Indoor air pollution

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pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping,, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Those releases, amounting to some 2.6 billion tons per year, made Indonesia the third-largest emitter of carbon dioxide on the planet, behind China and the United States.16 Although the gorillas, tigers, and apes are important, the most important beneficiaries of more widespread use of oil would be humans. And, to be more specific, it would be the millions of young children and women who are sickened or who die prematurely every year from indoor air pollution caused by the burning of biomass. In 2007, the World Health Organization estimated that indoor air pollution was killing about 500,000 people in India every year, most of them women and children. The agency also found that air pollution levels in some kitchens in rural India were thirty times higher than recommended and that the pollution was six times as bad as that found in New Delhi. Worldwide, as many as 1.6 million people per year are dying premature deaths due to indoor air pollution.17 About 37 percent of the world’s population relies on solid fuels, such as straw, wood, dung, or coal, to cook their meals.18 These low-quality fuels, combined with inadequate ventilation when the cooking is done inside, often results in the living areas being filled with a variety of noxious pollutants, including soot particles, carbon monoxide, benzene, formaldehyde, and even dioxin.19 Continued exposure to polluted indoor air can result in numerous illnesses, ranging from relatively minor problems such as headaches and eye irritation to deadly conditions such as asthma, pneumonia, blindness, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and low birth weight in children born to mothers who were exposed to indoor air pollution during pregnancy.20 Despite these numbers, the problem of indoor air pollution doesn’t get nearly as much attention as other public health issues, such as vaccination or safe drinking water.

For more information, see 14 Tom Knudson, “The Cost of the Biofuel Boom on Indonesia’s Forests,” The Guardian, January 21, 2009, 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Kounteya Sinha, “‘Indoor’ Air Pollution Is the Biggest Killer,” Times of India, March 22, 2007, 18 Fatih Birol, “Energy Economics: A Place for Energy Poverty in the Agenda?” The Energy Journal 28, no. 3 (2007): 3, 4. 19 Kirk R. Smith, “Wood: The Fuel That Warms You Thrice,” Human Health and Forests (2008): 99, 20 Sinha, “‘Indoor’ Air Pollution.” 21 “Viewpoints: An Interview with Professor Kirk R. Smith.” 22 Kirk R. Smith, “Editorial: In Praise of Petroleum?” Science, December 6, 2002,, 1847. 23 Robert Bryce, “An Interview with Kirk R. Smith on Indoor Air Pollution and Why the Rural Poor Need Propane and Butane,” July 23, 2009,

Worldwide, as many as 1.6 million people per year are dying premature deaths due to indoor air pollution.17 About 37 percent of the world’s population relies on solid fuels, such as straw, wood, dung, or coal, to cook their meals.18 These low-quality fuels, combined with inadequate ventilation when the cooking is done inside, often results in the living areas being filled with a variety of noxious pollutants, including soot particles, carbon monoxide, benzene, formaldehyde, and even dioxin.19 Continued exposure to polluted indoor air can result in numerous illnesses, ranging from relatively minor problems such as headaches and eye irritation to deadly conditions such as asthma, pneumonia, blindness, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and low birth weight in children born to mothers who were exposed to indoor air pollution during pregnancy.20 Despite these numbers, the problem of indoor air pollution doesn’t get nearly as much attention as other public health issues, such as vaccination or safe drinking water. One of the most passionate voices proclaiming the need for more hydrocarbon use among the world’s poor is that of Kirk R. Smith, a professor of global environmental health at the University of California, Berkeley.21 In 2002, Smith wrote a piece for Science magazine entitled “In Praise of Petroleum?”

The Cigarette: A Political History by Sarah Milov

activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, global supply chain, imperial preference, Indoor air pollution, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, land tenure, new economy, New Journalism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, Torches of Freedom, trade route, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

James Repace, Enemy No. 1:Waging the War on Secondhand Smoke (Amazon: Repace Associates, Inc., 2019), 32–40; James B. Sullivan, “Working with Citizens’ Groups,” Physics Today 27, No. 6 (June 1974): 32–37. 79. Repace, Enemy No. 1, 36–39. 80. Ibid., 50–59. 81. James Repace and Alfred Lowrey, “Indoor Air Pollution, Tobacco Smoke, and Public Health,” Science 208, (May 2, 1980): 471. 82. “Tobacco Smoke: An Occupational Health Hazard,” n.d., Folder 1, Carton 2, Shimp Papers, UCSF. 83. Repace and Lowrey, “Indoor Air Pollution, Tobacco Smoke, and Public Health,” 471. 84. Richard Kluger, Ashes to Ashes: America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris (New York: Knopf, 1996), 496. 85. For a fascinating exploration of the gendered dynamics of the quest for indoor occupational health, see Michelle Murphy, Sick Building Syndrome and the Problem of Uncertainty: Environmental Politics, Technoscience, and Women Workers (Durham: Duke University Press, 2006). 86.

Woolley, The American Presidency Project, 4. Derthick, Up in Smoke, 110–114. 5. James Repace and Alfred Lowrey, “Indoor Air Pollution, Tobacco Smoke, and Public Health,” Science 208 (1980): 464–472; Repace and Lowrey, “A Quantitative Estimate of Nonsmokers’ Lung Cancer Risk from Passive Smoking,” Environment International 11, No. 1 (1985): 3–22; National Research Council, Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Measuring Exposures and Assessing Health Effects (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1986); J. M. Samet, M. C. Marbury, and J. D. Spengler, “Health Effects and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution,” American Review of Respiratory Disease 136, No. 6 (1987): 1486–1506; A. Judson Wells, “An Estimate of Adult Mortality in the United States from Passive Smoking,” Environment International 14, No. 3 (1988): 249–265. 6.

The EPA eventually refused to approve the sewage incinerator on the banks of the Potomac.78 Repace’s success in marshaling his professional expertise to thwart the incinerator siting made him an in-demand expert for citizens’ groups opposing incinerators across the D.C. area.79 That is, Repace became a NIMBY (“Not In My Back Yard”) specialist. After a meeting with a Maryland citizens’ group, an audience member encouraged Repace to turn his technical skills to the question of indoor air pollution. By Repace’s calculations, tobacco smoke in enclosed environments would exceed EPA-permissible air quality standards. Fortuitously, Repace’s attention to the issue conceded with Jesse Steinfeld’s political demise. Once out of office, Steinfeld organized a conference on nonsmokers’ rights at a Baltimore community college. For the event, Repace designed a poster based on his calculations, which attracted the attention of an engineer with the National Security Administration and a fellow Bowie resident (see Figure 6.2).

pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, twin studies, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

Sanitation, vitamin A and zinc deficiency and unimproved water bring up the rear of the list. Childhood underweight, which makes children more vulnerable to infection, comes in at rank 8, after high body mass index, i.e. overweight. Today, considering all countries, high-, middle- and low-income, the major diseases affecting people are similar – so-called non-communicable diseases: heart disease, lung disease – note the importance of indoor air pollution, a cause of chronic lung disease in low-income countries – cancers, diabetes. AIDS, Ebola, TB and malaria remind us that there is still a long distance to go in eradicating major infectious disease epidemics. That said, already in middle-income countries, and increasingly in low-income countries, the causes of suffering and death are similar to those in high-income countries. Second, the list contains a mix of physiological risk factors: high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high total cholesterol; behaviours: smoking, diet and alcohol consumption; and environmental exposures: air pollution, lead.

The pharmaceutical industry may not like me for saying it, but my preference is for seeing how we could deal with the causes of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood sugar, rather than simply wait for them to get raised and then treat. Third, and related to the last point, there is no social analysis. Overwhelmingly, most of these risk factors are related to people’s social circumstances. We might call these the ‘causes of the causes’. Diet, indoor air pollution and high blood pressure are potent causes of disease globally. We need to ask why, increasingly, these risk factors are linked to social disadvantage. Remember the discussion of maternal mortality? We may call lack of access to medical care a cause of a mother dying in childbirth. We need to look at the causes of lack of access – the causes of the causes. My argument is that tackling disempowerment is crucial for improving health and improving health equity.

Picture Indian women going further and further from home to gather what fuel they can. In addition to the physical burden of carrying wood or manure, they are at increased risk of sexual violence. Cooking over open fires, and indoors in smoky badly ventilated dwellings, is also bad for health. The World Health Organisation estimates that in 2012, globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributable to indoor air pollution, almost all of them in low- and middle-income countries. We have, then, a significant contributor to health inequities between countries. The pity of this problem is that it is soluble, and quickly. Global poverty is soluble too, but will take a little longer. The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves is one among many organisations that are committed to helping hundreds of millions of families escape the unnecessary toil of having no cooking stove or only a rudimentary one.

pages: 424 words: 119,679

It's Better Than It Looks: Reasons for Optimism in an Age of Fear by Gregg Easterbrook

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, coronavirus, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, failed state, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Chicago School, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

As the next chapter will detail, all forms of air pollution except greenhouse gases are in long-term decline in the United States and European Union; better air quality is good for public health. Air in China, India, and parts of the developing world is dangerously polluted; across the contemporary globe it is the poor nations that are the polluted ones, not the advanced industrial regions. In poor nations, indoor air pollution—caused by burning wood, coal, or agricultural wastes for heating and cooking—may be worse than outdoor air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution causes 4.3 million deaths annually in the developing world; by contrast, outdoor air pollution causes little if any mortality in the United States and European Union. Indoor cooking smoke in the developing world is far more harmful to the human family than conjectured super-plagues. Public investments to reduce pollution are joined to a better public health response model, the latter tending to nip problems in the bud.

sixty-eight people died, but there was no runaway effect: Gregg Easterbrook, “We’re Gonna Die,” Wired, July 2003. In 1900, some 80 percent of Americans were employed at manual or semiskilled labor: Theodore Caplow et al., The First Measured Century (Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2000). Chicago has invested about $4 billion in a deep-tunnel system: Trevor English, “Chicago Deep Tunnel Project,” Interesting Engineering, May 21, 2016. The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution causes 4.3 million deaths: “Clean Household Energy for Health, Sustainable Development, and Wellbeing of Women and Children” (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2016). Today the typical man in the Netherlands is five-foot-eleven: Max Roser, “Human Height,” The improvement obtains nearly everywhere: Most statistics in this section can be found in the WHO’s Global Health Observatory,

The New Map: Energy, Climate, and the Clash of Nations by Daniel Yergin

3D printing, 9 dash line, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, Asian financial crisis, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, British Empire, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, failed state, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, Lyft, Malacca Straits, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Masdar, mass incarceration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, off grid, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paypal mafia, peak oil, pension reform, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ubercab, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

“The reality is that Africa is not there yet on renewables. We have to overcome the issue of energy poverty in Africa. Many, many things are not being taken into account with all the talk about renewables and electric vehicles.” What those like Sylva see as not taken into account is that three billion people, almost 40 percent of the world’s population—what the World Health Organization (WHO) calls “the forgotten 3 billion”—are subject to indoor air pollution caused by these poor fuels, which the WHO calls “the greatest environmental health risk in the world today.” Close to four million people a year die from this indoor pollution, and many more suffer from a wide variety of illnesses. For children, it can mean stunted development.1 India, with almost 20 percent of the world’s population—soon to be the most populous country in the world—is a case study for the challenges of the developing world.

Solar costs have fallen an extraordinary 85 percent over a decade, and deployment has grown enormously. China represents half the global market. Workers assemble solar cells in a factory in China, which supplies 70 percent of the world’s solar cells. Almost three billion people do not have access to commercial energy, but instead depend upon gathering wood and crop and animal waste for cooking and heating. The resulting indoor air pollution, says the World Health Organization, is “the greatest environmental health risk in the world today.” Offshore is the new frontier for wind power. Here a supply ship services one of the 150 turbines in the Gemini Wind Park, which covers twenty-six square miles off the Netherlands’ coast. OPEC secretary general Mohammad Barkindo, left, with Saudi petroleum minister Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman and Russian energy minister Alexander Novak, the two leaders of “OPEC+.”

., xv and gas supplies to Europe, 84–89 and Nixon administration, 53 and opposition to Russian gas exports, 109 and politics of U.S. shale production, 55 and Russia-Europe relations, 83 and South China Sea tensions, 171 and varied approaches to climate change, 412–13 “energy superpower” status, xv, 57, 70–71 Energy Transfer Partners, 49, 51 energy transition and breakthrough energy technologies, 403–6 and carbon capture technology, 419 and current global challenges, xiii–xx, 427–29 and developing world, 407–10 emerging consensus on climate issues, 382–87 and “green deal” proposals, 388–91, 391–93 historical perspective on, 377–79 and IPCC, 379–80 and Paris climate agreement, 380–82 and push for renewable energy sources, 394, 400–401 and U.S. position, xv and varied approaches to climate change, 412 Eni, 256 environmental issues and activism and American shale gas reserves, 113 and Fukushima nuclear disaster, 87 and global power politics, xiii and hydraulic fracturing, 28–29 and indoor air pollution in developing countries, 407–8 and opposition to pipeline projects, 46–51 and U.S. transition to LNG exporter, 37 See also carbon emissions; climate change Environmental Defense Fund, 28–29 EOG, 14–17 Erbil, Kurdistan, 232 Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip, 247, 305, 315 ESPO pipeline, 118 Estonia, 69 EU Council, 102 Eurasian Economic Union, 92, 93, 189 Europe and China Belt and Road Initiative, 182, 184 and Eastern Mediterranean petroleum resources, 258 and impact of U.S. shale and LNG, 38, 55, 61–62 and push for renewable energy sources, 398–99 See also European Union (EU); specific countries European Central Bank, 187 European Commission, 388–90 European Union (EU) and energy security issues in Europe, 85–88 and energy transition challenges, 381 and “green deal” proposals, 388–91 and Nord Stream 2 pipeline, 102, 104, 108–9 and Russian annexation of Crimea, 95 and Russian gas supplies to Europe, 85 and Russian geopolitical ambitions, 70, 115 and Russia-Ukraine tensions, 93 and Syrian refugees, 248 Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) and territorial waters, 142–45, 148, 159, 170, 257 extraterritoriality, 108, 139 ExxonMobil, 15, 65, 76, 395 Fabius, Laurent, 381 Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, 214 Faisal I, King of Iraq, 198–200, 202–3 Falcon rockets, 332 Farouk I, King of Egypt, 203 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 103 financial crisis of 2008, 26–27, 333, 429 Financial Stability Board, 385 Financial Times, 113, 273 financing for energy projects and China Belt and Road Initiative, 182–83 and “green recovery” proposals, 428 and push for renewable energy sources, 397, 400–401 and Russian interests in Central Asia, 125–26 and Russian LNG, 112 Fink, Larry, 385 First Opium War, 139 First Sino-Japanese War, 154 5G technology, 175, 354 “flight shaming,” 387, 415 Ford, Bill (and Ford Motor Company), 329, 338, 346, 351, 369–70, 373 Ford, Henry, 372–73 Fort Laramie Treaty, 49 Fracking Debate, The (Raimi), 28 France, 138, 195–96, 201–2, 227, 232, 247, 343 Freeport LNG facility, 24, 35–37, 38 Free Syrian Army (FSA), 244 Fukushima nuclear accident, 63, 87, 401, 430 G7, 129 G8, 129 G20, 129, 280, 319–20, 388, 426 Gadhafi, Muammar, 239 Gadkari, Nitin, 342 Gaidar, Yegor, 73 gasoline and Auto-Tech advances, 368, 370–72 and “clean diesel,” 335 and consumer behaviors, 421 Mexican imports, 41, 43 and oil embargo of 1973, 53–54 and oil price war, 316–17, 323 and pipeline battles in U.S., 47 Gates, Bill, 315, 385–86 Gates, Robert, 237–38 Gaza, 253 Gazprom, 76, 80, 86, 89, 105, 107–8, 109, 125 Geely, 338 General Motors, 171, 329, 333–34, 369 Georges-Picot, François, 194–95, 196–98, 201–2 Georgia (country), 82 Germany and “clean diesel,” 336 economic growth before World War I, 132 and energy security issues in Europe, 86–88 and energy transition challenges, xix and global order after First World War, 200 and Iranian nuclear ambitions, 223, 227 and Khashoggi affair, 305–6 and Nord Stream 2 pipeline, 102, 104–5, 107–8 and push for renewable energy sources, 395–96, 400–401 and Russia’s “pivot to the east,” 117 and Syrian refugees, 248 and the Thucydides Trap, 131, 154 and U.S.

pages: 1,631 words: 468,342

Home Comforts: The Art and Science of Keeping House by Cheryl Mendelson

biofilm, Broken windows theory, clean water, deskilling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Jacquard loom, Own Your Own Home, sensible shoes, spice trade, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer

CLEANLINESS The Air in Your Castle Effects of inadequate ventilation, signs of inadequate ventilation, desirable levels of ventilation … Desirable indoor temperatures, indoor and outdoor methods of cooling using air conditioners, shade trees, awnings, window shades, blinds, solar shades and screens, and other means … Desirable indoor humidity levels, effects of excess and insufficient humidity … How to measure and control indoor humidity … Indoor air pollution caused by household chemicals used for cleaning and other purposes, chemicals used in hobbies and work, pesticides, ozone, formaldehyde, asbestos, radon, lead, off-gassing and fumes produced by fabrics and carpets, microorganisms, house dust … Indoor pollution caused by furnaces, stoves, heaters, and fireplaces; combustion by-products, carbon monoxide; unvented heaters, wood stoves, gas stoves … Tobacco smoke … Air-cleaning devices such as filters and air-cleaning machines; effect of houseplants Dr.

As a result, nontight, uninsulated homes in years past had one or more—some say as many as three or four—complete changes of air each hour. Because all that fresh air requires heating in winter, those who have high air-exchange rates (the rates at which outside air replaces indoor air) have heating bills to match. By having your house weatherized and tightened, you can significantly decrease both. (You can never render a home completely airtight.) But indoor air pollution increases—and available oxygen decreases—as the air-exchange rate goes down. Thus, although weatherizing usually allows enough fresh air to enter for adequate ventilation, and weatherizing your home is almost always safe and beneficial, authorities recommend against tightening homes with inadequate ventilation or specific pollution problems such as unvented gas cooking stoves, unvented heating stoves, potential radon accumulations, or urea-formaldehyde foam insulation or other significant formaldehyde-emitting sources.

You can dehumidify closets, cupboards, cabinets, and other small, enclosed areas with silica gel crystals or other moisture-absorbent materials or desiccants. See chapter 58, “Closets for Clothes and Linens.” Home centers and hardware stores sell bags of absorbent crystals you can hang in closets or other problem areas. A lightbulb left burning in a damp closet will help dry it out. But don’t create a fire hazard; be sure nothing is left touching or near the bulb. Exhaust fans vented to the outdoors effectively remove excess humidity and indoor air pollutants in bathrooms and kitchens. Every home should have these, but many do not. Ventilating or placing moisture barriers in crawl spaces, basements, and attics can prevent excessive humidity buildup. Dehumidifiers are said to help significantly anywhere in the home, including the basement. Like most other air-treating machines, dehumidifiers have trays that must be emptied and cleaned at recommended intervals to prevent molds and microorganisms from growing.

pages: 412 words: 113,782

Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, business cycle, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K

Here’s what we found coming from them: • carbon monoxide, generated by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels; • carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas that helps make Venus an oven; • sulfur dioxide, the poisonous precursor to acid rain; • nitrous oxides, potent greenhouse gases in their own right that react with volatile organic compounds and hydrocarbons on hot, humid days to create ground-level ozone (the bad ozone) and smog, and also contribute to acid rain; • particulate matter, tiny specks of “ash” ten microns or less in diameter and able to penetrate lung tissue; • volatile organic compounds, “escape artist” chemicals that are released during the manufacturing process and from the product itself, contributing to indoor air pollution, “sick building” syndrome, and ground level ozone. That is quite a list. And the survey of our nineteen wastewater effluent pipes was also very revealing. We were legally flushing into the rivers: • dyes (sulfonated mono-alkyl glyceride and di-azo aromatics, benzene and ammonium derivatives); • maintenance chemicals (surfactants, butyl cellusolve); • softeners (sulfonated hydrocarbons, fatty amine ethoxylates); • buffers (inorganic phosphates); • pH control agents (ammonium sulfate, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, acetic and citric acids); • chelating agents (ethylene diamine, tetra acetic acid); • stain-resistant additives (sulfonated alkyl succinate).

It’s really that simple. Here’s another example of biomimicry-assisted design. Have you ever wondered how a gecko lizard can cling upside down to the ceiling? It can even hang from a glass surface, using just a single toe. That is one powerful adhesive! Could we use something similar to hold our carpet tiles in place? After all, carpet adhesives can be nasty chemicals that contribute to indoor air pollution, and we have vowed to rid our product line of them. Is there something we can learn from a lizard? These questions were posed at an out-of-the-box brainstorming session at InterfaceFLOR in 2006. It turned out that a gecko makes use of a powerful adhering mode known as van der Waals forces, a kind of intermolecular bonding that happens between microscopic hairs on the gecko’s feet and the molecular layer of water that’s present on nearly everything.

pages: 480 words: 119,407

Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

A woman cooking on a traditional stove in an unventilated room is exposed to the equivalent of more than a hundred cigarettes a day.33 According to a 2016 paper, in countries from Peru to Nigeria, toxic fumes from stoves are between twenty and a hundred times above World Health Organization guideline limits,34 and globally they cause three times more deaths (2.9 million)35 every year than malaria.36 This is all made worse by the inefficiency of traditional stoves: women who cook on them are exposed to these fumes for three to seven hours a day,37 meaning that, worldwide, indoor air pollution is the single largest environmental risk factor for female mortality and the leading killer of children under the age of five.38 Indoor air pollution is also the eighth-leading contributor to the overall global disease burden, causing respiratory and cardiovascular damage, as well as increased susceptibility to infectious illnesses such as tuberculosis and lung cancer.39 However, as is so often the case with health problems that mainly affect women, ‘these adverse health effects have not been studied in an integrated and scientifically rigorous manner’.40 Development agencies have been trying to introduce ‘clean’ stoves since the 1950s, with varying levels of success.

The Art of Profitability by Adrian Slywotzky

business cycle, business process, commoditize, Indoor air pollution, Isaac Newton, pattern recognition, rolodex, shareholder value

“Would it be possible to upgrade them?” Zhao wondered. “I’m not sure.” Steve sat up straight. “Wait, I think it could be. Just yesterday I was reading a report about some of the new products we’ve been bringing out. Non-allergenic air filters. Eco-friendly supplies for heaters and furnaces. Screens and insulating materials that cut heating and cooling costs as soon as you install them and also reduce indoor air pollution.” “Have you been marketing these products aggressively?” Steve shook his head. “Not really. We let our dealer network know what’s available. Then it’s up to them to move the stuff. Most people still buy the traditional supplies, at one third the price.” A strange look crossed his face. “You know what, there might be the makings of something here.” “A Pyramid?” “Yes, I think so.” Steve looked excited.

pages: 1,157 words: 379,558

Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger

air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, plutocrats, Plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Yet a month later, EPA sent industry lawyers the draft of a handbook the agency was drawing up for employers and institutional administrators entitled “Understanding Indoor Air Pollution”—a curious procedure in view of the agency’s own concurrent risk assessment of ETS; why not wait for the completion of the latter before undertaking the former? The industry lawyers’ reply to the invitation to review the handbook gave EPA officials a clearer understanding of what they were in for. Many of the assertions in the draft of the booklet were unfounded, the tobacco people said, and the suggestion that eliminating ETS will “get rid of relevant pollutants is simply wrong.” On the contrary, a large number of studies “show that poor ventilation is by far the most important cause of indoor air pollution,” the industry spokesman added, and the 1986 Surgeon General’s report had not coneluded eluded that ETS was “a leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers,” as the EPA booklet said, and because of all the foregoing inaccuracies, it “seriously misrepresents the consensus of the scientific community.”

Repace persuasively answered these charges, contending that they were largely beside the point—that the “aging” rate of ETS, for instance, could be calculated as a constant value since it took about three hours to clear 95 percent of the ETS from a room, during which time the smokers in it collectively lighted, smoked, and discarded cigarettes in a more or less continuous process. To the claim that the ETS level could not be inferred from RSP readings because other airborne pollutants were also present, he responded that the indoor pollution level is ten to one hundred times higher when people are smoking, by far the most significant source of respirable indoor air pollution. Published in Science in May 1980, Repace’s article—his first in a major journal—asserted that the RSP levels generated by smokers overwhelmed the effects of existing ventilation systems and that ETS “presents a serious risk to the health of nonsmokers. Since this risk is involuntary, it deserves as much attention as outdoor air pollution.” The authors received 200 reprint requests almost at once, signaling that a new era of findings on smoking and health had opened.

But CIAR also sponsored studies of authentic value by reputable investigators, such as the American Health Foundation report “Determination of Nicotine Metabolites by Immunochemical Methods,” a step toward measuring ETS dosages. The industry, though, also crossed to the shady side of the street by contributing millions of dollars, according to reports by NBC News and The New York Times, to a Fairfax County, Virginia-based private company called Healthy Buildings International, which ostensibly conducted objective indoor air pollution tests and reported their findings to owners or tenants. A number of whistle-blowers once employed by the company charged that the data gathered during its inspections, which almost never faulted ETS as a major pollutant, were routinely doctored to reduce the measured level of ambient smoke and that its representatives, coached by tobacco industry personnel, made frequent public appearances during which they downplayed ETS as a serious health threat.

The Orbital Perspective: Lessons in Seeing the Big Picture From a Journey of 71 Million Miles by Astronaut Ron Garan, Muhammad Yunus

Airbnb, barriers to entry, book scanning, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, global village, Google Earth, Indoor air pollution, jimmy wales, low earth orbit, optical character recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber for X, web of trust

Manna Energy Ltd. installed a large-capacity water purification system that utilizes gravel and sand filters and solar-powered ultraviolet purification, ensuring that all the children are drinking safe water. Engineers Without Borders also has worked with the community to construct open-air kitchens that use high-efficiency cookstoves, reducing wood use and the respiratory illnesses caused by indoor air pollution. These are just a few of the interventions that have improved the orphanage’s ability to care for the children. The first step toward effecting this kind of real change is to believe that real change is possible, and I believe it is possible 8â•…  I n t r o d u c t io n because we already have accomplished some things that were once thought impossible. In the first part of this book, for instance, we will look at the historic U.S.

pages: 272 words: 71,487

Getting Better: Why Global Development Is Succeeding--And How We Can Improve the World Even More by Charles Kenny

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, inventory management, Kickstarter, Milgram experiment, off grid, open borders, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, transaction costs, very high income, Washington Consensus, X Prize

“Education Decentralization and Accountability Relationships in Latin America.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 3453. Dikhanov, Y. 2005. “Trends in Global Income Distribution, 1970–2000, and Scenarios for 2015.” Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. Djankov, S., and M. Reynal-Querol. 2008. “Poverty and Civil War: Revisiting the Evidence.” CEPR Working Paper DP6980. Donohoe, M., and E. Garner. 2008. “Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution from Biomass Cooking Stoves.” Medscape Public Health & Prevention: Public Health Perspective. Accessed online at on November 3, 2008. Doucouliagos, H., and M. Paldam. 2005. “Aid Effectiveness on Growth: A Meta-Study.” University of Aarhus Department of Economics Working Paper 2005–15/6. Easterlin, R., and O. Sawangfa. 2009. “Happiness and Economic Growth: Does the Cross-Section Predict Time Trends?

pages: 278 words: 74,880

A World of Three Zeros: The New Economics of Zero Poverty, Zero Unemployment, and Zero Carbon Emissions by Muhammad Yunus

active measures, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, distributed generation, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, urban sprawl, young professional

It can also be timed to an individual user’s due date so that it provides appropriate health care information and advice at the right moments; there are some eighty health messages to be delivered at a rate of about two per week. Coel’s benefits don’t stop there. The bangle is also designed to monitor and test the quality of the air that its female wearer is breathing. In particular, it can detect indoor air pollution, particularly carbon monoxide, which is often generated during cooking with fuels like wood, charcoal, or dung. Millions of women in Bangladesh and other developing countries inhale such dangerous fumes every day, often with dire health consequences for their babies. Coel will provide alerts when this is happening so that women will know it’s time to step outside for fresh air. The work that Grameen Intel is doing to develop technological solutions to some of the most serious problems of the poor is tremendously promising—and inspiring.

pages: 1,199 words: 332,563

Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor

bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

And the sums involved were often substantial. Theodor D. Sterling, for example, a professor of applied mathematics at Washington University in St. Louis, testified before this same House committee, opining that the conclusions drawn by the Surgeon General about smoking and cancer were “probably invalid.” In the 1960s and early 1970s Sterling received about $4 million to conduct research for the industry, mainly on indoor air pollution but also to develop statistical methods useful for challenging the smoking–cancer link. As late as the 1990s Sterling was ridiculing calculations of hundreds of thousands of U.S. deaths from smoking as “exaggerated propaganda” bordering on “the ludicrous”; he also accused health authorities of “resorting to misinformation to encourage people to stop smoking.” Sterling was one of the Special Projects operatives exposed by Stanton Glantz and colleagues in their 1995 Cigarette Papers, though Sterling earned substantially more even than was realized in this early exposé.

Philip Morris distinguishes screamers “soft” and “hard”: “soft” screamers are simply people who request being removed from such lists, whereas “hard” screamers (also known as “mass mob screamers”) include direct mail targets who are underage or otherwise troublesome from a legal point of view. sick building syndrome (SBS) Concept created by Gray Robertson of Healthy Buildings International—a tobacco industry front—to distract from the hazards of secondhand smoke in indoor spaces. The idea was that buildings suffering from indoor air pollution (from carpet fumes and the like) could be healed by proper ventilation—rather than bans on smoking. SBS becomes a centerpiece of tobacco industry effort to minimize and/or deny the reality of harms caused by breathing indoor smoke. statistics Generally suspect, or “mere.” Invectives against statistics appear by the thousands in tobacco industry propaganda. Darrell Huff, author of How to Lie with Statistics (1954), was employed by the industry to present confounding testimony before the U.S.

ventilation Also referred to as “dilution,” “shunting,” “freshing,” “air suction,” or “smoke bypass.” A technique to lower machine-measured tar and nicotine deliveries by cutting tiny slits in the mouth end of a cigarette. Ventilation slits were strategically placed so that while smoking robots would record lower yields, smokers could cover them to obtain their requisite dosages (“self-titration”). “Ventilation” was also a term used to distract from cigarettes as a cause of indoor air pollution: rooms had not “too much smoke” but rather “too little ventilation.” virile market Term for military and/or macho market targets. “Virile females” included female soldiers but also “NASCAR girls.” weaning Big Tobacco term for withdrawal from nicotine—smoking cessation—and something to be feared. Tobacco companies worry that if nicotine levels drop significantly below some threshold level, smokers will be “weaned” from the habit.

pages: 268 words: 89,761

Unhealthy societies: the afflictions of inequality by Richard G. Wilkinson

attribution theory, business cycle, clean water, correlation coefficient, experimental subject, full employment, fundamental attribution error, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, land reform, longitudinal study, means of production, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, twin studies, upwardly mobile

For countries on the horizontal part of the curves in figure 3.1 (which becomes more horizontal in the light of the inadequate quality adjustments), the onus for explaining the upward shift of the life expectancy curve is on the qualitative improvements in living standards which take place over time. If one were to suggest ways in which qualitative change might improve health, one might point to cleaner central heating, which avoids the problems of indoor air pollution and fire hazards associated with open fires; 42 The health of societies freezers which enable people to eat food with less bacterial contamination; a whole host of developments (including washing machines, electric kettles and disposable nappies) which have made baby and childcare not only easier but also more hygienic and safe; lead-free petrol which reduces environmental pollution; increases in car safety, which have reduced road deaths despite increased car ownership; and the wider provision of phones, which enables families and friends to overcome some of the social dislocation caused by geographical separation (relevant to the powerful influence of social support on health).

pages: 297 words: 95,518

Ten Technologies to Save the Planet: Energy Options for a Low-Carbon Future by Chris Goodall

barriers to entry, carbon footprint, congestion charging, decarbonisation, energy security, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, land tenure, load shedding, New Urbanism, oil shock, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, undersea cable

This loss increases the amount of carbon dioxide going into the atmosphere and affects the local climate. The absence of respiration (the return of water vapor from trees to the atmosphere) increases the threat of drought. Equally importantly, Flanagan’s stoves burn extremely cleanly, improving the air quality in homes. The World Health Organization reports that a million and a half people die every year from the effects of indoor air pollution, which is mostly caused by smoke from open fires in poorer communities. Like the other experimental scientists working in the field, Flanagan isn’t sure why biochar adds to the soil’s fertility. When I chatted to him by e-mail, he described this puzzle as the “million-dollar question.” The fertilization effects of charcoal are clearest in the tropics, but many researchers are now seeing similar improvements in the soils of temperate lands.

pages: 340 words: 94,464

Randomistas: How Radical Researchers Changed Our World by Andrew Leigh

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, Atul Gawande, basic income, Black Swan, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Indoor air pollution, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Netflix Prize, nudge unit, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, price mechanism, publication bias, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, statistical model, Steven Pinker, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty

Researchers in the Netherlands randomly assigned primary school students to a sports program run by one of the nation’s top soccer teams, to see if it helped them perform better in maths and reading (it didn’t).16 In Washington DC, researchers randomly offered a Washington Post subscription to households to see how it affected their political views (it made them more likely to vote Democrat).17 A French experiment found that winning a spot in a boarding school boosted test scores for disadvantaged students.18 A team of economists used a randomised trial in India to test whether better cooking stoves would improve health by reducing indoor air pollution (the effect was temporary, lasting only a year or so).19 In Ethiopia, a randomised trial tested whether getting a job in a sweatshop improved people’s lives (most quit within a few months).20 In Oregon, trials have compared whether delinquent youths do better in foster care or group care (foster care seems to be better, particularly for girls).21 Randomised trials are in your life, whether you like it or not.

Ultimate Sales Machine by Chet Holmes

commoditize, Donald Trump, index card, Indoor air pollution, Maui Hawaii, telemarketer

Here's what you say: "Did you receive our press release about the amazing amount of pollutants in the home? We were wondering if there was anything we could do to help with that story." Often at that point, you'll be asked to resend your press release. Or you'll be bmshed off, but the following month, when you call about the five million dust mites in everyone's living room, the editor will start to remember: you're the guy who knows about indoor air pollution. If a story comes up along those lines, guess who they are going to call first? Also, editors are just like anyone else. They respect someone who continues to call them with story ideas on a regular basis. Earlier I mentioned American Art Resources (AAR), the people who sell art to hospitals. If they targeted the press for hospitals with pieces like 'Why AAR is great" or "AAR gets another major hospital client," how effective do you think they'd be?

pages: 1,034 words: 241,773

Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk,, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016i. Human rights. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016j. Hunger and undernourishment. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016k. Income inequality. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016l. Indoor air pollution. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016m. Land use in agriculture. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016n. Life expectancy. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016o. Light. Our World in Data. Roser, M. 2016p. Maternal mortality. Our World in Data.

pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

From Naturally Clean A critical epicenter of activity in our kitchens is the dishwasher. Fifty-one percent 168 chapter 7 : Whole Earth Catalog of all American homes have one of these time- and labor-saving devices, yet it surprises many to learn that they’re the most toxic appliance in the modern home. Over the course of approximately 30 experiments, researchers at the EPA and the University of Texas recently documented the dishwasher’s role as a leading cause of indoor air pollution. Pollutants released by dishwashers include the chlorine added to both public water supplies and dishwasher detergents, volatile organic compounds like chloroform, radioactive radon naturally present in some water sources, and other volatile contaminants that have worked their way into public water supplies. When these materials are exposed to the piping hot water that circulates through your dishwasher as it cleans, they are easily “stripped out” and evaporated into the air.

pages: 438 words: 103,983

Dirty Genes: A Breakthrough Program to Treat the Root Cause of Illness and Optimize Your Health by Ben Lynch Nd.

23andMe, clean water, double helix, epigenetics, Indoor air pollution, microbiome, post-work, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

I had a patient with chronic congestion that simply wouldn’t go away. She was a teacher, so eventually I had her call in inspectors to evaluate her school. Turns out the building was so contaminated by mold that they had to demolish it! I could have just treated her congestion, but as it turned out, I helped thousands of people. Please, check for mold—and also for a number of other common indoor air pollutants, including radon, carbon monoxide, dust mites, and formaldehyde (to name just a few). A good starting point is often an at-home mold test kit, available at your local hardware store and online (see below for one recommendation). If this doesn’t work, call in the professionals to make an evaluation. Once you identify the mold, you need to have a professional come in and remediate it. Here are some useful resources related to mold and indoor air quality: ■DIY Mold Test.

pages: 353 words: 106,704

Choked: Life and Breath in the Age of Air Pollution by Beth Gardiner

barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, connected car, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Hyperloop, index card, Indoor air pollution, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, white picket fence

More than 40 percent of humanity—33 billion people—lives in households that cook this way.1 As economic growth has lifted many from the direst poverty, and as villagers everywhere have migrated to cities, that percentage has declined. But because the global population has been rising at the same time, the absolute number of people living with the smoke of open cooking fires remains stubbornly high. Scientists used to call this “indoor air pollution,” to distinguish it from the more familiar “outdoor” sources. But the jargon has recently changed, reflecting a new realization: that the two problems are deeply intertwined, because the smoke of cooking fires floats from kitchens and adds to an entire region’s, or a nation’s, dirty air. That the problem can’t be solved just by venting smoke from homes, and that the cooks and their families don’t escape it when they step outside—it follows them through their neighborhoods, through their days and their lives.

pages: 413 words: 128,093

On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey Into South Asia by Steve Coll

affirmative action, airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, yellow journalism

They rise at five in the morning in a clatter of gossip and banging pots, cook breakfast, feed and dress the children, milk the cows, fetch water from drying springs, grind grain, work the fields, cook lunch, grind more grain, march off to gather firewood, clean the house, work the fields again, cook dinner, wash the dishes, and put the children to bed. The women manage the grain stocks and the harvests. They spend long hours squatting on the straw mats in their kitchens, which are filled with smoke from cooking fires. “Indoor air pollution,” the environmental scientists in New Delhi call it, as if it were a symptom of faulty valves. The women usually fall asleep around eleven at night and rise again at dawn to do it all again, seven days a week. Their husbands help them out by getting them pregnant with great frequency. The cycle plays out like a game of Russian roulette. Just before our first arrival, Rameshwari Devi, the wife of a determinedly cheerful villager named Than Singh, lost out on the twisting dirt road that leads from the village to the jeep stand seven miles away.

The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly

airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

SNAPSHOT: THE SHELL FOUNDATION’S BUSINESSLIKE APPROACH TO POVERTY ONE OF THE LEAST known problems of poverty is indoor smoke from cooking. During a recent trip to Africa, I saw a young girl cooking in an unventilated hut all day long, in smoke so thick I could not stand to stay in the hut for more than a few seconds. This scene is common in homes throughout Africa, multiplying many times children’s chances of dying from respiratory infections. The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution in a smoky hut exceeds by a factor of sixty the European Union’s standard maximum for outdoor air pollution.57 The sufferings from acute respiratory infections are hard to convey to people in rich societies, who no longer experience them. The lungs fill with pus, some of which the patient coughs out. The infection causes chills, fever, shaking, sharp pains in the chest, nausea, and vomiting.

pages: 469 words: 132,438

Taming the Sun: Innovations to Harness Solar Energy and Power the Planet by Varun Sivaram

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, demand response, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy security, energy transition, financial innovation, fixed income, global supply chain, global village, Google Earth, hive mind, hydrogen economy, index fund, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, M-Pesa, market clearing, market design, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Negawatt, off grid, oil shock, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, renewable energy transition, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, time value of money, undersea cable, wikimedia commons

Contrary to received wisdom, people at the bottom of the pyramid are not necessarily too poor to pay for energy. In fact, those without access to electricity spend about $27 billion every year just on lighting and mobile phone charging. But their current sources of energy have clear drawbacks. In addition to being expensive, light from kerosene lamps or candles is poor quality and causes deadly indoor air pollution. And phone charging can often entail arduous treks, like Patrick’s, to a communal charging station miles away. Many such customers are able and willing to pay for electricity access at home.13 Surprisingly, they are willing to pay much more per unit of electricity than customers in a developed country. An American might balk at power prices above 20 cents/kWh (the average U.S. retail electricity price is about 12 cents/kWh).

pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard

air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, liberation theology, McMansion, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

Here are just a few highlights: In July 2009, we reached 387.81 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Leading scientists around the world have identified 350 ppm as the maximum level that the atmosphere can contain for the planet to remain as we know it.6 Toxic industrial and agricultural chemicals now show up in every body tested anywhere in the world, including in newborn babies.7 Source: W. Steffen at al, Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure, 2005. Indoor air pollution kills 1.6 million people per year, with outdoor air pollution taking another 800,000 lives each year.8 About one-fifth of the world’s population—more than 1.2 billion people—experience water scarcity, and this resource is becoming increasingly scarce.9 Global income inequality is staggering. Currently, the richest 1 percent of people in the world have as much wealth and Stuff as the bottom 57 percent.10 So what happens when there’s a subsystem like the economy that keeps growing inside of a system of a fixed size?

Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Education had been viewed as a way out, an opportunity to get a better job in the cities. Now it is also being viewed as a way up, enhancing income even for those who remain in the rural sector. Education can be used to promote health and the environment as well as to impart technical skills. Students can learn in school the dangers of locating latrines uphill from their source of drinking water, or the dangers of indoor air pollution—the choking smoke in huts without ventilation—and what can be done about it. With education, a broad approach is important. Too often, international development institutions such as the World Bank focused narrowly on primary education. This was understandable: the returns are high, and many countries were spending a disproportionate part of their education budgets on university education for children of the elite.

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

‘The risks from air pollution are now far greater than previously thought or understood, particularly for heart disease and strokes’, argued the WHO’s Maria Neira. ‘Few risks have a greater impact on global health today than air pollution; the evidence signals the need for concerted action to clean up the air we all breathe.’25 The WHO estimated that 4.3 million of total deaths were due to indoor air pollution (mainly from lit stoves), and 3.7 million were due to bad external air tainted by fossil fuel combustion. The most lethal aspects of the latter involves sulphur and nitrogen dioxide (major causes of chronic respiratory and cardiovascular ailments); poisonous ozone (formed when sunlight reacts with pollutants); carbon monoxide (which prevents the blood from transporting oxygen properly); various forms of airborne particulate matter (from diesel engines and coal fired power stations); carcinogens such as benzene and lead; and airborne dust created by construction work.

Apocalypse Never: Why Environmental Alarmism Hurts Us All by Michael Shellenberger

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, Corn Laws, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, energy transition, failed state, Gary Taubes, global value chain, Google Earth, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, land tenure, Live Aid, LNG terminal, long peace, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, renewable energy transition, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Globally, the history of human evolution and development is one of converting ever-larger amounts of energy into wealth and power in ways that allow human societies to grow more complex. 6. Energy Density Matters When you interview women who are small farmers about what it’s like to cook with wood you might assume they would complain about the toxic smoke they must breathe. After all, such indoor air pollution shortens the lives of four million people per year, according to the World Health Organization.61 But, around the world, what they complain about more often is how much time it takes to chop wood, haul wood, start fires, and maintain them. After Suparti moved to the city, she was able to use liquefied petroleum gas as cooking fuel instead of rice husks. Doing so produces far less pollution, including one-third fewer carbon emissions.62 But more importantly LPG saves her time she can spend doing other things.

pages: 462 words: 150,129

The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser,, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

But even if you accept these guesses, the WHO’s own figures showed that climate change was dwarfed as a cause of death by iron deficiency, cholesterol, unsafe sex, tobacco, traffic accidents and other things, not to mention ‘ordinary’ diarrhoea and malaria. Even obesity, according to the same report, was killing more than twice as many people as climate change. Nor was any attempt made to estimate the number of lives saved by carbon emissions – by the provision of electric power to a village where people suffer from ill health due to indoor air pollution from cooking over open fires, say, or the deaths from malnutrition prevented by the higher productivity of agriculture using fertiliser made from natural gas. In 2009 Kofi Annan’s Global Humanitarian Forum doubled the number of climate deaths to 315,000 a year, but only by ignoring these points, arbitrarily doubling the diarrhoea deaths caused by climate, and adding in ludicrous assumptions about how climate change was responsible for ‘inter-clan fighting in Somalia’, Hurricane Katrina and other disasters.

India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Induced demand, inflation targeting, invisible hand, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, obamacare, Pareto efficiency, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, school choice, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban sprawl, working-age population

Property tax reform is a first-​ order requirement for financing urban infrastructure. 28. See Ahluwalia, Kanbur, and Mohanty (2014). 29. See Tables 3.16 and 3.17 of Planning Commission (2013a). 30. See Yale Centre for Environmental Law & Policy (2014). 31. See World Health Organization (2014). Delhi’s measured PM2.5 levels are 15 times the WHO guideline. PM2.5 pollution can lead to life-​threatening heart and lung conditions. 32. Indoor air pollution due to the burning of solid fuels for cooking, especially prevalent in India’s rural areas, is also enormously harmful and accounts for a million premature deaths a year in the country. 33. See Greenstone and Jack (2015), Figures 1 and 2, and the sources therein, for the much of the data referred to in this paragraph. 34. See Greenstone and Hanna (2014). 35. Australia and Singapore are examples to follow.

pages: 470 words: 148,730

Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems by Abhijit V. Banerjee, Esther Duflo

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, charter city, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser,, endowment effect, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, experimental subject, facts on the ground, fear of failure, financial innovation, George Akerlof, high net worth, immigration reform, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, land reform, loss aversion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, smart meter, social graph, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K

Part of the problem may be that curbing pollution would require a lot of people to cooperate. But there is also a lack of awareness that air pollution is a health issue. A recent Lancet study found that a large part of the deaths due to outdoor air pollution can be attributed to the burning of biomass (leaves, wood, etc.).35 But a significant part of this biomass is burnt on indoor stoves, which also generate a tremendous amount of indoor air pollution. It would therefore seem there would be a strong private demand for better cooking devices, which would improve both indoor and outdoor air. But there appears to be no such demand. Study after study finds that the demand for cleaner stoves is very low.36 Even when an NGO distributed cleaner stoves for free, people were not interested enough to get them fixed when they broke.37 Low demand for clean air may come from a failure of many of the poorest households to connect clean air to a healthy, happy, and productive life.

pages: 743 words: 189,512

The Big Fat Surprise: Why Butter, Meat and Cheese Belong in a Healthy Diet by Nina Teicholz

Albert Einstein, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Gary Taubes, Indoor air pollution, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, selection bias, the scientific method, Upton Sinclair

Zarkovic, Neven. “4-Hydroxynonenal as a Bioactive Marker of Pathophysiological Processes.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24, no. 4–5 (August–October 2003): 281–291. Zhang, Quing, Ahmed S. M. Saleh, Jing Chen, and Qun Shen. “Chemical Alterations Taken Place During Deep-Fat Frying Based on Certain Reaction Products: A Review.” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 165, no. 6 (September 2012): 662–681. Zhong, Lijie, Mark S. Goldberg, Yu-Tang Gao, and Fan Jin. “Lung Cancer and Indoor Air Pollution Arising from Chinese-Style Cooking among Nonsmoking Women Living in Shanghai, China.” Epidemiology 10, no. 5 (September 1999): 488–494. Zhong, Lijie, Mark S. Goldberg, Marie-Élise Parent, and James A. Hanley. “Risk of Developing Lung Cancer in Relation to Exposure to Fumes from Chinese-Style Cooking.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 25, no. 4 (August 1999): 309–316.