WikiLeaks

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pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Chapter 8 1 Philip Shenon, “Civil War at WikiLeaks,” The Daily Beast, September 3, 2010, www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2010-09-03/wikileaksorganizers-demand-julian-assange-step-aside. 2 Marina Jimenez, “Q&A: Birgitta Jonsdottir on WikiLeaks and Twitter,” The Globe and Mail, January 12, 2011, www.theglobeandmail.com/ news/opinions/qa-birgitta-jonsdottir-on-wikileaks-and-twitter/ article1866270. 3 Mark Hosenball, “Is WikiLeaks Too Full of Itself?” Newsweek, August 26, 2010, www.newsweek.com/blogs/declassified/2010/08/26/is-wikileakstoo-full-of-itself.print.html. 4 Kevin Poulsen and Kim Zetter, “Unpublished Iraq War Logs Trigger Internal WikiLeaks Revolt,” Wired.com, September 27, 2010, www. wired.com/threatlevel/2010/09/wikileaks-revolt. 5 Steven Aftergood, “Wikileaks Fails ‘Due Diligence’ Review,” Secrecy News, June 28, 2010, www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2010/06/wikileaks_review.html. 6 Sarah Ellison, “The Man Who Spilled the Secrets,” Vanity Fair, February 2011, www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2011/02/the-guardian-201102. 7 Alan Rusbridger, “WikiLeaks: The Guardian’s role in the biggest leak in the history of the world,” The Guardian, January 28, 2011, www.guardian. co.uk/media/2011/jan/28/wikileaks-julian-assange-alan-rusbridger and Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark, “An Inside Look at Difficult Negotiations with Julian Assange,” Spiegel Online, January 28, 2011, www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,742163,00.html. 8 “Chinese cyber-dissidents launch WikiLeaks, a site for whistleblowers,” Agence France-Presse, January 11, 2007, www.theage.com.au/news/ Technology/Chinese-cyberdissidents-launch-WikiLeaks-a-site-forwhistl eblowers/2007/01/11/1168105082315.html. 9 Julian Assange, “State and Terrorist Conspiracies,” November 10, 2006, and “Conspiracy as Governance,” December 3, 2006. 10 http://twitter.com/#!

PayPal’s vice president of platform, Osama Bedier, said that the company acted in response to the State Department legal advisor’s letter to WikiLeaks, which declared its receipt of the leaked cables to be a violation of the law. PayPal’s terms of service says its payment system “cannot be used for any activities that encourage, promote, facilitate or instruct others to engage in illegal activity.” Thus, even though no judicial authority has indicted or convicted WikiLeaks for a crime, PayPal deemed the State Department’s letter sufficient proof of illegality. See www. thepaypalblog.com/2010/12/paypal-statement-regarding-wikileaks/ and http://techcrunch.com/2010/12/08/paypal-wikileaks. Editorial board, “Internet Press Vulnerable After WikiLeaks,” Honolulu Civil Beat, December 9, 2010, www.civilbeat.com/posts/2010/12/09/7276internet-press-vulnerable-after-wikileaks. James Cowie, “WikiLeaks: Moving Target,” Renesys blog, December 7, 2010, www.renesys.com/blog/2010/12/wikileaks-moving-target.shtml.

See also VoteWatch.eu, which collects and displays the full records of the European Parliament. WikiLeaks resources: –– WikiLeaks (WikiLeaks.ch). A non-profit media organization dedicated to bringing important news and information to the public that provides an innovative, secure and anonymous way for independent sources around the world to leak information to our journalists. A list of mirror sites can be found at WikiLeaks.info. –– WikiLeaks Central (WLCentral.org). A hub for news, analysis and action run by volunteers supportive of WikiLeaks that covers censorship and freedom of information topics in all forms. –– The Bradley Manning Support Network (BradleyManning.org). An ad hoc, international grassroots effort to help accused whistle blower Pfc. Bradley Manning. See also the blog FireDogLake’s ongoing coverage (FireDogLake.com/bradley-manning-coverage). 211 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY


pages: 461 words: 125,845

This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and Their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers by Andy Greenberg

Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, computerized markets, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, domain-specific language, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, hive mind, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Mahatma Gandhi, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Mohammed Bouazizi, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, X Prize, Zimmermann PGP

WikiLeaks.org, October 13, 2009 available here: http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Ivory_Coast_toxic_dumping_report_behind_secret_Guardian_gag Icelandic banking documents that would catalog the country’s financial meltdown “Financial collapse: Confidential exposure analysis of 205 companies each owing above EUR45M to Icelandic bank Kaupthing.” WikiLeaks.org, September 26, 2008 available at http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Financial_collapse:_Confidential_exposure_analysis_of_205_companies_each_owing_above_EUR45M_to_Icelandic_bank_Kaupthing,_26_Sep_2008 And a collection of pager messages from September 11, 2001 “9/11 tragedy pager intercepts.” WikiLeaks.org, available here: http://911.wikileaks.org/ would catch the attention of one young analyst in a dusty base in Iraq Hansen. “Wikileaks will release several thousand additional pages of Scientology material next week” “Scientology threatens WikiLeaks over secret cult bibles.” WikiLeaks.org, April 7, 2008. No longer online but available at http://Web.archive.org/Web/20080704235334/https://secure.wikileaks.org/wiki/Scientology_threatens_Wikileaks_over_secret_cult_bibles one of the largest collections of the church’s internal documents stored anywhere in the world.

accept unencrypted documents by post and even scan in reams of paper submissions and convert them to text files E-mail from Julian Assange to WikiLeaks developer list, December 13, 2006, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak.htm “Yes, the guy running the exit node can read the bytes that come in and out there” Bruce Schneier. “Lesson from Tor Hack: Anonymity and Privacy Aren’t the Same.” Wired.com, September 20, 2007. a member of the project who ran a Tor exit node had noticed Chinese hackers using the relay to hide their tracks Khatchadourian. “Somewhere between none and a handful of those documents were ever released on WikiLeaks” John Leyden. “Wikileaks denies Tor hacker eavesdropping gave site its start.” TheRegister.co.uk, June 2, 2010. “When they pull, so do we” E-mail from Julian Assange to John Young, January 7, 2007, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm thirty times the size of every text article stored on Wikipedia Wikipedia: Database download, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Database_download “let it flower into something new” Julian Assange to John Young, January 7, 2007, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm spreading free software like a hacker Johnny Appleseed Jacob Appelbaum.

Speech at the Chaos Communication Congress, December 2005, available here: http://events.ccc.de/congress/2005/fahrplan/speakers/165.en.html “Justice was just too slow to catch you” Ibid. The handbooks of secret rituals for nine different fraternities All of these are available at the WikiLeaks.org archive: http://www.wikileaks.org/wiki/Category:Analyses. “smearing and stinging by governments, corporations, persons of all demonics” E-mail from John Young to the WikiLeaks developer mail list, December 20, 2006, http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak.htm “Or is it a clever smear by US intelligence?” “Inside Somalia and the Union of Islamic Courts.” WikiLeaks.org, available at http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Inside_Somalia_and_the_Union_of_Islamic_Courts reports of currency counterfeiting by the regime’s organized crime connections Xan Rice. “The looting of Kenya.” The Guardian, August 30, 2007.


pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, post-work, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.

First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.

The small company that licensed it, Tableau Software, removed the graphic from its public site – also feeling the pressure (though there was no direct contact) from Lieberman’s office. The dominoes then started to fall. The company EveryDNS, which provides free routing services (translating human-readable addresses such as wikileaks.org into machine readable internet addresses such as 64.64.12.170) terminated the wikileaks.org domain name. It also deleted all email addresses associated with it. Justifying the move, EveryDNS said the constant hacker attacks on WikiLeaks were inconveniencing other customers. In effect, WikiLeaks had now vanished from the web for anyone who couldn’t work out how to discover a numeric address for the site. WikiLeaks shifted to an alternative address, www.wikileaks.ch, registered in Switzerland but hosted in a Swedish bunker built to withstand a nuclear war. Fresh problems surfaced: PostFinance, the Swiss postal system, closed Assange’s bank account, on the basis that he was not living in Geneva, as required by the rules.


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The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

., at amicc.org. 13http://wikileaks.org/cable/2003/04/03ZAGREB798.html. 14http://wikileaks.org/cable/2008/03/08CHISINAU314.html. 15http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/06/04GUATEMALA1361.html. 16http://wikileaks.org/cable/2003/12/03SANAA3010.html. 17http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/07/04SANAA1733.html. 18http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/05/04MANAMA676.html. 19http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/06/04MANAMA831.html. 20http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/02/05MANAMA158.html. 21http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/03/04MANAMA368.html. 22http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/03/04MANAMA368.html. 23http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/06/04MANAMA831.html. 24Anna Fifield and Camilla Hall, “US and Bahrain Secretly Extend Defence Deal,” Financial Times, September 1, 2011. 25http://wikileaks.org/cable/2007/04/07KUWAIT487.html. 26http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/07/05AMMAN5624.html. 27http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/08/05AMMAN6612.html. 28http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/11/06MANAMA1925.html. 29http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/07/05ASUNCION869.html. 30http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/07/05ASUNCION860.html. 31http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/07/06ASUNCION750.html. 32http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/07/05ASUNCION860.html. 33Elise Keppler, “The United States and the International Criminal Court: The Bush Administration’s Approach and a Way Forward Under the Obama Adm,” Human Rights Watch, August 2, 2009, at hrw.org. 34http://wikileaks.org/wiki/CRS:_Article_98_Agreements_ and_Sanctions_on_U.S.

On the reaction to dollarization in Ecuador, see Sean Healy, “Latin America: Trend toward Dollarisation Accelerates,” Green Left Weekly, January 24, 2001. 23https://cablegatesearch.wikileaks.org/cable.php?id= 05QUITO882&q=ecuador. 24https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05QUITO895_a.html. 25https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05QUITO897_a.html. 26https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05QUITO900_a.html. 27https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05QUITO945_a.html. 28https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05QUITO898_a.html. 29https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05QUITO2699_a.html; https://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/08/06QUITO2150.html; https://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/04/06QUITO995.html. On NED funding, the fact is advertised on its own web page—see information on Ecuador at ned.org. 30https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08QUITO35_a.html. 31https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08QUITO75_a.html. This program entailed using state control of strategic sectors of the economy, such as oil, to benefit the poor, and to shift power from capital to labor.

_Foreign_Aid_to_Latin_America,_March_22,_2007. 35http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/11/05SANJOSE2717.html. 36Council on Hemispheric Affairs, “Costa Rica’s Fateful Move: San José Expands Its Role in US-Led Counter-Narcotics Efforts,” August 4, 2010, at coha.org. 37http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/03/04BRASILIA745.html. 38http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/12/04BRASILIA3154.html. 39http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/12/05SANTIAGO2573.html. 40http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/12/05SANTIAGO2573.html. 41http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06SANTIAGO130.html. 42http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/11/04QUITO3028.html. 43http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/11/04QUITO3103.html. 44http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/03/05QUITO590.html. 45http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/04/05QUITO773.html. 46http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/05/05QUITO1048.html. 47http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/05/05QUITO1169.html. 48http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/09/05QUITO2235.html. 49http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/05/06QUITO1157.html. 50http://wikileaks.org/wiki/CRS:_Article_98_Agreements_ and_Sanctions_on_U.S._Foreign_Aid_to_Latin_America,_March_22,_2007. 51Glenn Greenwald, “US Continues Bush Policy of Opposing ICC Prosecutions,” Salon, February 28, 2011, at salon.com. 52Colum Lynch, “Exclusive: US to Support ICC War Crimes Prosecution in Syria,” Foreign Policy, May 7, 2011, at foreignpolicy.com. 53https://wikileaks.org/cable/2010/02/10TELAVIV417.html. 54Clayton Swisher, “Spy Cables: Abbas and Israel Ally Against 2009 UN Probe,” Al Jazeera, February 23, 2015, at aljazeera.com. 55Jeff Rathke, “Statement on ICC Prosecutor’s Decision,” Press Statement, US Department of State, January 16, 2015, at state.gov. 56Allyn Fisher-Ilan, “US Senator Threatens Aid Cut to Palestinians Over ICC Move,” Reuters, January 19, 2015, at reuters.com.


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Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Private Bradley Manning, 22, was being held in Kuwait under suspicion of leaking the video and other classified documents to WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks had been on the US government’s radar long before the Collateral Murder video. In 2008, the US Army Counterintelligence Center produced an internal memo entitled Wikileaks.org—An Online Reference to Foreign Intelligence Services, Insurgents, or Terrorist Groups?, essentially a briefing for US intelligence officials on the site. As well as detailing its activities and potential ambitions, the memo posited ways to undermine WikiLeaks. Chief among these was the suggestion that: Successful identification, prosecution, termination of employment and exposure of persons leaking the information by the governments and businesses affected by information posted to Wikileaks.org would damage and potentially destroy this center of gravity and deter others from taking similar actions.

As a result, one of the report’s major recommendations was to encourage independent media and human rights organisations to host their websites closer to the “core” of the network – at hypergiant providers like Amazon and Google – in order to take advantage of their expertise and resources when it came to fending off DDoS. Amazon’s actions against WikiLeaks had “complicated” that conclusion, Ethan wrote. Stuck between exposure to crippling cyber-attacks at the edge of the network, and the risk of political pressure and censorship at the network’s core, it looked like the real world was closing in on WikiLeaks. What’s more, amid rumours of pressure from the highest ranks of the US State Department, first PayPal, then Mastercard and Visa choked WikiLeaks’ ability to receive donations, refusing to process any more payments destined for WikiLeaks and, in PayPal’s case, cutting off access to their account. But if extra-judicial censorship of WikiLeaks was as easy as a few phone calls from the powers-that-be, it was also about to turn out to be impossible.

Somewhere inside the heart of every member of the audience at 26c3 is the hope that this same power can be harnessed for political causes. “If more people have just half the courage of some of the WikiLeaks volunteers, then the world would be a better place,” says Daniel. “Well,” he goes on, “We think courage is contagious”. This final call to arms earns the two WikiLeaks men a five-minute standing ovation. I find I’m on my feet as well. But as much as I’m participating in what has essentially turned into something more like a prayer meeting, I’m also curious. For one thing, I’m intrigued to see anyone associating themselves with WikiLeaks at all. When the organisation launched, it made its representatives very hard to find, and although I know friends of mine from Open Rights Group days have advised WikiLeaks, I’ve never met anyone before who claims to run it. I’m here to learn about hackers, not journalists, but something about this presentation makes me want to know more.


pages: 324 words: 96,491

Messing With the Enemy: Surviving in a Social Media World of Hackers, Terrorists, Russians, and Fake News by Clint Watts

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Chelsea Manning, Climatic Research Unit, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, Google Earth, illegal immigration, Internet of things, Julian Assange, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

Rop Gonggrijp, a Dutch activist, hacker, businessman, WikiLeaks funder, and overall backbone for Assange’s operations, told Khatchadourian that WikiLeaks plays an essential role in the media. “We are not the press,” Gonggrijp said. Rather, he considered WikiLeaks to be an advocacy group for sources. According to Gonggrijp, WikiLeaks created a world in which “the source is no longer dependent on finding a journalist who may or may not do something good with his document.” The statements by both Assange and Gonggrijp appeared almost immediately to be at odds with each other and with reality. WikiLeaks wasn’t the press, but it would provide raw information to all of the press in hopes that someone would get the story “right” by WikiLeaks’ standards. WikiLeaks would go after the most oppressive regimes and any behavior it deemed illegal or immoral, making itself the arbiter for the world as to where the blurry lines of morality lie.

Peter Rosendorff, and James Raymond Vreeland rightly point out in their study “Democracy and Transparency” that empirical analyses of the topic show “the policymaking of democratic governments is shaped by transparency and, importantly, democratic governments have incentives to obfuscate evidence.”22 Citizens want transparency, and elected officials want to keep their jobs. WikiLeaks and the U.S. government both launched transparency initiatives in 2006, and while they mirror each other in concept, they’re distinctly different from each other in execution. In fact, they are diametrically opposed in terms of methods and declared intentions. WikiLeaks doesn’t hack to gain secrets, but relies on others to provide them with secrets they can disclose. With the declared intention of fighting corruption and authoritarians, WikiLeaks matches and pulls from hackers and insiders whose personal grievances align with the group’s stated grievances. This is where WikiLeaks’ methods are oddly misaligned with the declared intentions of those who provide them with secrets. The couriers of WikiLeaks secrets, at least for their big public disclosures, arise not from the most corrupt, oppressive regimes in the world, but the most open, for the consequences of these data thefts in the former is death, and in the latter fame.

The U.S. government charged Ellsberg with conspiracy, espionage, and theft of government property, but these charges were later dismissed and he was exonerated. The confusing intentions of WikiLeaks’ leakers blend in with the contradictions of WikiLeaks’ methods. In 2010, Assange bragged about the rapid rate of disclosures landing in WikiLeaks inboxes, and yet not even a fraction of these leaks have appeared on its website. Assange and his team decide what’s published and what’s not, and in so doing set an agenda and show their intentions. Not only does WikiLeaks decide what’s released, but when and how much of each document dump. Assange’s complaints about journalists not using disclosures effectively land hypocritically when WikiLeaks releases stolen cables and emails to prioritize one narrative against another. Assange, as the controller of undisclosed secrets, has built an elitist information empire, can and does manipulate perceptions, and is now the governor of “collaborative secrecy, working to the detriment of a population,” as he wrote in his own manifesto.25 Assange is his own worst nightmare—he is “conspiracy as governance.”


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Impressed and perhaps unable to help himself, Assange had opened the main WikiLeaks Twitter account and posted to its nearly one million followers: “WikiLeaks supporters, LulzSec, take down CIA…who has a task force into WikiLeaks,” adding: “CIA finally learns the real meaning of WTF.” Soon after a few news agencies and websites reported that WikiLeaks was supporting LulzSec, he deleted the first tweet. He didn’t want to be publicly associated with what were clearly black hat hackers. Instead, he decided it was time to quietly reach out to the audacious new group that was grabbing the spotlight. On June 16, the day after Ryan set his botnet on CIA.gov, an associate of WikiLeaks contacted Topiary. “I’ve got a contact in WikiLeaks that wants to talk to you,” the person said, then directed him to a new IRC server that could serve as neutral ground for a private discussion.

When the Stratfor hackers got wind of news that Sabu had asked for money for the e-mails they had stolen, they were shocked, and quickly transferred the e-mails to WikiLeaks’s server for free. WikiLeaks has not denied, publicly or in private, that Sabu asked for money from the organization. But if WikiLeaks had paid for them, American authorities might have had a much stronger case against Assange. It seems doubtful that the FBI had the time or inclination to decide from the top down that it wanted to play along and try to nab WikiLeaks, but perhaps an agent somewhere had the idea to nudge Sabu to ask Assange for money, and see what came of it. Once WikiLeaks had the Stratfor e-mails, it formed partnerships with twenty-five media organizations, including Rolling Stone and Russia Reporter, and published a drip-feed of confidential information. WikiLeaks called them the Global Intelligence Files. News commentators noted that this marked the first time WikiLeaks was sourcing files from data that had been hacked by Anonymous.

Then q went on to explain why he and Assange had contacted LulzSec: they wanted help infiltrating several Icelandic corporate and government sites. They had many reasons for wanting retribution. A young WikiLeaks member had recently gone to Iceland and been arrested. WikiLeaks had also been bidding for access to a data center in an underground bunker but had lost out to another corporate bidder after the government denied them the space. Another journalist who supported WikiLeaks was being held by authorities. Assange and q appeared to want LulzSec to try to grab the e-mail service of government sites, then look for evidence of corruption or at least evidence that the government was unfairly targeting WikiLeaks. The picture they were trying to paint was of the Icelandic government trying to suppress WikiLeaks’s freedom to spread information. If they could leak such evidence, they explained, it could help instigate an uprising of sorts in Iceland and beyond.


pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, do-ocracy, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, low cost airline, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

See Carola Frediani, Inside Anonymous: A Journey into the World of Cyberactivism (Informant, 2013). 3. Lina Ben Mhenni, “Tunisia: Censorship Continues as WikiLeaks Cables Make the Rounds,” globalvoicesonline.org, Dec. 7, 2010. 4. Quinn Norton, “2011: The Year Anonymous Took On Cops, Dictators and Existential Dread,” wired.com, Jan. 11, 2012. 5. Ibrahim Saleh “WikiLeaks and the Arab Spring: The Twists and Turns of Media, Culture, and Power,” Beyond WikiLeaks: Implications for the Future of Communications, Journalism and Society (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 237. 6. WikiLeaks, “Cable: 09TUNIS516-a,” wikileaks.org, last accessed June 5, 2014, available at https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/ 09TUNIS516_a.html. 7. John Pollock, “How Egyptian and Tunisian youth hacked the Arab Spring,” technologyreview.com, Aug. 23, 2011. 8.

A sizeable number of trolls still claimed the Anonymous moniker, but this stream of ultracoordinated motherfuckery was clearly on the wane. No, the intrigue saturating the conference was due to another player in town: the whistleblowing sensation WikiLeaks. More specifically, interest coalesced around the recent trove of documents and footage a young army private (then) named Bradley Manning had leaked, which WikiLeaks had then laid at the feet of the world. Founded in 2006, the driving concept behind WikiLeaks had been simple: provide both a safe house and clearing house for leaks. And for a couple of years, WikiLeaks circulated countless leaks but failed to draw significant attention from established media institutions like the New York Times. This lack of attention was not due to unworthiness. In fact, some of these leaks—like the news that the multinational company Trafigura had illegally dumped toxic waste off the Ivory Coast—were shocking and yet absent from the mainstream news media.

This decision revitalized AnonOps to such a degree that the group’s IRC server became a fountain of nonstop activity for over a year, surpassing WikiLeaks as the primary hacker-activist hub of the Internet. But, before we describe this whimsical decision, we would do well to keep in mind its infamous outcome: AnonOps’ support of WikiLeaks via a massive DDoS campaign in the aftermath of the whistleblowing organization’s most contentious release yet. On November 28, 2010, WikiLeak’s publicly released 220 of 251,287 classified US diplomatic cables—the most extensive leak of classified materials ever, timed to coincide with in-depth analyses by the Guardian, the New York Times, El Pais, Le Monde, and Der Spiegel (each publication had received selected cables from WikiLeaks in advance). The US government was furious, and a trio of powerful companies—Amazon, MasterCard, and PayPal (among others)—bowed to its influence, refusing to process donations or host servers for WikiLeaks.


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Andrew Lewman, email message sent to Kelly DeYoe and Roger Dingledine, “EPIC, BBC, Tor, and FOIA,” September 10, 2013, https://surveillancevalley.com/content /citations/email-from-andrew-lewman-to-kelly-deyoe-and-roger-dingledine-epic-bbc-tor-and-foia-10-september-2013.pdf. 78. WikiLeaks, email message sent to John Young, “Martha Stewart pgp,” Cryptome, January 7, 2007, https://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm. 79. Mona Mahmood, Maggie O’Kane, Chavala Madlena, and Teresa Smith, “Revealed: Pentagon’s Link to Iraqi Torture Centres,” Guardian, March 6, 2013. 80. Scott Shane and Andrew W. Lehren, “Leaked Cables Offer Raw Look at U.S. Diplomacy,” New York Times, November 28, 2010. 81. “Affidavit of Julian Paul Assange,” WikiLeaks, September 2, 2013, https://wikileaks.org/IMG/html/Affidavit_of_Julian_Assange.html. 82. “In late 2010, when Assange seemed to be on the brink of long-term jail awaiting questioning for alleged sex crimes, one WikiLeaks staffer told me he hoped Appelbaum might even be the favored successor to Assange in WikiLeaks’ hierarchy.”

“That was how we rolled in 2010,” he said. Soon after that supposedly wild night, Appelbaum decided to attach himself to the WikiLeaks cause. He spent a few weeks with Assange and the original WikiLeaks crew in Iceland as they prepared their first major release and helped secure the site’s anonymous submissions system using Tor’s hidden service feature, which hid the physical location of WikiLeaks servers and in theory made them much less susceptible to surveillance and attack. From then on, the WikiLeaks site proudly advertised Tor: “secure, anonymous, distributed network for maximum security.” Appelbaum’s timing couldn’t have been better. Late that summer WikiLeaks caused an international sensation by publishing a huge cache of classified government documents stolen and leaked by Chelsea (née Bradley) Manning, a young US Army private who was stationed in Iraq.

He served as the organization’s official American representative and bailed the founder of WikiLeaks out of tough spots when the heat from US authorities got too hot.81 Appelbaum became so intertwined with WikiLeaks that apparently some staffers talked about him leading the organization if something were to happen to Assange.82 But Assange kept firm control of WikiLeaks, even after he was forced to go into hiding at the Ecuadorian embassy in London to escape extradition back to Sweden to face an investigation of rape allegations. It’s not clear whether Assange knew that Appelbaum’s salary was being paid by the same government he was trying to destroy. What is clear is that Assange gave Appelbaum and Tor wide credit for helping WikiLeaks. “Jake has been a tireless promoter behind the scenes of our cause,” he told a reporter. “Tor’s importance to WikiLeaks cannot be understated.”83 With those words, Appelbaum and the Tor Project became central heroes in the WikiLeaks saga, right behind Assange.


pages: 302 words: 85,877

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

Arguing out a hypothetical about missile launch codes getting into the wrong hands, Jake declared: “Perhaps you shouldn’t have missiles to launch if you can’t keep your codes secret?” Jake said a lot of provocative things, declaring that wiretaps were “entirely bogus” and that most search warrants were improper. One of the most surprising assertions came in response to questions about who should decide what secrets to publish. Instead of WikiLeaks holding that right as a publisher, Jake said it was up to WikiLeaks’s sources, whoever they were. “It’s a rough reality, but bitching about WikiLeaks makes little to no sense,” he wrote. “The point of the press is to inform.” Members of Congress condemned WikiLeaks, and a federal criminal investigation put pressure on PayPal, Visa, and others that helped people donate to the website. The sprawling online activist group known as Anonymous then coordinated denial-of-service attacks on PayPal and Visa, effectively commandeering the mantle of hacktivism.

Even Cap’n Crunch, John Draper, who had haunted hacker cons from the days of HoHoCon, was finally outed for pursuing underage boys and banned from gatherings. A Draper spokeswoman denied his seeking sex. At least Jake was gone from cDc before the election of 2016, when his association with WikiLeaks would have been indefensible to everyone in cDc. WikiLeaks would be a central, partisan player in helping elect Trump, who lavishly praised it on the campaign trail. Emails stolen from the Democratic National Committee by Russian operatives were gleefully published by WikiLeaks as the Democratic convention was getting under way, when they could be dumped with maximum impact. Hours after Trump’s campaign was blown off course by the publication of a video in which he bragged of grabbing women “by the pussy,” WikiLeaks muddied the day by beginning to roll out stolen emails from Clinton campaign chairman Podesta. Long-promised leaks about Russia, meanwhile, never materialized.

So if he’s convicted of some sort of sexual misdemeanor this will—in my opinion—completely torpedo WikiLeaks.” Jake came up firing, defending Assange as a visionary and dismissing the female complainants as “fame seeking.” WikiLeaks’s flagging reputation was one reason Edward Snowden did not turn to it with his documents in 2013, though Assange did later dispatch a colleague to spirit him from Hong Kong to Moscow and asylum. Inspired by John Perry Barlow’s independence declaration, Snowden wore an Electronic Frontier Foundation sweatshirt on the job at the NSA. When he felt compelled to warn the world about what his agency had been doing, Snowden first reached out anonymously to a new EFF spin-off called the Freedom of the Press Foundation, which had been formed in support of WikiLeaks by Barlow, Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg, Boing Boing’s Xeni Jardin, and a few EFF staffers.


Mbs: The Rise to Power of Mohammed Bin Salman by Ben Hubbard

Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Donald Trump, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

MBS’S WAR Mayy El Shiekh dedicated many hours to helping me digest and translate the Saudi Wikileaks cables. Shuaib Almosawa provided reporting from Yemen. C. J. Chivers helped identify munitions scraps. Many of the Wikileaks documents cited here were first reported in “Cables Released by Wikileaks Reveal Saudis’ Checkbook Diplomacy,” NYT, June 20, 2015, and “Wikileaks Shows a Saudi Obsession With Iran,” NYT, July 16, 2015. For background on the Houthis, I consulted “Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: the Huthi Phenomenon,” RAND Corporation, 2010. pilgrimage to Mecca: Saudi Foreign Ministry document, Wikileaks, Jan. 22, 2012. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​pics/​5357859a-e321-4088-9137-4b69e0a87f30.jpg hand out as he saw fit: Saudi Foreign Ministry document, Wikileaks document: #80451. Undated. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​doc80451.html “the kingdom asks of him”: Saudi diplomatic cable, Wikileaks document #53032.

Undated. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​doc80451.html “the kingdom asks of him”: Saudi diplomatic cable, Wikileaks document #53032. Dated Aug. 14, 2008. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​doc53032.html “problems the agency is facing”: Cited in “Cables Released by Wikileaks Reveal Saudis’ Checkbook Diplomacy,” NYT, June 20, 2015. from going to prison: Saudi diplomatic cable, Wikileaks document #72359. Undated. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​doc72359.html preachers had been “prepared”: Reports on the website of the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowment, Preaching, and Guidance, moia.gov.sa, accessed 2015, since removed. employed in Guinea: Saudi Foreign Ministry document, Wikileaks. Dated Jan. 18, 2013. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​pics/​5a3363c8-a11e-4a5d-8b66-f39af6077f20.jpg twelve others in Tajikistan: Saudi Foreign Ministry document, Wikileaks document 96427.

Dated Jan. 18, 2013. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​pics/​5a3363c8-a11e-4a5d-8b66-f39af6077f20.jpg twelve others in Tajikistan: Saudi Foreign Ministry document, Wikileaks document 96427. Dated 2011. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​doc96427.html. The Indian scholar was Sheikh Suhaib Hasan. Islamic association in India: Saudi Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs document, Wikileaks. Dated Feb. 6, 2012. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​pics/​8770db3f-984c-4dda-8b78-96bd2853b063.jpg overwhelmingly Christian country: Saudi Foreign Ministry document. Wikileaks document 112213. Dated Feb. 29, 2012. https://wikileaks.org/​saudi-cables/​doc112213.html “regional and international issues”: Cited in “Cables Released by Wikileaks Reveal Saudis’ Checkbook Diplomacy,” NYT, June 20, 2015. “Are you with us or not?”: Author interview, Lisa Monaco, May 2019. in a matter of weeks: “Quiet Support for Saudis Entangles U.S. in Yemen,” NYT, March 13, 2016.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

“enemy combatant” Shane D’Aprile, “Gingrich: Leaks Show Obama Administration ‘Shallow,’ ‘Amateurish,’” Blog Briefing Room (blog), The Hill, December 5, 2010, http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/news/132037-gingrich-blames-obama-on-wikileaks-labels-assange-a-terrorist. traditional channels Ewen MacAskill, “WikiLeaks Website Pulled by Amazon after US Political Pressure,” Guardian, December 1, 2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-website-cables-servers-amazon. registered in Australia Hal Berghel, “WikiLeaks and the Matter of Private Manning,” Computer 45, no. 3 (March 2012): pp. 70–73. French national banking system Loek Essers, “Visa and Mastercard Funding Returns to WikiLeaks via French Payment Gateway,” PCWorld, July 18, 2012, http://www.pcworld.com/article/259437/visa_and_mastercard_funding_returns_to_wikileaks_via_french_payment_gateway.html. 1989 protests in Tiananmen Square Stephen Jewkes, “Milan Prosecutor Wants Jail Terms Upheld for Google Autism Video,” Reuters, December 11, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/12/11/us-google-italy-idUSBRE8BA10R20121211?

PayPal announced that it would no longer allow individuals to send money to WikiLeaks’s account, citing a letter from the US government declaring WikiLeaks’s engagement in illegal behavior. MasterCard and Visa followed suit, making it much harder for sympathizers around the world to contribute to the legal and technical defense of the website. Despite this pressure, the WikiLeaks organization survived. The leaked documents are still available around the Web on dozens of mirror websites to anyone who wants to see them (aside from federal employees), while the group has popped up in subsequent scandals from the NSA domestic spying revelations to the Syria Files, a release of over two million e-mails from the Syrian regime, including personal e-mails from Bashar al-Assad. More importantly, WikiLeaks’s model has proved powerful, inspiring copycat attempts like Local Leaks, a website associated with Anonymous.

Companies like PayPal, Bank of America, MasterCard, and Visa were targeted because they stopped processing payments to the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, following its controversial publication of US diplomatic cables. The Zimbabwe government’s websites were targeted after its president’s wife sued a newspaper for US$15 million for publishing a WikiLeaks cable that linked her to the blood diamond trade. The Tunisian government was targeted for censoring the WikiLeaks documents as well as news about uprisings in the country (in a poignant twist, a noted local blogger, Slim Amamou, who had supported Anonymous in the effort, was arrested by the old regime and then became a minister in the new regime that the effort helped put into power). The British government was threatened with similar attacks if it extradited WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange. As Anonymous went after bigger and more powerful targets, the group garnered more and more attention.


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, online collectivism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

But without clear transparency and accountability about how, when, and under what specific circumstances personal information is being collected and used, citizens have good reason to worry about the growth of the state’s “panoptic” power. WIKILEAKS AND THE FATE OF CONTROVERSIAL SPEECH WikiLeaks and several news organizations that the whistle-blowing organization had chosen as partners published the first batch of classified US diplomatic cables, leaked by disgruntled US Army Private Bradley Manning, in November 2010. Vice President Joseph Biden declared WikiLeaks’ leader, Julian Assange, to be a “digital terrorist.” Senator Joe Lieberman declared that “WikiLeaks’ illegal, outrageous, and reckless acts have compromised our national security and put lives at risk around the world.” Meanwhile, the WikiLeaks “Cablegate” website, dedicated to showcasing the leaked diplomatic cables, came under distributed denial of service attacks of unknown origin.

These included a letter by State Department legal adviser Harold Koh, in which he wrote that the “violation of the law is ongoing” as long as WikiLeaks continues to publish the leaked diplomatic cables. As Harvard legal scholar Yochai Benkler pointed out in a group e-mail discussion with colleagues about WikiLeaks and the State Department’s actions (which I am quoting with his permission), Koh’s assertion was patently “false, as a matter of constitutional law.” The Justice Department has not managed to bring a viable case to a court of law against WikiLeaks or any other entity involved with publishing the cables. Benkler argued the government had no case unless it could prove that somebody involved with WikiLeaks directly conspired with Manning. What Benkler and many other constitutional scholars find insidious about the US government’s approach to WikiLeaks is that since the government has no genuine case against the publishers, its assertion of WikiLeaks’ illegality—no matter how groundless—“leaves room for various extralegal avenues that can be denied as not under your control to do the suppression work.”

Burns, “US Subpoenas Twitter over WikiLeaks Supporters,” New York Times, January 8, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/01/09/world/09wiki.html (accessed June 21, 2011). 85 These included a letter by State Department legal adviser Harold Koh, in which he wrote that the “violation of the law is ongoing”: “Text of State Department Letter to WikiLeaks,” Reuters, November 28, 2010, www.reuters.com/article/2010/11/28/us-wikileaks-usa-letter-idUSTRE6AR1E420101128 (accessed June 21, 2011). 85 As Harvard legal scholar Yochai Benkler pointed out . . . Koh’s assertion was patently “false, as a matter of constitutional law”: This comment is from a Berkman Center group e-mail exchange with Professor Benkler, quoted with permission. For Benkler’s in-depth analysis of the WikiLeaks case, see “A Free Irresponsible Press: WikiLeaks and the Battle over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate,” Harvard Civil Rights–Civil Liberties Law Review , forthcoming; working draft http://benkler.org/Benkler_Wikileaks_current.pdf.


pages: 230 words: 60,050

In the Flow by Boris Groys

illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, WikiLeaks

This eBook is licensed to Edward Betts, edward@4angle.com on 04/01/2016 CHAPTER 11 WikiLeaks: The Revolt of the Clerks, or Universality as Conspiracy In our epoch we have become accustomed to protests and revolts in the name of particular identities and interests. The revolts in the name of universal projects, such as liberalism or communism, seem to belong to the past. But the activities of WikiLeaks serve no specific identities or interests. They, rather, have a general, universal goal: to guarantee the free flow of information. Thus, the phenomenon of WikiLeaks signals a reintroduction of universalism into politics. This fact alone makes the emergence of WikiLeaks highly significant. We know from history that only universalist projects can lead to real political change. But WikiLeaks signals not only a return of universalism but also the deep transformation that the notion of universalism has undergone during recent decades.

But WikiLeaks signals not only a return of universalism but also the deep transformation that the notion of universalism has undergone during recent decades. WikiLeaks is not a political party. It does not offer any universalist vision of society, political programme or ideology designed to ‘spiritually’ or politically unify mankind. Rather, WikiLeaks offers a sum of technical means that would allow universal access to any specific, particular content. Universality of ideas is here replaced by universality of access. WikiLeaks offers not a universalist political project but a universal information service. The ethos of WikiLeaks is the ethos of civil, administrative service – globalized and universalized. In his famous essay La trahison des clercs (1927), Julien Benda aptly described this ethos, along with a new universal class defined by this ethos.

It is obvious that the corporations operating the different aspects of the Internet are totally inscribed in global capitalist markets. But what to say about WikiLeaks? Its attacks are directed more against state censorship than against the flow of capital. One can formulate the following hypothesis concerning the attitude of WikiLeaks toward capitalism: For WikiLeaks, capital is not universal enough because it is ultimately dependent on the patronage of nation states and relies on their political, military and industrial power. That is the reason why the mainstream Internet corporations collaborate with state censorship and block the free flow of information through different means of protection. As a rule, we think of capitalism as a power that corrupts the state – the democratic, universalist nation state. But WikiLeaks indirectly reverses this accusation. And, indeed, one can see the situation from another perspective: Capitalism does not fulfil its global promise because it has been permanently corrupted by the nation states and their security interests.


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The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, undersea cable, web application, WikiLeaks

With Snowden safely on board the Airbus A330-300, Assange put out a statement. He claimed personal credit for the entire rescue operation. He said WikiLeaks had paid for Snowden’s ticket. While in Hong Kong, the organisation had also given Snowden legal advice. Assange would subsequently liken his role, in an interview with the South China Morning Post, to that of a ‘people smuggler’. Proprietorially claiming Snowden as the latest star player for Team WikiLeaks, the statement said: ‘Mr Edward Snowden, the American whistleblower who exposed evidence of a global surveillance regime conducted by US and UK intelligence agencies, has left Hong Kong legally. He is bound for a democratic nation via a safe route for the purposes of asylum, and is being escorted by diplomats and legal advisers from WikiLeaks.’ Moscow journalists dumped their Sunday leisure plans and scrambled to Terminal F of Sheremetyevo International Airport, where Snowden was due to transit.

The ‘fucking politician’ was Leon Panetta, appointed by Obama in 2009 despite his evident lack of intelligence background. The appointment was supposed to draw a line under the intelligence scandals of the Bush years – the renditions, the secret CIA prisons and the illegal wiretapping. Snowden evidently knew of WikiLeaks, a niche transparency website whose story would later intersect with his own. But he didn’t like it. At this point, Snowden’s antipathy towards the New York Times was based on his opinion that ‘they are worse than Wikileaks’. Later, however, he would go on to accuse the paper of not publishing quickly enough and of sitting on unambiguous evidence of White House illegality. These are somewhat contradictory views. Certainly Snowden’s anti-leaking invective seems stunningly at odds with his own later behaviour.

One was Henry Dunckley, a 19th-century Baptist social critic who used the nom de plume in the Manchester Examiner. The other was Clement Walker, a 17th-century Somerset parliamentarian during the English civil war who was eventually locked up and died in the Tower of London. Significantly, verax is also an antonym of mendax. Mendax means ‘deceiving’ and was the handle used by Julian Assange of WikiLeaks when he was a young Australian hacker. WikiLeaks, with their electronic mass-leaking of US army files from Afghanistan, and of State Department diplomatic cables from all over the world, had recently plunged the US administration into uproar. Perhaps Snowden’s allusion was deliberate. Outwardly, his life continued as before. Read with hindsight, his girlfriend’s blog entries seem poignant. On 1 March, Mills writes that she will be an ‘international woman of mystery’ and that her Friday show later the same evening has a ‘007’ theme.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Assange shared his two basic arguments on this subject: Julian Assange in discussion with the authors, June 2011. lightning rod, as Assange called himself: Atika Shubert, “WikiLeaks Editor Julian Assange Dismisses Reports of Internal Strife,” CNN, October 22, 2010, http://articles.cnn.com/2010-10-22/us/wikileaks.interview_1_julian-assange-wikileaks-afghan-war-diary?_s=PM:US. “Sources speak with their feet”: Julian Assange in discussion with the authors, June 2011. WikiLeaks lost its principal website URL: James Cowie, “WikiLeaks: Moving Target,” Renesys (blog), December 7, 2010, http://www.renesys.com/blog/2010/12/wikileaks-moving-target.shtml. “mirror” sites: Ravi Somaiya, “Pro-Wikileaks Activists Abandon Amazon Cyber Attack,” BBC, December 9, 2010, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-11957367. Alexei Navalny, a Russian blogger: Matthew Kaminski, “The Man Vladimir Putin Fears Most,” Wall Street Journal, March 3, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203986604577257321601811092.html; “Russia Faces to Watch: Alexei Navalny,” BBC, June 12, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18408297.

Eventually, though, the technology used by these platforms will be so sophisticated that they will be effectively unblockable. When WikiLeaks lost its principal website URL, WikiLeaks.org, due to a series of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks and the pullout of its Internet service provider (which hosted the site) in 2010, its supporters immediately set up more than a thousand “mirror” sites (copies of the original site hosted at remote locations), with URLs like WikiLeaks.fi (in Finland), WikiLeaks.ca (in Canada) and WikiLeaks.info. (In a DDoS attack, a large number of compromised computer systems attack a single target, overloading the system with information requests and causing it to shut down, denying service to legitimate users.) Because WikiLeaks was designed as a distributed system—meaning its operations were distributed across many different computers, instead of concentrated in one centralized hub—shutting down the platform was much more difficult than it seemed to most laymen.

These groups will continue to demand attention from the governments and institutions they attack, and their threats may come to be taken more seriously than one might expect judging from today’s activities, which mostly seem like stunts. The story of WikiLeaks, the secrets-publishing website we discussed earlier, and its sympathetic hacker allies is an illustrative example. The arrest of WikiLeaks’ cofounder Julian Assange in December 2010 sparked flurries of outrage around the world, particularly among the many activists, hackers and computer experts who believed his indictment on sexual-assault charges was politically motivated. Shortly thereafter, a series of cyber attacks crippled, among others, the websites for Amazon, which had revoked WikiLeaks’ use of its servers, and MasterCard and PayPal, which had both stopped processing donations for WikiLeaks. This campaign, officially titled Operation Avenge Assange, was coordinated by Anonymous, a loosely knit collective of hackers and activists already responsible for a string of prominent DDoS attacks against the Church of Scientology and other targets.


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The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

These two core values of Wikipedia—that anyone can edit it and that everything is transparent—are part of the attraction of the “wiki” in WikiLeaks. While WikiLeaks actually started as a wiki, it is no longer one. But WikiLeaks is a place that wants to bring radical transparency to the world’s largest institutions and prove that anyone—even a lowly private in the U.S. Army—can be powerful beyond imagination. What is the role of secrecy in democracy and diplomacy, and what does it mean in a digital age where secrecy and privacy have nearly disappeared? It’s an important question, because whatever WikiLeaks’s future, Internet-fueled leaks are certain to rise again. Assange sees WikiLeaks as a new force in the world, one that works to bring accountability to large institutions like the U.S. government. In a series of blog posts explaining the purpose of WikiLeaks, he writes, “the more secretive or unjust an organization is, the more leaks induce fear and paranoia in its leadership and planning coterie. … Since unjust systems, by their nature, induce opponents, and in many places barely have the upper hand, mass leaking leaves them exquisitely vulnerable to those who seek to replace them with more open forms of governance.”28 To Assange WikiLeaks is something between the accountability journalism of newspapers and the transparency activism of the open-source movement.

Julian Assange, “The Non Linear Effects of Leaks on Unjust Systems of Governance,” WikiLeaks 31 Dec. 2006. Archived from the original on 2 Oct. 2007. 29. http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/the-secret-life-of-wikileaks-founder-julian-assange-20100521-w1um.html 30. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/dec/01/us-embassy-cables-executed-mike-huckabee 31. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/wikileaks/8171269/Sarah-Palin-hunt-WikiLeaks-founder-like-al-Qaeda-and-Taliban-leaders.html 32. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/19/assange-high-tech-terrorist-biden 33. http://www.democracynow.org/2010/12/31/pentagon_whistleblower_daniel_ellsberg_julian_assange 34. Micah L. Sifry and Andrew Rasiej, WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency (Berkeley: Counterpoint, 2011), 14. 35. http://gov20.govfresh.com/samantha-power-transparency-has-gone-global/ 36. http://wikileaks.ch/cable/2008/06/08TUNIS679.html 37. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2044723,00.html; http://www.cnn.com/2011/12/17/world/meast/arab-spring-one-year-later/index.html 38.

Manning allegedly had access to the files through the U.S. military’s online data-management tools and copied them to share online on WikiLeaks. Julian Assange, a computer programmer and activist, had been working with a team to build WikiLeaks into a known repository for whistleblowers and a trusted source for journalists. He turned the steady supply of material from Manning into wave after wave of disclosures and leaks, starting with a video of U.S. Army soldiers in a helicopter hunting down two Reuters journalists in Iraq. The mother lode was more than half a million “confidential” State Department cables that turned the institutions of diplomacy on their head and caused political uproars in dozens of countries. Understanding WikiLeaks WikiLeaks raises intriguing questions about ethics, journalism, privacy, and governance in an age when the Internet has made the mass storage and publication of information practically free to anyone.


Active Measures by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

Young met Julian Assange on the cypherpunk list, and Assange described Cryptome as the “spiritual godfather”6 of WikiLeaks. In 2006, Assange asked Young to become the public face of WikiLeaks in the United States, and suggested that Young could register WikiLeaks.org in his name.7 The cooperation failed; two eccentric personalities clashed, and the radical-libertarian partnership came to an end. Yet WikiLeaks would soon eclipse Cryptome. In 2010, Chelsea Manning, then a twenty-two-year-old Army private known as Bradley,8 leaked more than a quarter million State Department and Department of Defense documents to WikiLeaks. The leaked diplomatic cables spanned about a decade, and turned Assange and his website into household names. By 2013, Cryptome had collected and published just 70,000 files, many random and hand-curated. WikiLeaks was pushing out secret information on an industrial scale.

The New York Post, usually adept at finding what it called “hair-raising data,” concluded there was none in the released opposition research.5 Press attention only picked up somewhat when Donald Trump claimed that the DNC itself “did the ‘hacking.’”6 It would take nearly six weeks before the story finally dominated the news cycle. Next, the GRU recruited the help of WikiLeaks. The Guccifer 2.0 account had claimed, in the first note on the DNC hack, that “the main part of the papers, thousands of files and mails, I gave to WikiLeaks.” The GRU had not yet handed over the treasure trove, but the announcement had caught Julian Assange’s attention, and WikiLeaks immediately but cryptically reacted on Twitter. “DNC ‘hacker’ releases 200+ page internal report on Trump, says gave WikiLeaks all the rest,” Assange posted hours after the first leaks appeared, carefully not acknowledging receipt, and only repeating what the GRU front had claimed in its ominous blog post.7 Events now started to move quickly.

He mentioned that a major political leak was forthcoming. “We have upcoming leaks in relation to Hillary Clinton, which are great,” Assange said. “WikiLeaks has a very big year ahead.”24 As was often his strategy, Assange was being deliberately cryptic. Later he persistently refused to clarify either from whom or precisely when his organization had received specific leaks. Two days later, on June 14, the GRU, sensing that DCLeaks was a hard sell and not exactly a success, started to reach out to WikiLeaks directly. The @DCleaks_ Twitter account privately messaged Julian Assange’s outfit. “You announced your organization was preparing to publish more Hillary’s emails,” one GRU officer wrote to @WikiLeaks, referring to Assange’s TV interview just two days earlier, adding: “We are ready to support you. We have some sensitive information too, in particular her financial documents.


pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

Now I Teach You,” Intercept, October 28, 2014. p. 67 Micah EFF start date: Micah Lee, “Leaving EFF and Joining a Fearless Team of Journalists,” Micah Lee’s blog, November 15, 2013, micahflee.com. p. 67 Trevor EFF start date: Trevor Timm, Linkedin, www.linkedin.com/in/trevor-timm-54346139. p. 67 WikiLeaks accounts frozen: Robert Mackey, “PayPal Suspends WikiLeaks Account,” The Lede, New York Times, December 4, 2010; Declan McCullagh, CBS News, December 6, 2010; “MasterCard Pulls Plug on WikiLeaks Payments,” December 6, 2010; “WikiLeaks’ Visa Payments Suspended,” BBC News, December 7, 2010. p. 67 what EFF called an “economic blockade”: Shari Steele, “Join EFF in Standing Up against Internet Censorship,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, December 7, 2010, Eff.org; Cindy Cohn, “EFF Helps Freedom of the Press Foundation,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, December 17, 2012, Eff.org.

That’s the real danger.” Though no charges were ever brought against Binney, a dozen rifle-toting FBI agents raided his home in 2007. One pointed a weapon at him as he stood naked in the shower. After the New York Times published The Program in late August, Laura was ready to start editing her WikiLeaks documentary. This time, extra precautions would be necessary to protect her source material. Her detentions by border officials were still fresh in her mind, and the US government had opened a secret grand jury investigation into WikiLeaks two years earlier. So Laura relocated to Berlin. Meanwhile, she was contracting out a major renovation of her New York loft. Having been a professional chef in the Bay Area before she made her first film, Flag Wars, she was especially eager to have a working kitchen. Because I’d built and remodeled homes, she asked me for advice.

Your experience as a target of coercive intimidation should have very quickly cowed you into compliance, but that you have continued your work gives hope that your special lesson in authoritarianism did not take; that contacting you is worth the risk. Laura arrived safely in Berlin, but her worries continued. What if the source was some kind of crackpot — or, worse yet, an undercover agent using her to target Assange? WikiLeaks had already been named an enemy of the state by a 2008 US Army secret report, which also suggested a strategy to damage the organization’s reputation by tricking it into publishing fake documents. (Ironically, that report was later leaked to — and published by — none other than WikiLeaks.) Laura’s source tried to reassure her he was legit, writing: [Regarding] entrapment or insanity, I can address the first by making it clear I will ask nothing of you other than to review what I provide … Were I mad, it would not matter — you will have verification of my bona fides when you … request comment from officials.


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Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill

active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, Kickstarter, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

All quotations of Indha Adde come from the author’s interview, unless otherwise noted. 192 five specific terrorists: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI2425, from Ambassador William Bellamy, US Embassy Nairobi, “Somalia: A Strategy for Engagement,” June 2, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/06/06NAIROBI2425.html. “Fazul [Abdullah Mohammed], [Saleh Ali Saleh] Nabhan, [Abu Talha] el-Sudani, [Ahmed] Abdi [Godane] and [Aden Hashi] Ayrow must be removed from the Somali equation.” 192 “start an open war in Mogadishu”: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI1484, from Ambassador William M. Bellamy, US Embassy Nairobi, “Ambassador to Yusuf: Alliance Against Terror Not Directed at TFG,” April 4, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/04/06NAIROBI1484.html. 193 small, regional Islamic courts: Cedric Barnes and Harun Hassan, “The Rise and Fall of Mogadishu’s Islamic Courts,” Journal of Eastern African Studies 1 (2) (July 2007). 193 twelve courts united: Author interview, Abdirahman “Aynte” Ali, June 2011. 193 receiving shipments: Schiemsky et al., “Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia,” p. 15.

Africa Report No. 95, July 11, 2005, p. 9. 200 “the special group”: International Crisis Group, “Somalia’s Islamists,” Africa Report No. 100, December 12, 2005, p. 11. 200 Italian cemetery: Ali, “The Anatomy of al Shabaab,” p. 28. 200 “headline-grabbing assassinations”: Ibid. 201 video teleconferences: Naylor, “Years of Detective Work Led to al-Qaida Target.” 201 took control of Mogadishu: “Islamic Militia Claims Mogadishu,” CNN.com, June 5, 2006. 201 “wonderful piece of news”: Transcript, “Islamic Militia Takes Control of Somali Capital,” NewsHour, PBS, June 6, 2006. 202 “establish a friendly relationship”: Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, letter to governments and international organizations, “The Union of Islamic Courts in Mogadishu Break the Silence,” June 6, 2006, www.hiiraan.com/news/2006/jun/somali_news6_7.aspx. 202 “invite an investigative team”: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI2640, from Ambassador William Bellamy, US Embassy Nairobi, “Islamist Advances, Prospects for Dialogue, but Still No Admission of the Al Qaida Presence,” June 15, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/06/06NAIROBI2640.html. The cable includes the text of a letter sent from Sheikh Sharif on June 14. 202 “litmus test”: Ibid. 202 “moderate”: See US diplomatic cable 07NAIROBI5403, from Ambassador Michael Ranneberger, US Embassy Nairobi, “Somalia—Sheikh Sharif and the Future Role of Islamic Courts Moderates,” January 1, 2007, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2007/01/07NAIROBI5403.html. 202 “contemplate killing Sharif”: Jon Lee Anderson, “The Most Failed State,” New Yorker, December 14, 2009. 202 “onto everybody’s radar screen”: Author interview, Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, March 2011.

All quotations of Gartenstein-Ross are from the author’s interview. 202 “There is instability in Somalia”: Transcript, “President’s Remarks to the Travel Pool at Laredo Border Patrol Sector Headquarters,” June 6, 2006. 203 insane maze of roadblocks: Mohammed Olad Hassan, “Life Under Somalia’s Islamists,” BBC.news.co.uk, July 11, 2006. 203 ports and the airport: “Mogadishu’s Port Reopened,” AlJazeera.com, August 23, 2006. 203 felt safer: Xan Rice, “Mogadishu’s Miracle: Peace in the World’s Most Lawless City,” Guardian, June 25, 2006. 203 US officials acknowledged: US diplomatic cable 06NAIROBI3441, from Economic Counselor John F. Hoover, US Embassy Nairobi, “Horn of Africa, State-USAID Humanitarian Cable Update Number 8,” August 8, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2006/08/06NAIROBI3441.html. 203 “some semblance of order”: Author interview, Ismail Mahmoud Hurre, June 2011. 203 “rally with Ethiopia”: Memorandum from “Ennifar” (likely Azouz Ennifar, Deputy Special Representative for UN mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea), “Meeting with US Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs,” June 26, 2006, released by WikiLeaks, http://wikileaks.org/wiki/US_encouraged_Ethiopian_invasion_of_Somalia:_UN_meeting_memo_with_Jenday_Frazer,_Secretary_of_State_for_African_Affairs,_2006. 204 training its notorious Agazi: Michael R. Gordon and Mark Mazzetti, “U.S.


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Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

It’s difficult to overstate how big a threat to the existing world order WikiLeaks was perceived to be in late 2010. There has been revelation after revelation – the Bradley Manning leaks, the video of US soldiers shooting at Reuters cameramen, the ‘friendly fire’ and civilian casualties, then the leak of another 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq war. WikiLeaks had caught the imagination of those opposed to the US and other governments. Many wanted to help. PayPal was the main means by which WikiLeaks was able to receive funds for its activities and, in 2010, its donors gave around one million dollars. But on December 4th 2010, under pressure from the US government, PayPal froze the WikiLeaks account. Domain name providers and other payment systems followed suit and refused to handle WikiLeaks’ business. Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time.

Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time. WikiLeaks was starved of funds. And, unbeknownst to most, the organization was crumbling from within due to a falling-out between Daniel Domscheit-Berg, WikiLeaks’ number two, and Assange. One poster at BitcoinTalk thought that Bitcoin would be a means to help WikiLeaks. Others jumped at the idea. ‘Bring it on,’ said one. ‘Let’s encourage WikiLeaks to use Bitcoins and I’m willing to face any risk or fallout from that fact.’ Then wiser heads stepped in and a long discussion ensued.38 Early developers such as Jeff Garzik, Bruce Wagner and others felt that the last thing they should do was bring the attention of authorities to Bitcoin this early in its evolution. ‘It could permanently marginalize Bitcoin, keeping it out of the mainstream for good.

I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage.’ Five days later PC World magazine published an article – Could the WikiLeaksScandal Lead to New Virtual Currency?39It was the most prominent site yet to mention Bitcoin and suggested it may be the answer to WikiLeaks’ funding problems. A sudden flood of traffic overwhelmed Bitcoin’s website and it went down. When it came back up again, Satoshi wrote, ‘It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.’ Then Bitcoin was mentioned on Slashdot again, alongside WikiLeaks and the outspoken libertarian US congressman, Ron Paul.


Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, American ideology, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

In response to the question, “Name two countries that you think pose the biggest threat to you,” Israel received 88 percent, the United States 77 percent, and Iran 9 percent among those aged thirty-six and over and 11 percent among those thirty-six and under. 2010 Arab Public Opinion Survey. 16. Ian Black, “WikiLeaks Cables: Tunisia Blocks Site Reporting ‘Hatred’ of First Lady,” Guardian (London), 7 December 2010. Ian Black, “Profile: Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali,” Guardian (London), 14 January 2011. See also Amy Davidson, “Tunisia and WikiLeaks,” New Yorker, Close Read blog, 14 January 2011. 17. Steven Erlanger, “French Foreign Minister Urged to Resign,” New York Times, 3 February 2011. 18. Charlie Savage, “Soldier Faces 22 New WikiLeaks Charges,” New York Times, 2 March 2011. 19. Scott Shane, “Court Martial Recommended in WikiLeaks Case,” New York Times, 12 January 2012. 20. Stephanie Condon, “Obama Says Bradley Manning ‘Broke the Law,’” CBSNews.com, 22 April 2011. 21.

How does the United States square its trumpeting of the free flow of information and democratic rights of expression with its response to WikiLeaks? The profession of dedication to rights is always tinged with a fundamental hypocrisy: rights if we want them, not if we don’t. The clearest example of this is support for democracy. It’s pretty well established over many decades that the United States supports democracy only if it accords with strategic and economic objectives. Otherwise it opposes it. The United States is by no means alone on that, of course. The same is true of terror, aggression, torture, human rights, freedom of speech, whatever it might be. So the line that the enormous trove of information that was disseminated through WikiLeaks was somehow compromising U.S. security doesn’t wash. It compromised the security that governments are usually concerned about: their security from inspection by their own populations.

Many of the classified documents have little to do with genuine security but a lot to do with preventing the population from knowing what the government is up to. I think that’s been true of what I’ve seen of WikiLeaks, too. Take the one example I mentioned, Ambassador Patterson’s comments about Pakistan and the danger of the Bush-Obama policy destabilizing a country with one of the biggest nuclear weapons programs in the world, in fact, one that’s growing fast and interlaced with jihadi elements. That’s something the population ought to know about, but it has to be kept from them. You have to describe our policies in terms of defending ourselves from attack when you’re in fact increasing the threat of attack. That’s true over and over again. There are other interesting WikiLeaks exposures. At the time of the military coup in Honduras in 2009, the embassy in Honduras carried out an extensive investigation to determine whether the coup was legal or illegal, and they concluded, “The Embassy perspective is that there is no doubt that the military, Supreme Court and National Congress conspired on June 28 in what constituted an illegal and unconstitutional coup against the Executive Branch.”10 That assessment was sent back to Washington, which means the Obama administration knew about it, but they discarded the finding and, after various steps, ended up supporting the military coup, as they still do.11 For people who want to understand Obama’s thinking about freedom and democracy, that’s important information.


pages: 547 words: 160,071

Underground by Suelette Dreyfus

airport security, invisible hand, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, zero day

WikiLeaks, 16 July, 2009. See mirror site: http://mirror.wikileaks. info/wiki/Serious_nuclear_accident_may_lay_behind_Iranian_nuke_chief%27s_mystery_resignation/ The short entry is included in case the mirror disappears: ‘Two weeks ago, a source associated with Iran’s nuclear program confidentially told WikiLeaks of a serious, recent, nuclear accident at Natanz. Natanz is the primary location of Iran’s nuclear enrichment program. WikiLeaks had reason to believe the source was credible however contact with this source was lost. WikiLeaks would not normally mention such an incident without additional confirmation, however according to Iranian media and the BBC, today the head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, Gholam Reza Aghazadeh, has resigned under mysterious circumstances. According to these reports, the resignation was tendered around 20 days ago.’ 6.

Suelette Dreyfus INTRODUCTION TO UNDERGROUND, SECOND EDITION BY SUELETTE DREYFUS Who are computer hackers? Why do they hack? Underground tried to answer these questions when it was first published in 1997. The questions still seem relevant more than a decade later. WikiLeaks, the world-famous publisher of documents leaked in the public interest, grew out of the computer underground described in this book. It has been said that WikiLeaks’ stories ‘have changed the way people think about how the world is run’.1 To understand WikiLeaks, you need to know the back story: Underground is that story. Underground is the back story because it reveals a world of people who use technology to solve problems with ‘thinking from outside the box’. This goes back to the earliest definition of a hacker, which doesn’t imply any illegal activity, but, rather, simply reflects someone who can find clever technical solutions to hard problems.

This goes back to the earliest definition of a hacker, which doesn’t imply any illegal activity, but, rather, simply reflects someone who can find clever technical solutions to hard problems. It is this kernel of unusual creativity, not their illegal activities, that makes the hackers in Underground so interesting. This kernel carried through to WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks revealed the creative application of technology, in the form of secure, anonymous online publishing, to the hard problem of getting governments and corporations to tell the truth. The founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and I worked on Underground for almost three years. He brought exceptional technical understanding and a detailed knowledge of the computer underground while I brought years of experience as a professional journalist and technology writer. CNN.com’s news blog declared Julian to be ‘the most intriguing person of the year’ at the end of 2010 based on the results of its online poll.


pages: 476 words: 125,219

Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy by Robert W. McChesney

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, death of newspapers, declining real wages, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of journalism, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, informal economy, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the medium is the message, The Spirit Level, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, yellow journalism

Moreover, there was no independent journalism to respond when the U.S. government launched a successful PR and media blitz to discredit WikiLeaks. Attention largely shifted from the content of these documents to overblown and unsubstantiated claims that WikiLeaks was costing innocent lives, and to a personal focus on WikiLeaks leader Julian Assange. Glenn Greenwald was only slightly exaggerating when he stated that “there was almost a full and complete consensus that WikiLeaks was satanic.” The onslaught discredited and isolated WikiLeaks, despite the dramatic content that could be found in the documents WikiLeaks had published. The point was to get U.S. editors and reporters to think twice before opening the WikiLeaks door. It worked. Many journalists elsewhere rallied to defend basic principles about transparency and speaking truth to power.

It need deal with only a handful of giants to effectively control the Internet. The consequences of this became striking in the wake of the brouhaha surrounding WikiLeaks after it released government documents in 2010. The “U.S. government response to WikiLeaks,” MacKinnon writes, “highlights a troubling murkiness, opacity, and lack of public accountability in the power relationships between government and Internet-related companies.” Amazon booted WikiLeaks off its servers, and the site immediately collapsed, as there was nowhere else to go.229 Apple pulled a WikiLeaks app from its store.230 Monopolist PayPal—as well as MasterCard, Visa, and Bank of America—also severed ties to WikiLeaks. There is no evidence that the executive branch made any explicit demand of the firms to do what they did; it appears they acted proactively, possibly egged on by all the saber rattling and macho talk coming from Capitol Hill.231 The firms responded to vague claims of illegality on the part of WikiLeaks, but no charges had been filed, nor had anyone been convicted.

But the illusion that this constitutes satisfactory journalism is growing thinner. Nothing demonstrates the situation better than the release by WikiLeaks of an immense number of secret U.S. government documents between 2009 and 2011. To some this was investigative journalism at its best, and WikiLeaks had established how superior the Internet was as an information source. It clearly threatened those in power, so this was exactly the sort of Fourth Estate a free people needed. Thanks to the Internet, some claimed, we were now truly free and had the power to hold leaders accountable.112 In fact, the WikiLeaks episode demonstrates precisely the opposite. WikiLeaks was not a journalistic organization. It released secret documents to the public, but the “documents languished online and only came to the public’s attention when they were written up by professional journalists,” as Heather Brooke put it.


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The Great Firewall of China by James Griffiths;

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, gig economy, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mobile money, Occupy movement, pets.com, profit motive, QR code, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, zero day

Piccuta, ‘Google China paying price for resisting censorship’, US Embassy cable, 18 May 2009, WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.com/plusd/cables/09BEIJING1336_a.html 6S. Levy, In the Plex: how Google thinks, works, and shapes our lives, New York NY: Simon and Schuster, 2011, p. 306. 7E. Chang, ‘YouTube blocked in China’, CNN, 26 March 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/TECH/ptech/03/25/youtube.china/ 8L. Donnelly, P. Foster and A. Andrews, ‘China Google boss departure reignites debate over censorship’, The Telegraph, 5 September 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/6143553/China-Google-boss-departure-reignites-debate-over-censorship.html 9Lee, Making a World of Difference. 10‘Google claims harassment by Chinese government’, US Embassy cable, 12 July 2009, WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.com/plusd/cables/09BEIJING1957_a.html 11Levy, In the Plex, p. 309. 12R.

Roberts, ‘How censorship in China allows government criticism but silences collective expression’, American Political Science Review, 2013. 28P. Marolt and D. Herold, Online Society in China: creating, celebrating and instrumentalising the online carnival, London: Routledge, 2011, pp. 53–68. 29J. Ng, Blocked on Weibo, New York NY: The New Press, 2013, p. 186. Chapter 16 1A. Barr, ‘Email to Karen Burke’, HBGary emails, 5 February 2011, WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/hbgary-emails/emailid/39192 2‘Anonymous hacktivists say WikiLeaks war to continue’, BBC News, 9 December 2010, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-11935539 3N. Anderson, ‘How one man tracked down Anonymous – and paid a heavy price’, Ars Technica, 10 February 2011, https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2011/02/how-one-security-firm-tracked-anonymousand-paid-a-heavy-price/ 4Untitled, ‘Anonymous IRC chat log’, Pastebin, 7 February 2011, https://pastebin.com/x69Akp5L 5J.

In the late 2000s, Australian politicians attempted to introduce a blacklist of sites associated with child pornography. ISPs in the country would have been mandated to block all sites on the list, the contents of which were kept secret, making effective democratic oversight incredibly difficult. While few people would argue against blocking child porn, when WikiLeaks published a copy of the proposed blacklist in 2009, it was revealed to have included gambling services, YouTube videos, regular porn, a dog boarding kennel, and WikiLeaks itself.23 The Australian politicians behind the policy may have been acting in good faith to protect children, even if they obstinately ignored much of the criticism that finally sank the bill, but democratic leaders aren’t immune from controlling the internet to protect their own power. During a 2017 referendum in Catalonia on whether to declare independence from Spain, held despite the objections of Madrid, websites associated with the vote were seized, software was deleted from app stores, and users were blocked from sharing pro-independence information.24 This isn’t to say that the internet should be completely unfiltered, or that users should be able to publish and share any content they please, no matter how vile, destructive or illegal.


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The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan

active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day

Among other things, they noted overlaps in the hacking infrastructure used to target the Democratic organizations and other operations attributed to Russia, including a notable one against the German Parliament.29 As an amusing extra sign that something was amiss, when a journalist interviewing Guccifer online asked him to switch over to his native Romanian, it quickly became apparent that he did not speak the language.30 Enter WikiLeaks. Even prior to the Democrats’ announcement and Guccifier’s creation, the group’s founder, Julian Assange, had sought to be relevant to the 2016 election. On June 12, he promised that WikiLeaks would release damaging Democratic emails. Why he said this remains a mystery, since the first known direct contact between the GRU and WikiLeaks occurred on June 14, though it is possible there had been a previous undetected transfer of information through intermediaries.31 The GRU and WikiLeaks continued to talk. On June 22, WikiLeaks messaged Guccifer, requesting access to any new material. WikiLeaks promised to distribute it with a higher profile and impact than Guccifer could. On July 6, the group reached out to Guccifer again, highlighting the upcoming Democratic convention and asking for any information related to the Clinton campaign.

One hour later, another breaking news story appeared, further burying the government’s words and even distracting attention, to some extent, from Trump’s seeming admission of sexual assault: WikiLeaks began publishing John Podesta’s emails.48 These emails included excerpts from Hillary Clinton’s speeches to Wall Street banks, a subject of intense controversy during the Democratic presidential primary. As WikiLeaks parceled tens of thousands of his emails across the month of October, media coverage kept pace. No detail was too small, it seemed. Even Podesta’s advice on how best to cook risotto garnered many media mentions, as if the country had no bigger things to worry about.49 The Access Hollywood tape, and certainly the United States government’s condemnation of the Russian activity, were yesterday’s news. It is hard to say whether WikiLeaks timed the Podesta leaks to bury the other stories that were less favorable to Trump.

On July 6, the group reached out to Guccifer again, highlighting the upcoming Democratic convention and asking for any information related to the Clinton campaign. Time was of the essence, the message said, because the damaging material had to leak before Hillary Clinton could win over Bernie Sanders supporters in her run toward the general election.32 On July 14, the GRU provided WikiLeaks with a large encrypted batch of hacked files in an email with the subject “big archive” and the message “a new attempt.”33 After all the discussion, Assange delivered for the GRU. On July 22, just three days before the Democratic convention that would officially nominate Hillary Clinton, WikiLeaks posted the largest and most significant trove of DNC files. This batch included almost twenty thousand copies of emails stolen by the GRU hackers. The most damaging emails were the ones that showed some staffers at the DNC, which is not supposed to take sides in intraparty contests, clearly supporting Clinton and not Sanders in the presidential primaries.


The Data Journalism Handbook by Jonathan Gray, Lucy Chambers, Liliana Bounegru

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, business intelligence, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Heinemeier Hansson, eurozone crisis, Firefox, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, game design, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Julian Assange, linked data, moral hazard, MVC pattern, New Journalism, openstreetmap, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, social graph, SPARQL, text mining, web application, WikiLeaks

But the game-changer for data journalism happened in spring 2010, beginning with one spreadsheet: 92,201 rows of data, each one containing a detailed breakdown of a military event in Afghanistan. This was the WikiLeaks war logs. Part one, that is. There were to be two more episodes to follow: Iraq and the cables. The official term for the first two parts was SIGACTS: the US military Significant Actions Database. News organizations are all about geography—and proximity to the news desk. If you’re close, it’s easy to suggest stories and become part of the process; conversely, out of sight is literally out of mind. Before WikiLeaks, we were placed on a different floor, with graphics. Since WikiLeaks, we have sat on the same floor, next to the newsdesk. It means that it’s easier for us to suggest ideas to the desk, and for reporters across the newsroom to think of us to help with stories.

In the central maps one could clearly see the overwhelming victory of Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner by 54 percent of the vote, broken up by color saturation. It also served to help users understand specific cases where local candidates had landslide victories in the provinces. — Mariano Blejman, Mariana Berruezo, Sergio Sorín, Andy Tow, and Martín Sarsale from Hacks/Hackers Buenos Aires Data in the News: WikiLeaks It began with one of the investigative reporting team asking, “You’re good with spreadsheets, aren’t you?” And this was one hell of a spreadsheet: 92,201 rows of data, each one containing a detailed breakdown of a military event in Afghanistan. This was the WikiLeaks war logs. Part one, that is. There were to be two more episodes to follow: Iraq and the cables. The official term was SIGACTS: the US military Significant Actions Database. The Afghanistan war logs—shared with The New York Times and Der Spiegel—was data journalism in action.

We’re pretty proud that the average amount of time spent on a Datablog article is 6 minutes, compared to an average of 1 minute for the rest of the Guardian website. 6 minutes is a pretty good number, and time spent on the page is one of the key metrics when analyzing our traffic. This also helps to convince our colleagues about the value of what we’re doing. That and the big data-driven stories that we’ve worked on that everyone else in the newsroom knows: COINS, WikiLeaks, and the UK riots. For the COINS spending data, we had 5-6 specialist reporters at the Guardian working to give their views about the data when it was released by the UK government. We also had another team of 5-6 when the UK government spending over £25k data was released—including well-known reporters like Polly Curtis. WikiLeaks was also obviously very big, with lots of stories about Iraq and Afghanistan. The riots were also pretty big, with over 550k hits in two days. But it is not just about the short term hits: it is also about being a reliable source of useful information.


pages: 317 words: 98,745

Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

Apparently, “local laws” and “other requests” prevail. • • • In the case of WikiLeaks, although no judicial process supported it, many companies either pulled their services or refused to support the organization after it linked to thousands of leaked U.S. State Department cables. In December 2010, its domain name service provider, EveryDNS, ceased DNS-resolution services for http://www.wikileaks.org, severely hampering its ability to communicate. EveryDNS cited the ongoing denial-of-service attacks against WikiLeaks as the reason for its cessation of services, but most suspect the U.S. company was wary of political repercussions in the event of continued service. Another American hosting company, Amazon, also dropped WikiLeaks as a customer. And, around the same time, several credit card and financial services companies – Bank of America, Visa, Western Union, MasterCard, PayPal, and Amazon – stopped processing donations to WikiLeaks.

And, around the same time, several credit card and financial services companies – Bank of America, Visa, Western Union, MasterCard, PayPal, and Amazon – stopped processing donations to WikiLeaks. PayPal claimed it did so because WikiLeaks violated its terms of service, which states, “Our payment service cannot be used for any activities that encourage, promote, facilitate or instruct others to engage in illegal activity.” One PayPal executive, Osama Bedier, claimed the company took the measure after a letter was circulated by the State Department that referred to WikiLeaks being in illegal possession of documents. However, nowhere does the letter, sent directly to WikiLeaks, suggest the organization itself was breaking U.S. law, and this raises the troubling prospect of a government and/or company arbitrarily deciding to withhold services to an organization simply because it is controversial.

One of them, Palantir – a company whose origins lie in the PayPal fraud detection unit and whose founders were given early advice by Poindexter – has become a darling of the defence and intelligence community, but a bit of an outcast among civil libertarians. In February 2011, an Anonymous operation breached the networks of the security company HBGary, and then publicly disclosed plans they had uncovered involving HBGary, the Bank of America, Palantir, and others to attack WikiLeaks servers, and spread misinformation about Wikileaks supporters, including the journalist Glen Greenwald. Although Palantir’s CEO apologized and then distanced his company from the misguided plan, the taint of the association still lingers among many. (Full disclosure: In 2008, Palantir donated a version of their analytical platform to the Citizen Lab, and we employed it only as a minor research tool during the GhostNet and Shadows investigations.)


pages: 253 words: 75,772

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald

airport security, anti-communist, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, Ted Kaczynski, WikiLeaks

This also could have been some sort of plot by the government to entrap us into collaborating with a criminal leak. Or perhaps it had come from someone who sought to damage our credibility by passing on fraudulent documents to publish. We discussed all these possibilities. We knew that a 2008 secret report by the US Army had declared WikiLeaks an enemy of the state and proposed ways to “damage and potentially destroy” the organization. The report (ironically leaked to WikiLeaks) discussed the possibility of passing on fraudulent documents. If WikiLeaks published them as authentic, it would suffer a serious blow to its credibility. Laura and I were aware of all the pitfalls but we discounted them, relying instead on our intuition. Something intangible yet powerful about those emails convinced us that their author was genuine. He wrote out of a belief in the dangers of government secrecy and pervasive spying; I instinctively recognized his political passion.

This surprised me because, especially since 9/11 (though before that as well), the US media in general had been jingoistic and intensely loyal to the government and thus hostile, sometimes viciously so, to anyone who exposed its secrets. When WikiLeaks began publishing classified documents related to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and especially diplomatic cables, calls for the prosecution of WikiLeaks were led by American journalists themselves, which was in itself astounding behavior. The very institution ostensibly devoted to bringing transparency to the actions of the powerful not only denounced but attempted to criminalize one of the most significant acts of transparency in many years. What WikiLeaks did—receiving classified information from a source within the government and then revealing it to the world—is essentially what media organizations do all the time. I had expected the American media to direct its hostility toward me, especially as we continued to publish documents and the unprecedented scope of the leak began to be clear.

Its public editor, Margaret Sullivan, noted that the Times might want to take a look in the mirror if its editors wanted to understand why sources revealing major national security stories, like Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden, did not feel safe or motivated to bring them their information. It is true that the New York Times published large troves of documents in partnership with WikiLeaks, but soon after, former executive editor Bill Keller took pains to distance the paper from its partner: he publicly contrasted the Obama administration’s anger toward WikiLeaks with its appreciation of the Times and its “responsible” reporting. Keller proudly trumpeted his paper’s relationship with Washington on other occasions, too. During a 2010 appearance on the BBC discussing telegrams obtained by WikiLeaks, Keller explained that the Times takes direction from the US government about what it should and shouldn’t publish. The BBC host asked incredulously, “Are you saying that you sort of go to the government in advance and say: ‘What about this, that and the other, is it all right to do this and all right to do that,’ and you get clearance, then?”


pages: 413 words: 119,379

The Looting Machine: Warlords, Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the Theft of Africa's Wealth by Tom Burgis

Airbus A320, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Gini coefficient, Livingstone, I presume, McMansion, megacity, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

The presence of Israeli and South African instructors at the training camps in Forecariah is also reported elsewhere, such as US Embassy in Rabat, ‘Guinea: Update on Dadis Camara’s Health’, diplomatic cable, 17 December 2009, WikiLeaks, 4 December 2010, https://wikileaks.org/cable​/2009/12/09RABAT988.html. 34. Israel Ziv, LinkedIn profile, http://il.linkedin.com/in/zivisrael, accessed 2 May 2014. 35. Global CST website, accessed 2 May 2014; US Embassy in Bogota, ‘Colombian Defense Ministry Sours on Israeli Defense Firm,’ diplomatic cable, 1 December 2009, WikiLeaks, 6 April 2011, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2009/12/09BOGOTA3483.html. 36. Multiple interviews with people who have investigated Global CST and Dadis’s ethnic militia as well as associates of Kenan yielded an incomplete picture of the work the company did in Guinea.

Karofi and Lawal Ibrahim, ‘Dahiru Barau Mangal—Enter Yar’Adua’s “Mr-Fix-It”,’ Daily Trust, 10 August 2008, http://allafrica.com/stories/200808110682.html. 8. Northern Nigerian sources speaking to US embassy officials, as reported in US Embassy Cable, ‘Nigeria: Kano Businessman Alleges Yar’Adua Corruption’, 21 February 2008, WikiLeaks, 8 December 2010, www.wikileaks.org/plusd/​cables/08ABUJA320_a.html. A textile industry consultant corroborates the estimated fee. 9. Ibid. 10. Nasir El-Rufai, interview with author, Abuja, April 2013. 11. Former EFCC official, interview with author, Abuja, April 2013. A November 2008 cable from the US embassy in Abuja, published in September 2011 by WikiLeaks, reported, ‘Ribadu also expressed concern for his former EFCC colleague and friend, Ibrahim Magu; he claims Magu is in danger because of his specific knowledge of the President’s relationship with Dahiru Mangal (an influential wealthy northern businessman who is currently under investigation and has ties to the Yar’Adua family and administration) and a money laundering operation which fronts as a legitimate company.’

The Monuc team recorded that Anvil accepted that the army used its vehicles but denied that they were used to transport loot or corpses, and that it admitted paying some of the soldiers. 29. Bill Turner, e-mail exchange with author, October 2014. 30. US Embassy Kinshasa, ‘Augustin Katumba, President’s Alleged Treasurer and Enforcer, Steps Down as Head of National Assembly’s Ruling Coalition; His Influence Could Remain’, 14 December 2009, WikiLeaks, 1 September 2011, www.wikileaks.org/cable/2009​/12/09KINSHASA1080.html. 31. UN Security Council, ‘Fourth Special Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo’, 21 November 2008, www.securitycouncilreport.org/​atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3​-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/DRC%20S%202008%20728.pdf. 32. For the size of Nkunda’s force, see ‘Eastern Congo: Why Stabilisation Failed’, International Crisis Group, 4 October 2012, www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions​/africa/central-africa/dr-congo​/b091-eastern-congo-why-​stabilisation-failed.aspx.


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Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

The Age of Deception: Nuclear Diplomacy in Treacherous Times (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2011), 141–47. 26 Karl Vick, “Iran’s President Calls Holocaust ‘Myth’ in Latest Assault on Jews,” Washington Post, Foreign Service, December 15, 2005. 27 “06Kuwait71, Kuwait’s Country Wide Radiation Monitoring System,” US State Department cable from the US embassy in Kuwait to the State Department in Washington, DC, January 2006. Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06KUWAIT71.html. 28 The assessment comes from Ariel (Eli) Levite, deputy director general of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, in a September 2005 US State Department cable from the Tel Aviv embassy, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2005/09/05TELAVIV5705.html. 29 “06TelAviv293, Iran: Congressman Ackerman’s January 5 Meeting at,” US State Department cable from the US embassy in Tel Aviv, January 2006. Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06TELAVIV293.html. See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems. 30 Privately, Israel and Russia both told the United States they believed Iran could actually master its enrichment difficulties within six months.

See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems. 30 Privately, Israel and Russia both told the United States they believed Iran could actually master its enrichment difficulties within six months. See “06Cairo601, Iran; Centrifuge Briefing to Egyptian MFA,” US State Department cable, February 2006, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/02/06CAIRO601.html. 31 “06TelAviv688, Iran-IAEA: Israeli Atomic Energy Commission,” US State Department cable, February 2006, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/02/06TELAVIV688.html. 32 Ibid. 33 “Iran Defiant on Nuclear Deadline,” BBC News, August 1, 2006, available at news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5236010.stm. 34 “07Berlins1450, Treasury Under Secretary Levey Discusses Next,” US State Department cable from the embassy in Berlin, July 2007, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2007/07/07BERLIN1450.html. The cable mentions that at least thirty Iranian front companies had been established for procurement.

Steven Lee Myers, “An Assessment Jars a Foreign Policy Debate About Iran,” New York Times, December 4, 2007. 43 Germany’s deputy national security adviser Rolf Nikel told US officials in early 2008 that the NIE report complicated efforts to convince the German public and German companies that sanctions against Iran had merit. US State Department cable, February 2008, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2008/02/08BERLIN180.html. See also wikileaks.org/cable/2007/12/07BERLIN2157.html. With regard to the Israeli comments, according to a US State Department cable published by WikiLeaks in May 2009, IDF intelligence chief Maj. Gen. Amos Yadlin made the comments to Congressman Robert Wexler. See wikileaks.cabledrum.net/cable/2009/05/09TELAVIV. The NIE had other repercussions. A German-Iranian trader named Mohsen Vanaki was on trial in Germany for smuggling dual-use equipment to Iran. He was charged in June 2008 under the War Weapons Control and Foreign Trade Acts.


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Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, circulation of elites, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kenneth Arrow, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, mass incarceration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

On April 5, 2010, the site uploaded a video it provocatively titled “Collateral Murder,” which recorded an Apache helicopter in Iraq as it (mistakenly) gunned down two Reuters journalists and a dozen Iraqi civilians, most of whom were unarmed. The video precipitated outcries from across the globe and intense coverage in the foreign press. At home, it prompted an explosion of commentary and debate in the blogosphere and, after WikiLeaks produced seventy thousand classified documents on the Afghanistan war, a harsh condemnation from the Department of Defense: “We deplore WikiLeaks for inducing individuals to break the law, leak classified documents, and then cavalierly share that secret information with the world, including our enemies.” But those were just the first tremors. In December 2010, WikiLeaks sent shock waves through governments around the globe when it posted 6,000 secret U.S. diplomatic cables (out of a total of 150,000 in its possession) revealing, among other embarrassing details of U.S. statecraft, that the United States was waging a more or less secret war in Yemen and that Hillary Clinton had directed diplomatic staff abroad to spy on foreign officials (in contravention of the UN charter).

In Tunisia, anti-regime activists read with interest U.S. diplomats’ description of the egregious corruption and self-dealing by the country’s ruling strongman Ben Ali (he would be dislodged by a popular uprising one month later). Republican congressman Peter King called for WikiLeaks to be designated a foreign terrorist organization and for Assange to be criminally prosecuted. Bill O’Reilly fantasized on air about Assange being killed by a U.S. predator drone. Vice President Joe Biden called WikiLeaks “terrorists,” and reports surfaced that Attorney General Eric Holder had commissioned an inquiry to see if Assange could be tried under the 1917 Espionage Act. WikiLeaks’ defenders pointed to a simple, powerful principle: Citizens of a democratic republic have a right to know what their government is doing. Daniel Ellsberg, who struck his own blow for openness during the Vietnam War by leaking the infamous Pentagon Papers to the New York Times, defended Assange in precisely these terms.

If you look at polls, everyone hates Congress, they hate the Democrats, they hate the Republicans even more, they hate big business; they hate banks and they distrust scientists, so why should we believe what these pointy-headed elitists are telling us? We don’t trust anything else, we don’t trust them.” Even Assange himself has come, I think, to recognize this central problem. An early manifesto he wrote about WikiLeaks activities in 2006 called “State and Terrorist Conspiracies” laid out a truly radical vision in which the goal of WikiLeaks was to destroy the “authoritarian conspiracy” that lay behind what he called “unjust regimes.” By leaking information from within, WikiLeaks would lead these institutions to grow paranoid and no longer able to communicate with themselves, spelling their demise. But by 2011, Assange’s views had evolved. Rather than wanting to use leaks as a means of destroying institutions from the inside, he told interviewer David Frost he was trying to save them from themselves.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

Among the few who saw the threat clearly was computer scientist Jaron Lanier, who, in 2010, warned the public of a new danger: WikiLeaks. At the time, free speech advocates were hailing WikiLeaks, and its founder, Julian Assange, as defenders of government transparency. Their lionization of the leaker organization was largely due to frustration with the criminal impunity of the Bush administration. In February 2010, soldier Chelsea Manning exposed war crimes by sending classified documents to WikiLeaks, which WikiLeaks then published online. The emphasis on civilian victims led human rights advocates to believe that WikiLeaks would prove a formidable opponent for autocratic regimes. But after WikiLeaks dropped hacked documents from the US State Department in November, Lanier predicted the opposite—that WikiLeaks would ultimately ally with dictators and that social media networks would abet them: The WikiLeaks method punishes a nation—or any human undertaking—that falls short of absolute, total transparency, which is all human undertakings, but perversely rewards an absolute lack of transparency.

But after WikiLeaks dropped hacked documents from the US State Department in November, Lanier predicted the opposite—that WikiLeaks would ultimately ally with dictators and that social media networks would abet them: The WikiLeaks method punishes a nation—or any human undertaking—that falls short of absolute, total transparency, which is all human undertakings, but perversely rewards an absolute lack of transparency. Thus an iron-shut government doesn’t have leaks to the site, but a mostly-open government does. If the political world becomes a mirror of the Internet as we know it today, then the world will be restructured around opaque, digitally delineated power centers surrounded by a sea of chaotic, underachieving openness. WikiLeaks is one prototype of a digital power center, but others include hedge funds and social networking sites. This is the world we are headed to, it seems, since people are unable to resist becoming organized according to the digital architectures that connect us.

Sarah Kendzior, “The Strange Saga of a Made-Up Activist and Her Life—and Death—as a Hoax,” The Atlantic, December 20, 2011, https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/12/the-strange-saga-of-a-made-up-activist-and-her-life-and-death-as-a-hoax/250203/.   9.   Jaron Lanier, “The Hazards of Nerd Supremacy: The Case of WikiLeaks,” The Atlantic, December 20, 2010, https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2010/12/the-hazards-of-nerd-supremacy-the-case-of-WikiLeaks/68217/. 10.   Malcolm Nance, The Plot to Destroy Democracy: How Putin and his Spies Are Undermining America and Dismantling the West (New York: Hachette Books, 2018). 11.   Ivan Sigal, Public Radio International, “Syria’s war may be the most documented ever. And yet, we know so little,” December 19, 2016, https://www.pri.org/stories/2016-12-19/syrias-war-may-be-most-documented-ever-and-yet-we-know-so-little. 12.   


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Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

(Tails) operating system: “Documentation,” Tails, https://tails.boum.org/doc/index.en.html. At his military court proceedings: Bradley Manning, “Bradley Manning’s Statement Taking Responsibility for Releasing Documents to WikiLeaks,” February 28, 2013, http://www.bradleymanning.org/news/bradley-mannings-statement-taking-responsibility-for-releasing-documents-to-wikileaks. He was betrayed by a friend: Kevin Poulsen and Kim Zetter, “U.S. Intelligence Analyst Arrested in Wikileaks Video Probe,” Wired, Threat Level (blog), June 6, 2010, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/06/leak/. Government investigators later found traces: Eva Blum-Dumontet, “Bradley Manning Legal Proceedings: Fact Sheet,” WikiLeaks Press, March 31, 2012, http://wikileaks-press.org/bradley-manning-legal-procedures-fact-sheet/. that has any paid staff: “Core Tor People,” The Tor Project, https://www.torproject.org/about/corepeople.html.en.

The amazing thing about Tails is that it is designed from the ground up for privacy, so there are no settings to jiggle or opt-outs required. Using Tails was my only and best glimpse into an alternate universe where privacy could be the default. At his military court proceedings, Bradley Manning, the U.S. Army private who leaked documents to WikiLeaks, described how he connected with WikiLeaks using Tor and Jabber for encrypted chats. “The anonymity provided by TOR and the Jabber client and the WLO’s [WikiLeaks Organization’s] policy allowed me to feel I could just be myself, free of the concerns of social labeling and perceptions that are often placed upon me in real life,” Manning said in his statement to the court. Of course, encryption ultimately didn’t save Manning. He was betrayed by a friend—a hacker named Adrian Lamo, who turned Manning in to the FBI.

Short, simple passwords, such as dictionary words, have very low entropy because they can easily be guessed. Longer passwords that contain many types of symbols, letters, and numbers often have larger entropy because it takes more guesses to figure them out. Julian Assange knew this when he created the following password to the WikiLeaks cables database: AcollectionOfDiplomaticHistorySince_1966_ToThe_PresentDay#. It is fifty-eight characters long, with very few symbols, and easy to remember. Of course, the reason we know his password is that the Guardian newspaper published it in a book about WikiLeaks. So, obviously, it wasn’t a secure password in other respects. Entropy is frustratingly difficult to estimate. A long password can have low entropy if it is comprised of simple words and easy grammar. I started to become obsessed with measuring the entropy of the passwords I had created.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buy and hold, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

A FEW MONTHS earlier the big concern plaguing the Bitcoin forum was how to attract new users, but now the problem was how to deal with the influx of new users, their potentially malicious behavior, and their competing interests. These problems became particularly pronounced after Bitcoin’s next big jump into the spotlight. In November, WikiLeaks, the organization founded by a regular participant in the old Cypherpunk movement, Julian Assange, released a vast trove of confidential American diplomatic documents that revealed previously secret operations around the world. The large credit card companies and PayPal came under immediate political pressure to cut off donations to WikiLeaks, which they did in early December, in what became known as the WikiLeaks blockade. This move pointed to the potentially troubling nexus between the financial industry and the government. If politicians didn’t like the ideas of a particular group, government officials could ask banks and credit card networks to deny the unpopular group access to the financial system, often without requiring any judicial approval.

The financial industry seemed to provide politicians with an extralegal way to crack down on dissent. The WikiLeaks blockade went to the core of some of the concerns that had motivated the original Cypherpunks. Bitcoin, in turn, seemed to have the potential to counteract the problem. Each person on the network controlled his or her coins with his or her private key. There was no central organization that could freeze a person’s Bitcoin address or stop coins from being sent from a particular address. A few days after the WikiLeaks blockade began, PCWorld wrote a widely circulated story that noted the obvious utility of Bitcoin in the situation: “Nobody can stop the Bitcoin system or censor it, short of turning off the entire Internet. If WikiLeaks had requested Bitcoins then they would have received their donations without a second thought.”

It wasn’t clear if Bitcoin could actually be used in this particular instance, but whatever the practical possibilities, the blockade was helping elevate the debate around Bitcoin beyond the rather narrow issues of privacy and government money-printing that had been dominant in the early days. Here was a broader philosophical issue that could attract a wider audience, and the forums were full of new members who had been drawn in by the attention. One new user, a young man in England named Amir Taaki, proposed making Bitcoin donations to WikiLeaks. Amir argued this could raise Bitcoin’s profile at the same time that it could help WikiLeaks raise money. This kicked off a vigorous debate on the forum. A number of programmers worried that the Bitcoin network was not ready for all the traffic—and government scrutiny—that might come if it started to be used for controversial donations. “It is extraordinarily unwise to make Bitcoin such a highly visible target, at such an early stage in this project.


pages: 233 words: 73,772

The Secret World of Oil by Ken Silverstein

business intelligence, clean water, corporate governance, corporate raider, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Google Earth, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

“Sometimes we have special guests, and they like to be entertained,” Gutseriev explained to her. Later Gutseriev went into the energy business—he was understatedly described in a US diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks as “not known for his transparent corporate governance.” He did well. He regularly appears on Forbes’s list of the richest Russians, with a fortune estimated in 2012 at around $6.7 billion. A decade earlier, though, Gutseriev was down and seemingly out. In 2002, the Kremlin fired him as the head of state-owned oil firm Slavneft for resisting the company’s privatization, according to the WikiLeaked cable. That same year, however, he sought to regain his position by arranging for three busloads of armed guards to take over its Moscow offices. They withdrew after occupying the building for several days, according to an account in the Russian press.

Competition with China for influence in the region and growing trade ties—the United States buys more than half of Cambodia’s apparel production, its primary export—are among the factors behind the political warming. But a US diplomatic cable written in 2007 and released by WikiLeaks pointed to another reason for the rapprochement: the discovery of massive extractable resources, including gold, bauxite, and other minerals, plus potentially large reserves of oil and gas. Doing business in Cambodia is not easy, though. The WikiLeaks cable said corruption in the country was “systemic and pervasive” and expressed concern that Cambodia might become “the Nigeria of Southeast Asia.” One Western investor I talked to described the situation as “a nightmare,” saying, “Anything having to do with licenses, natural resources, or concessions—that’s where you have problems and where you always have military and government officials looking for money.”

Kazakhstan sits at the heart of the Caspian Sea region, in Central Asia, and the WikiLeaks cables paint the same rough portrait of other energy-rich nations of the region. In one diplomatic missive, a US diplomat compares Azerbaijani president Ilham Aliyev to Sonny Corleone. Like Don Vito’s kid, Aliyev was prone to overreact when he perceived challenges “to his authority or affronts to his family dignity, even minor ones,” said a 2009 cable, in a reference to the president’s tendency to lock up critics and shut down newspapers. As the dispatch explained, “He typically devises [foreign policy] with pragmatism, restraint and a helpful bias toward integration with the West, yet at home his policies have become increasingly authoritarian and hostile to diversity of political views.” Another WikiLeaked cable from January 2010 said that observers in Baku, the capital, often note that today’s Azerbaijan is run in a manner similar to the feudalism found in Europe during the Middle Ages: a handful of well-connected families control certain geographic areas, as well as certain sectors of the economy … As a result, an economy already burgeoning with oil and gas revenues produces enormous opportunity and wealth for a small handful of players that form Azerbaijan’s elite.


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With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald

Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Instead, the administration did something else entirely: it launched an all-out war on WikiLeaks itself. Numerous reports quickly surfaced that the Obama DOJ was actively attempting to indict WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, an Australian citizen, under the Espionage Act of 1917—which, if successful, would be the first time in U.S. history that a nongovernment employee was convicted of espionage for publishing classified material. Meanwhile, a very sophisticated cyberattack temporarily drove WikiLeaks offline. Overt pressure from American government officials resulted in Australia threatening to revoke Assange’s passport. Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee, publicly warned companies not to associate with WikiLeaks in any way, after which the assets of WikiLeaks were frozen and the organization’s accounts with MasterCard, Visa, PayPal, and Bank of America were terminated, impeding the group’s ability to raise funds.

Perhaps nothing better illustrates the reprehensible double standard than the Obama administration’s actions against the whistle-blowing site WikiLeaks. Throughout 2010, WikiLeaks published thousands of documents relating to U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which revealed shocking abuses and outright criminality on the part of the American occupiers. The files showed American soldiers firing on unarmed civilians and journalists, covering up multiple killings of civilians, and adopting a formal policy of turning a blind eye to systematic human rights abuses perpetrated by Iraqi forces right under the Americans’ noses. Needless to say, none of these revelations resulted in any criminal investigations from the Obama administration. In December, WikiLeaks released another trove of information: numerous diplomatic cables that had been sent from U.S. embassies around the world.

As David Corn of Mother Jones reported: During an April 14, 2009, White House briefing, I asked press secretary Robert Gibbs if the Obama administration would cooperate with any request from the Spaniards for information and documents related to the Bush Six. He said, “I don’t want to get involved in hypotheticals.” What he didn’t disclose was that the Obama administration, working with Republicans, was actively pressuring the Spaniards to drop the investigation. Those efforts apparently paid off, and, as this WikiLeaks-released cable shows, Gonzales, Haynes, Feith, Bybee, Addington, and Yoo owed Obama and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton thank-you notes. The release of the WikiLeaks cable prompted the Philadelphia Daily News’s Will Bunch to write a scathing column titled “The Day That Barack Obama Lied to Me.” Recalling his interview with the candidate who had committed to look into Bush crimes, Bunch wrote: “The breakdown of justice in this country is far from exceptional. In fact, it’s contemptible.


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@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, John Markoff, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Themis planned to set up an analysis cell that would feed the law firm information about “adversarial entities and networks of interest,” according to a proposal the team created. The CEO of HBGary, Aaron Barr, said the team should collect information about WikiLeaks’ “global following and volunteer staff,” along with the group’s donors, in order to intimidate them. “Need to get people to understand that if they support the organization we will come after them,” Barr wrote in an e-mail. He suggested submitting fake documents to WikiLeaks in hopes that the site would publish them and then be discredited. Barr also urged targeting “people like Glenn Greenwald,” the blogger and vocal WikiLeaks supporter, and he said he wanted to launch “cyberattacks” on a server WikiLeaks was using in Sweden, in order to “get data” about WikiLeaks’ anonymous sources and expose them. Team Themis never had the chance to launch its espionage and propaganda campaign.

The Los Angeles Police Department is another Palantir customer, as is the New York Police Department, which runs an intelligence and counterterrorism unit that many experts believe is more sophisticated than the FBI’s or the CIA’s. Though Team Themis failed, the US government has turned to other private cyber sleuths to go after WikiLeaks and help with other investigations. Tiversa, a Pittsburgh-based company, grabbed headlines in 2011 when it accused WikiLeaks of using peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, like those used to swap music downloads, to obtain classified US military documents. WikiLeaks, which claims only to publish documents that it receives from whistleblowers, called the allegations “completely false.” Tiversa gave its findings to government investigators, who had been trying to build a case against Assange. Tiversa’s board of advisers includes prominent security experts and former US officials, such as General Wesley Clark, former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO forces in Europe and onetime Democratic presidential candidate, and Howard Schmidt, who was Barack Obama’s cyber security adviser in the White House.

In the fall of 2010, just as the website WikiLeaks was preparing to release potentially embarrassing information on Bank of America, including internal records and documents, Justice Department officials contacted the bank’s lawyers and encouraged them to get in touch with Hunton & Williams, a Washington law firm. It had put together a trio of small tech companies to run a kind of cyber propaganda operation against opponents of the US Chamber of Commerce, the leading business lobbyist in Washington. The group planned to scour websites and social media with data-mining technology and build dossiers on the Chamber’s opponents. Hunton & Williams asked the trio, which operated under the name Team Themis, if they could do the same job for supporters of WikiLeaks, and also if they could locate where the organization was storing classified information it got from its anonymous sources.


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Breaking News: The Remaking of Journalism and Why It Matters Now by Alan Rusbridger

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Filter Bubble, forensic accounting, Frank Gehry, future of journalism, G4S, high net worth, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks

But – years later – Assange, solitary and reclusive, intervened in the 2016 US presidential election in ways that troubled many. In the month before voters went to the polls WikiLeaks assiduously published a steady barrage of hacked emails – more than 100,000 in all – from the campaign (the Democratic National Committee leaks) and Hillary Clinton’s team (the Podesta emails). Clinton had been seven points ahead of Donald Trump at the beginning of October. In December 2016, she singled out both the WikiLeaks documents and FBI director James Comey’s announcement that he had re-opened enquiries into her communications as significant contributions to her defeat. That may or may not have been true. But what if the emails were ‘intelligence porn’, to use Comey’s description of them to a Senate hearing? The claim is that WikiLeaks was essentially laundering information that might have been hacked by Russian intelligence with the purpose of destabilising the election of a foreign power.9 Assange’s defence about what he described (using the language of newspapers) as an ‘epic scoop’ was straight down the line: the classic right to know.

The claim is that WikiLeaks was essentially laundering information that might have been hacked by Russian intelligence with the purpose of destabilising the election of a foreign power.9 Assange’s defence about what he described (using the language of newspapers) as an ‘epic scoop’ was straight down the line: the classic right to know. In a statement released on the WikiLeaks website in November 2016 he elaborated: ‘It is an open model of journalism that gatekeepers are uncomfortable with, but which is perfectly harmonious with the First Amendment . . . It would be unconscionable for WikiLeaks to withhold such an archive from the public during an election.’ He contrasted his behaviour with the notorious failure of the NYT to publish evidence of illegal mass surveillance of the US population for a year until after the 2004 election. ‘The First Amendment does not privilege old media, with its corporate advertisers and dependencies on incumbent power factions, over WikiLeaks’ model of scientific journalism or an individual’s decision to inform their friends on social media.

This was a lesson which was lost on the British authorities – up to, and including, the subsequent Snowden reporting. We published. The sky did not fall in. The opponents of publication made repeated assertions of the harm caused by the release. Some years later, I was sitting with a senior intelligence figure as he predicted grave consequences of the Snowden revelations. We’d have blood on our hands, he told us. ‘But you argued that over WikiLeaks,’ I protested. He waved his hand dismissively. WikiLeaks was insignificant. ‘But that’s not what you said at the time!’ * The Iraq documents and diplomatic cables were, to date, easily the biggest leak of classified material in history. The relationship with Assange did not survive – quite the opposite. He became the bitterest of critics, protesting (in the third person) on Twitter that he had suffered ‘five years being detained [as ‘editor’] without charge after you invited him to the UK to be your source’7 – a very Assangeist mingling of causes and effects.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

Big sites need hosting, and that costs money. WikiLeaks was the target of this in 2010, with US credit card processors cutting off all donations to the site. Despite not getting money from US contributors, WikiLeaks survived and got good press from being the victim of clearly abusive conduct by the US government and financial industry. So attacking a site will often just make it stronger. The very fact that authorities target a leaks site promotes its accuracy and importance. It is also technically hard to sustain. In 2011, Bank of America hired three firms to attack Wikileaks. One of the firms, HBGary Federal, was hacked by Anonymous, and the plan was discovered. Emails and documents uncovered in the hack outline several proposed attacks on WikiLeaks: Feed the fuel between the feuding groups.

There are several strategies, as far as I can see. The most obvious and widely used is to attack any website that acts as a broker for leaks. WikiLeaks drew a massive amount of fire and fury for declaring its mission to be a broker for leaks, in 2006, leading to its founder Julian Assange infamously holed up in the Ecuadorian embassy in London, with Hollywood painting him in 2013 as a glory-seeking egomaniac. Threaten the powers that be, and you will pay. While it can be tricky to arrest and disappear a public figure, it is trivial to launch a "distributed denial of service attack," or DDoS, on any troublesome website. One simply tells hundreds of thousands of slave PCs to request the main page of the website, say wikileaks.org, at the same time. The simultaneous volume of demand overwhelms the server so that real users can't access it.

Run a media campaign to push the radical and reckless nature of WikiLeaks activities. Sustain pressure. Does nothing for the fanatics, but creates concern and doubt among moderates. Search for leaks. Use social media to profile and identify risky behavior of employees. Once a leak is out and attacks on the website that released the information are shown to be useless, the next step is to attack the motives, sanity, and loyalty of the leaker. When there is a leak, the American press (when the leak concerns American secrets) focuses on the messenger and his motives, rather than the message. This isn't necessarily a conspiracy as much as how US media, and indeed much of US society, prefers style over substance. The most significant trove of documents that WikiLeaks published came from Chelsea née Bradley Manning, who has been described in the media as mentally unstable, reckless, and naive.


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Sandworm: A New Era of Cyberwar and the Hunt for the Kremlin's Most Dangerous Hackers by Andy Greenberg

air freight, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, clean water, data acquisition, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global supply chain, hive mind, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, pirate software, pre–internet, profit motive, ransomware, RFID, speech recognition, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

This time, in a blatant mockery: Andy Greenberg, “Russian Hackers Get Bolder in Anti-Doping Agency Attack,” Wired, Sept. 14, 2016, www.wired.com. The site, of course: Raphael Satter, “Inside Story: How Russia Hacked the Democrats’ Email,” Associated Press, Nov. 4, 2017, www.apnews.com. Another seemed to call for “open borders”: “HRC Paid Speeches,” email via WikiLeaks, sent Jan. 25, 2016, wikileaks.org, archived at bit.ly/2RRtcNA. The security firm Secureworks found the link: “Threat Group 4127 Targets Hillary Clinton Presidential Campaign,” June 16, 2016, www.secureworks.com, archived at bit.ly/2RecMtu. “I love WikiLeaks!”: Mark Hensch, “Trump: ‘I Love WikiLeaks,’ ” Hill, Oct. 10, 2016, thehill.com. But for the most part, Trump: Andy Greenberg, “A Timeline of Trump’s Strange, Contradictory Statements on Russian Hacking,” Wired, Jan. 4, 2017, www.wired.com. Trump’s obfuscation served Fancy Bear: Jake Sherman, “POLITICO/Morning Consult Poll: Only One-Third of Americans Say Russia Influenced 2016 Election,” Politico, Dec. 20, 2016, www.politico.com.

* * * ■ The flimsiness of the Guccifer 2.0 lie hardly mattered. The hackers sent the news site Gawker the Trump opposition research document, and it published a story on the file that received half a million clicks, robbing the Democrats of the ability to time the release of their Trump dirt. Soon, as promised, WikiLeaks began to publish a steady trickle of the hackers’ stolen data, too; after all, Julian Assange’s secret-spilling group had never been very particular about whether its “leaks” came from whistle-blowers or hackers. The documents, now with WikiLeaks’ stamp of credibility, began to be picked up by news outlets including The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Guardian, Politico, BuzzFeed, and The Intercept. The revelations were very real: It turned out the DNC had secretly favored the candidate Hillary Clinton over her opponent Bernie Sanders as the presumptive Democratic nominee for president, despite the committee’s purported role as a neutral arbiter for the party.

Next to an operation like Sandworm’s 2015 Christmas blackout, they were practically primitive. But one of Fancy Bear’s crudest tactics turned out to be its most effective of all: a rudimentary spoofed log-in page. On October 7, WikiLeaks began publishing a new series of leaks, this time stolen directly from the email account of Hillary Clinton’s campaign chair, John Podesta. The previous March, Podesta had fallen prey to a basic phishing email, directing him to a fake Gmail site that asked for his username and password, which he handed over. The site, of course, was a Fancy Bear trap. WikiLeaks would trickle out its resulting stash of Clinton campaign kompromat for weeks to come. The revelations included eighty pages of closely guarded speeches Clinton had given to private Wall Street audiences. One included a reference to politicians’ need to have separate “public” and “private” positions, which her critics interpreted as an admission of deception.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

It is possible that blockchain mechanisms might be the most efficient and equitable models for administering all transnational public goods, particularly due to their participative, democratic, and distributed nature. A notable case in which jurisdictional nation-state entities were able to effect centralized and biased control is WikiLeaks. In the Edward Snowden whistle-blowing case in 2010, individuals were trying to make financial contributions in support of the WikiLeaks organization but, strongarmed by centralized government agendas, credit card payment networks and PayPal, refused to accept such contributions, and WikiLeaks was effectively embargoed.75 Bitcoin contributions, had they been possible at the time, would have been direct, and possibly produced a different outcome. The Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), a nonprofit organization that supports personal freedoms, and other related organizations are similarly located in jurisdictional locations at present, which could always mean the operation of curtailed agendas if authorities were to exercise influence over the organization and individuals involved.

topic=1854.0. 73 Swan, M. “Automatic Markets.” Broader Perspective blog, August 23, 2009. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2009/08/automatic-markets.html. 74 Hearn, M. “Future of Money (and Everything Else).” Edinburgh Turing Festival. YouTube, August 23, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu4PAMFPo5Y. 75 Moshinsky, B. et al. “WikiLeaks Finds Snowden Cash Bump Elusive.” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 11, 2013. http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-07-11/wikileaks-finds-snowden-cash-bump-elusive. 76 Gilson, D. “What Are Namecoins and .bit Domains?” CoinDesk, June 18, 2013. http://www.coindesk.com/what-are-namecoins-and-bit-domains/. 77 ———. “Developers Attempt to Resurrect Namecoin After Fundamental Flaw Discovered.” CoinDesk, October 28, 2013. http://www.coindesk.com/namecoin-flaw-patch-needed/. 78 Wong, J.I.

Currency, Contracts, and Applications beyond Financial Markets The potential benefits of the blockchain are more than just economic—they extend into political, humanitarian, social, and scientific domains—and the technological capacity of the blockchain is already being harnessed by specific groups to address real-world problems. For example, to counter repressive political regimes, blockchain technology can be used to enact in a decentralized cloud functions that previously needed administration by jurisdictionally bound organizations. This is obviously useful for organizations like WikiLeaks (where national governments prevented credit card processors from accepting donations in the sensitive Edward Snowden situation) as well as organizations that are transnational in scope and neutral in political outlook, like Internet standards group ICANN and DNS services. Beyond these situations in which a public interest must transcend governmental power structures, other industry sectors and classes can be freed from skewed regulatory and licensing schemes subject to the hierarchical power structures and influence of strongly backed special interest groups on governments, enabling new disintermediated business models.


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The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age by David E. Sanger

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, computer age, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, ransomware, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day

But worse yet, he fueled our suspicions that at a minimum he was perfectly comfortable with what was clearly Russian interference in the election. And he made us wonder whether, wittingly or unwittingly, he had become Putin’s agent of influence. * * * — The leaked emails apparently weren’t producing as much news as the GRU-linked hackers had hoped. So the next level of the plan kicked in: activating WikiLeaks. The first WikiLeaks dump was massive: 44,000 emails, more than 17,000 attachments. And not coincidentally, the deluge started just days after our interview with Trump, and right before the start of the Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia. The most politically potent of the emails made clear that the DNC leadership was doing whatever it could to make sure Hillary Clinton got the nomination and Bernie Sanders did not.

The Times was on the wrong side of his wrath in 2009, when I revealed in an article that President Bush, in turning down the Israeli request for bunker-busting bombs to deal with Iran’s nuclear program, initiated a secret program to attack the country’s computer networks—what later became “Olympic Games.” “HOLY SHIT, WTF NYTIMES,” Snowden wrote that day in 2009. “Are they TRYING to start a war? Jesus Christ. They’re like WikiLeaks.” The man who would later revel in revealing scores of sensitive programs sounded incensed. “Who the fuck are the anonymous sources telling them this? Those people should be shot in the balls.” But somewhere along the line Snowden’s views about the importance of shining a light on America’s hidden battles in cyberspace underwent a radical transformation. “It was seeing a continuing litany of lies from senior officials to Congress—and therefore to the American people…that compelled me to act,” he posted in another online chat, after he had fled the United States.

Most important, the NSA has never had to account for the fact that it ignored so many warnings about its well-documented vulnerabilities to a new era of insider threats. The warnings had been quite public. Only three years before the Snowden breach, an army private now known as Chelsea Manning had gotten away with essentially the same thing in Iraq—downloading hundreds of thousands of military videos and State Department cables and handing them off to WikiLeaks. Shortly after the Snowden fiasco, the agency announced new safeguards: No longer would systems administrators with access to vast databases be able to download documents by themselves. There would now be a “two-man rule”—reminiscent of the dual keepers of the keys for the launch of nuclear weapons—to protect against lone actors. But the NSA’s solution was either too late, or ineffective.


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Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

Ambassador Robert Godec in a July 2009 cable released by WikiLeaks. Relying on such assessments, some observers hold that the WikiLeaks “documents should create a comforting feeling among the American public that officials aren’t asleep at the switch”—indeed, the cables are so supportive of U.S. policies that it is almost as if Obama is leaking them himself (or so Jacob Heilbrunn writes in The National Interest). “America should give Assange a medal,” says a headline in the Financial Times. Chief foreign policy analyst Gideon Rachman writes that “America’s foreign policy comes across as principled, intelligent and pragmatic . . . the public position taken by the U.S. on any given issue is usually the private position as well.” In this view, WikiLeaks undermines the “conspiracy theorists” who question the noble motives that Washington regularly proclaims.

Instead of taking practical steps toward reducing the nightmarish threat of nuclear weapons proliferation in Iran or elsewhere, the United States is moving to reinforce control of the vital Middle Eastern oil-producing regions, by violence if other means do not succeed. The War in Afghanistan: Echoes of Vietnam August 1, 2010 The War Logs—a six-year archive of classified military documents about the war in Afghanistan, released on the Internet by the organization WikiLeaks—documents a grim struggle becoming grimmer, from the U.S. perspective. And for the Afghans, a mounting horror. The War Logs, however valuable, may contribute to the unfortunate and prevailing doctrine that wars are wrong only if they aren’t successful—rather like the Nazis felt after Stalingrad. Last month [July 2010] came the fiasco of General Stanley A. McChrystal, forced to retire as commander of U.S. forces in Afghanistan and replaced by his superior, General David H.

Army poll in April [2010], the military operation is opposed by 95 percent of the population, and five out of six regard the Taliban as “our Afghan brothers”—again, echoes of earlier conquests. The Kandahar plans were delayed, part of the background for McChrystal’s leave-taking. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that U.S. authorities are concerned that domestic public support for the war in Afghanistan may erode even further. In May [2010], WikiLeaks released a March [2010] CIA memorandum about how to sustain Western Europe’s support for the war. The memorandum’s subtitle: “Why Counting on Apathy Might Not Be Enough.” “The Afghanistan mission’s low public salience has allowed French and German leaders to disregard popular opposition and steadily increase their troop contributions to the International Security Assistance Force [ISAF],” the memorandum states.


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Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet by Linda Herrera

citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks

Technology companies had become deeply enmeshed in American power. Tunisia’s cyberwars escalated to even greater heights when Anonymous, the decentralized internet group that promotes online freedom, launched Operation Tunisia. During the Tunisian uprising, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange released a series of incriminating cables detailing embezzlement and nepotism by the Ben Ali oligarchy, information that further fueled the revolt. When the government tried to block access to the cables, Operation Tunisia used the Twitter hashtag #OpTunisia to inform Tunisians about backdoor ways to access the WikiLeaks cables and protect themselves online. Anonymous also managed to hack and take down high-profile Tunisian governmental websites, including those of the stock exchange, the government Internet Agency, the Office of the President and Prime Minister, the Ministry of Industry, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

In all likelihood, a Mubarak-regime electronic militia organized the assault on Abbas’s account. Abbas contacted YouTube directly to reinstate the videos, but to no avail. He then reached out to the US Embassy in Cairo and requested that they contact Google, which owns YouTube, on his behalf. The details of Abbas’s request to the embassy appear in an embassy cable dated December 2007, which was made public by WikiLeaks. It reads: Prominent Egyptian blogger, human rights activist and winner of the 2007 Knight-Ridder International Journalism Award, Wael Abbas, contacted us November 17 to report that YouTube removed from his website two videos exposing police abuses—one of a Sinai bedouin allegedly shot by police and thrown in a garbage dump during the past week’s violence … and the other of a woman being tortured in a police station.

In September 2013, Abbas was one of thirty-five activists, including the founders of the 6th of April Facebook page, named in a complaint to the Egyptian public prosecutor. He was called in for questioning on suspicion of treason and working with a foreign government. The names of the activists were taken from a confidential US embassy memo from 2007 entitled “Outreach to Egyptian Democracy and Human Rights Activists,” made public by WikiLeaks in August 2011. This memo details meetings with Egyptian activists from the blogosphere, civil society, and the opposition press. At the time of writing, the fate of those activists remains unclear. What is certain is that activists often risk their own security, credibility, and public standing when they are on record as working with the US government. Their contact with the US government can range from very superficial encounters, like attending a reception or receiving training from a third party funded by USAID, to more suspect activities like participating in closed-door briefings with US officials.


pages: 389 words: 108,344

Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn

airport security, anti-communist, drone strike, Edward Snowden, friendly fire, Google Earth, license plate recognition, RAND corporation, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

“detect any movement of any object as small as a cockroach”: Jim DeBrosse, “Gotcha Radar Aims to Help Troops See in Any Conditions,” Dayton Daily News, August 30, 2009. Defense Secretary Gates, for example, was beguiled by Task Force ODIN’s videos: Gates, op. cit., p. 126. “no detectable effect”: Interview with Rex Rivolo, Washington, DC, February 10, 2011. May 5, 2006, report on the shooting of Allah Harboni: War diaries, BN HVI KILLED BY 3-187 IVO IVO SAMARRA: 1 AIF KIA, 0 CF INJ/DAMAGE 2006-05-08 02:10:00, Wikileaks. https://wardiaries.wikileaks.org/id/70F15038-6A38-4257-8495-1E09F15B677B/. Be Happy Day as an initiative to raise morale: Interview with former military intelligence officer, Los Angeles, CA, September 19, 2012. “Conclusion: HVI Strategy, our principal strategy in Iraq, is counter-productive”: Interview with Rex Rivolo, Washington, DC, February 10, 2011. “When you mow the grass”: Interview, Washington, DC, March 19, 2007. 10 | A Piece of Junk Billy Mitchell … bombing and sinking a number of surrendered Germen warships: Navy Department Library, “The Naval Bombing Experiments, Bombing Operations.” http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/navybomb2.htm.

Three of the victims were children: Rod Nordland and Habib Zahori, “Killing of Afghan Journalist and Family Members Stuns Media Peers,” New York Times, March 26, 2014. “It just shows you”: Email, March 14, 2014. The Taliban, said Lavoy, were making significant gains: U.S. State Department Cable, “Allies find briefing on Afghanistan NIE ‘Gloomy’ but focus on recommendations to improve situation,” Secret—NOFORN, December 5, 2008: Wikileaks, Public Library of U.S. Diplomacy. http://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08USNATO453_a.html. “I simply doubt our ability”: Email from Matthew Hoh, April 3, 2014. “I have yet to see one of those out here”: Email, April 9, 2014. 12 | Drones, Baby, Drones! The Richard M. Helms Award dinner: CIA Officers Memorial Foundation: “Richard M. Helms Award Dinner 2011,” Compass (no. 1), undated. Joining them were senior executives of various defense corporations: Recollection of attendees at dinner.

In reality the driver of the car: Ibid., p. 86. In fact, given reports that the rival Mehsud and Wazir tribes: Azhar Masood, “Pakistani Tribesmen Settle Scores Through US Drones,” Arab News, May 24, 2011. ISI … were supplying the targeting information: Patrick Cockburn, “Revenger’s Tragedy: The Forgotten Conflict in Pakistan,” Independent, May 10, 2010. Ahmed Wali Karzai: Wikileaks, “Ahmed Wali Karzai Seeking to Define Himself as US Partner,” February 25, 2010. https://wikileaks.org/cable/2010/02/10KABUL693.html. “very precise precision strikes”: David Jackson, “Obama Defends Drone Strikes,” State Department Cable, USA Today, January 31, 2012. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta echoed the sentiment: U.S. Department of Defense, Press Operations, “Remarks by Secretary Panetta at the Center for a New American Security,” November 20, 2012.


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Permanent Record by Edward Snowden

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, pre–internet, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, WikiLeaks, zero day

It might be hard to remember, or even to imagine, but at the time when I first considered coming forward, the whistleblower’s forum of choice was WikiLeaks. Back then, it operated in many respects like a traditional publisher, albeit one that was radically skeptical of state power. WikiLeaks regularly joined up with leading international publications like the Guardian, the New York Times, Der Spiegel, Le Monde, and El País to publish the documents provided by its sources. The work that these partner news organizations accomplished over the course of 2010 and 2011 suggested to me that WikiLeaks was most valuable as a go-between that connected sources with journalists, and as a firewall that preserved sources’ anonymity. WikiLeaks’ practices changed following its publication of disclosures by US Army private Chelsea Manning—huge caches of US military field logs pertaining to the Iraq and Afghan wars, information about detainees at Guantanamo Bay, along with US diplomatic cables.

WikiLeaks’ practices changed following its publication of disclosures by US Army private Chelsea Manning—huge caches of US military field logs pertaining to the Iraq and Afghan wars, information about detainees at Guantanamo Bay, along with US diplomatic cables. Due to the governmental backlash and media controversy surrounding the site’s redaction of the Manning materials, WikiLeaks decided to change course and publish future leaks as they received them: pristine and unredacted. This switch to a policy of total transparency meant that publishing with WikiLeaks would not meet my needs. Effectually, it would have been the same for me as self-publishing, a route I’d already rejected as insufficient. I knew that the story the NSA documents told about a global system of mass surveillance deployed in the deepest secrecy was a difficult one to understand—a story so tangled and technical that I was increasingly convinced it could not be presented all at once in a “document dump,” but only by the patient and careful work of journalists, undertaken, in the best scenario I could conceive of, with the support of multiple independent press institutions.

Though I felt some relief once I’d resolved to disclose directly to journalists, I still had some lingering reservations. Most of them involved my country’s most prestigious publications—particularly America’s newspaper of record, the New York Times. Whenever I thought about contacting the Times, I found myself hesitating. While the paper had shown some willingness to displease the US government with its WikiLeaks reporting, I couldn’t stop reminding myself of its earlier conduct involving an important article on the government’s warrantless wiretapping program by Eric Lichtblau and James Risen. Those two journalists, by combining information from Justice Department whistleblowers with their own reporting, had managed to uncover one aspect of STELLARWIND—the NSA’s original-recipe post-9/11 surveillance initiative—and had produced a fully written, edited, and fact-checked article about it, ready to go to press by mid-2004.


pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

His impotent threats, like so many of those Anonymous has targeted, were sheepishly removed a short time later after his site was brought down again. Then Anonymous went after the RIAA because it sought legal action against file sharing site Limewire. In December 2010, Amazon, Paypal, Bank of America, PostFinance, MasterCard, and Visa decided to stop processing donations for the global news leak network WikiLeaks, which had recently caused global controversy by posting sensitive internal documents. These payment-processing sites had bowed to political pressure, refusing to work with WikiLeaks. In retaliation, Anonymous launched DDoS attacks against several of these companies, successfully bringing down the websites for MasterCard and Visa. A 16-year-old boy from the Netherlands was arrested in relation to the attack, and the FBI is probably still investigating. HBGary Federal Hack In February 2011, Aaron Barr, the chief executive of the security firm HBGary Federal, announced that he’d infiltrated Anonymous and would reveal his findings in an upcoming conference.

CBS News. Last modified January 5, 2011. http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-500803_162-20027506-500803.html. Doctorow, Cory. “Anonymous infighting: IRC servers compromised, IP addresses dumped, claims of coup and counter-coup.” Boing Boing. Last modified May 10, 2011. http://boingboing.net/2011/05/10/anonymous-infighting.html. Emmett, Laura. “WikiLeaks revelations only tip of iceberg – Assange.” RT. Last modified May 3, 2011. http://rt.com/news/wikileaks-revelations-assange-interview/. Encyclopedia Dramatica. “Hal Turner.” http://encyclopediadramatica.ch/Hal_Turner. Fark post. “Judge determines unsolicited finger in anus is crude, but not criminal.” Last modified March 12, 2004. http://www.fark.com/cgi/comments.pl?IDLink=869740. Fark post. “It’s official. A two-mile stretch of Tennessee highway has been adopted by ‘Drew Curtis’ TotalFark UFIA.’

Last modified June 11, 2010. http://www.businessinsider.com/heres-how-buzzfeed-works-2010-6. Furukawa, Hideki. “Q&A With the Founder of Channel 2,” in “Japan Media Review” via the Online Journalism Review. Last modified October 22, 2003. http://www.ojr.org/japan/internet/1061505583.php. Greenberg, Andy. “Amid Digital Blackout, Anonymous Mass-Faxes WikiLeaks Cables To Egypt.” Forbes. Last modified January 28, 2011. http://blogs.forbes.com/andygreenberg/2011/01/28/amid-digital-blackout-anonymous-mass-faxes-wikileaks-cables-to-egypt/. Grossman, Wendy M. “alt.scientology.war.” Wired. December 1995. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.12/alt.scientology.war.html. Harold C. “Hal” Turner v. 4chan.org et al. Filed January 19, 2007. http://dockets.justia.com/docket/new-jersey/njdce/2:2007cv00306/198438/. Haughey, Matt.


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Kleptopia: How Dirty Money Is Conquering the World by Tom Burgis

active measures, Anton Chekhov, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, corporate governance, COVID-19, Covid-19, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, energy security, Etonian, failed state, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Julian Assange, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, WikiLeaks

., p.211 in contact with an official from the criminal division of the Interior Ministry: A leaked entry dated 1986 from the Interior Ministry files describes Mogilevich’s current criminal enterprise and past convictions and says he has been ‘in contact’ with an official deal with German intelligence: Friedman, Red Mafiya, p.210 danced with Bob Levinson: Levinson’s reports of the US law enforcement meetings with Mogilevich; Barry Meier, Missing Man, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2016, p.59 intelligence file disappeared: Friedman, Red Mafiya, p.211 in a bar nearby: Glenny, McMafia, pp.87–9; Friedman, Red Mafiya, pp.215–16; transcript of Tom Mangold’s interview with Mogilevich for ‘The Billion Dollar Don’, Panorama, 1999 annual profits: Roman Olearchyk, Haig Simonian and Stefan Wagstyl, ‘Energy fears highlight trade’s murky side’, Financial Times, January 9, 2009 his cable: ‘USG concerns over Austrian banking operations’, cable sent by US embassy in Austria on February 17, 2006, later published by WikiLeaks, wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/06VIENNA515_a.html bearer shares: Andrew E. Kramer, ‘Ukraine gas deal draws attention to secretive importer’, New York Times, February 1, 2006, nytimes.com/2006/02/01/business/worldbusiness/ukraine-gas-deal-draws-attention-to-secretive.html Seva’s blessing: ‘Ukraine: Firtash makes his case to the USG’, December 10, 2008, later published by WikiLeaks, wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08KYIV2414_a.html. The cable contains the ambassador’s record of his conversation with Firtash: ‘He acknowledged ties to Russian organized crime figure Seymon [sic] Mogilevich, stating he needed Mogilevich’s approval to get into business in the first place.

However, the ruling also records that the document was accompanied by a cover letter from the Ministry of Industry and Energy of the Russian Federation to TNK-BP billions of dollars: Alexander Kots, ‘FSB catches energy spies’, Komsomolskaya Pravda, March 20, 2008, kp.ru/daily/24067/307041 (in Russian) told American diplomats: ‘Update on GOR investigation of TNK-BP’, US state department cable published by WikiLeaks, wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08MOSCOW816_a.html ‘the FSB suspects’: Vera Surzhenko and Alexey Nikolsky, ‘Lubyanka does not sleep’, March 20, 2008, Vedomosti (in Russian), vedomosti.ru/newspaper/articles/2008/03/21/lubyanka-ne-dremlet business cards of CIA officers: Asked about this by the author, McCormick neither confirmed nor denied that the cards were his seventeen hours: McCormick later told Lough in an email that the interrogation had lasted seventeen hours.

The author asked McCormick but he declined to clarify conversed informally: Zaslavskiy and Lough say they spoke to each other in Russian, using the formal mode. The author asked McCormick, who confirmed he does not speak Russian, the basis of his assertion to the contrary. He declined to respond He said Lough ‘supervised’ Zaslavskiy: On March 23, 2008, McCormick spoke with US diplomats in Moscow. This conversation is recorded in a cable subsequently published by WikiLeaks (wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08MOSCOW816_a.html). The cable reported that ‘McCormick said Zaslavsky returned to the company to work in TNK-BP’s Gas Division, where he worked under the supervision of two UK citizens, Alistair Ferguson (the section head) and John Lough, on what was called the “Gazprom project.”’ In 2011, Lough raised this cable with McCormick in an email. He asked whether the cable accurately reflected what McCormick told the diplomats.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

New York Times, May 28, 2014. 46Saskia Sassen, “European Economy’s Invisible Transformation: Expulsions and Predatory Capitalism,” London School of Economics and Political Science, July 3, 2014, at blogs.lse.ac.uk. 47Harriet Alexander, “Greece’s Great Fire Sale,” Telegraph, April 20, 2013. 48“Privatization of Athens Water Utility Ruled Unconstitutional,” Press Project, May 28, 2014, at thepressproject.net. 49Niki Kitsantonis, “Greece Wars with Courts over Ways to Slash Budget,” New York Times, June 12, 2014. 50Daniel Trilling, “Shock Therapy and the Gold Mine,” New Statesman, June 18, 2013. 51“Europe’s Failed Course,” New York Times, February 17, 2012. 52Joanna Kakissis, “36 hours in Athens,” New York Times, October 19, 2014. 53Yiannis Baboulias, “Our Big Fat Greek Privatisation Scandals,” Al Jazeera English, June 10, 2014. 54Helen Smith, “Greece Begins 50 Billion Euro Privatisation Drive,” Guardian, August 1, 2010. 55Slavoj Žižek, “Save Us from the Saviours,” London Review of Books, May 28, 2012. 56Alexander, “Greece’s Fire Sale.” 57Ibid. 58Katie Allen, “Austerity in Greece Caused More than 500 Male Suicides, Say Researchers,” Guardian, April 21, 2014. 59Mark Lowen, “Greek’s Million Unpaid Workers,” BBC News, December 5, 2013. 60“Sisa: Cocaine of the Poor,” Vice News, May 22, 2013, at vice.com. 61Liz Alderman, “Societal Ills Spike in Crisis-Stricken Greece,” New York Times, May 22, 2013. 3Haiti 1Mark Schuller and Pablo Morales, eds, Tectonic Shifts (Sterling, VA: Stylus, 2012). 2Ibid., p. 2. 3Ansel Herz and Kim Ives, “Wikileaks Haiti: The Post-Quake ‘Gold Rush’ for Reconstruction Contracts,” Nation, June 15, 2011. 4Deepa Panchang, Beverly Bell, and Tory Field, “Disaster Capitalism: Profiting from Crisis in Post-Earthquake Haiti,” Truthout, February 16, 2011, at truth-out.org. 5Herz and Ives, “Wikileaks Haiti.” 6The AshBritt company was accused of questionable practices in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the CEPR revealing that a “2006 congressional report examining federal contract waste and abuse noted AshBritt used multiple layers of subcontractors, each of whom got paid while passing on the actual work.”

Market speculators pressurize fragile nations such as Greece, whose citizens are forced to survive with fewer public services.9 British citizens living on the margins face eviction or spiraling rent increases because global fund managers, such as Westbrook—based in the United States—purchase homes as assets to be milked for profit.10 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) traverses the world with the backing of Western elites, strong-arming nations into privatizing their resources and opening up their markets to multinationals. Resistance to this bitter medicine is only one reason that large swathes of Latin America have become more independent since the 2000s. The mass privatization that results—a central plank of US foreign policy—guarantees corruption in autocracies. Wikileaks’ State Department cables offer countless examples of this, including in Egypt under former president Hosni Mubarak.11 The World Bank is equally complicit and equally unaccountable. In 2015 it admitted that it had no idea how many people had been forced off their lands around the world due to its resettlement policies. The story barely made the news and no heads rolled. One Californian town, Maywood, took the privatization memo a bit too seriously.

Today, there are 4 million US citizens who hold Top Secret security clearance, of whom 500,000 are contractors.31 Robert Greiner, who was the CIA station chief in Islamabad, Pakistan, at the time of the 9/11 attacks, said in 2010 that he believed at least half of the staff working at the CIA’s counterterrorism center were private contractors.32 Former NSA employee Edward Snowden exposed the dangers of mass surveillance being managed by private enterprise when he leaked documents in 2013 proving how easy it was for firms such as Booz Allen Hamilton to view and store information on citizens. It is nothing less than a privatized, modern-day Stasi. The claim that “the world is a battlefield” reflects a military ideology pursued by both Democrat and Republican administrations, as has been detailed by investigative journalist Jeremy Scahill. This view is only bolstered by WikiLeaks documents, released in 2010, that uncovered a large number of previously unreported murders committed by privatized security and intelligence forces in the Afghan and Iraq conflict zones.33 These ghost-figures operate in the shadows in dozens of countries, kidnapping, interrogating, and killing suspects without oversight.34 Modern-day mercenary companies, justified by the state as essential in fighting terrorism, have been completely integrated into America’s endless war.


pages: 246 words: 70,404

Come and Take It: The Gun Printer's Guide to Thinking Free by Cody Wilson

3D printing, 4chan, active measures, Airbnb, airport security, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, assortative mating, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, disintermediation, fiat currency, Google Glasses, gun show loophole, jimmy wales, lifelogging, Mason jar, means of production, Menlo Park, Minecraft, national security letter, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, thinkpad, WikiLeaks, working poor

Wilson There is much more to be hoped for in an excess of information or of weapons than in the restriction of information or arms control. —Jean Baudrillard CONTENTS PROLOGUE WikiLeaks, Solid Imaging, and Open Source PART I Wiki Weapon PART II Ministry of Defense PART III The Gun Printer PART IV Terror PART V Danger PART VI Jarhead Angel PART VII John PART VIII Modern Politics PART IX Dropping the Liberator PART X Old Street PART XI Who Does What to Whom PART XII Wine-Dark PART XIII Undetectable PART XIV REDACTED EPILOGUE Nine Months of Night About Cody Wilson PROLOGUE WikiLeaks, Solid Imaging, and Open Source At high summer, we gathered in Little Rock at the Peabody. By the evening the hotel’s signature ducks—four hens and a drake—would have already completed their twice-daily march from the rooftop penthouse to the lobby fountain, where they fluttered and splashed.

The hotel opened directly onto Markham Street and the walking crowds on the Old Statehouse plaza. I lured any who might listen to this marvelous set piece with the grandest exhortations—Would you be remembered?—and here made a ritual of holding a fiendish court. At one of these twilight salons sat Chris Hancock, an old classmate of mine, his tangled black hair brushed from his face. He had brought a friend. “You remember WikiLeaks!” I insisted to them both. “Do you recall the insurance files?” “WikiLeaks sends everything they’ve got out to the public in advance. It’s all published and torrented but protected from reading by some long password, right?” Chris answered. “Exactly,” I said, losing the word on my breath. “And in the event the states move in for some final shutdown, only then do they release the password. The copies were already distributed. The damage sits waiting to be done.

Sure, make the guns with a printer, I thought. But if we could do it, anyone could. The political opportunity wasn’t in manufacturing, then. It was in publishing. In one moment it solidified for me: we could produce a gun with the most widely available 3D printing technology and then freely distribute the plans over the Internet. We’d share the designs as open-source software. Go for the brass ring of system failure. Ben had given us WikiLeaks for guns. * * * “Defense Distributed,” I said to him the next evening. “Ha-ha, oh, yeah?” “Yeah, that’s what we’ll call it. We’ll do it with an organization.” “Defense Distributed,” Ben said, as much to himself as to me. “I like the alliteration. I like what it suggests. It’s a not-so-subtle negation, isn’t it?” If we were to proceed, Ben would have to continue to be my weapons guru.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

There are many other examples of how the mobile, social internet is impacting banks such as the Wikileaks and Anonymous attacks on PayPal, Visa and MasterCard. At the time, American firms such as MasterCard, Visa, PayPal and Amazon, were trying to close down funding to Wikileaks, due to the websites leaks of top secret US Government information. The leaks included films of American bombings in Iraq that killed two Reuters journalists, something the US Government had denied happening, and so the government were publicly shamed and embarrassed and used their influence on PayPal, Visa and MasterCard to stop funding for the Wikileaks services. The real shock was the reaction of Wikileaks supporters to this action however. Supporters of Wikileaks targeted MasterCard and brought their web services to a halt using a simple Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS).

The problem is that authorities do not like open source P2P services like BitTorrent and Wikileaks as it undermines traditional forms of commerce as the currency can be used for both good and bad things. In fact, most of the association of Bitcoins is with crime, according to government authorities, being used for drugs and terrorism. This is not actually the case as Bitcoin does not fuel crime, just as the internet does not fuel crime. Because the internet enables links to drugs, gambling and pornography, doesn’t mean that you need to ban the internet. In the same way, if Bitcoin allows criminals to trade in drugs, gambling and pornography, it doesn’t mean that you need to ban Bitcoin. And authorities cannot ban the internet anyway as, like Wikileaks, Bitcoin is a decentralised P2P service that exists globally through any Bitcoin user’s PC.

So I’m going to take a pop at this mountain of data and say that data is increasing at around 2 zetabytes a year today, of which 65% is redundant data, e.g. spam and transient. That leaves around 665 exabytes that has some value. Some of this is important but not critical, and some worthwhile but not that important. Using the third to two-thirds dynamic, this would mean that around 220 exabytes is important and 70 exabytes critical. It is this last category that may be leaked by Wikileaks, so that’s the stuff that people want to secure. It is here that banks can make their data vault offer. Secure data with the bank and pay for that security. You would probably find that although people may feel their data needs to be secured because it’s critical, only a third would pay for that security, so now we have our figure: 20 to 25 exabytes of data per year is the sort of data that people would secure and pay for.


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Moises Naim, “Mafia States: Organized Crime Takes Office,” Foreign Affairs 91 (May 2012): 112. 26. Ibid. 27. Symantec, Norton Report 2013: Cost per Cybercrime Victim Up 50 Percent (Mountain View, CA: Symantec, October 2013), accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.symantec.com/about/news/release/article.jsp?prid=20131001_01. 28. Luke Harding, “WikiLeaks Cables: Russian Government ‘Using Mafia for Its Dirty Work,’” Guardian, December 1, 2010, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-cable-spain-russian-mafia. 29. Homi Kharas and Andrew Rogerson, Horizon 2025: Creative Destruction in the Aid Industry (London: Overseas Development Institute, July 2012), accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.aidmonitor.org.np/reports/horizon%202012.pdf. 30. “Where Life Is Cheap and Talk Is Loose,” Economist, March 17, 2011, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.economist.com/node/18396240. 31.

Katherine Musslewhite, “Webcams Can Record Secretly,” Washington Post, accessed June 30, 2014, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/posttv/business/technology/webcams-can-record-secretly/2013/12/18/3a48220c-6771–11e3-ae56–22de072140a2_video.html. 27. Dean Nelson, “China ‘Hacking Websites in Hunt for Tibetan Dissidents,’” Telegraph, August 13, 2013, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/10240404/China-hacking-websites-in-hunt-for-Tibetan-dissidents.html. 28. Iain Thomson, “AntiLeaks Boss: We’ll Keep Pummeling WikiLeaks and Assange,” Register, August 13, 2012, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/08/13/antileaks_wikileaks_attack_response/. 29. Brian Krebs, “Amnesty International Site Serving Java Exploit,” Krebs on Security, December 22, 2011, accessed September 30, 2014, http://krebsonsecurity.com/2011/12/amnesty-international-site-serving-java-exploit/. 30. @indiankanoon, “IK Servers Are Getting DDoSed Using the DNS Reflection Attack,” Indian Kanoon (October 19, 2013), accessed September 30, 2014, https://twitter.com/indiankanoon/status/391497714451492865. 31.

See UglyGorilla wars: announced on Twitter, 59–60; informational attacks during, 34 weak states, 80–84, 94 weaponry, defining periods of political history, 153 We Are All Khaled Said, 79 We Are All Laila, 239 “We Are All” meme, 78–79 Wen Jiabao, 192 West, media targets in, 116–17 whistle blowers, 235–36, 237, 238. See also Assange, Julian; Manning, Chelsea; Snowden, Edward; WikiLeaks wicked problems, 112 WikiLeaks, 13, 43–44, 201, 216 Wilson, Chris, 121 Witness Project, 20 World Bank, 55, 56, 251 World Social Forum, 49–50 Xi Jinping, 192 Xinhua news agency, 191 Yahoo!, 248 Yang, Guobin, 186 Yeltsin, Boris, 37 youth, attraction of, to digital media, 239–40 YouTube, 8–9, 45; in Turkey, 116; white supremacist videos on, 217 Zapatistas (Zapatista Liberation Army), 38, 47–53, 135, 229 zero-day exploits, 236 Zhang, Haiyan, 177a Zimbabwe, 92; anarchy in, 94; infrastructure deals with China, 114; receiving Chinese training on networks, 215 ZTE, 113–14 Zuckerman, Ethan, 138


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Another NSA database, MYSTIC: Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald, and Laura Poitras (19 May 2014), “Data pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA is recording every cell phone call in the Bahamas,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/article/2014/05/19/data-pirates-caribbean-nsa-recording-every-cell-phone-call-bahamas. Julian Assange (23 May 2014), “WikiLeaks statement on the mass recording of Afghan telephone calls by the NSA,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/WikiLeaks-statement-on-the-mass.html. The NSA stores telephone metadata: David Kravets (17 Jan 2014), “Obama revamps NSA phone metadata spying program,” Wired, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/obama-nsa. If you use encryption: I do not know whether this includes all encrypted SSL sessions. My guess is that the NSA is able to decrypt a lot of SSL in real time.

we know it is doing so: Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald, and Laura Poitras (19 May 2014), “Data pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA is recording every cell phone call in the Bahamas,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/article/2014/05/19/data-pirates-caribbean-nsa-recording-every-cell-phone-call-bahamas. Julian Assange (23 May 2014), “WikiLeaks statement on the mass recording of Afghan telephone calls by the NSA,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/WikiLeaks-statement-on-the-mass.html. The agency’s 2013 budget: Barton Gellman and Greg Miller (29 Aug 2013), “‘Black budget’ summary details U.S. spy network’s successes, failures and objectives,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/black-budget-summary-details-us-spy-networks-successes-failures-and-objectives/2013/08/29/7e57bb78-10ab-11e3-8cdd-bcdc09410972_story.html.

The UK censors pornography: Ben Quinn (10 Oct 2011), “Biggest four UK ISPs switching to ‘opt-in’ system for pornography,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/society/2011/oct/11/pornography-internet-service-providers. Anthony Faiola (28 Sep 2013), “Britain’s harsh crackdown on Internet porn prompts free-speech debate,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/britains-harsh-crackdown-on-internet-porn-prompts-free-speech-debate/2013/09/28/d1f5caf8-2781-11e3-9372-92606241ae9c_story.html. the US censored WikiLeaks: Ewen MacAskill (1 Dec 2010), “WikiLeaks website pulled by Amazon after U.S. political pressure,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-website-cables-servers-amazon. Russian law requiring bloggers: Neil MacFarquhar (6 May 2014), “Russia quietly tightens reins on web with ‘Bloggers Law,’” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/07/world/europe/russia-quietly-tightens-reinson-web-with-bloggers-law.html. Those who do the reporting: The deputizing of citizens to report on each other is toxic to society.


Mindf*ck: Cambridge Analytica and the Plot to Break America by Christopher Wylie

4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, chief data officer, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, computer vision, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Etonian, first-past-the-post, Google Earth, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

“It’ll sure be ironic if the reason our correspondence lands on the government’s radar,” one group member emailed Andreessen, was because “their algorithms were triggered by our sarcastic use of the word ‘junta.’ ” * * * — IN EARLY SUMMER OF 2016, the Russia narrative started bubbling up. In mid-June, Guccifer 2.0 leaked documents that had been stolen from the Democratic National Committee. A week later, just three days before the Democratic National Convention, WikiLeaks published thousands of stolen emails, opening rifts between Bernie Sanders, Hillary Clinton, and DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz, who resigned almost immediately. And, of course, Nix eventually began asking around about Clinton’s emails at the behest of Rebekah Mercer, eventually offering Cambridge Analytica’s services to WikiLeaks to help disseminate the hacked material. I found out about this from a former colleague who was still with the firm and thought everything was getting out of hand. As the Democrats tried to get their convention back on track, Donald Trump lobbed another metaphorical grenade at the party.

Aides place tabulated binders on the table in front of each committee member—the Democrats’ ranking member, California congressman Adam Schiff, sits directly across from me, and to his left sits Congresswoman Terri Sewell, with Eric Swalwell and Joaquin Castro clustered together at the far end. I’m flanked by my lawyers and my friend Shahmir Sanni, a fellow whistleblower. We give the Republicans a few minutes to show up. They never do. It’s June 2018, and I’m in Washington to testify to the U.S. Congress about Cambridge Analytica, a military contractor and psychological warfare firm where I used to work, and a complex web involving Facebook, Russia, WikiLeaks, the Trump campaign, and the Brexit referendum. As the former director of research, I’ve brought with me evidence of how Facebook’s data was weaponized by the firm, and how the systems they built left millions of Americans vulnerable to the propaganda operations of hostile foreign states. Schiff leads the questioning. A former federal prosecutor, he is sharp and precise with his lines of inquiry, and he wastes no time getting to the heart of the matter.

I was deep into describing Facebook’s role in—and culpability for—what had happened. Did the data used by Cambridge Analytica ever get into the hands of potential Russian agents? Yes. Do you believe there was a nexus of Russian state-sponsored activity in London during the 2016 presidential election and Brexit campaigns? Yes. Was there communication between Cambridge Analytica and WikiLeaks? Yes. I finally saw glimmers of understanding coming into the committee members’ eyes. Facebook is no longer just a company, I told them. It’s a doorway into the minds of the American people, and Mark Zuckerberg left that door wide open for Cambridge Analytica, the Russians, and who knows how many others. Facebook is a monopoly, but its behavior is more than a regulatory issue—it’s a threat to national security.


pages: 268 words: 76,702

The System: Who Owns the Internet, and How It Owns Us by James Ball

Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, Chelsea Manning, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, packet switching, patent troll, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Crocker, Stuxnet, The Chicago School, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, yield management, zero day

Reporting a book like this involves a lot of travel on a tiny budget, so copious thanks are due to Amna Saleem, Elena Egawhary, Megan Carpentier, Laurence Dodds, Nicky Woolf and Tess McCormick for providing places for me to stay, report or write from – and often good company too – during the work on the book. Particular thanks are also due to Nick Hancock and his current fiancée for actually giving up their home permanently during the reporting of the book. Several chapters of this book draw from previous reporting projects I’ve been lucky to have been part of. On WikiLeaks, David Leigh and Luke Harding were a pleasure to work with and their book is a valuable reminder of the time. LSE’s Charlie Beckett was a joy to co-write an academic book with on the era. As to those within WikiLeaks itself, the good ones know who they are, even if the world doesn’t – and Chelsea Manning deserves to be a free woman. I discovered the surprisingly strange world of ICANN thanks to a story idea from Merope Mills, and worked with Laurence Mathieu-Léger reporting the feature and the video, which was a joy.

., The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More, Hachette Books, 2008. Bamford, J., The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America, Anchor, 2009. Bartlett, J., People Vs Tech, Ebury Press, 2018. Beckett, C., and Ball, J., Wikileaks: News in the Networked Era, Polity, 2012. Blum, A., Tubes, Viking, 2019. Greenwald, G., No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA and the Surveillance State, Penguin UK, 2015. Harding, L., The Snowden Files, Guardian Faber Publishing, 2016. Leigh, D., Wikileaks: Inside Julian Assange’s War on Secrecy, Guardian Books, 2010. Miller, C., The Death of the Gods: The New Global Power Grab, Windmill Books, 2019. Susskind, J., Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech, Oxford University Press, 2018. Wu, T., The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age, Columbia Global Reports, 2018.

The reach and scale of the internet would enable a ‘long tail’ of small and independent producers to flourish. Online companies were launched talking in earnest terms of changing the world, with ‘don’t be evil’ mantras alongside – and generous share options making even their office decorators rich. For a long time, you could convince yourself it was all the real deal. At the start of the last decade, WikiLeaks used its unique online platform to challenge the world’s biggest superpower with an unprecedented series of leaks. Shortly afterwards, the world’s biggest social media companies were credited with boosting Arab Spring protests against corrupt and dictatorial governments. Such was the mood towards the internet that the exultant opening ceremony to the 2012 London Olympics culminated in a seventeen-minute dance sequence celebrating Tim Berners-Lee for creating the World Wide Web and giving it to the world for free.


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The Problem of Political Authority: An Examination of the Right to Coerce and the Duty to Obey by Michael Huemer

Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, framing effect, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Phillip Zimbardo, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Stanford prison experiment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unbiased observer, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The government brought twelve felony counts against Ellsberg (ultimately dismissed), and President Nixon ordered illegal wiretaps and a break-in at the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist in an effort to find information to discredit Ellsberg.31 A more recent case is that of Wikileaks, which published thousands of government documents in 2010, most of which concerned the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, including videos showing U.S. troops killing civilians. The uniform reaction from American politicians on both the left and the right was one of outrage at both Wikileaks and its sources. Vice President Biden called Wikileaks founder Julian Assange a terrorist and promised that the Justice Department would be looking for ways to prosecute him. Former Arkansas governor and sometime presidential candidate Mike Huckabee called Wikileaks’ source a traitor and called for his execution. As of this writing (mid-2012), Wikileaks’ source for the Iraq documents, U.S. military intelligence analyst Bradley Manning, is being prosecuted by the military under numerous charges, including ‘aiding the enemy’, a capital offence (though the government will not seek the death penalty).32 These cases show that not everyone is easily intimidated.

‘Deaths by Mass Unpleasantness: Estimated Totals for the Entire Twentieth Century’, http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat8.htm. Accessed February 13, 2012. Wikileaks. 2010. Collateral Murder (video), www.collateralmurder.com/. Accessed March 10, 2011. Williams, Juan. 1987. Eyes on the Prize. New York: Viking Penguin. Wilson, Edward O. 2000. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 25th anniversary ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, James Q. 1990. ‘Against the Legalization of Drugs’, Commentary 89: 21–8. Wing, Nick. 2010. ‘Mike Huckabee: WikiLeaks Source Should Be Executed’, Huffington Post, November 30, www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/30/mike-huckabee-wikileaks-execution_n_789964.html. Accessed March 10, 2011. Wingo, Ajume. 2003. Veil Politics in Liberal Democratic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

To work, this strategy would probably require very severe penalties, such as prison time, for even minor lapses. Though this might occur in a society populated by economists, no other society would consider, for example, sending a legislator to prison for failing to read a bill before voting on it. 30 Harper 2008. 31 Kernis 2011. Ellsberg is the subject of the popular documentary The Most Dangerous Man in America. 32 For the famous ‘Collateral Murder’ video released by Wikileaks, see Wikileaks 2010. For Biden’s remarks, see Mandel 2010. On Huckabee, see Wing 2010. On the charges against Manning, see CBS News 2011. 33 See Converse (1990, 377–83), who coined the phrase ‘miracle of aggregation’. See Caplan 2007b, Chapters 1, for criticism of the theory. 34 Using statistical analysis, Bartels (1996) found that poorly informed people tend to vote for incumbents and Democrats more often than people who are more informed but otherwise similar in age, race, social class, and so on.


Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean

4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

It is interesting to note that at the time of writing now (summer and autumn of 2011), the enduring power of social movements and public action has been proved again, as witnessed by the various “pro-democracy” campaigns in North Africa and the Near East (so-called “Arab Spring”), movements opposing state budget cuts to the public sector, protests against the marketization of education, and the political agenda around Internet freedom and the controversies surrounding WikiLeaks.5 An example of the latter is the recent “denial of service” attacks by the loosely organized group of “hacktivists” called Anonymous.6 Emerging from the online message forum 4chan,7 the group coordinated various distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks using forums and social media websites, where instructions were disseminated on how to download attack software to bombard websites with data to try to throw them offline, and target sites were publicized such as the organizations that had cut ties with WikiLeaks (such as MasterCard, Visa, and PayPal, through “operation payback”). Their slogan reflects their constitution as a public: “We are Anonymous.

(See http://www.speakerscorner.net/articles/tyburnhangingtreeandtheoriginsof speakerscorner.) Embracing the notion of free speech on the Internet, the website SpeakersCorner contained articles (such as the one mentioned above), videos, and an online radio show (available at http://www.speakerscorner.net/). 57. The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an organization dedicated to protecting freedom of speech on the Internet. See http://www.eff.org/. 58. A summary of WikiLeaks is available at http://wikileaks.org/About.html. 59. Key to this project were the ten Macy conferences held between 1946 and 1953, which developed ideas around informational systems and a universal theory of regulation and control that would be applicable to humans as well as to machines, to economic systems as well as to behavior. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macy_conferences. 60. David M. Berry, Copy, Rip, Burn: The Politics of Copyleft and Open Source (London: Pluto Press, 2008), 182. 61.

Algorithms are numeric combinations that inscribe in themselves operational functions, formatting and performing the real developments of the human world. x Foreword But the pragmatic effects of the code are not deterministic, as far as the code is the product of code writing, and code writing is affected by social, political, cultural, and emotional processes. This is a key point that is highlighted in this book. Hacking, free software, WikiLeaks . . . are the names of lines of escape from the determinism of code. From this point of view, Speaking Code is a timely intervention. It again raises the question of pragmatics previously debated by authors like J. L. Austin (How to Do Things with Words, 1962), Paul Watzlawick (Pragmatics of Human Communication, 1967), and Félix Guattari (L’inconscient machinique, 1979), but in this book, for the first time, the problem of pragmatics is investigated at the level of code.


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To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

It’s groups and networks—which are distributed and often span borders—that hold power; hierarchies and states, confined as they are to fixed territories and programs of action, are outfoxed at every turn. This notion of the almost God-given superiority of networks informs Shirky’s interpretation of WikiLeaks, the one transnational network to rule them all. Thus, in a later speech, Shirky argues that “there was no way the State Department could go to WikiLeaks and have a conversation that hinged on or even involved anything called the national interest. Julian [Assange] is not a U.S. citizen, he is an Australian citizen. He was not operating on U.S. soil, he was in Iceland. The Pentagon Papers conversation took place entirely within the national matrix, and the WikiLeaks conversation took place outside of it.” Groups win; nation-states lose. Networks good; hierarchies bad. Global good; local bad. The problem here is that Clay Shirky believes that global affairs now work according to the demands of “the Internet,” while, in reality, the story is much more complicated.

But this, of course, is true only if one assumes that platforms like PayPal operate in an absolute power vacuum, completely immune to pressures that countries, institutions, and hierarchies might exert on those engaged in the transactions as well as on PayPal itself. PayPal may have obviated the theoretical need for banks—but its investors still need a bank to cash their checks from PayPal, so no technoescape actually takes place. Consider the role that PayPal has played in the WikiLeaks saga: yes, it was initially a great tool to raise money for Assange’s cause, but the moment WikiLeaks took on the US government, PayPal ran away from Assange (freezing WikiLeaks’s account) in much the same way that Peter Thiel wants to run from reality. Likewise, as of July 2012, PayPal had revised how it deals with file-sharing sites, requiring any sites that want to use PayPal to solicit membership fees from users to ensure that they host no illegal files. Instead of subverting the power of the entertainment industry—as Thiel’s belief in technoescapism would suggest—PayPal has become a useful tool in perpetuating that power.

The problem here is that Clay Shirky believes that global affairs now work according to the demands of “the Internet,” while, in reality, the story is much more complicated. A conversation about the national interest between the transglobal network that is (was?) WikiLeaks and the US government actually did take place. In fact, according to at least some credible reports, WikiLeaks did offer the State Department the opportunity to review the diplomatic cables and highlight what should be redacted—an opportunity that the ugly and messy hierarchy of the State Department reportedly declined (Mark Stephens, one of Assange’s numerous ex-lawyers, once claimed that two cables were actually removed at their request). Assange himself often complains that the US government thwarted his highly mobile, distributed, and transnational network, not least because Washington can target—not directly but through rhetoric—the very intermediaries, from credit card companies to technology providers, that enable such networks.


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The Panama Papers: Breaking the Story of How the Rich and Powerful Hide Their Money by Frederik Obermaier

banking crisis, blood diamonds, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, family office, high net worth, income inequality, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, mega-rich, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, out of africa, race to the bottom, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

And yet in Mossack Fonseca’s systems the company appears to have remained active for another year after it was sanctioned. Another year during which Mossfon apparently broke a US embargo.23 6 From the Waffen-SS to the CIA and Panama 259 gigabytes. 260. 261. This makes our mountain of data the largest leak in the history of journalism. Larger than Offshore Secrets. By way of comparison, the diplomatic cables published by WikiLeaks amounted to 1.7 gigabytes; the HSBC Files, based on Hervé Falciani’s documents, 3.3 gigabytes; the Luxembourg Tax Files 4 gigabytes; the WikiLeaks Afghanistan protocols 1.4 gigabytes. Of course, it isn’t the size of a leak that matters. 260 gigabytes of meaningless files are, in the final analysis, no more than meaningless files. Also, it is very hard to imagine 260 gigabytes. Well, let us tell you: 260 gigabytes represent almost a million emails and several million pages of secret documents.

The advantage with data is that it’s not self-important or verbose. It doesn’t have a mission and it isn’t looking to deceive you. It’s simply there, and you can check it. Every good dataset can be collated with reality and that’s exactly what you must do as a journalist before you start to write. At some stage you also have to consider very carefully which part of the data you’re going to exploit. WikiLeaks was different. The coordinators of that whistle-blowing website simply posted data on the Internet without any journalists filtering the information. That was the basic idea – and not a bad one at that. [Obermayer]: How would we get the data? [john doe]: I would like to assist but there are a couple of conditions. You need to understand how dangerous and sensitive some of this information is.

Makhlouf’s aunt Anisa is the widow of the late president Hafis al-Assad, the current ruler’s father. Rami and Bashar played together when they were young, and today they are close allies – one the head of state, the other the businessman on whose money and connections Assad can count at all times. The US State Department classifies Rami Makhlouf as a ‘financier of the regime’, as one can read in a diplomatic cable sent in 2007 that was published by WikiLeaks. As far as anyone can tell, Makhlouf’s wealth has less to do with diligence and hard work than with unscrupulousness and brutality. ‘Rami Makhlouf has used intimidation and his close ties to the Assad regime to obtain improper business advantages at the expense of ordinary Syrians,’ said Stuart Levey in 2008, who was under-secretary for terrorism and financial intelligence at the US Department of the Treasury and who, in an ironic twist, now works for HSBC – the very bank that the ICIJ’s HSBC Files investigation revealed had done business with Makhlouf for many years.


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Targeted: The Cambridge Analytica Whistleblower's Inside Story of How Big Data, Trump, and Facebook Broke Democracy and How It Can Happen Again by Brittany Kaiser

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Burning Man, call centre, centre right, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Etonian, haute couture, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, off grid, open borders, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, rolodex, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, the High Line, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, young professional

And I found Assange’s choice to leak documents on the U.S. military’s involvement in war crimes in Iraq heroic—in fact, as I’ve mentioned, I had written my graduate thesis for my LLM (or “master of laws”) on war crimes using WikiLeaks’s data dumps as my primary source material. And in 2011, when WikiLeaks donations were blocked by major credit card companies, the nonprofit had launched a widget to donate using Bitcoin instead—I donated a couple of hundred dollars’ worth in recognition of the research the organization had allowed me to do. While I was incredibly skeptical of Wikileaks’ choice to leak Hillary Clinton’s emails during the election, at first I felt there had to have been a reason for the organization to do so. But after there were no explosive revelations, it seemed that this had been done to affect voter perception.

I looked back at it. I had never believed a thing she’d reported because every single thing she’d ever written about me had been so inaccurate and speculative, to say the least. Later that year, Carole would cite an anonymous source stating that I was “funneling” Bitcoin to fund Wikileaks (I guess she’s referring to my student-budget donation in 2011) and had gone to visit Julian Assange to discuss the U.S. elections. Her theory and inference that I could be Guccifer 2.0, the conduit between Russia, the DNC hack, and Wikileaks, was a bit much to take in. Her allegations against me had real collateral damage: I was subpoenaed by Mueller the next day, which she then printed nine months later, conveniently leaving out the date and touting it as though it had just happened, further confusing the world and obfuscating the truth.

While Cambridge, she allowed, had never officially worked for Lukoil—Wylie had a copy of that proposal, which I myself had seen in my early days at SCL—Cadwalladr wanted to tie it all together, despite having no causal evidence. This features writer posing as an investigator wanted to connect CA with WikiLeaks, with the downfall of Hillary and the rise of Trump, and she presumed that both Julian Assange and Alexander Nix had been lying when each said that they had not in fact ended up working together when Alexander reached out to WikiLeaks in search of Hillary Clinton’s emails. Carole wanted so desperately to find a smoking gun that she blew smoke everywhere, with larger-than-life characters such as Chris Wylie and villainous companies such as Cambridge Analytica, which she described as deploying psyops and operating much like MI6.


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God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, God and Mammon, Index librorum prohibitorum, Kickstarter, liberation theology, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Riazat Butt, “Vatican to Be Sued over Sex Abuse Claims,” The Guardian, December 15, 2008, 23. 87 As for the Sodano-Rice meeting, see 11-25-05 WikiLeaks Vatican Unhappy with Lawsuits Cable, 05VATICAN538_a; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/05VATICAN538_a.html. 88 Ibid, WikiLeaks. Also, “Vatican’s Global Importance Evident In Leaked Cables,” EWTN, Catholic News Agency, December 14, 2010. “Pope Wants Exemption from U.S. Law,” Vermont Guardian (Texas), May 31, 2005. 89 Ibid, “Vatican’s Global Importance Evident In Leaked Cables,” EWTN; See 01-08-02 WikiLeaks, “Vatican PM Wants His Money Cable, See also Berry, Render Unto Rome, 119-20. 02VATICAN83_a; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/02VATICAN83_a.html. 90 John L. Allen Jr., “Vatican Ask Condoleezza Rice to Help Stop a Sex Abuse Lawsuit,” National Catholic Reporter, March 2, 2005. 91 Karen Terry et al., The Nature and Scope of Sexual Abuse of Minors by Catholic Priests and Deacons in the United States, 1950–2002, prepared by the John Jay College of Criminal Justice for the U.S.

Feelings in Italy,” The New York Times, January 3, 1973, 8. In the State Department that year, 1973, there was a flurry of diplomatic cable traffic over the “Vatican’s ‘contacts’ with Communists” in Vietnam. It was about fears the Pope might reach out to the Vietcong. See generally 09-25-73 WikiLeaks Vatican “Contacts” with Communists Cable: 1973ROME10199_b; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973ROME10199_b.html; also 09-28-73 WikiLeaks Audience with Pope Paul VI (Held at Vatican Suggestion) Cable: 1973ROME10410_b; https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/1973ROME10410_b.html. 2 “Two Bombings in Milan,” The New York Times, January 16, 1973, 14. 3 Paul Hofmann, “El Al Employe [sic] in Rome Is Shot to Death by an Arab: 3 Seized at Beirut Airport,” The New York Times, April 28, 1973, 6. 4 Paul Hofmann, “Italian Neo-Fascists Are Linked to a Synagogue Fire in Padua,” The New York Times, April 30, 1973, 3. 5 “Anarchist Seized in Blast in Milan,” The New York Times, May 18, 1972, 7. 6 Paul Hofmann, “If Surge of Gunfire Is a Sign, Sicilian Mafia Is in Trouble,” The New York Times, May 15, 1973, 41. 7 Paul Hofmann, “Italians Suspect Violence Is Plot: International Police Aid Is Asked After Milan Blast,” The New York Times, May 21, 1973, 9. 8 “Again Italy’s Premier: Mariano Rumor,” The New York Times, July 9, 1973, 3. 9 Ibid. 10 “Milan Offices Bombed,” The New York Times, July 29, 1973, 3. 11 “Libyan Jets Attack an Italian Warship off African Coast,” The New York Times, September 22, 1973, 2. 12 William D.

., Tremlett, “Nazi Gold Taints Fatima.” 81 Pope John Paul quoted in Jocelyn Noveck, “In Historic Speech at Holocaust Memorial, Pope Says Church Deeply Saddened,” Associated Press, International News, Jerusalem, March 23, 2000. 82 Author interview with Elan Steinberg, April 2, 2006. 83 See 10-31-02 WikiLeaks Vatican Archives: Archivist Confirms Partial Opening for Nazi Germany and WWII Documents Cable: 02Vatican5356_a, https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/02VATICAN5356_a.html; and 03-13-03 WikiLeaks Holocaust Museum Delegation Works in Secret Archives, Offers Collaboration to Catalogue Closed Records Cable: 03vatican1046_a, https://www.wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/03Vatican1046_a.html. 84 Authers and Wolffe, The Victim’s Fortune, 321–23. 85 Joseph B. Treaster, “Settlement Approved in Holocaust Victims’ Suit Against Italian Insurer,” The New York Times, February 28, 2007, reporting on a federal judge’s approval of the settlement reached in 2006.


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The Tyranny of Metrics by Jerry Z. Muller

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Chelsea Manning, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, deskilling, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, intangible asset, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, performance metric, price mechanism, RAND corporation, school choice, Second Machine Age, selection bias, Steven Levy, total factor productivity, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

See also time loss transparency, 3–4, 17–18, 113; diplomacy and intelligence, 162–65; as enemy of performance, 159–65; in government, 160–62 “Twice-Revised Code, The,” 30 Tyco, 144 Uniform Crime Report, 127–28 unintended consequences of metric fixation: costs in employee time, 170; costs to productivity, 173; degradation of work, 172–73; diminishing utility, 170; discouraging cooperation and common purpose, 172; discouraging innovation, 140, 150–51, 171–72; discouraging risk-taking, 62, 117–18, 171; goals displacement, 169–70; by No Child Left Behind, 92–94; rewarding of luck, 171; rule cascades, 171; short-termism, 170 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 155, 156 US News and World Report, 76–77, 81, 115 value-added testing, 92–93 value agenda, 107 Vermeulen, Freek, 138 Veterans Administration, 104 Vietnam War, 35, 131 Wells Fargo, 142–43 Wikileakism, 164 Wikileaks, 162–63 Wire, The, 1–2, 92, 129 Witch Doctors, The, 13 Wolf, Alison, 68, 72 Woodford, Neil, 139 Woodford Investment Management, 139 Woolridge, Adrian, 13 World Bank, 34 WorldCom, 144 World Health Organization, 105–6 “World Health Report 2000,” 105

There are increasing pressures to make those publicly available as well: whether through legal means such as Freedom of Information Act requests; or congressional demands, as in the case of congressional committees demanding the email correspondence of former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in the case of the Benghazi investigations; or illegal means such as the electronic theft and dissemination of internal government documents by organizations such as Wikileaks. Making internal deliberations open to public disclosure—that is, transparent—is counterproductive, Sunstein argues, since if government officials know that all of their ideas and positions may be made public, it inhibits openness, candor, and trust in communications. The predictable result will be for government officials to commit ever less information to writing, either in print or in the form of emails.

But that decreases the opportunity to carefully lay out positions.4 All policies have costs: if internal deliberations are subject to transparency, it makes it impossible to deflate policy prescriptions that may be popular but are ill advised, or desirable but likely to offend one or another constituency. Thus transparency of inputs becomes the enemy of good government. DIPLOMACY AND INTELLIGENCE Transparency is also a hazard in diplomacy, and is fatal to the gathering of intelligence. In 2010, Bradley Manning, an intelligence analyst in the American Army, took it upon himself to disclose hundreds of thousands of sensitive military and State Department documents through WikiLeaks.5 One result was the publication of the names of confidential informants, including political dissidents, who had spoken with American diplomats in Iran, China, Afghanistan, the Arab world, and elsewhere.6 As a consequence, some of these individuals had to be relocated to protect their lives. More importantly, the revelations made it more difficult for American diplomats to acquire human intelligence in the future, since the confidentiality of conversations could not be relied upon.


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Drone Warfare: Killing by Remote Control by Medea Benjamin

airport security, autonomous vehicles, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Clive Stafford Smith, crowdsourcing, drone strike, friendly fire, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, megacity, nuremberg principles, performance metric, private military company, Ralph Nader, WikiLeaks

Less than a month later, Awlaki’s sixteen-year-old son, Abdulrahman, was also killed in a drone strike.114 Ironically, the CIA is forbidden under US law from spying on Americans—that’s left to the FBI. It seems that the agency can, however, murder Americans overseas at the behest of the president without so much as a whimper of “impeachment.” According to a State Department cable released by the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, the bombings in Yemen were conducted with the approval of the long-time dictator of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh, who in January 2010 reassured US officials that he would “continue saying the bombs are ours, not yours.”115 That promise is credited as one of the reasons the Yemeni people rose up against Saleh’s repressive regime in 2011, despite the specter of frequently violent and bloody crackdowns, and forced him to leave the country in January 2012.

Not to worry, though: while armed drones were reportedly not yet based in Ethiopia, the Washington Post and Wall Street Journal reported in the fall of 2011 that the US was operating unmanned aircraft at a base in the island nation of Seychelles, an archipelago located off the coast of East Africa, and was considering weaponizing them.123 US and Seychelles officials originally said that the primary mission of the drones was to track pirates in regional waters. But classified US diplomatic cables showed that the plan was also to conduct counterterrorism missions over Somalia, about eight hundred miles to the northwest.124 The cables, obtained by WikiLeaks, revealed that US officials asked leaders in the Seychelles to keep the counterterrorism missions secret, something the president of the Seychelles was more than happy to do. A US military spokesman refused, on security grounds, to tell the Washington Post if the Reapers in the Seychelles have ever been armed but noted that they “can be configured for both surveillance and strike.”125 According to the BBC in June 2011, the US expanded its reach even further into Africa by sending four drones to Uganda and Burundi.126 This constellation of bases for drones in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula was designed to create overlapping circles of surveillance in a region where the CIA thought Al Qaeda offshoots could continue to emerge.

According to a leaked US State Department cable, the dictator of Yemen agreed to allow drones and other American aircraft to launch strikes within his country, famously saying, “We’ll continue saying the bombs are ours, not yours.”237 The position of the Pakistani government was more complicated. At first, they consented privately but made public condemnations. A US diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks quoted Prime Minister Yousuf Gilani saying, “I don’t care if they do it as long as they get the right people. We’ll protest in the National Assembly and then ignore it.”238 In late 2011, even that tacit consent was withdrawn after a NATO airstrike mistakenly killed twenty-four Pakistani soldiers.239 The Pakistani government responded by evicting a CIA drone base near its border with Afghanistan and threatening to shoot down any drones that violated its airspace.


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The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing Extremism by David Golumbia

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, currency peg, distributed ledger, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, jimmy wales, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart contracts, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

Whatever its success as a currency, Bitcoin has proved incredibly useful for spreading these views, to some extent shorn of the marks of their political origins, but no less useful for the powerful corporate interests who benefit from other aspects of rightist discourse. Widespread interest in Bitcoin first emerged from its utility as a means to bypass the “WikiLeaks blockade.” As put in 2012 by Jon Matonis, founding board member and executive director of the Bitcoin Foundation until he resigned in October 2014 (Casey 2014) and one of Bitcoin’s most vocal advocates: Following a massive release of secret U.S. diplomatic cables in November 2010, donations to WikiLeaks were blocked by Bank of America, VISA, MasterCard, PayPal, and Western Union on December 7th, 2010. Although private companies certainly have a right to select which transactions to process or not, the political environment produced less than a fair and objective decision.

Although private companies certainly have a right to select which transactions to process or not, the political environment produced less than a fair and objective decision. It was coordinated pressure exerted in a politicized climate by the U.S. government and it won’t be the last time that we see this type of pressure. Fortunately, there is way around this and other financial blockades with a global payment method immune to political pressure and monetary censorship. (Matonis 2012b) Bitcoin made it possible for individuals to donate to WikiLeaks despite it being a violation of U.S. law to do so. In Matonis’s view, corporations participating with U.S. government laws is illegitimate and amounts to “censorship” and “political pressure”: there is simply no consideration of the idea that it might be appropriate for financial providers to cooperate with the government against efforts that directly and purposely contravene perfectly valid law (regardless of whether one agrees with that law).

Paper presented at WSIS+10 Review (February 27). http://www.intgovforum.org/. Malmo, Christopher. 2015. “Bitcoin Is Unsustainable.” Vice Motherboard (June 29). http://motherboard.vice.com/. Marx, Jared Paul. 2015. “Bitcoin as a Commodity: What the CFTC’s Ruling Means.” CoinDesk (September 21). http://www.coindesk.com/. Matonis, Jon. 2012a. “Bitcoin Prevents Monetary Tyranny.” Forbes (October). http://www.forbes.com/. —. 2012b. “WikiLeaks Bypasses Financial Blockade with Bitcoin.” Forbes (August). http://www.forbes.com/. Maurer, Bill, Taylor C. Nelms, and Lana Swartz. 2013. “‘When Perhaps the Real Problem Is Money Itself!’: The Practical Materiality of Bitcoin.” Social Semiotics 23, no. 2: 261–77. May, Timothy C. 1992. “The Crypto-Anarchist Manifesto.” Activism.net. http://www.activism.net/. Meiklejohn, Sarah, and Claudio Orlandi. 2015.


pages: 74 words: 19,580

The 99.998271% by Simon Wood

banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, equal pay for equal work, Julian Assange, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks

When Haiti passed a law in 2009 to raise the minimum wage from 24 to 61 cents an hour, US corporations like Levi Strauss and Hanes were furious. These corporations pay workers in Haiti, the poorest country in the western hemisphere, which is still struggling to recover from a devastating earthquake, extremely low wages to sew clothes in their sweatshops. A Wikileaks cable showed that the corporations lobbied the US State Department, who then had the US ambassador put pressure on Haiti’s president. The result? A new minimum wage of 31 cents an hour. This may never have been revealed had it not been released in a Wikileaks cable, demonstrating that the US government acts in secrecy. The justification for secrecy is usually national security interest, but it would be hard for anyone to place this in such a category. The American people were not to be informed of how their elected officials were interfering in a desperately poor country in their name.

Considering the current states of both countries, the question must be asked: are we insane? Unless this madness is stopped, tragedies like the following will continue to occur: on 15th March 2006, during a house raid in Iraq by US forces, a family and their children were handcuffed and then summarily executed with shots to the head. Philip Alston, the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions, wrote the following in a letter (exposed by Wikileaks) to the then Secretary of State, Condoleeza Rice: “It would appear that when the MNF [Multinational Forces] approached the house,” Alston wrote, “shots were fired from it and a confrontation ensued” before the “troops entered the house, handcuffed all residents and executed all of them.” Mr. Faiz Hratt Khalaf, (aged 28), his wife Sumay’ya Abdul Razzaq Khuther (aged 24), their three children Hawra’a (aged 5) Aisha ( aged 3) and Husam (5 months old), Faiz’s mother Ms.

This dangerous creature will not go down easily. It has all the money and owns most of the media and a large number of politicians. How long will it take before a way is found to limit the internet as well? As soon as it can be shown to be a credible threat to the status quo, how can we be sure it will not be taken out? Anyone who stands up to the empire is swatted down, as can be seen in the hysterical reaction to Wikileaks and Julian Assange, who could be extradited to the US where he can be held in indefinite detention. The Occupy Wall Street movement, at first ignored completely by the establishment media, is now feeling the full force of the propaganda mill, with protestors smeared as ‘hippies’ and ‘pot smokers’ with ‘no direction in their lives’ and so on. 41 The author of this book is not a professional journalist, so I hereby request that professional journalists in the media point out to me the part of the course in journalism they studied at college which says that journalists are supposed to criticize, insult, judge and demean the subjects of the stories they cover.


pages: 562 words: 153,825

Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

“[I]n an act of supreme arrogance”: Ash Carter, Inside the Five-Sided Box: Lessons from a Lifetime of Leadership in the Pentagon (New York: Penguin, 2019), 338. “national security porn”: Ledgett was paraphrasing James Comey, who used the term “intelligence porn” to describe large-scale document dumps by WikiLeaks, not Snowden or the NSA journalists. See Tessa Berenson, “James Comey: WikiLeaks Is ‘Intelligence Porn,’ Not Journalism,” Time, May 3, 2017, https://time.com/4765358/fbi-james-comey-hearing-wikileaks/. “6,998,329,787 is a small number”: In another version of the presentation, delivered earlier, the figure was slightly lower (6,987,139,094) and explicitly labeled “World Population” on Hunt’s presentation slide. See Ira A. (Gus) Hunt, Big Data: Challenges and Opportunities, https://info.publicintelligence.net/CIA-BigData-2.pdf.

“That would be dead man material,” he said elliptically. He was referring, as he had done with me before, to a “dead man’s switch,” a device or arrangement according to which the most sensitive files in his possession would somehow come to light automatically in circumstances he did not specify. Julian Assange of WikiLeaks had made an explicit arrangement like this in 2011, distributing online an encrypted “insurance file” and threatening to release the decryption key if the U.S. government did anything to harm him or shut down WikiLeaks. Snowden never made this kind of threat himself, but Glenn Greenwald did so in a published interview. “Snowden has enough information to cause more harm to the U.S. government in a single minute than any other person has ever had,” Greenwald told the Argentinian daily La Nación. “The U.S. government should be on its knees every day begging that nothing happen to Snowden, because if something does happen to him, all the information will be revealed and it could be its worst nightmare.”

Everything would depend on the written evidence, I wrote to her in early May, but I had reached a turning point. If this guy was not for real, I wrote, “I will be very surprised.” * * * — When Poitras introduced us, Verax needed convincing about me. He was suspicious of the Washington Post, where I grew up as a journalist. He knew it chiefly by its opinion pages, where op-ed columns and unsigned editorials—the voice of the publisher—denounced WikiLeaks, pressed for war in Iraq, and defended other excesses, as he saw them, of President George W. Bush’s “global war on terror.” Verax wanted “adversarial” voices to tell his story, and he had chosen them already. Poitras had proved herself both a skeptic and a target of the wartime establishment, and her short film on another NSA critic had caught Verax’s attention. The Guardian columnist Glenn Greenwald had built his brand as a dogged combatant against the national security state and its apologists.


pages: 328 words: 100,381

Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin

airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, drone strike, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

The number of secrets has become so enormous that the people in charge of keeping them can’t possibly succeed. That is one lesson from the WikiLeaks disclosures. The leaked State Department cables were allegedly first available to a disgruntled army private with a history of instability because the government wasn’t giving even a basic level of protection to those documents, and because his colleagues allowed him to bring a rewritable CD-ROM with Lady Gaga’s music into work, not realizing it could act as the black bag into which a quarter of a million sensitive diplomatic cables could be dumped and carted away. In the government-wide security and counterintelligence investigation that has followed the WikiLeaks disclosures, government experts have learned that most federal agencies have little understanding of how to protect their sensitive information, according to people involved in the review.

In August 2007, eighteen FBI agents, some with their guns drawn, burst into his home with only his wife and children present, to raid his files during an investigation into his alleged role in helping the New York Times develop its seminal warrantless surveillance story in 2004. The government dropped his case nearly four years later, in April 2011, after Tamm’s career had been ruined and he faced financial peril. The Justice Department is also mulling an indictment on espionage charges against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange for publishing tens of thousands of pages of classified U.S. diplomatic cables and war-related field reports, some of them allegedly provided by a young army private first class, who is also under arrest. Regardless of Assange’s publicly stated bias against U.S. policies and the allegations against his personal behavior, this unprecedented trove of material has allowed reporters around the world to write some of the most insightful and revealing stories of our time.

At any one time, he could find as many as 15,000 listings for very specialized positions that required a top secret clearance. Between 2006 and 2010 he cataloged 182,000 such job announcements in his files. As he did so, Arkin started to count government organizations and private companies working at the “secret” level of classification. Something is classified secret5 if its unauthorized disclosure would cause “serious damage” to national security. For instance, many of the State Department cables published by WikiLeaks are classified secret because they provide candid assessments of foreign leaders and agreements. Routine field reports from military units are also classified secret on the theory that they might provide useful tidbits to an enemy. He was quickly overwhelmed by the volume. There were simply too many organizations and companies to track. Had he been looking prior to September 11, he would have expected to see evidence of a significant number of such programs, but the post-9/11 quantity was mind-boggling.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

.… But once you factor in money spent on schooling, the earnings I’ve received outside of aggregation-oriented writing positions is still in the bloodiest shade of red imaginable. It’s unlikely the numbers will ever even out.”43 4 UNEQUAL UPTAKE Not long after WikiLeaks released its enormous cache of classified diplomatic cables, making the private observations of jaded attachés public for all to see, I spent a Saturday afternoon at a quickly assembled conference trying to make sense of the implications. The conversation hinged on the tangled theme of media, technology, and politics. Does WikiLeaks represent a new kind of transnational investigative journalism? Has the Web made us all reporters? Is transparency an unambiguous good? Should all information be free, to everyone, everywhere? The United States government had been caught off its guard and the audience was electrified by the possibilities of networked people power.

Deep investigations into questions about what had caused the blowout, the devastation of the local ecosystem and economy, the health risks associated with fuel and dispersants, and the work needed to be done monitoring the four thousand oil platforms and twenty-seven thousand old oil wells, many of them leaking, were well beyond the scope of any individual. Even Julian Assange had been unable to act independently, joining up with major news organizations like the New York Times and the Guardian to release the thousands of cables. WikiLeaks had been organized initially around the premise that the public would sift through and interpret raw data, collaboratively writing necessary analysis, making sense of the issues and evidence without professional censors and meddling middlemen. That turned out to be “not at all true,” Assange lamented. “Media are the only channels that have the motivation and resources required to have a real impact.” It wasn’t that the WikiLeaks mastermind had lost faith in people to think for themselves; rather, he recognized that they lacked the time the task required and the power to legitimize and publicize the results.

“There’s this divide between what the community needs and wants to read and what they are willing to pay for. There’s a missing social contract. I think those two things can be married, but it’s going to be a long time before it’s figured out.” Nick Davies is a prominent journalist who has been outspoken about the shortcomings of his chosen profession. An award-winning investigative reporter who brokered the Guardian’s collaboration with WikiLeaks to publish the Afghanistan war logs and broke the phone-hacking scandal that prompted an ongoing investigation into Rupert Murdoch’s empire, his 2008 book Flat Earth News (subtitled An Award-Winning Reporter Exposes Falsehood, Distortion and Propaganda in the Global Media) exhaustively documents how contemporary journalism has been corrupted by ever-intensifying commercial pressure.28 When clear returns are demanded, risks cannot be taken.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

The US supports such technologies to promote the spread of good things (democracy, human rights, free speech) and opposes them to prevent the spread of bad ones (terrorism, cybercrime, child pornography, infringements of intellectual property). But who decides what is good or bad? The United States. A State Department spokesperson, asked to explain the apparent inconsistency between her criticism of the Indian government for blocking sites the Indian government considered dangerous and Washington’s own stance on Wikileaks, said: ‘WikiLeaks didn’t have to do with freedom of the internet. It had to do with . . . the compromise of US Government classified information’.87 While governments must naturally assert perfect consistency, there is a tension here, as America’s left hand points in a different direction to and sometimes wrestles with its right. In a reference to Hillary Clinton, this has been called the Clinton Paradox.88 With these reservations, it is nonetheless fair to say that the United States remains at once the most powerful and the most consistently pro–free speech state in the early-twenty-first-century world.

US District Court for the Eastern District of Columbia, sworn affidavit dated 21 June 2011 in the case of US v Jeffrey Alexander Sterling (with some passages redacted), http://perma.cc/3VHS-H7UZ 78. see photograph and text in New York Times, ‘The War Logs’, 26 July 2010, A8 79. but see Matt Sledge, ‘Bradley Manning Sentencing Testimony Suggests WikiLeaks Not Responsible for Any Deaths’, Huffington Post, 8 March 2013, http://perma.cc/3SCZ-73DC 80. see Timothy Garton Ash, ‘WikiLeaks Has Altered the Leaking Game for Good. Secrets Must Be Fewer, But Better Kept’, The Guardian, 30 March 2011, http://perma.cc/6V73-QMSR 81. see the editorial ‘The Times and Iraq’, New York Times, 26 May 2004. See also Margaret Sullivan, ‘The Disconnect on Anonymous Sources’, New York Times, 12 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/opinion/sunday/the-public-editor-the-disconnect-on-anonymous-sources.html, which reports that back in 2004 the use of anonymous sources had been the top concern of Times readers 82. see Margaret Sullivan, ‘The Disconnect on Anonymous Sources’, New York Times, 12 October 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/opinion/sunday/the-public-editor-the-disconnect-on-anonymous-sources.html?

There is another ambivalence in the US position. Even as the State Department has funded the development of circumvention technologies, to help dissidents get round the firewalls of Iran or China, other arms of the US government, such as the Departments of Homeland Security, Defense and Commerce, have tried to prevent the use of such technologies against the US, or what they see as American interests. When Wikileaks published a vast trove of State Department diplomatic despatches, one of the tools it used was Tor, a software to facilitate online anonymity developed with US government funding. Washington was, so to speak, hoist with its own cyberpetard. It is, of course, possible to claim consistency in this position. The US supports such technologies to promote the spread of good things (democracy, human rights, free speech) and opposes them to prevent the spread of bad ones (terrorism, cybercrime, child pornography, infringements of intellectual property).


pages: 239 words: 73,178

The Narcissist You Know by Joseph Burgo

Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Paul Graham, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

He feels superior in understanding to those in Washington who are responsible for the computer system he has hijacked. He enjoys the experience of thumbing his nose at authority and taking charge himself. With the founding of WikiLeaks, Assange found an even larger stage upon which to express his grandiose sense of self. He surely felt a passionate devotion to his cause—uncovering the government lies that preserve its power over the individual—but as the enterprise gained notoriety and he became a cult hero to millions, he increasingly saw himself as a sort of celebrity guru, often insisting that one person or another was in love with him, or wanted to be him. In his account of their years together at WikiLeaks, Daniel Domscheit-Berg paints a portrait of Assange as a man obsessed with his image, unwilling to share credit with collaborators, hostile to those who didn’t accord him due respect, and contemptuous of even those who supported him.14 He treated his collaborators as if they were his subjects.

In Three Cups of Tea, Greg Mortenson portrays himself as a preternaturally selfless man, a monklike crusader for the educational rights of young girls in Afghanistan. Both men turned out to be masters of cultivating public perception. Although their charitable foundations, LiveStrong and the Central Asia Institute, did much good, a closer look at the psychology of these men reveals the features of Extreme Narcissism and points toward core shame.9 Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks and tireless crusader against the secrecy of entrenched power, for a time appeared to be another hero in our feckless world. Standing up for truth, transparency, and the rights of the individual to access secret government information, Assange at first seemed to be a selfless advocate for the little man. He turned out to be a Grandiose Narcissist more interested in public acclaim and enjoying his “rock star” status than in pursuing the truth.

Assange’s grandiosity had an increasingly paranoid flavor. He identified with historical figures who had been persecuted, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the Russian dissident, or even Jesus Christ. One of his favorite activities was to scour the Internet for references to himself, especially by his detractors, and he seemed to have an “unending capacity to worry about his enemies.”15 Even before the founder of WikiLeaks became famous, he often insisted that government agents were trailing him or eavesdropping on his phone calls. Once the Afghanistan War logs were released and he may actually have been trailed, Assange routinely demanded that followers search the bushes for “assassins” before he would emerge from the car. He told taxi drivers to pull onto side streets because he believed he was being followed.


pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game

They are a different sort of actor. On the other hand, Microsoft probably has better systems in place to prevent infiltration by rogue programmers. WikiLeaks is another stateless organization. WikiLeaks sits somewhere between a loose organization of activists and the personal mission of a single individual named Julian Assange. It exposes information that governments and powerful corporations would rather keep secret. In this way it is very much like an organization of journalists. But because it is not a commercial enterprise, and because it is not moored within a country, it's much more difficult to corral. And this scares countries like the United States. Compare WikiLeaks to a traditional newspaper. That newspaper is in a societal dilemma with all the other newspapers in that country. Societal Dilemma: Newspapers publishing government secrets.

In mid-2004, the New York Times learned about the NSA's illegal wiretapping of American citizens without a warrant, but delayed publishing the information for over a year—until well after the presidential election. Presumably there are things the New York Times has learned about and decided not to publish, period. WikiLeaks changes that dynamic. It's not an American company. It's not even a for-profit company. It's not a company at all. And it's not really located in any legal jurisdiction. It simply isn't subject to the same pressures that the New York Times is. This means the government can't rely on the partial cooperation of WikiLeaks in the same way it can rely on that of traditional newspapers.5 In a blog post about the topic, Clay Shirky referred to the Supreme Court ruling in the Pentagon Papers case that said it's illegal to leak secrets but not illegal to publish leaks: The legal bargain from 1971 simply does not and cannot produce the outcome it used to.

Reputational: Society ostracizes those who turn against their own people. Institutional: Laws against war crimes. Security: None. In 2005, Captain Ian Fishback exposed the U.S.'s use of torture in Iraq because of his religious convictions. Similarly, Bradley Manning had to deal with two competing societal dilemmas in 2010 when he allegedly became a whistle-blower and sent 250,000 secret State Department cables to the anti-secrecy group WikiLeaks, which made them public.5 Like the Libyan pilots, he chose to defect from the government and cooperate with what he perceived as the country as a whole. His subsequent treatment by the U.S. government—which incarcerated him, stripped him of due process, and tortured him—is in part a societal pressure by the government to prevent copycat defections. In previous eras, the king might have put his head on a pike for all to see.


pages: 409 words: 112,055

The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

In the case of the CIA, however, there is little doubt about how the secrets were taken or by whom. Joshua Schulte, a CIA employee, was arrested by the FBI in August 2017 and charged with passing over eight thousand pages of highly classified information to Julian Assange, who subsequently posted them publicly on the WikiLeaks website. Assange, an Australian who had taken refuge in Ecuador’s London embassy, has been accused by numerous American authorities of acting in cooperation with Russian intelligence. The CIA documents were called Vault 7 by WikiLeaks, and they too revealed numerous zero-day exploits of widely used software, including products of Apple, Microsoft, and Samsung (e.g., allegedly a tool to listen to rooms in which Samsung televisions were installed, even when the television appeared to be turned off). When the documents became public, Microsoft president Brad Smith complained that no one in the U.S. government had told them about the vulnerabilities.

in the Vault 7 documents: Semantic Security Response, “Longhorn: Tools used by cyberespionage group linked to Vault 7,” Symantec Official Blog, April 10, 2017, www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/longhorn-tools-used-cyberespionage-group-linked-vault-7. groups known as APT 3 and APT 10: Andrew Griffin, “Wikileaks Files Detail CIA ‘Umbrage’ Project, Which Would Allow Spies to Pin Attacks on Other Countries,” Independent, March 8, 2017, www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/news/wikileaks-files-cia-umbrage-hacker-secret-spies-explained-countries-donald-trump-russia-a7618661.html. most “reckless and indiscriminate”: This quote is attributed to British Defense Secretary Gavin Williamson, said at a meeting with U.S. Defense Secretary Jim Mattis and other defense ministers in Brussels in 2018.

If the government tells the software developer, then the company issues a “patch” that can fix the problem. If the government does not tell them, then it can hack into interesting foreign networks using the vulnerability in order to learn things to protect the country. (The government creates an “exploit,” a hacking tool that takes advantage of the poorly written computer code.) After Edward Snowden stole sensitive NSA information and gave it to WikiLeaks (and the Russians), Obama appointed a five-man group to investigate and make recommendations. Dick Clarke was one of the group that became known as the Five Guys, after the Washington hamburger chain. The Five Guys’ recommendations were all made public, every single word of them, by the Obama White House. One of those recommendations was that when the NSA finds a hole in widely used software, it should tell the manufacturer, with rare exceptions.


On the Road: Adventures From Nixon to Trump by James Naughtie

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, obamacare, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, white flight, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

My team just shared photos from your trump sign waving day yesterday!’). It was the kind of thing of which any mainstream political campaign, operating out of dingy rooms in New York or Chicago or Atlanta, would be proud. Except it was coming from St Petersburg – at least 123 million Facebook posts – and, with the help of WikiLeaks, it was directed, secretly, at achieving one outcome, the disruptive one that would most please the man who could then deal with Trump: Vladimir Putin. That campaign cry – ‘I love WikiLeaks!’ from Trump – rolled down the years. There is no doubt about where Julian Assange of WikiLeaks stood on this question. In a 2015 Twitter comment he confirmed that they believed it would be better for their purpose – widespread disruption, the aim he shared with Putin – if the Republican candidate were to win. For good measure he described Clinton as ‘a bright, well-connected, sadistic sociopath’, thereby prefiguring dozens of Trump rallies.

Imagine giving over the vast power of the modern state to a man who says in advance that he will punish his critics and jail his opponent.’ Trump simply ignored such criticism. The investigation into Clinton’s use of a personal email server when she was secretary of state from 2008 to 2011 was enough. It was perfect conspiracy material, because the less that was known about what the emails contained, the more sinister Trump could make them sound. At every stop he urged WikiLeaks, which said it had a huge cache of hacked Democratic emails, to publish them. ‘I love WikiLeaks!’ he would say. And if the Russians were holding emails too? ‘Bring it on! Publish!’ The campaign was to be as much an attack on his opponent as a set of promises, with assistance welcome from anyone who would join the fun, for whatever reason. At rally after rally, he responded to the crowd’s chant with remarks like this one, in Pennsylvania – ‘Lock her up is right!

I fought back from his really ill-advised inappropriate comments in the summer. Fought back. We had a good convention by everybody’s account. I won the debates. We were on a very solid footing until the Russian co-operation with WikiLeaks and the weaponising of those emails that were stolen, and not only that, as Mueller points out in his second indictment, the Russians hacked into the cloud where very valuable information that the Democratic Party – and my campaign – had stored, and they stole it. We always were wondering how did they know who to target on Facebook. Who were these people that they were clearly going after? And however he knew it, Trump knew it. He mentioned WikiLeaks 161 times between the day that they dropped the emails and the day of the election. So there was just a lot going on at the same time. But Comey? Absolutely called the election.


pages: 301 words: 85,263

New Dark Age: Technology and the End of the Future by James Bridle

AI winter, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, congestion charging, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Snowden, fear of failure, Flash crash, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, late capitalism, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, oil shock, p-value, pattern recognition, peak oil, recommendation engine, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stem cell, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, Uber for X, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Our demands for clarity and openness may appear to be a counter to opacity and classification, but they end up asserting the same logics. Under this analysis, the National Security Agency and Wikileaks share the same worldview, with differing ends. Both essentially believe that there is some secret at the heart of the world that, if only it can be known, will make everything better. Wikileaks wants transparency for all; the NSA only wants transparency for some – its enemies; but both function according to the same philosophy. Wikileaks’ original intent was not to become a kind of mirror to the NSA, but to break the whole machine. In 2006, in the very early days of Wikileaks, Julian Assange wrote an analysis of conspiratorial systems of government and how they can be attacked, entitled ‘Conspiracy as Governance’. For Assange, all authoritarian systems are conspiracies because their power depends on keeping secrets from their peoples.

For Assange, all authoritarian systems are conspiracies because their power depends on keeping secrets from their peoples. Leaks undermine their power, not because of what is leaked, but because increased internal fear and paranoia degrades the system’s ability to conspire. What is damaging is the act of leaking itself, not the contents of any specific leak.38 As Wikileaks entered the public eye and Assange himself became an increasingly powerful and arrogant figure, the organisation became involved in a series of feuds with the intelligence agencies – and ultimately a tool for states to attack one another – and this realisation was lost. What replaced it was a mistaken belief in the power of the ‘smoking gun’: the single source or piece of evidence that would bring down authority. The problem of the smoking gun besets every strategy that depends on revelation to move opinion.

,’ 28 ENIAC, 27–30. 33. 27 Harvard Mark I machine, 30 Hippo programme, 32 as inventor of calculating machines, 27 on nuclear warfare and weather control, 28 writing to Zworykin, 26–7 von Neumann, Klára Dán, 28–9 VOR (VHF omnidirectional radio range) installations, 104 W Wallace, Alfred Russel, 78 Wang, Joz, 142–3 warehouse tracking systems, 118 Watson, Thomas J., 30 wealth, disparities in, 112–3 weather about, 50 control of, 28 modifications to, 193 ‘Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025’ report, 193, 207 Weather Prediction by Numerical Process (Richardson), 21–3 Whirlwind I, 32–3 Wi-Fi, 62–3 Wiggles, 223 Wikileaks, 183 Williams, Paul, 68–9 Williamson, Malcolm, 167 Willis, Bob, 175 winglets, 71 wiretapping, 234 Woods, Mary Lee, 78 Woolf, Virginia, 11–2 Three Guineas, 12 workers, robots vs., 116 World Meterological Organization, 195 World Wide Web, 78–9, 81 X Xiaolin Wu, 140–1 Xi Zhang, 140–1 XKeyscore, 173–4 Y Yahoo Messenger, 174 Yamal Peninsula, 48 YouTube, 217–32, 238 Z Zazzle, 125 Zeitgeist conference, 241–2 ‘zero-shot’ translation, 156 Zworykin, Vladimir ‘Outline of Weather Proposal,’ 25–6 von Neumann writing to, 26–7


pages: 297 words: 83,651

The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

And amid its embarrassment and its perplexity, the administration sought to indict everyone associated with the WikiLeaks revelations. This, for the old Washington establishment, exemplified the bad, irresponsible side of the internet. It was the net as Assange or Pirate Party activists fantasized it could be: a stateless anarchy, without intellectual property rights. The fact that they made leaking ‘sexy’, as security experts put it, and that the enormously modish trolling group Anonymous had joined the war on secrecy, raised the stakes and demanded examples be set. Private Chelsea Manning, blamed for the leaks, was held in solitary confinement at a supermax prison and subject to what the UN special rapporteur on torture called cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment. The Justice Department demanded access to the Twitter accounts of WikiLeaks volunteers, dismissing privacy and free speech concerns as ‘absurd’.26 It appeared, for a moment, as though the White House had misunderstood the real potential of the social industry, skewered by its own hype about ‘Twitter revolutions’ and the advantages of tech.

It was easy for the State Department to lobby Twitter . . . Nick Bilton, Hatching Twitter: A True Story of Money, Power, Friendship, and Betrayal, Penguin: New York, 2013, p. 327. 26. The Justice Department demanded access. . . Kevin Poulsen, ‘Prosecutors Defend Probe of WikiLeaks-related Twitter Accounts’, Wired, 8 April 2011. 27. The security state’s ancient dream had been . . . David Sanger, The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age, Penguin Random House: New York, 2018, pp. 227–8. 28. Twitter fought the Justice Department on its demands . . . Kevin Poulsen, ‘Judge Rules Feds Can Have WikiLeaks Associates’ Twitter Data’, Wired, 10 November 2011; ‘You Don’t Sacrifice Your Privacy Rights When You Use Twitter’, ACLU, 6 March 2013. 29. FBI director James Comey complained that Apple . . . Sanger, The Perfect Weapon, p. 227. 30.

They seemingly traded a mysterious substance – communication, the cloud – of which everyone was in favour, and which was pristine and high-status. However, it was also complicated. It was easy enough for the White House to gloat about free information if it inconvenienced Iran. It was easy for the State Department to lobby Twitter to hold off maintenance work during Iran’s Green Movement, telling them that a ‘Twitter revolution’ was happening.25 But when WikiLeaks shared a virtual library of classified State Department documents, the results were embarrassing. It was hardly mind-blowing that US diplomats fawned over dictators like Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak. But these revelations came as the regimes in Tunisia and Egypt were about to fall to popular revolutions. Similar movements would then appear in Bahrain, Algeria, Yemen, Libya, Syria and even Saudi Arabia.


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Ars Technica, https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2014/01/is-your-refrigerator-really-part-of-a-massive-spam-sending-botnet. 76Attackers have bricked IoT devices: Pierluigi Paganini (12 Apr 2017), “The rise of the IoT botnet: Beyond the Mirai bot,” InfoSec Institute, http://resources.infosecinstitute.com/rise-iot-botnet-beyond-mirai-bot. 76Dick Cheney’s heart defibrillator: Dana Ford (24 Aug 2013), “Cheney’s defibrillator was modified to prevent hacking,” CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2013/10/20/us/dick-cheney-gupta-interview/index.html. 76In 2017, a man sent a tweet: David Kravets (17 Mar 2017), “Man accused of sending a seizure-inducing tweet charged with cyberstalking,” Ars Technica, https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2017/03/man-arrested-for-allegedly-sending-newsweek-writer-a-seizure-inducing-tweet. 77Also in 2017, WikiLeaks published information: Steve Overly (8 Mar 2017), “What we know about car hacking, the CIA and those WikiLeaks claims,” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2017/03/08/what-we-know-about-car-hacking-the-cia-and-those-wikileaks-claims. 77Hackers have demonstrated ransomware: Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai (7 Aug 2016), “Hackers make the first-ever ransomware for smart thermostats,” Vice Motherboard, https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/aekj9j/Internet-of-things-ransomware-smart-thermostat. 77In 2017, an Austrian hotel: David Z.

., https://hackerone.com/torproject. 162the cyberweapons manufacturer Zerodium: Zerodium (13 Sep 2017; expired 1 Dec 2017), “Tor browser zero-day exploits bounty (expired),” https://zerodium.com/tor.html. 163“Every offensive weapon is”: Jack Goldsmith (12 Apr 2014), “Cyber paradox: Every offensive weapon is a (potential) chink in our defense—and vice versa,” Lawfare, http://www.lawfareblog.com/2014/04/cyber-paradox-every-offensive-weapon-is-a-potential-chink-in-our-defense-and-vice-versa. 163Many people have weighed in: Joel Brenner (14 Apr 2014), “The policy tension on zero-days will not go away,” Lawfare, http://www.lawfareblog.com/2014/04/the-policy-tension-on-zero-days-will-not-go-away. 163Activist and author Cory Doctorow: Cory Doctorow (11 Mar 2014), “If GCHQ wants to improve national security it must fix our technology,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/mar/11/gchq-national-security-technology. 163I have said similar things: Bruce Schneier (20 Feb 2014), “It’s time to break up the NSA,” CNN, http://edition.cnn.com/2014/02/20/opinion/schneier-nsa-too-big/index.html. 163Computer security expert Dan Geer: Dan Geer (3 Apr 2013), “Three policies,” http://geer.tinho.net/three.policies.2013Apr03Wed.PDF. 163Both Microsoft’s Brad Smith: Brad Smith (14 May 2017), “The need for urgent collective action to keep people safe online: Lessons from last week’s cyberattack,” Microsoft on the Issues, https://blogs.microsoft.com/on-the-issues/2017/05/14/need-urgent-collective-action-keep-people-safe-online-lessons-last-weeks-cyberattack. 163and Mozilla: Heather West (7 Mar 2017), “Mozilla statement on CIA/WikiLeaks,” Open Policy & Advocacy, https://blog.mozilla.org/netpolicy/2017/03/07/mozilla-statement-on-cia-wikileaks. Jochai Ben-Avie (3 Oct 2017), “Vulnerability disclosure should be part of new EU cybersecurity strategy,” Open Policy & Advocacy, https://blog.mozilla.org/netpolicy/2017/10/03/vulnerability-disclosure-should-be-in-new-eu-cybersecurity-strategy. 163“We recommend that the National Security Council”: Richard A. Clarke et al. (12 Dec 2013), “Liberty and security in a changing world,” President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communications Technologies, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/2013-12-12_rg_final_report.pdf. 163If we give up our own offensive: Both the NSA and the FBI have made that argument.

Lillian Ablon and Timothy Bogart (9 Mar 2017), “Zero days, thousands of nights: The life and times of zero-day vulnerabilities and their exploits,” RAND Corporation, https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1751.html. 165Plus, NOBUS doesn’t take into account: Scott Shane, Matthew Rosenberg, and Andrew W. Lehren (7 Mar 2017), “WikiLeaks releases trove of alleged C.I.A. hacking documents,” New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/07/world/europe/wikileaks-cia-hacking.html.https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/12/us/nsa-shadow-brokers.html. Scott Shane, Nicole Perlroth, and David E. Sanger (12 Nov 2017), “Security breach and spilled secrets have shaken the N.S.A. to its core,” New York Times, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/12/us/nsa-shadow-brokers.html. 165These included some pretty nasty: Bruce Schneier (28 Jul 2017), “Zero-day vulnerabilities against Windows in the NSA tools released by the Shadow Brokers,” Schneier on Security, https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2017/07/zero-day_vulner.html. 165Maybe nobody else could have: Dan Goodin (16 Apr 2017), “Mysterious Microsoft patch killed 0-days released by NSA-leaking Shadow Brokers,” Ars Technica, https://arstechnica.co.uk/information-technology/2017/04/purported-shadow-brokers-0days-were-in-fact-killed-by-mysterious-patch. 165In 2015, we learned that: National Security Agency/Central Security Service (30 Oct 2015), “Discovering IT problems, developing solutions, sharing expertise,” https://www.nsa.gov/news-features/news-stories/2015/discovering-solving-sharing-it-solutions.shtml. 165“Every year the government only keeps”: Jason Healey (1 Nov 2016), “The U.S. government and zero-day vulnerabilities: From pre-Heartbleed to the Shadow Brokers,” Columbia Journal of International Affairs, https://jia.sipa.columbia.edu/online-articles/healey_vulnerability_equities_process. 166It’s clear to many observers: Bruce Schneier (19 May 2014), “Should U.S. hackers fix cybersecurity holes or exploit them?”


Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Joining the Vietnamese appeal against Dow are the government of India, the Indian Olympic Association, and the survivors of the horrendous 1984 Bhopal gas leak, one of history’s worst industrial disasters, which killed thousands and injured more than half a million. Union Carbide, the corporation responsible for the disaster, was taken over by Dow, for whom the matter is of no slight concern. In February, Wikileaks revealed that Dow hired the U.S. private investigative agency Stratfor to monitor activists seeking compensation for the victims and prosecution of those responsible. Another major crime with very serious persisting effects is the Marine assault on the Iraqi city of Fallujah in November 2004. Women and children were permitted to escape if they could. After several weeks of bombing, the attack opened with a carefully planned war crime: invasion of the Fallujah General Hospital, where patients and staff were ordered to the floor, their hands tied.

Washington has made clear that any country that refuses to extradite Snowden will face harsh punishment. The United States will “chase him to the ends of the earth,” Senator Lindsey Graham warned. But U.S. government spokespersons assured the world that Snowden will be granted the full protection of American law—referring to those same laws that have kept U.S. Army soldier Bradley Manning (who released a vast archive of U.S. military and diplomatic documents to WikiLeaks) in prison for three years, much of it in solitary confinement under humiliating conditions. Long gone is the archaic notion of a speedy trial before a jury of peers. On July 30 a military judge found Manning guilty of charges that could lead to a maximum sentence of 136 years. Like Snowden, Manning committed the crime of revealing to Americans—and others—what their government is doing. That is a severe breach of “security” in the operative meaning of the term, familiar to anyone who has pored over declassified documents.

One persistent example is the mislabeled “free trade agreements”—mislabeled because they radically violate free trade principles and are substantially not about trade at all, but rather about investor rights. These instruments are regularly negotiated in secret, like the current Trans-Pacific Partnership—not entirely in secret, of course. They aren’t secret from the hundreds of corporate lobbyists and lawyers who are writing the detailed provisions, with an impact revealed by the few parts that have reached the public through WikiLeaks. As the economist Joseph E. Stiglitz reasonably concludes, with the U.S. Trade Representative’s office “representing corporate interests,” not those of the public, “The likelihood that what emerges from the coming talks will serve ordinary Americans’ interests is low; the outlook for ordinary citizens in other countries is even bleaker.” Corporate-sector security is a regular concern of government policies—which is hardly surprising, given their role in formulating the policies in the first place.


pages: 299 words: 88,375

Gray Day: My Undercover Mission to Expose America's First Cyber Spy by Eric O'Neill

active measures, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, computer age, cryptocurrency, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full text search, index card, Internet of things, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, ransomware, rent control, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, thinkpad, web application, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, young professional

On April 8, 2017, they published the password to access some of TAO’s secret hoard of attack tools within a ranting political post. Less than a year later, the CIA lost the keys to what WikiLeaks named Vault 7—the CIA’s cyberoffensive stockpile. In one of the largest document leaks in the CIA’s history, WikiLeaks released thousands of pages outlining sophisticated tools and techniques the agency allegedly used to break into mobile phones, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and computers. The leaks are a catalog of offensive hacking tools that include instructions for compromising a wide range of common devices and computer programs, including Skype, Wi-Fi networks, PDFs, and even virus scanners. If you believe WikiLeaks, the entire archive of stolen CIA material consists of several hundred million lines of computer code. It was like putting a virtual gun in the hand of every angry hacker on the planet.

A month after that, the DNC finally installed cybersecurity tools that spotted the breach. Too little, too late. The Russians had already stolen what they needed. When you don’t hunt the threat, the threat hunts you. Democrats wrung their hands as private emails and confidential memoranda appeared online like revenants, resurrected to destroy the party. In July, WikiLeaks published nearly 20,000 emails from the DCCC and DNC’s servers. As an encore, WikiLeaks distributed nearly 60,000 pages of emails from Podesta’s account in October and November 2016. The fallout included the resignation of the DNC chairwoman and most of her top party aides, a scandal that sidelined a number of leading Democrats, weeks of negative press that called into question the honesty and integrity of the Hillary campaign, and unlimited fodder for Trump’s Twitter account.

Most of us rinse and repeat our lives. We are content to wake and sleep, work and play. To carve out happiness in family and friends, children, and achievement. But some want more. Robert Philip Hanssen was the greatest spy in US history. His reign lasted over two decades in a time when espionage required immense skill and patience. Breaking his record will be next to impossible in a world of WikiLeaks and ransomware. Hanssen’s dreams demanded greatness. Heroes work and toil to scrape out their place in history. Villains take shortcuts. But both heroes and villains stretch to touch the infinite. Spying made Hanssen feel that he belonged to something far greater than himself. To the Russians he was an unknown national hero. To his family, he was a provider and a role model with uncompromising morals.


pages: 307 words: 88,745

War for Eternity: Inside Bannon's Far-Right Circle of Global Power Brokers by Benjamin R. Teitelbaum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Etonian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Saturday Night Live, school choice, side project, Skype, South China Sea, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks

Shenfield, Russian Fascism: Traditions, Tendencies, Movements (London: Routledge, 2001), 199. a stream of other official meetings: Clover, Black Wind, White Snow. See also Marlène Laruelle, Russian Eurasianism: An Ideology of Empire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008). See also Dugin’s private Facebook page. a WikiLeaks release: “PUTIN VISITS TURKEY: RUSSIA BIDS TO TURN TURKEY FROM WEST; TURKS KEEPING OPTIONS OPEN,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/04ANKARA6887_a.html. rewrote the introduction: “PUTIN VISIT TO TURKEY SEPTEMBER 2–3,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/04ANKARA4887_a.html. a network of individuals: Marlène Laruelle, “Alexander Dugin and Eurasianism.” In ed. Mark Sedgwick, Key Thinkers of the Radical Right: Behind the New Threat to Liberal Democracy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019), 155–79.

Sometimes it was the result of friends with money: he acquired the financial and logistical support of Russian oligarch Konstantin Malofeev, who himself was functioning as an unofficial Kremlin fixer, dealing out aid and financing projects with ostensibly private money that was nonetheless funneled his way by the Russian government. One covert move got out, though. According to U.S. intelligence, in 2004, Putin himself sent Dugin to Turkey in anticipation of his own official state visit, all in the hopes of convincing Turkey to move away from its Western NATO allies and toward closer ties with Russia. It took a WikiLeaks release of a classified U.S. embassy report to confirm this years later. Dugin’s official status throughout all this remained that of a philosopher. His appearance, fittingly, had come to resemble that of Grigori Rasputin, thanks to Dugin’s long beard in the style of Russian Orthodox priests. And his chief diplomatic intervention with Turkey, in the eyes of U.S. intelligence, for example, came when he rewrote the introduction to one of his books to describe a vision for a Eurasia more open to the Turkic world.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Politico, a website that tracks the minutiae of the D.C. elite, praised it as “a step forward for independent and non-traditional media organizations.” The Electronic Frontier Foundation, an organization that seeks to protect free speech online, decried it as offering insufficient protection for independent bloggers, reiterating its earlier argument that “Congress should link shield law protections to the practice of journalism as opposed to the profession.” The Senate debate over who is a “journalist” arose in the aftermath of WikiLeaks, whose activity has been defined as both journalism and espionage. Expanding the definition of a journalist means expanding the legal protection journalists receive. “I can’t support it if everyone who has a blog has a special privilege … or if Edward Snowden were to sit down and write this stuff, he would have a privilege. I’m not going to go there,” said Senator Dianne Feinstein, in a statement political commentator Matt Drudge denounced as “fascist.”

The debate over who is a journalist is a debate over journalistic privilege. But in a prestige economy, the privilege to protect the confidentiality of sources is not the only privilege at play. Journalism is increasingly a profession only the wealthy can enter. To narrow the definition of “journalist” to those affiliated with established news organizations denies legal protection not only to organizations like WikiLeaks, but also to the writers and bloggers who cannot afford the exorbitant credentials and unpaid internships that provide entry into the trade. “The journalists who can tell my story—the story of urban or inner-city America—have taken a job in marketing while disseminating their opinions on blogs,” writes freelance journalist David Dennis. Since the recession began in 2008, racial diversity in the media has declined while gender imbalance has remained high.

The Senate’s definition of “journalist” applies that same standard to unaffiliated writers and reporters: Do not listen to them, because they do not matter. Do not protect them, because what they offer is not worth protecting—although it may be worth prosecuting. Credibility is not something that can be bought, but credentials are. Using affiliation as a criterion to define “journalist” means only the privileged get journalistic privilege. The Senate’s target may be WikiLeaks, but their proposed ruling gives a de facto demotion to writers locked out for economic reasons. Journalists of prior generations worked their way up. Today, journalists are expected to start with an elite status and accept wages that have dwindled to nothing. The result is that journalism is a profession which most Americans cannot afford to formally enter. The Senate should not be able to determine who is a journalist, when the people whom they represent cannot afford to determine that themselves.


pages: 200 words: 47,378

The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos

AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, financial exclusion, global reserve currency, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, Marc Andreessen, Oculus Rift, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, QR code, ransomware, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, the medium is the message, trade route, underbanked, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Because while I can do all of those things and they’re very powerful, there are some things I can’t do. I am not talking about buying drugs. That’s not really that interesting. What I am talking about are simple things — for example, donating to an activist organization like WikiLeaks. A few years ago, WikiLeaks was completely cut off from the world’s financial system simply with extrajudicial pressure applied on the few major payment providers: Visa, MasterCard, the banking transfer system, PayPal, etc. Without any legal process, without any conviction, and perhaps, in my opinion, without absolutely any crime other than revealing the truth of crime, WikiLeaks was cut off from the world’s financial system. This is now happening not just to activist organizations; it’s happening to entire countries. The dream of nation-states, to create a totalitarian financial system, died on January 3rd, 2009, with the invention of bitcoin and the mining of the genesis block.

We subject ourselves to this mechanism that has now streamlined itself, and like the factory that can only produce little red firetrucks, this is a system that can only deliver privileged financial services for a tiny elite sliver of the population worldwide, with totalitarian surveillance tied up in regulations of each country, with barriers on the borders not permitting international trade. A financial system where the government can apply pressure to stop you trading with WikiLeaks, because they don’t like them, but you can still send donations to the Ku Klux Klan—and that’s not a joke. That’s exactly what happened. They have built a system that can only do one thing: enslave us. That can only do one thing: impoverish us. That system removes freedom in the most efficient possible way to deliver profits. That system is broken, and it doesn’t scale. But if that is what you’re trying to do, it’s the most efficient you’ve ever seen.


pages: 269 words: 79,285

Silk Road by Eileen Ormsby

4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, fiat currency, Firefox, Julian Assange, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Right to Buy, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, trade route, Turing test, web application, WikiLeaks

A reference number on the deposit slip would alert the trader to send the bitcoin to a specific bitcoin address, which had been supplied to the trader by anonymous email. Although Nakamoto’s initial posts had described his vision for an absence of regulation, his later posts remained technical and academic until WikiLeaks began to canvass the viability of accepting bitcoin. Nakamoto was adamant that he did not want his creation associated with the whistleblowing site. ‘No, don’t “bring it on”,’ he wrote. ‘I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage.’ He seemed more focused on the potential effects on his invention rather than any judgments about Julian Assange and his website.

It is a little ironic that this is a project that is likely co-funded by the US government and organised crime. ‘Tor’s original design was to give users privacy and anonymity online and that’s still the core of what we do,’ Lewman said. ‘The vast majority of Tor usage is by normal people who are just looking to not give out all their information; who they are, where they are and every website they visit. Of course jerks and criminals do use Tor but frankly they have far better options.’ WikiLeaks is one example of an organisation that took advantage of darknets to maintain the integrity of its submissions, recommending that those who required anonymity when whistleblowing use Tor. Even if a server were to be confiscated, there would be little risk to users of the site, because there would be no IP trail and no typical user traffic trails that led out of the server. Conversely, traffic of visitors was also protected from their end, because they would not leave a trail of where they were going or what they were doing when they got there.

Nakamoto’s only other political statement was unearthed by cryptographers and was embedded in the source code of bitcoin itself, a little Easter egg for determined crypto-sleuths. Hidden in the code, he had provided a hint to his motivation by reproducing a headline from The Times from January 2009: ‘Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks’. It would seem that someone who was wary about WikiLeaks bringing ‘heat’ to his invention would certainly have some issues with it being used as the cornerstone of dark-web markets. But he never made any statement about them. Nakamoto’s appearances, postings and emails became increasingly sporadic, and then, in early 2011, he quietly disappeared, surfacing only for the briefest of moments in April 2011 to tell a bitcoin developer that he had ‘moved on to other things’.


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Twitter also pointed to a similar situation in 2010, when people had been complaining that #wikileaks did not appear prominently enough in Trending Topics. At that time, the company explained: Twitter Trends are automatically generated by an algorithm that . . . captures the hottest emerging topics, not just what’s most popu lar. Put another way, Twitter favors novelty over popularity. . . . THE HIDDEN LOGICS OF SEARCH 77 Topics break into the Trends list when the volume of Tweets about that topic at a given moment dramatically increases. . . . Sometimes, popular terms don’t make the Trends list because the velocity of conversation isn’t increasing quickly enough, relative to the baseline level of conversation happening on an average day; this is what happened with #wikileaks this week.109 The #wikileaks and #occupy controversies died down quickly after Twitter offered these explanations.

Proper redress mechanisms could allow the centers to drop from surveillance a theater critic who frequently judges certain plays to be a “bomb.”54 That kind of confusion may sound absurd, but remember that computer search functionalities are “dumb” in important ways. As programmer/philosopher David Auerbach has observed: The government may be further behind than we think; FBI director Robert Mueller admitted in the 9/11 hearings that FBI databases only searched one word at a time: “flight” or “school” but not “fl ight school.” More recently, the cables released by 160 THE BLACK BOX SOCIETY WikiLeaks at the end of 2010 each contain a handful of tags, à la Twitter. The CBC observed that one cable discussing Canada was tagged “CN” rather than “CA,” designating Comoros instead of Canada, and a few cables were tagged with the nonexistent tag “CAN.” It’s safe to assume that these tags were also assigned manually. The haphazardness and errors of government intelligence are not reassuring for national security, but neither are they reassuring for privacy mavens.

Available at http://www.taxjustice .net /cms/upload /pdf /Price _of_Offshore _Revisited _120722.pdf. 213. International Consortium of Investigative Journalists and Center for Public Integrity, Secrecy for Sale: Inside the Offshore Money Maze (Washington, DC: Center for Public Integrity, 2013). Available at http://cloudfront-files-1 .publicintegrity.org /documents /pdfs /ICIJ%20Secrecy %20for %20Sale .pdf. The report was only possible because of a “Wikileaks”-style breach exposing the contours of labyrinthine corporate structures designed to hide income sources. We can be sure the “wealth defense industry” is redoubling its investments in avoiding future leaks. Dan Froomkin, “ ‘Wealth Defense Industry’ NOTES TO PAGES 56–60 245 Protects 1% from the Rabble and Its Taxes,” Huffi ngton Post (blog), December 13, 2011, http://www.huffi ngtonpost .com /dan-froomkin /wealth-defense -industry-p_b_1145825.html. 214.


pages: 309 words: 54,839

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard

altcoin, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, margin call, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, slashdot, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, tulip mania, Turing complete, Turing machine, WikiLeaks

The first known conversion to conventional currency was by Martti Malmi, ardent anarcho-capitalist and Bitcoin core coder: “I sold 5,050 BTC for $5,02 on 2009-10-12.”53 The first exchange site was bitcoinmarket.com, which opened 6 February 2010. The famous first commercial transaction (two pizzas, cost $30 including tip, for 10,000 BTC54) was a few months later, on 22 May 2010.55 From there the price rose steadily to 1c in July 2010. Bitcoin version 0.3 was mentioned on 11 July by tech news site Slashdot, gaining it some notice in the technology world, and inspiring the founding of the Mt. Gox exchange. In November 2010, WikiLeaks released the US diplomatic cables dump; the site was cut off from Visa, Mastercard and PayPal shortly after at the behest of the US government, but could still receive donations in Bitcoin. The price of a bitcoin hit $1 by February 2011. In April 2011, anarcho-capitalist and businessman Roger Ver, who had made his fortune with computer parts business Memory Dealers, heard a segment about Bitcoin on the libertarian podcast Free Talk Live.

In the comments he emphasised “The sole basis is in a currency that cannot be printed like paper.” Imagine someone writing this if they had invented Bitcoin two years before. The first time Wright is known to have spoken of Bitcoin was in the comments of his August 2011 post on The Conversation, “LulzSec, Anonymous … freedom fighters or the new face of evil?” in which he wrote of “Bit Coin” as a solution to WikiLeaks’ problems receiving donations.157 Wright started buying bitcoins on Mt. Gox in April 2013, including 17.24 BTC at the peak of the bubble in November for $1198 each.158 Some time in 2013, he posted backdated entries to his personal blog with references to Bitcoin and Bitcoin-related concepts: A post dated August 2008 mentions he will be releasing a “cryptocurrency paper” and references “Triple Entry Accounting,”159 a 2005 paper by financial cryptographer Ian Grigg.

Petersburg Bowl 77 Status 95, 98 Stellar 48 Stephenson, Neal 19 streaming 127 Szabo, Nick 19, 32, 59, 101, 102, 105, 107 TAO, The 135 TechUK 115 Telstra 73 Temkin, Max 75 Thiel, Peter 18 Thornburg, Jonathan 23 Tiny Human 129 Today (Radio 4) 67 Todd, Peter 59, 68 Top500 65 Tor 49, 59 Tual, Stephen 109 Tucker, Jeffrey 40 Tulip Mania 35 Tulip Trust 64 Turing completeness 107 Ujo Music 129 UK Government Office for Science 123 Ukash 73 Ulbricht, Lyn 53 Ulbricht, Ross 26, 48, 64 unbanked 29 Underhanded C Contest 106 Underhanded Solidity Coding Contest 106 Venezuela 31 Ver, Roger 17, 37, 44, 47, 48, 50 virtual reality 135 Visa 28, 36 wallet 12 Walpole, Sir Mark 123 WannaCry 73 Washington Post 32 Wells Fargo 87 Western Union 28 Westwood, Adam 64 WhollyHemp 76 WikiLeaks 36, 62 Wikimedia Foundation 76 Wikipedia 76 Wilcke, Jeffrey 94 Willybot 82 Winter Olympics 93 Wired 64 Wise, Josh 93 Wood, Gavin 94 WordPress 75 Wright Family Trust 63 Wright, Craig 61, 139 Yapizon 89 YouTube 137 Zamovskiy, Andrey 120 Zero Hedge 24 Zhoutong 83 Notes [1] Satoshi Nakamoto. “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”. Bitcoin.org, 31 October 2008


pages: 274 words: 85,557

DarkMarket: Cyberthieves, Cybercops and You by Misha Glenny

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, BRICs, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, James Watt: steam engine, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pirate software, Potemkin village, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stuxnet, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, zero day

Successive US governments have granted greater powers to law enforcement than most European governments would contemplate, allowing officers easier access to data from private companies, in the name of fighting crime and terrorism. The implications of this are both profound and, for the moment, impenetrable. Concerns about crime, surveillance, privacy, the accumulation of data by both private and state institutions, freedom of speech (step forward WikiLeaks), ease of access to websites (the so-called net neutrality debate), social networking as a political tool, and national-security interests constantly bump up against one another in cyberspace. One might argue, for example, that Google’s multi-platform, multitasking omnipresence violates the principles of America’s anti-trust legislation and that the agglomeration of all that personal data is both an opportunity for criminals and a threat to civil liberties.

That evening the websites of Estonia’s President and several government ministries started receiving inordinate amounts of spam email, while the Prime Minister’s photo on his party’s website was defaced. Russian-language chat rooms began to exhort hackers to launch attacks on Estonian sites and were distributing the software to do so. According to sources quoted in a US Embassy telegram to Washington (c/o WikiLeaks), the initial attacks were technically unsophisticated and ‘seemed more like a cyber riot than a cyber war’. Over the weekend, however, the attacks escalated from spam showers to DDoS attacks. Hackers had created dozens of those pesky botnets, suborning infected zombie computers around the world and forcing them to request Estonian websites. These were mighty assaults – the presidential website, ‘which normally has a two-million megabits-per-second capacity, was flooded with nearly 200 million Mbps of traffic’, according to the US Embassy cable.

What he means by that is that he sent infected emails to company email addresses, and it was but a matter of minutes before one of its many thousands of employees had fallen for the trap. So even if you have an unbreachable digital fortress, you have only overcome one of several major security challenges. Similarly, these days it is much easier to perpetrate an inside job in a company because of the ease with which data can be collected and stored. We know that Bradley Manning, the man accused of having removed the US diplomatic cables that were subsequently published on WikiLeaks’ website, managed to download all the material onto a CD marked as a Lady Gaga album. We also know that Stuxnet – to date the world’s most sophisticated virus – must have been planted on its apparent target in Iran’s nuclear facilities by somebody (wittingly or otherwise) infecting the computer systems with a memory stick or CD. Iran’s nuclear operating systems are not connected to the Internet.


pages: 409 words: 105,551

Team of Teams: New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World by General Stanley McChrystal, Tantum Collins, David Silverman, Chris Fussell

Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, Black Swan, butterfly effect, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chelsea Manning, clockwork universe, crew resource management, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, job automation, job satisfaction, John Nash: game theory, knowledge economy, Mark Zuckerberg, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Pierre-Simon Laplace, RAND corporation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

The risk, of course, was that it might reach the wrong ears and eyes as well. The question was how that potential risk stacked up against the benefits. WHAT ABOUT WIKILEAKS? On January 5, 2010, a twenty-two-year-old Army specialist walked out of a secure—or supposedly secure—room on Forward Operating Base Hammer, forty miles east of Baghdad, with nearly 400,000 highly classified military reports from the war in Iraq, all saved on CDs he had marked “LADY GAGA.” Three days later, he popped the CDs into his work computer and downloaded 91,000 reports on Afghanistan. Over the next several months, he repeated the same stunt, eventually gathering 250,000 classified State Department cables, which he passed on to WikiLeaks. By November, all had been released on the Internet to the global public. The U.S. government went into convulsions.

Saval, Cubed, 216. 93 percent . . . Saval, Cubed, 2. “The dark side of this” . . . Saval, Cubed, 220. “This disclosure is not just” . . . “Remarks to the Press on Release of Purportedly Confidential Documents by Wikileaks,” U.S. State Department, November 29, 2010, http://www.state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2010/11/152078.htm. “all this leaked information” . . . James P. Pinkerton, “America Needs Willpower—and the Right Leaders,” Fox News, July 29, 2010, http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2010/07/29/james-pinkerton-world-trade-centre-arizona-alqaeda-wikileaks-ground-zero-mosque. 854,000 people . . . Dana Priest and William Arkin, Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State (New York: Little, Brown, 2011), 158. CHAPTER 9: BEATING THE PRISONER’S DILEMMA “just four lines of code” . . .

Time and money spent learning the whole process would be time away from the job and money not spent on supplies. In the short run, this kind of education may not seem worth the opportunity cost. In military, governmental, and corporate sectors, an increased concern for secrecy has caused further sequestering of information. We have secrets, and secrets need to be guarded. In the wrong hands, information may do great damage, as the recent Snowden and WikiLeaks scandals have shown. In the absence of a compelling reason to do otherwise, it makes sense to confine information by the borders of its relevance. As growing volumes of data flood institutions divided into increasingly specialized departments, the systems for keeping information safe have become more and more complicated. More protocols have to be satisfied, more tests have to be conducted, more badges have to be swiped before information can be shared.


9-11 by Noam Chomsky

Berlin Wall, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

See Nir Rosen, Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America’s Wars in the Muslim World (Nation Books, 2010). 5. Anatol Lieven, “A Mutiny Grows in Punjab,” National Interest, March/April 2011, http://nationalinterest.org/article/mutiny-grows-punjab-4889. 6. The fullest discussion of this critically important material is by Fred Branfman, who had exposed the grotesque U.S. war against the peasants of northern Laos at the time; “Wikileaks Exposes the Danger of Pakistan’s Nukes,” Truthdig, January 13, 2011, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/wikileaks_exposes_the_danger_of_pakistans_nukes_20110113/. 7. “James Lamont and Farhan Bokhari, “Murder of Pakistani journalist raises awkward questions inside the regime,” Financial Times, June 3, 2011, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7b440aae-8e08-11e0-bee5-00144feab49a.html#axzz1PwOPdzye. 8. Lieven, Pakistan: A Hard Country (Public Affairs, 2011). 9.

Lieven summarizes by remarking that “U.S. and British soldiers are in effect dying in Afghanistan in order to make the world more dangerous for American and British peoples.”5 The threat that U.S. operations in what has been christened “Afpak”—Afghanistan-Pakistan—might destabilize and radicalize Pakistan is surely understood in Washington. The most significant documents to have been released so far from Wikileaks are the cables from Islamabad from U.S. Ambassador Patterson, who supports U.S. actions in Afpak but warns that they “risk destabilizing the Pakistani state, alienating both the civilian government and military leadership, and provoking a broader governance crisis in Pakistan without finally achieving the goal,” and that there is a possibility that “someone working in [Pakistani government] facilities could gradually smuggle enough fissile material out to eventually make a weapon,” a danger enhanced by “the vulnerability of weapons in transit.”6 A few weeks ago the tortured corpse of Pakistani journalist Syed Saleem Shahzad was found, probably murdered by the ISI, Pakistan’s powerful intelligence services.


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

Firm Acknowledges Syria Uses Its Gear to Block Web,” The Wall Street Journal, October 29, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203687504577001911398596328.html. the FBI violated the law thousands of times: “Patterns of Misconduct: FBI Intelligence Violations from 2001–2008,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 23, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, www.eff.org/wp/patterns-misconduct-fbi-intelligence-violations. Amazon and Paypal cut off Wikileaks: Rebecca MacKinnon, “WikiLeaks, Amazon and the New Threat to Internet Speech,” CNN, December 3, 2010, accessed March 26, 2013, www.cnn.com/2010/OPINION/12/02/mackinnon.wikileaks.amazon/. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”: John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996, accessed March 26, 2013, projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. The free, open-source Tor: The Tor Project is online here: www.torproject.org/ (ac-cessed March 26, 2013); other modes of encrypted communications are detailed in “Learn to Encrypt Your Internet Communications,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, accessed March 26, 2013, ssd.eff.org/wire/protect/encrypt.

Democratic countries are hardly immune to the temptations of tracking citizens illicitly; a study by the Electronic Frontier Foundation found, for example, that the FBI violated the law thousands of times while requesting digital information on citizens. Though the U.S. government loves to talk about the free flow of information, when the Web site Wikileaks released internal diplomatic documents and footage of the military killing civilians, politicians and pundits fulminated so ferociously that major U.S. firms like Amazon and Paypal cut off Wikileaks, probably worried about being on the wrong side of a political fight. In 1996, writer and electronic activist John Perry Barlow proclaimed “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Addressing old-school governments—“you weary giants of flesh and steel”—he proclaimed, “You are not welcome among us.

Library of Congress, 47 Vaingorten, Yaaqov, 162 Vaughn, Katherine, 255 Vibe, 81 video games, 147–51 collective knowledge applied to, 149–51 complexity, development of, 147–49 history/geography, learning, 199–202 scientific method, learning through, 196–99 video literacy, 94–105 collaborative projects, 101 future view, 106 popular tools, 96, 99 techniques used, 99–104 versus text-based ideas, 102–3 TV program analysis, 94–97 video sites, 99 Viégas, Fernanda, 91 Villasenor, John, 270–71 Virtual Fighter 3 (video game), 149 VK, 47 Voltolina, Laurentius de, 178–79 Wagenaar, Willem, 24–25 Wales, Jimmy, 163–64 Walk, Hunter, 103–4 Wang, Tricia, 212 Warhol, Andy, 238 Warner, Michael, 258 Watson supercomputer, 277–83, 286–88 Wattenberg, Martin, 91–92 wearable computer, 138–44 Wegener, Jonathan, 37–39 Wegner, Daniel, 124–26 Weibo, 109 Weinberg, Gabriel, 52–54, 56 Weinberger, David, 70 Weiner, Charles, 6 Wellman, Barry, 231 Weston, Edward, 110 Wikileaks, 273 Wikimedia Foundation, 161 Wikipedia and audience effect, 55–56 contributors, types of, 161 debate and article creation, 70–71 Five Pillars, 163 microcontributions, scale of, 161 reliability/error rates, 70 success, factors in, 163 Wikitorial, 159 Wilde, Oscar, 54 Williams, Heather, 88 wisdom of the crowds, 155–56 WITNESS, 274 Wittaker, Steve, 34–35 women’s magazines, photomanipulation in, 108 Wood, Matt T., 150–51 Woods, Andrew K., 253 word cloud, 88–89 Wordle, 88–89 WordPress, 47 word processor, 98–99 workplace e-mail free companies, 220 online distractions, 10 World of Warcraft (video game), 150, 196–97, 203 writing online, 45–82.


The Road to Unfreedom: Russia, Europe, America by Timothy Snyder

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, crony capitalism, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, hiring and firing, income inequality, John Markoff, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Robert Mercer, sexual politics, Transnistria, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Their release created division at the moment when the campaign was meant to coalesce. According to American authorities then and since, this hack was an element of a Russian cyberwar. The Trump campaign, however, supported Russia’s effort. Trump publicly requested that Moscow find and release more emails from Hillary Clinton. Trump’s son Donald Trump Jr. was in personal communication with WikiLeaks, the proxy that facilitated some of the email dumps. WikiLeaks asked Trump Jr. to have his father publicize one leak—“Hey Donald, great to see your dad talking about our publications. Strongly suggest your dad tweet this link if he mentions us”—which Trump Sr. in fact did, fifteen minutes after the request was made. With his millions of Twitter followers, Trump was among the most important distribution channels of the Russian hacking operation.

Russian platforms served content to American conspiracy sites with enormous viewership. For example, in an email hacked and stolen by Russia, Hillary Clinton wrote a few words about “decision fatigue.” This term describes the increasing difficulty of making decisions as the day goes on. Decision fatigue is an observation of psychologists about the workplace, not an illness. Once it was stolen by Russia, the email was released by WikiLeaks, and then promoted by the Russian propaganda sender Sputnik as evidence that Clinton was suffering from a debilitating disease. In this form, the story was picked up by InfoWars. Russians exploited American gullibility. Anyone who paid attention to the Facebook page for a (nonexistent) group called Heart of Texas should have noticed that its authors were not native speakers of English. Its cause, Texas secession, perfectly expressed the Russian policy of advocating separatism in all countries except Russia itself (the South from the U.S., California from the U.S., Scotland from the United Kingdom, Catalonia from Spain, Crimea from Ukraine, the Donbas from Ukraine, every member state from the EU, etc.).

According to American The U.S. assessments: NCCIC and FBI Joint Analysis Report, “Grizzly Steppe: Russian Malicious Cyber Activity,” Dec. 29, 2016; “Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections,” Intelligence Community Assessment, Jan. 6, 2017. See also U.S. Department of the Treasury, “Issuance of Amended Executive Order 13694; Cyber-Related Sanctions Designations,” Dec. 29, 2016. Trump Jr. and Trump Sr. participation: Jack Shafer, “Week 26,” Politico, Nov. 18, 2017. Quotations: Marshall Cohen, “What we know about Trump Jr.’s exchanges with WikiLeaks,” CNN, Nov. 14, 2017. Trump’s denials: Kurt Eichenwald, “Why Vladimir Putin’s Russia Is Backing Donald Trump,” NW, Nov. 4, 2016. Leaked emails Guiding to Podesta: “Russia Twitter trolls rushed to deflect Trump bad news,” AP, Nov. 9, 2017. Thirty minutes: Adam Entous and Ellen Nakashima, “Obama’s secret struggle to punish Russia,” WP, June 23, 2017. As in Poland in 2015 See Brazile, Hacks, 25, 43, 85.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

(The next five sentences then repeat the oldest and most conventional calls for general well-being through measured oversight.) By comparison Assange's When Google Met Wikileaks is a fascinating, self-contradictory, hyperactive tangle of ideas, accusations, and bizarre rationalizations. Within critical Google discourse it is in a league of its own, for both better or worse. Julian Assange, When Google Met Wikileaks (New York: OR Books, 2014). 64.  See Julian Assange, “The Banality of ‘Don't Be Evil,’” New York Times, June 1, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/02/opinion/sunday/the-banality-of-googles-dont-be-evil.html It was later republished in Assange, When WikiLeaks Met Google. 65.  As recently occurred in Turkey, when the AK Party tried to shut down Twitter, and the government also tried to shut off access to Google DNS as well.

See, for example, Jaron Lanier, Who Owns the Future? (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013). 64.  See Danielle Citron, “Bright Ideas: Anita Allen's Unpopular Privacy,” Concurring Opinions, January 13, 2012, http://www.concurringopinions.com/archives/2012/01/bright-ideas-anita-allens-unpopular-privacy.html. 65.  Jacob Applebaum, Andy Mueller-Maguhn, Jeremie Zimmermann, and Julian Assange, “Episode 8, Part 1,” WikiLeaks World Tomorrow, April 2012, https://worldtomorrow.wikileaks.org/episode-8.html.If you look at it from a market perspective, I'm convinced that there is a market in privacy that has been mostly left unexplored, so maybe there will be an economic drive for companies to develop tools that will give users the in-dividual ability to control their data and communication. Maybe this is one way that we can solve that problem. I'm not sure it can work alone, but this may happen and we may not know it yet.

We see it in a politics of radial transparency aligned with another politics of radical privacy, in journalists’ self-congratulation at the use of social media in the Arab Spring as supposedly outlining an anterior stratum of crowds and power (absent in their coverage of the shock economies of Haiti, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Louisiana, for example), in how Wikipedia formalizes taxonomic consensus from a heteroglossia of interests and how WikiLeaks inverted the ocular and occult body of the state, or in how Google cloud services both circumvent and circumscribe state authority in China and in how much of China's direct perception of computational supply chains is invisible to Californian search engines. Both events and pseudoevents are plentiful and it's hard to know what signals a new situation and what is trivial: the Google Earth stand-off between Costa Rica and Nicaragua, Prism and Data.Gov, hyperbolic packet-routing topologies, Dot-P2P and OpenDNS, net neutrality and the golden shield, downloadable guns 3D printed out of synthetic biopolymers paid for with Bitcoins, the National Security Agency (NSA) versus Unit 6139, NSA versus Anonymous, Anonymous versus Syrian Electronic Army, NSA versus Syrian Electronic Army versus ISIL versus FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation) versus North Korea versus Samsung versus Apple versus European Parliament, and on and on.


pages: 352 words: 90,622

Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security by Sarah Chayes

Celtic Tiger, colonial rule, crony capitalism, drone strike, failed state, income inequality, microcredit, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, structural adjustment programs, trade route, ultimatum game, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, young professional

Embassy in Tashkent, “Uzbekistan: Gulnora Karimova’s Geneva U.N. Appointment May Reflect Concerns About the Future,” September 18, 2008, WikiLeaks, http://bit.ly/1dauvNN. 20. Camille Polloni, “La justice française s’intéresse a la fille du dictateur ouzbek,” Le nouvel observateur, July 31, 2013, http://bit.ly/1p8bF9D. 21. John Davy, former Ucell CFO, on Swedish Public Television’s Uppdrag granskning (Mission Investigate), broadcast May 22, 2013, http://bit.ly/1l0La8I. See among other cables, “Skytel Scandal: Fiasco in the Making,” WikiLeaks, February 24, 2005, http://bit.ly/1hx3AZc 22. U.S. Embassy cable, “Gulnora Karimova Provides Grants in Hope of Improving Image,” November 3, 2005, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2005/11/05TASHKENT3019 .html. In February 2013, when I was in Tashkent, U.S. officials and major donor agencies attended a gala event organized by Karimova for one of these organizations, the Fund Forum. 23.

In February 2013, when I was in Tashkent, U.S. officials and major donor agencies attended a gala event organized by Karimova for one of these organizations, the Fund Forum. 23. U.S. Embassy cable, “First Daughter Lola (Karimova) Cuts Loose,” November 26, 2004, http://wikileaks.org/cable/2004/11/04/TASHKENT3180.html. 24. The 2010 liquidation of the Karimova-controlled conglomerate Zeromax, with significant energy holdings, may indicate competition by the SNB for the natural resource sector. 25. “Corruption is used on a systematic basis as a mechanism of direct and indirect administrative control over higher education institutions. Informal approval of corrupt activities in exchange for loyalty and compliance with the regime may be used in the countries of Central Eurasia for the purposes of political indoctrination.” Ararat Osipian, “Feed from the Service: Corruption and Coercion in the State-University Relations in Central Eurasia,” October 1, 2007, MPRA paper no. 10818, http://bit.ly/1fFnIpu. 26.

Workers at the GM plant also had to go, or risk losing their jobs if they refused, according to an unpublished Cotton Campaign interview with a GM worker. See also Le travail forcé des enfants en Ouzbékistan: des changements mais sans amélioration (Grenoble: École de Management, Centre d’Études en Géopolitique et Gouvernance, March 2012); and U.S. Embassy cable, “Uzbekistan: UNICEF Shares Results of Child Labor Assessment,” October 30, 2008, WikiLeaks, http://bit.ly/1nBlstt. For a surreal assessment of the Uzbek cotton industry, in which no mention is made of forced labor, see Stephen MacDonald, Economic Policy and Cotton in Uzbekistan (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, October 2012), http://1.usa .gov/1cVUh84. See also Ilkhamov, “Uzbekistan’s Cotton Sector,” pp. 22–25. 31. See also Ilkhamov, “Uzbekistan’s Cotton Sector,” pp. 16–22. 32.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

.* Recent attacks are among the most effective ever seen in the corporate world, but that’s a record made to be broken. Finally comes the threat posed by info-anarchists and technically sophisticated criminals. In 2010, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange barely missed becoming Time magazine’s Person of the Year after the release of thousands of politically sensitive documents badly embarrassed Washington and other governments around the world.5 In 2011, efforts by several governments to shut him and WikiLeaks down made him the world’s first cybermartyr. In response, an army of info-anarchists operating under the name Anonymous launched cyberattacks on those governments and denial-of-service attacks on financial services companies PayPal and MasterCard after they severed ties with WikiLeaks. Other companies have become targets of online criminals. Sony has suffered raids on personal information involving tens of millions of customers.

climate change and, 94 as debtor nation, 65, 158, 187 decline of, 63–66 defense program of, 12, 71, 76, 186, 191 entitlement programs in, 12–13, 65, 190 federal debt of, 3, 12, 34, 38, 51, 60, 62, 81, 172, 186, 189 fiscal stimulus in, 11 in G2 with China, 155–84 growing divergence with Chinese economic policies, 62–63, 77 intellectual property laws and, 84 Internet protocol in, 89 leadership role of, 3, 5, 14–15, 24, 25, 40–41, 111, 129, 154, 195 loss of manufacturing jobs in, 64 military commitments of, 187 nuclear program of, 59 oil exported by, 47–48 outsourcing by, 126–27 Pakistan’s relationship with, 115 pollution caused by, 158 poor infrastructure of, 186, 189 possibility of Chinese war with, 170–74 reduced role of, 194, 195 smart grids in, 73 taxes in, 190 trade by, 116–17, 120, 143, 153, 154, 158, 163 unemployment in, 77 in withdrawal from Iraq, 32 in world currency and debt crises, 38 United States and the World Economy, The (Bergsten), 157–58 urbanization, 52, 99, 104–5, 118 Uzbekistan, 135 Varyag, 23 vegetable oil, 100 Venezuela, 25, 48, 138, 168, 177, 182 state capitalism in, 78 Vietnam, 23, 70, 114, 121, 129, 140–41, 194 multinationals in, 80 rice exported by, 102 water security in, 105 Vietnam War, 49 Voice of America, 92 WAPI, 86 war on terror, 11 wars, 123 prevention of, 68 Warsaw Pact, 53 Washington, George, 7 Washington Consensus, 42, 46, 174 water, 68 security of, 3, 5, 97, 104–7, 129–30, 140, 147 Wells, H. G., 86–87 Wen Jiabao, 8, 12, 21, 143 Western Europe, 46–47 oil imported by, 47 West Germany, 45, 46, 47, 53, 82, 165 Wi-Fi, 86 WikiLeaks, 75 World Bank, 4, 28, 29–30, 99, 104, 118, 134, 135 American and European influence in, 42, 43–44 creation of, 39, 43 in world currency and debt crises, 38 World Brain (Wells), 86–87 World Trade Organization, 60 Doha Round, 103 World War I, 3, 11, 40, 141, 167, 170 World War II, 11, 38–40, 56–57, 151, 170, 187 Xinhua, 8, 62, 70 Yanukovych, Viktor, 138 Yeltsin, Boris, 54 Yemen, 14, 67, 114 chaos in, 112, 175, 183 yen, 83 Yom Kippur War, 48–49 yuan: China accused of manipulation of, 79–80, 154, 161–62 as international currency, 83 Yugoslavia, 32 Zambia, 119, 120 Zimbabwe, 7–8, 130, 131–32 Zoellick, Robert, 157 ALSO BY IAN BREMMER The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations?


pages: 470 words: 148,444

The World as It Is: A Memoir of the Obama White House by Ben Rhodes

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, demand response, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, intangible asset, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

As a former spy, Putin surely understood the gravity of someone making off with the blueprints for how a nation conducts surveillance. In response, Obama canceled a planned state visit to Moscow. He didn’t want to navigate the sideshow of Snowden being in the same city, but he also saw no point in attending a summit where nothing was going to be accomplished. I also noticed an unusual coziness among the Russians, Snowden, and Wikileaks—the way in which Wikileaks connected with Snowden, who was clearly being monitored by the Russians; the way in which the disclosures coincided largely with Russian interests, including the leaks from Snowden’s stolen cache that seemed focused on sabotaging America’s relationships abroad—particularly our alliance with Germany. Whoever was behind the disclosures was intent on driving a wedge between the United States and Europe, which also happened to be a key goal of Putin’s, who deeply resented the expansion of NATO and the European Union into former Soviet states like the Baltic countries.

That summer had been thankless in so many other ways. It began with the spectacle of Edward Snowden releasing a devastating cache of classified information in June, fleeing to Hong Kong, and then somehow boarding a plane to Moscow even though he had no passport. There were weeks of drip-drip-drip revelations about U.S. surveillance, the same tactic that would shadow the run-up to our 2016 elections, involving the same people: Russia, Wikileaks. I had to spend my days explaining to our liberal base that Obama wasn’t running a surveillance state because of the activities of the NSA, which we couldn’t really talk about. Then came the Egypt coup, which we refused to call a coup. Instead of carrying out an affirmative agenda, I felt I spent my days in a defensive crouch. As our August vacation began, I was wrestling with my own creeping suspicion that Obama was right—maybe we couldn’t do much to direct events inside the Middle East; maybe U.S. military intervention in Syria would only make things worse.

A year later, when the Burmese military escalated a campaign to cleanse Rakhine State of the Rohingya, Hillary’s attention to the details of this distant land could have made a difference, but in this political moment, it didn’t. Ben, no one in Ohio cares about Burma. * * * — IT HARDLY CAME AS a surprise that the Russians hacked into the DNC. From my first day at work, I’d been told to assume that any unclassified email I sent, any nonsecure phone call I made, could be intercepted by the Russians. They’d already hacked into U.S. government servers. But just before the Democratic convention, Wikileaks dumped thousands of DNC emails into the public domain in an effort to sow discord within the Democratic Party. This was new, something of far greater scale and consequence than releasing intercepted phone calls in Ukraine. Debbie Wasserman Schultz had resigned as chair in the face of outrage from Bernie Sanders supporters who saw, in the emails, that she’d shown favoritism for the Clinton campaign.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Halbrook, “‘Arms in the Hands of Jews Are a Danger to Public Safety’: Nazism, Firearm Registration, and the Night of the Broken Glass, St. Thomas Law Review 21 (2009): 109–41, 110, www.stephenhalbrook.com/law_review_articles/Halbrook_macro_final_3_29.pdf. 145 the cloud “is actually just a handful of companies”: Clive Thompson, interview with author, Brooklyn, NY, Aug. 13, 2010. 145 there was nowhere to go: Peter Svensson, “WikiLeaks Down? Cables Go Offline After Site Switches Servers,” Huffington Post, Dec. 1, 2010, accessed Feb. 9, 2011, www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/12/01/wikileaks-down-cables-go-_n_790589.html. 145 “lose your constitutional protections immediately”: Christopher Ketcham and Travis Kelly, “The More You Use Google, the More Google Knows About You,” AlterNet, Apr. 9, 2010, accessed Dec. 17, 2010, www.alternet.org/investigations/146398/total_information_awareness:_the_more_you_use_google,_the_more_google_knows_about_you _?

Amazon Web Services, one of the major players in the space, hosts thousands of Web sites and Web servers and undoubtedly stores the personal data of millions. On one hand, the cloud gives every kid in his or her basement access to nearly unlimited computing power to quickly scale up a new online service. On the other, as Clive Thompson pointed out to me, the cloud “is actually just a handful of companies.” When Amazon booted the activist Web site WikiLeaks off its servers under political pressure in 2010, the site immediately collapsed—there was nowhere to go. Personal data stored in the cloud is also actually much easier for the government to search than information on a home computer. The FBI needs a warrant from a judge to search your laptop. But if you use Yahoo or Gmail or Hotmail for your e-mail, you “lose your constitutional protections immediately,” according to a lawyer for the Electronic Freedom Foundation.

Walker social capital social graph Social Graph Symposium Social Network, The Solove, Daniel solution horizon Startup School Steitz, Mark stereotyping Stewart, Neal Stryker, Charlie Sullivan, Danny Sunstein, Cass systematization Taleb, Nassim Nicholas Tapestry TargusInfo Taylor, Bret technodeterminism technology television advertising on mean world syndrome and Tetlock, Philip Thiel, Peter This American Life Thompson, Clive Time Tocqueville, Alexis de Torvalds, Linus town hall meetings traffic transparency Trotsky, Leon Turner, Fred Twitter Facebook compared with Últimas Noticias Unabomber uncanny valley Upshot Vaidhyanathan, Siva video games Wales, Jimmy Wall Street Journal Walmart Washington Post Web site morphing Westen, Drew Where Good Ideas Come From (Johnson) Whole Earth Catalog WikiLeaks Wikipedia Winer, Dave Winner, Langdon Winograd, Terry Wired Wiseman, Richard Woolworth, Andy Wright, David Wu, Tim Yahoo News Upshot Y Combinator Yeager, Sam Yelp You Tube LeanBack Zittrain, Jonathan Zuckerberg, Mark Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Introduction Chapter 1 - The Race for Relevance Chapter 2 - The User Is the Content Chapter 3 - The Adderall Society Chapter 4 - The You Loop Chapter 5 - The Public Is Irrelevant Chapter 6 - Hello, World!


pages: 442 words: 130,526

The Billionaire Raj: A Journey Through India's New Gilded Age by James Crabtree

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, business climate, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism, young professional

In the mid-2000s, the Samajwadi Party recruited Anil Ambani to the Rajya Sabha, at a time when the billionaire tycoon happened to be investing in the state. Mayawati, the Dalit leader of UP’s Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), enjoyed a reputation for especially inventive fund-raising schemes during her own periods in power. One involved the alleged sale of “tickets,” meaning the right to represent her party in parliament. Although this is something Mayawati has denied, a leaked US diplomatic cable released by WikiLeaks suggested that the going rate for a BSP ticket during the 2009 national elections came to “roughly 250,000 dollars.”22 The same cable, poetically entitled “Mayawati: Portrait of a Lady,” made further allegations concerning the excesses of her various spells as UP’s chief minister. “When she needed new sandals, her private jet flew empty to Mumbai to retrieve her preferred brand,” the author claimed.

Tamil Nadu’s electorate did not seem to mind if their leaders were on the take, so long as they were not looting extravagantly and they delivered progress in other ways. Business leaders were similarly phlegmatic, viewing her kind of corruption as akin to a tax: a cost of doing business, but a predictable and manageable one. “They prefer Jayalalithaa because her AIADMK is more efficient at delivering once paid,” one American government official wrote in a diplomatic cable, leaked by WikiLeaks. The author also quoted a local tycoon, who complimented Jayalalithaa’s style of governing: “If I pay her, I know my job will get done.”24 The Andhrapreneurs From a distance India’s parliament building looks serene: a squat amphitheater ringed with columns, its outline visible through the thickest New Delhi smog. Upon completion in 1927, its outer walls hid three chambers: the House of the People, the Council of States and the Chamber of Princes, the last acting as a gathering place for monarchs from the various “princely states,” which notionally still ruled much of the country under the British Raj.

There were economic reforms too—YSR streamlined the state’s bureaucracy, cut its deficit and made it easier for businesses to invest—but these were obscured by populist largesse and shady development schemes. Among the most prominent was a huge irrigation plan known as Jalayagnam, later dubbed “the mother of all frauds” by the Times of India.34 Auditors found many billions of dollars had gone missing from contracts handed out to half a dozen politically connected local companies. An American diplomatic cable, released by WikiLeaks, noted dryly how “corruption beyond the pale (even for India)” had become a hallmark of YSR’s rule.35 “We thought Naidu was bad,” the same document quotes a local newspaper editor as saying, “but that was child’s play compared with what is happening now.” At one level this reputation for adventurous cronyism did Andhra Pradesh little harm. Much like Tamil Nadu, it enjoyed strong growth and enviable levels of social development in the decades after 1991, all seemingly unencumbered by the greed and collusion of its elites.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Not a great deal is known about its founders, except that WikiLeaks describes the group as comprising Chinese dissidents, hackers, computer programmers, lawyers, and journalists.6 To protect their sources (and their own identities), they spread assets, encrypt everything, and move telecommunications and people around the world to activate protective laws in different national jurisdictions. But who watches WikiLeaks? Can it be fully trusted? The jury is out, but so far its track record is good. And when you put WikiLeaks together with the events in Iran and other places you can begin to see why dictators everywhere are wondering when this new citizen power is going to come knocking on their door. Indeed, the Pentagon may wonder whether WikiLeaks can be held to account when sensitive information leaks to the public.

And they are always innovating—using the latest Internet-based technologies to amplify their impact. Take WikiLeaks, a self-proclaimed “intelligence service of the people” with a mission to abolish official secrecy. The whistle-blowing site made headlines when in April 2010 an anonymous tipster posted a video the Pentagon claimed to have lost of U.S. helicopter crews enthusiastically killing Iraqis on a Baghdad street in 2007. That event, in itself, might not have made headlines, except among the dead were two reporters with the Reuters news agency. The explosive leak, which sent shock waves around the world and had the Pentagon in a conniption, is merely the tip of the iceberg. In just a few short years, WikiLeaks has released more than a million confidential documents from highly classified military secrets to text messages of those killed in the 9/11 attacks.

Its annual Freedom in the World report is a respected global benchmark assessment of the state of political rights in 192 countries and 14 related and disputed territories. 4. “Undermining Democracy: 21st Century Authoritarians,” Freedom House (June 2009). 5. James Gwartney and Robert Lawson, “Ten Consequences of Economic Freedom,” National Center for Policy Analysis (July 30, 2004). 6. We do know, however, that WikiLeaks was founded by an Australian (Julian Assange) who lives in East Africa. 7. Evgeny Morozov, “Think Again: The Internet,” Foreign Policy (May/June 2010). 8. Experts suggest that the differences between Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad are far less significant than what unites them. In the aftermath of their failed attempts to overturn the election results, many pro-democracy activists started to question whether Mousavi truly embraces their ideals.


pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

In geopolitics, small players—whether “minor” countries or nonstate entities—have acquired new opportunities to veto, interfere in, redirect, and generally stymie the concerted efforts of “big powers” and multilateral organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). To name just a few instances: Poland’s vetoing of the EU’s low-carbon policy, the attempts by Turkey and Brazil to derail the big powers’ negotiations with Iran over its nuclear program, Wikileaks’ disclosure of US diplomatic secrets, the Gates Foundation’s contesting of the World Health Organization leadership in the fight against malaria, and spoilers of various stripes and sizes in global negotiations on trade, climate change, and numerous other issues. These newly and increasingly relevant “small players” are vastly different from one another, as are the fields they compete in. But they have in common the fact that they no longer require size, scope, history, or entrenched tradition to make their mark.

Kenyan lawyer Ory Okolloh and a blogger called “M” launched a watchdog site in 2006 on Kenya’s corrupt political scene.34 Iranian-American Kelly Golnoush Niknejad started TehranBureau.com to gather and spread news directly from fellow Iranians during the popular uprising after the 2009 presidential elections, with foreign journalists banned from the country.35 Sami Ben Gharbia, a blogger and civil society activist, helped incite anti-regime demonstrations in Tunisia by using his group blog to spread devastating tales of corruption contained in the US diplomatic cables released through WikiLeaks. These new actors are enriching the scope of political discourse around the world. They operate outside the channels and beyond the control of traditional political organizations, both government- and party-related. They are ubiquitous and, when facing repression, they can also be highly elusive. But technology is simply the tool. The bigger picture is a cascading diffusion of power that has put individuals in an unprecedented position not only to bypass political institutions developed over decades but also to influence, persuade, or constrain “real” politicians more directly and more effectively than any classical political theorist could have imagined.

The bigger picture is a cascading diffusion of power that has put individuals in an unprecedented position not only to bypass political institutions developed over decades but also to influence, persuade, or constrain “real” politicians more directly and more effectively than any classical political theorist could have imagined. HEDGE FUNDS AND HACKTIVISTS Left in a room together, John Paulson and Julian Assange might soon be at each other’s throats. Paulson runs Paulson & Co, one of the world’s largest hedge funds. Assange is the founder of WikiLeaks, the Web-based organization that specializes in divulging the secret information of governments and corporations. And yet they have one very significant thing in common: both symbolize a new breed of actors who are transforming national politics by limiting the power of governments. With their ability to move billions of dollars at the speed of light away from a country whose economic policies they distrust, hedge funds are just one of the many financial institutions whose decisions constrain the power of governments.


The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind

affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

Even the French yellow vest protests and the gains made by Jeremy Corbyn’s Labour Party in the British general election of 2017 have been attributed to Russian machinations online.3 The “Russiagate” scandal began before Trump’s election as the Clinton campaign, some anti-Trump Republicans, elements in the Obama administration, and various members of the US law enforcement and national security establishments spread rumors of alleged links between Russia and the Trump campaign to the media, including the false story that Trump was being blackmailed by Moscow with a videotape of him consorting with Russian prostitutes. When Trump won, his political enemies in the Democratic and Republican parties claimed that Russia had swung the election against Clinton. Putin had installed his puppet in the White House, it was widely asserted, by one of two methods (or both). One was Russian assistance to the website WikiLeaks, which leaked material damaging to Clinton and her allies. The other method of Russian interference in the 2016 election took the form of propaganda on Facebook, YouTube, and other social media platforms to suppress black voters and encourage some white voters who had voted for Obama in 2012 to vote for Trump in 2016. In Spring 2019, after a two-year investigation, Special Counsel Robert Mueller found no evidence that the Trump campaign conspired with Russia to influence the 2016 presidential election, leaving many Americans who had believed that the president would be exposed as a traitor disoriented and depressed.4 However, Mueller and his team, in addition to indicting some Trump campaign officials on unrelated charges, did charge a number of Russians with criminal interference in the 2016 election, allowing Trump’s opponents to salvage the thesis that Clinton would have become president of the United States but for Putin’s interference.

It is a fact that Putin, like many Russians, resents the treatment of Russia by the West after the Cold War, symbolized by the incorporation of former Russian satellites into the European Union and the expansion of NATO. Russian nationalists and many populists in Europe and the US share a common hostility to the transnational European Union as well as contemporary transatlantic social liberalism. In addition, Western intelligence authorities claim that Russian intelligence operatives have engaged in trying to promote conflict in the US and other countries by helping whistle-blowers like WikiLeaks and Edward Snowden leak stolen or classified information and by bombarding carefully targeted audiences with Internet memes and ads. Let us stipulate that this is all true. It was also true in the 1950s that there really were a small number of communists in the US, including a few high-ranking government officials, who spied for the Soviet Union, as well as many more Soviet sympathizers. There were also genuine Soviet disinformation campaigns in the Cold War West.

., xii Trump, Donald, xi, xiii, 20, 61, 68, 69, 74–75, 79, 80, 82, 83, 86–87, 107, 111, 112, 131, 132, 135, 157 bigoted remarks of, 80, 102 Charlottesville rally and, 100–103 described as fascist, , 99–100, 103, 108–9 elected president, ix, 68, 75, 90–99, 103 Latinos and, xiii “Resistance” term and, 90 see also authoritarian personality theory Ullrich, Volker, 103–4 unions, see labor, organized universal basic income (UBI), 122–25, 127 university-credentialed managers and professionals, see overclass van den Berghe, Pierre, 80 Veblen, Thorstein, 6 Ventura, Jesse, 61 Viereck, Peter, 105 voting rights, 163–64 Wagner Act, 35 Wallace, George, 69 war and social reform, 32–38, 167–68 wards, 136–38 War Industries Board (WIB), 33–35 Warren, Donald, 73 Watanuki, Joji, 50 Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, 32 Weinberg, George, 111 welfare, 23, 26, 34, 36, 38, 123, 125, 152–54 immigrants and, 154–55 Wells, H. G., 32 white supremacists, white nationalists, 23, 26, 73, 79–81, 100–103, 109, 113 Wiener, Jon, 106 WikiLeaks, 93–94 Wille, Anchrit, 6 Wilson, Glenn, 105 Wilson, Woodrow, 33, 34, 39 Woo-Cumings, Meredith, 149 Woodward, C. Vann, 106 workers, working class, xi–xv, 1, 2, 4, 9, 10, 37, 45–46, 47, 67, 89, 98, 150, 165, 169, 170 Apple and, 57–58, 118, 151 becoming something other than workers, 128 and competition for public goods, 23, 26, 79, 81, 153–54 division in, 10–12 fastest-growing occupations and, 118–19 geographic relocation and, 121, 139 in heartland, 14–27 immigration and, xii, xiii, xv, 11–12, 15–16, 21–23, 26, 59–60, 79, 111, 122, 124, 129–30, 148, 155–65 income and, see income and wages labor arbitrage and, 55–59, 79, 126, 148, 151–53, 157 and large vs. small employers, 125–30 membership institutions and, 135–45 offshoring and, xii, 20, 55–56, 59, 68, 79, 98, 118, 122, 124, 127, 148, 151, 153, 168 political spectrum of, 72–73 power of numbers and, 134 skill-based technological change theory and, 118 split labor markets and, 11–12, 26, 162, 164 STEM skills and, 118–19 wages and, see income and wages white, 81, 90, 95, 117, 157 women, 56–57, 117 worker-to-retiree ratio, 161–62 working conditions and, 33, 35, 37, 57, 136, 137, 159 see also labor, organized World Trade Organization (WTO), 53, 57, 146 World War I, 32, 33–35, 167 World War II, xi–xii, 32, 36–37, 39, 44–45, 131, 167 Wright, Gavin, 11 yellow vest protests, x, 19–20, 68, 92, 135 Yglesias, Matthew, 158–59 Yorty, Sam, 82 Zuckerberg, Mark, 160 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ About the Author Michael Lind is the author of more than a dozen books of nonfiction, fiction, and poetry, including The Next American Nation and Land of Promise.


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, industrial cluster, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, low cost airline, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Any dictator will tell you that in order to control the state, you must control the media. So ask yourself: who controls the media today? And which way are the trends heading? In February 2010, a nonprofit organization called WikiLeaks began releasing classified cables between the US State Department and its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world. It was the largest leak of classified material in the history of the world, and there was nothing the US government could do about it. Once information is released to a network, it can’t be pulled back. Wikileaks has demonstrated definitively that no secret, corporate or political, is safe for long. We’ve been saying the customer is king so long that it has become a cliché. And in most cases, our actions don’t match those words.

More connections create more opportunities to bypass these control nodes, reducing the degree to which the control nodes can limit the flow of information and connection, thus limiting their power. Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz could do nothing to stop executives from leaking his confidential memo. A restaurant can’t change a Yelp review. If you release a movie and it gets bad reviews, that’s life. And even the President of the United States can’t stop Wikileaks from distributing confidential documents. That’s the power of the network. At the same time that networks tend to reduce the inherent power of betweenness, they also offer more opportunities for nodes to increase their degree and closeness—the number of connections they can easily make with other nodes. As a result, power in networks is more evenly distributed and control more limited than in traditional hierarchical organizations.

(Gerstner), How IBM Rediscovered Customers, Top-Down, Leader-Driven Change Whole Foods Market, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams–Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams, It Takes Trust to Build Relationships agile management and, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams–Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams Golden Rule and, It Takes Trust to Build Relationships WikiLeaks (organization), Power in the Network Wikipedia site, What is a Platform? Wladawsky-Berger, Irving, People First X Xerox (company), How Xerox Missed the PC Revolution, How Xerox Missed the PC Revolution, What Kinds of Companies have been Successful with a Podular Approach? Z Zale Jewelers, Whole Foods, an Agile Team of Agile Teams Zappos (company), Balancing the Front Stage and the Back Stage, Moral Authority Amazon and, Balancing the Front Stage and the Back Stage moral authority and, Moral Authority Appendix B.


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Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

However, he was laid off because of lack of funds in 2002, after which he apparently lost faith in the project (in his farewell message he skeptically wrote that “Wikipedia still might succeed brilliantly”; Berstein, 2011). Since then he has been very critical of it. In 2007 he launched his own online encyclopedia website, Citizendium. Clearly, both being let go from Wikipedia and having his cofounder status questioned left Sanger resentful. Nonetheless, as late as December 2010, when criticizing WikiLeaks and addressing Julian Assange, he mentioned his former affiliation rather than his later projects: “Speaking as Wikipedia’s co-founder, I consider you enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people” (Crovitz, 2010). Identifying himself as Wikipedia’s cofounder might have created the impression that he was speaking for the Wikipedia community or the Wikimedia Foundation, but his view was far from unanimously shared by Wikipedians.

([[User_talk:Jimbo_Wales/Archive_122]]) At the time of this writing, discussion of the changes is still under way, yet it is quite clear that Wales recognized that his resignation from operational influence has further legitimized his strategic authority. 1 7 4    L e a d e r s h i p T r a n s f o r m e d Modes of Leadership in Open Collaboration While the founder’s exit has been shown to be a natural stage in organizational development, in this case the limitation of Wales’s involvement was both consciously planned and a contingent process of management models and philosophies open-community leadership, both to some extent present in the free/ libre and open-source-software (F/LOSS) environment. E. G. Coleman (2011) points out that digital-generation communities may be governed by principles as diverse as those of WikiLeaks (with one charismatic leader making all decisions and monopolizing the limelight) to those of Anonymous (an antileader and anticelebrity group). Even though rarely falling on the extremes of that continuum, large open-collaboration projects tend to rely on two kinds of models: a democratic community-decision-making process (elections, representation) and “benevolent dictatorship” (Raymond, 1998, 1999/2004).

Reputation building is also rapidly growing in importance in everyday life because of the increased popularity of collaborative consumption (Botsman & Rogers, 2010). 4. Wikipedias are the most popular projects within the Wikimedia Foundation, but there are many others, such as Wiktionaries, Wikinews, Wikiversities, Wikibooks, and Wikiquotes, all organized on the basis of similar community principles and run from Wikimedia Foundation computer servers. Wikileaks.org has no relation with Wikimedia projects and since 2010 does not even use MediaWiki software. For the purposes of this book, “Wikipedia” refers to the English and the Polish Wikipedias, and “Wikimedia” 2 2 8   No t e s t o t h e i n t ro d u c t io n a n d c h a p t er 1 refers to all projects run under the Wikimedia Foundation umbrella. The Wikimedia Foundation is an American nonprofit charitable organization established in 2003 to run Wikipedia and other projects, and it owns the related trademarks and domain names.


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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Joshua Davis, “The Crypto-Currency,” New Yorker, October 10, 2011. 5.Note, for example, that the putsch establishing the fundamentalist Christian Republic of Gilead, in Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale, was accomplished by locking all users flagged as women out of the continental digital transaction network. Margaret Atwood, The Handmaid’s Tale, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1985. 6.WikiLeaks. “Banking Blockade,” June 28, 2011, wikileaks.org/Banking-Blockade.html. 7.Hashcash, hashcash.org. 8.David Chaum, “Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments,” Advances in Cryptology Proceedings of Crypto 82, 1983, pp. 199–203. 9.See Dolartoday, dolartoday.com/indicadores/. 10.In practice, this is not a trivial undertaking. By February 2016, the full Bitcoin blockchain had grown to the point that it weighed in at some 60GB; it took almost a full day for me to download, at typical residential data-transmission speeds, and occupied more or less the entire memory my laptop had available. 11.Bitcoin Project.

As a consequence, there is tremendous fear that whoever controls the mint would have the power to prevent some transactions from taking place entirely, for whatever arbitrary reasons they chose.5 The notion that the governing body of a mint might take it upon themselves to choke off payments to parties that have fallen into disfavor for political or other reasons isn’t just a theoretical possibility, either. The effective 2010 blockade on contributions to WikiLeaks that was imposed by Bank of America, Visa, MasterCard, PayPal and Western Union is the most prominent example of this sort of thing, but it’s far from the only one.6 Conversely, by deleting debits from their accounts from the ledger, the mint could effectively enable favored parties to use the same money more than once, and nobody else would be any the wiser. This was a deep design issue the fintech cognoscenti referred to as “the double-spending problem,” and it had vexed all previous digital currencies.

But when the string identifying your Bitcoin wallet resides alongside your own encoded fingerprints, on a phone that bears a unique IMEI number, you are inherently at risk of being connected to whatever pattern of transactions you’ve left behind in the blockchain.19 And even without access to the physical device, or anything it may contain, parties to transactions may find that their identities can be pinpointed with surprising ease. As early as 2011, for example, security researchers were able to cross-reference forum posts, Twitter handles and the blockchain’s own record of public transaction data to determine the identity of “anonymous” donors to WikiLeaks.20 The sources of potentially identifying information are legion, and not all that easy for a user to clamp down on. The blockchain itself, of course, retains everything, and shares it on demand with anyone who asks. By their very nature, exchanges and wallet providers have access to still-greater stores of compromising data, making them necessary but worrisome points of friction for the privacy-minded.


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Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson

23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

After Trump secured the GOP nomination, Palmieri and Clinton’s campaign chairman John Podesta returned for a second conversation with Baquet, this time to plead that the Times not feel obliged to run a negative Clinton article for every disclosure on Trump, since the paper had already spent almost two years investigating her and had only begun to scour Trump and his record. But a trove of Wikileaks documents, hacked by the Russians and damaging to Clinton, triggered a feeding frenzy. Stolen from the computers of Democratic officials, the documents began to leak at the Democratic National Convention, with embarrassing disclosures about the Democratic National Committee’s collusion with the Clinton campaign during and after the primaries and the hacked emails of her aides, including Podesta. Clinton’s Wall Street speeches, anodyne and unnewsworthy except that she gave them for big fees and insisted on keeping them secret, were included in the hacked Podesta emails released by Wikileaks in September. Chozick admitted in her book that she didn’t wrestle enough with the ethics of Podesta’s emails being stolen, especially after it became known that Russia was behind the hacking and Putin directly ordered it.

The ability to target specific audiences rather than reach the undifferentiated mass of Times print subscribers or broadcast network viewers became, for many marketers, not only the cheaper but also the more effective targeted ad buy. To editors who were brought up on journalistic ethics and knew all too well how costly it was to fund original reporting, the ascendance of bootleggers was beyond galling. I remember my own horror in 2010 after the Times published an exclusive story based on mountains of leaked, classified data from Wikileaks, which had taken us months to report. The Huffington Post’s version of the story, with the same headline, appeared almost simultaneously, with no original reporting—and ranked above the Times on Google. As the Times and other publishers prepared cease-and-desist letters and considered suing for copyright infringement, the old guard’s leading lights came forward to denounce Huffington’s heist.

Now I was seeing firsthand how video and data brought journalism to life, especially in a series about a military unit returning from the Afghanistan war. At a narrative journalism conference at Boston University, after I showed a video clip of a soldier on leave taking his sons to a barber to get the same buzz cut he had, hard-bitten editors in the audience were crying. After the Times received the massive Wikileaks files, Pilhofer, an expert on storing and housing data, was the first editor I consulted in order to make the material searchable. During my immersion, I also became determined to unite the web newsroom with the print operation. It was ridiculous and costly to have separate news meetings and separate editing systems. While newsroom administration wasn’t part of my portfolio, I worked with two editors on a plan to merge the operations, which was completed in my six-month tour.


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The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

A third way that the Internet has democratized knowledge is by making what is known more transparent—particularly with regard to information held by governments. The most obvious and controversial example of this is WikiLeaks, a nonprofit organization that publishes news leaks and classified governmental information online. Its disclosure of videos and documents related to the Iraq and Afghanistan wars in 2010 and 2011 caused a worldwide uproar. Supporters defended it as a tool for exposing the important facts that are relevant and needed in order for citizens to make informed democratic decisions. Critics denounced the organization as putting the lives of soldiers and diplomats at risk. Of course, both of these claims can be true—and whether or not WikiLeaks is ultimately beneficial or harmful, it is just the most visible example of the use of the Internet to enforce or encourage transparency.

., 93, 122–23 Surowiecki, James, 120 Syria, 83 “system 1” cognitive processing, 29 “system 2” cognitive processing, 39 tablets, xvii, 9 taboos, 52, 53 targeted advertising, 9, 90, 91, 105 technê, 170 technology: changes in, 73 debate over advances of, xvii and ethical values, 89–90 and understanding, 179–84 unthinking commitment to, 11–12 telepathy: communication by, 192 thought experiment on, 96–97, 104 teleportation, Internet as, xvi television, 167–68 terrorism, as justification for abuses of privacy, 92, 100 testimony: of experts, 35, 120 knowledge through, 24–25, 114–16 misplaced trust in, 33 reliability of, 123–25, 181 restriction on legal, 147 Texas, Republican Party platform in, 61–62 “things in themselves,” 85 “Third Industrial Revolution,” 8 This American Life, 78 Threadless, 136–37 Tibet, Chinese relations with, 81 time travel, written word as, xv–xvi “tokens,” 69 topology, 112–13 Torah, 48 tracking, see data mining transparency, 85–86 of knowledge, 90, 109, 137–38 and power, 107–9 trends, 157 tribes, 43–46 TripAdvisor, 116 trust: basis for, 14, 36–38, 179 credibility in, 40, 46, 50, 119–20, 126, 131 epistemic, 195 in Google-knowing, 24–25 in receptive knowledge, 28, 30, 37, 131 in testimony, 33 trust-tags, 40 truth: attitudes toward, 75–77 bias and, 43–50, 84–86 control and distortion of, 65–67 devaluing of, 58, 74, 111, 148 discerning and determining, 17–19, 67–74, 83–86, 90, 130 falsifying facts in the name of, 78–83 and freedom, 62 Internet in personal search for, 65–66 obscured, 75–76 skeptical challenges to accepted, 34 see also objectivity, objective truth T-shirt design, 137 Tube map, 112–13 Turing, Alan, 81–82 Turkers, 136, 141 Twitter, tweeting, xvii, 8, 24, 31–32, 43, 81–82 in political activism, 65–66 tracking by, 160–61 understanding: creativity in reaching, 174–77, 181, 183 in digital form of life, 155–78 through experience, 16, 173–74 and explaining, 165–67, 182 knowledge based on, 15–17 knowledge vs. other forms of knowledge, 6, 16–17, 90, 154, 164–65, 181 moment of sudden insight in, 175, 176–77 as personally cognitive, 176–77, 181–82, 184 and procedural knowledge, 167–74 process of, 163–67, 174–77 reciprocal relationship between motor skills and, 167–74 as reflexive, 183–84 technology and, 179–84 universal and particular in, 171 United Nations, 143 universities, 148–54 value judgment, 51–55, 57 verification, 83 “veritic luck,” 203 video map of cultural history, 161–62 Vienna Circle, 128–29 Virginia, University of, 151 von Neumann, John, 116 voting patterns, 121, 123 “wag the dog” illusion, 52 Warren, Samuel, 89–90, 94, 101 Washington Post, 95, 99 Web 1.0, 7 Web 2.0, 74, 134–36, 143, 144, 148, 167, 174 defined, xvii, 7 Web 3.0 (“smart Web”), 7, 155 Websites, 69 Weibo, 65 Weinberger, David, 84–85, 111, 119, 125–28, 131 Westen, Drew, 51 “What is Justified Belief” (Goldman), 194 Wieseltier, Leon, 11 WikiLeaks, 137–38 Wikipedia, 24, 31, 133, 135 in fact-checking, 56, 130 as joint enterprise, 119 wikis, defined, 129 Wired, 136, 156 wiretapping, 101, 109 wisdom, 16–17 knowledge vs., xvii, 4 Wisdom of Crowds, The (Surowiecki), 120 Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 10 World Wide Web: as a construction, 69, 70, 129 privacy policies on, 105 written word: digital knowledge compared to, xv–xvi, 125–26, 127–28 print revolution in, 134 as static, 85 X-Men, 96 YouTube, 8, 32, 128 zero marginal cost economy, 140 Zöllner, Johann Friedrich, 58–59 Also by Michael Patrick Lynch In Praise of Reason: Why Rationality Matters for Democracy Truth as One and Many True to Life: Why Truth Matters Truth in Context: An Essay on Pluralism and Objectivity About the Author Michael Patrick Lynch is a professor of philosophy and the director of the Humanities Institute at the University of Connecticut.


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The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Confronting online content they didn’t want to be public, they instinctively fought back—without realizing how such aggression might backfire. Even when some of them scored a victory in temporarily removing the harmful content from the Internet, they usually helped fuel more interest in what it was they were trying to hide. In fact, an entire organization called WikiLeaks has been built to ensure that all controversial documents that someone wants to get off the Web have a dedicated and well-protected place to stay online. Even the omnipotent American military are finding it hard to take sensitive content off the Internet, as they discovered when WikiLeaks released the video of a 2007 Baghdad air strike that killed several Reuters news staffers as well as a trove of documents related to the war in Afghanistan. The logic behind the Streisand Effect, however, does not have much to do with the Internet. Throughout history there has hardly been a more effective way to ensure that people talk about something than to ban discussions about it.

Even though the notion of “information sovereignty”—the idea that governments might have legitimate concerns over the nationalities and allegiances of those who mediate their information markets—has been somewhat discredited by the fact that so many Chinese and Cuba propaganda officials like to invoke it in their speeches, it is poised to rise in importance in proportion to the role of the Internet in international politics. (Judging by its nervous response to transnational information powerhouses like WikiLeaks, the U.S. government is increasingly concerned about its information sovereignty as well.) Given the amount of research and technology money coming out of America’s defense and intelligence communities, it’s hard to find a technology company that does not have a connection to the CIA or some other three-lettered agency. Even though Google does not publicize this widely, Keyhole, the predecessor to Google Earth, which Google bought in 2005, was funded through In-Q-Tel, which is the CIA’s for-profit investment arm.

Is it really reasonable to believe that Internet users in authoritarian countries, many of whom have little experience with democratic governance, will suddenly start wearing Thomas Jefferson’s avatar in cyberspace? Isn’t it a bit premature to start touting the benefits of a medium the West itself does not yet know how to comfortably embed into its own political institutions? After all, one can’t be calling for imposing more restrictions on sites like WikiLeaks, as many American policymakers did in the summer of 2010, and be disparaging China and Iran for similar impulses. If it turns out that the Internet does help to stifle dissent, amplify existing inequalities in terms of access to the media, undermine representative democracy, promote mob mentality, erode privacy, and make us less informed, it is not at all obvious how exactly the promotion of so-called Internet freedom is also supposed to assist in the promotion of democracy.


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Bad Pharma: How Medicine Is Broken, and How We Can Fix It by Ben Goldacre

data acquisition, framing effect, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income per capita, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, WikiLeaks

Available from: http://www.americanbar.org/newsletter/publications/aba_healt h_esource_home/Volume5_02_smith.html 22 WikiLeaks cables: Pfizer ‘used dirty tricks to avoid clinical trial payout’ – Business – The Guardian [Internet]. [cited 2012 Feb 11]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/09/wikileaks-cables-pfizer-nigeria 23 US embassy cable Monday 20 April 2009, 16:00, Abuja 000671 ‘Pfizer reaches preliminary agreement for $75m settlement’ [cited 2012 Feb 11]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/203205 24 WikiLeaks cables: Pfizer ‘used dirty tricks to avoid clinical trial payout’ – Business – The Guardian [Internet]. [cited 2012 Feb11]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/09/wikileaks-cables-pfizer-nigeria 25 Jonathan Kimmelman, Charles Weijer, and Eric M Meslin, ‘Helsinki discords: FDA, ethics, and international drug trials,’ The Lancet 373, no. 9657 (January 3, 2009): 13–14. 26 Goodyear MDE, Lemmens T, Sprumont D, Tangwa G.

This all took place in 1996, and was the inspiration for John le Carré’s novel The Constant Gardener. You may think 1996 was a long time ago, but the facts in these matters are always on a delay, and in contentious or litigated issues the truth can move very slowly. In fact, Pfizer only settled the case out of court in 2009, and several disturbing new elements of what is clearly an ongoing saga emerged in the WikiLeaks diplomatic cables made public in 2010.22 One US diplomatic cable describes a meeting in April 2009 between Pfizer’s country manager and US officials at the American embassy in Abuja, where smears of a Nigerian official involved in the litigation are casually discussed. According to [Pfizer’s country manager], Pfizer had hired investigators to uncover corruption links to Federal Attorney General Michael Aondoakaa to expose him and put pressure on him to drop the federal cases.


Three Felonies A Day by Harvey Silverglate

Berlin Wall, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, medical malpractice, mortgage tax deduction, national security letter, offshore financial centre, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technology bubble, urban planning, WikiLeaks

These included trafficking in stolen property (which applies to both tangible and intangible property),8 conspiracy (if the U.S. government could prove that Assange collaborated from the start with the original source of the military leaks), and the ever malleable wire fraud (which, by the statute’s language, tells more about the means of the crime than its actual substance). The still unfolding WikiLeaks saga also provided instruction as to how the feds, in trying to pin a crime on their ultimate target, intimidate that target’s supporters. Salon’s Glenn Greenwald noted that his readers, even while believing strongly in WikiLeaks’s cause, were apprehensive about offering their financial support. They worried about being put on a government blacklist, Greenwald wrote, “or, worse, incur[ring] criminal liability for materially supporting a Terrorist organization.”9 While Greenwald pointed out that it would be a stretch to apply this statute to WikiLeaks’s supporters, a Supreme Court ruling in June 2010 nonetheless gave well-informed, rational citizens grounds to fear punishment.

His sister, Sally Goodson, succinctly and accurately summed up his “crime” in a remembrance of her beloved brother: “Truthful speech to fellow physicians about the off-label use of an FDA-approved drug.” Just as federal prosecutors managed to disrupt the activism of Siobhan Reynolds and derail the medical practice of Dr. Peter Gleason, so the feds in late 2010 took up the task of finding some basis in federal law for putting Julian Assange, founder of the whistleblowing platform WikiLeaks, out of business. The international organization had made 2010 a landmark year for the exposure of government secrets. Among the groundbreaking releases: a video depicting U.S. military forces killing two Reuters journalists and nine Iraqis in 2007; Pentagon files detailing abuse of Iraqi prisoners as well as 15,000 previously unreported civilian deaths; and a steady stream of U.S. diplomatic cables dealing with subjects like Iran’s nuclear program and alleged CIA torture.

Anzalone, 180, 229, 247, 264 University of Pittsburgh Human Genetics Laboratory, 235, 236 Weil, Jonathan, 125–126, 146 Welch, Matt, 209–210 Weld, William Floyd, 14–27 Wexler, Leonard D., 53–54 whistleblowers, 88–90, 94 White, Byron, 199 unlawful incitement to violence, 240 White, Kathryn, 17, 19 Urso, Lindy, 163 White, Kevin Hagan, 14–27, 229 336 index White, Patricia, 19, 21 workplace safety, 255–256 white collar sentencing guidelines, 143–144 Wright, Otis D., xxi wiggle room, 37–38 Wrongful Death Accountability Act (proposed), 256 WikiLeaks, xiii–xiv Wu, Tim, l Wilkerson, Dianne, xvii–xviii Williams, Thomas, 163 Xyrem®, xiii, 63–65 Wilmot, Pamela H., 35 Wilson, Joseph, 207 Yeltsin, Boris, xxiii wire fraud Burkle and Stern and, 194 Ferrell and Kurtz and, 234–237 Lay and, 124 Milken and, 99 The New York Times and, 213 Stern, Jared Paul, and, 194 Yukos Oil, xxiii Wiretap Act, 258–260, 263 wiretapping, 257–264 witness bribery, xlvii–xlviii witness cooperation Anzalone and, 19–20, 22 Councilman and, 264 Gleason and, 66, 95–96 Greenberg and, 154–155 journalists and, 205 judges and, 270 KPMG and, 143–147, 149–150 LaFreniere and, 170, 172, 178–179 Martinez and, 7, 10–11 Milken and, 99, 101, 103, 105–106 prosecutorial threats and, xxvi, xlvi–xlix See also plea bargaining Wolf, Mark L., 17 Wood, Kimba, 102–105 Woodlock, Douglas, xvii–xviii, 33, 224–231 Woodrow Wilson Center’s Middle East program, 223 Zehe, Albert, 217–224 Zobel, Rya, 242 Zoladex®, 91


pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George

Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, Jones Act, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

’ – Brings their profoundly impoverished country millions of dollars a year The embassy of Liberia in London offers a figure of $18 million for the revenues provided by the Liberian International Ship and Corporate Register (LISCR) to the government of Liberia, but that dates from 2000. Cables captured by Wikileaks talk of gross revenues to LISCR in 2007 as $38 million, with the revenues then disbursed to the Liberian government of $13 million, or six per cent of the country’s GDP. The latest figures on LISCR’s website put the number of ships flying the Liberian flag at 3750. http://www.liscr.com, cable reference 09MONROVIA70 accessed via http://www.cablegatesearch. net/cable.php?id=09MONROVIA70, cable dated 21 January 2009. – Sovereign Ventures In another cable captured by Wikileaks, a local maritime official describes Sovereign Ventures as ‘pretty cunning’, and mentions an all-expenses-paid trip to Singapore made by the transport minister of Tuvalu, a small Pacific island nation also approached by Sovereign Ventures.

., p.13. 12 Which way is it to Somalia? US embassy cable captured by Wikileaks, accessed via http://www.cablegatesearch.net, cable reference 09PORTLOUISE146 – Combat trauma, explosive and intelligence-gathering Captain Alexander Martin, US Marine Corps, ‘Pirates Beware: Force recon has your number’, published on US Naval Institute website, http://www.usni.org, 24 July 2010. 13 USS Nicholas ‘US sentences Somali pirates to life’, Al Jazeera, 15 March 2011. – Abduwali Abdiqadir Muse Tom Hays, ‘Somali pirate sentenced in NYC to over 33 years in prison’, NBC, 16 February 2011. – There was a stampede Justin Penrose, ‘Prison officers swap Isle of Wight for the Seychelles… to guard Somali pirates’, Daily Mirror, 12 February 2012. – Model prisoners US embassy cable via Wikileaks, accessed at http:// www.cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?


pages: 254 words: 68,133

The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks

Despite raising over $620 million, assembling a campaign staff ten times larger than Trump’s, and recruiting a gaggle of policy experts to advise her, she not only failed to motivate the electorate, but conveyed a distinct cluelessness, as illustrated by her infamous dismissal of Trump’s supporters as “deplorables.”49 Ironically, at least in his critique of globalization and of America’s penchant for unnecessary wars (if not in his lip service to traditional moral norms), Trump managed to come across as both more forthright and more aware. So blame Russian interference, FBI director James Comey, WikiLeaks, angry white males, and Clinton’s failure to visit key swing states all you want. Her deepest problem was that she made herself the chief exponent of an existing policy consensus that large numbers of Americans were keen to discard. Elect me, she claimed in effect, and the Emerald City will be ours. But her argument assumed a pervasive gullibility that serial disappointments had long since converted into deep-seated anger.

Alex Seitz-Wald, “Hillary Clinton Struggles to Explain $600K in Goldman Sachs Speaking Fees,” NBC News (February 4, 2016). 41. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DkS9y5t0tR0, accessed September 10, 2018. 42. Tim Hains, “Hillary Clinton: Voting for Iraq War Was, ‘From My Perspective, My Mistake,’” RealClear Politics (September 7, 2016). 43. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fgcd1ghag5Y, accessed September 10, 2018. 44. “Full Transcript: Democratic Presidential Debate,” New York Times (October 4, 2015). 45. https://wikileaks.org/clinton-emails/, accessed September 10, 2018. 46. Clinton, What Happened, 236. 47. Office of Hillary Rodham Clinton, “Hillary’s Vision for America,” https://www.hillaryclinton.com/issues/, accessed September 11, 2018. 48. David Jackson, “Donald Trump Accepts GOP Nomination, Says ‘I Alone Can Fix’ System,” USA Today (July 21, 2016). 49. “Money Raised as of December 31,” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/2016-election/campaign-finance/, accessed September 11, 2018; Alan Yuhas, “Trump Campaign Doubles Spending but Staff Is a Tenth the Size of Clinton’s,” Guardian (August 21, 2016); John Hudson, “Inside Hillary Clinton’s Massive Foreign-Policy Brain Trust,” Foreign Policy (February 10, 2016); “Read Hillary Clinton’s ‘Basket of Deplorables’ Remarks About Donald Trump Supporters,” Time (September 10, 2016). 50.

veterans Vietnam War voter turnout wage and price controls Walker, Scott Wallace, Henry Wall Street Wall Street (film) Wall Street Journal Walmart War of 1812 wars American narrative and Bill Clinton and Bush Jr. and citizens vs. soldiers and of exhaustion high-tech Hillary Clinton and Obama and perpetual Trump and Wilson’s promise to end working-class and Warshaw, Robert Washington, George Washington Post Watergate scandal wealthy weapons of mass destruction welfare Western civilization Western liberal democracy white heterosexual males White House Correspondents’ Dinner “White Man’s Burden, The” (Kipling) white supremacy Wicker, Tom WikiLeaks Williams College Willkie, Wendell Wilson, Woodrow Winthrop, John Wolfowitz, Paul women elections of 2016 and military service by rights and Wonderful Wizard of Oz, The (Baum) working class life expectancies and military service and stagnant incomes of “world happiness” standings World Trade Organization World War I World War II end of World War III Worst Years of Our Lives, The (Ehrenreich) Wyler, William xenophobia Xi Jinping Yale University Yemen Yugoslavia, disintegration of ALSO BY ANDREW BACEVICH Breach of Trust: How Americans Failed Their Soldiers and Their Country Washington Rules: America’s Path to Permanent War The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism The Long War: A New History of U.S.


pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

” [ CHAPTER FOUR ] THE SIREN SONG OF “FREE” WHY NEWSPAPERS STRUGGLED ONLINE No newspaper editor has devoted more thought to the Internet’s potential than Alan Rusbridger, who runs the London-based Guardian. In 1996, when most newspapers were still figuring out how to put stories online, Rusbridger, who had been named top editor the previous year, started the Guardian Online as a separate division. During the dot-com bust, as other newspapers cut online staff, he kept investing in digital journalism. More recently, he delivered some of the smartest coverage of the U.S. diplomatic cables from WikiLeaks, dealing with Julian Assange to get the information and asking readers what was worth searching for in the trove of documents. Although more news outlets have started charging for content, Rusbridger believes Internet “paywalls” could hurt journalism itself. “That might be the right direction in business terms, while simultaneously reducing access and influence in editorial terms,” Rusbridger said in a January 2010 speech at the London College of Communication.

The demand for U.S. movies isn’t likely to change soon; countries with homegrown film businesses rarely produce effects-driven popcorn fare like Wolverine. But exporting them relies on international recognition of copyright, which the Internet is eroding. Movies also shape the world’s idea of what the United States stands for, as a cable written by an American diplomat in Saudi Arabia released on WikiLeaks showed. “It’s still all about the War of Ideas here, and the American programming on [the television channels] MBC and Rotana is winning over ordinary Saudis in a way that [the U.S.-funded satellite channel] ‘Al Hurra’ and other U.S. propaganda never could,” read the May 2009 message.25 Titled “David Letterman: Agent of Influence,” it mentioned Friends and Desperate Housewives as being particularly popular.

A 2005 MPAA-funded LEK study, “The Cost of Movie Piracy,” showed that studios lost $6.1 billion to piracy, but the MPAA has retracted the parts of that study related to illegal downloading among college students. 21. This ratio was used in the March 2010 Terra Consultants study, “Building a Digital Economy: The Importance of Saving Jobs in the EU’s Creative Industries.” 22. According to Nash Information Services. 23. According to BigChampagne. 24. This ratio was also used in the Terra Consultants study. 25. Robert Booth, “WikiLeaks Cable: Jihad? Sorry, I Don’t Want to Miss Desperate Housewives,” Guardian, December 7, 2010. 26. Ricardo H. Cavazos Cepeda, Douglas C. Lippoldt, and Jonathan Senft, “Policy Complements to the Strengthening of IPRs in Developing Countries” (OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 104, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, September 14, 2010). 27. David Lieberman, “Disney Chief Offers a Ray of Encouragement to UltraViolet Movie Coalition,” USA Today, November 11, 2010. 28.


pages: 416 words: 106,532

Cryptoassets: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond by Chris Burniske, Jack Tatar

Airbnb, altcoin, asset allocation, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Network effects, packet switching, passive investing, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Sharpe ratio, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, smart contracts, social web, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X, Vanguard fund, WikiLeaks, Y2K

After the network had been up and running for over a month, Satoshi wrote of Bitcoin, “It’s completely decentralized, with no central server or trusted parties, because everything is based on crypto proof instead of trust … I think this is the first time we’re trying a decentralized, non-trust-based system.”30 On December 5, 2010, Satoshi showed an unnervingly human side, pleading that WikiLeaks not accept bitcoin as a means of payment after major credit card networks had blocked users from supporting the site. Satoshi wrote, “No, don’t ‘bring it on’. The project needs to grow gradually so the software can be strengthened along the way. I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage.”31 Shortly thereafter, Satoshi vanished. Some speculate it was for the good of Bitcoin.

To round out the context within which the innovative investor approaches cryptoassets, it’s important to understand how the world evolved beyond a single blockchain—Bitcoin’s blockchain—to include public and private blockchains. Otherwise, investors may be confused when they hear someone claim that Bitcoin is no longer relevant or that it’s been displaced. Neither of these claims is true, but it’s nonetheless helpful to understand the motivations and rationale behind those that say they are. BITCOIN’S EARLY YEARS We left Bitcoin in Chapter 1 with Satoshi pleading on December 5, 2010, for WikiLeaks not to accept bitcoin for donations to its site, because bitcoin was still too young and vulnerable to attack. This was about two years after the birth of Bitcoin’s blockchain, during which it had lived a mostly quiet and nerdy life. That was all about to change. A few months after Satoshi’s plea, a software application was released that would make Bitcoin famous. Launched in February 2011, the Silk Road provided a rules-free decentralized marketplace for any product one could imagine, and it used bitcoin as the means of payment.

See also Risk absolute returns and, 100 assets and, 94 bitcoin and, 95, 96, 131 cryptoassets and, 92, 97 Ether and, 130–131 markets and, 131 maturation and, 129 Monero and, 130 prices and, 93 returns and, 97 Ripple and, 130 Volume, 301n24 attention to, 208–209 trading and, 123–125 of transactions, 37 Vontobel, 241 Wall Street Journal, 132, 238 Wallets, 211–229, 302n37 Watts per gigahash (W/GH), 215 Websites fraud and, 215 Smith + Crown as, 287 SpendBitcoins.com as, 198 Wellink, Nout, 145 Western Union, 268 W/GH. See Watts per gigahash White papers, 259 cryptoassets and, 173–174 for Ethereum, 53, 54–55 WikiLeaks, 21 Wilcox, Zooko, 49 Wilson, Fred, 224 Winklevoss, Cameron, 235–238 Winklevoss, Tyler, 235–238 Winklevoss bitcoin ETF, 135, 235–238 Wired magazine, 43 Woo, Willy, 201 Woo’s Law, 201–202 World Bank, 158 World Wide Web, xxii. See also Internet Wright, Craig, 4 Yuan (China), 127 Bitcoin and, 134 value of, 133–134 Zcash (ZEC), 45, 49–50 bubble for, 149–150 Zero-knowledge proof (zk-SNARKs), 49–50 About the Authors CHRIS BURNISKE is a cofounder of Placeholder Ventures, a New York firm that specializes in cryptoassets.


pages: 382 words: 105,819

Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee

4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

The fact that users are not conscious of Facebook’s influence magnifies the effect. If Facebook favors inflammatory campaigns, democracy suffers. August 2016 brought a new wave of stunning revelations. Press reports confirmed that Russians had been behind the hacks of servers at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) and Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee (DCCC). Emails stolen in the DNC hack were distributed by WikiLeaks, causing significant damage to the Clinton campaign. The chairman of the DCCC pleaded with Republicans not to use the stolen data in congressional campaigns. I wondered if it were possible that Russians had played a role in the Facebook issues that had been troubling me earlier. Just before I wrote the op-ed, ProPublica revealed that Facebook’s advertising tools enabled property owners to discriminate based on race, in violation of the Fair Housing Act.

Then I asked a variant of the question I had asked the senator’s aide in May: Could Congress do something to prevent the use of social media to interfere in future elections? Senator Warner asked us to share our thoughts on what had happened during the 2016 election. Tristan and I are not investigators. We didn’t have evidence. What we had were hypotheses that explained what we thought must have happened. Our first hypothesis was that Russia had done much more than break into servers at the DNC and the DCCC and post some of what they took on WikiLeaks. There were too many other Russian connections swirling around the election for the hacks to be the whole story. For example, in 2014, a man named Louis Marinelli launched an effort to have California secede from the United States. He initially called the effort Sovereign California, built a presence on Facebook and Twitter to promote his cause, and then released a 165-page report with that name in 2015.

For those who engaged frequently with the Group, the effect would be to make beliefs more rigid and more extreme. The Group would create a filter bubble, where the troll, the bots, and the other members would coalesce around an idea floated by the troll. We also shared a hypothesis that the lack of data dumps from the DCCC hack meant the data might have been used in congressional campaigns instead. The WikiLeaks email dumps had all come from the DNC hack. The DCCC, by contrast, would have had data that might be used for social media targeting, but more significantly, Democratic Party data from every congressional district. The data would have been the equivalent of inside information about Democratic voters. Hypothetically, the DCCC data might have allowed the Russians—or potentially someone in the Republican Party—to see which Democrats in a district could be persuaded to stay home instead of voting.


pages: 398 words: 105,917

Bean Counters: The Triumph of the Accountants and How They Broke Capitalism by Richard Brooks

accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blockchain, BRICs, British Empire, business process, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Strachan, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, energy security, Etonian, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, forensic accounting, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, intangible asset, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, supply-chain management, The Chicago School, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks

Tavernise ‘US Auditors Find Things Are Different in Russia’. 7. Charles E. Ryan, chairman United Financial Group, quoted in ibid. 8. Tim Osborne, managing director of GML, Yukos’s main shareholder at the time, quoted in Catherine Belton, ‘PwC Withdraws Yukos Audits’, Financial Times, 24 June 2007. 9. US Moscow bureau cable dated 30 December 2009, https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/09MOSCOW3144_a.html. 10. US Moscow bureau cable dated 27 December 2006, https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/06MOSCOW13123_a.html. 11. PwC annual worldwide report. Income from Russia and Eastern Europe: 2006 $474m; 2007 $659m; 2008 $861m. 12. Economist, 28 June 2007. 13. National Bank of Ukraine press release, 12 July 2017, https://bank.gov.ua/control/en/publish/article?art_id=51836146. Comments reported in Roman Olearchyk, ‘PwC at Risk of Losing Bank Audit Rights in Ukraine’, Financial Times, 6 July 2017. 14.

‘I don’t think anyone is going to believe this is anything other than bowing to pressure from the Kremlin,’ was the reaction of one of the company’s main overseas shareholders. ‘I’m astonished to see such a complete lack of backbone in an organization like that.’8 The exact truth behind the story – whether PwC’s clean audit certificates should not have been issued in the first place, or whether they were improperly withdrawn – never fully emerged. The later Wikileaks episode would, however, reveal a diplomatic cable stating that the evidence ‘may show that PwC received [Russian government] pressure to disavow its prior Yukos audits’.9 The one certainty is that PwC continued to prosper in Russia, auditing such state-controlled monoliths as Gazprom and Sberbank. As another cable estimated, ‘it is the auditor of firms comprising more than 50% of Russian GDP’.10 Its income from the Russian and Eastern Europe region was already more than $500m a year and growing at around 25% annually.11 The cost of losing a licence in one of the important ‘BRIC’ (Brazil, Russia, India and China) emerging economies, for which there were high economic hopes at the time, would have been serious.

., 48 Wachovia, 257 Walker, Steve, 234 Wall Street Journal, 61 Wall Street, New York, 54, 69, 96, 101, 120–21 Walpole, Robert, 40 Walsh, Peter, 88 Wanderley Olivetti, 243 War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14), 38 Warner, Jack, 221, 223–4, 227, 228 Warner, Norman, 208 Washington, George, 53 Washington Mutual, 145 Watergate Scandal (1972–4), 212 Waterhouse, Edwin, 49, 54, 217, 233 Watkins, Sherron, 107 Watson, Mark, 161 Watt, James, 42–3, 44 Weber, Max, 3 Wedgwood, Josiah, 43, 44, 70 Weinberger, Mark, 17 Westec, 63, 79 Westmacott, Peter, 208 Whinney, Smith & Whinney, 87 Whiting, John, 179 Wikileaks, 237 Wilson, Harold, 66, 68 window tax, 153 women, 15, 52, 86, 109 woollen industry, 26, 30 workers’ pay, 76 World Congress of Accountants, 56 World Cup, 220, 221, 223, 225, 227 World Economic Forum, 17–18, 242 World Press Freedom Day, 174 WorldCom, 6, 10, 109, 110, 130, 209, 264, 274, 279 Xerox, 109–10 al-Yamamah, Saudi Arabia, 212 York & North Midland Railway, 45 Young, Arthur, 56 Yukos, 237 zaibatsu, 235 Zen-Ruffinen, Michel, 222, 226–8 zero coupon convertible bond (ZCCB), 167, 169 Zug, Switzerland, 220 Zuma, Jacob, 250 Zurich, Switzerland, 219, 224, 225, 227, 228


pages: 525 words: 142,027

CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon

8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Donald Knuth, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar

Yourdon: Is he the one that provided it to the WikiLeaks guy, to [Julian] Assange? Or is that someone else? Strassmann: No, Ames provided to the Russians. Yourdon: Yeah. I thought he was the more traditional one. Who is the guy who gave all of the Wiki stuff? Strassmann: Oh, you know, a low-level sergeant. Yourdon: But the same problem? Strassmann: Same problem, exfiltration. And by the way, the stuff that is being reported is defective. The stuff that is reported that he downloaded, he cut a CD, and sent out by mail for WikiLeaks. Yourdon: Really? Strassmann: So now you are dealing with a problem. I have several trays in there [pointing to his desktop computer] with CDs. Now, are you going to permit people to burn their own CDs? And, you know, today on a DVD, you can put a big database. Right now, WikiLeaks has a list of all the people who had accounts in the Cayman Islands.

., 87 attributes, 108 capital market community, 91 cash/actual trading business, 88 channel marketing departments, 92 cloud computing, 97 CNBC, 89 collaborative technology, 95 collective intelligence, 95 communication skills, 102, 106 conference organizations, 99 consumer marketplace, 94 data center, 90 decision making, 105, 108 economy standpoint, 100 e-mail, 100 Fidelity Investments, 105 financial services, 92 IEEE, 101 innovative impression, 94 Internet, 98 iPad, 97 iPod device, 91 labor laws, 110 listening skills, 106 logical progression, 104 Mac, 96 mainframe, 104 management and leadership, 104, 105 market data system, 89 micro-second response time, 89 mobile applications, 94 multidisciplinary approach, 103 multimedia, 97 multi-national projects, 110 multiprocessing options, 99 network operating system, 103 NYSE Euronext, 87 open outside system, 88 parallel programming models, 99 personal satisfaction, 109 PR function, 106 proclaimed workaholic, 109 real estate business, 88 regulatory and security standpoint, 96 Rolodex, 94 Rubin, Howard, 99 server department, 97 software development, 89 sophisticated technology, 101 technology business, 88 technology integration, 91 trading engines, 90 typewriter ribbon, 94 virtualization, 98 Windows 7, 96 younger generation video games, 93 visual interfaces, 93 Rumsfeld, Donald, 222 S San Diego Fire Department, 224 Santa Clara University, 36 SAS programs, 131 Scott, Tony, 10, 33, 236 Android, 43 Apple Computer, 35 architectural flaw, 44 BASIC and Pascal, 35 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Bunch, Rick (role model), 34 business groups, 42 COO, 39 Corporate Vice President, 33 Corvus disk drive, 36 CSC, 35 Defense department, 45 dogfooding, 37, 38 games and arcades, 35 General Motors, 33 IBM's role, 37 information systems management, 36 integrity factor, 40 Internet, 44 iPhone, 43 IT lifecycle management process, 37 leadership capability, 40 leisure studies, 34 macro-architectural threats, 44 Marriott's Great America, 35 math models, 36 Microsoft Corporation, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 parks and recreation, 34 Petri dish, 44 playground leader, 42 product groups, 42 quality and business excellence team, 33 Santa Clara University, 36 Senior Vice President, 33 smartphone, 43 social computing, 38 Sun Microsystems, 36 theme park industry, 35 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 value-added business, 33 Walt Disney Company, 33 Senior Leadership Technology and Product Marketing, 71 Shakespeare, 30 Shirky, Clay, 220 Sierra Ventures, 191 Silicon Valley companies, 68 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 Skype, 118 Smart Grid Advisory Committee, 177 Smartphones, 20, 27, 43, 54, 217, 238 Social care computer electronic record system, 279 Social computing, 38, 320 Social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 Society trails technology, 21 SPSS programs, 131 Sridhara, Mittu, 71 Amazon, 76 American Airlines, 72 back-end computation and presentation, 80 banking, 77 B2B and B2C, 85 business/product departments, 82 business work context, 74 buzzword, 77 career aspiration, 73 career spans, 73 coders, 72 cognitive surplus, 79 competitive differentiation, 74 computing power, 78 contribution and energy, 85 convergence, 75 CPU cycles, 78 cross-channel digital business, 71 cultural and geographic implementation, 72 customer experience, 84, 85 customer profile, 76 data visualization, 79, 80 DDoS protection, 81 economies of scale, 77 elements of technology, 72 encryption, 82 end customer, 83 entertainment, 75 ERP system, 72 Facebook, 84 finance and accounting, 73 foster innovation and open culture, 81 friends/mentors/role models, 74 FSA, 76 gambling acts, 81 games, 79 gaming machines, 80 GDS, 72 global organization, 71 Google, 75, 84, 85 Group CIO, Ladbrokes PLC, 71 industry-standard technologies, 77 integrity and competence, 83 IT, 74, 82 KickOff app, 71 land-based casinos, 79 live streaming, 78 London Business School, 73 mobile computing, 78 multimedia, 84 new generation, 84 on-the-job training, 73 open-source computing, 79 opportunity, 80, 83 PCA-compliant, 81 personalization, 76 real-time systems, 74 re-evaluation, 81 reliability and availability, 77 security threats, 80 smart mobile device, 75 technology-intense customer, 85 top-line revenue, 74 trader apps, 82 true context, 73 underpinning business process, 76 virtualization, 78 Visa/MasterCard transactions, 78 Web 3.0 business, 76 web-emerging web channel, 76 Wikipedia, 79, 85 Word documents and e-mail, 82 work-life balance, 84 young body with high miles, 72 Zuckerberg, Mark, 73 Stead, Jerry, 214 Storefront engineering, 212 Strassmann, Paul, 228, 309 agile development, 340 Amazon EC2, 314 America information processors, 322 Annapolis, 340 AT&T, 332 backstabbing culture, 339 BlackBerry, 317 block houses, 319 CFO/CEO position, 337 CIM program, 309 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313, 339 cloud computing, 310, 311, 313 coding infrastructure, 341 communication infrastructure, 341 corporate information management, 329 Corporate Information Officer, 309 counterintelligence, 320 cyber-operations, 338 Dell server, 314 Department of Defense, 329, 332 Director of Defense Information, 309 employee-owned technology, 316 enterprise architecture, 316 exfiltration, 313 financial organizations, 320 firewalls and antiviruses, 312 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Google apps, 314 government-supported activities, 326 Harvard Business School, 331 HR-related issues, 331 IBM manpower, 311 infiltration, 313 Internet, 316, 322 interoperability, 315, 317, 341 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Machiavellian view, 327 mash-up, 316 military service, 331 NASA, 309, 333, 334 police department, economics, 312 powerpoint slides, 324 Radio Shack, 319 senior executive position, 334 service-oriented architecture, 316 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 social computing, 320 Strassmann's concentration camp, 318 structured methodologies, 342 U.S. Navy, 318 Virginia Tech, 323 virtualization, 310, 311 VMware, 311 Web 2.0, 325 WikiLeaks, 320 Windows machine, 317 Xerox Corporation, 309, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Sun Microsystems, 36 Supply-demand organization, 157 T Tech Mahindra, 253, 255 Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), 19 Telephony, 17 Temares, Lewis, 113 adaptability, 128 American Marketing Society, 113 Apple device, 116 ARPANET and Internet, 117 BBA, 126 camera, 124 CIO responsibilities and duties, 127 classroom information, 119 client and terminal, 124 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 combination of degrees, 125 communication and business skills, 126 computer conference, 116 customer service, 130 cyber security, 121 day-to-day administration, 128 digital device, 125 document management, 129 electronic hospital record, 115 encyclopedia and Wikipedia, 115 entrepreneurial characteristics, 114 ERP, 123 Facebook, 116, 121 faculty members, 121 financial industry, 123 Fortune 500 commercial land, 114 Google, 117 GPS technology, 117 grocery store, 130 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 higher education, 114, 122 high-performance computing, 119 IBM data center, 124 independent entrepreneurs, 114 Information Technology (IT), 113, 118 Jones, Sam, 131 leading-edge technology, 119 mainframe computers, 118 marketing, 122 matchmaker.com, 131 matchmakerexecs.com, 131 MBA, 126 MIT and Berkeley, 120 mobile technology, 115 New-Age, technology-savvy kids, 115 online degree, 121 passion, 128 personal computer, 117 philanthropism, 123 presentation skills, 128 project management, 126 rainmaker.com, 131 retail industry, 123 revenue producer, 123 RIM device, 116, 121, 124 Skype, 118 social media, 115, 116 SPSS and SAS programs, 131 telecommunications, 120 telemedicine, 118 TRS-80s, 129 Twitter, 116 up-to-date technology, 119 video entertainment, 116 voice/data integration, 117 Web 2.0 industry, 132 wireless computers, 115 yellow notepaper, 115 YouTube, 120 Texas, 226 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 Toyota, 102 Tracy, Michael, 212 Transmission and distribution companies, 47 Turner, Kevin, 39 Twitter, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Temares, Lewis, 116 U University computing center, 28 University of Chicago, 104 University of Florida, 139 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 Utilities Telecom Council, 177 V Verizon Communications, 231, 232 Videoconferencing, 12 Virtual corporations, 241 Virtualization, 310, 311 Visicalc, 24 Vivendi Universal, 134 VMware, 311 Vodafone AirTouch, 231 voice capability, 259 Voice-response unit (VRU), 203 W Wakeman, Dan, 151 advanced placement program, 168 back-end systems, 154, 155 business maxims, 159 business peers, 160, 161 cloud computing, 168 collaborative environment, 160 Computer Choice, 170, 171 consumerization, 166, 170 credibility, 160 decision making, 152 defect-free code, 164 demand-supply model, 157 digital nation, 169 disaster recovery, 154 education business, 160 ElastomerSolutions.com, 151 ETS, 151 mission, 162, 163 packaging and selling information, 163 EXP program, 159 Facebook, 169 fair value and reliable assessments, 159 for-profit business, 152 Gartner CIO Academy, 157 Gen-Xer stuff, 169 Google, 170, 172 Heller, Martha, 171 intellectual property, 171 iPad, 169 IT core competency, 172 engine, 163 industry, 156 skills, 154 ITIL version 3, 158 judgment, 162 leadership and personal integrity, 161 McGenesis, Steve, 155 mentor, 155, 156 metrics and quantitative benchmarking, 166 on-demand services, 168 operational excellence, 163 operations and maintenance, 166 Salesforce, 154 scorecard, 164, 165 security budget, 167 security organization, 167 services and packaging, 171 Six Sigma, 164 smart phones, 170 standardization, 164 Taylor, John, 154–156 virtualization and cloud computing, 167, 168 Wallington, Pat, 175 Wall Street, 23 Wall Street Journal, 168 Walmart, 6, 50 Walt Disney Company, 33 WAN, 259 Web 2.0, 244, 325 Web 3.0 business, 76 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 Wichita, 226 WikiLeaks, 320 Wikipedia, 79, 85, 115, 185, 220, 291, 292, 303 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 Wilson, Carl, 225, 228, 229 Wilson, Joe, 338 Wireless network, 59 World Wide Web, 266 X Xerox Corporation, 175, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Y Y2K, 222 YouTube, 20, 65

Navy, 318 Virginia Tech, 323 virtualization, 310, 311 VMware, 311 Web 2.0, 325 WikiLeaks, 320 Windows machine, 317 Xerox Corporation, 309, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Sun Microsystems, 36 Supply-demand organization, 157 T Tech Mahindra, 253, 255 Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), 19 Telephony, 17 Temares, Lewis, 113 adaptability, 128 American Marketing Society, 113 Apple device, 116 ARPANET and Internet, 117 BBA, 126 camera, 124 CIO responsibilities and duties, 127 classroom information, 119 client and terminal, 124 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 combination of degrees, 125 communication and business skills, 126 computer conference, 116 customer service, 130 cyber security, 121 day-to-day administration, 128 digital device, 125 document management, 129 electronic hospital record, 115 encyclopedia and Wikipedia, 115 entrepreneurial characteristics, 114 ERP, 123 Facebook, 116, 121 faculty members, 121 financial industry, 123 Fortune 500 commercial land, 114 Google, 117 GPS technology, 117 grocery store, 130 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 higher education, 114, 122 high-performance computing, 119 IBM data center, 124 independent entrepreneurs, 114 Information Technology (IT), 113, 118 Jones, Sam, 131 leading-edge technology, 119 mainframe computers, 118 marketing, 122 matchmaker.com, 131 matchmakerexecs.com, 131 MBA, 126 MIT and Berkeley, 120 mobile technology, 115 New-Age, technology-savvy kids, 115 online degree, 121 passion, 128 personal computer, 117 philanthropism, 123 presentation skills, 128 project management, 126 rainmaker.com, 131 retail industry, 123 revenue producer, 123 RIM device, 116, 121, 124 Skype, 118 social media, 115, 116 SPSS and SAS programs, 131 telecommunications, 120 telemedicine, 118 TRS-80s, 129 Twitter, 116 up-to-date technology, 119 video entertainment, 116 voice/data integration, 117 Web 2.0 industry, 132 wireless computers, 115 yellow notepaper, 115 YouTube, 120 Texas, 226 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 Toyota, 102 Tracy, Michael, 212 Transmission and distribution companies, 47 Turner, Kevin, 39 Twitter, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Temares, Lewis, 116 U University computing center, 28 University of Chicago, 104 University of Florida, 139 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 Utilities Telecom Council, 177 V Verizon Communications, 231, 232 Videoconferencing, 12 Virtual corporations, 241 Virtualization, 310, 311 Visicalc, 24 Vivendi Universal, 134 VMware, 311 Vodafone AirTouch, 231 voice capability, 259 Voice-response unit (VRU), 203 W Wakeman, Dan, 151 advanced placement program, 168 back-end systems, 154, 155 business maxims, 159 business peers, 160, 161 cloud computing, 168 collaborative environment, 160 Computer Choice, 170, 171 consumerization, 166, 170 credibility, 160 decision making, 152 defect-free code, 164 demand-supply model, 157 digital nation, 169 disaster recovery, 154 education business, 160 ElastomerSolutions.com, 151 ETS, 151 mission, 162, 163 packaging and selling information, 163 EXP program, 159 Facebook, 169 fair value and reliable assessments, 159 for-profit business, 152 Gartner CIO Academy, 157 Gen-Xer stuff, 169 Google, 170, 172 Heller, Martha, 171 intellectual property, 171 iPad, 169 IT core competency, 172 engine, 163 industry, 156 skills, 154 ITIL version 3, 158 judgment, 162 leadership and personal integrity, 161 McGenesis, Steve, 155 mentor, 155, 156 metrics and quantitative benchmarking, 166 on-demand services, 168 operational excellence, 163 operations and maintenance, 166 Salesforce, 154 scorecard, 164, 165 security budget, 167 security organization, 167 services and packaging, 171 Six Sigma, 164 smart phones, 170 standardization, 164 Taylor, John, 154–156 virtualization and cloud computing, 167, 168 Wallington, Pat, 175 Wall Street, 23 Wall Street Journal, 168 Walmart, 6, 50 Walt Disney Company, 33 WAN, 259 Web 2.0, 244, 325 Web 3.0 business, 76 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 Wichita, 226 WikiLeaks, 320 Wikipedia, 79, 85, 115, 185, 220, 291, 292, 303 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 Wilson, Carl, 225, 228, 229 Wilson, Joe, 338 Wireless network, 59 World Wide Web, 266 X Xerox Corporation, 175, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Y Y2K, 222 YouTube, 20, 65


pages: 504 words: 143,303

Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, anti-globalists, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land value tax, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

idcatart=134&lang=1. 116 White, A. (2012) ‘PwC fined record £1.4m over JP Morgan audit’, Telegraph, 5 January, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/supportservices/8995981/PwC-fined-record-1.4m-over-JP-Morgan-audit.html. 117 Thanks to John Christensen for this information. 118 https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/hm-revenue-customs/groups/hmrc-board. 119 http://www.ushistory.org/us/24d.asp. 120 Bowman, A., Ertürk, I., Froud, J., Johal, S., Moran, M., Law, J., Leaver, A. and Williams, K. (2012) ‘Scapegoats aren’t enough: a Leveson for the banks?’, CRESC Discussion Paper, p 8. 121 Canada, US, Mexico, Peru, Chile, New Zealand, Australia, Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam and Japan. 122 Wikileaks (2013) ‘Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP)’, https://wikileaks.org/tpp/pressrelease.html. 123 Wikileaks (2013). 124 Monbiot, G. (2013) ‘The lies behind this transatlantic trade deal’, Guardian, 2 December, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/02/transatlantic-free-trade-deal-regulation-by-lawyers-eu-us. 125 Corporate Europe Observatory (2013) ‘A transatlantic corporate bill of rights’, 3 June, http://corporateeurope.org/trade/2013/06/transatlantic-corporate-bill-rights. 126 McDonagh, T. (2013) ‘Unfair, unsustainable and under the radar’, San Francisco: Democracy Center, http://democracyctr.org/new-report-unfair-unsustainable-and-under-the-radar/.

Significantly, Wikileaks has been the main source of information about them. While the European Commission has held just 8 meetings with civil society groups about the TTIP, it has had 119 with corporations and their lobbyists. These trade pacts seek to augment the intellectual property of companies, prolonging patents beyond 20 years, enabling them to extract more rent for longer from ‘their’ products. Internet service providers will be required to filter and block content – thereby giving companies control over users’ use of ‘their’ products, stopping sharing or reverse engineering and adaptation. Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the internet, may have said ‘this is for everyone’, but some major companies want to privatise and control it for their own interests. Julian Assange of Wikileaks comments: If instituted, the TPP’s intellectual property regime would trample over individual rights and free expression, as well as ride roughshod over the intellectual and creative commons.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, different worldview, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jones Act, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, renewable energy transition, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Steven Shrybman, “Trade, Agriculture, and Climate Change: How Agricultural Trade Policies Fuel Climate Change,” Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, November 2000, p. 1. 31. Sonja J. Vermeulen, Bruce M. Campbell, and John S.I. Ingram, “Climate Change and Food Systems,” Annual Review of Environment 37 (2012): 195; personal email communication with Steven Shrybman, April 23, 2014. 32. “Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)—Environment Consolidated Text,” WikiLeaks, January 15, 2014, https://wikileaks.org; “Summary of U.S. Counterproposal to Consolidated Text of the Environment Chapter,” released by RedGE, February 17, 2014, http://www .redge.org.pe. 33. Traffic refers to containerized port traffic, measured by twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs). From 1994 to 2013 global containerized port traffic increased from 128,320,326 to an estimated 627,930,960 TEUs, an increase of 389.4 percent: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, “Review of Maritime Transport,” various years, available at http://unctad.org.

., “Nauru,” in Climate Change in the Pacific, Scientific Assessment and New Research, Volume 2: Country Reports, Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011, pp. 134, 140; “Fresh Water Supplies a Continual Challenge to the Region,” Applied Geoscience and Technology Division, Secretariat of the Pacific Community, press release, January 18, 2011. 15. Glenn Albrecht, “The Age of Solastalgia,” The Conversation, August 7, 2012. 16. Kendall, “Doomed Island.” 17. “Nauru: Phosphate Roller Coaster; Elections with Tough Love Theme,” August 13, 2007, via WikiLeaks, http://www.wikileaks.org. 18. Nick Bryant, “Will New Nauru Asylum Centre Deliver Pacific Solution?” BBC News, June 20, 2013; Rob Taylor, “Ruling Clouds Future of Australia Detention Center,” Wall Street Journal, January 30, 2014; “Nauru Camp a Human Rights Catastrophe with No End in Sight,” Amnesty International, press release, November 23, 2012; “What We Found on Nauru,” Amnesty International, December 17, 2012; “Hundreds Continue 11-Day Nauru Hunger Strike,” ABC News (Australia), November 12, 2012. 19.

“Trade policy and rules actually drive climate change in a very structural way in respect of food systems,” Shrybman stressed in an interview.31 The habit of willfully erasing the climate crisis from trade agreements continues to this day: for instance, in early 2014, several negotiating documents for the proposed Trans-Pacific Partnership, a controversial new NAFTA-style trade deal spanning twelve countries, were released to the public via WikiLeaks and the Peruvian human rights group RedGE. A draft of the environment chapter had contained language stating that countries “acknowledge climate change as a global concern that requires collective action and recognize the importance of implementation of their respective commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).” The language was vague and nonbinding, but at least it was a tool that governments could use to defend themselves should their climate policies be challenged in a trade tribunal, as Ontario’s plan was.


pages: 840 words: 224,391

Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel by Max Blumenthal

airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, centre right, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, housing crisis, knowledge economy, megacity, moral panic, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

While not all can be named, some who can be include Shai Haddad, Yossi David, Nitzan Menagem, Tomer Lavie, Masha Averbuch, Saeed Amireh, David Jacobus, Netta Mishly, Karla Green, Emilie Baujard, Randa May Wahbe, Ala Milbes, Gal Harmat, Eran Torbiner, Gaby Rubin, Alex Cohn, Abir Kopty, Yonatan Shapira, Michael Solsbery, Dimi Reider, Ayed Fadel, Jonathan Pollak, and Noam Sheizaf. I have relied heavily on Linda Forsell, Joseph Dana, George Hale, Lia Tarachansky, David Sheen, and Jesse Rosenfeld as journalistic colleagues and as friends. This book would not have been possible without them. NOTES CHAPTER 1: TO THE SLAUGHTER 3to the brink of collapse: Wikileaks, “Cashless in Gaza,” Reuters, January 5, 2011, http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/wikileaks-israel-aimed-to-keep-gaza-economy-on-brink-of-collapse-1.335354. According to US officials at the US Embassy in Tel Aviv, Israeli officials wanted Gaza’s economy “functioning at the lowest level possible consistent with avoiding a humanitarian crisis.” 3It’s like an appointment: Steven Erlanger, “Hamas Leader Faults Israeli Sanction Plan,” New York Times, February 18, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/18/international/middleeast/18mideast.html?

v=KntmpoRXFX4. 4will bring upon themselves: “Israeli Minister Warns of Palestinian ‘Holocaust,’” Guardian, February 29, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/29/israelandthepalestinians1. 5massacre and act of criminal aggression: Julia Fitzpatrick, “Gaza on Their Minds: The Effect of ‘Operation Cast Lead’ in Mobilizing Palestinian Action,” Al Nakhlah, Online Journal of Southwest Asia and Islamic Civilization, Spring 2011, p. 6, http://fletcher.tufts.edu/Al-Nakhlah/~/media/6F1D365405694E1B88142EB94DB5D443.pdf. 5Palestinian Authority forces swarmed: Ibid. 5Though Abbas refused: Barak Ravid, “WikiLeaks Exposé: Israel Tried to Coordinate Gaza War with Abbas,” Ha’aretz, November 28, 2010, http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/wikileaks-expose-israel-tried-to-coordinate-gaza-war-with-abbas-1.327487. CHAPTER 2: THE PEACE CAMP 6the sound of knocking: Gidi Weitz, “No Hard Feelings,” Ha’aretz, March 18, 2011, http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/magazine/no-hard-feelings-1.350004. 6I am living with the constant tension: Ibid. 6The time has come to act: Cited in Roni Singer-Heruti, “New Meretz Leftist Party Launches Campaign against IDF Operation in Gaza,” Ha’aretz, January 11, 2009, http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/new-meretz-leftist-party-launches-campaign-against-idf-operation-in-gaza-1.267869. 6understandable and acceptable: Johann Hari, “Israel’s Voice of Reason: Amoz Oz on War, Peace, and Life as an Outsider,” Independent, March 19, 2009, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/israels-voice-of-reason-amos-oz-on-war-peace-and-life-as-an-outsider-1648254.html. 6not a word about civilian casualties: David Grossman, “Fight Fire with a Ceasefire,” New York Times, December 30, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/31/opinion/31grossman.html?

CHAPTER 66: MY MOTHER BEFORE JUSTICE 365One of the things that: Alu Abunimah, “NY Times’ Jerusalem Property Makes It Protagonist in Palestine Conflict,” Electronic Intifada, March 2, 2010, http://electronicintifada.net/content/ny-times-jerusalem-property-makes-it-protagonist-palestine-conflict/8705. 366My entire neighborhood: Ibid. 366Hebrew-language chants: Budour Youssef Hassan, “The Sham Solidarity of Israel’s Zionist Left,” Electronic Intifada, July 28, 2011, http://electronicintifada.net/content/sham-solidarity-israels-zionist-left/10213. 366my mother before justice: David Carroll, Albert Camus, the Algerian (Columbia University Press, 2007), 209. 367village of entrepreneurs: Jonathan Cook, “Palestinian Village Turning into ‘Ghetto,’” National, November 10, 2008, http://www.thenational.ae/news/world/middle-east/palestinian-village-turning-into-ghetto. 369shot in the head: Yael Levy, “Protestor Shot by Border Guard Officer in Bil’in Awarded Damages,” Ynetnews, July 29, 2009, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3753766,00.html; video of Goldstein being shot by Border Police: “Bilin – The Shooting of Lymor Goldstein by Israeli Military Border Police,” May 21, 2009, uploaded by communichaoz, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3r6VxDkvjw. 370Don’t Shake Hands with Apartheid: Joseph Dana, “Great-Grandson of S.Y. Agnon Tells Ian McEwan Not to Shake Hands with Apartheid,” Mondoweiss, February 23, 2011, http://mondoweiss.net/2011/02/life-under-the-occupation.html. CHAPTER 67: THE CRAZY VILLAGE 372We don’t do Gandhi: “WikiLeaks: Israel Irked by West Bank Protests,” Ynetnews, September 3, 2011, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4117301,00.html. 372recently seized: James Cunningham, Wikileaks cable reference ID: 10TELA-VIV344, http://www.cablegatesearch.net/cable.php?id=10TELAVIV344. 372even demonstrations: Ibid. 372The Scream: Adam Rawnsley, ‘“The Scream’: Israel Blasts Protestors with Sonic Gun,” Wired, September 23, 2011, http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2011/09/the-scream-israel-blasts-rioters-with-sonic-gun. 373the realities of the occupation: Max Blumenthal, “In Israel, Non-Violent Solidarity Activist Goes to Prison, Anti-Gay Terrorist Gets Community Service,” MaxBlu-menthal.com, December 28, 2010, http://maxblumenthal.com/2010/12/in-israel-non-violent-solidarity-activist-gets-prison-anti-gay-terrorist-gets-community-service. 373organized army of boys: Yair Altman, “Secrets of Nabi Saleh Protests,” Ynetnews, March 26, 2011, http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4047503,00.html. 374You never know their names: Harriet Sherwood, “Former Israeli Soldiers Disclose Routine Mistreatment of Palestinian Children,” Guardian, August 26, 2012, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/aug/26/israeli-soldiers-mistreatment-palestinian-children. 374That specific kid: Ibid. 375armed and unarmed: Nabi Saleh resident Ahlam Tamimi escorted a suicide bomber to a pizza parlor in Jerusalem, serving as an accomplice in an attack in which 15 people were killed; see Ben Ehrenreich, “Is This Where the Third Intifada Will Start?”


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The number and reach of these highly profitable transnational organized cyber-crime rings have grown, and the security intelligence firm CrowdStrike was actively tracking more than fifty such major organizations globally. Besides transnational organized crime syndicates, hacktivists—politically motivated cyber attackers—represent one of the most influential and powerful groups in cyberspace. Anonymous, LulzSec, AntiSec, WikiLeaks, and the Syrian Electronic Army fall into this group and launch their attacks in retaliation for perceived injustices. Personalities such as Julian Assange, Chelsea (Bradley) Manning, and Edward Snowden have become household names for challenging some of the world’s most powerful institutions and for releasing data that others would most certainly have preferred remain hidden. While Assange, Manning, and Snowden have been propelled onto the covers of newspapers around the world, other hacktivist groups prefer that their individual members remain discreetly hidden in subordination to the organization itself and its broader agenda.

One such notable example is Anonymous, a self-described leaderless organization whose members have become recognizable in public for wearing Guy Fawkes masks. The group’s motto, “We are Anonymous. We are legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect us,” manifests its organizational ethos: “The corrupt fear us. The honest support us. The heroic join us.” When MasterCard, Visa, and PayPal all agreed to stop funneling donations to Julian Assange’s WikiLeaks organization, Anonymous responded by launching a series of effective cyber attacks against the financial firms. Anonymous is strongly against what it perceives to be rigid antipiracy laws, and it took credit for an earlier attack against the Sony PlayStation Network in response to Sony’s support of U.S. antipiracy legislation known as the Stop Online Piracy Act. Anonymous views itself as hacking for good and has taken on a wide variety of social causes, including its support of activists throughout the Middle East during the Arab Spring.

Eventually, your personal details will fall into the hands of criminal cartels, competitors, and even foreign governments. While big data may be the new oil, our personal data are more like weapons-grade plutonium—dangerous, long lasting, and once they are leaked, there’s no getting them back. Even the federal government is realizing it too can fall victim to this problem. Just look at the 2010 WikiLeaks debacle and the hundreds of thousands of classified diplomatic cables Private Chelsea (Bradley) Manning was able to steal while working as an army intelligence analyst in Iraq. Of course just a few years later, the world would meet Edward Snowden, who used his skills and access as an NSA system administrator to steal millions of highly classified files from America and its allies and share them with journalists for publication online.


pages: 294 words: 80,084

Tomorrowland: Our Journey From Science Fiction to Science Fact by Steven Kotler

Albert Einstein, Alexander Shulgin, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, epigenetics, gravity well, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, North Sea oil, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, private space industry, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, theory of mind, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

(In actuality, the Navy is responsible for presidential food preparation and laundry, so the collection job is theirs.) More important, these actions were not isolated; the president’s bedsheets, drinking glasses, and any other objects with which he has contact are routinely gathered — they are later destroyed or sanitized — to try to keep would-be malefactors from stealing his genetic material. And the US isn’t only playing defense. According to a 2010 release of secret cables by Wikileaks, former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has directed our overseas embassies to surreptitiously collect DNA samples from foreign heads of state and senior UN officials. Clearly, the United States sees strategic advantage in knowing the specific biology of world leaders; it would be surprising if other nations didn’t feel the same. Currently, while there has been no reported use of an advanced, genetically targeted bioweapon, the authors of this piece — including experts in genetics and microbiology (Andrew Hessel) and global security and law enforcement (Marc Goodman) — are convinced we are not far from the possibility.

The FBI has far greater resources at its disposal than the Secret Service (almost 36,000 people work there, compared to roughly 6,500 at the Secret Service), yet, five years ago, the FBI concluded the only way it could keep up with biological threats was by involving the whole of the life science community in the endeavor. So why go further? Why take the seemingly radical step of releasing the president’s genome to the rest of the world instead of just a security-cleared group? As the aforementioned Wiki-leaked, State Department cables makes clear, the surreptitious gathering of genetic material has already begun. It would not be surprising if the president’s DNA has already been collected and analyzed and our adversaries are merely waiting for the right opportunity to exploit the results. The assault could even be homegrown, the result of increasingly divisive party politics and the release of unscrupulous attack ads.

., 168, 171 thorium reactors, 119–20 Three Mile Island, 110, 118 Thurmond, Strom, 213–14 Time on the Cross: An Economic Analysis of American Negro Slavery (Fogel & Engerman), 52–53 Tito, Dennis, 145 Toshiba, 121 Toth, Lou, 85–86 tourism, space, 129–30 transcendent states, 45–47, 165 trans fats, 198 transposable elements, 136–38 traveling wave reactors, 121 Truax, Robert, 101 Truax Engineering, 101 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin, 145 Tsukamoto, Ann, 216 “The Tunnel Under the World” (Pohl), 27 tunnel vision, 41–42 UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 115 United Nations, 217 unity, cosmic, 45–47, 165, 175 US Air Force, 241 US Department of Energy, 119, 228 van Lommel, Pim, 40, 42 Venter, Craig, 228, 230, 231, 247 Vergel, Nelson, 196–97 Virgin Galactic, 129 vision artificial implants for, xiv, xvi, 26, 61–77 cost of artificial, 75–76 effects of electricity on, 79, 80–81 functional mobility in, 67 neuroprosthesis for, 67 religions on, 74 retinal implants for, 66–67 starry-night effect in, 64–65 tunnel, in near-death experiences, 41–42 “The Voice” (Butcher), 37 Walter Reed hospital, 15, 17 Walton, Ernest, 109 water impoundments, 88–90 Waterman, Waldo, 100 Watson (artificial intelligence), 223 weapons of mass destruction, 227, 245–46 Weapons of Mass Destruction Directorate, 236–37 weightlifters, 189–90 Weiland, James, 76–77 Weissman, Irv, 203–7, 209, 211, 215–17 Weldon, Dave, 215 Weldon Bill, 215 West Nile virus, 133, 134 What Technology Wants (Kelly), xvi–xvii Whinnery, James, 40–42 Wick, Douglas, 213–14 Wikileaks, 224, 242 Wimmer, Eckard, 233 Winkler, Allan, 110 World Health Organization (WHO), 61 Wright Brothers, 72–73 XPRIZE, xi–xiii, 129, 141, 151 yellow fever, 133, 137 Yesalis, Charles, 195 You, Edward, 236–37 Yushchenko, Viktor, 238 Zee-Aero, 105 Zucker, Jerry, 213–14


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Using Bitcoin, people can send someone money without asking for permission from anyone. This is also a freedom issue. Centralized and legacy systems have the ability to prevent users from sending money to certain entities. At the height of the controversy over a leaked video showing American helicopter pilots joking while shooting people who seemed to be civilians, for instance, whistleblower site Wikileaks lost PayPal and credit card support.7 Although there might not be any legal basis for this type of ban, individual companies can decide to prevent individual people from sending money to support causes they believe in. Bitcoin, along with a strong legal defense, has helped these individuals get around such bans. With no central power to prevent users from sending money to a specific entity, users can send their bitcoins to whatever cause they fancy.

Accessed May 19, 2015. http://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/corporate/us/en/reports-downloads/2014%20Reports/nielsen-global-e-commerce-report-august-2014.pdf. 5 Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World. (New York, Basic Books, 1994, Reprint 1995) 6 Zetter, Kim. “Bullion and Bandits: The Improbable Rise and Fall of E-Gold.” Wired.com. September 6, 2009. Accessed May 20, 2015. http://www.wired.com/2009/06/e-gold/. 7 Barnes, Julian and Jeanne Whalen. “PayPal Drops WikiLeaks Donation Account.” The Wall Street Journal, December 4, 2010. Accessed March 10, 2015. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704767804575654681242073308. 8 “Transfer fees.” The Economist. December 15, 2010. Accessed March 15, 2015. http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2010/12/remittances. 9 Vigna, Paul, and Michael Casey. “BitBeat: Wedding Bells on the Blockchain.” MoneyBeat. September 26, 2014.

Most of the data is useless to outside parties, but within this vast sea of information, people have started building networks and services hidden from the mainstream users of the Internet and law enforcement agencies. Many of these sites use the .onion domain extension and have a long string of seemingly random letters and numbers as their URL. Although the number of those who are using the Deep Web for illegal activity undoubtedly increases as you move deeper into it, the Deep Web still serves legitimate purposes. Wikileaks started out as a Deep Web service, and the ability of journalists to communicate with sources and of whistleblowers to release information anonymously is an important tool for freedom that should be protected at all costs. Of course, privacy is an important concern for others besides cypherpunks, Bitcoin enthusiasts, and criminals. The largest institutions in the world remind us that encryption is essential not only for specific groups but also for freedom itself.


Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, WikiLeaks, Works Progress Administration

Each episode concerns a different medium for the reproduction of documents, since reproduction is one clear way that documents are affirmed as such: one of the things people do with documents is copy them, whether they get published variously in editions (like the Declaration of Independence, for instance), duplicated for reference (like the photocopy of my passport that I carry in my suitcase), sort of or semipublished for internal circulation (like a restaurant menu), or proliferated online (mirrored and cached like the many documents in Wikileaks). Although reproduction is one of the functions that have helped people to reckon documents as documents—as I hope to elaborate below—the core function of the document genre is something else entirely. The word “document” descends from the Latin root docer, to teach or show, which suggests that the document exists in order to document. Sidestepping this circularity of terms, one might say instead that documents help define and are mutually defined by the know-­show function, since documenting is an epistemic practice: the kind of knowing that is all wrapped up with showing, and showing wrapped with knowing.

And as much as the lack of an exemplary pdf may stem from contrasts between analog and digital, it must follow, as well, from the fact that documents in the era of pdf technology have become the objects of relational databases. One of the tasks of this chapter, then, is to broach the question of how or whether documents are somehow different when aggregated and served up by databases rather than collected and fished out of filing cabinets. Consider the size and complexity of Wikileaks, for example, beside the Pentagon Papers. This is of course only partly a question of scale. At the same time that I have failed to identify an exemplary pdf , I have also resisted as much as possible focusing on pdf s solely through the lens of Adobe Systems or the entrepreneurs and engineers who developed the format. The pages that follow touch on the work of John Warnock—a founder of Adobe—and other figures familiarly hailed as founding fathers of digital work processes and the networked personal computers that support them, yet I think it is important to go further than that.

Works Progress Administration, 13, 60, 62, 64, 75 video store, 109–10 videocassette recorders and home systems (vcrs and vhss), 108–10 Vietnam War, 16, 17, 85–90, 93–94 Voices from the Press: A Collection (­Benton), 49–50 Warner, Michael, 8, 9, 149 Warnock, John, 117, 121, 123–25, 130; “The Camelot Project,” 123–24 210 INDEX Watergate, 17, 86, 95–96 Weber, Max, 10, 31, 93 Wells, H. G., 53 Wershler, Darren, 31, 118 Western Union, 33 White, Michelle, 128 Whitman, Walter, 50 Wikileaks, 1, 117 Wikipedia, 18, 74, 75, 100, 101 Williams, E. F., 35 Williams, Raymond, 154n42 Williams & Wilkins Co. v. United States, 107, 108 Williams’ Cincinnati Directory, 43 Willinsky, John, 132 Willis, N. P., 50, 51 Winship, Michael, 46, 153n28 Wired, 124, 127 Wissler, Clark, 58, 61 Wong, Angela Pan, 133 Woods, Benjamin, 140 Woods, Rose Mary, 96 Worcester and Nashua Railroad Co., 46 Worcester Music Hall, 46 World Congress of Libraries and Bibliography, 54 W.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

His inspiration came from another cypherpunk from the mailing list named John Young, who in 1996 founded the website cryptome.org as a place to publish leaked documents – especially any confidential government records and reports. Assange had contacted Young in 2006, saying ‘you knew me under another name from the cypherpunk days’. He told Young of his plan to create a new organisation, which he called WikiLeaks, which he believed would change the world: ‘New technology and cryptographic ideas permit us to not only encourage document leaking, but to facilitate it directly on a mass scale. We intend to place a new star in the political firmament of man.’ For almost a decade, the cypherpunk mailing list was the centre of the crypto world. Hundreds of people used it to propose and learn ciphers, evade detection, discuss radical politics.

Today there are hundreds of people like Amir and Miguel working on ingenious ways of keeping online secrets or preventing censorship, often in their own time, and frequently crowdfunded by users sympathetic to the cause. One is Smári McCarthy. Smári is unashamedly geeky: a computer whizz and founding member of the radical Icelandic Pirate Party. He used to work with Julian Assange in the early days of WikiLeaks. Smári isn’t really a cypherpunk – he resists any association with Ayn Rand’s philosophy – but he does believe that privacy online is a fundamental right, and worries about state surveillance of the net. He also believes that crypto is a key part of a political project. He wants you to encrypt all your emails with PGP, even (or especially) those you send to friends and family members. The reason, he explains, is to provide ‘cover traffic’ for those who do need to keep things secret.

But they are rarely linked to other sites, and the URL addresses are a meaningless series of numbers and letters: h67ugho8yhgff941.onion rather than the more familiar .com or .co.uk. To make matters worse, Tor Hidden Services frequently change addresses. To help visitors, there are several ‘index’ pages that list current addresses. In 2013, the most well known of these index pages was called the Hidden Wiki. The Hidden Wiki looks identical to Wikipedia, and lists dozens of the most popular sites in this strange parallel internet: the WikiLeaks cache, censorship-free blogs, hacker chat forums, the New Yorker magazine’s whistleblower drop box. In late 2013 I was browsing the Hidden Wiki, searching for the infamous dark net market Silk Road. As I scrolled down, I suddenly spotted a link for a child pornography website. I stopped. There was nothing strikingly different about it – a simple link to an address comprised of a string of numbers and letters, like every other website listed here.


pages: 309 words: 79,414

Going Dark: The Secret Social Lives of Extremists by Julia Ebner

23andMe, 4chan, Airbnb, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, feminist movement, game design, glass ceiling, Google Earth, job satisfaction, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, off grid, pattern recognition, pre–internet, QAnon, RAND corporation, ransomware, rising living standards, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Transnistria, WikiLeaks, zero day

Q November 24 2017 01:14:46 Who knows ‘where the bodies are buried’ The map is in front of you. Re-read. Expand your thinking. Purpose of time being spent here. Q Conspiracy theories often have obscure origins – some even start as a joke or prank. The Book of Q, an early collection of Q’s messages, suggested that QAnon might be ‘the longest lasting LARP (Live Action Role Play, aka prank)’ in the history of 4chan.20 Several media outlets and Wikileaks have also speculated that QAnon started as a hoax that got out of hand.21 BuzzFeed even ran an article with the headline ‘It’s looking extremely likely that QAnon is a leftist prank on Trump supporters’.22 Anonymous blames 0hour1, a troll who was excluded from the hacker collective.23 There are a few hints. In the mid-1990s, a group of left-libertarian cyber revolutionaries and underground artists from Bologna set up the so-called Luther Blissett Project, named after the famous striker who played for the England national football team in the 1980s.24 Since then thousands of artists across Europe and America have adopted the name Luther Blissett to stage media pranks and cultural sabotage initiatives.

utm_term=.30b166abe2bf. 19Blake Montgomery, ‘A Man Allegedly Killed His Brother with a 4-Foot Sword Because He Thought He Was A Lizard Person’, BuzzFeed, 10 January 2019. Available at https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/blakemontgomery/man-brother-murder-charge-sword. 20‘The Book of Q: The biggest drop ever’, 20 November 2017. Available at https://drive.google.com/file/d/1G6guY_q-PzZfdJM4ItzmQIF9gfPrOQxk/view. 21See for example https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/ryanhatesthis/its-looking-extremely-likely-that-qanon-is-probably-a and https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/1001139404805738498. 22Ryan Broderick, ‘People Think This Whole QAnon Conspiracy Theory is A Prank on Trump Supporters’, Buzzfeed, 8 August 2018. Available at https://web.archive.org/web/20180806121403/. 23See the Anonymous tweet: https://twitter.com/YourAnonNews/status/1025454095228985349. 24Stewart Home, Mind Invaders: A Reader in Psychic Warfare, Cultural Sabotage and Semiotic Terrorism (London: Serpent’s Tail, 1997). 25Will Sommer, ‘Why a Red “X” is the New Symbol of Conservative Twitter’, Daily Beast, 8 October 2018.

C. here Süddestsche Zeitung here suicide gender paradox here Sunday Times here Suomenuskos here Surabaya bombing here, here Survival Food here swastikas here, here, here, here, here, here Swift, Taylor here Taken in Hand (TiH) here Tarrant, Brenton here, here, here Taylor, Jared here TAZ here Team System DZ here Tech Against Terrorism here tech firms, business models here Terror Agency Sisters here, here, here terrorist instruction manuals here, here Terrorsphära here, here The Red Pill (TRP) here, here, here, here Thompson, Kevin here Thunberg, Greta here Thurston, Nick here Tichys Einblick here Time Warner here Tinder here, here, here, here Törvény, Fehér here Trad Wives here, here, here, here, here Traditional Britain Conference here Traditionalist Worker Party here Traini, Luca here tribalism here, here ‘trigger’ (the word) here Troll Watch here, here trolls, rise of here True Lies QNN here Trump, Donald here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here Charlottesville rally and here, here and Great Replacement theory here hackers and here New Balance shoes and here pro-Trump memes here QAnon and here, here, here, here, here retweets Britain First videos here RWU and here Trump Singles here Truth Decay here Tufecki, Zeynep here Twitch here Uhud, Battle of here UK