citation needed

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pages: 158 words: 16,993

Citation Needed: The Best of Wikipedia's Worst Writing by Conor Lastowka, Josh Fruhlinger

airport security, citation needed,, jimmy wales, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking Joanna of Castile The early stages of Joanna and Philip’s relationship were quite passionate, and the feeling was mutual. However, as time passed, the two began to realize how different their personalities were.[citation needed] Philip was threatened by his wife’s loyalty to all things Spanish - especially her parents’ politics. Juana did not like the way Philip bossed her around, and his dishonesty bothered her above all.[citation needed] Philip began looking to bed other women, which infuriated Joanna. She would throw temper tantrums over his fondness for other women.[citation needed] One lady-in-waiting had her long hair shorn by Joanna herself after she discovered she had been bedded by her husband; Joanna deposited the beautiful tresses on Philip’s pillow as a kind of warning.

Conor Lastowka has written for for the majority of its existence. He founded the fake holiday National High Five Day, plays bass in his fake band Re-Ree and hosts the all too real [Citation Needed] Podcast. He lives in San Diego with his wife Lauren and his cat Slidell. Like what you’ve just read? Get more [Citation Needed]! Blog: Podcast: (or search “citation needed” on iTunes) Twitter: Facebook:

[Citation Needed] [Citation Needed] The Best of Wikipedia’s Worst Writing Conor Lastowka and Josh Fruhlinger Boring Legal Fine Print Each entry in this book contains material from Wikipedia, although the text we use may not represent the current version of any article. The URL at the bottom of each page will direct you to the source Wikipedia article; use the article’s History tab to find a list of contributors. All material in this book that is taken from Wikipedia is licensed under the Creative Commons-Attribution Share Alike 3.0 license. Here’s a quick human-readable summary of your rights to use this content: You are free: to Share—to copy, distribute and transmit the work, and to Remix—to adapt the work Under the following conditions: Attribution—You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work.)

pages: 222 words: 53,317

Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman

algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, Chekhov's gun, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, digital map, discovery of the americas,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Ian Bogost, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

the way machines count: Machines—or more precisely, programming languages—can of course also enumerate starting from one, but many programming languages today count from zero. The reasons are old and have been forgotten by most programmers, but a good discussion of the history is Michael Hoye, “Citation Needed,” blarg? Mike Hoye’s weblog, October 22, 2013, the writer Scott Rosenberg notes: Scott Rosenberg, Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2008), 6–7. “suddenly become opaque and bewildering”: Homer-Dixon, The Ingenuity Gap, 186. 100 billion sentences: Actually, to avoid duplicate sentences, it’s really 10,000 nouns × 1,000 verbs × 9,999 nouns.

Science Fictions: How Fraud, Bias, Negligence, and Hype Undermine the Search for Truth by Stuart Ritchie

Albert Einstein, anesthesia awareness, Bayesian statistics, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, double helix,, epigenetics, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, Growth in a Time of Debt, Kenneth Rogoff, l'esprit de l'escalier, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, mouse model, New Journalism, p-value, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, publication bias, publish or perish, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Thomas Bayes, twin studies, University of East Anglia

Edwards & Siddhartha Roy, ‘Academic Research in the 21st Century: Maintaining Scientific Integrity in a Climate of Perverse Incentives and Hypercompetition’, Environmental Engineering Science 34, no. 1 (Jan. 2017): pp. 51–61; 63.  Tal Yarkoni, ‘No, It’s Not The Incentives – It’s You’, [Citation Needed], 2 Oct. 2018; 64.  See Edwards & Roy, ‘Academic Research’, Fig. 1. 8: Fixing Science Epigraph: Michael Nielsen 1.  Y. A. de Vries et al., ‘The Cumulative Effect of Reporting and Citation Biases on the Apparent Efficacy of Treatments: The Case of Depression’, Psychological Medicine 48, no. 15 (Nov. 2018): pp. 2453–55; 2.  

Daniel Nazer & Elliot Harmon, ‘Stupid Patent of the Month: Elsevier Patents Online Peer Review’, Electronic Freedom Foundation, 31 Aug. 2016; For much more on the sins of Elsevier, see Tal Yarkoni, ‘Why I Still Won’t Review for or Publish with Elsevier – and Think You Shouldn’t Either’, [Citation Needed], 12 Dec. 2016; 69.  Buranyi, ‘Is the Staggeringly Profitable … Bad for Science?’ 70.  At least the publisher Wiley, very much unlike Elsevier, has shown interest in negotiating new publishing models: Diana Kwon, ‘As Elsevier Falters, Wiley Succeeds in Open-Access Deal Making’, Scientist, 26 March 2019;–wiley-succeeds-in-open-access-deal-making-65664 71.  

One More Thing: Stories and Other Stories by B. J. Novak

Bernie Madoff, carbon-based life, citation needed, dark matter, F. W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela, Saturday Night Live

“Every time we talk to Wikipedia Brown, we get distracted. We spend hours and hours with him, and always forget what we were supposed to investigate in the first place.” “Yes, good point,” said Joey. “We have to find my bike. Sally, do you have any ideas?” “Sally is a bad detective and a well-known slut,” said Wikipedia Brown. “Citation needed.” “Is that true?” asked Joey—his intentions unclear. “No,” said Sally, fuming with anger. “I don’t know who told him that. It could have been anyone. Literally, anyone.” “The government caused 9/11!” Wikipedia Brown shouted suddenly, for no reason. Sally pulled Wikipedia Brown aside. “Are you sure you’re okay, Wikipedia?”

pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bill Atkinson,, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, disinformation,, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott:, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tragedy of the Commons, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K, Yochai Benkler

This has led to adoption of stricter standards when adding material to articles, including requiring citations to sources on the Internet and more stringent requirements when it comes to writing about living persons, because of concerns over libel. One of the more often used templates in Wikipedia is {{citeneeded}}, which places a small [citation needed] message next to unsourced statements to warn readers of dubious content and to prod editors into citing or removing such claims. No Original Research (NOR) was crafted to keep with an encyclopedia’s role to reflect a summary of what is established in writing and scholarship. “Wikipedia does not publish original thought: all material in Wikipedia must be attribut-able to a reliable, published source.

pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kim Stanley Robinson, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mondo 2000, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, you are the product

Going by the username “Bilbo,” she identified herself to the participants as a chat room novice “lurking” to better familiarize herself with their culture, etiquette, and habits. Now, I had spent several years researching this book when I happened to find this origin story in the summer of 2018. This was the first I had ever heard of P. Tomi Austin. Unfortunately, the chunk of text, posted in 2013, concluded with two striking “citation needed” tags. I searched the internet for relevant clues—an essay, blog post, some kind of archival community news story, anything at all. All I could find was aggregated content quoting that same Wikipedia entry. So I turned to my last resort: Facebook. I logged in with an alt-account I use only for reporting, and sent a message to the one person in Facebook’s entire database with that name.

Know Thyself by Stephen M Fleming

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, backpropagation, citation needed, computer vision, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, global pandemic, index card, Jeff Bezos, l'esprit de l'escalier, Lao Tzu, lifelogging, longitudinal study, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, patient HM, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, recommendation engine, replication crisis, self-driving car, side project, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes

Kruger and Dunning propose that low performers suffer from a metacognitive error and not a bias in responding (Ehrlinger et al., 2008). However, it is still not clear whether the Dunning-Kruger effect is due to a difference in metacognitive sensitivity, bias, or a mixture of both. See Tal Yarkoni, “What the Dunning-Kruger Effect Is and Isn’t,” [citation needed] (blog), July 7, 2010,; and Simons (2013). 10. Ais et al. (2016); Song et al. (2011). 11. Mirels, Greblo, and Dean (2002); Rouault, Seow, Gillan, and Fleming (2018); Hoven et al. (2019). 12. Fleming et al. (2014); Rouault, Seow, Gillan, and Fleming (2018); Woolgar, Parr, and Cusack (2010); Roca et al. (2011); Toplak, West, and Stanovich (2011); but see Lemaitre et al. (2018). 13.

I, Partridge: We Need to Talk About Alan by Steve Coogan

call centre, Celtic Tiger, citation needed, cuban missile crisis, late fees, means of production, negative equity, University of East Anglia, young professional

The harmonic distribution of a sine wave carrier modulated by such a sinusoidal signal can be represented with Bessel functions – this provides a basis for a mathematical understanding of frequency modulation in the frequency domain. Oh, and: In radio systems, frequency modulation with sufficient bandwidth provides an advantage in cancelling naturally occurring noise.[citation needed] So that’s pretty much all I know. I’m sure there’s more on the subject but I’d have to look it up. What I think we can all say for certain is that FM was, at one time, the Gold Standard for UK radio. If you weren’t on FM, you were nothing!247 But today the opposite is true.248 Now, FM is considered prehistoric isn’t it?

pages: 413 words: 106,479

Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language by Gretchen McCulloch

4chan, book scanning, British Empire, citation needed, disinformation, Donald Trump,, Firefox, Flynn Effect, Google Hangouts, Ian Bogost, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, moral panic, multicultural london english, natural language processing, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, the strength of weak ties, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

We begin on Urban Dictionary, that user-contributed slang website which is probably where you end up when you finally admit defeat and google some new acronym you can’t quite figure out. But to use Urban Dictionary for data, we must first acknowledge its limitations. Entries on Urban Dictionary do pass through the barest of volunteer editor checks, keeping out spam and complete nonsense, but there’s no “citation needed” on Urban Dictionary the way there is on Wikipedia, despite both being user-edited projects. This openness is both Urban Dictionary’s greatest strength and its greatest weakness. A word can be added years before it hits the kind of mainstream sources required by a conventional dictionary, when it might be popular only with a single friend group.

pages: 390 words: 108,811

Geektastic: Stories From the Nerd Herd by Holly Black, Cecil Castellucci

citation needed, double helix, index card, Maui Hawaii, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup

“But when King Richard comes back, the story ends! Robin Hood becomes just another monarchist suck-up. It’s only when he’s embracing his inner chaos that he’s worth putting in a story. He’s probably waiting for the next evil sheriff to take over so he can start up another guerilla campaign.” “Um, citation needed. In the actual, not-made-up-by-you story, Robin Hood isn’t pining for chaos at the end. He gets elevated to the nobility and lives happily ever after.” I raised my hands, balancing left palm and right. “And that’s because he’s neutral good: happy inside or outside the system.” She grabbed my wrists and pulled them out of balance.

pages: 312 words: 93,504

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, disinformation,, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, The Nature of the Firm, the strength of weak ties, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, Yochai Benkler, zero-sum game

The other two, closely related, are verifiability (V) and no original research (NOR). The verifiability requirement means that all information that may be challenged should be attributed to a reliable published source. If it is not, editors are asked to look for a source themselves. Alternatively, they can add a citation-needed tag to signal to other readers and editors that a certain claim requires a source. The rule of no original research forbids publishing meaningful information without sourcing it to a publication, as Wikipedia is not a primary source of facts. This rule comes to bear especially when news stories are breaking.

pages: 478 words: 146,480

Pirate Cinema by Cory Doctorow

airport security, citation needed, Internet Archive, place-making, QR code, smart cities, Thomas Bayes

* * * * * * Commercial interlude 3D Fun fact! By this stage in the novel, an estimated* 98.43 percent of readers have actually purchased a hardcopy or commercial ebook for themselves, donated a copy to a school or library. *Estimate is very approximate. Methodology not given. Citation needed. USA: Amazon Kindle (DRM-free) Barnes and Noble Nook (DRM-free) Google Books (DRM-free) Apple iBooks (DRM-free) Kobo (DRM-free) Amazon Booksense (will locate a store near you!) Barnes and Noble Powells Booksamillion Canada: Amazon Kindle (DRM-free) Kobo (DRM-free) Chapters/Indigo Audiobook: DRM-free download * * * * * * Chapter 15: A less-than-ideal world/Not-so-innocent bystanders/How'd we do?

pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter,, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, lifelogging, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

Wikipedia features a popular article called “Errors in the Encyclopaedia Britannica that have been corrected in Wikipedia.” This article is, of course, always in flux. All Wikipedia is. At any moment the reader is catching a version of truth on the wing. When Wikipedia states, in the article “Aging,” After a period of near perfect renewal (in humans, between 20 and 35 years of age [citation needed]), organismal senescence is characterized by the declining ability to respond to stress, increasing homeostatic imbalance and increased risk of disease. This irreversible series of changes inevitably ends in death, a reader may trust this; yet for one minute in the early morning of December 20, 2007, the entire article comprised instead a single sentence: “Aging is what you get when you get freakin old old old.”♦ Such obvious vandalism lasts hardly any time at all.

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser,, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, Garrett Hardin, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Herbert Marcuse, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, sunk-cost fallacy, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tragedy of the Commons, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The atmosphere at the concert (and perhaps the 1960s) is captured in this description from Wikipedia: A huge circus performer weighing over 350 pounds and hallucinating on LSD stripped naked and ran berserk through the crowd toward the stage, knocking guests in all directions, prompting a group of Angels to leap from the stage and club him unconscious. [citation needed] No citation is needed for what happened next, since it was captured in the documentary Gimme Shelter. A Hell’s Angel beat up the guitarist of Jefferson Airplane onstage, Mick Jagger ineffectually tried to calm the increasingly obstreperous mob, and a young man in the audience, apparently after pulling a gun, was stabbed to death by another Angel.