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How to Fix Copyright by William Patry
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game
The United States has such a requirement for both domestic and foreign works.10 While there are things individual countries can and should do on their own, a comprehensive approach to formalities requires a revision to treaties, including the Berne Convention. This page intentionally left blank TEN The Moral Panic over Fair Use The term “moral panic” comes from sociology. It was made popular in the early 1970s in describing wildly exaggerated reactions to changing mores.1 Examples of moral panics include the Salem Witch trials, marijuana during the “Reefer Madness” period of the 1930s,2 the comic book Congressional hearings in the 1950s,3 McCarthyism, and the events that gave rise to the coining of the term: the Mods and Rockers battles, in the UK during the midto late-1960s. I use moral panic here to refer to the trumped-up creation of an alien threat. I do not exaggerate by using “alien”: in 2005, the then-Attorney General of Australia, Philip Ruddock, referred to fair use as alien to the Australian legal tradition,4 apparently unaware that the fair use factors were already contained in the Australian copyright act.5 The rhetorical device of turning fair use into a moral panic is made by those who oppose adapting copyright to the digital era. 212 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT Fair use thus serves as a classic moral panic: an effort by vested interests to preserve the status quo through creating a false enemy whom, we are told, must be vanquished for the alleged good of society as a whole.
We see this in a recent statement by an intergovernmental ﬁgure that “limitations and exceptions” are part of a “negative” agenda. We must recognize that the phrase “limitations and exceptions” is a moral panic, of which fair use is just one part. As with all moral panics, “limitations and exceptions” is a semantic device employed to preserve the status quo through creating a false enemy, in this case a threat to natural or property rights. Copyright is not and has never been a property right. Copyright laws are regulations created by governments to further broad societal goals.Those goals are pragmatic, not ideological, and as pragmatic, they accord certain privileges given to copyright owners, and certain privileges given to the public. There is no basis to regard any THE MORAL PANIC OVER FAIR USE 229 privilege as more important than another because they all work toward the common good.
Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 83 (Harper & Brothers 3d ed. 1950, 2006 paperback) (1942). 28. Sam Ricketson, WIPO Study on Limitations and Exceptions of Copyright Related Rights in the Digital Environment at page 4, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, 9th Session, Geneva, June 23 to 27, 2003, SCCR/9/7 (April 5, 2003). Chapter 11 1. Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars (2009, Oxford University Press). My title for this book was Metaphors, Moral Panics, and Folk Devils in the Copyright Wars. 2. See references in Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars at 44–45. 3. Colin Turbayne, The Myth of Metaphor 3 (1962, University of South Carolina Press). 4. These are different points: hard copy works can be scanned or made available for sale in hard copy form online. 5. The Future of Copyright in a Digital Environment (Bernt Hugenholtz, editor, Kluwer, 1996). 6.
Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara
conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor
When the city deliberated on the need for a now established municipal police force, street children and vagrants who “make people fearful” were cited as primary reasons by security experts for the need for such a force.54 The emerging politics of urban renewal in the CBD and the menace of street children seemed to once again rest on the specter of a black menace in the heart of downtown. The resulting moral panic marked a crucial point in the wider social conflict over urban resources and the use of urban spaces that continued to scar the postapartheid city. Sociologist Jeremey Seekings, in his work on media representations of black youth during the negotiations, explicitly refers to white anxiety during that period as constituting a moral panic and notes that South African historians have often used the concept to describe urban and rural white anxieties about black masses. The concept of a moral panic employed by Seekings and others is informed by the work of criminologist Stanley Cohen. According to Cohen, a moral panic occurs when a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interest; its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media; the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians, and other right-thinking people.55 More recently in South Africa, researchers have begun to use the concept to refer to renewed anxiety by higher-income, still largely white urban and suburban residents in the face of high crime, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and a perceived general social disorder.56 The following story is illustrative: On Children in the Streetsâ•‡ ·â•‡ 73 May 10, 2002, the Independent on Saturday, a Durban-based paper, ran a story with the headline “AIDS’ Legacy—Orphan Gangs Roam Inner Cities.”
This process relied heavily on the image of the criminal street child, who, his “performance” in the public eye now complete, recedes into invisibility.71 In the following section we turn to this process and look more closely at how the governance of security developed alongside and through the moral panic around street children in the rarified urban space of the CCID. Neoliberal Governance and the Reproduction of the Fragmented City Behind the ideological and racial formations of moral panic lie the more mundane practices and policies that do the work of shaping urban space on a day-to-day basis. During and just after the moral panic years, seven different law enforcement bodies patrolled the CBD, and CCTV of Children in the Streetsâ•‡ ·â•‡ 81 the area was continuously monitored by armed rapid response units. According to the CCID administration, security in the CBD consisted of resources provided by a combination of the CCID, the Cape Town Partnership, the city council, the Municipal Police, and the SAPS.
The result would not only be continued underdevelopment in the majority of the city, but also the resurfacing of very recently buried, though not necessarily dead, mechanisms of ordering, securing, and utilizing urban space. This new crop of media representations of street children is, therefore, neither new nor independent of much deeper currents in South African society. As I have demonstrated elsewhere, since 2002 the moral panic around street children has subsided, and the reclamation of the city center is complete, as is reflected in the change of coverage between 2004 and 2005.70 The lasting impact of the moral panic has, however, been institutionalized in the form of “quality of life” municipal bylaws that proscribe behavior associated with the urban poor. Through the physical demarcation of valuable space, with the creation of the CCID, and the deployment of private security to police the uses of that space, “order” and “security” have been established in the city’s heart.
How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence by Michael Pollan
1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Mother of all demos, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, scientific worldview, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Whole Earth Catalog
Instead of folding the young into the adult world, as rites of passage have always done, this one landed them in a country of the mind few adults had any idea even existed. The effect on society was, to put it mildly, disruptive. Yet by the end of the 1960s, the social and political shock waves unleashed by these molecules seemed to dissipate. The dark side of psychedelics began to receive tremendous amounts of publicity—bad trips, psychotic breaks, flashbacks, suicides—and beginning in 1965 the exuberance surrounding these new drugs gave way to moral panic. As quickly as the culture and the scientific establishment had embraced psychedelics, they now turned sharply against them. By the end of the decade, psychedelic drugs—which had been legal in most places—were outlawed and forced underground. At least one of the twentieth century’s two bombs appeared to have been defused. Then something unexpected and telling happened. Beginning in the 1990s, well out of view of most of us, a small group of scientists, psychotherapists, and so-called psychonauts, believing that something precious had been lost from both science and culture, resolved to recover it.
A couple of years later, the television personality Art Linkletter began campaigning against LSD, which he blamed for the fact his daughter had jumped out of an apartment window, killing herself. LSD supposedly had something to do with the Manson murders too. By the early 1970s, when I went to college, everything you heard about LSD seemed calculated to terrify. It worked on me: I’m less a child of the psychedelic 1960s than of the moral panic that psychedelics provoked. I also had my own personal reason for steering clear of psychedelics: a painfully anxious adolescence that left me (and at least one psychiatrist) doubting my grip on sanity. By the time I got to college, I was feeling sturdier, but the idea of rolling the mental dice with a psychedelic drug still seemed like a bad idea. Years later, in my late twenties and feeling more settled, I did try magic mushrooms two or three times.
Griffiths’s landmark paper, “Psilocybin Can Occasion Mystical-Type Experiences Having Substantial and Sustained Personal Meaning and Spiritual Significance,” was the first rigorously designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in more than four decades—if not ever—to examine the psychological effects of a psychedelic. It received a small torrent of press coverage, most of it so enthusiastic as to make you wonder if the moral panic around psychedelics that took hold in the late 1960s might finally have run its course. No doubt the positive tenor of the coverage owed much to the fact that, at Griffiths’s urging, the journal had invited several of the world’s most prominent drug researchers—some of them decorated soldiers in the drug war—to comment on the study, giving the journalists covering the study plenty of ideological cover.
We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade
In the US, similar efforts receive the same response. One conservative commentator, Roger Kimball, identified the problem as university administrators ‘falling over themselves in their rush to replace the “white Western” curriculum of traditional humanistic studies with a smorgasbord of courses designed to appeal to various ethnic and radical sensitivities’. Like all good and effective myths, the political correctness crisis is a moral panic that appears to be a response to a current and aggressive assault on a variety of shibboleths, but is in fact a rehashing of themes that are decades old. The themes all frame a challenge of male, white and heteronormative power as a subversion of the natural order of things. (Later, in Chapter 4, we examine how default identities absolve themselves from having identity-based agendas.) While researching this chapter, I was astonished to discover how far back the leveraging of political correctness against progressive causes stretched and how identical the tools of this assault were in any given example.
But these are not overflows of a system saturated with PC, they are peripheral and uncoordinated events. They are attempts at negotiating the parameters of respect in a diverse society. The picture of a coherent creep is painted to stigmatise reform and to monetise fear. And so readers return to buy and to click in order to have their fear and prejudices watered and reaffirmed. It is the Fox News model of indoctrination, where PC is now such an established genre of moral panic that it has been deployed to cover everything from defending antisemitic tweets by entertainers (‘it makes no sense ever giving up your own taste in art to meet the expectations of your fellow partisans’ says a Fox News op-ed by Chris Stirewalt) to suggesting that gay marriage paves the way for bestiality. Corrections and clarifications are sought in only a small number of cases and, even then, they are not given the prominence of the original offending news item.
Harris later came to an epiphany, believing that his dismissal of Charles Murray’s views that genetic IQ difference between races was merely a fact was born out of groupthink, and decided to rectify his error by hosting Murray on his podcast. ‘Unfortunately,’ Harris concluded, ‘the controversy over The Bell Curve did not result from legitimate, good-faith criticisms of its major claims. Rather, it was the product of a politically correct moral panic that totally engulfed Murray’s career and has yet to release him.’ Once Harris summoned political correctness, he immediately cast himself as a lone crusader pursuing a pioneering and taboo subject, ‘forbidden knowledge’ he calls it. But in fact, as Ezra Klein of the Vox news website observed: ‘this isn’t “forbidden knowledge.” It’s ancient prejudice. For two white men to spend a few hours discussing why black Americans are, as a group, less intelligent than whites isn’t a courageous stand in the context of American history; it’s a common one.’
The Diet Myth: Why America's Obsessions With Weight Is Hazardous to Your Health by Paul Campos
“Indeed, as UCLA sociologist Abigail Saguy suggested to me . . .” Saguy has undertaken a long-term research project to study the social construction of “obesity” as a health and/or political issue in contemporary America. See, for example, Saguy and Riley, “Fat Attack: Scientiﬁc and Political Debates over Obesity” (forthcoming). “ ‘Moral panic’ is a term coined by Stanley Cohen in the 1960s . . .” See Stanley Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics (2002). “American history is rich with examples of moral panics.” On the drug war, see Michael Massing, The Fix (2000). On sexual abuse in schools and day care centers, see Dorothy Rabinowitz, No Crueler Tyrannies: Accusation, False Witness, and Other Terrors of Our Times (2003). On McCarthyism, see Albert Fried, ed., The Great American Red Scare (1996). For a superb sociological analysis of various exaggerated and irrational fears in contemporary America, see Barry Glassner, The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things (1999).
We may drive environmentally insane SUVs that dump untold tons of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere; we may consume a vastly disproportionate share of the world’s diminishing natural resources; we may support a foreign policy that consists of throwing America’s military weight around without regard to objections from our allies— but at least we don’t eat that extra cookie when it’s offered to us. All of which is to say that the current panic over fat is in part a traditional search for societal scapegoats. Indeed, as UCLA sociologist Abigail Saguy suggested to me, our current hysteria about weight can be understood as a moral panic. “Moral panic” is a term coined by Stanley Cohen in the 1960s to describe a recurrent social pattern. First, a group or behavior is classiﬁed as dangerously deviant. The deviance is characterized as both a serious threat to societal welfare and as a symptom of deep social ills. The media whips up public concern on the subject by focusing rapidly increasing amounts of attention on it, often in an alarmist fashion that exaggerates the extent of—and the danger presented by—the behavior and those who engage in it.
Whether or not the action is successful, the panic eventually recedes as public attention moves on to other threats, real or imagined. American history is rich with examples of moral panics. From witchcraft trials in colonial Massachusetts, to nineteenth-century anxieties about immigrants, urban criminals, and freed slaves, to twentiethcentury panics over communists in the State Department, violence in our schools, satanic cultists in our day care centers, and the more or less perennial panic over the demonic triad of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, no period of American history has been immune to the widespread belief that the health and morals of the people in general, and of our youth in particular, have degenerated from what they were in the (largely mythical) past. It is no coincidence that our moral panic over weight is focused on what Greg Critser calls “the deadly fattening 236 Fat Politics of our youth.”
The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour
4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
If the Twittering Machine confronts us with a string of calamities – addiction, depression, ‘fake news’, trolls, online mobs, alt-right subcultures – it is only exploiting and magnifying problems that are already socially pervasive. If we’ve found ourselves addicted to social media, in spite or because of its frequent nastiness, as I have, then there is something in us that is waiting to be addicted. Something that social media potentiates. And if, with all these problems, we still inhabit the social media platforms – as over half the world’s population does – we must be getting something out of it. The dreary moral-panic literature excoriating ‘the shallows’ and the ‘post-truth’ society must be missing a vital truth about their subject. Those who enjoy the social media platforms tend to like the fact that they give them a shot at being heard. It weakens the monopoly on culture and meaning formerly enjoyed by media and entertainment companies. Access isn’t equal – reach is bought and paid for by corporate users, PR agencies, celebrities, and so on, who also have better-funded content – but it can still give marginalized voices a chance where previously they had none.
Individually, their responsibility for the total situation was often homoeopathically slight, and thus this indulgence of their darker side, their more punitive, aggressive tendencies, was minor. Yet, incentivized and aggregated by the Twittering Machine, these petty acts of sadism became monstrous. As the trolling slogan has it, ‘None of us is as cruel as all of us.’ IX. The risk, in appealing to such outré examples, is that it can legitimize a form of moral panic about the internet, and therefore dignify state censorship. This would be the traditional answer to the Oresteian Furies: domesticate them with the ‘rule of law’.34 It is predicated on upholding a traditional hierarchy of writing, at the top of which is a written constitution or sacred text from which written authority flows. What a society deems acceptable and unacceptable is anchored to an authoritative, venerable text.
Of course, the rule of law has never been as good at restraining the Furies as liberals hoped. The McCarthyite witch-hunts of mid-twentieth-century America showed that political paranoia could easily be disseminated through the workings of the liberal state.35 What is happening now, however, is that the digitalization of capitalism is disturbing these old written hierarchies, so that the spectacles of witch-hunting and moral panic, and the rituals of punishment and humiliation, are being devolved and decentralized. The spectacle, which the French Situationist Guy Debord defined as the mediation of social reality through an image, is no longer organized by large, centralized bureaucracies.36 Instead, it has been devolved to advertising, entertainment and, of course, the social industry. This has birthed new ecologies of information, and new forms of the public sphere.
Britain's Europe: A Thousand Years of Conflict and Cooperation by Brendan Simms
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Corn Laws, credit crunch, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, imperial preference, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, oil shock, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, South Sea Bubble, trade route, éminence grise
Most agreed that the English empire in France should be regained, not only to vindicate the king’s historic rights but also to deny the enemy a base from which to attack England.13 In order to do this, the mistakes of the Lancastrian dynasty would have to be rectified. Culturally, Englishmen would have to become less effeminate and more martial, perhaps the first instance of what was to become a long tradition of linking foreign-policy crises to domestic moral panic. Taxes would have to be paid on time – in other words, the nation as a whole should take responsibility for the reconquest of France – but in return the king would have to listen to the counsel of Parliament and seasoned advisors. Above all, the English would have to close ranks at home, not least through the act of confronting the enemy abroad. The best way of avoiding another War of the Roses, some influential voices argued, was to go to war with France again.
If failures abroad spurred Henry on to greater efforts at home, they also sparked a fresh wave of national performance anxiety. Many were still smarting at the loss of the French empire one hundred years before – a wound inflamed by generations of Tudor chroniclers and which would be reopened at the end of the century by Shakespeare in his three historical plays about the reign of Henry VI – and history seemed to be repeating itself. Now, as Henry’s war effort on the continent stagnated, they succumbed to moral panic and social malaise. Englishmen, it was argued, had gone soft by neglecting their archery skills and spending too much money on fashion and gambling. Worse still, many were convinced that the overall population of England was steadily declining: the shrinking military muster rolls seemed to suggest this. All this mattered, as John Hales warned in 1548, because the king ‘would lack people to defend us against our enemies’.
The fall of Calais to the French in 1558, therefore, was a hammer blow to Mary’s prestige. England had lost control of the Narrow Sea. In a coruscating speech to Parliament a year later, the Lord Keeper lamented that there had not been ‘a greater loss in honour, strength and treasure, than to lose that place’, which had ‘bred throughout Europe an honourable opinion and report of our English nation’.33 Once again, moral panic set in. ‘What tenderlings the great part of our young gentlemen are,’ one observer lamented, ‘preferring fine clothes to lusty horsemanship.’34 There were also furious allegations that Philip had not done enough to help the embattled garrison. To add insult to injury, Philip’s chief minister, Cardinal de Granvelle, remarked that ‘One would like to see more spirit, more resentment about Calais, and more memory of the ancient virtues of their fathers.’35 The port, which Mary famously said would be ‘lying in her heart’ after death, had been England’s last outpost on the continent, and vital to the defence of the south coast.
Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
Chow-White, Routledge, 2012, 207). The Facebook cofounder Dustin Moskovitz attributes the moral panic around Myspace to Facebook’s success. On Twitter, he wrote that “the ‘tech was good and now it’s bad’ narrative is misrepresenting the past. There have always been quite negative stories about tech. Facebook was successful in part due to rampant 2004 fears about child predators on Myspace. Tech is/was good AND bad” (twitter.com/moskov/status/942470488017850369, December 17, 2017). Matt Richtel addressed the issue in “Myspace.com Moves to Keep Sex Offenders Off of Its Site” (The New York Times, December 6, 2006), and Alice E. Marwick further considered it in First Monday (“To Catch a Predator? The Myspace Moral Panic,” June 2, 2008). Both men and women were ranked on Facemash before it became Facebook, but the ranking was arguably more insidious when applied to women at Harvard (Katharine Kaplan, “Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board,” The Harvard Crimson, November 19, 2003).
In 2006, danah boyd observed, “Subculturally identified teens appeared more frequently drawn to MySpace while more mainstream teens tended towards Facebook. Teens from less-privileged backgrounds seemed likely to be drawn to MySpace while those headed towards elite universities appeared [to] head towards Facebook.” She also noticed a race and ethnic division between platforms—black and Latino teens tended to use Myspace, and white and Asian teens flocked to Facebook. Among the factors for this switch was the number of moral panic stories about child predators on Myspace. People who didn’t worry about their kids meeting older men in hotel rooms in the nineties—either because their kids weren’t old enough then, or they weren’t online—had new fears over Myspace riffraff. Facebook, associated with the university where every helicopter parent dreams of sending their kids, had none of that stigma. Myspace was transparently scuzzy and unabashedly vulgar, but that was preferable to covert slime.
The outrage over “outrage” was a symptom of media growing pains. Those with comfortable legacy media perches as staff writers and editors might have used the internet, but they did not identify as users—at least not in the way that someone posting a grievance online would be. The pain that was exhibited in hashtag campaigns like #SolidarityIsForWhiteWomen was “not perceived”—at least not yet. Collective grievance was conflated with mob behavior and moral panics online. The many grades and variations of power were brushed aside to condemn internet outrage as an oversize threat. As a classic example of this conflation, Jon Ronson, while promoting his 2015 book So You’ve Been Publicly Shamed, routinely stated that internet users are collectively “worse than the NSA.” Another tipping domino, in 2013, was Sheryl Sandberg’s book, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead.
Who Are We—And Should It Matter in the 21st Century? by Gary Younge
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, David Brooks, equal pay for equal work, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, feminist movement, financial independence, glass ceiling, global village, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, Steven Levy, upwardly mobile, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey
“Owing to the relative decline of its economic and, to a lesser extent, military power, the US will no longer have the same flexibility in choosing among as many policy options,” concluded the National Intelligence Council (which coordinates analysis from all US intelligence agencies) shortly after Obama’s election. The report acknowledged that, while the United States would remain the single most powerful force in the world, its relative strength and potential leverage are waning. This downward trajectory was, in no small part, aggravated by failed wars against predominantly Muslim countries that followed terrorist attacks by Islamic fundamentalists and that also sparked something close to a moral panic among the Right at home. A national furor was sparked by plans to build an Islamic community center in Lower Manhattan. There were protests against the “9/11 mosque.” But this was not about either 9/11, which had taken place almost a decade earlier and several blocks away, or a mosque, given that no such thing was being built. It was a crude attempt to invent the kind of enemy that could rally popular prejudice around an increasingly narrow nationalist agenda.
In their own gnarly, voluble, cantankerous, genial way, the participants of the Old Farts Club were familiar to anyone who has ever encountered a gathering of old men anywhere in the world. On the other hand, the ways in which we are unalike matter. For all that is common in the human experience, the differences are stark and, in some respects, getting starker, and it is these differences that are increasingly creating the framework for political activity, public anxiety and, at times, moral panic. In Britain the English Defence League, an extreme right-wing party with a history of violence, had a gay chapter whose members wore pink triangles. “This is the symbol gay people were made to wear under Hitler,” explained one. “Islam poses the same threat, and we are here to express our opposition to that.” Within half an hour’s train ride from Brussels, the polyglot home to both the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Commission, children in Flemish schools are not allowed to speak French on the playground.
The trouble is that the pervasiveness of French racism means that even those non-white French people who choose to take it find themselves constantly knocked back. Even those who like Britain—and I would count myself among them—don’t necessarily really feel fully part of it. Latif always thought of himself as Pakistani. “I know what Islam is,” he says. “I have no idea what British is.” Latif stands at the epicenter of a moral panic in Europe. Thanks to acts of war abroad and terror at home, not to mention rioting and the rise of the extreme Right and religious fundamentalism, the European intelligentsia has been obsessing over Islam for at least a decade now. With Muslims constituting sizable minorities in many European cities from Marseilles to Malmö, their presence has sparked fear among those who perceive their presence as both a potential existential and essential threat to European democracy and culture.
Britain Etc by Mark Easton
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, credit crunch, financial independence, garden city movement, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral panic, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, social software
Indeed, in the febrile atmosphere that accompanies public outrage, the voice of calm can also end up being drowned in the duck pond by the angry mob. Policy shaped by panic almost always turns out to be a bad idea. Systems hurriedly assembled as a response to headlines can prove to be blunt and inefficient tools, unnecessary or counterproductive. Many institutions are hampered by the bureaucratic legacy of some long-forgotten scandal that demanded something be done. Britain’s Vetting and Barring Scheme is a child of just such a moral panic: a textbook case of how media storm and political expediency combine to demand reform that later appears disproportionate or simply daft. The saga began in the summer of 2002. That August, like every August, news desks were searching around for stories to fill their papers and bulletins. With Parliament on holiday and little else happening, an appalling child abduction story from Cambridgeshire dominated the front pages.
As I was told by hardened hacks on my local paper thirty years ago: ‘Never let the facts interfere with a good story.’ Prime Minister Gordon Brown had no option but to respond to the rising sense of alarm. It was politically inconceivable to deny there was a problem – that would leave his party exposed to the charge that they were callous and complacent. So a knife-crime ‘summit’ was held at Number Ten Downing Street. There was the promise of a ‘crackdown’ and ‘tough measures’. It was a classic sequence: moral panic, hurried political reaction, futile (probably counter-productive) response. On this occasion, part of the response was the unveiling of a new acronym – TKAP. The Tackling Knives Action Programme demanded that police resources in high-crime areas across England and Wales should be targeted at young men who carried blades. However, among some senior police officers there was puzzlement and anxiety.
Despite such incidents, it wasn’t until the early 1800s that youth came to be regarded as a distinctively threatening or subversive problem in Britain. With urbanisation and industrialisation, the job prospects for working-class boys had worsened: traditional craft apprenticeships disappeared while domestic service increasingly became the province of women. The end of the Napoleonic Wars saw demobilisation of thousands of soldiers, adding to the army of bored and troubled young men wandering city streets. Britain suffered its first moral panic about youth crime at around this time. In London in 1815, the Society for Investigating the Causes of the Alarming Increase of Juvenile Delinquency in the Metropolis was set up. The committee identified ‘the improper conduct of parents, the want of education, the want of suitable employment, the violation of the sabbath and habits of gambling in the public streets’ as explanations for the youth problem, ‘causes of crime’ that in revised form are still trotted out today.
Fun Inc. by Tom Chatfield
Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Boris Johnson, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, credit crunch, game design, invention of writing, longitudinal study, moral panic, publication bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, upwardly mobile
Equally, those in government and the media had little sense of what a game was like to play, rather than to watch from a distance, and those within the industry felt, rightly enough, that they were operating within a field more or less sealed off from mainstream discourse, where the only meaningful thing to do was to keep their heads down and go on making their products. All of this has provided both the ideal breeding ground for moral panic and for the widening of the divide between those who play and those who don’t. It’s a division that is still largely generational. When a medium as new and as rapidly evolving as video games first arrives, there is little ability for different generations to share or learn lessons from one another. On top of this, there’s the nature of gaming itself. Even television began as a family medium – something that could be shared.
Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death Among the Computer Bums’, Rolling Stone, 7 December 1972; <http://www.wheels.org/spacewar/stone/rolling_stone.html> Byron, Tanya, ‘Safe Children in a Digital World: The Report of the Byron Review’, June 2008; <http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/byron review/> Castronova, Edward, ‘Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier’, The Gruter Institute Working Papers on Law, Economics, and Evolutionary Biology, 2001, Volume 2, Article 1; <http://www.bepress.com/giwp/default/vol2/issl/artl> Castronova, Edward and Fairfield, Joshua, ‘Dragon Kill Points: A Summary White Paper’, January 2007; <http://ssrn.com/abstract= 958945> Chatfield, Tom, ‘Rage Against the Machines’, Prospect magazine, June 2008; <http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/06/ragea-gainstthemachines/> Chatfield, Tom, ‘Screen Test’, New Statesman, 30 April 2009; <http://www.newstatesman.com/ideas/2009/05/video-games-industry-art-film> Chatfield, Tom, ‘Videogames Now Outperform Hollywood Movies’, Observer, 27 September 2009; <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gamesblog/2009/sep /27/videogames-hollywood> Ellis, Hilary; Heppell, Stephen; Kirriemuir, John; Krotoski, Aleks; McFarlane, Angela, ‘Unlimited Learning: Computer and Video Games in the Learning Landscape’, September 2006; <http://www.elspa.com/assets/files/u/unlimitedlearningtheroleof-computerandvideogamesint_344.pdf> Ferguson, Christopher John, ‘The Good, The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games’, Psychiatric Quarterly, December 2007, Volume 78, Number 4; <http://www.springerlink.com/content /66217176984x7477/fulltext.pdf> Ferguson, Christopher John, ‘The School Shooting/Violent Video Game Link: Causal Link or Moral Panic?’, Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, December 2008, Volume 5, Issue 1-2: <http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext /121556773 /PDFSTART> Gentile, Douglas A, ‘Pathological Video Game Use among Youth 8 to 18: A National Study’, Psychological Science, 22 September 2008;<http://www.drdouglas.org/drdpdfs/Gentile_Pathological_VG_Use_in_press.pdf> Goldsmith, Jeffrey, ‘This Is Your Brain on Tetris’, Wired, May 1994; <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.05/tetris.html> Jo Kim, Amy, ‘Putting the Fun in Functional: Applying Game Mechanics to Functional Software’, Google Tech Talks, January 2009; <http://www.youtube.com/watch?
(world’s first true computer game) 16–18, 37 speakers 51 Spider-Man 3 (film) 29 Spielberg, Steven 14, 137–8 sports 2, 91 Star Trek series 113 Star Wars (film series) 7, 17, 46 Star Wars Force Trainer 159 Star Wars Galaxies 7, 139–40 Starcraft 81 stem cell research 59 Sundance Film Festival (2008) 143, 144 surface texturing 116 team games 100 television 58, 85, 114, 227 Baer and 19 console-based service 218–19 family entertainment 20, 59 and interaction 79, 136 user expectations 136 and virtual reality 160 and younger children 64 ‘tetriminoes’ 40 Tetris 40–42, 50, 122 text adventures x thatgamecompany 120 Thompson, Mark 226–7 Tolkien, J R R 45 Toy Story (film) 117 training 153, 157 emergency medicine games 197–9 military 188, 189, 190, 193 see also education; learning transnational relations 107–8 TripAdvisor 211 Triumph Studios 119 Trubshaw, Roy 45 Tunnel 228 show 133–4 Turbine Hall, Tate Modern, London 132 Twitter 89, 208, 212 Ultima Online 7, 100, 148 universities 225 University of Southern California 121, 186 Up (film) 117 US Center for Terrorism and Intelligence Studies (CETIS) 176 US Congress 182 US Department of Education 68 US Marine Combat Development Command 188 US Marines: First Recon unit 192 US military 187–8, 191, 194, 195 US Secret Service 68 value 151–2, 179–80 video arcades 87, 88 video game designer, as a career 37–8 video games addiction to 71–8 and art 117–34 big-budget 214, 222 born in a technology institute 15–18 a business devoted to miracles 14–15 and children 58, 62, 63–5 compared with other games 5–6 complexity 9, 11, 39, 42, 50, 72, 73, 130, 171, 214 consumers 61–2 creation of 114–17 education 199–208 equality 103 and the family 89, 91 feedback 9 and films 137 first icons 20 games-based vs. real-life interactions 91–3 the hero’s journey 46–7 and human behaviour 165–79 leadership in 98, 99, 101 as learning engines 6–7 as mainstream media activity 89 market for 22–3 military games 187–97 miniature games 126–9 mix of freedom and constraint in 102–3 moral panic 59 and music 135–6 nostalgia industry 52 perceived as played by adolescent males 87–8 players/non-players 59 power of 57–8, 223 progress by gaining experience 6 questions raised by 59–60 raising awareness 181–7 rapidly evolving 59 reviews 75 rules 6, 11 safety 58 as a social outlet 78–81 start of their commercial life 20 suitability for the digital age 28 teenage players (US) 90 time spent playing 29 two-player 88 and violence 60–61 and virtual theft 60–61 ‘visceral’ thrills 9–10 Villiers, Justin 112–13, 114 violence in games a minority interest 37, 82–3 regulation of 62, 224 and violence in life 65–71, 223 virtual currency 145–9 virtual economies 167, 169 virtual environments 142, 154, 172, 175 virtual epidemic 174–6 ‘virtual life’ simulations 83 virtual reality 14, 138 goggles 141 and the Wii 160 virtual screens 14 virtual voting system 225 virtual worlds 33, 45–7, 59, 95, 103, 141, 146, 154, 155, 160, 166, 168, 170–73, 210, 211, 223, 225, 226, 233 war games 188 watches 28 Watts, Peter 133 Wells, H G 45 Wii Play 83 WILL Interactive Inc. 196 wireless control 14 women players 61 word processing 155, 157 work virtual work 139–45 work/play separation 2–3, 5, 145 World of Warcraft (WoW) xii, 30, 93–102, 105, 147, 149, 174, 175, 176, 217 Wortley, David 153–4, 156, 157, 160, 161 Wright, Evan: Generation Kill 191–2 writing, origin of 57, 111, 228 Xbox 360 games console 14, 215 XEODesign 49 Yahoo!
Work in the Future The Automation Revolution-Palgrave MacMillan (2019) by Robert Skidelsky Nan Craig
3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, anti-work, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data is the new oil, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, post-work, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, wealth creators, working poor
Which is odd because they also tell us we have to accept market capitalism as opposed to any other conceivable system because of its amazing efficiency. Suddenly it turns out that in the face of twenty-first century problems, at least, it’s completely inefficient. The second thing that nobody really remarked upon is that this—that the crisis of the rise of robots and the fear of automation has happened before. It happened in the 1930s, but then, right at the end of the 1960s there was another enormous moral panic. I know one person (Win McCormack) who was taking part in think tanks at the time, and he told me that all the Ivy League schools in America were organizing, “what are we going to do when all the jobs are gone, and the working class is thrown out of work.” The Player Piano scenario felt quite imminent at that time. Then around 1971 or 1972 you get things like Future Shock by Alvin Toffler coming out which gives public voice to all this; Toffler makes an argument about what he calls “accelerative thrust,” that the speed at which technological change is happening is geometrical: the number of new patents, energy use, and so forth (Toffler 1970).
It’s a bit ironic that he used the term “accelerative thrust” though because in fact that particular indicator hit its high water mark just around the time he was writing the book, then abruptly stopped: the fastest speed a person has ever achieved was achieved in 1969, with Apollo 10, and we have never gone faster since. Most of his trends started slowing down at just that moment. Nonetheless, there was a general moral panic at the time, and a lot of it took the form of a very conservative fear of the social consequences of too much wealth, leisure, and rapid technological advance. (It’s not insignificant that Toffler himself became a darling of the neocons.) Much of it was explicitly anti-feminist: “What is going to happen to the patriarchal family and when we are all test tube babies?” (People were anticipating Shulamith Firestone long before she wrote.)
One policy result, which can be observed around that time, was a vast shift of research and development away from the “space age” and futuristic technologies popular at the time and towards medical, information, and military technologies—that is, largely to things that were useful for social control. One could make the argument they also started working to reign in the welfare state around that time: anyway, that’s what eventually started happening. Somehow we are at that moment of moral panic again, but this time, with somewhat different ground rules. As I mentioned, the idea that machines are going to throw us all out of work and that this will be a disaster goes back well before the 1960s or even before Vonnegut; it harkens back at least to the Depression; even arguably to the Victorian age. Keynes coined the phrase “technological unemployment” in the 1930s as one of the main causes of the mass unemployment of the time.
After Europe by Ivan Krastev
affirmative action, bank run, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, clean water, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, job automation, mass immigration, moral panic, open borders, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, too big to fail, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey, Y Combinator
Those who demanded the return of the death penalty were the ones most likely to vote for Brexit. In this sense, a major impact of the refugee crisis on European politics is the moral panic that it has provoked, a sense that the situation has spiraled out of control. The myriad acts of openness toward refugees fleeing war and persecution that we saw in 2015 in places like Germany or Austria are today overshadowed by their inverse: a raging anxiety that these same foreigners, warmly welcomed a year ago, will compromise Europe’s welfare model and historic culture and that they will destroy our liberal societies. Fear of Islamic terrorism and a general anxiety over the unfamiliar are at the core of Europe’s moral panic. In January 2017, the polling firm YouGov found that 81 percent of French, 68 percent of Britons, and 60 percent of Germans expected a major terrorist attack to take place in their country over the next year.25 The prospect of a future in which the European Union’s borders are constantly stormed by refugees or migrants erodes the trust Europeans have placed in their political system.
Free Ride by Robert Levine
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
Wu says “it never occurred to me as necessary to disclose that Mr. Schmidt is one of [the foundation’s] many individual donors when speaking or writing.”79 But while there are many donors, Schmidt is the only chairman of the foundation’s board. Another writer with some influence on the debate over copyright is William Patry, a prolific scholar who now works for Google as a senior copyright lawyer. In Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, Patry argues that the media business has deceptively framed copyright as a moral issue by using words like “piracy” and “theft.” (That may be true, but the use of the word “piracy” in this context predates the Statute of Anne, and “file sharing” isn’t exactly neutral language either.) It makes more sense to look at copyright as an economic issue, but Patry doesn’t seem to understand the businesses involved.
“How Copyright Threatens Democracy: A Conversation with Cory Doctorow” (New America Foundation office, June 28, 2010). I hired a local reporter to take notes on this event and checked Losey’s and Doctorow’s quotations against a video of the speech. 77. Ibid. 78. Tim Wu, “YouTube as Video Store,” Slate, January 29, 2010. Wu, “The Apple Two,” Slate, April 6, 2010. 79. Wu responded to questions via e-mail. 80. Patry, Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, p. 15. 81. Ibid., p. 17. I took the sales numbers from Take-Two Interactive’s 2010 second-quarter results. If Patry’s mistake sounds reasonable, think for a moment about that number: ninety-five million. There aren’t even that many video game consoles that can play Grand Theft Auto IV. 82. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Intellectual Property Observations on Efforts to Quantify the Economic Effects of Counterfeit and Pirated Goods (GAO-10-423, Report to Congressional Committees, April 12, 2010).
Hollywood, High Tech, and the Future of Entertainment. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Business Books, 2007. Palmer, Shelly. Television Disrupted: The Transition from Network to Networked TV. 2nd ed. White Plains, N.Y.: York House Press, 2008. Passman, Donald S. All You Need to Know About the Music Business. 7th ed. New York: Free Press, 2009. The ultimate reference book by one of today’s smartest music lawyers. Patry, William. Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Poundstone, William. Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (and How to Take Advantage of It). New York: Hill and Wang, 2010. A fascinating look at why things really cost what they do. Reback, Gary L. Free the Market! Why Only Government Can Keep the Marketplace Competitive. New York: Portfolio, 2009. Shapiro, Carl, and Hal R. Varian.
The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters
4chan, activist lawyer, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Bayesian statistics, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Lean Startup, moral panic, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator
“Every time a Napster enthusiast downloads a song, it takes money from the pockets of all these members of the creative community,” Ulrich said, remarking that the “touted new paradigm that the Internet gurus tell us we must adopt sounds to me like good old-fashioned trafficking in stolen goods.”59 Ulrich’s position was clear: file sharing victimized songwriters, musicians, and record companies and threatened the survival of the entire music industry. In Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, the copyright scholar William Patry astutely noted that the mainstream culture industries operate on a mildly coercive “push marketing” model in which companies use advertising and promotions to create consumer demand for the products they want to sell, and the formats in which they want to sell them. Online file sharing repudiates “push marketing” by allowing consumers to unilaterally decide what they want to consume and how they want to do so.
8 Webster to William Leete Stone, December 21, 1837, in Webster, Letters, 511. 9 Ford, Notes, 1:16–31. 10 Kendall, Forgotten Founding Father, 50. 11 Ford, Notes, 1:38. 12 He eventually studied law on his own and in 1781 was admitted to the Connecticut bar. 13 Noah Webster, “Introduction to ‘Blue-Back Speller,’ in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 75. 14 Webster to Joel Barlow, November 12, 1807, in Ford, Notes, 2:31. 15 Webster to John Canfield, January 6, 1783, in Ford, Notes, 1:58. 16 Micklethwait, Noah Webster and the American Dictionary, 4. 17 Scudder, Noah Webster, 152. 18 Tim Cassedy, “ ‘A Dictionary Which We Do Not Want’: Defining America Against Noah Webster, 1783–1810,” William and Mary Quarterly 71, no. 2 (April 2014): 229. 19 Noah Webster, “On the Education of Youth in America,” in Collection of Essays, 24. 20 Charvat, Profession of Authorship, 18–34. 21 Charvat, Literary Publishing, 42. 22 Wolcott to Noah Webster, September 19, 1807, in Ford, Notes, 2:27. 23 James N. Green, “The Rise of Book Publishing,” in Gross and Kelley, Extensive Republic, 78. 24 Letter from Joel Barlow to the Continental Congress, January 10, 1783, in Primary Sources on Copyright (1450–1900), eds. L. Bently and M. Kretschmer, https://www.copyrighthistory.org. 25 Patry, Moral Panics, 192. 26 Williams, “Significance of the Printed Word,” 43. 27 Noah Webster, “Origin of the Copy-Right Laws in the United States,” in Webster, Collection of Papers, 173. 28 Ibid., 174. 29 It is unclear how much credit, if any, Webster deserves for the Connecticut law; as David Micklethwait has demonstrated, Connecticut was already considering a statewide copyright law by the time the state legislature received Webster’s appeal. 30 Noah Webster, “Memoir,” in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 143. 31 Noah Webster, “Diary,” in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 222. 32 Smith, Colonial Days, 284. 33 Ford, Notes, 1:103. 34 Webster, “Diary,” in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 219. 35 When George Washington married Martha Custis in 1759, Custis already had two children from a previous marriage.
Okerson, Ann Shumelda, and James J. O’Donnell, eds. Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington, DC: Office of Scientific & Academic Publishing, Association of Research Libraries, 1995. Overhage, Carl F. J., and R. Joyce Harman, eds. INTREX: Report of a Planning Conference on Information Transfer Experiments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965. Patry, William. Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Peek, Robin P., and Gregory Newby, eds. Scholarly Publishing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Putnam, George Haven, ed. The Question of Copyright. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1891. ———. George Palmer Putnam: A Memoir. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912. ———. Memories of a Publisher, 1865–1915. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1915.
Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language by Gretchen McCulloch
4chan, book scanning, British Empire, citation needed, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flynn Effect, Google Hangouts, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, moral panic, multicultural london english, natural language processing, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
Even as this narrative was being proposed, researchers were starting to question it: one study of college students in the early 2000s found that there was no significant difference in their ability to do things like edit a spreadsheet or create a digital photo, between the twenty-year-old students and the mature students over forty. A critical review of the evidence for and against digital natives describes it as a myth, “the academic equivalent of a ‘moral panic.’” That is, when a group or activity is perceived to be a threat to society, but sensationalist media is far more prominent than any actual evidence for it. Not to mention that not everyone fits neatly into a parent/child dichotomy, or that a decade or two of daily practice can make even the most floundering of digital arrivals reasonably adept. The true difference between the groups that came online at this time was their social choices, not their technical skills.
“Language Change and Digital Media: A Review of Conceptions and Evidence.” In Nikolas Coupland and Tore Kristiansen, eds., Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe. Novus Forlag. pp. 145–160. Christa Dürscheid, Franc Wagner, and Sarah Brommer. 2010. Wie Jugendliche schreiben: Schreibkompetenz und neue Medien. Walter de Gruyter. only 2.4 percent: Crispin Thurlow. 2006. “From Statistical Panic to Moral Panic: The Metadiscursive Construction and Popular Exaggeration of New Media Language in the Print Media.” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11(3). pp. 667–701. What the teens were doing: Sali Tagliamonte and Derek Denis. 2008. “Linguistic Ruin? LOL! Instant Messaging and Teen Language.” American Speech 83(1). pp. 3–34. A paper analyzing the effects: Tim McGee and Patricia Ericsson. 2002.
On the Horizon 9(5). pp. 1–6. Don Tapscott. 1998. Growing up Digital: The Rise of the Net Generation. McGraw-Hill. Even as this narrative was being proposed: Ruth Xiaoqing Guo, Teresa Dobson, and Stephen Petrina. 2008. “Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants: An Analysis of Age and ICT Competency in Teacher Education.” Journal of Educational Computing Research 38(3). pp. 235–254. “the academic equivalent of a ‘moral panic’”: Sue Bennett, Karl Maton, and Lisa Kervin. 2008. “The ‘Digital Natives’ Debate: A Critical Review of the Evidence.” British Journal of Educational Technology 39(5). pp. 775–786. An article reminiscing: Melissa McEwen. November 13, 2017. “The Teenage Girl’s Internet of the Early 2000s.” Medium. medium.com/@melissamcewen/the-teenage-girls-internet-of-the-early-2000s-ffa05702a9aa. virtual-pet websites: Melissa McEwen.
The Refusal of Work: The Theory and Practice of Resistance to Work by David Frayne
anti-work, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, clockwatching, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, future of work, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, moral panic, new economy, post-work, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, unpaid internship, working poor, young professional
The biggest obstacle to the expansion of leisure, according to Russell, was society’s stubborn attachment to the belief that paid work is a noble duty. By his own admission, his call for the expansion of leisure ‘shocks the well-to-do’, who have historically doubted the ability of the poor to use their leisure time wisely (Russell, 2004c: 8). It was commonly thought that the poor were unworthy of leisure, and that more free-time would lead to widespread boredom and vice. (At Russell’s time of writing, there was a significant moral panic around growing cinema attendance, which bourgeois society believed was corrupting the young.) Maybe more concerning, from the perspective of those in society’s most powerful positions, was the prospect that increased leisure time might lubricate the political consciousness of the poor, or leave people with more time for collective action. Russell did not reflect at any length on the real-world prospects for overcoming the bourgeois work ethic in 1932, though his essay did briefly advocate the birth of a ‘great public propaganda’ designed to attack the sacred status of work (Russell, 2004c: 1).
If it was once thought that capitalist ideologies could be challenged by asserting a right to ‘be ourselves’, Chapter 2 showed how this idea has been co-opted by today’s managerial cultures of fun. If many have spoken out against work, Chapter 4 showed how dissenting voices have been suppressed and humiliated by the media’s tendency to discuss acts of resistance in a language of deviance and individual pathology. If critics of the work dogma want to join this linguistic battle, they had better turn up armed. For example, how about responding to the moral panic around today’s so-called ‘culture of entitlement’ by developing a critique of today’s more prevalent ‘culture of gratitude’? It is the culture of gratitude that thrives when, buckling under the pressure to survive, people begin to hurl themselves into any form of work that promises to boost their career profile, whether the work in question is paid or unpaid, suitable or unsuitable. The culture of gratitude flourishes in my own field of academia, where fierce job competition leaves junior academics with little choice but to dive headfirst into any possible work openings.
Index * * * A achievement, social, measured through work, 15 Adam, a former computer programmer, 120, 127–8, 138–41, 170, 180 Adorno, Theodor, 69–72, 75, 76–7, 162; ‘Free Time’, 69 advertising, 85–8, 171; spending of industry, 88 affluence, ideals of, 181 agoraphobia, 152, 153 Alan, a former office administrator, 157–8 alienating tendencies, use of term, 62 alienation, 9, 48, 50, 61, 62, 63, 90, 93, 126, 146, 178, 200, 230; in Marx, 46, 47; normalisation of, 52; use of term, 51 alternatives: experimenting in, 223; utopian, 145 altruism, 113 Amazon, working conditions at, 51 anger management techniques, 53 Anne, a photographer, 127, 170; co-founder of Idlers’ Alliance, 207–8 anti-consumerist ethics, 163 anxiety, 13, 148, 151, 152, 164, 200; about education, 79; in face of consumer choices, 168 apricots, cultivation of, 79 Arendt, Hannah, 24, 39 Aristotle, concept of good life, 4 art of living, 4 Ashton, John, 229 ATOS company, 104; scandal regarding, 152 autonomous activities, 20 autonomous self-development, 36; right of, 35 autonomously organised production, 112 autonomy, 10, 29, 64, 91, 113, 141, 142, 150, 198, 205, 210–37; in work, limits to, 61–6; moral, 155; of workers, 69 B bakeries, production process in, 51–2 Basic Income, 225; as personal entitlement, 226; universal and unconditional, 225 Bauman, Zygmunt, 73, 159–60, 169–70 Beck, Ulrich, 73 being, mode of being, 79–80, 166 ‘being yourself’’ in work, 59–60 Bell, Daniel, 26 Ben, husband of Cheryl, 178, 179 benefit fraud, claimed costs of, 101 benefits, conditionalities of, 104 Berardi, Franco, 54–5, 81 Berger, Peter, 125, 128, 130, 144; with Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality, 125 Beveridge, William, 28 Billig, Michael, 231 binary dichotomies in society, 99 biomedical labels: adoption of, 151–2; resistance to, 152, 153 black working class, rebellion of, 115 Black, Bob, The Abolition of Work, 206 Black, Carol, 108 Blauner, Robert, 48, 62 body, starts shouting, 149 see also broken body books: from libraries, 206; on subject of work, 206–7; reading of, 175, 195 boredom at work, 12, 140 Bowring, Finn, 116, 171 Braverman, Harry, 48 breakpoints, 125, 128, 129, 141, 142, 154, 216; causes of, 129; relating to personal health issues, 148 Brennan, Teresa, 148 Bridge, Angela, 189–90 broken body, 147–54 Brown, Philip, 42 Bruce, a former care home worker, 137, 146, 148–51, 200, 202, 203, 204 ‘bullshit jobs’, 40 bureaucracy at work, 132; intensification of, 133 Burroughs, William, 206 C ‘Californian ideology’, 59; boundaries of, 60 call centres, labour practices in, 50–1 calmer life, living of, 151 Calvin, John, 25 Cameron, David, 99 Cannon, David, 154–5, 233 capitalism, 24, 37, 44, 48, 64, 65–6, 147; as production of needs, 85; development of, 25–6, 29, 39–40; fixated on work and consumption, 3, 4; industrial, 30; insecurity in, 73; potential reduction of working time in, 32–3; resistance to, 188; spirit of, 25–6 career, concept of, 127 Casey, Catherine, 16–17, 56–7, 58, 212 casual labour, 28 Cederström, Carl, and Peter Fleming, Dead Man Working, 55 Chaplin, Charlie, in Modern Times, 49 character assessment of workers, 56 cheese, buying of, 169 Cheryl, an interviewee, 120, 165–7, 176–7, 178 child-friendly policies, 116 childcare, 155, 206, 211 children, a factor in decision-making, 161 chirpiness, required in job, 136 Christmas, celebration of, 145, 186 cinema attendance, moral panic regarding, 96 Citizens Advice Bureau, 153 city spaces, privatisation and commercialisation of, 222 claimants, viewed as wasters, 99 claiming benefits, viewed as game, 135 Clive, an interviewee 201 clubbing together to get something done, 22 cognitive labour, 54–5 Cohen, Stanley, 126, 127, 129, 210 Cole, Matthew, 106, 205 collaborative forms of work, 64 Collinson, David, 213 colonisation of life: by economic demands, 9, 93; by work-related demands, 67–94 commodification, 92 commodity-intensive lifestyle, questioning of, 164 commons, abolition of, 186 commuting, costs of, 178 company people, creation of, 56 computerisation, of bakery, 51–2 computers, 50, 61, 72, 139–40, 172, 175, 177; gaming, 177 conditions of work, 226, 233 ‘constantly on call’, 72 consumer motivation, theories of, 88–91 consumer satisfaction, 85 consumer society, 26–7 consumerism, 40, 83–4, 91, 162–3, 169, 214, 228, 231; costs of, 160; depends on exploitation, 167; ethically conscious, 87; motivation for, 85, 178 consumers: needs of, exaggerated, 92; persuasion of, 86 consuming less, 172, 187 consumption: de-spiritualisation of, 176; gospel of, 82–94; growth of, 94; ostentatious, 186; replaces self-production, 92; therapeutic, 180 convenience, need for, 178–9 convenience commodities, consumption of, 91 conversation, love of, 137–8, 141 conviviality, as valued good, 116 cooking of meals, 145; pleasures of, 176–7, 187 coping strategies at work, 11 Coupland, Douglas, Generation X, 114 Cremin, Colin, 58, 76 customer complaints procedures, 54 CVs, preparation of, 75 cynicism, 12, 212–13 D Dalla Costa, Mariarosa, 115 dead end, experience of, 141 death, witnessing of, 130 debt, of students, 81 decentralisation of work, 32 deindustrialisation, 107 ‘delusions’ of workers regarding work, 21, 22 democracy, 215; engagement in, 222; in the workplace, 13 denaturalisation of work, 17, 216 Department of Trade and Industry (UK), work–life balance study, 218 dependency, alleged culture of, 100 depression, 148, 152 de-reification, 128, 144 desires, consumerist, pursuit of, 170 deskilling of work, 42, 48 diet, simplicity of, 136 dignity, 137, 193 disabilities see people with disabilities disability allowances, 152, 153 discipline at work, 28 discreditable, 200–1 dis-ease, feeling of, 130 disengagement from work, 47–52 dis-identification, 213 dissatisfaction, organised creation of, 85 distribution of income, 14 Dittmar, Helga, 88 division of labour, 28, 29, 48, 133, 146; gendered, 229–30 ‘doing nothing of value’, 141, 190, 233 domestic work, 19 see also outsourcing of domestic work downshifter, use of term, 120 downshifter study in USA, 165 Dubi, Steve, 46 Duncan Smith, Ian, 102 E eating together: pleasure of, 143, 144, 147; whittled away, 176 economic growth, 34, 37 education, 78; aims of, 80; anxiety context of, 79; as certification for work, 69; as socialisation, 15; broad, value of, 79; investment in, 42 eight-hour day, 71 Eleanor, an interviewee, 120, 124, 129, 144, 161–2, 167–8, 182, 183, 207 Emma, an interviewee, 196–7, 198–9, 202–3 emotional conduct, management of, 62 emotional investment, in office work, 136 emotional labour, 52–3, 57, 137 emotions, management of, 53–4 employability, 6, 9, 15, 16, 81, 82; discipline demanded by, 77–8; pressure of, 73–82 employee appraisals, 54 employers, 76–7 Employment Support Allowance (ESA), 148, 153 employment, paid see paid employment encirclement by the market, 92 ‘end of work’, argument, 33, 35, 36, 82 Engels, Friedrich, 74 entitlement, alleged culture of, 100, 103, 232 environmental awareness, 168 escapes, 129; construction of, 12 escapism, 10, 27, 210–37 ethical reflection, need for, 217 ethically dubious work, 135 see also worthwhile ethic eudaemonia, 4 Euro May Day movement, 115 exclusion, social, 161 extra hours, working of, 57 F Facebook, 88 factories, closure of, 106–8 family, work as, 56–7 family life: importance of, 230; prioritising of, 218 feminism, 22; interest in shorter working hours, 229; second-wave, 114–15 Fevre, Ralph, 106 Ffion, an interviewee, 145, 167, 170, 177, 181 Fisher, Mark, 214, 229 five-day week, 97 Fleming, Peter, 59–61, 64, 212–13 Fletcher, Harrell, 189 flight attendants, working conditions of, 53 ‘flow state’ condition, 12 Ford, Henry, 95 Ford assembly line, 48 foreign encounters, power of, 144 four-day week, recommended for public health reasons, 229 Fourier, Charles, 30–1 France, 35-hour week legislation in, 223–4 Frankfurt School, 2, 35 Franklin, Benjamin, 28 free choice of work, 31 free-time, 29, 33, 39, 40, 69–72, 123, 155, 157, 221, 228; as continuation of work, 72; as valued good, 116; authentic, 82; ‘excessive’, 83; experience of, 162; fragmentation of, 71, 73; increase of, 38; preservation of, 24; reabsorption of, 84; scarcity of, 41, 173, 175 freedom from work, 38 freelance work, 155 friendliness, simulation of, 54 Fromm, Erich, 79, 80, 166 Fryer, D., 109 full-time working, 90, 110–11, 141; resistance to, 28, 29 fun, culture of, in work, 59–60, 62, 213, 232 G Galbraith, J.
The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett
3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
It also allows people to be honest and open and invisible when there are good reasons to. We dispense with that at our peril. Get rid of trolling and we might lose something else, too. The line between criminality, threats, offensiveness and satire is another very fine one. Trolls like Old Holborn do occasionally cast a satirical eye on society’s self-importance, expose the absurdity of modern life, moral panics or our histrionic twenty-four-hour news culture. One branch of trolls, called ‘RIP memorial trolls’, target people who post messages to online memorial pages of the recently deceased. According to Whitney Phillips, an academic who wrote her Ph.D. on trolls, they usually target what they call ‘grief tourists’: users who have no real-life connection to the victim and who could not possibly be in mourning.
Erotic story groups where people could read and write steamy prose became extremely popular on Usenet in the 1990s. The first erotic stories Usenet group, rec.arts.erotica, was created in May 1991, which was quickly followed by a number of spin-offs and subgroups catering for every predilection, including one titled alt.startrek.creative.erotica.moderated. Although statistics about how much pornography is on the net are usually marked by exaggeration and moral panic, there has certainly always been a lot of it about. One pornographic Bulletin Board System earnt 3.2 million dollars in 1993 by selling hard-core images and videos to thousands of subscribers. By 1997 there was somewhere between 28,000 and 72,000 porn sites online. Porn is now estimated to comprise between 4 and 30 per cent of all websites. In April 1996, an American university student named Jennifer Ringley registered a website named ‘JenniCam’.
USE OF WORDS SUCH AS: HACKING, PHREAKING (OR ANY WORDS WITH ‘PH’ REPLACING ‘F’) LACK OF INTEREST IN SELF AND APPEARANCE OR INDICATIONS OF LACK OF SLEEP (WHICH MIGHT INDICATE LATE NIGHT MODEM-PLAY) COMPUTER AND MODEM RUNNING LATE AT NIGHT (EVEN WHILE UNATTENDED) STORING OF COMPUTER FILES ENDING IN: PCX, GIF, TIF, DL, GL (THESE ARE VIDEO OR GRAPHIC IMAGE FILES AND PARENTS SHOULD KNOW WHAT THEY ILLUSTRATE) NAMES ON COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAMS WHICH SEEM SATANIC OR PORNOGRAPHIC, OBSESSION WITH FANTASY ADVENTURE GAMES (DUNGEONS AND DRAGONS, TRADE WARS, SEXCAPADE, ETC.). This misunderstanding and moral panic typically accompanies most new technologies. p.8 ‘Whether actual or perceived, anonymity . . .’ ‘The Online Disinhibition Effect’, CyberPsychology and Behaviour 7 (3). This article was published in 2004, but Suler had set out his thesis before then, in 2001: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/1094931041291295 & http://users.rider.edu/~suler/vita.html. p.8 ‘It’s true that from . . .’
The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight
This approach also undermines the view of sex workers as helpless victims in need of saving, which is degrading, stigmatizing, and simply inaccurate. Do these approaches encourage sexual commerce by giving it the patina of legitimacy? Perhaps. But if the central social concerns of coercion and disease are being managed more effectively than under prohibition, isn’t that a success? We should embrace these approaches as a starting point for policies that directly address social harms rather than moral panics. While commercial sex work will always have harm attached to it, so do legal sweatshops. In fact, the subordinate position of women in our economy and culture is the real harm left unaddressed by prohibition. Despite the lofty goals of abolitionists, as long as they are denied equal economic and political rights and equal pay for equal work, women will be forced into marginal forms of employment.
However, there was a significant upsurge in migration following the Mexican Revolution of the early twentieth century. States passed antimarijuana laws, giving police a legal pretext to search and question migrants and create a climate of fear. In the North, marijuana was criminalized after becoming more popular among African Americans in the big cities. Its close association with jazz and black culture led to a moral panic. These twin forces came together nationally with federal prohibition in 1937. Intensive drug prohibitionism was tied to conservative nativist politics. Johann Hari describes the exploits of the nation’s first drug czar, Harry Anslinger, who from 1930 to 1962 waged a never-ending battle focused primarily on immigrants and people of color.6 He was personally involved in arresting and harassing jazz legend Billie Holiday and may have directly contributed to her death in police custody in 1959.
As part of an effort to maintain funding, they spend a lot of their time speaking to community groups about the threat gangs pose and the need for more suppression efforts. This tends to be one-way communication; these units rarely take input from communities about where and how to carry out their activities. Instead, it is usually part of a self-serving effort to win more resources and keep up the moral panic about youth violence and gangs, as well as to channel all related concerns into continued aggressive policing. There are a lot of misunderstandings about the nature of gangs, which have come to play a role in the way that police handle them. Strategies that seek to “eradicate” gangs often fail to consider exactly who the targets for such action are, or the effect on those targeted and on the community.
Squeezed: Why Our Families Can't Afford America by Alissa Quart
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business intelligence, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, East Village, Elon Musk, full employment, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute couture, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, job automation, late capitalism, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, new economy, nuclear winter, obamacare, Ponzi scheme, post-work, precariat, price mechanism, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, school choice, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, surplus humans, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor
As Kathleen Gerson, a sociologist at New York University, put it when we spoke: “What is our strange commitment to seeing care as a purely private individual act rather than one embedded in the larger community?” Day care itself is also specifically stigmatized, a holdover from the conservative backlash against working women of the 1980s, when day care became a Satanic straw man for so many societal evils. As Richard Beck argues in We Believe the Children: A Moral Panic in the 1980s, the sexual abuse trials against day-care center workers in that decade stemmed from a reactionary fear of feminism and of women working outside the home—with the concomitant need for day care—as well as the usual fear of crime. The scapegoating of day care also stemmed from societal dismay over what many perceived as the dissolution of the traditional family, with mothers waiting at the school gates for pickup and fathers home by six, taking their seat at the head of the table.
Great gratitude also flows to my mother, Barbara Quart, whose long professional experience as an editor made this book better and whose own writing and feminist scholarship and early struggle to work, create, and mother simultaneously have served as an inspiration to me. My dearest thanks of all go to my husband, Peter Maass, and my daughter, Cleo Quart Maass. Loving you both made me want to tell the stories of other families, and our story, a little, as well. Bibliography Baraitser, Lisa. Maternal Encounters: The Ethics of Interruption. London: Routledge, 2009. Beck, Richard. We Believe the Children: A Moral Panic in the 1980s. New York: PublicAffairs, 2015. Bellow, Saul. The Adventures of Augie March. New York: Viking Press, 1953. Berlant, Lauren. Cruel Optimism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011. Bianchi, Suzanne, Nancy Folbre, and Douglas Wolf. “Unpaid Care Work.” In For Love and Money: Care Provision in the United States, edited by Nancy Folbre, 40–65. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2013.
See Social mobility Urban Outfitters, 71 U.S. News & World Report, 55 Valencia College Peace and Justice Institute, 105 Vanity Fair, 211 Very Hungry Caterpillar (Carle), 7 Wages for Housework, 129–30 Wage stagnation, 9, 60–61, 243 Washington Center for Equitable Growth, 177 Wayne, Christina, 219 “Wealthies” vs. selfies, 216 “Wealthy Hand-to-Mouth, The” (study), 96–97 Weather Underground, 89 We Believe the Children: A Moral Panic in the 1980s (Beck), 75 Weber, Max, 60 Weeks, Kathi, 242 Weldon, Fay, 291n Westwood College, 41 WeWork, 38–39 Wharton, Edith, 94 Whitehall Studies, 96 Who Cares Coalition, 254 Wilkinson, Will, 213 William Cullen Bryant High School, 144–45 Williams, Joan, 29 Williams, William Carlos, 40 “Will to education,” 133 Wire, The (TV show), 217 Wolcott, James, 211 Women Have Always Worked (Kessler-Harris), 112–13, 123–24 Worker cooperative movement, 157–60, 259–60 Work-life balance, 13–14, 251 Work schedules, 5, 68–72 extreme day care and, 64–66, 68–74, 78–79 remedies, 84–86 Workweek, 73–74, 84–85 of average American adult, 65, 71 rise of 24/7 day care, 64–65 World Economic Forum (WEF), 227–28 World of Homeowners, A (Kwak), 128 Xanax, 45, 62 Yale University, 48 YouTube, 214, 222 Zelizer, Viviana, 77 Zimmerman, Martín, 218 Zūm, 70 Zunshine, Lisa, 48 Zutano, 257 About the Author ALISSA QUART is the executive editor of the Economic Hardship Reporting Project, a journalism nonprofit with Barbara Ehrenreich.
Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson
Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern
The surge in interest in Indian textiles was a tremendous boon for the East India Company, which went from importing a quarter of a million pieces in 1664 to 1.76 million twenty years later. (More than 80 percent of the company’s trade was devoted to calico at the height of the craze.) But the news was not as encouraging for England’s native sheep farmers and wool manufacturers, who suddenly saw their livelihoods threatened by an imported fabric. The craze for cotton was so severe that by the first decade of the next century it triggered a kind of moral panic among the rising commentariat, accompanied by a series of parliamentary interventions. Hundreds if not thousands of pamphlets and essays were published, many of them denouncing the “Calico Madams” whose scandalous taste for cotton was undermining the British economy. “The Wearing of printed Callicoes and Linnens, is an Evil with respect to the Body Politick,” one commenter announced. Defoe himself wrote multiple screeds on what he considered “a Disease in Trade . . . a Contagion, that if not stopp’d in the Beginning, will, like the Plague in Capital City, spread itself o’er the whole Nation.”
Le Bon Marché and its peers hinted, for the first time, that the service industry would soon become a cornerstone. — Women, of course, were at the epicenter of this new industry, as they had been during the dawn of the cotton revolution two centuries before. Increasingly, women were working in these new department stores, not just enjoying them as consumers. And just as cotton had unleashed a moral panic over the traitorous desires of the Calico Madam, Le Bon Marché triggered a similar crisis in Parisian society. In this case, it was not women buying luxury items that caused the outrage; it was the even more startling fact that women were stealing them. Shortly after the arrival of grands magasins like Le Bon Marché, the Parisian authorities and other interested parties began noticing a marked uptick in the number of women caught stealing items from the stores, apparently motivated by some kind of deranged pleasure in the act.
His “Proclamation for the Suppression of Coffee Houses” described the threat in decisive terms: Where it is most apparent that the multitude of coffee houses of late years . . . and the great resort of idle and disaffected persons to them have produced very evil and dangerous effects, as well for that many tradesmen and others do herein mis-spend much of their time which might and probably would be employed in and about their lawful calling and affairs, but also for that in such houses, divers false, malitious, and scandalous reports are devised and spread abroad to the defamation of His Majestie’s Government . . . His Majesty hath thought it fit and necessary that the said coffee houses be (for the future) put down and suppressed . . . You can hear beneath that formal syntax the guttural cry of moral panic that would echo for centuries every time new leisure spaces emerged to scandalize older generations: from the department stores of the nineteenth century, to the pool halls of the early twentieth, to the video-game arcades of the 1980s. Charles might have “thought it fit and necessary” to suppress the coffeehouses, but the citizens of London thought otherwise. After a violent outcry from both the proprietors and customers of the new establishments, Charles withdrew his proclamation only a week after proclaiming it.
Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power
air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP
Mephedrone was the fulcrum, the tipping point that took a clandestine internet drug scene and dropped it, gurning and wide-eyed, right into the high streets of the UK – and then into the wider world. The swift and protocol-busting ban on the new drug in the UK did nothing to eliminate it here or in the EU or the US; it simply handed the market to grateful gangsters who added the drug to their repertoire, and prompted greater innovation in the chemical underground. Following the intense media attention that mephedrone attracted, and the ensuing moral panic, the new chemical craze of so-called ‘legal highs’ gained full-spectrum media dominance in a matter of weeks. Newspapers and legislators were shocked, but the situation was as predictable as it was inevitable – if you knew where to look and what you were looking for, and if you’d been looking for long enough. The online ‘research chemical’ scene is at the root of this story, and it is from here that mephedrone sprang.
How these substances achieve this in neurological terms is hotly debated, but the latest research suggests that when flooded with serotonin the mind dampens down brain activity, rather than increasing it, as had long been thought. (These descriptions deliberately and necessarily simplify the interaction between drugs and the brain, since each category of drugs actually acts on both systems at once, and each system is far too complicated for any non-scientist to describe – or read about.) As the social taboos and moral panics around psychedelics started to build, Dow found itself the uneasy holder of patents for powerful psychedelics such as DOM – a designer drug created by Shulgin and popularized following the outlawing of LSD. This potent drug flooded the streets of Haight-Ashbury in 1967 and is said to have caused many traumatic episodes as tablets containing guaranteed overdoses of the chemical circulated in their thousands.
Leaving aside the fact that no toxicology reports were available at the time of that report, and that no bath salts type drugs are anything remotely like LSD, the source for these allegations was flimsy at best – neither the doctor nor the policeman quoted in the early stories had first-hand knowledge of the case, reported Reuters’ Jack Shafer.13 It is complex enough untangling the facts in news stories that involve novel psychoactive substances without media hype confusing the picture so completely that it seems almost wilful. Each generation has its drugs moral panic, whether it comes in the guise of LSD users jumping from buildings in the 1960s, PCP-crazies in the 1980s, superhuman crackheads in the 1990s, or Meow-frenzied and entirely fictional schoolkids taunting their teachers with their bags of legal highs in the early twenty-first century. As Alasdair Forsyth, of Glasgow Caledonian University’s Institute for Society and Social Justice Research, told me, ‘There was a cartoon in Punch a few years back depicting two farmers looking at a huge scarecrow with the caption: “To have any effect I find I have to make it more scary every year”.’
Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet by Linda Herrera
citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks
A twenty-five-year-old Egyptian university graduate illustrates this difference when he says, “I mainly associate the state with the horrible experience of having to go the police station to get my [national] ID.” To better understand how this wired generation started to coalesce into a counter-power requires going back to the era of technological opening. The high-tech revolution arrived in Egypt with a combination of excitement, moral panic, and desire. No one could predict how technology would change people and society, or how people would alter the technology. Liberalization Egyptian Style The Egyptian government, historically reluctant to allow the spread of technologies that would loosen its grip on its citizenry, nevertheless opened its doors to information and communication technologies (ICT) and the liberalization of the media.
Both Tunisia and Egypt had their own dictators, intolerable police states, and young male martyrs whose deaths roused people to action. The icon of Mohamed Bouazizi, however, did not appeal to some Egyptians, who found an ethical conflict in his act of suicide. When news spread that apparent copycat self-immolation suicides were taking place in Egypt—by an elderly man from Cairo, a desperately poor mother who committed the act in front of her children, and two unemployed men—a moral panic ensued. The two idioms of martyrdom and suicide were getting conflated in ways that proved troubling and complicated, and that brought ethics to the surface of the Khaled Said page. A member of the 6th of April Movement, twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz, came forward to ease concerns about suicide/ martyrdom and to rally people to take to the streets on January 25. Her vlog (video blog), posted on the Khaled Said page, went viral on January 18, 2011.
Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane
Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, longitudinal study, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce
We must listen before everything that we in Britain hold dear crumbles completely.112 RECENT TENSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Under the 2004 Housing and Planning Acts, the Labour government took action to solve the shortage of Gypsy and Traveller sites, requiring local authorities to identify the accommodation needs of Gypsies and Travellers in their communities and take steps through regional and local plans to provide for them, as for the rest of the community. There was now an 96 U N E Q UA L B R I TA I N opportunity to effect real change, with an effective and respected lobbying organization active (the TLRP), increasing levels of legal awareness among travelling communities, and strengthened human rights and race relations legislation in place. What followed, however, was a full-blown moral panic over ‘problem’ Gypsy and Traveller sites.113 In November 2004, the Select Committee on the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) called for the reintroduction of the statutory duty on local authorities to provide sites, and expressed concern that the new regional planning system would take too long to deliver results: There must be a national response with a duty imposed on all local authorities based on assessment of need at regional level.
A study of the national press coverage found: ● a widespread failure to capitalise ‘Gypsies’ and ‘Travellers’ as proper nouns, in defiance of guidelines published by the National Union of Journalists and the CRE ● a tendency by the right-wing tabloids to question Gypsies’ and Travellers’ ethnic status, implying that they were not ‘real’ ethnic minorities and that to consider them as such was ‘political correctness gone mad’ ● the use of terms that were, at best, mildly offensive and, at worst, racist, ranging from ‘itinerants’ and ‘tinkers’ through to ‘gyppos’ and ‘pikies’ ● routine stereotyping of all Gypsies and Travellers as threatening, G Y P S I E S A N D T R AV E L L E R S ● ● ● ● 99 dirty and lazy, with the over-riding message that they were invading and destroying the countryside through the stealthy and deliberate development of ‘illegal’ and unwanted sites some use of the binary stereotype of the good/bad and real/fake Gypsies to excuse racist reporting routine stereotyping of the settled community as law-abiding, decent and hardworking, drawn together by the Express newspapers under the ‘Middle England’ label, to sharpen the contrast with Gypsies and Travellers many of the hallmarks of a moral panic, including the portrayal of the Gypsy ‘problem’ as national rather than local, ‘calls for action’ in some newspapers, predictions the problem would snowball, and linking with other social problems as evidence that Britain was ‘going to the dogs’ very few voices, including that of the CRE, challenging the stereotypes or criticising the abuse of Gypsies and Travellers.130 Ironically, all political parties claimed to agree that the solution to the tensions was to increase the number of authorized public and private Gypsy and Traveller sites and to clamp down on unauthorized ones.
This page intentionally left blank Index Page numbers in bold refer to figures and tables. 9/11, see September 11th, 2001 abortion 58, 105–6, 110, 114, 140, 202 activism and activist groups, see campaigning Age Concern 7, 10, 14, 17–19 AIDS 127, 150–5 anti-Semitism 1, 45, 53, 56–8 Ashley, April 142–3 assimilation 54, 56, 68, 75–6, 82, 86 Bangladeshi community 2, 21, 37, 39, 41–2, 44, 65, 189 BCODP (British Council of Organisations of Disabled People) 164, 170–2, 174 Begum, Shabina 54, 64 Beveridge, William 7, 9–12, 18 birth control 58, 116, 130, 139 birth rates 4, 9, 13, 23, 108, 116, 119 bisexuality 127–9, 132, 145, 151, 154–5, 161 Blasphemy Act 53, 60–1, 66 British Federation of Business and Professional Women (BFBPW) 109–10 British National Party (BNP) 30, 38, 54 British Social Attitudes Survey 43, 119 British Union of Fascists 56 Campaign for Homosexual Equality (CHE) 145–6, 148–9, 159 campaigning and definition of mental illness 178 and disabled people 166, 168–9, 172 and ethnic minorities 37, 45–6 Gypsies and Travellers 71, 81, 102 and homosexuality 157, 161 and older people 9, 17–18, 21 and overcoming inequalities 189–90 and poverty 14–15 and religious minorities 66 and trans people 3, 159 and women 2, 107, 113, 121, 123 CARD (Campaign Against Racial Discrimination) 29, 34–5, 44, 60 Caribbean community 32–4, 36–7, 39, 41–3, 179–80 Catholic community 53, 55–8, 61, 67–9, 81, 158 child care 108, 116 Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) 14 children and mental disability 163, 175–7, 187 Chinese community 21, 41 Christian denominations, membership of 69 Church of England 53, 55, 66–7, 141 Church of England Moral Welfare Council (CEMWC) 135–6 Church of Scotland 69, 141 CJPOA (Criminal Justice and Public Order Act) 90–2, 126–7, 150, 157 Cowell, Roberta 125, 142–3 CRC (Community Relations Commission) 29, 36–7, 47 CRE (Commission for Racial Equality) establishment of 30, 37–8 and Gypsies and Travellers 94, 98 and religious discrimination 59 and women 115 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, see CJPOA cross-dressing 129, 147–8 culture, changes since 1945 5 DDA (Disability Discrimination Act) 164–5, 171–3, 178 DED (Disability Equality Duty) 165, 173 depression 3, 163, 166, 173, 175 disability definition of 166, 171, 173 learning 165, 172, 179, 181–2, 186 mental 3, 166, 175, 179, 181–2, 185, 187 physical 3, 166 Disability Information and Advice Line (DIAL) 164, 169 disabled people activism of 169, 172 benefits for 168–9, 173, 183 historical perception of 165 inequalities since 1945 3 and pensions 11 public attitudes to 174, 181 registered 184–5 226 disabled people (continued) responsibility for 167–8 and retirement 16 services for 170, 172, 176–9, 182, 186–7 and education, see education, and disabled people and employment, see employment, and disabled people and poverty, see poverty, and disability Disablement Income Group (DIG) 14, 163, 168 discrimination against disabled people 169–70 against gay people 158 against Gypsies and Travellers 98 against trans people 127, 160–1 against women 113 age 1, 8, 15, 18–19, 21–2 indirect 30, 37, 60–1, 112 legislation against 35–7, 41, 46, 53, 65, 170–1, 174 racial 29, 35–6, 54 religious 54, 59–62, 64, 67 in Scotland 121–2 divorce 4, 23, 105, 116, 119, 123, 132, 135 DPI (Disabled Peoples International) 170, 174 DRC (Disability Rights Commission) 165, 172, 174, 181, 190 education changes since 1945 4 and disabled people 163, 165–6, 173, 187–8 and ethnic minorities 4, 37, 42–3, 118 of Gypsies and Travellers 81–2 and older people 22 and religious identity 57, 63 and women 109, 117–18 employment and Bangladeshi community 189 changes since 1945 4 and disabled people 171, 173 discrimination in 32–3, 36 INDEX and ethnic minorities 4, 37, 39, 42, 50 and older people 4, 8, 12–13, 16, 18, 20–1, 27 and women 4, 108, 111–13, 116–20, 122–3 equality age 8, 22 legal 2–3, 60, 68, 159–61 Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) and age equality 8, 22 and disabled people 174 and sexual orientation 128 establishment of 45, 47 foundation of 30 ongoing role of 190 ethnic minorities before 1945 31–2 and British politics 46 in British politics 30, 32–4, 37, 40 census data on 49 deaths in police custody 30 Gypsies and Travellers as 71–2, 81, 94 and homosexuality 145 and income 51 inequalities since 1945 2, 37 language and 43–4 and media 44 and mental disability 179 older people in 14–16, 21, 42 organizations of 33–4, 40–1 takeup of benefits 189–90 and trade unions 38–9 and volunteering 18 women in 38, 40 and education, see education, and ethnic minorities and employment, see employment, and ethnic minorities and poverty, see poverty, and ethnic minorities European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 72, 90, 94, 126, 157 European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 94–5, 126–8, 149–50, 157, 160, 162 European Declaration on Human Rights 64 families, lone-parent 119 gay men and AIDS 151–3 inequalities since 1945 2 lifestyles of 134, 144–5 as politicians 127, 157 Gay News 53, 61, 66, 126, 145–7 gender identity 125, 128–9, 159, 162 gender roles 160–1 generational interdependence 21 GLC (Greater London Council) 30, 34, 40, 115 GLF (Gay Liberation Front) 126, 144–5, 147–8 Grant, Bernie 30, 40 Greater London Action for Racial Equality (GLARE) 40 Gypsies and Travellers and housing 76 and pensions 11, 20 and political action 76–7 and retirement 16 and welfare provision 75–6 benefits for 168 caravan sites 72–4, 77–8, 80, 82–97, 99–100 continuing inequality of 189, 191 evictions of 71, 78–82, 90–3 inequalities since 1945 2, 73–5, 100–1 legal protection of 94–5 number of caravans 103 occupations of 83 organizations for 92 problems with statistics for 101–2 public attitudes to 44, 47 welfare provision for 71 Gypsy and Traveller Law Reform Coalition (G&TLRC) 72–3, 93, 97 Gypsy Charter 71, 77–8, 83 Gypsy Council 71, 81, 84–5, 88 Gypsy Lore Society (GLS) 71, 74, 76 Haire, Norman 130, 132–3 Help the Aged 13, 17 Hindu community 58–9, 62, 64 HIV, see AIDS HLRS (Homosexual Law Reform Society) 125, 137, 140–1, 144, 148 INDEX homophobia 2, 140–2, 147, 150, 154, 158–9 homosexuality decriminalization of 126, 132, 139–40 depictions of 138–9 during World War II 131–2 legal status of 126, 128–9, 132, 135–6, 139–40, 146, 148–50, 153–4, 156–8 as mental illness 178 public attitudes to 133–4, 137–8, 147, 153–4, 158, 159, 162 and religion 66, 141–2 Human Rights Act (HRA) 54, 64, 66, 72, 94, 97, 157, 160 language 43–4, 128, 134, 166 Lawrence, Stephen 30, 41 learning difficulties, see disabilities, learning lesbians and gay liberation 145–6 inequalities since 1945 2 legal status of 125, 136, 140–1 organizations of 141 persecution of 130, 132 as politicians 127, 157 public perception of 130–1, 138 life expectancy 4, 9, 23, 24 Little Kinsey 125, 133–4 London bombings, July 2005 45, 64 illegitimacy 4, 108, 131, 135 immigrants after 1945 4, 32–3 from Commonwealth countries 48 and pensions 20 and religious discrimination 67 and religious diversity 56 restrictions on 34–6, 39, 45, 56 impairments 169, 171, 173, 175, 177 Indian community 21, 42 Indian Workers’ Association (IWA) 29, 32, 34–5 inequalities health 181 income 21 since 1945 1–2, 189 integration 46, 54, 56, 65, 68, 176, 179 Irish community 31, 33, 45–6, 55, 62, 179–80, 190 Irish Travellers 72, 74, 80–1, 84–5, 94, 102 Islamophobia 62 MCB (Muslim Council of Britain) 54, 62–3, 65 media and disability 182 and ethnic minorities 44–7 and Gypsies and Travellers 74, 88, 93, 96–9 and homosexuality 133, 142, 150–2, 162 and mental illness 163–4, 175 ongoing role of 190 and religious minorities 63–4, 68 and women 123 MENCAP 163, 166, 172, 175, 181 mental hospitals 163, 165, 175–8 mental illness 164, 166, 171, 175, 177, 180 middle classes 4, 108, 110 MIND (formerly National Association for Mental Health) 163, 172, 175–6 moral panics 96, 99 multiculturalism 38, 40, 60, 65, 68 multiple sclerosis 166, 168, 171 Muslim community and British politics 54 and domestic partnership 116 and employment 59 and equality legislation 60 and ethnic identity 59–60, 62 growth of 58 Jewish community 1, 29, 31–2, 45–6, 53, 55–9, 64, 146, 189–90 JRF (Joseph Rowntree Foundation) 170–3, 179 Kinsey, Alfred 125, 132–3 Labour Party 12, 34–5, 40, 106, 111, 114, 120–2, 139, 153 227 inequalities after 9/11 1, 43, 45, 47 integration of 65, 68 legal recognition of 63 organizations of 61–2, 64 portrayal of 65 National Federation of Old Age Pensioners Associations (NFOAPA) 9, 12–15 National Federation of Retirement Pensions Associations (NFRPA) 9–11 National Front (NF) 38, 145 National Insurance 7, 11, 75 National Pensioners’ Convention (NPC) 15–16 National Spinsters’ Pensions Association (NSPA) 7, 9 New (Age) Travellers 72, 84, 88–9, 102 NF (National Front) 38, 145 NHS (National Health Service) 12, 23, 33, 109, 159–60, 163, 173, 175, 181 Northern Ireland 61, 126, 141, 146, 148, 150 Notting Hill Carnival 30, 34 Old Age Pensions, see pensions, state Old Age Pensions Association (OAPA) 9, 17 older people activity of 28 before 1945 8–9 campaigning by 22 and health 12 historical changes in inequalities 1, 13, 23–4 militancy of 8 physical condition of 19–20 use of term 19 and education, see education, and older people and employment, see employment, and older people and poverty, see poverty, and older people Pension Credit 20, 190 pensions campaigning for 7, 9–11 and disabled people 11 228 pensions (continued) occupational 11, 21 private 8, 11, 16–17, 20 state 7–11, 14, 16–18, 20, 160 and trans people 160 and women 7, 9, 116 police, attitude to ethnic minorities 30, 39, 41, 45 ‘political correctness’ 43, 96–7 population ageing of 8, 13, 16, 22, 25–6 changes since 1945 4 poverty changes since 1945 4 and continuing inequality 191 and disability 167–8 and ethnic minorities 46 and immigrants 31, 41 and older people 7, 11, 14, 22–3, 26–7 and women 11, 116, 119 pregnancy 23, 116 Press for Change (PfC) 127, 129, 159, 161, 221 prostitution 125, 129, 135–7 race, concept of 60 racism 1, 34, 38, 43–4, 46–7, 62, 94, 96, 100, 144–5 institutional 39, 41 rape 110, 114 religious minorities 54–6, 59–60, 65, 67–8 size of 69–70 retirement 7, 10–11, 13, 16–18, 21, 23, 28 riots 29–30, 39–40, 54, 57 RRB (Race Relations Board) 29, 35–7 The Satanic Verses 54, 60–2, 66 schizophrenia 164, 178–9 SCOPE (formerly Spastics Society) 164, 172, 177 Scotland Gypsies and Travellers in 75 homosexuality in 141–2, 148–50 and women politicians 121 Scottish Homosexual Rights Group (SHRG), see SMG Scottish Union of Mental Patients (SUMP) 164, 176 INDEX SDA (Sex Discrimination Act) 105, 113, 115, 122, 169 September 11th, 2001 1, 43, 45, 47, 64, 68 sex education 125, 133–4, 153 Sex Education Society 130, 132 sex reassignment surgery (SRS) 142 sexuality and identity 129, 132 survey results on 156 Sharia law 54, 65–6 Sikh community 53, 58–9, 62–3, 66–7, 69 SMG (Scottish Minorities Group) 126, 145–6, 148–50 social class 4, 42 Somali community 65 stereotypes 19, 74, 86, 99–100, 123, 190 Tatchell, Peter 127, 152–4 Telephone Legal Advice Service for Travellers (TLAST) 92 Terence Higgins Trust (THT) 126–7, 151, 153 terrorism 30, 57, 65 Thatcher, Margaret 39, 106, 115, 121, 147, 152, 155 TLRP (Traveller Law Reform Project) 73, 93, 95–6 TLRU (Traveller Law Research Unit) 72, 92 trade unions 8, 11–12, 15, 30, 34, 38–9, 85, 106, 111–12, 115, 145–6 trans people and campaigning 161 and gay communities 145, 155 inequalities since 1945 2–3 legal status of 159–60 organizations of 147–8 public attitudes to 142–4, 162 use of term 129 transvestism, see cross-dressing travel, changes since 1945 5 TUC (Trades Union Congress) 8, 15, 38, 111–12 Turing, Alan 135 United States 15, 43, 64, 118, 130, 132, 147 violence, domestic 38, 114–15, 119, 122 volunteers 17–18 Wales 31, 38, 64, 73, 79, 94, 102, 121, 159 West Indian community 29, 32, 34, 36 West Indian Standing Committee (WISC) 34–5 White, Florence 9 Whitehouse, Mary 53, 61, 126, 146, 149 Wilde, Oscar 125, 129 WLM (Women’s Liberation Movement) 38, 105, 107, 110–11, 113, 115, 145 Wolfenden Committee 125, 136–9, 141–2, 147 women black 113–14 earnings of 118 equal pay for 105, 107–13, 118–19 in ethnic minorities 38, 40 and government institutions 120, 123 Gypsies and Travellers 84, 110 and health 21 historical inequality of 107 inequalities since 1945 2 lesbian and bisexual, see lesbians and marriage 75, 108, 110–11, 116–17, 122–3, 168–9 and mental illness 180 and motherhood 108, 116–17, 119 Muslim 60, 65 organizations for 109–12, 114–15 in Parliament 110, 114, 120–1 and pensions 7, 9, 116 as percentage of population 106 and religion 66 and retirement 16 and education, see education, and women and employment, see employment, and women and poverty, see poverty, and women
Corbyn by Richard Seymour
anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, first-past-the-post, full employment, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, liberal world order, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Philip Mirowski, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, working-age population, éminence grise
The most widely shared stories on this platform were pro-Corbyn and anti-Tory, accentuating Corbyn’s celebrity support and polling improvements, thus undermining the demonisation taking place in the traditional print and broadcast media. Labour understood this advantage and invested more energy in posting and sharing social media content than all of its rivals.16 Some journalists and centre-right politicians have responded to this change with unavailing moral panic about ‘online abuse’ and ‘fake news’. As with all moral panics, they express real tendencies, but in a way that distorts, exaggerates, and scapegoats. Certainly, the emerging attention economy has allowed sensationalist websites and sources of infotainment to exert influence and claim advertising revenue, but neither sensationalism nor infotainment are original products of online media. Clearly, the dark side of the Internet is populated by trolls, doxxers, bullies, and witch-hunters, but the newspapers involved in Hackgate can hardly have clean consciences about bullying and doxxing.
Clearly, the dark side of the Internet is populated by trolls, doxxers, bullies, and witch-hunters, but the newspapers involved in Hackgate can hardly have clean consciences about bullying and doxxing. The media which have indulged in what Diane Abbott, herself one of the major targets of online abuse, called the ‘politics of personal destruction’ are in no position to lecture. And all too often, politicians have muddied the waters by qualifying any mildly intemperate political criticism as ‘abuse’, invariably with the wry rider: ‘so much for the new kinder, gentler politics.’ The moral panic is a substitute for appropriate journalistic curiosity about complex new developments. Particularly striking is the complete lack of interest in learning anything about Jeremy Corbyn and his supporters, who have instead been demonised, condescended to as silly and dangerous fanatics uninterested in wielding real power, and subject to gossip and red-baiting. And, with newspapers once again returning to form with rumours of Corbynite purges and hard-Left ‘bullying’, there is no sign of that changing any time soon.
Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann
Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game
Friedrich Nietzsche and youth leaders called on the young to shed the ‘pseudo-wants’ of city life. Significantly, it was at this time, in 1904, that the American psychologist Stanley Hall defined adolescence as a separate life-stage, a period of ‘storm and stress’ prone to perversion and vice.128 Troublesome youths were nothing new in history, but it was now that they were diagnosed as a distinct problem: juvenile delinquents. Moral panic was fuelled by an awareness of the growing independence of youth, in terms of both money and mobility. Scavenging for tin cans, bottles, paper and discarded furniture and selling the loot to the local junkman gave city kids new freedom as consumers. Rising wages freed adolescent workers from parental control. A welfare officer in Germany commented on the mixed blessing of the eight-hour day introduced just after the First World War.
In Paris, the blousons noirs inspired fear and gangs fought each other in the 15th arrondissement. In Moscow, young men flâneured up and down the left side of Gorky Street – Broadway or simply ‘Brod’ to them – in extra-long jackets, tight trousers with wide flares and thick-soled shoes that could weigh up to 2.5kg. On both sides of the Iron Curtain, authorities, journalists and cultural elites voiced the same moral panic: youth was in crisis.117 These confrontations had particular local ingredients; West Germans, for example, worried about how to build a new army with young rebels. But it is helpful to see things in the round. How consumption redefined generations is a theme that will be explored in greater depth in a later chapter. Here we should note what the preoccupation with rebellious youth tells us about nervous elites as well as about teenagers.
In the Eastern Bloc there were also signs of a new age-specific culture of pleasure, separate from the demands of work and politics. In a Russian underground publication, a writer charged the older generation: ‘You propose to spit on the operetta, study only [Friedrich Engels’] Anti-Dühring? and discuss politics? How boring are your ideals . . . How can a person live without jazz, funny songs, dance and laughter?’127 The moral panic about young consumers was so sharp because of related concerns about sexual promiscuity and a loosening of class and gender hierarchies. Sex was becoming an ‘obsessional activity’, of ‘purely animal satisfaction’, Seebohm Rowntree wrote in 1951.128 Such fears drew on an earlier association between the temptations of the flesh and the lust for things, especially among the weaker sex. In 1917, in an earlier war on ‘delinquency’, one investigator in Cleveland, Ohio, met a girl keen on dating and dancing who claimed to be eighteen: ‘What she wanted, she said, was a good time; she didn’t care how she got it.
Alcohol: A History by Rod Phillips
clean water, conceptual framework, European colonialism, financial independence, invention of the printing press, Kickstarter, large denomination, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, New Urbanism, profit motive, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor
The 1925 description by the historian Dorothy George that “it would be hardly possible to exaggerate the cumulatively disastrous effects of the orgy of spirit-drinking between 1720 and 1751” seems itself to be an exaggeration.45 And contemporary accounts of widespread ruin and death as a result of gin-drinking are surely examples of moral panic based on a fragile interpretation of verifiable events. Be that as it may, it is clear that the production and consumption of spirits did increase dramatically in some parts of England (especially in London) during the first half of the eighteenth century, and that this must have had implications for the health and well-being of many individuals and for the social order more generally. It is difficult, however, to assess the scale of the phenomenon and its consequences and to understand why they provoked a moral panic. The popularity of gin in England was kick-started by a shortage of brandy, which by the late seventeenth century was being imported from France in substantial volumes: 2 million gallons a year by the 1680s.
Beer production appears to have peaked in England in this period, and one commentator predicted that before long the whole kingdom would be “nothing but a Brewery or Distillery, and the Inhabitants all Drunkards.”43 But spirits caused the greatest headaches—not only to many consumers but also to those worried by what they saw as rising consumption. Gin was said to be much stronger than brandy and to be, as such, a much “hotter” beverage that could “overheat” its consumers. If excessive brandy-drinking in the morning led to the abuse of wine and beer in the afternoon, the risk was that much greater when grain spirits were involved. Warnings about the potential dangers of spirits seemed to be justified by a number of moral panics in the early eighteenth century, the most dramatic and best-documented of which was the “gin-craze” that was believed to have taken hold in parts of England between 1700 and 1750. (“Gin” was a generic term for a wide range of distilled spirits, and it was not specifically the juniper-flavored spirit that was at issue here, but all grain-based alcohol.) It is difficult to separate reality from rhetoric when looking at this phenomenon.44 It was probably not nearly as serious as it was portrayed in the most alarming accounts of contemporaries and some later historians.
Advertising was still permitted on billboards and at events such as wine fairs, and in 2009 the law was amended to permit alcohol advertisements on French-based websites as long as they were not directed at young people. The second major alcohol issue associated with young people, binge-drinking or heavy episodic drinking, refers to drinking significant volumes of alcohol in a short period with the primary purpose of getting drunk. Concern for binge-drinking (the term is rejected by some alcohol policy-makers) has some of the characteristics of a moral panic, an inflated assessment of some form of behavior, such as the gin-craze of early eighteenth-century England might well have been. At that time, middle- and upper-class men deplored—and undoubtedly exaggerated—the extent of public drinking by women, workers, and the poor, even though they themselves might have regularly drunk themselves into oblivion in the privacy of their homes and clubs. Similarly, the modern focus on young people drinking at a binge level (commonly defined in the United States as five standard drinks for males and four for females in one session) usually ignores the reality that many older people regularly consume that much alcohol at an evening meal; it can almost be achieved by consuming half a bottle of wine containing 14.5 percent alcohol with dinner.
Reaganland: America's Right Turn 1976-1980 by Rick Perlstein
"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, affirmative action, airline deregulation, Alistair Cooke, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, death of newspapers, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, energy security, equal pay for equal work, facts on the ground, feminist movement, financial deregulation, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, land reform, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, oil shock, open borders, Potemkin village, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, traveling salesman, unemployed young men, union organizing, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, wages for housework, walking around money, War on Poverty, white flight, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game
He laughed, perhaps fingering a pistol beneath the desk: “We’re staying.” American streets felt like harrowing places. A moral panic was afoot that spring concerning the drug PCP. The Washington Post said it could “turn a person into a rampaging semblance of a cornered wild animal,” and blamed it for a nonexistent local schizophrenia epidemic. Actually, the drug delivered only a slightly more intense high than marijuana. Studies proved it usually had no more lasting harm. The stories about peaceful youth become feral beasts at their first taste of the stuff were myths. Which did nothing to abate all the breathless TV news segments about “angel dust” users plucking out their own eyes and bashing in car windows. Another moral panic concerned an alleged epidemic of children being seduced from Midwestern streets and turned into Times Square sex slaves.
See also “Coalition Politics on the Right,” WSJ, January 3, 1978; “The New Right’s Strong Ambition Is Fueled by Huge Mail Campaign,” NYT, December 4, 1977. in St. Paul, Minnesota Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 323–24; AP, April 19, 1978; Randy Shilts, The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982), 223–26, 215–17. Wichita, Kansas Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 322–23; Fred Fejes, Gay Rights and Moral Panic: The Origins of America’s Debate on Homosexuality (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 161, 173–75. Eugene, Oregon Fejes, Gay Rights and Moral Panic, 175–76; Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 322. Florida Citrus Commission Gannett News Service, January 22, 1978. “done the most damage” Jackie M. Blount, Fit to Teach: Same-Sex Desire, Gender, and School Work in the Twentieth Century (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2006), 147. fell 70 percent Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 328.
A Roper poll Collins, More, 178. “relentlessly wholesome” “Pat and Debby Show,” People, April 17, 1978. In Minnesota Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 324–36; Fred Fejes, Gay Rights and Moral Panic: The Origins of America’s Debate on Homosexuality (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 173. “we have been attacked” Randy Shilts, The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982), 223–26, 218. State Senator John Briggs Ibid., 219. Mayor Connie Kennard ABC News, May 8, 1978, VTVNA. The reverend leading UPI, April 29, 1978. shocking 83 percent Fejes, Gay Rights and Moral Panic, 174. White House public liaison “Wichita Repeals Homosexual Law,” NYT, May 10 1978. For her forthrightness AP, June 1, 1978. Old Time Gospel Hour Christianity Today, June 21, 1978; “The Next Billy Graham,” Esquire, October 10, 1978.
Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber
1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise
As the guild structures broke down, apprentices could become journeymen, but journeymen could no longer become masters, which meant that, in traditional terms, they would not be a position to marry and start families of their own. They were expected to live their entire lives effectively as unfinished human beings.31 Inevitably, many began to rebel, give up on the interminable waiting, and began marrying early, abandoning their masters to set up cottages and families of their own—which, in turn, set off a wave of moral panic among the emerging employing class very reminiscent of later moral panics about teenage pregnancy. The following is from The Anatomie of Abuses, a sixteenth-century manifesto by a Puritan named Phillip Stubbes: And besides this, you shall have every saucy boy, of ten, fourteen, sixteen, or twenty years of age, catch up a woman, and marry her, without any fear of God at all . . . or, which is more, without any respect how they may live together, with sufficient maintenance for their callings and estate.
This in turn led to a renewed backlash of moralizing about work as a value in itself of the sort we’ve already encountered in chapter 6—at the same time as an export of many factory jobs to poor countries where labor was cheap enough it could still be performed by human beings. It was in the wake of this reaction to the sixties counterculture, in the seventies and eighties, that the first wave of managerial feudalism, and the extreme bullshitization of employment, began to make itself felt. The latest wave of robotization has caused the same moral crises and moral panics as the sixties. The only real difference is that, since any significant change in economic models, let alone property regimes, is now treated as definitively off of the table, it’s simply assumed the only possible result will be to convey even more wealth and power to the 1 percent. Martin Ford’s recent The Rise of the Robots, for example, documents how, after making most blue-collar workers redundant, Silicon Valley is in the process of taking aim at health care, education, and the liberal professions as well.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
., Under Fire 2 The Organization And Representation of Violence, Rotterdam: Witte de Witte, 64. 34 Jeremy Adam Smith, ‘Tearing Down the Towers’. 35 David Harvey, Justice Nature and the Geography of Difference, Oxford: Blackwell, 1996, 404. 36 Guy Baeten, ‘The Uses and Deprivations of the Neoliberal City’, in BAVO, ed, Urban Politics Now: Re Imagining Democracy in the Neoliberal City, Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008; Rowland Atkinson and Gesa Helms, eds., Securing an Urban Renaissance, Bristol: Policy Press, 2007. 37 David Simon, ‘The Escalating Breakdown of Urban Society across the US’, Guardian, 6 September 2008. 38 Quoted in Paul Street, ‘Republicans, Cities, and Cruise Ships’, Znet, February 2004. 39 Ibid. 40 Steve Macek, Urban Nightmares: The Media, The Right and The Moral Panic Over the City, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2006, 37–70. 41 It is striking how Christian Fundamentalists regularly espouse the pseudo-science of Social Darwinism whilst rejecting out of hand the overwhelming accumulation of hard-scientific evidence supporting Darwinian theories of Evolution. See George Monbiot, ‘How these Gibbering Numbskulls Came to Dominate Washington’, Guardian, 28 October 2008. 42 Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structures in American Life, New York: Free Press, 526. 43 In Autumn 2002, US suburbanites around Washington DC’s Beltway, still reeling under the impacts of the 9/11 attacks, were subjected to a campaign of murderous sniping.
One report by Visionics, a leading manufacturer, promised that its face-recognition technologies would do no less than ‘Protect … Civilization from the Faces of Terror’.105 Seduced by such hyperbole, Interpol announced in October 2008 that it was seeking to develop an international face-recognition CCTV system to integrate screening across main borders.106 The dramatically intensified investment and research in face-recognition CCTV after 9/11 has exploited perfectly the notion of what Kelly Gates calls an ‘amorphous, racialized, and fetishized enemy Other that had penetrated both the national territory and the national imagination’.107 The race is on to develop systems appropriate to the ‘nation’s new “unidentifiable” Other’ – people of ‘Middle Eastern appearance’.108 The technophilic search for an extended, distributed system for tracking the biometrically scanned faces of suspect individuals thus parallels the idea, propagated through the moral panic flooding the national media, ‘that certain faces could be inherently “faces of terror” – that individuals embody terror or evil in their faces’. This, Gates argues, could ‘not help but invoke a paranoid discourse of racialized otherness’.109 The prospect of ‘smart’ CCTV continually searching for ‘abnormal’ or ‘threatening’ elements across entire cities and nations may ultimately prefigure the collapse of the age-old notion of urban anonymity.
Moreover, she admits that her daughter now ‘feels very threatened when she sees poor people. We were driving next to a truck with some day laborers … and we were parked beside them at a light. [My daughter] wanted to move because she was afraid those people were going to come and get her. They looked scary to her’.59 The widening anxieties surrounding urban life within the context of the War on Terror add to moral panics over crime, social unrest, and the need to fortress oneself and one’s family against all manner of incursions and risks. Enter the SUV, carefully designed and marketed to exploit and perpetuate fears of the Other, the ghetto, while at the same time providing reassurance and patriotic symbolism for ‘homeland’ suburbanites who find themselves experiencing a new kind of war, in which vague and unknowable threats might lurk everywhere and anywhere, threatening to strike at any time.
America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven
American ideology, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K
Although at their farther 117 AMERICA RIGHT OR WRONG fringes the forces of the American antithesis shade over into fascistic manias like that of the terrorist Timothy McVeigh and the various militia movements, the great majority are not opposed to the formal democratic aspects of the American Creed; on the contrary, they take enormous pride in them and regard them as the core of American grandeur. This national unanimity behind democracy has formed the essential component of what might be called America's self-correcting mechanism, the country's ability to undergo periods of popular hysteria, moral panic and nationalist extremism without allowing them to become a permanent feature of the national scene or to be institutionalized in dictatorship. At least until now. As later chapters discuss, a combination of the national security state created by the Cold War and a war against terrorism with no foreseeable end may create some worrying possibilities in the long term. For most of American history, however, tendencies toward authoritarianism have taken what might be called a communal form, and have been phrased and even thought of in terms of a defense of the American liberal democratic system— what Seymour Lipset has called episodes of "Creedal passion"—not a revolt against it.
The radical religious element in American nationalism is something new and deeply disquieting to non-Americans. To the old anti-American prejudices elsewhere in the West, it adds the suspicion that powerful sections of the United States are driven by motives which are both wholly culturally alien to the rest of the developed world and fundamentally irrational. It risks creating a degree of fundamental alienation from America among other Western elites which was never true in the past. Moral Panics Although the Southern and Northern churches divided bitterly over slavery (with abolition becoming a great crusade for parts of Northeastern Protestantism), after the Civil War the Southern churches were also closely associated with some of the Northern and so-called mainline Protestant churches of the United States in certain moral crusades. These movements frequently reflected a desire to preserve the cultural dominance of the old "core" Protestant populations in the small towns and countryside over the new Catholic and Jewish populations of the great cities, and hostility to "aliens" in general. 130 A N T I T H E S I S PART Ii: F U N D A M E N T A L I S T S A N D GREAT F E A R S The consequent anxieties often took the form of concern over sexual promiscuity, especially when linked to drugs, drunkenness and venereal disease; and in the South, the anxieties fed into perennial fears concerning Blacks.34 Since the 1970s, this tradition has been revived in the Christian Right's crusade against abortion.
., 5, 130 political correctness, 28, 47; and nationalist myth, 5960, 62-63 populist nationalism, 96, 104, 134 Porch, Douglas, 26 Powell, Colin, 44, 78, 152, 170, 177 Present Danger, The (Podhoretz), 158 Present Dangers (Kagan, Kristol), 164-65 Prestowitz, Clyde, 46 pride, national, 3, 19-20, 53 progressive internationalists, 79 Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), 77 Prohibition, 131-32, 133, 137 propaganda, 24, 78, 113, 155; anti-Israeli, 205; around race, 47, 62 Protestantism, 6, 21, 44, 5455, 97, 125, 139 Protestants, 101, 104, 140; evangelical/ fundamentalist, 5, 8-10, 99, 124, 126, 144; and moral panic, 130-33; nativism in, 9196; and religious nationalism, 33-34 Prudhomme, Sully, 38 Pursuit of the Millennium, The (Cohn), 147 Quinet, Edgar, 35 racism, 41-47; covert, 43, 46; and cultural conformity, 41-43, 44; transformation of, 43-47, 49 Rational Choice theory, 66, 68 Ravitch, Diane, 60 Reagan administration, 79, 129,141, 169, 178; and national myth, 57-58, 59, 63, 153 "Realism," 75, 170, 183; character of, 18, 159, 17071; criticism of, 76, 78, 79; dominance of, 82, 172 273 Red Cross, International Committee of (ICRC), 121, 122 "Redneck" culture, 116 Reed, John Shelton, 102,107, 116 Reed, Ralph, 43, 92, 119,141 religion: conservative, 8, 12325; statistics on, 140.
Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton
Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional
A feature of the legislation is that a disproportionate number of antisocial-behaviour orders have been handed out to people with mental health problems which result in unusual behaviours, such as autism or Tourette’s syndrome.28 When antisocial-behaviour orders are breached, which they are in the majority of cases, the consequences can be up to five years in prison.29 So what is antisocial behaviour and where has it come from? ‘The morals of the children are ten times worse than formerly,’ Lord Ashley told the House of Commons in 1823, showing that moral panics about the behaviour of young people are nothing new.30 According to the legislation, antisocial behaviour is defined as behaviour which can cause ‘harassment, alarm or distress to one or more persons not of the same household [as the perpetrator]’. But while the definition is broad enough to cover just about anything, the antisocial-behaviour agenda, which is also branded the ‘Respect’ agenda, has introduced specific legislation, including parenting orders, curfews, evictions, antisocial-behaviour orders and dispersal orders.
Field’s comments about concrete bunkers and his suggestions for the police to act as ‘surrogate parents’ reveal the extent to which these policies are underpinned by a philosophy of control and exclusion. The consequence of excluding problem families from social housing is the creation of ghettoes of terrible conditions described in the last chapter. IS BEHAVIOUR WORSE? As Lord Ashley’s comments about young people in 1823 revealed, every generation believes that behaviour, of its young people in particular, is not what it was. The term ‘moral panic’ was coined in the 1960s after the shock which greeted the clashes between mods and rockers. In the 1970s punk, with its Mohican haircuts and safety pins, terrified the older generation. Punk gave way to skinheads and football hooligans. Later in the 1980s a more overtly racist narrative linked young black men to inner-city crime. The early 1990s saw the horror of the James Bulger case, when Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, aged ten, murdered the two-year-old toddler, and in subsequent years we heard a lot about feral children with names like ‘ratboy’ and ‘spider-boy’.74 Since 1997 we have had the all-encompassing phenomenon of ‘antisocial behaviour’.
Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts by Carol Tavris, Elliot Aronson
Ayatollah Khomeini, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, false memory syndrome, fear of failure, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, medical malpractice, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, psychological pricing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, telemarketer, the scientific method, trade route, transcontinental railway, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
Ofshe and Ethan Watters (1994), Making Monsters: False Memory, Psychotherapy, and Sexual Hysteria, New York: Scribners; Elizabeth Loftus and Katherine Ketcham (1994), The Myth of Repressed Memory, New York: St. Martin's Press; and Frederick Crews (ed.) (1998), Unauthorized Freud: Doubters Confront a Legend, New York: Viking. For an excellent sociology of hysterical epidemics and moral panics, see Philip Jenkins (1992), Intimate Enemies: Moral Panics in Contemporary Great Britain. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. The specific example of the woman who claimed that her father molested her from the ages of five to twenty-three is known as Laura B., who sued her father, Joel Hungerford, in the state of New Hampshire in 1995. She lost. 3 Two of the earliest and still best books on the day-care scandals and claims of widespread cults that were promoting ritual Satanic sexual abuse are Debbie Nathan and Michael Snedeker (1995), Satan's Silence: Ritual Abuse and the Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt, New York: Basic Books; and Stephen J.
The Importance of Being Seven by Alexander McCall Smith
In this way Daphnis and Chloë, or Romeo and Juliet, can only too quickly become Darby and Joan, Mr and Mrs Bennet, or any other famous domestic couple. As for the received view about the so-called empty nest syndrome, like many syndromes it barely exists. In most cases, parents do feel a slight pang on the leaving of home by their children, but this pang tends to occur before the offspring go, and it is largely a dread of the syndrome itself rather than concern over the actual departure. In this way it is similar to many of the moral panics that afflict an imaginative society from time to time: the fear of what might happen in the future is almost always worse than the future that eventually arrives. So when the child finally goes off to university, or takes a gap year, or moves out to live with coevals, the parents might find themselves feeling strange for a day or two, but often find themselves exhilarated by their new freedom.
It would have to be one of the galleries that are accepted as being the sort of place where coffee makers – or anything, for that matter – can be sold as art. I’m not in that line of apostolic succession, so to speak.’ Big Lou was thinking. ‘The Dutch tulip affair,’ she said. ‘I was reading a funny wee book about social hysteria – about how folk get things into their heads and go mad for a while. There was something about witchcraft.’ ‘Moral panic,’ prompted Matthew. ‘Yes. That sort of thing. Didn’t the Dutch go mad about tulips back in the – when was it – 1600s? Didn’t they pay terrific prices for tulip bulbs? And these bulbs got more and more expensive and people fought to have the rarest ones they could get hold of. Sheer stupidity.’ ‘Yes,’ said Matthew. ‘And then suddenly somebody said, “Hold on, it’s just tulip bulbs, and tulip bulbs aren’t really worth the price of a house.” ’ ‘And everything collapsed.
The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, business cycle, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application
“Reach out and touch someone.” But through the ’70s and ’80s, our isolation grew. Suburbs, sprawling ever farther, became exurbs. Families grew smaller or splintered apart, mothers left the home to work. The electronic hearth became the television in every room. Even in childhood, certainly in adolescence, we were each trapped inside our own cocoon. Soaring crime rates, and even more sharply escalating rates of moral panic, pulled children off the streets. The idea that you could go outside and run around the neighborhood with your friends, once unquestionable, has now become unthinkable. The child who grew up between the world wars as part of an extended family within a tight-knit urban community became the grandparent of a kid who sat alone in front of a big television, in a big house, on a big lot. We were lost in space.
See also Television; specific media outlets citizen customization of political traditional Media customization MediaMetrix MedievalMUSH Mednick, Sara Meehan, Martin Meetup.com “Mental Set and Shift” (Jersild) MetaFilter Metaphor overload Meyer, David Meyer, Paul Meyer, Timothy The Mickey Mouse Club (television series) Microsoft Microsoft Outlook Microsoft Research Labs Milgram, Stanley Miller, George Milton, John Mind historical views of hypertext simulation and social and networked video games and Mobile phones. See Cell phones Mockumentaries Modernism The Monkey Wrench Conspiracy (video game) Monsell, Stephen Moody, Teena Moore, Jim Moore’s Law Moral panics Morita, Akio Mormon Church Morris, William Mosaic Motorola Moulitsas Zúniga, Markos Movable type mp3.com MPD. See Multiple personality disorder Mrs. Dalloway (Wolff) MSN MTV MtvU MUDs. See Multiuser domains Multiple personality disorder (MPD) Multiplicity Multitasking Multiuser domains (MUDs) Mumford, Lewis Muppets Murdoch, Rupert Murray, Janet Murthy, N. R. Narayana Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (television series) MySpace civic networks and identity setup on politician’s pages on self-portraits on spamming on MySpace Unraveled (Magid and Collier MySQL Napster Narcissism NASA NASA.gov NASDAQ National Book Foundation National Geographic National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health Natural selection Nature (journal) Navteq Neanderthals Nelson, Ted Net Geners civic causes and collaboration and customization and education and entertainment and freedom and innovation and integrity and job customization by media customization by politics and purchase research by scrutiny and speed and NetMeeting Net roots Netscape Networked mind Networking Network News Protocol (NNTP) Neuroplasticity Neuroscience Newmark, Craig New Rules for the New Economy (Kelly) News Corporation Newsfeeds Newsweek The New Yorker New York Post The New York Times The New York Times Magazine NFL GameDay (video game) N-Fluence networks Nielsen Nietzsche, Friedrich Nike Nike+ iPod Sport Kit Nilekani, Nandan M. 9/11.
Drugs Without the Hot Air by David Nutt
British Empire, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, offshore financial centre, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), War on Poverty
Since hemp paper posed direct competition to wood pulp paper, he had an economic stake in limiting hemp production, and recognised that if controls were placed on cannabis because of its psychoactive effects, it would become more difficult to grow the plant for other purposes. Hearst’s media empire spread stories about violent attacks on white women by Mexican immigrants intoxicated with marijuana, creating a sense of moral panic and support for controls on the drug, and therefore on the plant as well. The three lives of cannabis now became dependent on the fate of its use as a recreational drug. Although ordinary Americans were familiar with hemp, many didn’t realise that it had anything to do with marijuana, just as many doctors didn’t realise it was the same plant as cannabis indica, which they considered a valuable medicine.
In Britain, cannabis continued to be available on prescription throughout the 1960s. However, this was the decade in which recreational use became common, with some people buying it on the black market, and others 22diverting prescriptions from their doctors. Although cannabis users and medical professionals had become more organised by this point, and were trying to get the drug decriminalised for all uses, some of the moral panic from the USA had been imported, and there was a lot of political pressure to control the drug still further. After the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the British government decided 23not to renew the medical licence on cannabis, in part because of concerns about the drug being diverted from medical sources. This was an odd way to have dealt with the problem. Doctors have access to a wide range of other drugs with abuse potential, and we stop those supplies being diverted by having strict rules and regulations around what doctors can prescribe, and by disciplining them through the General Medical Council if they break those rules.
The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century by Steven Pinker
butterfly effect, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, Douglas Hofstadter, feminist movement, functional fixedness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, index card, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, McMansion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, short selling, Steven Pinker, the market place, theory of mind, Turing machine
.—1833 Our language (I mean the English) is degenerating very fast. … I begin to fear that it will be impossible to check it.—1785 Complaints about the decline of language go at least as far back as the invention of the printing press. Soon after William Caxton set up the first one in England in 1478, he lamented, “And certaynly our langage now vsed veryeth ferre from what whiche was vsed and spoken when I was borne.” Indeed, moral panic about the decline of writing may be as old as writing itself: Non Sequitur © 2011 Wiley Ink, Inc. Dist. by Universal Uclick. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. The cartoon is not much of an exaggeration. According to the English scholar Richard Lloyd-Jones, some of the clay tablets deciphered from ancient Sumerian include complaints about the deteriorating writing skills of the young.6 My discomfort with the classic style manuals has convinced me that we need a writing guide for the twenty-first century.
The Elements of Style (4th ed.). New York: Longman. Sunstein, C. R. 2013. Simpler: The future of government. New York: Simon & Schuster. Sword, H. 2012. Stylish academic writing. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Thomas, F.-N., and Turner, M. 1994. Clear and simple as the truth: Writing classic prose. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Thurlow, C. 2006. From statistical panic to moral panic: The metadiscursive construction and popular exaggeration of new media language in the print media. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11. Truss, L. 2003. Eats, shoots & leaves: The zero tolerance approach to punctuation. London: Profile Books. Van Orden, G. C., Johnston, J. C., & Hale, B. L. 1988. Word identification in reading proceeds from spelling to sound to meaning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 14, 371–386.
Austerity Britain: 1945-51 by David Kynaston
Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, continuous integration, deindustrialization, deskilling, Etonian, full employment, garden city movement, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labour mobility, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, occupational segregation, price mechanism, rent control, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional
The figures are patchy, but it seems that an appreciably higher proportion than usual of these burglaries were committed by juveniles – a fact that subsequent police reports not implausibly attributed to the way in which ‘during the war years children have lacked fatherly control and restraint and in a large number of families mothers have obviously tended to allow too much freedom’.16What was indisputable was that a moral panic was brewing up nicely. Reassuringly, during the spring and disappointingly poor summer, the old sporting rituals reappeared, apparently unscathed: not only the Cup Final but the Boat Race (‘the Prime Minister was there, the swans were out, young men back from the services wore beards, folk picnicked on roofs, ate ice-cream, let off crackers,’ noted Hodson), the Grand National (Captain Petre, on leave from the Scots Guards, winning on Lovely Cottage, very much the housewives’ choice) and Wimbledon (the British players routed by the French, American and Australian ones).
Tellingly, he added, little of this hostility was political in nature but rather stemmed from ‘the belief that they misuse their power, are unscrupulous, avaricious or dishonest’. And Gorer, who could speak with some authority, declared his belief that such suspicions ‘would be much more widely voiced in most other societies’.9. It was, all in all, a graphically consensual picture that this aspect of his survey evoked. The Blue Lamp was equally topical in terms of the prevailing moral panic about youth into which it so deftly tapped. ‘Rarely a day passes now without some act of criminal violence being committed,’ noted Anthony Heap in March 1950: ‘Gangs of young teen-age thugs, emulating the American gangster “heroes” they see regularly on the screen, go around “coshing”, robbing, and beating-up people with impunity. And on the few occasions when some are caught, what sort of punishment do they get?
(Child Guidance Clinic, Chatham) Generally, though, the experts took a reasonably robust line – ‘It is a useful medium for the projection of phantasy,’ asserted the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh – and by almost two to one they voted for the programme’s continuation. Henceforth, though, each episode was lumbered with a gratuitous tailpiece, in which a voiceover solemnly mulled over the moral issues that had been raised – a device that perhaps hastened the programme’s end in 1951. Juvenile delinquency, although undoubtedly a real phenomenon, was almost certainly not as widespread as the moral panic imagined. One suggestive fact is that out of 1,315 working-class Glasgow boys who left school in January 1947, just over 12 per cent had been or would be convicted in the courts at least once between their eighth and eighteenth birthdays. Analysing the lives and outcomes of these boys over the three years after they left school, Thomas Ferguson (Professor of Public Health at Glasgow University) identified the main factors behind juvenile crime: low academic ability, employment problems, bad housing and criminal habits or tendencies in the family background.
Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks
Early on, the reaction of mainstream conservative media to Internet trolls from the chan world was an unambiguously moral and condemnatory one, and the standard progressive academic reflex (implicitly pro-counterculture, implicitly pro-transgression) was less critical, verging on celebratory. The Fox News depiction of 4chan as an ‘Internet hate machine’ and trolls more broadly as an anti-social, foul-mouthed group of misanthropes, still living with their mothers, etc., simultaneously mocked and heightened the moral panic about the anarchy of the online world. Other mainstream news media focused on cyberbullying, DDoS attacks and the trolling of Facebook memorial pages. Author Whitney Phillips was more ambivalent, characterizing the cultural politics of trolling in more generous terms than the mainstream press, portioning some of the blame for their extreme cruelty to Facebook policies and the ‘encoded solipsism’ of the social network itself.
The Prodigal Tongue: The Love-Hate Relationship Between American and British English by Lynne Murphy
airport security, British Empire, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, joint-stock company, moral panic, pre–internet, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, young professional
For sufferers of amerilexicophobia, American English can no longer be dismissed. It is a threat. An invasive species that will choke and supplant the native wordlife. From amerilexicophobia to amerilexicosis The British [. . .] do not want to be happy; they want to be right. Quentin Crisp As history has shown again and again, the PREJUDICE + FEAR formula often equals MADNESS. Britain, the land of “Keep Calm and Carry On,” reputedly conducts its moral panics with a bit more decorum and perhaps even rationality than the US does. Nevertheless, reason goes out the window when amerilexicophobia takes hold. Anti-Americanism-ism and amerilexicophobia transform into amerilexicosis: a pathologically unhinged reaction to American English. The symptoms of amerilexicosis include irritability, obsessive behavior, paranoia, and delusions. Irritability can be seen in the regular appearance of anti-American-English diatribes in British media, with headlines like “Don’t talk garbage!”
Only about 10% of the negative comments about US accents in the first study were really about the sound of the accent (“ugly,” “harsh,” or “not very nice to listen to”). The rest had little to do with American pronunciation and more to do with stereotyped American personalities, with comments like “over the top,” “phoney,” and “imperialistic.” Given the current political climate, I can’t imagine that such stereotypes of Americans will dissipate any time soon. But I still have hope about the language. Certainly, the moral panic about American English is still played out regularly in Britain. As I finish writing this book, another book is being promoted as “a call to arms against the linguistic impoverishment that happens when one language [American English] dominates another [British English].”15 (I’m sure the Scots, Welsh, and Irish will find this ironic, given that the English have historically done their best to dominate and wipe out their languages.)
Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration and the Future of White Majorities by Eric Kaufmann
4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, income inequality, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open borders, phenotype, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, twin studies, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional
At times, these emotional mechanisms set off a spiral in which fear of heretics or the desire to avoid being accused leads to further accusations, which increases fear, multiplying the number of accusations, which results in a witch-hunt. The frenzy also serves the function of providing an internal scapegoat to unify a group against. The Inquisition, beginning in tenth-century Europe, is the most famous example of this dynamic, torturing suspected heretics and setting off a spate of moral panics. ‘Crimes’ committed by deviants are either evidence-free or grossly exaggerated.6 The Terror following the French Revolution, the Stalinist Show Trials of the 1930s, McCarthyism in the 1950s and Mao’s Cultural Revolution of the 1960s show how secular versions of the process operate. Splits within challenger movements such as the 1970s British left (satirized by Monty Python in the ‘People’s Front of Judea’ skit in Life of Brian) or Irish republicanism (I once visited an ‘Official’ IRA pub, commemorating some of those killed by the ‘Provisional’ IRA) may lead to similar purges or assassinations.
Ritualistic aspects include shaming those who violate taboos around immigration or multiculturalism while applauding people who perform ‘virtue-signalling’ affirmations of sacred anti-racist values. This signalling-approval dynamic is identical to the ‘Amen’ which a fundamentalist preacher’s flock chants after the pastor divines signs of Satan’s or God’s presence in innocuous events. Left unopposed, the ecstasy can spiral out of control, leading to moral panics of the kind seen at Evergreen State. CONFLICT OVER THE MEANING OF RACISM While positive liberals seek to expand the scope of the anti-racism taboo, negative liberals defend it only for a narrower range of infractions. For instance, restricting the right of a Muslim woman to wear a burqa runs counter to procedural liberalism. While proponents of a ban argue that patriarchal Muslim culture compels women to wear the burqa, a negative liberal cannot second-guess a person’s motivations.
One is to have an open immigration system that doesn’t take culture into account but interferes with the rights of illiberal minorities once they are in the country, targeting them through measures such as burqa bans and panicking over their growth. That is the situation we are currently in. A second option is to have a cultural points system of immigration along the lines noted above, but to live and let live once groups are in a country. Growth is contained by the selection process, which removes the imperative for illiberal integration policies and deflates moral panics. If a Haredi Jew or Salafi Muslim wants to live in a segregated community in Britain, only interacting with their own community, I don’t mind. But this is true only because such groups are small. I would rather have a tolerant society, with a small share of illiberal minorities, than a situation like Israel where illiberal minorities are large, growing and beginning to set the tone. If the ethnic majority are aware that immigration policy is being designed to facilitate assimilation, they will become more relaxed about those who don’t assimilate, reducing racism.
The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure by Greg Lukianoff, Jonathan Haidt
AltaVista, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, helicopter parent, hygiene hypothesis, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed
In Part II, we show the Great Untruths in action. We examine the “shout-downs,” intimidation, and occasional violence that are making it more difficult for universities to fulfill their core missions of education and research. We explore the newly popular idea that speech is violence, and we show why thinking this way is bad for students’ mental health. We explore the sociology of witch hunts and moral panics, including the conditions that can cause a college to descend into chaos. In Part III, we try to solve the mystery. Why did things change so rapidly on many campuses between 2013 and 2017? We identify six explanatory threads: the rising political polarization and cross-party animosity of U.S. politics, which has led to rising hate crimes and harassment on campus; rising levels of teen anxiety and depression, which have made many students more desirous of protection and more receptive to the Great Untruths; changes in parenting practices, which have amplified children’s fears even as childhood becomes increasingly safe; the loss of free play and unsupervised risk-taking, both of which kids need to become self-governing adults; the growth of campus bureaucracy and expansion of its protective mission; and an increasing passion for justice, combined with changing ideas about what justice requires.
One factor that is already emerging as a central variable for study is the quality of a teenager’s relationships and how technology is impacting it. In a recent review of research on the effects of social media, social psychologists Jenna Clark, Sara Algoe, and Melanie Green offer this principle: “Social network sites benefit their users when they are used to make meaningful social connections and harm their users through pitfalls such as isolation and social comparison when they are not.”45 So we don’t want to create a moral panic and frighten parents into banning all devices until their kids turn twenty-one. These are complicated issues, and much more research is needed. In the meantime, as we’ll say in chapter 12, there is enough evidence to support placing time limits on device use (perhaps two hours a day for adolescents, less for younger kids) while limiting or prohibiting the use of platforms that amplify social comparison rather than social connection.
Entangled Life: How Fungi Make Our Worlds, Change Our Minds & Shape Our Futures by Merlin Sheldrake
biofilm, buy low sell high, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of penicillin, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late capitalism, low earth orbit, Mason jar, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral panic, NP-complete, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman
How do you rate the loss of your usual awareness about where you are? I recovered from my laughter and looked up at the ceiling. Come to think of it, how had I ended up here? A fungus had evolved a chemical that had been used to make a drug. Quite by accident, this drug had been discovered to alter human experience. For seven decades or so, LSD’s peculiar effects on our minds had generated astonishment, confusion, evangelical zeal, moral panic, and everything in between. As it filtered through the twentieth century, it had left an indelible cultural residue that we still struggle to make sense of. I was lying in this hospital room as part of a clinical trial because its effects remained as bewildering as they had always been. No wonder I was baffled. LSD and psilocybin are fungal molecules that have found themselves entangled within human life in complicated ways exactly because they confound our concepts and structures, including the most fundamental concept of all: that of our selves.
Present-day cultural attitudes to mushrooms were, the Wassons speculated, a “latter-day echo” of ancient psychedelic mushroom cults. Mycophilic cultures were descendants of those who had worshipped mushrooms. Mycophobic cultures were descendants of those who had considered their power diabolical. Mycophilic attitudes might lead Yamaguchi Sodo to write poems in praise of matsutake, or urge Terence McKenna to proselytize about the benefits of taking large doses of psilocybin mushrooms. Mycophobic attitudes might fuel a moral panic that leads to their illegalization, or prompt Albertus Magnus and John Gerard to issue stark warnings about the dangers of these “new fangled meates.” Both positions recognize the power of mushrooms to affect people’s lives. Both make sense of this power in different ways. We shoehorn organisms into questionable categories all the time. It’s one of the ways we make sense of them. In the nineteenth century, bacteria and fungi were classified as plants.
Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time by Michael Shermer
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological principle, discovery of DNA, false memory syndrome, Gary Taubes, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, Laplace demon, life extension, moral panic, Murray Gell-Mann, out of africa, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
Although each chapter can be read independently, cumulatively they show the allure of psychic power and extrasensory perception, UFOs and alien abductions, ghosts and haunted houses. But more than this, the book deals with controversies not necessarily on the margins of society which may have pernicious social consequences: creation-science and biblical literalism, Holocaust denial and freedom of speech, race and IQ, political extremism and the radical right, modern witch crazes prompted by moral panics and mass hysterias, including the recovered memory movement, Satanic ritual abuse, and facilitated communication. Here the difference in thinking makes all the difference. But more than this—much more—the book is a celebration of the scientific spirit and of the joy inherent in exploring the world's great mysteries even when final answers are not forthcoming. The intellectual journey matters, not the destination.
Thousands of Satanic cults were believed to be operating in secrecy throughout America, sacrificing and mutilating animals, sexually abusing children, and practicing Satanic rituals. In The Satanism Scare, James Richardson, Joel Best, and David Bromley argue persuasively that public discourse about sexual abuse, Satanism, serial murders, or child pornography is a barometer of larger social fears and anxieties. The Satanic panic was an instance of moral panic, where "a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests; its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media; the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians and other right-thinking people; socially accredited experts pronounce their diagnoses and solutions; ways of coping are evolved or resorted to; the condition then disappears, submerges or deteriorates" (1991, p. 23).
Adam Smith: Father of Economics by Jesse Norman
"Robert Solow", active measures, Andrei Shleifer, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, loss aversion, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, scientific worldview, seigniorage, Socratic dialogue, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Veblen good, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working poor, zero-sum game
And it was warmer still in revolutionary France, where the Moniteur Universel commented that ‘Europe has just been deprived of this famous philosopher.’ But the early 1790s were hardly a suitable time for balanced evaluation. There had been great excitement among British radicals, Whigs and intellectuals after the fall of the Bastille on 14 July 1789, which many saw as the dawn of a new age of enlightened government in France. But this had long been superseded by events. By early 1793 Britain was in the grip of a moral panic about possible sedition and ‘the French treason’: not merely the replacement of one ruler by another—the good old ‘English treason’—but the overthrow of monarchy itself. These fears were only magnified by the execution of Louis XVI at the guillotine on 21 January of that year. In this context it was easy to misunderstand Smith, or to co-opt him to a specific cause, in a way all too familiar today.
Violence had come with similar speed to the polite professional classes of Edinburgh from the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745: as Smith put it, ‘four or five thousand naked unarmed Highlanders took possession of the improved parts of this country without any opposition from the unwarlike inhabitants.’ But that was from without: Toulouse showed how swiftly popular anger, aroused by heavy taxes and stoked by religious panic, could boil over into bloodshed from within. Finally, it was evident at the time that a key cause of Calas’s incrimination, torture and death was a moral panic driven on by Catholic fear of his outsider status as a Huguenot, a panic which the legal institutions of Toulouse had not merely failed to contain under the rule of law, but actively abetted. Smith had written in his final additions to The Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1789 that ‘Of all the corrupters of moral sentiments, therefore, faction and fanaticism have always been by far the greatest’: the Calas case was a perfect case study of that faction and fanaticism in action.
On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World by Timothy Cresswell
British Empire, desegregation, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global village, illegal immigration, mass immigration, moral panic, Rosa Parks, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, urban planning
On the whole, however, movement appears to refer to an abstract and scientific conception, while mobility is thoroughly socialized and often threatening. Both terms emerged with modernity. We do not have to confine ourselves to dictionary definitions to see the fractured ways in which mobility has been understood. More generally, modernity has been marked by time-space compression and staggering developments in communication and transportation. At the same time, it has seen the rise of moral panics ranging from the refugee to the global RT52565_C001.indd 20 4/13/06 7:21:46 AM The Production of Mobilities • 21 terrorist. The celebrated technologies of mobility simultaneously open up the possibility of an increasingly transgressive world marked by people out of place at all scales. This is the tension that runs through the chapters in this book. Mobility is both center and margin—the lifeblood of modernity and the virus that threatens to hasten its downfall.
They left Spur on New Year’s Day in an old jalopy and reentered California on January 3, reaching Marysville on January 5. Duncan remained unemployed for ten days before getting relief from the Farm Security Administration. The movements of Edwards and Duncan were far from exceptional. Migration into California from Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and other states to the east had been the subject of varying degrees of moral panic since the late 1920s. Migrants, known as Okies and Arkies, had moved to California in order to get promised work in the new agribusiness centers of the California valleys following the dust storms of the Great Plains. By the time Duncan entered California, migration had mostly switched to people looking for work in the defense industry. It was in the defense industry that Duncan was finally employed—in a chemical plant in Pittsburgh, California.
Eastern standard tribe by Cory Doctorow
Once that happens, maybe I'll be able to formulate an hypothesis and try an experiment or two and maybe -- just maybe -- I'll get to the bottom of book-in-2004 and beat the competition to making it work, and maybe I'll go home with all (or most) of the marbles. It's a long shot, but I'm a pretty sharp guy, and I know as much about this stuff as anyone out there. More to the point, trying stuff and doing research yields a non-zero chance of success. The alternatives -- sitting pat, or worse, getting into a moral panic about "piracy" and accusing the readers who are blazing new trail of "the moral equivalent of shoplifting" -- have a zero percent chance of success. Most artists never "succeed" in the sense of attaining fame and modest fortune. A career in the arts is a risky long-shot kind of business. I'm doing what I can to sweeten my odds. So here we are, and here is novel number two, a book called Eastern Standard Tribe, which you can walk into shops all over the world and buy [ http://craphound.com/est/buy.php ] as a physical artifact -- a very nice physical artifact, designed by Chesley-award-winning art director Irene Gallo and her designer Shelley Eshkar, published by Tor Books, a huge, profit-making arm of an enormous, multinational publishing concern.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
This was going to be the great revelatory breakthrough for humankind. And it was for a while but then it tapered off pretty badly. It was nowhere near as radical as what computers have done. So I just, you know, shifted my allegiance in a sense from a semi-failed technology to a highly successful technology.” Despite the war on drugs, despite the constantly reconstituting government drug advisory panels and moral panics over designer drugs with implausible names, these days drugs like acid, ecstasy, dope and speed are classified as “recreational”, with all the easy hedonism that nomenclature implies. So it’s important to remember that psychedelics were once invested with the hopes of a generation as a serious, mind-expanding, “technology”. In 1968, Brand had been one of over 150 test subjects detailed in the first-ever published research into the effects of LSD produced by the International Foundation for Advanced Study (IFAS), Myron Stolaroff’s Menlo Park-based research centre.
The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind
affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor
Even so, there are genuine neo-Nazis and other white supremacists in the West, including the American mass murderers Timothy McVeigh, Dylann Roof, and Patrick Crusius. Police and intelligence agencies in the US and Europe should do their best to identify genuine potential domestic and foreign terrorists and prevent them from doing harm. Liberal democracy in the West today is not endangered by Russian machinations or resurgent fascism. But liberalism and democracy alike are endangered when irrational moral panics like today’s Russia Scare and Brown Scare in the West lead hysterical elites to redefine “extremism” or “fascism” or “white nationalism” to include ordinary populists, conservatives, libertarians, and heterodox leftists. What the historian Louis Hartz in The Liberal Tradition in America wrote of McCarthyite conservatives in the 1950s who feared that many of their fellow citizens were Russian dupes or dangerous communists who needed to be censored and blacklisted applies with equal force to today’s paranoid establishmentarians who fear that many of their fellow citizens are Russian dupes or dangerous fascists: “What must be accounted one of the tamest, mildest and most unimaginative majorities in modern political history has been bound down by a set of restrictions that betray fanatical terror.”50 My purpose is not to defend populist demagogy, which can be harmful and destructive without being totalitarian or traitorous.
Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
(Dec 2012), “Al Qaeda versus Big Brother: Anxiety about government monitoring and support for domestic counterterrorism policies,” Political Behavior 34, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11109-011-9177-6. Keven G. Ruby (2012), Society, State, and Fear: Managing National Security at the Boundary between Complacency and Panic, University of Chicago Press, http://books.google.com/books? id=UPILnwEACAAJ. If strong enough, it trumps all: Dawn Rothe and Stephen L. Muzzatti (Nov 2004), “Enemies everywhere: Terrorism, moral panic, and U.S. civil society,” Critical Criminology 12, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/227209259_Enemies_Everywhere_Terrorism_Moral_Panic_and_US_Civil_Society/file/32bfe50d3c7fe0d03b.pdf. David Rothkopf (6 Aug 2013), “The real risks,” Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/08/06/the_real_risks_war_on_terror. they believe they have to do: It’s CYA security. Bruce Schneier (22 Feb 2007), “Why smart cops do dumb things,” Wired, http://archive.wired.com/politics/security/commentary/securitymatters/2007/02/72774.
Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton
Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Blythe Masters, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working poor, zero-sum game, éminence grise
Despite the attractions of utopias of left and right, this is the best approximation to an achievable utopia that we have. Democracy and the public realms are too precious to diminish the politicians who make them work on a day-to-day basis. But democracy, the idea of politics and the public realm are all under siege from a constituency that purports to be their hand-maiden and fundamental ally – the free media. The fourth estate has always been powerful, populist and given to creating moral panics. Back in the 1920s, Britain’s right-leaning press – led by the Daily Mail, which first published it – latched on to the forged Zinoviev letter to undermine Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, who was pursuing a pro-Russian foreign policy at the time. The press’s dire warnings of imminent, Russian-sponsored revolution in Britain guaranteed Stanley Baldwin’s victory in the 1924 general election.
These deep trends collide with info-capitalism and the media’s capacity to generate politicised, slanted panics and storms. The Daily Mail’s success, deplored as it may be by so many, is due to the fact that it has its finger on the pulse of these fears. Politics is thus conducted in a highly adversarial environment in which right and left are both pitching to the conflicted middle in order to secure a simple majority. Moreover, this environment is regularly shaken by moral panics inflamed by the way in which information is presented. Nor is Britain alone. The same phenomenon of centralised politics is observable in every Anglo-Saxon country where a majoritarian voting system interacts with a newly powerful media. Politicians respond by trying to present a coherent, marketable view of their party, with the leader of necessity becoming the focus. Doubtless Tony Blair enjoyed the limelight and the control.
Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide by Henry Jenkins
barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, Columbine, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, George Gilder, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, means of production, moral panic, new economy, profit motive, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, slashdot, Steven Pinker, the market place, Y Combinator
The potentials of a more participatory media culture are also worth fighting for. Right now, convergence culture is throwing media into flux, expanding the opportunities for grassroots groups to speak back to the mass media. Put all of our efforts into battling the conglomerates and this w i n d o w of opportunity w i l l have passed. That is w h y it is so important to fight against the corporate copyright regime, to argue against censorship and moral panic that w o u l d pathologize these emerging forms of participation, to publicize the best practices of these online communities, to expand access and participation to groups that are otherwise being left behind, and to promote forms of media literacy education that help all children to develop the skills needed to become full participants i n their culture. If early readers are any indication, the most controversial claim i n this book may be m y operating assumption that increasing participation i n popular culture is a good thing.
. , 160 Mertes, Cara, 241 Microsoft, 8,123,125 military, 74-75 Milkshakey, 36 Miller, M a r k C r i s p i n , 247 MIT. See Massachusetts Institute of Technology M I T A n i m e C l u b , 158 Mitsubishi, 69 M M O R P G , 159-162 mobile phones, 4-5, 9,14,17,110,134 m o d d e r s / m o d d i n g , 137,162-165 Moebius, 109 Mole, The, 47 monomyth, 120 Monty Python and the Holy Grail, 153 moral economy, 161, 255 moral panic, 248 M o r i m o t o , K o j i , 101 M o r r o w , Fiona, 104 Moulin Rouge!, 156 Moveon.org, 219-220, 223 Movies, The, 154 MP3,16 Mr. President (avatar), 228-230 M S N B C , 187 M T V , 78,148, 222-223 M T V Networks, 244 M T V 2,154 multiplatform entertainment, 106 M u n i z , Albert M . , Jr., 79 Murray, Bill, 200 Murray, Janet, 116,119 M u z y k a , Ray, 162 Skenováno pro studijní úcely Index M y r i c k , D a n , 102 mysteries (genre), 129,199 mythology, 121,153,156-157 Napster, 9,134,138 narrowcasting, 5, 211 N A S C A R , 71 National Research C o u n c i l , 74 Native Son, 118 N B C , 60, 72, 207, 211, 225 Neal, Connie, 199, 203 Negroponte, Nicholas, 5,10 Nelson, Diane, 186,187,190-191 N e u m a n , W.
The Pandemic Century: One Hundred Years of Panic, Hysteria, and Hubris by Mark Honigsbaum
Asian financial crisis, biofilm, Black Swan, clean water, coronavirus, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, indoor plumbing, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, Pearl River Delta, Ronald Reagan, Skype, the built environment, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl
As Laurie Garrett has argued, from the perspective of the Left, “events in Philadelphia fit neatly with the then vogue view that an unregulated chemical industry was raining toxic compounds upon the American people.” By contrast, the Right was more inclined to view the outbreak as an act of sabotage, or as the Philadelphia Veterans of Foreign Wars put it, “a sneak attack against the finest kind of Americans.” This sense of moral panic did not escape Bob Dylan, who incorporated some of the wilder speculation into a song, “Legionnaires’ Disease.” Written for his touring guitarist, Billy Cross, the song opened with the verse: “Some say it was radiation, some say there was acid on the microphone / Some say a combination that turned their hearts to stone.” In retrospect this panic seems irrational, laughable even. After all, unlike cholera and plague, Legionnaires’ disease was not contagious.
See also Legionnaires’ disease legionellosis, 190–91 Legionnaires’ disease, 10, 12, 145–73, 175–91, 196, 198, 233, 251, 257, 259, 362, 396n acquired immunity to, 186 age and, 185 climate and, 186 conspiracy theories about, 168–70, 191 environmental causes and factors and, 187 etiology of, 168 in Flint, Michigan, 190 gender and, 185 in hospitals, 185 human behavior and, 189 incidence in the United States, 185 medical technologies and, 185, 189 as “missed alarm,” 191 moral panic over, 169–70 onset of, 156 panic about, 187 the press and, 153, 155, 160, 187–88 puzzle solved by McDade, 178–81 second outbreak of, 175–91 technology and, 187 toxic metals theory and, 160–61, 168, 169, 170–71 transmission of, 183–85, 187, 189, 190–91 lentiviruses, 201, 202–3, 223, 363 Leong Hoe Nam, 256 Léopoldville (Kinshasa), Zaire, 199, 224, 227–30. See also Kinshasa, Zaire leukemia, 202, 203, 205, 206 leukocytes, 20 the Leviathan, 47 Levinthal, Walter, 127 “Levinthal-Coles-Lillie (LCL) bodies,” 127–28, 140 Lewis, Sinclair, 113, 391n Lewisburg Hospital, 148 Liberia, 14, 278, 281–82 canceled air service to, 303, 304, 313 civil war in, 291–92, 301 distrust of foreign medical aid in, 291–92 Ebola in, 3, 284, 300–303, 304, 306–10, 313, 410n firebombing of Emergency Operations Center, 302 Lillie, Ralph, 127 Lim, Wilimina, 252, 259, 261 “line lists,” 152, 153–54, 156, 158, 162–63 Lister Institute, 127, 385n Liu, Joanne, 304, 307 Liu Jianlun, 249, 256, 258, 268 London, England, 51, 299 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 345, 346 Longman, Miguel, 352 Los Angeles, California AIDS in, 193–95 control measures in, 81, 82, 83, 84–87, 88, 91–97 Legionnaires’ disease in, 182 Mexican quarter of, 64–65, 81, 82, 85, 97, 362 plague in, 11, 63–101 reputation of, 83, 89–92 rodent extermination measures in, 91–93 tourism industry in, 83, 89–92 Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, 67, 83, 89, 91–92, 96 Los Angeles City Health Department, 89, 92, 97 Los Angeles Realtor, 89 Los Angeles Times, 81, 82, 88, 109 Lousiana State Board of Health, 95 Lucas, Frederic, 1 Ludwig, Carl, 32 “lung block,” 23 lung infections, 20 Luz, Kleber, 323–24, 328, 332 lymphadenopathy, 195 lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV), 206, 207n, 209, 221.
Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow
AltaVista, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge
I use a network that has no incremental cost for communication, and a device that lets me install any software without permission from anyone else. Right-living is the highly mutated, commodity-hardware- based, public and free Internet. I'm QWERTY-Amish, in other words. I'm the kind of perennial early adopter who would gladly volunteer to beta test a neural interface, but I find myself in a moral panic when confronted with the 12-button keypad on a cellie, even though that interface is one that has been greedily adopted by billions of people worldwide, from strap-hanging Japanese schoolgirls to Kenyan electoral scrutineers to Filipino guerrillas in the bush. The idea of paying for every message makes my hackles tumesce and evokes a reflexive moral conviction that text-messaging is inherently undemocratic, at least compared to free-as-air email.
Frommer's Memorable Walks in London by Richard Jones
About 1 block down, pause outside: 27. 14 Well Walk, the home of Marie Carmichael Stopes (1880–1958) during her first and unhappy marriage to Canadian botanist R. R. Gates. A champion of women’s rights, Stopes was also an early pioneer of birth control. Her book Married Love, written after the annulment of her marriage on the grounds of nonconsummation, became a bestseller. Its appearance helped ease the national moral panic resulting from the high incidence of venereal disease among British soldiers returning from World War I. By advocating sexual enjoyment within marriage, the book was intended to encourage young British men to settle into moral, disease-free, and sexually satisfying unions, while encouraging women to see sex as enjoyable rather than as a duty. Take the next right onto New End Square and head to: 28.
Back to School: Why Everyone Deserves a Second Chance at Education by Mike Rose
blue-collar work, centre right, creative destruction, delayed gratification, George Santayana, income inequality, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, new economy, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, urban renewal, War on Poverty
And, of course, there is not only a status hierarchy among disciplines but among postsecondary institutions as well, from elite research universities to the central-city community college. Though colleges and universities have had some type of remedial or preparatory course or program in their curriculum since the mid-nineteenth century, they have always been a source of vexation—and, at times, something akin to moral panic. We are seeing attempts in about twenty states now to reduce or remove remedial courses from the college and university, typically directing students to community colleges. Conversely, the open-access community college for much of its history has provided remedial or preparatory work as part of its mission, though the demand has increased as more people are attempting postsecondary education, and as state legislators and university administrators push remediation down the status ladder to the least resourced of our institutions of higher learning. 127 BAC K TO S C HO OL The people who teach remedial courses at the university or college level are almost always graduate students or adjunct instructors, and adjuncts are widely used at the community college level as well.
The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
Her list did not extend to the guy in the pick-up truck or the blue-collar labourer. They had been forgotten. Failure to diagnose the reasons for Mrs Clinton’s defeat will only make Trump’s re-election more likely. In a searing piece for the New York Times after the election, Mark Lilla, a professor at Columbia University, called for an end to ‘identity liberalism’. The American left had ‘slipped into a kind of moral panic about racial, gender and sexual identity that has distorted liberalism’s message,’ he wrote.27 Moreover, if the Democratic standard-bearer insisted on namechecking different groups at her rallies she had better mention everybody, otherwise those left out would feel resentful. Lilla also took issue with the liberal post-mortem on Mrs Clinton’s defeat that laid the blame on a racially charged ‘whitelash’ against multicultural America – a verdict that was at odds with the revealed motivations of many Trump voters.
Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog
Ross’s defense of the hacker as countercultural hero neatly explains why, by 1990, it would have been important for corporate interests to ensure that the term be repositioned as an indictment. And in December of that year, according to a front-page story in the Washington Post, a panel of “industry and academic experts” warned against the threat posed by hackers, describing them, in usage that now seems almost quaint, as “high-tech terrorists” (Suplee and Richards). While Ross would criticize such reporting as exemplifying a “moral panic” that threatened the “technology conscious youth culture” he valued, the term hacker would never recover its original meaning. The term’s associations with trespass and criminality would, during the 1990s, become wholly entrenched. By the end of the decade, no thinking person who was not simultaneously announcing himself as committed to transgressing the boundaries established by a combination of corporate practice and convention would use “hacker” as a self-description.
The Numbers Game: The Commonsense Guide to Understanding Numbers in the News,in Politics, and inLife by Michael Blastland, Andrew Dilnot
Atul Gawande, business climate, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, happiness index / gross national happiness, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), moral panic, pension reform, pensions crisis, randomized controlled trial, school choice, very high income
Visiting Finland, Christopher Pollitt of Erasmus University in the Netherlands was surprised to discover that official records showed a category of prisons where no one ever escaped, year after year. Was this the most exceptional and effective standard of prison security? “How on earth do you manage to have zero escapes every year?” he asked a Finnish civil servant. “Simple,” said the official, “these are open prisons.” Britain experienced a moral panic in early 2006 at the rate at which inmates were found to be strolling out of open prisons as if for a weekend ramble. By comparison, this seemed a truly astonishing performance. What was the Finnish secret? “Open prisons? You never have anyone escape from an open prison?” “Oh not at all! But because they are open prisons, we don’t call it escape, we classify it as absent without leave.” It is Christopher Pollitt’s favorite international comparison, he says.
Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein
affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, American ideology, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog
He called “the one overriding issue of this campaign…the issue of simple morality.” In a season of moral panic, it made him the star. The leftists of the California Democratic Council, moralists in their own right, turned their back on Brown for his support of the administration on Vietnam. One of the president’s favorite congressmen, Jeffrey Cohelan, was almost knocked off in a primary challenge in the district straddling Oakland and Berkeley from New Leftist magazine editor Robert Scheer. Johnson’s poverty czar, Sargent Shriver, gave a speech to a conference of the Citizen’s Crusade Against Poverty and was jostled off the stage by radicals: “You’re lying!” they cried. “Stop listening to him!” Moral panics from the right, moral panics from the left; poor, dumpy Pat Brown pinioned helplessly in the middle. On primary day he couldn’t even get a majority, holding on to the nomination only because minor candidates diluted Yorty’s tally.
Other activists went to war on a textbook—Negro historian John Hope Franklin’s Land of the Free, which, their pamphlets insisted, “destroys pride in America’s past, develops a guilt complex, mocks American justice, indoctrinates toward Communism, is hostile to religious concepts, overemphasizes Negro participation in American history, projects negative thought models, criticizes business and free enterprise, plays politics, foments class hatred, slants and distorts facts,” and “promotes propaganda and poppycock.” The L.A. County Board of Supervisors voted “to uphold high moral standards” by censoring an exhibition by an artist named Ed Keinholz, who said he displayed his dioramas of consumer products and mannequins in sexual congress and babies without heads to comment on America’s “sick society.” In the Golden State, it was a season of moral panic; and as so often, California led a national trend. The head of the nation’s leading association of private schools released a statement worrying that “students have adopted ‘terrifying’ attitudes toward sex…for lack of a moral code.” But others looked upon the same developments and judged them symptoms of cultural health. A psychiatry professor, for instance, spoke that same March at the Arizona Medical Association in praise of the “beatniks” who were “urging the revision of some of our medieval customs,” especially sexual ones.
State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, global pandemic, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional
White criminals were rarely identified as muggers; black ones almost always were. And at a time when the economy was sliding into chaos, the government appeared powerless in the face of the unions and traditional expectations seemed to be undermined by feminism, permissiveness and social mobility, the press coverage of mugging – often described as a ‘disease’ or a ‘virus’ – quickly began to assume the proportions of a full-blown moral panic. By the late autumn of 1972, mugging was the word on everybody’s lips. Long articles explored ‘the making of a mugger’ or asked ‘why they go out mugging’, while editorials called for more police patrols, tougher prison sentences and what the Sunday Mirror melodramatically called an all-out ‘war’ on muggers. A typically blunt Sun editorial entitled ‘Taming the Muggers’ gives a sense of the tone: What are the British people most concerned about now?
It was no coincidence that the death of Arthur Hills, supposedly Britain’s first mugging, came just a week after Idi Amin had announced the expulsion of the Ugandan Asians and at a time when the papers were full of angry letters about the predicted ‘flood’ of penniless immigrants. If poor Mr Hills had died a few months earlier, his murder might well have been ignored. Coming when it did, it became a symbol of wider anxieties about crime and immigration. But as the Birmingham theorists saw it, the ‘moral panic’ about mugging had even deeper roots, stretching back to the aftermath of the Moors murders in 1965, when the newspapers had first taken aim at the so-called ‘permissive society’. This panic was under way, they argued, even ‘before there [were] any actual “muggings” to react to’, reflecting white middle-class unease at a time of social and economic change. Far from being a reaction to a terrifying epidemic on Britain’s streets, they thought, the mugging furore had actually been ‘constructed’ by an unholy alliance of journalists, judges, politicians and policemen as a ‘mechanism for the construction of an authoritarian backlash, a conservative backlash: what we call the slow build-up towards a “soft” law-and-order society’.44 In many ways this kind of analysis now feels almost as dated as platform shoes, the Ford Granada and the music of Emerson, Lake and Palmer.
‘Trains, carrying rampaging young fans, would end their journeys with windows broken, upholstery smashed, lavatory fittings broken, the carriages running with beer and crunching underfoot with broken glass like gravel,’ wrote Arthur Hopcraft – a vision of Harold Macmillan’s Britain very different from the cosy caricatures becoming popular two decades later.31 On the left and in academic circles, a popular explanation was that football hooliganism was a moral panic fuelled by the press, who had ‘invented hooliganism as a “social problem” ’ by drawing attention to ‘relatively minor acts of rowdyism’. It is certainly true that from about 1967 onwards, the popular newspapers, fighting desperately for circulation in an increasingly competitive market, adopted a much more sensationalist attitude to football violence, with the Sun and Mirror leading the way in banner headlines and military metaphors.
Sex, Lies, and Pharmaceuticals: How Drug Companies Plan to Profit From Female Sexual Dysfunction by Ray Moynihan, Barbara Mintzes
And with the popular Brazilian waxing exposing all, cosmetic surgeons are promoting a nip and tuck to tidy up the labia, while online companies offer a genital colorant that ‘restores the pink back to a woman’s genitals’.9 When they land, the seeds of the corporate-backed campaign to transform common sexual difficulties into medical conditions will fall on the fertile ground of considerable female insecurity. Yet backward-looking moral panic about a permissive society may not be a helpful response. Perhaps it would be better to confront the reality of women’s sexual dissatisfactions head on, tease out the cultural processes exacerbating their vulnerabilities, and identify the commercial forces seeking to exploit them. The dramatic story documented in Sex, Lies and Pharmaceuticals calls for a much greater scepticism towards simplistic claims that women’s sexual difficulties are somehow due to chemical deficits rather than a complicated set of causes, including the way we relate to each other, our cultures, and our individual and collective histories.
The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris
4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test
Our impulse to take up tools is a good one and—to use a deeply suspect term—it’s a natural one. It’s such a natural impulse, in fact, that those who question whether all technological developments will lead to brighter, happier futures are dismissed as Luddites. Interrogate the dominance of a mounting technopoly with anything more aggressive than cocktail conversation and you will swiftly be accused of “moral panic”—which is one of those tidy terms that carries around its own moral imperative. One must not panic. Technologies themselves, though, are amoral. They aren’t good or evil, only dangerous and beloved. They are a danger we’ve been in love with for millennia, and rarely do we remember that, for example, the goal of human relations may extend beyond efficient transmissions. (If we annihilate ourselves in the coming years, it will not be for lack of communication technology, though it may be for lack of some finer advancement.)
The Behavioral Investor by Daniel Crosby
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, availability heuristic, backtesting, bank run, Black Swan, buy and hold, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, compound rate of return, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, endowment effect, feminist movement, Flash crash, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, housing crisis, IKEA effect, impulse control, index fund, Isaac Newton, job automation, longitudinal study, loss aversion, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Murray Gell-Mann, Nate Silver, neurotypical, passive investing, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, science of happiness, Shai Danziger, short selling, South Sea Bubble, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, stocks for the long run, Thales of Miletus, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, tulip mania, Vanguard fund
Salience is the psychological term for prominence, meaning that our attention can be hijacked by low-probability-high-scariness things like shark attacks while ignoring high-probability-low-scariness dangers like taking a selfie near a busy street (Yes, far more people have died in the last year from selfies than shark attacks.) It’s what led the New Englanders to ignore the unwinnable nature of the witch trials and ignited a moral panic spurred on by stories that were vivid, if nonsensical. It also leads us to rate the unfamiliar as more risky and show a preference for domestic stocks (home bias) and familiar names (mere exposure effect), regardless of their fundamental qualities. In a world in which attention is a valuable resource we must be vigilant against noise-peddlers of all sorts. To do so requires a system for distinguishing meaningful information from cacophony, which is where we journey next.
Enemy of All Mankind: A True Story of Piracy, Power, and History's First Global Manhunt by Steven Johnson
The shift from late feudalism to early agrarian capitalism, the great disruption that would fuel the growth of the metropolitan centers in the coming centuries, had disgorged a whole class of society—small, commons-based cottage laborers—and turned them into itinerant free agents. By the late 1500s, the explosion of vagabonds made them public enemy number one, triggering one of the first true moral panics of the post-Gutenberg era. Everywhere there were wanderers, whole families lost in the changing economic landscape. Serfs once grounded in a coherent, if oppressive, feudal system found themselves flotsam on the twisting stream of early capitalism. To everyone sitting on the banks above that stream, the change must have seemed something like the modern fantasies of zombie invasions: you wake up one day and realize that the streets are filled with people who not only lack homes, but also suffer from some other, more existential form of homelessness—not even knowing what kind of home they should be seeking.
Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway
Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor
Andrew Ross explains this transformation by citing, as do Sterling and others, the increase of computer viruses in the late eighties, especially “the viral attack engineered in November 1988 by Cornell University hacker Robert Morris on the national network system Internet. . . . While it caused little in the way of data damage. . . , the ramiﬁcations of the Internet virus have helped to generate a moral panic that has all but transformed everyday ‘computer culture.’” See Andrew Ross, Strange Weather: Culture, Science, and Technology in the Age of Limits (New York: Verso, 1991), p. 75. See also chapter 6 for more on computer viruses. 15. See “Beware: Hackers at Play,” Newsweek, September 5, 1983. 16. “A Threat from Malicious Software,” Time, November 4, 1985, p. 94. 17. Knight Lightning, “Shadows Of A Future Past,” Phrack, vol. 2, no. 21, ﬁle 3.
The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger by Richard Wilkinson, Kate Pickett
basic income, Berlin Wall, clean water, Diane Coyle, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, offshore financial centre, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
Thus, in certain countries, in particular the United States and to a lesser extent the United Kingdom – public demand for tougher and longer sentences has been met by public policy and election campaigns which have been fought and won on the grounds of the punitiveness of penal policy. In other countries, such as Sweden and Finland, where the government provides greater ‘insulation against emotions generated by moral panic and long-term cycles of tolerance and intolerance’ (Tonry, 1999),270 citizens have been less likely to call for, and to support, harsher penal policies and the government has resisted the urge to implement such plans. *John Irwin writes that while imprisonment is generally believed to have four ‘official’ purposes – retribution for crimes committed, deterrence, incapacitation of dangerous criminals and the rehabilitation of criminals, in fact three other purposes have shaped America’s rates and conditions of imprisonment.
Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie
British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, financial exclusion, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor
Prostitution has been associated with the neighbourhood for many generations, as Nottingham’s red light district is on the edge of St Ann’s, and it was also the neighbourhood in which most of the city’s ‘poor’ and migrant populations have settled, adding further stigma through the fear and development of the ‘other’. Therefore, the neighbourhood’s reputation has always preceded it, and the words ‘St Ann’s’ today conjure up strong thoughts and feelings among Nottingham residents in a way that no other neighbourhood has the power to do. St Ann’s has recently been linked again, usually through the moral panic of media representation, as an area ridden with crime, drugs, gangs and guns, following the high profile murders of several teenagers on the estate: Brendan Lawrence aged 16 in February 2002, and the widely publicised murder of 14-year-old Danielle Beccan in October 2004. Both were victims of drive-by shootings. Like other inner-city neighbourhoods in the UK, there have been many incidents of stabbings and shootings linked to gang involvement between rival gang members from St Ann’s, known as Stannz, Stannzville or SV, and other neighbourhoods in the city.
Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional
“[B]y 1996,” Gross announces, “being a responsible Democrat, and one interested in prosperity and opportunity for people at all levels in society, meant being concerned about the fate of the stock and bond markets.”7 Wall Street was an ideal constituency for a party reorienting itself as a representative of the professional class. The industry in question was supremely wealthy, of course. And financiers tended to be well-graduated people of a certain cultural liberalism; the prospect of gay marriage, for example, never seemed to send them into a moral panic the way it did so many others. Wall Street didn’t pollute either, at least not in a way that cameras can see. The industry’s operations were always coated in a thick patina of expert-talk, which (as we saw in Chapter One), the professional mind finds irresistibly beguiling. Furthermore, any distasteful results of Wall Street’s operations could be easily ignored and were always far removed from the thrilling precincts of lower Manhattan.
How Did We Get Into This Mess?: Politics, Equality, Nature by George Monbiot
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, dematerialisation, demographic transition, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, land reform, land value tax, market fundamentalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, peak oil, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, urban sprawl, wealth creators, World Values Survey
Children’s lives were characteristically wretched: farmed out to wet nurses, sometimes put to work in factories and mines, beaten, neglected, often abandoned as infants. In his book A History of Childhood, Colin Heywood reports that, ‘The scale of abandonment in certain towns was simply staggering’, reaching one-third or a half of all the children born in some European cities.9 Street gangs of feral youths caused as much moral panic in late nineteenth-century England as they do today. Conservatives often hark back to the golden age of the 1950s. But in the 1950s, John Gillis shows, people of the same persuasion believed they had suffered a great moral decline since the early twentieth century. In the early twentieth century, people fetishised the family lives of the Victorians. The Victorians invented this nostalgia, looking back with longing to imagined family lives before the Industrial Revolution.
Talk on the Wild Side by Lane Greene
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, experimental subject, facts on the ground, framing effect, Google Chrome, illegal immigration, invisible hand, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, natural language processing, obamacare, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Turing test, Wall-E
You may know someone who says that nauseous can’t be used to describe a person who feels sick, but rather only the thing that is sick-making. But this change is already complete, and the old “sick-making” meaning of nauseous is so rare as to be confusing to most people. So this type of change (going from “cause” to “experiencer” or the other way around) is commonplace. But when it happens in your century (as with nauseous) it provokes moral panic among those who think that the older meaning is always the right one; if it happened a few centuries ago (awesome) nobody is even aware of the old meaning anymore. Instead, today’s panic is about the cheapening of the word to describe a coffee. And yet we have all the words we need. If you need to say “filled with awe”, try awe-filled or awed. If you need “inspiring awe”, there’s awe-inspiring.
The Art of Rest: How to Find Respite in the Modern Age by Claudia Hammond
Anton Chekhov, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, iterative process, Kickstarter, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Stephen Hawking, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen
As well as promoting indolence and laxity, the reading of novels was thought to damage your posture and present a fire risk because, of course, at that time you needed candles in order to read on dark evenings. Mobile libraries, known as circulating libraries, were compared with brothels and gin shops. ‘Reading sofas’ – which sound mild enough to us – were excoriated by moralisers and social reformers. Writing in 2008, the academic Ana Vogrincˇicˇ compares eighteenth-century attitudes to the novel with the moral panic around watching TV today. ‘If novel-readers were seen as smearing books with candle-wax and causing fire, television viewers are associated with eating junk food and spilling ketchup on the carpet,’ she writes.8 Today you could replace the novel and indeed the TV with the smartphone or tablet, of course. It seems we fear anything that is all enveloping, time consuming and fun, especially when it’s new.
Hostile Environment: How Immigrants Became Scapegoats by Maya Goodfellow
Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, falling living standards, G4S, housing crisis, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, moral panic, open borders, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, Scientific racism, Winter of Discontent, working poor
This was, again, about race: white South Africans, for instance, were much more likely than people from all over the new Commonwealth to be able to keep citizenship because of their ancestral connections.107 Echoing the Conservative rhetoric on immigration, in the 1980s, people of colour – regardless of where they were born, but black people in particular – were constructed in newspapers as the enemy within. So-called ‘sus’ laws (also known as stop and search) were originally introduced in Victorian times to grant law enforcement the power to arrest people on the suspicion they were going to commit a crime. During the Thatcher years they resulted in the disproportionate harassment of black people by the police. This was justified by a society plunged into moral panic. Black people were characterised as being responsible for muggings, as threatening to social order in the UK, and for the country’s economic decline as unemployment rose.108 Watered down and made more ‘respectable’, this thinking filtered into Conservative Party literature. In a manner remarkably similar to attacks on Labour’s shadow home secretary Diane Abbott in the 2017 election, in 1987 before and during the election, Conservative advertisements and newspaper reporting suggested that activists organising as part of the Labour party’s black sections and two of Labour’s black Parliamentary candidates – Abbott and Bernie Grant – were extremists.109 Thanks to decades of organising and struggle within the party, the Opposition was at the forefront of ensuring people of colour and women had seats in Parliament.
The Transformation Of Ireland 1900-2000 by Diarmaid Ferriter
anti-communist, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, deliberate practice, edge city, falling living standards, financial independence, ghettoisation, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, immigration reform, income per capita, land reform, manufacturing employment, moral panic, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, sensible shoes, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, women in the workforce
There were 31 prosecutions for defilement of girls under the age of 16 in Dublin city between 1924 and 1929. The Carrigan Committee proposals were overshadowed by the need to prevent public discussions of these matters, some believing that commissions were too public and that a small Catholic elite should advise the government ‘without public discussion’.150 ‘the character of the national mind’ Such focus on moral panic, which often suited the interests of the Church as well as the conservative middle-class social base of Irish politics, not only inhibited the development of a strong social and labour movement but also facilitated the continued hiding of many of Ireland’s social problems. In his memoirs, Noël Browne (Minister for Health from 1948 to 1951) gave one example of the suppression of a discourse based on highlighting social need and want: ‘“They can come to my back door and ask for it if they need it”, said a priest in the course of a sermon denouncing a proposal to provide children with a free school meal as “communism”.’151 Children born into the ‘unfortunate’ class thus continued to be hidden.
The inferior status of lay sisters entering convents, for example, who had no dowries and were responsible for more menial duties meant they had no vote in community affairs and were ineligible to stand for election as superior. The manner in which middle-class children were more likely to end up in orphanages than industrial or reformatory schools was also an indication of a Church-endorsed class bias.185 ‘their earnestness is doubtful’ The ‘moral panic’ created by the Church in the 1920s was also couched, though sometimes privately, in the language of class. Those of a ‘weaker moral fibre’ were deemed to be in the working- or lower-class categories, particularly those who had, as Cardinal Logue informed a new generation of Catholic priests at Maynooth in 1924, lost their ‘reverence’ for religion. Rectifying this was one reason for many of the sodalities, Catholic lay and charitable organisations which were such a marked feature of Catholic life after independence.
.), Criminal Justice in Ireland (Dublin, 2002), pp. 176–201. 136. Finola Kennedy, ‘The suppression of the Carrigan Report: A historical perspective on child abuse’, Studies, vol. 89, no. 356, Winter 2000, pp. 354–63, and Mark Finnane, ‘The Carrigan Committee of 1930–31 and the moral condition of the Saorstát’, Irish Historical Studies, vol. 32, 2000–2001, pp. 519–36. 137. Susannah Riordan, ‘VD in the army: Moral panic in the Irish Free State in the 1920s’, paper delivered to the St Patrick’s College History Society, November 2001. 138. ibid. 139. Irish Times, 5 October 1996. 140. Eoin O’Sullivan, ‘“This otherwise delicate subject”’. 141. Raftery and O’Sullivan, Suffer the Little Children, pp. 224–5. 142. Irish Times, 30 October 1995, and Louise Ryan, ‘Infanticide in the Irish Free State’, Irish Studies Review, no. 14, Spring 1996. 143. ibid. 144. ibid. 145.
How to Be Idle by Tom Hodgkinson
Albert Einstein, Alexander Shulgin, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deskilling, financial independence, full employment, Gordon Gekko, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Lao Tzu, liberal capitalism, moral panic, New Urbanism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, spinning jenny, Torches of Freedom, trade route, wage slave
For them, absinthe-drinking was intimately bound up with a new concept of art as a force for freedom and an attack on bourgeois morals. As is well known, there were terrific downsides to absinthe abuse. It was seen as the crack cocaine of its day. And its fans were sensitive to its paradox: absinthe kills you, but it makes you live. The very thing that seems to make life worth living is also slowly destroying your health. Absinthe was banned in 1 9 1 4 following a moral panic but over the following decades the custom of the Green Hour evolved into the cocktail hour (and its vulgar kid brother, the so-called Happy Hour) . In The Book of Tiki: The Cult of Polynesian Pop in Fifties America (2000) , anthropologist Sven A. Kirsten reveals how, in the mid twentieth century, first California and then the whole of America began to adopt the primitive styles of Polynesia and Hawaii, of the Easter Islands and the South Seas islands, as symbolic of an earthly paradise, free of work and responsibility, an antidote to the civilized Western world.
Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage
call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, old-boy network, precariat, psychological pricing, Sloane Ranger, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional
Even though the provenance of these figures is amplified through this vision now being paraded on our television screen courtesy of The Apprentice, Dragons’ Den and suchlike, it is a far from accurate picture of the social inequality which exists at the top of British society. It follows, therefore, that we need a more subtle approach than to simply critique the vicarious fortunes of bankers and financiers, who command huge bonuses and dividends, deploy tax breaks or earn windfalls from public-sector privatization or deregulation. The moral panic about bonuses, the culture of takeovers and corporate raiding, and the significance of the ‘non-domiciled’ rich, lured to London by the tax breaks that successive governments have made available, all plays into this populist sentiment. There is a danger that our attention is thus distracted, turned away from the ‘ordinarily wealthy’ who extend well beyond the top ‘1 per cent’. Of course, we don’t doubt for one moment that it is the ‘super-wealthy’ who have been the prime beneficiaries of economic change in recent decades, and who need extensive public scrutiny.
How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy by Stephen Witt
4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, moral panic, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day
“Me So Horny” had been the single from As Nasty As They Wanna Be, the first (and to date only) musical work ever to be banned in the United States on the grounds of obscenity. Morris had signed 2 Live Crew in the midst of this controversy, and put out their next major label release, Banned in the U.S.A., led by their immortal single “Face Down Ass Up.” Controversy was temporary. Royalties were forever. Soon, Morris was sure, the Death Row critics would find something else to complain about, just as they had with 2 Live Crew. The moral panic would subside and he would be left to cultivate the label’s singular genius. As he had so many times before, Morris sought to hold on. Though he rarely sat for interviews, he often posed for photographs, and among them was a new favorite, which he kept in a frame on his desk: a black-and-white party shot of himself, dwarfed by Suge and Snoop, smiling alongside Pac, his eyes alight with joy. If Time Warner could take the heat on “Face Down Ass Up,” they could take the heat on “Gin and Juice.”
The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan
additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Zipcar
Our potential to collaborate and create value [is] also transformed. —Frederic Mazzella, OuiShare magazine interview, January 14, 2013 The Internet has existed as space for commercial exchange for over two decades. Now well into the new millennium, it is easy to forget that in the mid to late 1990s, the Internet was both a scene of frenzied excitement and a site of deep apprehension, fear, and moral panic. After all, although some Internet enthusiasts like Howard Rheingold were staking out the “virtual frontier” of the Internet, others were warning people that the Internet was a potential minefield of illicit affairs, pornography, and (of course) fraudulent activities. Over the past two decades, as both the utopian speculations and paranoid misconceptions about the Internet have receded, it has become an integral part of our everyday lives.
Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
“I hope you’re all aware we’re all Eisenhower Republicans,” he noted.56 Clinton’s impeachment and trial over his affair with intern Monica Lewinsky distracted Americans from the strong economic expansion of his administration, with an unemployment rate of only 4 percent and annual labor productivity growth of 2.7 percent per year.57 He also successfully eliminated the federal deficit and replaced it with a surplus by “raising the top marginal tax rate to 39.6 percent, along with increased gasoline taxes, an uncapping of the payroll tax for Medicare, and increased taxation of Social Security benefits.”58 INEQUALITY AND THE WAR ON DRUGS As this chapter has shown, neoconservative doctrines about spending and welfare triumphed in the 1980s and 1990s, and welfare recipients were stigmatized, which divided Americans along both class and racial lines. The War on Drugs created by the Nixon administration accelerated during the Reagan era, worsening both inequality and racial divisiveness. In the 1980s, the moral panic surrounding the War on Drugs focused on crack cocaine, a rock-like distillation made by combining dissolved powder cocaine and baking soda in water and then heating. Smoking crack delivered a fast and cheap high and so was more popular in inner-city areas (whereas powder cocaine was a status symbol for wealthy whites). Crack use began in earnest around 1985, reached a peak in 1989, and then tapered off slightly, leaving social disruption, widespread violence, and incarceration in its wake.59 But crack users were not the only victims of the drug wars; 80 percent of those arrested for drug offenses in the 1980s and 1990s were arrested for simple possession of marijuana, a drug that was subsequently considered harmless enough to be legalized for recreational use in some states.60 Successive Supreme Court decisions narrowed the Fourth Amendment right to be free from unreasonable searches, and the introduction of more discretion in policing meant that black people, particularly young black men, were much more likely than their white peers to be stopped and searched on a pretext and then arrested for drug possession.
The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle
"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, George Santayana, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McJob, microcredit, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population
The increase in inequality in some countries during the past couple of decades is well documented.7 Recent research suggests that deprivation is becoming ever more concentrated within the inner cities — and that the losers ‘may become dislocated from mainstream social norms and values’.8 This explains why it is particularly in the Western world’s three most unequal countries — the US, UK and France — that the moral panic about the welfare state and its underclass is most pronounced. The Thatcher experiment It is particularly interesting that the British still feel that the welfare state needs fundamental reform, for the country has already experimented with some controversial changes. Margaret Thatcher notoriously told a women’s magazine in an interview shortly after her third election victory in June 1987, ‘There is no such thing as society.
The Lost Decade: 2010–2020, and What Lies Ahead for Britain by Polly Toynbee, David Walker
banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, centre right, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Attenborough, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy transition, Etonian, first-past-the-post, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Dyson, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, moral panic, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Right to Buy, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, smart meter, Uber for X, urban renewal, working-age population
Theresa May was right in claiming the relationship between police numbers and crime was not linear or straightforward, but relationship there was, and steep falls in police numbers and capacity began to alarm the public (and the victims of knife crime), provoking a screeching U-turn from her successors. Initially, a trump card was what looked like a falling crime rate. But later the number of homicides in which a knife was involved increased significantly, producing a moral panic. In London and other big cities, headlines daily recorded the anguish of parents of mostly young, male victims. May said there was ‘no direct correlation’ with the fall in police numbers: knife killings had previously peaked in 2007, when police numbers were rising. But it wasn’t just the police: English council budgets for youth services shrank by £400 million. There had been a 51 per cent drop in council-supported youth centres since 2011, and a 40 per cent cut in youth service staff.
The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game
More important, the behavior of more than seventy million people who offered and received copyrighted ﬁles without payment did not undermine the foundations of copyright. The system continues to work. Songwriters still write. Producers still produce. Distributors still distribute. Lawyers still sue. Downloaders still download. We learned three essential truths from the downloading debate: a shared ﬁle is not a lost sale; there is a signiﬁcant difference between a crisis and a moral panic; and culture is not a zero-sum game. See Siva Vaidhyanathan, The Anarchist in the Library: How the Clash between Freedom and Control Is 250 NOTES TO PAGES 166– 68 Hacking the Real World and Crashing the System (New York: Basic Books, 2004), 43–50. 26. MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster Ltd., 380 F.3d 1154, 1158 (9th Cir. 2004). 27. Brief for Media Studies Professors as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents at 4, 10, MGM Studios, Inc. v.
No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein
Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor
The lesson a great many liberal Democrats seem to have taken away from Hillary Clinton’s defeat is that her direct appeals to women and minorities on the campaign trail made white working-class men feel left out, driving them to Trump. Columbia University professor Mark Lilla expressed this most prominently in a postelection essay in the New York Times. He chided Clinton for “calling out explicitly to African-American, Latino, LGBT and women voters at every stop. This was a strategic mistake.” This focus on the traditionally marginalized groups, and the “moral panic about racial, gender and sexual identity…has distorted liberalism’s message and prevented it from becoming a unifying force capable of governing.” Unity, apparently, requires that all those noisy minorities (combined, an overwhelming majority, actually) need to pipe down about their individual grievances so Democrats can get back to “It’s the economy, stupid,” the mantra of Bill Clinton’s 1992 winning presidential campaign.
Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know About the People We Don't Know by Malcolm Gladwell
Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, crack epidemic, Ferguson, Missouri, financial thriller, light touch regulation, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, Snapchat
But I do agree with him that the case is much more ambiguous and unusual than the conventional press accounts suggest. If you would like to go down the Sandusky rabbit hole, you may want to start with Ziegler. A second (and perhaps more mainstream) Sandusky skeptic is author Mark Pendergrast, who published The Most Hated Man in America: Jerry Sandusky and the Rush to Judgment in 2017. Pendergrast argues that the Sandusky case was a classic example of a “moral panic” and the frailty of human memory. I drew heavily from Pendergrast’s book in my account of the Aaron Fisher and Allan Myers cases. One of the noteworthy things about Pendergrast’s book, I must say, is the back cover, which has blurbs from two of the most influential and respected experts on memory in the world: Richard Leo of the University of San Francisco, and Elizabeth Loftus of the University of California at Irvine.
The Government of No One: The Theory and Practice of Anarchism by Ruth Kinna
Berlin Wall, British Empire, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Kickstarter, late capitalism, means of production, moral panic, New Journalism, Occupy movement, post scarcity, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, union organizing, wage slave
John Most, author of the cult classic The Science of Revolutionary Warfare and principal author of the 1883 Pittsburgh Manifesto, perfectly embodied this stance. As well as providing some not-so-reliable advice on bomb-making, poisons and other paraphernalia, Most invoked the idea of propagandistic deeds to issue chilling calls for anti-bourgeois violence. In 1881 he paid the price when he was imprisoned for publishing an article applauding the Tsar’s assassination. Commenting on the moral panic anarchism stirred and the resulting anti-anarchist repression, David Nicoll gave his version of this thesis. There was a hint of vengeance in his defence. Referring to the garrotting of four anarchists in Jerez in 1892 and the police shooting of nine workers at an eight-hour day demonstration in 1891 he wrote: The Anarchists are ‘criminals’, ‘vermin’, ‘gallows carrion’. Well, shower hard names upon us.
The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker
banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K
Out politicians, brave at first like Chris Smith and Ben Bradshaw, were later reassuringly banal, among them the Foreign Office minister Chris Bryant. Bryant represented the Rhondda, but how culturally distant he seemed from a former parliamentary neighbour, the MP for Caerphilly, Ron Davies. Twelve years on, the furtiveness of his 1998 career-destroying moment of madness on Clapham Common seemed utterly anachronistic. Section 28 was a discriminatory clause in a 1988 Act passed during a spasm of Tory moral panic that forbade councillors and schools to ‘promote’ homosexuality. Largely unused, it was a textbook case of the irrelevance of statute law in affecting deep movements in public attitudes – homosexuality was becoming normal, inside families, in popular culture, even fractiously in the pulpit. Still, the law remained an affront. Abolition of the Scottish counterpart to Section 28 was delayed by interventions from both a Catholic cardinal and an evangelical Protestant in the shape of the bus and coach magnate Brian Souter, now knighted by the Cameron government.
The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries by Kathi Weeks
basic income, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deskilling, feminist movement, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, late capitalism, low-wage service sector, means of production, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, pink-collar, post-work, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Shoshana Zuboff, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, universal basic income, wages for housework, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
Thus it is not only employers who have a stake in the work ethic; it is understood to be functional for a variety of regimes of social order and cooperation. 15. Weber did acknowledge the coexistence of competing ethics of work—not only traditionalism, but also, in a passing reference, “the class morality of the proletariat and the anti-authoritarian trade union,” against which the dominant ethic protects those willing to work (1958, 167). 16. Today one can hear the echoes of this moral panic over the work ethic in some of the discourses about gay and lesbian marriage, particularly from those who denigrate certain queer cultures by linking different patterns of supposedly promiscuous intimacies with so-called hedonistic consumer lifestyles and worry that those not ensconced in legible families have, to draw on Lee Edelman’s (2004) critical account of such logics, no future for which to sacrifice in the present and, to borrow a concept from Judith Halberstam’s critique of such narratives, no reproductive time (2005) around which to regulate their lives productively.
Our 50-State Border Crisis: How the Mexican Border Fuels the Drug Epidemic Across America by Howard G. Buffett
Coast Guard commandant from 2006 to 2010, when he retired after thirty-nine years. He watched DHS be formed and unfold in real time, and he has devoted considerable energy over the last decade and a half to trying to remedy some of its shortcomings. From the beginning of DHS, Admiral Allen notes, “We haven’t had a coherent policy to put (these agencies) together. Every time we have a major event or a moral panic, we create an agency or a department to address it.” Unfortunately, he adds, “There is no concept of operations for an end game.” I spoke at length with the admiral, who believes DHS needs what he and others call a sense of “unity of effort.” He demonstrated this concept in the heat of commanding U.S. resources during some highly stressful emergencies, including Hurricane Katrina and the Deepwater Horizon oil platform disaster.
B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional
What made it possible were two British brothers, who may well have had black T-shirts and stubble when they brought Rockstar Games to New York. But Dan Houser had also been to Oxford. And his purchase of what had once been Truman Capote’s house in Brooklyn Heights certainly suggests that he is anything but a member of the nerd class. The explosion of the video-gaming industry reflects many aspects of the early days of Hollywood. It has produced its own share of moral panics to match anything that introduced censorship to the film industry. There have been complaints about nudity, the sex and the violence. Like the novel, and the feature film, gaming needed its own visual and narrative techniques. Rockstar was responsible for creating them. In Dan Houser, gaming may have found its Wilkie Collins, if not its Charles Dickens. He is a master of a new cultural form, one which has not yet fully evolved and stabilized.
Cynical Theories: How Activist Scholarship Made Everything About Race, Gender, and Identity―and Why This Harms Everybody by Helen Pluckrose, James A. Lindsay
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, desegregation, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, feminist movement, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, late capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, neurotypical, phenotype, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade, white flight, women in the workforce
Lombardo, “Autism and Talent: The Cognitive and Neural Basis of Systemizing,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 19, no. 4 (2017). 61.Thomas Clements, “The Problem with the Neurodiversity Movement,” Quillette, October 20, 2017, quillette.com/2017/10/15/problem-neurodiversity-movement/. 62.Geoffrey Miller, “The Neurodiversity Case for Free Speech,” Quillette, August 23, 2018, quillette.com/2017/07/18/neurodiversity-case-free-speech/. 63.Caroline Praderio, “Why Some People Turned Down a ‘Medical Miracle’ and Decided to Stay Deaf,” Insider, January 3, 2017, www.insider.com/why-deaf-people-turn-down-cochlear-implants-2016-12. 64.Danielle Moores, “Obesity: Causes, Complications, and Diagnosis,” Healthline, July 16, 2018, www.healthline.com/health/obesity (accessed August 25, 2019). 65.Sarah Knapton, “Cancer Research UK Accused of ‘Fat Shaming’ over Obesity Smoking Campaign,” Telegraph, July 5, 2019, www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2019/07/04/cancer-research-uk-accused-fat-shaming-obesity-smoking-campaign/. 66.Caroline Davies, “‘Beach Body Ready’ Tube Advert Protests Planned for Hyde Park,” Guardian, April 28, 2015, www.theguardian.com/media/2015/apr/27/mass-demonstration-planned-over-beach-body-ready-tube-advert. 67.“Hidden Tribes of America,” Hidden Tribes, hiddentribes.us (accessed November 7, 2019). 68.Lukianoff and Haidt, The Coddling of the American Mind. 69.Bradley Campbell and Jason Manning, The Rise of Victimhood Culture: Micro-aggressions, Safe Spaces, and the New Culture Wars (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018). 70.See the chapter “False Accusations, Moral Panics and the Manufacture of Victimhood” in Campbell and Manning, The Rise of Victimhood Culture. 71.Lukianoff and Haidt, The Coddling of the American Mind, 176. 72.Ibid., 24. 73.Ibid., 24. 74.Campbell and Manning, The Rise of Victimhood Culture, 2. 75.Mike Nayna, “PART TWO: Teaching to Transgress,” YouTube video, March 6, 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0W9QbkX8Cs&t=6s. 76.Bruce, DiAngelo, Swaney, and Thurber, “Between Principles and Practice.” 77.Kathrine Jebsen Moore, “Knitting’s Infinity War, Part III: Showdown at Yarningham,” Quillette, July 28, 2019, quillette.com/2019/07/28/knittings-infinity-war-part-iii-showdown-at-yarningham/. 78.Amanda Marcotte, “Atheism’s Shocking Woman Problem: What’s behind the Misogyny of Richard Dawkins and Sam Harris?”
We Were Eight Years in Power: An American Tragedy by Ta-Nehisi Coates
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Broken windows theory, Charles Lindbergh, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, fear of failure, Ferguson, Missouri, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, jitney, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, moral panic, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, War on Poverty, white flight
That is because his defenses of the innate goodness of Trump voters and of the innate goodness of the white working class are in fact defenses of neither. On the contrary, the white working class functions in the rhetoric and argument not as a real community of people so much as a tool to quiet the demands of those who want a more inclusive America. Mark Lilla’s essay “The End of Identity Liberalism” is perhaps the most profound specimen of this genre. Lilla denounces the perversion of liberalism into “a kind of moral panic about racial, gender and sexual identity,” which distorted its message “and prevented it from becoming a unifying force capable of governing.” Liberals have turned away from their working-class base, according to Lilla, and must look to the “pre-identity liberalism” of Bill Clinton and Franklin D. Roosevelt. You would never know from this essay that Bill Clinton was one of the most skillful identity politicians of his era—flying to see a black and lobotomized Ricky Ray Rector executed, upstaging Jesse Jackson at his own conference, signing the Defense of Marriage Act—consistently signaling his attachment to “Real America.”
Cocaine Nation: How the White Trade Took Over the World by Thomas Feiling
anti-communist, barriers to entry, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, illegal immigration, informal economy, inventory management, Kickstarter, land reform, Lao Tzu, mandatory minimum, moral panic, offshore financial centre, RAND corporation, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, trade route, upwardly mobile, yellow journalism
Len Bias has been called ‘the Archduke Ferdinand of the Total War on Drugs’.2 Although the coroner’s report concluded that there was no clear link between Bias’s drug use and his heart failure, this precious detail was lost on the press. In the month following his death, the news networks of the United States aired seventy-four evening news items about crack and cocaine, routinely confusing the two forms of the drug, and often stating that it was crack that had killed Len Bias. The crack scare that followed set the benchmark for every irrational, hysterical and moralizing panic the American media has cooked up since. The advertising industry and the main broadcasters even donated a billion dollars’ worth of ads and airtime to the anti-drugs movement, saying that ‘on this issue we’re ready to go over the top!’3 As the head of the DEA office in New York put it, ‘crack is the hottest combat-reporting story to come along since the end of the Vietnam War’.4 Police footage of their raids on alleged drug dealers’ homes appeared in a quarter of all drug stories over the following two years.
I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre
call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, placebo effect, publication bias, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks
The progressive attitude to drug use institutionalised in this report established the framework of public policy for the next five decades, and following 1926 the ‘British System’ prosecuted dealers and dilettantes, but permitted medical prescription of heroin to addicts after ‘every effort’ had been made for the ‘cure of the addiction’, but when the drugs could not be fully withdrawn without ‘severe distress or even risk of life’ or ‘experience showed that a certain minimum dose of the drug was necessary for the patients to lead useful and relatively normal lives … capable of work’. This twin policy of ‘policing and prescribing’ effectively contained the heroin problem (which ran at below a hundred notified heroin addicts) for the next four decades. With the sixties came an atmosphere of moral panic at the scale of a well-publicised increase in drug use. Although the drugs in question were mostly cannabis and amphetamines, not heroin, attitudes to drug use and regulation were reappraised: amphetamines and LSD were brought under tight statutory control, and the government began to fear that with a rising demand for drugs, the licit opiate supply system might start supplying the illicit market.
A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare
"Robert Solow", affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hedonic treadmill, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
For critiques of Herrnstein and Murray, see Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1996); and Orley Ashenfelter and Cecilia Rouse, “Schooling, Intelligence, and Income in America: Cracks in the Bell Curve,” November 1998, www.irs.princeton.edu/pubs/pdfs/407.pdf. Jacqueline Jones called The Bell Curve “hate literature with footnotes.” Jones cited in Steve Macek, Urban Nightmares: The Media, the Right, and the Moral Panic over the City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006). 66 Robert Rector, “Welfare: Broadening the Reform,” in Issues 2000: The Candidate’s Briefing Book, ed. Stuart M. Butler and Kim R. Holmes (Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 2000). 67 James C. Cobb, “‘Somebody Done Nailed Us on the Cross’: Federal Farm and Welfare Policy and the Civil Rights Movement in the Mississippi Delta,” Journal of American History 77, no. 3 (December 1990): 912–36. 68 John K.
Giving the Devil His Due: Reflections of a Scientific Humanist by Michael Shermer
Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Chelsea Manning, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, creative destruction, dark matter, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, gun show loophole, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, Laplace demon, luminiferous ether, McMansion, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, moral hazard, moral panic, More Guns, Less Crime, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, positional goods, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, working poor, Yogi Berra
In May of 1692, seven teenage girls writhed on the floor of a Salem, Massachusetts courtroom during the trial of a suspected witch named Martha Carrier, crying out “There is a black man whispering in her ear!” Carrier was one of twenty people executed in what became the most famous witch trial in history. What were these people thinking?1 It is convenient to dismiss them as unthinking naïfs caught up in the hysterics of a moral panic, but in fact they were thinking quite clearly, and they had the authority of the Bible behind them, as in Exodus 22:18: “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live.” They also had the backing of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1484, Pope Innocent VIII issued the Papal Bull Summis desiderantes affectibus, in which he pronounced that many people had abandoned themselves to devils, incubi and succubi, and by their incantations, spells, conjurations, and other accursed charms and crafts, enormities and horrid offences, have slain infants yet in the mother’s womb, as also the offspring of cattle, have blasted the produce of the earth, the grapes of the vine, the fruits of the trees, nay, men and women, beasts of burthen, herd-beasts, as well as animals of other kinds, vineyards, orchards, meadows, pasture-land, corn, wheat, and all other cereals; they hinder men from performing the sexual act and women from conceiving …2 Inspired by the Bull, two years later, the German Dominican inquisitor Heinrich Kramer published his Malleus Maleficarum (Hammer of the Witch), the infamous how-to manual on finding and prosecuting witches, which was promptly put to use, culminating in the murder of some 100,000 people.3 Such theological bafflegab and administrative argle-bargle was believed by most Europeans half a millennium ago.
Live and Let Spy: BRIXMIS - the Last Cold War Mission by Steve Gibson
Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, John Nash: game theory, libertarian paternalism, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, unbiased observer, WikiLeaks
Politicians, Anglo-Saxon politicians in particular, are so devoid of an ideological backbone, or too frightened to exhort anything remotely ideological, that they content themselves with an infantilising and patronising managerialism that simply interferes in how the rest of us wish to conduct our private lives. Worse, the rest of us, so unconfident in sorting out our own private lives, demand that these same so-called politicians intervene and regulate them on our behalf with ever-increasing shrill moral panic. Similarly in the scientific and technological world a growing ‘complexity’ narrative argues that the very scientific advances invented and developed by human-beings will somehow be responsible for humanity’s downfall. This ‘risk society’ logic, in which modernity becomes reflexively responsible for our future demise as a species, forgets that science and technology have solved many of our problems to date, delivered much of what is deemed ‘progress’, and might continue to do so in the future.
The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner
Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), lateral thinking, mandatory minimum, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional
But at the same time, the disproportionate attention to cancer in the media can lead people to exaggerate the risk—making cancer all the more frightening. Back and forth it goes. The media reflect society’s fear, but in doing so, the media generate more fear, and that gets reflected back again. This process goes on all the time but sometimes—particularly when other cultural concerns are involved—it gathers force and produces the strange eruption sociologists call a moral panic. In 1998, Time magazine declared, “It’s high noon on the country’s streets and highways. This is road recklessness, auto anarchy, an epidemic of wanton carmanship.” Road rage. In 1994, the term scarcely existed and the issue was nowhere to be seen. In 1995, the phrase started to multiply in the media, and by 1996 the issue had become a serious public concern. Americans were increasingly rude, nasty, and violent behind the wheel; berserk drivers were injuring and killing in growing numbers; it was an “epidemic.”
Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari
Airbnb, centre right, failed state, glass ceiling, global pandemic, illegal immigration, mass incarceration, McJob, moral panic, Naomi Klein, placebo effect, profit motive, RAND corporation, Rat Park, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, Steven Pinker, traveling salesman, War on Poverty
Walker, Drug Control in the Americas, 111. 66 Bonnie and Whitebread, Marijuana Conviction, 117. 67 McWilliams, Protectors, 61. 68 King, Drug Hang-Up, 82. 69 Walker, Drug Control in the Americas, 113. 70 Erlen and Spillane, Federal Drug Control, 73. 71 Sloman, Reefer Madness, 63. 72 Ibid., 61. 73 http://hightimes.com/lounge/ht_admin/8215, accessed April 1, 2013. 74 See Isaac Campos, Home Grown: Marijuana and the Origins of Mexico’s War on Drugs. 75 Erich Goode et al., Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance, 196–202. 76 Extract from “Marijuana—The New Prohibition” by John Kaplan. See http://www.drugtext.org/Marijuana-The-New-Prohibition/iv-marijuana-and-aggression.html, accessed April 7, 2013. 77 Sloman, Reefer Madness, 62. 78 Ibid. 79 Steve Fox, Paul Armentano, and Mason Tvert, Marijuana Is Safer: So Why Are We Driving People to Drink? 51. 80 Anslinger, Murderers, 82, 86. 81 Anslinger, Protectors, 203–4. 82 Anslinger, Murderers, 83. 83 Anslinger, Protectors, 214–15. 84 Anslinger, Murderers, 87. 85 Carolyn Gallaher, On the Fault Line: Race, Class, and the American Patriot Movement, 140. 86 Valentine, Strength of the Wolf, 63. 87 Sloman, Reefer Madness, 207. 88 Valentine, Strength of the Wolf, 64. 89 David Patrick Keys and John F.
The Happiness Effect: How Social Media Is Driving a Generation to Appear Perfect at Any Cost by Donna Freitas
4chan, fear of failure, Joan Didion, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Skype, Snapchat, Year of Magical Thinking
,” Wall Street Journal, Eastern Edition, August 25, 2010, D1–D2; Jan Hoffman, “States Struggle with Minors’ Sexting,” New York Times, March 27, 2011, Riva Richmond, “Sexting May Place Teens at Legal Risk,” New York Times, March 26, 2009, gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/sexting-may-place-teens-at-legal-risk/?_r=0; Maia Szalavitz, “Nearly 1 in 3 Teens Sext, Study Says. Is This Cause for Worry?,” Time, July 2, 2012, http://healthland.time.com/2012/07/02/nearly-1-in-3-teens-sext-study-says-is-this-cause-for-worry/; and Conor Friedersdorf, “The Moral Panic over Sexting,” Atlantic, September 2, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/09/for-sexting-teens-the-authorities-are-the-biggest-threat/403318/. 6.For readers interested in a detailed treatment of the methodology for both the interview and the online survey process, participant selection, demographics of participation, and so forth, see the methodological appendix at the back of this book. 7.In a nationwide study conducted by the Pew Research Center, survey data gathered in September 2009 showed that 73 percent of online American teens used social networking websites, followed closely by young adults aged eighteen to twenty-nine at 72 percent.
Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci
4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks
For one thing, there is no reason to believe street protests necessarily have more power than online acts—such an evaluation depends on the capacities conveyed by the action, something explored in chapter 8, rather than just looking at whether the acts were online or offline. Besides, most street protesters today organize with digital tools, and publicize their efforts on social media. The problem with Barlow’s statement is not just its reliance on digital dualism, but also the assumption that new technologies breed completely novel types of human behavior, common fallacy in technology writing—for example, witness the moral panic about selfies, which actually reflect mundane human behavior over millenia. Technology rarely generates absolutely novel human behavior; rather, it changes the terrain on which such behavior takes place. Think of it as the same players, but on a new game board. Culture certainly evolves, but many core mechanisms that motivate people are fairly stable, and this is true for social movements as well.
Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces by Radley Balko
The police issued more than 450 citations of $968 each to partygoers merely for attending an event where some attendees were breaking the state’s drug laws. Only three people were arrested on actual drug charges. With help from the ACLU, the city of Racine eventually dismissed the charges against all attendees who hadn’t yet pleaded guilty.17 The trendy new drug throwing the media and politicians into hysterics was Ecstasy. Raves were the new, weird, and different dance parties where teenagers were allegedly taking this crazy sex drug. Cue the moral panic, political grandstanding, and ensuing aggressive crackdown. Prior to the raid in Racine, Sen. Joe Biden of Delaware seemed particularly obsessed with rave parties. Politicians seemed to think that any party with techno music, pulsing lights, and neon inevitably degenerated into underage kids getting high on Ecstasy and engaging in mass orgies. In the summer of 2002, Biden was pushing his RAVE Act, an absurdly broad law that would have made venue and club owners liable for running a drug operation if they merely sold the “paraphernalia” common to parties where people took Ecstasy—accessories like bottled water and glow sticks.
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
Policing and the Masculinist State’, Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 8:1, 2001, p. 60. 30Ibid. 31Andrian Kreye, ‘Above the Neon Prairie: On Patrol with the LAPD’s Helicopter Squad’, andriankreye.com, 2009, available at andriankreye.com/LAPDE.html. 32‘EADS-Developed AUTOPOL Helps Police Helicopters to Spot People and Vehicles’, 1 May 2002 available at http://northamerica.airbus-group.com/. 33Herbert, ‘Hard Charger’. 34Kreye, ‘Above the Neon Prairie’. 35See Steve Macek, Urban Nightmares: The Media, the Right, and the Moral Panic over the City, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. 36See Nicole Gelinas, ‘Baghdad on the Bayou’, City Journal, Spring 2007, pp. 42–53, available at city-journal.org. 37Ryan Bishop and John Phillips, Modernist Avant-Garde Aesthetics and Contemporary Military Technology: Technicities of Perception, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010, chapter 2. 38Ibid., p. 25. 39See Henry Giroux, ‘Lockdown, USA: Lessons from the Boston Marathon Manhunt’, Truthout.Org, 6 May 2013, available at truth-out.org. 40Paul Peluso, ‘Thermal Imaging Plays Major Role in Bombing Manhunt’, SecurityInfoWatch.com, 23 April 2013. 41Gastón Gordillo, ‘Opaque Zones of Empire’, Space and Politics, 25 June 2013, available at spaceandpolitics.blogspot.co.uk. 42Cited in Paul Virilio, War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception, London: Verso, 2009, p. 4. 43Jon Boone, ‘Taliban Retaliate after Prince Harry Compares Fighting to a Video Game’, Guardian, 22 January 2013. 44Bishop and Phillips, Modernist Avant-Garde Aesthetics, p. 52. 45This discussion, and the advert, draw from Bishop and Phillips, Modernist Avant-Garde Aesthetics, p. 52. 46Ibid. 47Kari Andén-Papadopoulos, ‘US Soldiers Imaging the Iraq War on YouTube’, Popular Communication 7:1, 2009, pp. 17–27. 48Chris Cole, Mary Dobbing and Amy Hailwood, Convenient Killing: Armed Drones and the ‘PlayStation’ Mentality, Fellowship of Reconciliation, 2010, available at dronewarsuk.files.wordpress.com. 49Cited in Andén-Papadopoulos, ‘US Soldiers Imaging the Iraq War’. 50Elisabeth Bumiller, ‘Video Shows US Killing of Reuters Employees’, New York Times, 5 April 2010.
Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier
Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra
I am reminded that in the American West in the 1800s, horse thieving was often punished by hanging. This is because the society wanted to send a clear message that stealing horses was not to be tolerated. Various European governments sent a similar message in the 1970s when they started gunning terrorists down in the streets. The message was a very clear: “We’re not playing games anymore.” Some of the overreactions we’re seeing in hacker prosecution reflect this same sort of moral panic. This is also not meant as a call to extinguish legitimate researchers or hackers, full disclosure mailing lists, or the right to evaluate security products. In the United States, laws have been passed that prohibit reverse engineering of copy protection systems. The entertainment industry lobbied hard for these draconian laws, using them in an attempt to hide their incompetent security countermeasures.
How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks
airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, different worldview, disruptive innovation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks
Other databases abound. 66. See Paige Scheckla, “Personal Security for Citizens and Non-Citizens in Post-9/11 US Immigration Policy,” University of Chicago International Human Rights Clinic, November 19, 2013, https://ihrclinic.uchicago.edu/blog/personal-security-citizens-and-non-citizens-post-911-us-immigration-policy-paige-scheckla-1l. See also Samantha Hauptman, The Criminalization of Immigration: The Post 9/11 Moral Panic, (El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Pub Llc, 2013). 67. Deepa Iyer and Jayesh M. Rathod, “9/11 and the Transformation of U.S. Immigration Law and Policy,” Human Rights Magazine 38 (Winter 2011), www.americanbar.org/publications/human_rights_magazine_home/human_rights_vol38_2011/human_rights_winter2011/9-11_transformation_of_us_immigration_law_policy.html. 68. See generally Laura K. Donohue, “Technological Leap, Statutory Gap, and Constitutional Abyss: Remote Biometric Identification Comes of Age,” 97 Minnesota Law Review, 407 (2012). 69.
The Ape That Understood the Universe: How the Mind and Culture Evolve by Steve Stewart-Williams
Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, carbon-based life, David Attenborough, European colonialism, feminist movement, financial independence, gender pay gap, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, out of africa, Paul Graham, phenotype, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies
Will we escape the Earth and colonize other worlds, or will we drive ourselves to extinction? Will we engineer ourselves into a species of Einsteins, or will our intellectual faculties deteriorate, like our ability to make vitamin A? Will we cast off our superstitionsby exposing them to rational scrutiny, or will our superstitions evolve into more virulent forms, like bacteria in response to antibiotics? Will we tame our inner demons – our tendency to scapegoat, our proneness to moral panics – or will we just keep on swapping one fashionable prejudice and mass delusion for another until the very end of time? The future is notoriously difficult to predict, even for hyperintelligent alien scientists. As such, a wise alien would refrain from taking too confident a guess. One thing is certain, however. With each passing moment, the answer to all these questions falls more and more squarely into our own hands.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
Its model of the world is that encapsulated in the motto of Chicago’s 1933 World’s Fair: “Science Finds–Industry Applies–Man Conforms.” As a result, too many people have been tricked into thinking that we can only change our norms, for there’s literally nothing we can do about the autonomous march of technology. Concerns and anxieties about various technologies are recast as reactive fears and phobias, as irrelevant moral panics that will quickly fade away once users develop the appropriate coping strategies and upgrade their norms. Such conflation of anxiety and technophobia has a long history. Historian Berhard Rieger has studied ambivalent reactions to new technologies in early twentieth-century Britain and found that such ambivalence was rarely an obstacle to innovation. Instead, he argues, “ambivalence should be understood as an integral element of British public debates, and one that supported a culture conducive to innovation.”
The Barbell Prescription: Strength Training for Life After 40 by Jonathon Sullivan, Andy Baker
complexity theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Gary Taubes, indoor plumbing, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, phenotype, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, Y Combinator
Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:167-175. Campos ER, Luecke TJ, Wendeln HK, et al. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Eur J Appl Physiol 2002;88:50-60. Campos P, Suguy A, Ernsberger P, et al. The epidemiology of overweight and obesity: public health crisis or moral panic? Int J Epidem 2006;35(1):55-60. Campos P. The Obesity Myth: Why America’s Obsession with Fat is Hazardous to Your Health. 2004, Gotham-Penguin. Carek PJ, Laibstain SE, Carek SM, et al. Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety. Int J Psych Med 2011; 41(1):15-28. Carpinelli RN, Otto RN. Strength training. Sports Med 1998;26(2):73-84. Carter JG, Potter AW, Brooks KA. Overtraining syndrome: causes, consequences and methods for prevention.
Fantasyland: How America Went Haywire: A 500-Year History by Kurt Andersen
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, Celebration, Florida, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, high net worth, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, large denomination, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, young professional
“Knowing what I know now…knowing how to do exams” properly, “I think that if I had that case now, I’d probably…decline to testify.” The Satanic Panic never really took off outside the United States. A historian in Norway found that until Rivera’s 1988 NBC special was covered in the Norwegian press, there had been no public references to satanic ritual abuse. According to The Day Care Ritual Abuse Moral Panic, published in 2004 by a U.S. social psychologist specializing in trauma and mental illness, the few international prosecutions in the 1980s and ’90s were generally “closed in a matter of months,” which “made it difficult for the kind of improvised news that romped around in the shadows of the [U.S.] daycare cases…from getting a running start.” The British cases, she writes, had “no chanting orgiastic Satanists…just ghosts, some of them pink, one eyed spirits; there was no cannibalizing of the flesh of dead babies, nor any drinking of their blood”—indeed, “there was no abuse…none of the rape, sodomy and torture that rendered the American master narrative so utterly appealing.”
A Fraction of the Whole by Steve Toltz
After six weeks he plopped me back in kindergarten, and just as it started looking like I might have a normal life after all, suddenly, in the second week of first grade, he walked right into the classroom and yanked me out once again, because he'd been overcome with the fear that he was leaving my impressionable brain "in the folds of Satan's underpants." This time he meant it, and from our wobbly kitchen table, while flicking cigarette ash into a pile of unwashed dishes, he taught me literature, philosophy, geography, history, and some nameless subject that involved going through the daily newspapers, barking at me about how the media do something he called "whipping up moral panics" and demanding that I tell him why people allowed themselves to be whipped into panicking, morally. Other times he gave classes from his bedroom, among hundreds of secondhand books, pictures of grave-looking dead poets, empty long necks of beer, newspaper clippings, old maps, black stiff banana peels, boxes of unsmoked cigars, and ashtrays full of smoked ones. This was a typical lesson: "OK, Jasper.
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
Yet most available research points to the opposite conclusion. After reviewing the literature, W. Russell Neuman concludes that “the accumulated findings from five decades of systematic social science research reveal that mass media audience, youthful or otherwise, is not helpless, and the media are not all-powerful. The evolving theory of modest and conditional media effects helps to put in perspective the historical cycle of moral panic over new media.”33 Furthermore, the barrage of advertising messages received through the media seems to have limited effect. According to Draper,34 although in the US the average person is exposed to 1,600 advertising messages per day, people respond (and not necessarily positively) to only about 12 of them. Indeed, McGuire,35 after reviewing accumulated evidence on the effects of media advertising, concluded that there is no substantial evidence of specific impacts by media advertising on actual behavior, an ironic conclusion for an industry that spent at that time US$50 billion a year.
Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel by Max Blumenthal
airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, centre right, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, housing crisis, knowledge economy, megacity, moral panic, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game
The Ashkenazi elite who guided the policy of separation enjoyed the greatest distance from Palestinians, their “villa in the jungle,” as Barak said. But among the lower rungs of Jewish society, especially those deliberately planted in development cities in the “periphery,” Arabs and, in more recent years, migrants from Africa were a constant presence in daily life. Having seized the reins of the state from the old left-wing Zionist establishment, the religious right plunged into the mixed cities to stir moral panic, and to tap into their resentment against the Ashkenazi elite, hoping to extract publicity and droves of new followers from the crisis their presence inevitably stirred. Once again, the Jewish woman emerged as a symbol of purity in peril who demanded ironclad protection and, if necessary, commando-style rescue operations. In December 2010, around fifty state-sanctioned Israeli rabbis including chief rabbis from suburbs of Tel Aviv issued a psak din, or a public religious edict, urging Israelis against renting to Arabs and other non-Jews.
She Has Her Mother's Laugh by Carl Zimmer
23andMe, agricultural Revolution, clean water, clockwatching, cloud computing, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flynn Effect, friendly fire, Gary Taubes, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, medical bankruptcy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral panic, mouse model, New Journalism, out of africa, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scientific racism, statistical model, stem cell, twin studies
Translated by Arthur Platt. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/On_the_Generation_of_Animals/Book_I (accessed August 2, 2017). Armistead, Wilson. 1848. A Tribute for the Negro: Being a Vindication of the Moral, Intellectual, and Religious Capabilities of the Coloured Portion of Mankind; with Particular Reference to the African Race. Manchester, UK: W. Irwin. Armstrong, Elizabeth M., and Ernest L. Abel. 2000. “Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: The Origins of a Moral Panic.” Alcohol and Alcoholism 35:276–82. Asbury, Kathryn. 2015. “Can Genetics Research Benefit Educational Interventions for All?” Hastings Center Report 45, Suppl 1, S39–S42. ———, and Robert Plomin. 2013. G Is for Genes: The Impact of Genetics on Education and Achievement. New York: Wiley-Blackwell. Asnicar, Francesco, Serena Manara, Moreno Zolfo, Duy Tin Truong, Matthias Scholz, Federica Armanini, Pamela Ferretti, and others. 2017.
Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce
Dunn et al. (2007: 564) believe that ‘‘contemporary anti-Muslim sentiment in Australia is reproduced through a racialization that includes well rehearsed stereotypes of Islam, perceptions of threat and inferiority, as well as fantasies that . . . Australian Muslims . . . do not belong.’’ They identify undercurrents of Islamophobia and ‘‘national cultural selectivity in the politics of responding to asylum seekers’’ in negative media reporting, which they see as strongly linked to an antipathetic government. This has resulted in moral panic, misinformed opposition to mosque development, ever more restrictive asylum seeker policies, arson attacks, and racist violence. It has also led to discrimination against people who are not Muslim, such as Christian Arabs, given people’s ignorance of the diversity of the Islamic population. Mason (2006) believes that hate campaigns have transferred anti-Asian prejudice to anti- 163 Muslim sentiments, while Manne (2002) perceives Islamophobia to be the most serious threat to multiculturalism and religious and ethnic tolerance that Australia has witnessed for very many years.
A Classless Society: Britain in the 1990s by Alwyn W. Turner
Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, centre right, deindustrialization, demand response, Desert Island Discs, endogenous growth, Etonian, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, global village, greed is good, inflation targeting, lateral thinking, means of production, millennium bug, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, period drama, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce
Inspector Morse was far and away the most popular detective show on television, with a domestic audience that touched twenty million. It was also one of Britain’s few really big television exports of the time; by 2007 ITV were to claim that a billion people worldwide (around a sixth of the global population) had seen at least one episode. The idea that such a mainstream show felt the need to address raves was an indication of how far up the public agenda they had moved, and how close the country was to one of its periodic moral panics. That scare duly arrived in 1995 with the death of an eighteen-year-old named Leah Betts from a combination of taking an ecstasy tablet and drinking vast quantities of water. The story became big largely because she was clearly not part of an underclass that could be easily dismissed: her stepmother was a nurse and her father a former police officer, who became a key campaigner for stronger action against drug use.
The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
And contrary to yet another scare that has recently been ginned up by the media, based on widely circulated YouTube videos of female teenagers pummeling one another, the nation’s girls have not gone wild. The rates of murder and robbery by girls are at their lowest level in forty years, and rates of weapon possession, fights, assaults, and violent injuries by and toward girls have been declining for a decade.198 With the popularity of YouTube, we can expect more of these video-driven moral panics (sadist grannies? bloodthirsty toddlers? killer gerbils?) in the years to come. It is premature to say that the kids are all right, but they are certainly far better off than they used to be. Indeed, in some ways the effort to protect children against violence has begun to overshoot its target and is veering into the realm of sacrament and taboo. FIGURE 7–22. Violence against youths in the United States, 1992–2003 Source: Data from DeVoe et al., 2004.