patient HM

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pages: 196 words: 54,339

Team Human by Douglas Rushkoff

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, disintermediation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, game design, gig economy, Google bus, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, invisible hand, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, new economy, patient HM, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Vannevar Bush, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

We now know, beyond any doubt, that we are dumber when we are using smartphones and social media Debra Kaufman, “Studies Show Smartphones, Social Media Cause Brain Drain,” etcentric, October 10, 2017. 35. human beings require input from organic, three-dimensional space William Softky, “Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust,” Journal of Neural Computation 29, no. 9 (September 2017). We remember things better when we can relate them to their physical locations Luke Dittrich, Patient H.M.: A Story of Memory, Madness, and Family Secrets (New York: Random House, 2017). Our relationships become about metrics, judgments, and power Benoit Denizet-Lewis, “Why Are More American Teenagers Than Ever Suffering from Severe Anxiety?” New York Times Magazine, October 11, 2017. 36. Surprisingly, the inability to establish trust in digital environments doesn’t deter us from using them William Softky, “Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust,” Journal of Neural Computation 29, no. 9 (September 2017).


pages: 230 words: 61,702

The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

And the philosopher Hubert Dreyfus has influentially argued that knowing how to do something—like ride a bike—can’t simply be understood as grasping a set of rules or directions. At bottom it involves a type of discernment or acuity that can’t be discursively codified.16 The idea that there is a sharp difference between knowing how and knowing facts seems to have some empirical support as well. Consider the famous case of the patient HM. HM was an epileptic who had undergone a lobectomy. He was then observed to have severe anterograde amnesia. In other words, he would forget events almost immediately after they happened. In a groundbreaking experiment, the cognitive psychologist Brenda Milner had HM perform a mirror-drawing task in which he had to draw the outline of a star through a mirror while not being able to see his own arm.17 The results were astounding: he was able to improve at the task after several days, even though he had no memory of the event.


pages: 329 words: 93,655

Moonwalking With Einstein by Joshua Foer

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, deliberate practice, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, lifelogging, mental accounting, patient HM, pattern recognition, Rubik’s Cube, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

Natural-born cyborgs: minds, technologies, and the future of human intelligence. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Cohen, G. (1990). Why Is It Difficult to Put Names to Faces? British Journal of Psychology, 81, 287-297. Coleman, J. (1992). Ancient and medieval memories: studies in the reconstruction of the past. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Cooke, E. (2008). Remember, remember. London: Viking. Corkin, S. (2002). What’s New with the Amnesic Patient H.M. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 153-160. Corsi, P. (1991). The enchanted loom: chapters in the history of neuroscience. New York: Oxford University Press. Cott, J. (2005). On the sea of memory: a journey from forgetting to remembering. New York: Random House. Darnton, R. (1990). First Steps Toward a History of Reading. In The kiss of Lamourette: reflections in cultural history. New York: W.


pages: 455 words: 116,578

The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg

Atul Gawande, Checklist Manifesto, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, game design, haute couture, impulse control, index card, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, patient HM, pattern recognition, randomized controlled trial, rolodex, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, telemarketer, Tenerife airport disaster, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, Walter Mischel

.,” Page O’Neuroplasticity, http://www.nyu.edu. 1.8 When the doctor proposed cutting Benedict Carey, “H. M., Whose Loss of Memory Made Him Unforgettable, Dies,” The New York Times, December 5, 2008. 1.9 with a small straw This was a common practice at the time. 1.10 He introduced himself to his doctors Dittrich, “The Brain That Changed Everything”; Larry R. Squire, “Memory and Brain Systems: 1969–2009,” Journal of Neuroscience 29, no. 41 (2009): 12711–26; Larry R. Squire, “The Legacy of Patient H.M. for Neuroscience,” Neuron 61, no. 1 (2009): 6–9. 1.11 transformed our understanding of habits’ power Jonathan M. Reed et al., “Learning About Categories That Are Defined by Object-Like Stimuli Despite Impaired Declarative Memory,” Behavioral Neuroscience 113 (1999): 411–19; B. J. Knowlton, J. A. Mangels, and L. R. Squire, “A Neostriatal Habit Learning System in Humans,” Science 273 (1996): 1399–1402; P.


pages: 426 words: 117,027

Mind in Motion: How Action Shapes Thought by Barbara Tversky

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, clean water, continuous integration, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, fundamental attribution error, Hans Rosling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Snow's cholera map, Lao Tzu, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, neurotypical, patient HM, Richard Feynman, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, theory of mind, urban planning

Hippocampus for episodic memory Eichenbaum, H., & Cohen, N. J. (2014). Can we reconcile the declarative memory and spatial navigation views on hippocampal function? Neuron, 83(4), 764–770. Poppenk, J., Evensmoen, H. R., Moscovitch, M., & Nadel, L. (2013). Long-axis specialization of the human hippocampus. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(5), 230–240. H.M. Corkin, S. (2002). What’s new with the amnesic patient HM? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(2), 153. Milner, B., Corkin, S., & Teuber, H. L. (1968). Further analysis of the hippocampal amnesic syndrome: 14-year follow-up study of HM. Neuropsychologia, 6(3), 215–234. Scoville, W. B., & Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 20(1), 11. Hippocampus plans future events Addis, D.


When Computers Can Think: The Artificial Intelligence Singularity by Anthony Berglas, William Black, Samantha Thalind, Max Scratchmann, Michelle Estes

3D printing, AI winter, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, blue-collar work, brain emulation, call centre, cognitive bias, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, create, read, update, delete, cuban missile crisis, David Attenborough, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, factory automation, feminist movement, finite state, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, natural language processing, Parkinson's law, patent troll, patient HM, pattern recognition, phenotype, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test, uranium enrichment, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, zero day

This corresponds roughly to our psychological experience of memory. People can only consciously remember about seven different symbols at a time when considering a problem, and they are quickly forgotten if one is distracted. On the other hand, people have millions of longer-term memories. It appears that many longer term memories are formed in a small part of the cerebral cortex known as the hippocampus. Evidence of this is the famous case of patient H.M., who had his hippocampus largely removed to prevent severe epilepsy. H.M. could function fairly normally and had long-term memories, but he could not form any new long-term memories. Anatomical studies suggest that the hippocampus does in fact contain large recurrent networks that can hold a thought for a short period of time, during which time they repeatedly stimulate other parts of the brain which then undergo Hebbian learning.