Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman

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pages: 441 words: 113,244

Seasteading: How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity From Politicians by Joe Quirk, Patri Friedman

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Celtic Tiger, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Dean Kamen, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Elon Musk,, failed state, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, stem cell, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, young professional

When individuals possessed the technology to settle the seas, they’d discover an aquatic world more than twice the size of Planet Earth, where citizens would engage in such fluidity of movement that tyrants would have a very hard time getting a foothold, and political power would be radically decentralized and shared. Floating cities that best pleased their inhabitants would expand, while others which failed to do so would decline and disappear. Democracy, a system by which majorities outvote minorities, would be upgraded to a system whereby the smallest minorities, including the individual, could vote with their houses. David Friedman described a machinery of freedom. Milton Friedman advocated the freedom of choose. Patri identified a machinery of freedom to choose. In his now defunct personal blog, he proposed an idea that became contagious: imagine ten thousand homesteads on the sea—“seasteads”—where ocean pioneers will be free to experiment with new societies. Aquatic citizens could live in modular pods that can detach at any time and sail to join another floating city, compelling ocean governments to compete for mobile citizens like companies compete for customers.

See the Sea The globally emerging Blue Revolution became conscious of itself when Google engineer Patri Friedman realized that the economic theories elucidated by his grandfather, Milton Friedman, and developed by his father, David Friedman, would soon be put to the test by a rapidly approaching technology. Milton and David each asserted that political conflict was caused by political power, and that the solution to political conflict lay not in further consolidating power in the most virtuous government officials, but by the radical decentralization of power among millions of individuals with freedom and choice. How could such an organic bottom-up system work? In 1973 David published The Machinery of Freedom, describing the practical details, and Milton and his wife, Rose, later wrote Free to Choose, explaining the moral principles. Millions were swayed by the ideas, which have been vigorously discussed and debated ever since, but a practical, full application of them was impossible.

Sixteen of the top twenty richest countries in the world are coastal states except Switzerland, Luxembourg, Austria—and San Marino is a ten-minute drive from the Adriatic Sea. wealth emerges from fluidity and flow: J. Hagen, “Trade Routes for Landlocked Countries,” UN Chronicle 40, no. 4 (2003): 13. “Consider our world as it would be if the cost of moving from one country to another were zero”: David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), 123. “estimate the gains from eliminating various barriers to trade, capital flows, and migration”: Michael A. Clemens, “Economics and Emigration: Trillion-Dollar Bills on the Sidewalk?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 25, no. 3 (Summer 2011): 83–106, “the average middleclass American to imagine visiting Haiti on a humanitarian mission”: Bryan Caplan, “Why Should We Restrict Immigration?

pages: 524 words: 146,798

Anarchy State and Utopia by Robert Nozick

distributed generation, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, means of production, Menlo Park, moral hazard, night-watchman state, Norman Mailer, Pareto efficiency, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, rent control, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Yogi Berra

., 1970), pp. 1-7, 120-123, briefly describes how he believes the scheme might operate and attempts to meet some objections to it. The most detailed discussion I know is in Morris and Linda Tannehill, The Market for Liberty (Lansing, Mich.. privately printed, 1970), especially pp. 65-115. Since I wrote this work in 1972, Rothbard has more extensively presented his views in For a New Liberty (New York: Macmillan, 1973), chaps. 3 and II, and David Friedman has defended anarcho-capitalism with gusto in The Machinery of Freedom (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), pt. III. Each of these works is well worth reading, but neither leads me to revise what I say here. 5 See I. B. Singer, In My Father’s Court (New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1966); for a recent “counterculture” example see WIN Magazine, November 1, 1971, pp. 11-17. 6 Exercise for the reader: describe how the considerations discussed here and below lead to each geographical area having one agency or a federal structure of agencies dominant within it, even if initially the area contains a group of agencies over which “wins almost all the battles with is a connected relation and a non transitive one. 7 See Kenneth R.

as Nothing hangs on the fact that here and elsewhere I speak loosely of needs, since I go on, each time, to reject the criterion of justice which includes it. If, however, something did depend upon the notion, one would want to examine it more carefully. For a skeptical view, see Kenneth Minogue, The Liberal Mind, (New York: Random House, 1963), pp. 103-112. at I have not seen a precise estimate. David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom (N.Y.: Harper & Row, 1973), pp. xiv, xv, discusses this issue and suggests 5 percent of U.S. national income as an upper limit for the first two factors mentioned. However he does not attempt to estimate the percentage of current wealth which is based upon such income in the past. (The vague notion of “based upon” merely indicates a topic needing investigation.) au Fourier held that since the process of civilization had deprived the members of society of certain liberties (to gather, pasture, engage in the chase), a socially guaranteed minimum provision for persons was justified as compensation for the loss (Alexander Gray, The Socialist Tradition (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), p. 188).

Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1970. Fiacco, Anthony and McCormick, Garth. Nonlinear Programming: Sequential Unconstrained Minimization Techniques, New York: Wiley, 1968. Fletcher, George P. “Proportionality and the Psychotic Aggressor.” Israel Law Review 8, no. 3:367-90. Fried, Charles. An Anatomy of Values. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970. Friedman, David. The Machinery of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Gierke, Otto. Natural Law and the Theory of Society, 1500-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1934. Ginsburg, Louis. Legends of the Bible. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1956. Goffman, Erving. Relations in Public. New York: Basic Books, 1971.

pages: 328 words: 92,317

Machinery of Freedom: A Guide to Radical Capitalism by David Friedman

back-to-the-land, Fractional reserve banking, hiring and firing, jitney, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, means of production, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

Preference is not Prediction ANARCHIST POLITICS: CONCERNING THE LIBERTARIAN PARTY G.K. CHESTERTON — AN AUTHOR REVIEW APPENDIX 2 MY COMPETITION Fiction Economics Law and Economics Public Policy History Libertarian Ideology The Libertarian Movement Miscellaneous Some More of My Articles that You May (or May Not) Find of Interest Magazines Organizations Institutes Sources THE MACHINERY OF FREEDOM GUIDE TO A RADICAL CAPITALISM second edition David Friedman This book is dedicated to Milton Friedman Friedrich Hayek Robert A. Heinlein, from whom I learned and to Robert M. Schuchman, who might have written it better Capitalism is the best. It's free enterprise. Barter. Gimbels, if I get really rank with the clerk, 'Well I don't like this', how I can resolve it? If it really gets ridiculous, I go, 'Frig it, man, I walk.'


In the second, I examine a series of individual questions from a libertarian viewpoint. In the third, I discuss what a future libertarian society might be like and how it could be achieved. The final section contains new material on a variety of topics added in the second edition. The purpose of this book is to persuade you that a libertarian society would be both free and attractive, that the institutions of private property are the machinery of freedom, making it possible, in a complicated and interdependent world, for each person to pursue his life as he sees fit. IN DEFENSE OF PROPERTY A saint said "Let the perfect city rise. Here needs no long debate on subtleties, Means, end, Let us intend That all be clothed and fed; while one remains Hungry our quarreling but mocks his pains. So all will labor to the good In one phalanx of brotherhood."

pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, different worldview, do-ocracy, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

4 Unlike Locke, however, the anarcho-capitalists do not find such a state of nature without a common judge inconvenient or uncertain. They maintain that even the minimal State is unnecessary since the defence of person and property can be carried out by private protection agencies. David Friedman sees such agencies as both brokers of mini-social contracts and producers of ‘laws’ which conform to the market demand for rules to regulate commerce. Each person would be free to subscribe to a protective association of his choice, since ‘Protection from coercion is an economic good’.5 Apart from adumbrating The Machinery of Freedom (1971), Friedman sees capitalism as the best antidote to the serfdom of collectivism and the State. The writings of Ayn Rand, a refugee from the Soviet Union, best represent the intellectual background to the new right-wing libertarianism in the United States.

., p. 258 43 See Murray Bookchin, ‘New Social Movements: The Anarchic Dimension’, For Anarchism, op. cit., pp. 259–74 Chapter Thirty-Six 1 Randolph Bourne, ‘The State’, Untimely Papers (New York: Huebsch, 1919) 2 Franz Oppenheimer, The State (New York: Vanguard Press, 1926), p. 27 3 Albert Jay Nock, Our Enemy the State (1935) (New York: Free Life Editions, 1977), p. 88 4 John Locke, Of Civil Goverment, Second Treatise (1690), op. cit., sec. 123, p. 179 5 David Friedman. The Machinery of Freedom (New York: Harper & Row, 1971), p. 156 6 Murray Rothbard, For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto, rev. edn. (New York: Collier Books, 1978), pp. 46, 23–24 7 Rothbard, ‘Society without a State’, Nomos, op. cit., pp. 191, 206. See also his Power and Market (Kansas City: Sheed Andrews & McMeel, 1977) 8 Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974), pp. 16–17 9 Ibid., p. 160 10 See Stephen L.

Colin Gordon, Les Marshall, John Meplam & Kate Soper (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1980) Fourier, Charles, The Utopian Vision of Charles Fourier, eds. Jonathan Beecher & Richard Bienvenu (Boston: Beacon Press, 1971) Fourier, Charles, Harmonian Society: Selected Writings, ed. Mark Poster (New York: Doubleday, 1971) Freire, Paulo, Pedagogy of Oppressed (1970) (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972) Friedman, David, The Machinery of Freedom (New York: Harper, 1971) Friends of Durruti Group, Towards a Fresh Revolution (1938) (Sanday, Orkney: Cienfuegos Press, 1978) Gandhi, Mohandas, The Constructive Programme (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1945) Gandhi, Mohandas, Sarvodaya (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1954) Gandhi, Mohandas, Democracy: Real and Deceptive (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1961) Gandhi, Mohandas, Collected Works (Delhi: Government of India, 1964) Godwin, William, An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, 2 vols.

pages: 577 words: 149,554

The Problem of Political Authority: An Examination of the Right to Coerce and the Duty to Obey by Michael Huemer

Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky,, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, framing effect, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Phillip Zimbardo, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Stanford prison experiment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unbiased observer, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Fitzpatrick, Laura. 2009. ‘A Brief History of Stockholm Syndrome’, Time, August 31, 2009,,8599,1919757,00.html. Accessed July 20, 2010. Foot, Philippa. 1967. ‘The Problem of Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect’, Oxford Review 5: 5–15. Freud, Anna. 1937. The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, tr. Cecil Baines. London: Hogarth. Friedman, David. 1989. The Machinery of Freedom. LaSalle, IL: Open Court. ——. 1990. Price Theory: An Intermediate Text. Cincinnati, OH: Southwestern. ——. 1994. ‘A Positive Account of Property Rights’, Social Philosophy and Policy 11: 1–16. Friedman, Milton. 1953. ‘The Methodology of Positive Economics’. Pp. 3–43 in Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fry, Douglas P. 2007. Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace.

It is possible for a theory that is very far from the truth to have very accurate predictions (as in the case of Ptolemaic astronomy). However, pace Friedman, I believe this is unlikely to occur for theories of human nature. 15 Marx and Engels 1978, 218. 16 It is not possible to convey the power of modern economic theory in a short space. For an excellent introduction to microeconomics, see David Friedman’s (1990) textbook, available at 17 See Huemer ‘Why People Are Irrational about Politics’ (n.d.) and Caplan 2007b. 18 It is also unclear how equal communist societies in the twentieth century actually were. Vinokur and Ofer (1987, 193) estimate the Gini coefficient for the Soviet Union in 1973 at 0.31. For the United States, the Gini coefficient was approximately 0.38.

This requires law enforcement officers to have located a suspect whom they had sufficient evidence to charge and to have either arrested and turned over the suspect to the courts for prosecution or been prevented from doing so by circumstances outside their control, such as the death of the suspect or refusal of extradition. 21 Paoli and Fijnaut 2006, 326; Levi and Maguire 2004. 22 Levi and Maguire 2004, 401, 404–5. 23 Finckenauer 2009, 308. 24 Some claim that illegal drug use victimizes the drug user’s family, spouse, or coworkers (Wilson 1990, 24). However, these alleged crime victims are unlikely to bring a court case against the drug user and unlikely to prevail in a complaint against either user or supplier. 25 These names are taken from Friedman (1989, 116–17), apparently based on modifications of the names of prominent libertarian authors. 26 See also David Friedman’s (1994) argument that rational egoists in a state of nature avoid conflict through mutual respect for rights. 27 See Brozen 1968; Friedman 1989, chapters 6–7; Green 1973. 28 Nozick 1974, 15–17. 29 Nozick 1974, chapter 5. 30 Nozick 1974, 16. 31 See Friedman 1990, 264. 32 See Canbäck et al. 2006 for theoretical and empirical discussion of economies of scale, diseconomies of scale, and the determination of efficient size for firms in an industry.

pages: 482 words: 161,169

Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry by Peter Warren Singer

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market friction, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, risk/return, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

When it became obvious in the late nineteenth century that public arsenals could not keep up in cost and qual- NOTFS TO PACKS 7-1 1 ity with private arms manufacturers (like Krupps and Vickers). this responsibility was transferred back outside of government control. William McNeill > The Pursuit of Power (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), p. 272. 15. Max Weber, Theory ofSocial and Economic Organization (New York: Free Press. 1964), 154. See also Martin Van Creveld. The Rise and Decline of the State (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 10,0,0,): John Hoffman, Beyond the State (Cambridge: Polity Press, 10,0,-5). 16. David Friedman, The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to Radical Capitalism (Lasalle, 111.: Open Court Press, 1989). 143— 159. Murray Rothbard. For a Nexo Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto (New York: Macmillan, 1978). 17. Bruce Grant, "U.S. Military Expertise for Sale: Private Military Consultants as a Tool of Foreign Policy/* National Defense University Institute for Nationalf Security Studies, Strategy Fssay Competition. 1998, available at 18.

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The Age of Em: Work, Love and Life When Robots Rule the Earth by Robin Hanson

8-hour work day, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, business cycle, business process, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, demographic transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, experimental subject, fault tolerance, financial intermediation, Flynn Effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, lone genius, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, prediction markets, rent control, rent-seeking, reversible computing, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, statistical model, stem cell, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

Freitas, Robert, and Ralph Merkle. 2004. Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines. Landes Bioscience. October 30. Fridley, Jason, and Dov Sax. 2014. “The Imbalance of Nature: Revisiting a Darwinian Framework for Invasion Biology.” Global Ecology and Biogeography 23(11): 1157–1166. Friedman, Daniel, and Ryan Oprea. 2012. “A Continuous Dilemma.” American Economic Review 102(1): 337–363. Friedman, David. 1973. The Machinery of Freedom: Guide to a Radical Capitalism. New York: Harper and Row. Friedman, David. 2000. Law’s Order: What Economics Has to Do with Law and Why It Matters. Princeton University Press. Fyfe, W.D. 2011. “8 Simple Rules for Ghosts” March 28. Galenson, David. 2006. Old Masters and Young Geniuses. Princeton University Press. Garvin, David, and Joshua Margolis. 2015.

I’ve never felt as intellectually isolated or at risk as when writing this book, and I hope my desert days end now, as readers like you join me in discussing The Age of Em. Acknowledgments For their comments, I thank Paul Christiano, Peter Twieg, Katja Grace, Carl Shulman, Tyler Cowen, Fabio Rojas, Bonnie Hanson, Luke Muehlhauser, Nikola Danaylov, Bryan Caplan, Michael Abramowicz, Gaverick Matheny, Paul Crowley, Peter McCluskey, Sam Wilson, Chris Hibbert, Thomas Hanson, Daniel Houser, Kaj Sotala, Rong Rong, David Friedman, Michael LaTorra, Ben Goertzel, Steve Omohundro, David Levy, Jim Miller, Mike Halsall, Peggy Jackson, Jan-Erik Strasser, Robert Lecnik, Andrew Hanson, Shannon Friedman, Karl Mattingly, Ken Kittlitz, Teresa Hartnett, Giulio Prisco, David Pearce, Stephen Van Sickle, David Brin, Chris Yung, Adam Gurri, Matthew Graves, Dave Lindbergh, Scott Aaronson, Gary Drescher, Robert Koslover, Don Hanson, Michael Raimondi, William MacAskill, Eli Dourado, David McFadzean, Bruce Brewington, Marc Ringuette, Daniel Miessler, Keith Henson, Garett Jones, Alex Tabarrok, Lee Corbin, Norman Hardy, Charles Zheng, Stuart Armstrong, Vernor Vinge, Ted Goertzel, Mark Lillibridge, Michael Chwe, Olle Häggström, Jaan Tallinn, Joshua Fox, Chris Hallquist, Joshua Fox, Kevin Simler, Eric Falkenstein, Lotta Moberg, Ute Shaw, Matt Franklin, Nick Beckstead, Robyn Weaving, François Rideau, Eloise Rosen, Peter Voss, Scott Sumner, Phil Goetz, Robert Rush, Donald Prell, Olivia Gonzalez, Bradley Andrews, Keith Adams, Agustin Lebron, Karl Wiberg, Thomas Malone, Will Gordon, Philip Maymin, Henrik Jonsson, Mark Bahner, Adam Lapidus, Tom McKendree, Evelyn Mitchell, Jacek Stopa, Scott Leibrand, Paul Ralley, Anders Sandberg, Eli Lehrer, Michael Klein, Lumifer, Joy Buchanan, Miles Brundage, Harry Beck, Michael Price, Tim Freeman, Vladimir M., David Wolf, Randall Pickett, Zack Davis, Tom Bell, Harry Hawk, Adam Kolber, Dean Menk, Randall Mayes, Karen Maloney, Brian Tomasik, Ramez Naam, John Clark, Robert de Neufville, Richard Bruns, Keith Mansfield, Gordon Worley, Giedrius, Peter Garretson, Christopher Burger, Nithya Sambasivam, Zachary Weinersmith, Luke Somers, Barbara Belle, Jake Selinger, Geoffrey Miller, Arthur Breitman, Martin Wooster, Daniel Boese, Oge Nnadi, Joseph Mela, Diego Caleiro, Daniel Lemire, Emily Perry, Jess Riedel, Jon Perry, Eli Tyre, Daniel Erasmus, Emmanuel Saadia, Erik Brynjolfsson, Anamaria Berea, Niko Zinovii, Matthew Farrell, Diana Fleischman, and Douglas Barrett.

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The Collected Stories of Vernor Vinge by Vernor Vinge

anthropic principle, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, dematerialisation, gravity well, invisible hand, low earth orbit, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, MITM: man-in-the-middle, source of truth, technological singularity, unbiased observer, Vernor Vinge

In fact, it’s the endpoint of many good trends of the last five hundred years. I don’t think it could work without a high degree of individual understanding (awareness of where one’s long-term self-interest lies), and a generally tranquil atmosphere; events such as those in this story had better be the exception. If you are interested in a detailed nonfiction analysis of such ideas, I strongly recommend David Friedman’s The Machinery of Freedom. If you’d like to see my future history before and after the time of “The Ungoverned,” there is a prequel novel, The Peace War, and a sequel, Marooned in Realtime. The point I make about nuclear weapons in “The Ungoverned” is more controversial (and hopefully irrelevant). In the twentieth century we lived in fear of proliferation and put what trust we had in nuclear monopolies.