200

Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells

access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

The military and political success of ISIS, and the ineptitude of Western powers in constructing a multi-religious Iraq have planted the seeds of yet another endless war in the most unstable and strategically decisive region of the planet. The investigation presented in this book stops at the threshold of understanding this barbaric confrontation, as it would require a different set of information and a different conceptual framework. I would simply add that the inability of authentic social movements to overcome the violence of the state, and their subsequent attempt to engage in the same kind of violence usually end up in the destruction of the social movement, and in justifying additional violence. Under such conditions, the actors, state or non-state, able to implement the highest level of violence are the winners, while people at large are the dramatic losers under all circumstances.


pages: 329 words: 93,655

Moonwalking With Einstein by Joshua Foer

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, deliberate practice, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, lifelogging, mental accounting, patient HM, pattern recognition, Rubik’s Cube, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

One almost got the impression they were reading off an internal scorecard. The less avid fans remembered fewer important facts about the game and were more likely to recount superficial details like the weather. Because they lacked a detailed internal representation of the game, they couldn’t process the information they were taking in. They didn’t know what was important and what was trivial. They couldn’t remember what mattered. Without a conceptual framework in which to embed what they were learning, they were effectively amnesics. Could any less be said of those two thirds of American teens who don’t have a clue when the Civil War occurred? Or the 20 percent who don’t know who the United States fought against in World War II? Or the 44 percent who think that the subject of The Scarlet Letter was either a witch trial or a piece of correspondence?


pages: 293 words: 88,490

The End of Theory: Financial Crises, the Failure of Economics, and the Sweep of Human Interaction by Richard Bookstaber

"Robert Solow", asset allocation, bank run, bitcoin, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, disintermediation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, epigenetics, feminist movement, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henri Poincaré, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, market microstructure, money market fund, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sovereign wealth fund, the map is not the territory, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, yield curve

Hilbert argued for a large-scale mathematical initiative to devise mechanical procedures that they could follow by rote, that in the end could lead to the proof of any mathematical proposition, giving a decided yes or no to the question. Of course, if the process is mechanical, why not develop a machine to do it—a “computing machine” that does the same rote, mechanical tasks that the human computers can do?6 This is what Turing set himself to do. He developed a conceptual framework for a computer that could take in any set of instructions, execute them faithfully, and deliver the result. Turing’s colleague Alonzo Church (who, independently of Turing, had also demonstrated the impossibility of Hilbert’s program) called this the Turing machine. Turing went a step further, and added to the machine a set of instructions that were internal to the machine and were not altered over the course of execution.


pages: 322 words: 87,181

Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy by Dani Rodrik

3D printing, airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, global value chain, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Pareto efficiency, postindustrial economy, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steven Pinker, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, éminence grise

We have neither the mental capacity nor the understanding to decipher the full web of cause-and-effect relations in our social existence. So, our daily behavior and reactions must be based on incomplete, and occasionally misleading, mental models. The best that social science has to offer is in fact not much different. Social scientists—and economists in particular—analyze the world using simple conceptual frameworks that they call “models.” The virtue of such models is that they make explicit the chain of cause and effect, and therefore render transparent the specific assumptions on which a particular prediction rests. Good social science turns our unexamined intuitions into a map of causal arrows. Sometimes it shows how those intuitions lead to surprising, unanticipated results when extended to their logical conclusions.


pages: 923 words: 516,602

The C++ Programming Language by Bjarne Stroustrup

combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, database schema, distributed generation, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, index card, iterative process, job-hopping, locality of reference, Menlo Park, Parkinson's law, premature optimization, sorting algorithm

In each case, one must wonder if the implementation language was well chosen, if the design method was well chosen, or if the designer had failed to adapt to the tool in hand. There is nothing unusual or shameful in such a mismatch. It is simply a mismatch that delivers sub-optimal designs and imposes unnecessary burdens on programmers. It does the same to designers when the conceptual framework of the design method is noticeably poorer than C++’s conceptual framework. Therefore, we avoid such mismatches wherever possible. The following discussion is phrased as answers to objections because that is the way it often occurs in real life. 24.2.1 Ignoring Classes [lang.ignore.class] Consider design that ignores classes. The resulting C++ program will be roughly equivalent to the C program that would have resulted from the same design process – and this program would again be roughly equivalent to the COBOL program that would have resulted from the same design process.

These are then refined repeatedly (§23.4.3.5) to reach a set of class relationships that are sufficiently general, flexible, and stable to be of real help in the further evolution of a system. The best tool for finding initial key concepts/classes is a blackboard. The best method for their initial refinement is discussions with experts in the application domain and a couple of friends. Discussion is necessary to develop a viable initial vocabulary and conceptual framework. Few people can do that alone. One way to evolve a set of useful classes from an initial set of candidates is to simulate a system, with designers taking the roles of classes. This brings the inevitable absurdities of the initial ideas out into the open, stimulates discussion of alternatives, and creates a shared understanding of the evolving design. This activity can be supported by and documented by notes on index cards.


pages: 798 words: 240,182

The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More

23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, social intelligence, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

His observation, back in 2002, was that, of all the scientists and engineers working in the AI field: 1. 80 percent don’t believe in the concept of General Intelligence (but instead, in a large ­collection of specific skills and knowledge). 2. Of those that do, 80 percent don’t believe it’s possible – either ever, or for a long, long time. 3. Of those that do, 80 percent work on domain-specific AI projects for reasons of commercial or academic politics (results are a lot quicker). 4. Of those left, 80 percent have the wrong conceptual framework. 5. And nearly all of the people operating under basically correct conceptual premises lack the resources to adequately realize their ideas. I think Peter’s argument is basically on-target. Of course, the 80 percent numbers are crude approximations, and most of the concepts involved are fuzzy in various ways. But an interesting observation is that, whatever the percentages actually are, most of them have decreased considerably since 2002.

See Bartley 1962. 3 Examples include World Wide Web anchors, Microsoft Word bookmarks, Lotus Notes, and Folio Views Popup text. 4 The use of bidirectional links for decentralized consumer reports is already happening on the American Information Exchange. 5 This essay was written well before 1997, thus the fictitious tongue-in-cheek story is actually a hypothetical scenario about electronic media. References Bartley, William W. III (1962) The Retreat to Commitment. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. Drexler, K. Eric (1991) “Hypertext Publishing and the Evolution of Knowledge.” Social Intelligence 1/2. Engelbart, Douglas C. (1962) “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework.” SRI Project 3578 (October). Popper, Karl R. (1950) The Open Society and its Enemies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Popper, Karl R. (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Harper & Row. Weinberg, Gerald M. (1985) The Secrets of Consulting. New York: Dorset House Publishing. Originally published in Extropy: The Journal of Transhumanist Thought12 (1994). Copyright © Max More.


pages: 920 words: 233,102

Unelected Power: The Quest for Legitimacy in Central Banking and the Regulatory State by Paul Tucker

Andrei Shleifer, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, conceptual framework, corporate governance, diversified portfolio, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, means of production, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Northern Rock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative easing, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, seigniorage, short selling, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stochastic process, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Where feasible, that would help confine disagreements to differences over the interpretation of facts or the prospective effects of alternative courses of action, reducing the likelihood of higher-level discord. Indeed, it can help balance the centrifugal forces inherent in 1P-1V systems with centripetal forces, encouraging members to agree on broad strategy where they can. Where, however, differences of conceptual framework or strategy occur, minority voters should make clear the alternative principles lying behind their votes. THE FOURTH DESIGN PRECEPT: TRANSPARENCY AND POLITICAL ACCOUNTABILITY If, as the Delegation Criteria posit, the purpose of and warrant for IA regimes is harnessing policy makers to a monitorable objective that reflects an agreed public purpose, then, very obviously, Transparency and Accountability are vital components of regime design.

The Antitrust Paradox: A Policy at War with Itself. New York: Free Press, 1993. Bourdieu, Pierre. “Social Space and Symbolic Power.” Sociological Theory 7, no. 1 (1989): 14–25. Bourdieu, Pierre, Loic D. Wacquant, and Samar Farage. “Rethinking the State: Genesis and Structure of the Bureaucratic Field.” Sociological Theory 12, no. 1 (1994): 1–18. Bovens, Mark. “Analysing and Assessing Accountability: A Conceptual Framework.” European Law Journal 13, no. 4 (2007): 447–68. Bown, Stephen R. Merchant Kings: When Companies Ruled the World, 1600–1900. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2009. Braun, Benjamin. Two Sides of the Same Coin? Independence and Accountability of the European Central Bank. Transparency International EU, 2017. Breeden, Sarah J., and R. Whisker. “Collateral Risk Management at the Bank of England.”


pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

For a survey of existing definitions, see Rachel Kleinfeld, “Competing Definitions of the Rule of Law,” in Thomas Carothers, ed., Promoting the Rule of Law Abroad: In Search of Knowledge (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment, 2006). 2. S. N. Eisenstadt, Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism (Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1973). 3. Douglass C. North, John Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast, Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009). 4. Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty (New York: Crown, 2012). 5. For definitions of these terms, see Huntington, Political Order in Changing Societies, pp. 12–24; also the discussion in Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011), pp. 450–51. 6.

American Political Science Review 102(1):19–31. Niskanen, William A. 1973. Bureaucracy—Servant or Master? Lessons from America. London: Institute of Economic Affairs. North, Douglass C., and Robert Paul Thomas. 1973. The Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History. New York: Cambridge University Press. North, Douglass C., John Wallis, and Barry R. Weingast. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press. Nunn, Nathan. 2007. “Historical Legacies: A Model Linking Africa’s Past to Its Current Underdevelopment.” Journal of Development Economics 83(1):157–75. ______. 2008. “The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 123(1):139–76. Nye, Joseph S., Jr. 1967. “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.”


The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", addicted to oil, air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stocks for the long run, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K, zero-sum game

I do this out of a sense of responsibility to the historical record, and so that readers will know 10 More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright. I NTRODUCTION where I'm coming from. The book is therefore divided into halves: the first half is my effort to retrace the arc of my learning curve, and the second half is a more objective effort to use this as the foundation on which to erect a conceptual framework for understanding the new global economy. Along the way I explore critical elements of this emerging global environment: the principles of governing it that arose out of the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century; the vast energy infrastructure that powers it; the global financial imbalances and dramatic shifts in world demographics that threaten it; and, despite its unquestioned success, the chronic concern over the justice of the distribution of its rewards.

That is not an altogether illogical feeling, but, as is taught in Economics 101, when a market economy periodically veers off a seemingly stable path, competitive responses act to rebalance it. Since millions of transactions are involved in the rebalancing, the process is very difficult to grasp. The abstractions of the classroom can only hint at the dynamics that, for example, enabled the U.S. economy to stabilize and grow after the September 11 attacks. Economic populism imagines a more straightforward world, in which a conceptual framework seems a distraction from evident and pressing need. Its principles are simple. If there is unemployment, then the government should hire the unemployed. If money is tight and interest rates as a consequence are high, the government should put a cap on rates or print more money. If imported goods are threatening jobs, stop the imports. Why are such responses any less reasonable than supposing that if you want a car to start, you turn the ignition key?


pages: 357 words: 100,718

The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows

agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), longitudinal study, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

Most pollution has been eliminated from the smoke stacks and outflow pipes of factories in the rich world, and leading firms are pushing successfully for ever higher eco-efficiency. These apparent successes made it difficult to talk about problems of overshoot around 1990. The difficulty was increased by the lack of basic data and even elementary vocabulary related to overshoot. It took more than two decades before the conceptual framework-for example, distinguishing growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) from growth in the ecological footprint-matured sufficiently to enable an intelligent conversation about the limits to growth issue. And world society is still trying to comprehend the concept of sustainability, a term that remains ambiguous and widely abused even sixteen years after the Brundtland Commission coined it.'


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, online collectivism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

I have listed some of them in the endnotes for readers who want to go deeper. My aim here is to tie together the broader set of overlapping, complex issues in a way that makes sense to an informed reader who does not have special Internet-related expertise—beyond simply being an Internet and cell phone user. For people who are experts on some of these issues, I have tried to provide a fresh conceptual framework and geopolitical context, which I hope will be useful to experts and nonexperts alike who are concerned about the future of freedom in the Internet age. It is not possible to document in one concise book all the violations of Internet freedoms and rights happening everywhere in the world. If your rights to digital free expression and assembly are under attack but your country is not mentioned in this book, please understand that the omission does not imply a lack of concern for the violations you and your compatriots are enduring.


Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code by Martin Fowler, Kent Beck, John Brant, William Opdyke, Don Roberts

conceptual framework, database schema, index card, MVC pattern, place-making, sorting algorithm

Bill investigated the refactorings that would be useful for C++ framework development and researched the necessary semantics-preserving refactorings, how to prove they were semantics preserving, and how a tool could implement these ideas. Bill's doctoral thesis [Opdyke] is the most substantial work on refactoring to date. He also contributes Chapter 13 to this book. I remember meeting Bill at the OOPSLA conference in 1992. We sat in a café and discussed some of the work I'd done in building a conceptual framework for healthcare. Bill told me about his research, and I remember thinking, "Interesting, but not really that important." Boy was I wrong! John Brant and Don Roberts have taken the tool ideas in refactoring much further to produce the Refactoring Browser, a refactoring tool for Smalltalk. They contribute Chapter 14 to this book, which further describes refactoring tools. And me? I'd always been inclined to clean code, but I'd never considered it to be that important.


pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, buy and hold, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

But with efficiency wages employers are doing exactly that. They are paying more for their labor than needed merely to get their labor force to show up for work. In contrast it would make no sense to have a theory of the stock market or the wheat market in which buyers do not want to pay less for what they buy. The efficiency wage theory further contradicts economists’ theoretical intuitions because it violates their usual conceptual framework of how to set up a theoretical problem. The usual methodology of economics is to ask questions, first on the demand side of the market and then on the supply side. According to this protocol, regarding the purchase of labor one would first ask: who are the potential employers? And then, at any given wage, how much labor would they want? The answers to these queries yield the demand for labor.


pages: 348 words: 97,277

The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Blythe Masters, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, cashless society, cloud computing, computer age, computerized trading, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, linked data, litecoin, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market clearing, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, off grid, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, ransomware, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, social web, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, the market place, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, web of trust, zero-sum game

Either way, no one has managed to attack Bitcoin’s ledger in nine years. That unbroken record continues to reinforce belief in Bitcoin’s cost-and-incentive security system. If we view the bitcoin currency from this angle—and not merely as it is popularly portrayed, as a strange new digital unit of value that some geeky guys think is a good alternative to dollars, euros, or yen—we can build a conceptual framework for understanding the wider implications of Satoshi’s invention. The currency, bitcoin (lowercase “b”), is first and foremost a store of value that rewards people for securing Bitcoin (uppercase “B”), the system. That, and not the hope that it will become an everyday medium of exchange, is its primary purpose. Without its existence as an incentive for computer owners to honestly validate exchanges of valuable information, Satoshi’s censorship-resistant distributed ledger simply wouldn’t work.


pages: 374 words: 97,288

The End of Ownership: Personal Property in the Digital Economy by Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz

3D printing, Airbnb, anti-communist, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, George Akerlof, Hush-A-Phone, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, peer-to-peer, price discrimination, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, software as a service, software patent, software studies, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, transaction costs, winner-take-all economy

Occasionally, courts forgot this lesson and decided that by delivering a physical copy like a book manuscript, an author necessarily transferred their copyright interest.8 In an effort to underscore the distinction between the work and the copy, Congress provided in the Copyright Act of 1976 that “ownership of a copyright ... is distinct from ownership of any material object in which the work is embodied.”9 This copy/work distinction has helped resolve disputes over transfers of copyright ownership. But even more important, it has shaped copyright law’s exhaustion rules in profound ways. The distinction provided the conceptual framework and vocabulary copyright law uses today to think about the relationship between the rights of consumers and creators. Relying on the copy/work distinction, exhaustion rules have drawn an easily understood line separating those respective rights. Creators own their intangible works; but purchasers own the copies they buy. Of course, putting exhaustion in these terms oversimplifies things a bit.


Four Arguments for the Elimination of Television by Jerry Mander

Alistair Cooke, commoditize, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, full employment, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, music of the spheres, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Stewart Brand, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics

Our information is narrowed to only what the telescope provides. If we don't experience a wider informa- tion field, we lose knowledge of that field's existence. We become the hermit in the cave who knows only what the TV offers. We experience what is, not knowing what isn't. The people who control television become the choreog- raphers of our internal awareness. We give way to their pro- cess of choosing information. We live within their conceptual frameworks. We travel to places on the planet which they choose and to situations which they decide we should see. What we can know is narrowed to what they know, and then narrowed further to what they select to send us through this instrument of theirs. The kind of people who control television is certainly a problem. But this is only the beginning. While our field of knowledge is constrained by their venality and arrogance, the people who run television are constrained by the instrument itself.


pages: 831 words: 98,409

SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

The daily decisions he made on Wall Street were based on probability: “Success came by evaluating all the information available to try to judge the odds of various outcomes and the possible gains or losses associated with each.”15 This creation of a thought construct is reminiscent of George Soros’s theory of reflexivity, developed while he was a student at the London School of Economics. Within this conceptual framework, which Soros credits for much of his success, he focuses on the relationship between thinking and reality. Klaus Schwab pioneered the stakeholder principle, “according to which the management of an enterprise is not only accountable to its shareholders, but must also serve the interests of all stakeholders . . . who may be affected or concerned by its operations.” He later built on this theory to create the concept of “global corporate citizenship.”16 The stakeholder principle is the ideological foundation upon which the WEF is built and gives it legitimacy.


pages: 348 words: 102,438