Works Progress Administration

122 results back to index


Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, WikiLeaks, Works Progress Administration

., 8 electronic books, 68, 71, 80, 115 Ellsberg, Daniel, 16, 17, 20, 84–89, 91–96, 101, 103–4, 106, 109–10, 114, 116 Engelbart, Douglas, 100, 121 Enron, 97 Erewhon (Butler), 143 Facebook, 74, 116 fanac Fan History Project, 147 Farm Securities Administration (Department of Agriculture), 13 faxes (facsimile transmissions), 84, 104, 123, 125–27, 133 Federal Theater Project (Works Progress Administration), 75 Federal Writers Project (Works Progress Administration), 13, 75 Flickr, 134 Folger, Henry Clay, 63 Ford, Gerald Ford, 97 Foucault, Michel, 19, 87, 157n71 Franklin, Benjamin, 25, 74, 144 Freedom of Information Act, 97 Fulbright, J. William, 91 Gardner, Jared, 142 Garnett, Alex, 132–33 Gascoigne, Bamber, 112 Gelb, Leslie, 89, 91, 93 “Gentlemen’s Agreement,” 72–74, 107–8, 170n68 Gernsback, Hugo, 146 Geschke, Charles, 123 glasnost, 95 Goble, Mark, 61, 64 Golden Days for Boys and Girls, 142 Google, 58, 74, 116, 132, 134, 166n3 Graham, Martha, 13 Gras, Norman, 58, 61 Gray, L.

., 142, 143 Guillory, John, 2, 5, 19, 152n16, 153n24, 154n43 Gutenberg, Johannes, 7, 8, 79, 153n29 Habermas, Jürgen, 30 Hamilton, Charles, 46 Hamlet (Shakespeare), 6 Hardt, Michael, 31 Harpel, Oscar, 20, 38–52, 63, 77, 81, 116–17, 137, 139–41; Harpel’s Typograph, Or Book of Specimens, 38–44, 46–47, 51, 52, 81, 87, 116, 123, 137–39, 163n65; Poets and Poetry of Printerdom, 43, 45, 46, 50, 81, 137–38 Harper, Richard, 7, 111, 128, 130, 152n9 Harris, Elizabeth, 52 Harrison, Thomas, 138–41, 145–46 Hayles, N. Katherine, 69 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, 97 Hilderbrand, Lucas, 109 Hinman, Charlton, 85 Historical Records Survey (Works Progress Administration), 62, 75–78 History E-­Book Project, 80 Howells, William Dean, 36 Humanities E-­Book Database, 80, 169n52 Huntington, Henry E., 63 Huntington Library, 73 Illustrated Catalogue of Ruling Machines &c (W. O. Hickok), 23 Immortal Storm, 146 Index of American Design (Works Progress Administration), 64 Information Transfer Experiments (­Intrex), 120 Inland Printer, 45, 71 Institut International de Bibliographie, 59 International Catalogue of Scientific Literature, 59 International Standards Organization, 118 International Typographical Union, 25, 45 Jackson, Virginia, 103 Jenkins, Henry, 15, 137 job printing and printers, 11–12, 16, 24– 27, 30, 36–51, 56, 81, 135, 138–40 Johns, Adrian, 8, 9, 113 Johnson, Barbara, 29 Joint Committee on Materials for Research (ssrc and acls), 14, 54–62, 66, 72–73, 79–81 Joseph, Miranda, 141 Journal of Documentary Reproduction, 61 Kafka, Ben, 16, 31, 158n4 Kafka, Franz, 19 Kahana, Jonathan, 60 Keen, Andrew, 137 Kelsey Press Co., 52 Kelty, Christopher, 98 Kinko’s case, 107 Kirschenbaum, Matthew, 7, 69, 118, 134 Labussière, Charles Hippolyte, 16 Lacan, Jacques, 29 INDEX 207 Laney, Francis Towner, 147–48 Lange, Dorothea: “Migrant Mother,” 62 Lanier, Jaron, 11, 111, 116 Larcom, Lucy, 50 Latour, Bruno, 5–6, 152n7, 176n64, 178n6 letterpress printing, 7, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 36, 52, 66, 70, 81, 84, 113, 119, 137 Levi, Primo, 130 Levy, David, 7, 17, 169n55, 174n35 Library of Amateur Journalism, 184n6 Library of Congress, 47, 72, 73 Lions, John, 16, 17, 83–85, 97–100, 107, 110.

Interestingly, a similar semantics inhabits the more widely used term “documentary,” which designates the genre—or metagenre, in Jonathan Kahana’s helpful formulation26—that was so characteristic of the 1930s. The Great Depression made “a documentary approach” seem compulsory somehow,27 and social documentary in particular emerged as a cardinal form of cinema, photography, literature, dance, theater, and other arts, both with state sponsorship—under the aegis of the Works Progress Administration (wpa ) and the Farm Security Administration—and without. “The power of social documentary comes,” Kahana writes, “from its allegorical displacement of particular details onto the plane of general significance”—that is, its alignment of granular particularities and critical syntheses, along with its persistent interrogation of the effects and conditions of such an alignment.28 60 CHAPTER TWO “Documentary”—like “document”—is of course a capacious term.


The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism by Edward E. Baptist

banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, creative destruction, desegregation, double helix, financial innovation, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

Pouring into the streets around them, dancing and singing, came thousands of African Americans. They had been prisoners for far longer. In the decades after the jubilee year of 1865, Danville, like many other southern villages, had become a cotton factory town. Anderson, an African-American master’s student from Hampton University, would not have been able to work at the segregated mill. But the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a bureau of the federal government created by President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, would hire him. To put people back to work after they had lost their jobs in the Great Depression, the WPA organized thousands of projects, hiring construction workers to build schools and artists to paint murals. And many writers and students were hired to interview older Americans—like Lorenzo Ivy, the man painfully shuffling across the pine board floor to answer Anderson’s knock.

Look at the letter written by enslaver Joseph Labrenty of Alabama: “Rather than take $700 for Alfred,” a runaway who had escaped recapture, “I would rather go into the woods and mall [sic] rails for the next twelve months to pay the reward to have him shot. . . . I wish to god that I could get within 40 yards of him with a double barreled and if I did not stop him I am much mistaken.”3 Image 8.1. William Colbert in the 1930s, about eighty years after the beating and humiliation of his brother. This photo was taken at the time of his interview by Works Progress Administration workers. Library of Congress. Labrenty was “determined to spend double his value to conquer [Alfred],” showing that sometimes the needs of domination could not be comprehended by economic calculation. But all in all, enslaved men had to make different calculations. Sure, they, too, told stories about Potteresque “men of blood” who resisted attempts to humiliate them, like the ones Wiley Childress heard about “Fedd” from the older men.

Newspapers and court documents recorded the details of how freshly reestablished blood ties in slave communities could be broken as a result of crises in white families created by the financial collapse or other factors. So-and-so’s slaves, valued at $23,845, for example, went for $16,000. And African Americans remembered their own histories of the crash. In the 1930s, a white employee of the Works Progress Administration in Jasper, Texas, typed up a summary of his interview with an elderly woman named Milly Forward. “She has spent her entire life in [this] vicinity,” he began. But the text of her interview reveals something different. “I’s born in Alabama,” she recalled. “Mammy have just got up,” from giving birth, “when the white folks brung us out west. Pappy’s name Jim Forward and Mammy name May. They left Pappy in Alabama, because he belonged to another master.”68 That “Mississippi men” were untrustworthy liars may have been news to John Roberts the debt collector, but it was not exactly a revelation to enslaved people, for whom slavery itself was “stealing.”


pages: 283 words: 81,163

How Capitalism Saved America: The Untold History of Our Country, From the Pilgrims to the Present by Thomas J. Dilorenzo

banking crisis, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Norman Mailer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, wealth creators, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

In 1929 Hoover devoted a sizable chunk of the federal budget—half a billion dollars, or 13 percent of the total budget—to public works spending. At the same time he pressured state governments to increase their own public works spending. By 1931, total government public works spending would be as high as at any other point in the decade—this despite the fact that FDR employed some ten million bureaucrats in government public works jobs with his Public Works Administration, Works Progress Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and the rest.23 The negative effects of Hoover’s public works spending were almost immediately apparent. All this government spending took money out of the private sector, extracted through taxes. (Hoover even rescinded a minuscule 1 percent temporary tax relief program.) As a result, private-sector spending, which could have reinvigorated the economy, declined.

Economic fascism, says Twight, seeks to “empower an elite to determine the specific purposes that other individuals in the society are compelled to serve”; it “is the antithesis of limited government and individualism,” as it “uncompromisingly seeks to obliterate individual rights”; its view of capitalism is “regulated capitalism” and “government intervention in the economy on a massive scale”; it “supplants . . . market considerations with political considerations” with only “perfunctory regard for economic costs or consumers’ wishes”; it uses the language of “the national interest” to justify myriad government interventions; and it “attempts to fuse management and labor, molding them into a monolithic instrument for achieving whatever government officials decree to be the national interest.”41 MAKING MATTERS WORSE: THE SECOND NEW DEAL On January 4, 1935—only a few months before the U.S. Supreme Court ruled most of the First New Deal unconstitutional—FDR announced his Second New Deal. The principal additions were the Social Security Act, the National Labor Relations Act, the Fair Labor Standards Act (the minimum-wage law), the Works Progress Administration, and punitive taxes imposed ostensibly to punish “economic royalists” and other entrepreneurs whom Roosevelt wanted to blame for the country’s troubles. Every one of these programs was a drain on the private sector and/or an impediment to employment. As such, they all made the Great Depression even worse. The Social Security payroll tax and the two labor laws increased the cost to employers of hiring workers, which led to higher unemployment.

There is no free lunch: every dollar the government spends on some kind of make-work program must necessarily depress genuine, market-driven economic growth because resources are diverted from the private to the governmental sector. That is why, despite the fact that the federal budget more than doubled in eight years, the Depression did not end and, indeed, unemployment was higher in 1938 than it was in 1931. FDR’s vaunted “jobs” programs unequivocally destroyed jobs. Government “jobs” programs, such as the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps, can only destroy private-sector jobs in order to “create” government make-work jobs. And since government bureaucrats spend the taxpayers’ money much more inefficiently than the taxpayers themselves do, government jobs that are “created” usually destroy several private-sector jobs. For example, the federal government’s own General Accounting Office has estimated that some federal jobs programs have provided $14,000-per-year jobs at a total cost of more than $100,000 per job, once one accounts for all the administrative expenses.


The Death and Life of Monterey Bay: A Story of Revival by Dr. Stephen R Palumbi Phd, Ms. Carolyn Sotka M. A.

California gold rush, clean water, glass ceiling, land tenure, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

Monterey Public Library, CA: Monterey. “You could call her an early-day conservationist”: in Monterey Herald, May 11, 1968. “Big windows, commanding a broad expanse of bay”: in Monterey Herald, April 1931. page 64 “There was a packed house every time the council met”: p. 16 in Game and Gossip. Platt’s revision of the city’s operation: p. 16 Game and Gossip. Protection of the sea in the hands of Pacific Grove: Works Progress Administration 1937. New bill creates marine refuge at local station (WPA Historical Survey of the Monterey Peninsula Project #4080 MS, File 41, May 13), CA: Monterey, Monterey Public Library. page 65 Julia “molested” by Mr. McDougall: in Grove at High Tide, January 17, 1931. Original deed null and void: p. 17 in Game and Gossip. Platt destroyed gate padlock and opened the beach: Grove at High Tide, January 17, 1931, Pacific Grove Museum archives.

“Though the conflict diminished, the smells . . . probably worsened”: p. 212 in Chiang, C. 2004. Monterey-by-the-Smell: Odors and social conflict on the California coastline. Pacific Historical Review 73:183–214. page 81 Sea anemones grown up along the rock at Hopkins: G. Haderlie in personal communication Carolyn Sotka, November 2004. Healthy shores in Pacific Grove if the Monterey problems were solved: Works Progress Administration. 1937. New Bill Creates Marine Refuge at Local Station (WPA Historical Survey of the Monterey Peninsula Project #4080 MS, File 41, May 13), CA: Monterey, Public Library), 4. page 82 Julia’s new state law: see the Pacific Grove City ordinances, Chapter 14.04, “All the waterfront of the city, together with those certain submerged lands in the Bay of Monterey contiguous thereto, as set forth and particularly described in that certain act of the Legislature of the State of California entitled, ‘An act granting to the City of Pacific Grove the title to the waterfront of said City together with certain submerged lands in the Bay of Monterey contiguous thereto,’ approved by the Governor June 9, 1931, are hereby established as a refuge for the protection of certain kinds of marine life hereinafter mentioned and as a marine garden of the city and reference is hereby made to said act of the Legislature for a particular description of said waterfront and 192â•… â•… Notes said submerged lands” [Ord. 210 N.S. §5-401(1), 1952].

We can find no record of this in Julia’s writings. page 83 Julia gained legal authority to manage the Pacific Grove shoreline and police its access: p. 4 in WPA, 1937a. Julia’s plan for the refuge to be the center for scientific research and nursery: p. 4 in WPA, 1937a. “From where the tiny larvae may swim”: p. 4, WPA, 1937a. page 84 Julia crafted the Pacific Grove Marine Gardens: Works Progress Administration. 1937. New Bill Creates Marine Refuge at Local Station (WPA Historical Survey of the Monterey Peninsula Project #4080 MS, File 41, March 24), CA: Monterey, Public Library), 1. page 85 “Civic dignitaries traditionally accompany the body of a Mayor to its last resting place”: T. J., “Julia Platt: Lady Watchdog,” Game and Gossip (formerly What’s Doing) (Monterey, CA: Monterey Public Library, California History Room), 16.


pages: 288 words: 83,690

How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

“Here you’ll find a group of like-minded settlers”: Katarina Hybenova, “How Is Life at Bushwick’s Most Controversial New Building, Colony 1209?” Bushwick Daily, June 26, 2014. “Having produced a scarcity of capital”: Smith, New Urban Frontier, 23. By funding the construction of roads outside cities: John Hansan, “WPA: The Works Progress Administration,” Social Welfare History Project, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2013, socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/eras/great-depression/wpa-the-works-progress-administration. Between 1977 and 1984, there were 130 such conversions: Lees, Slater, and Wyly, Gentrification, 29. “gentrification is a back-to-the-city movement”: Smith, New Urban Frontier, 70. “Though the majority of residents may never contemplate”: Quoted in Jason Hackworth, The Neoliberal City: Governance, Ideology, and Development in American Urbanism (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007), 15.

In total, under the Bloomberg administration, more than 40 percent of the city was rezoned. “The Bloomberg administration was kind enough to rezone most of Brooklyn, and enable developers to do large scale development,” one real estate developer told a local news publication in 2015. “And in turn, people come to create life, to create families, to work and to do everything that we’re doing.” With no one putting the brakes on the system—with no new rent control, no Works Progress Administration–era levels of new affordable housing—the process propels itself into illogical loops: parts of Brooklyn have become more expensive than lower Manhattan, and the borough has become the least affordable housing market in the entire United States. The new, progressive mayor of New York who won in a landslide with promises of affordable housing has now promised to rezone large sections of previously affordable neighborhoods such as East New York, with the caveat that some of the apartments there will be made affordable.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hedonic treadmill, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In addition to the common fear of the tramp lay an economic concern: since the Federal Transient Program did not fund hospitalization, towns worried that they would have to bear the expense of caring for so many destitute, and often sick, men. And some wondered what would happen when the federal funds dried up and they were left with hundreds of men with nowhere to live and nothing to do. The fear was not unfounded, for when the program, along with other emergency relief measures of the early New Deal, ended in 1935 (while the Depression raged on), few men from the camps were able to secure coveted Works Progress Administration jobs (less than half the men in New York camps could), and were back to where they had begun, older, but no better prepared to provide for themselves and their families. Some towns loaded up their transients into trucks and brought them to the next state or county. And on they marched.107 The Kindness of Strangers We have seen how those with little have nonetheless shared what they had with their poor friends and neighbors.

Men who had never in their lives asked for, or accepted, a cent of alms refused to believe that the situation had gone into permanent reverse. It made no difference to them in what pretty words the unattractive fact of their dependency was dressed. It was charity and they didn’t like it. They were accustomed to making a return for their livelihood. It was a habit they liked, and from which they chiefly drew their self-respect. The family of a man working on a Works Progress Administration project looks down its nose at neighbors who take their relief straight. We can talk all we want to about some coming civilization in which work will be outmoded, and in which we shall enjoy a state of being rather than one of action, but contemporary sentiment is still against “a man who gets something for nothing.” Those who voluntarily take something for nothing are put in jail. Those who are forced to accept charity, no matter how unwillingly, are first pitied, then disdained.37 Lenny Del Genio looked back on the period:Relief then was a disgrace.

Blacks were barred from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) jobs, too, and were less likely to have landlords who were willing to electrify their buildings. Few Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) jobs went to black youths.46 In the early 1930s, the Red Cross tried to provide food and clothing, but even this was resisted by the planters, just as they later resisted federal aid, until many came to realize that they could use relief as an excuse to lower the wages they were paying.47 To accommodate plantation owners, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and other projects were often suspended at harvest time, to ensure an ample supply of cheap labor. When the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) did reach the South, whites were more likely to receive cash, and blacks were more likely to receive only food. Yet many programs achieved successes in distributing benefits to the neediest cases. This angered planters, since, as one said, “by helping the worst, it puts a premium on improvidence and idleness.”


Yosemite, Sequoia & Kings Canyon by Fodor's

Columbine, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Works Progress Administration

GROWING PAINS The parks initially had operated on the premise of preservation and visitor enjoyment, but by 1932, the park concept had expanded to include educational components with the formation of the NPS’s Naturalist Division. The naturalists were assigned to interpret park features to the public through educational outreaches. The park system had also begun to rethink its wildlife management practices. The 1930s brought a core of hardy workers to the nation’s parks and forests through the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression. A total of 41 work camps were set up within the national parks. As the country’s population continued to grow, and society learned more about the environment and the effects of the Industrial Revolution, there was a need to take additional steps to retain pristine wilderness and historic areas. Congress addressed this in the 1960s and early ’70s with a host of legislative measures: the Wilderness Act (1964), National Historic Preservation Act (1966), Clean Air Act (1967), Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968), National Environmental Policy Act (1969), and the Endangered Species Act (1973).

Teddy Lifespan: 1858–1919 Saying: Speak softly and carry a big stick. Regulated: Railroads Unique qualities: Youngest president (age 42); won Nobel Peace Prize (for mediating the Russo-Japanese War) FDR Lifespan: 1882–1945 Saying: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Regulated: Wall Street Unique qualities: Only president with polio; only four-term president; established the WPA (Works Progress Administration) —Gary Peterson * * * Previous Chapter | Beginning of Chapter | Contents WILDLIFE IN THE PARKS Bats: Caves within the national parks teem with bats, the only mammals that can fly. Although not threatening to humans, bats do carry and can transmit dangerous diseases such as rabies. Enormous bat colonies can be observed whirling and flying out of caves en masse at dusk for feeding time, returning around sunrise.


Yellowstone & Grand Teton by Fodor's

Stanford marshmallow experiment, Works Progress Administration

GROWING PAINS The parks initially had operated on the premise of preservation and visitor enjoyment, but by 1932, the park concept had expanded to include educational components with the formation of the NPS’s Naturalist Division. The naturalists were assigned to interpret park features to the public through educational outreaches. The park system had also begun to rethink its wildlife management practices. The 1930s brought a core of hardy workers to the nation’s parks and forests through the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), part of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression. A total of 41 work camps were set up within the national parks. As the country’s population continued to grow, and society learned more about the environment and the effects of the Industrial Revolution, there was a need to take additional steps to retain pristine wilderness and historic areas. Congress addressed this in the 1960s and early ’70s with a host of legislative measures: the Wilderness Act (1964), National Historic Preservation Act (1966), Clean Air Act (1967), Wild and Scenic Rivers Act (1968), National Environmental Policy Act (1969), and the Endangered Species Act (1973).

Teddy Lifespan: 1858–1919 Saying: Speak softly and carry a big stick. Regulated: Railroads Unique qualities: Youngest president (age 42); won Nobel Peace Prize (for mediating the Russo-Japanese War) FDR Lifespan: 1882–1945 Saying: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Regulated: Wall Street Unique qualities: Only president with polio; only four-term president; established the WPA (Works Progress Administration) —Gary Peterson * * * Previous Chapter | Beginning of Chapter | Contents WILDLIFE IN THE PARKS Bats: Caves within the national parks teem with bats, the only mammals that can fly. Although not threatening to humans, bats do carry and can transmit dangerous diseases such as rabies. Enormous bat colonies can be observed whirling and flying out of caves en masse at dusk for feeding time, returning around sunrise.


pages: 219 words: 61,720

American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

I think what most people don’t understand is that government policy hurts growth and makes the jobs crisis worse not by spending too much money, but by spending on the wrong things in the wrong way. Focusing on “how much” instead of “how” and “where” is a mistake. Think back to the stimulus debate in 2009. I think most Americans understand that the nearly $1 trillion plan that Congress and President Obama passed didn’t work as promised. Adjusted for inflation, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was bigger than the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration, which was supposed to help end the Great Depression. It was bigger than the Marshall Plan, which helped rebuild Europe and contain Soviet communism after World War II. All told, the federal government spent about five times as much on the 2009 stimulus as we spent to put Neil Armstrong on the moon in 1969.4 Does anyone really think the stimulus was money well spent? No way. Not even close.

Think of the majestic public works projects of the New Deal era: The Hoover Dam helped bring water and power to Las Vegas and much of Southern California. Bigger still was the Triborough Bridge, connecting Manhattan to Queens and the Bronx by way of the Harlem River, Bronx Kill, and Hell Gate along the East River. The Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco Bay Bridge were both New Deal projects, and all were American made. Even the more modest projects the Works Progress Administration accomplished during the worst years of the Great Depression are worth celebrating: 78,000 new bridges and viaducts, and improvements on 46,000 more; 572,000 miles of rural roads and 67,000 miles of city streets; 39,000 new and remodeled schools; 2,500 hospitals; 12,800 playgrounds.4 Dwight Eisenhower and a bipartisan Congress in the 1950s decided the national economy would reap huge benefits from the Interstate Highway System.


pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler

Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Emergency Management Agency DEW Distant Early Warning Line DRP District Response Plan EAPs Emergency Action Papers ExComm Executive Committee of the NSC FBS Federal Buildings Services FCC Federal Communications Commission FCDA Federal Civil Defense Administration FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency GSA General Services Administration HEW Department of Health, Education and Welfare ICBM intercontinental ballistic missile IRBM intermediate range ballistic missile JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JEEP Joint Emergency Evacuation Plan MDW Military District of Washington NAWAC National Warning Control System NBS National Bureau of Standards NCPC National Capital Planning Commission NCRPC National Capital Regional Planning Council NDAC National Damage Assessment Center NEACP National Emergency Airborne Command Post NSC National Security Council NSRB National Security Resources Board OCD Office of Civilian Defense OCDM Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization ODM Office of Defense Mobilization OEP Office of Emergency Planning OPAL Operation Alert OWI Office of War Information PEF Presidential Emergency Facilities PEOC Presidential Emergency Operations Center RACES Radio Amateur Civil Emergency Service SAC Strategic Air Command SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan SLBM submarine-launched ballistic missile TVA Tennessee Valley Authority WASP Washington Area Survival Plan WHEP White House Emergency Plan WHMO White House Military Office WPA Works Progress Administration Acknowledgments I’m grateful for the help of many people and institutions. For financial support of my research, I thank the Eisenhower World Affairs Institute; the Harry S. Truman Library Institute; the National Endowment for the Humanities; the Organization of American Historians and the White House Historical Association; and the University of Wisconsin, Platteville. My research benefited greatly from the guidance of dozens of archivists and librarians.

In many ways, they found themselves thrown into a race in which they couldn’t even place, let alone win. 1 By the Bomb’s Imaginary Light On June 11, 1940, several thousand workers gathered at points along the Potomac and Anacostia Rivers in or across from Washington, D.C.: the Washington Navy Yard, Anacostia Naval Air Station, Washington National Airport. Their job was to fortify the defenses of sites vital to national security.1 The laborers were neither soldiers nor sailors—they drew modest paychecks from the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a New Deal agency that hired the unemployed to work on public projects. In 1940, the Great Depression lingered still, and most Americans were preoccupied with jobs and bills, not national defense, even though war raged in Europe. Nazi forces were about to march into Paris, and the Luftwaffe prepared to terrorize Britain. Americans weren’t ignorant of these events, but on the other side of the Atlantic, the war seemed remote, unreal, contained.

Washington National Airport, 1, 11, 45, 86 Washington Navy Yard see Naval Gun Factory white flight, 2, 29–30, 145–7, 225 n.49 White House East Wing, 15 reconstruction of, 69–75 security of during World War II, 15–16 shelters, 15, 68–75, 87, 98, 113, 155, 186–7 Signal Agency, 155–6, 162 White House Emergency Information Program, 177, 182 White House Emergency Plan (WHEP), 113, 132, 170, 177 White Sulphur Springs, W.Va., 6, 167 Whittington, Will, 59–60 Wiley, Alexander, 24–5, 36, 64 Wilson, Charlie, 124–5, 132 Winslow, Lorenzo S., 68–75 Works Progress Administration, 11, 14 World War I, 12–13, 97, 139, 180 World War II civil defense during, 12–15 effects on Washington, D.C., 11–12, 14, 16–17 Young, Gordon Russell, 45–7, 115, 124 Young, John Russell, 45, 57 zero milestone marker, 33–5, 37–9, 42, 102–4, 136, 141, 143, 147, 151, 184


pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, basic income, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

For these men and women, Newman argued, the federal government ought to create public works programs. It was, she felt, an entirely legitimate function of government to backstop employment when the private sector faltered. Massive public works investment was done in the early years of the New Deal, to stunning effect—with the large, mechanized infrastructure projects of the Public Works Administration and then the labor-heavy projects of the Works Progress Administration, putting 4 million people back to work within a matter of months and providing those men and women with cash in their pockets that rapidly circulated throughout the entire economy. As a result of this stimulation, private employers then added another 4 million jobs. From 1933 to 1937, unemployment in America declined from 25 percent to 9 percent of the workforce. What would the price tag for such a program be today?

Newman’s son, Steven Attwell, a graduate student of the history of public policy at the University of California at Santa Barbara, thought he had some answers. Having crunched the numbers and then, he said, having run his estimates by experts at the American Enterprise Institute and Brookings Institution, he argued that one could have used the $787 billion that the 2009 stimulus package cost to create a large-scale public works program, along the lines of the Works Progress Administration, that would have been able to employ up to 20 million people, thus largely eliminating the huge well of unemployment and joblessness that bubbled up in the wake of the financial crisis and that has so stubbornly refused to go away. In contrast, he reminded audiences, the hodgepodge of investments and employment subsidies that the 2009 legislation unleashed cost a fortune and only created, or saved, between 3 and 4 million jobs.

., 103, 127 Washington State, 149, 250 Wealth accumulation of, 64–65 concentration of, 26–27, 32–34, 53–54 and tax cuts for the wealthy, 207 and tax increases on the wealthy, 39–40, 82, 287–288 Weber, Max, 64 Welfare, 12, 44–45 barriers to accessing, 105 (see also under Social programs) and benefit cuts, 117 and benefit levels, decline in, 105–110 See also individual social programs; Safety net; Social programs Welfare system, history of, 66–82 Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Community (King), 79 Williams, Mark and Theresa, 169–170 Wisconsin, 180 Wisconsin Women’s Business Initiative (WWBI), 253 Women, 25, 82 Work trust fund, 201 Workers’ compensation, 71, 201 “Workfare for Food Stamps?” (DiMause), 222 Working poor, 30–31 Works Progress Administration, 302, 303 Wright, Pastor Royce, 178 WWBI. See Wisconsin Women’s Business Initiative Wyoming, 107 Youdelman, Sondra, 222, 223 Zelleke, Almaz, 249–251, 290–291 Zerzan, Barbara, 108–109 Ziliak, Jim, 55–56, 131–132, 153, 204–205, 218 Founded in 2000, Nation Books has become a leading voice in American independent publishing. The inspiration for the imprint came from the Nation magazine, the oldest independent and continuously published weekly magazine of politics and culture in the United States.


pages: 573 words: 115,489

Prosperity Without Growth: Foundations for the Economy of Tomorrow by Tim Jackson

"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hans Rosling, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, Philip Mirowski, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, secular stagnation, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, universal basic income, Works Progress Administration, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The New Deal had entailed a massive investment in public sector works. It may not have had the short-term effect some claim for it. It didn’t in fact achieve a full economic recovery within Roosevelt’s first two terms in office. But its long-term impact was enormous. As Paul Krugman, winner of the 2008 Nobel Prize in economics, pointed out: ‘The New Deal famously placed millions of Americans on the public payroll via the Works Progress Administration [WPA] … To this day we drive on WPA-built roads and send our children to WPA-built schools.’38 Here was government acting, as Minsky later suggested it should, as ‘employer of last resort’. Public sector jobs offer a double dividend. Beyond the obvious benefits in terms of people’s livelihoods, these jobs generate a part of what has been called the ‘social wage’ – a return to households from government spending in the form of lasting infrastructure, improved health and education benefits and better social services.39 But public sector jobs are not the only way to mitigate the devastating loss to livelihoods inflicted by an extended recession.

INDEX Locators in italic refer to figures absolute decoupling 84–6; historical perspectives 89–96, 90, 92, 94, 95; mathematical relationship with relative decoupling 96–101, 111 abundance see opulence accounting errors, decoupling 84, 91 acquisition, instinctive 68 see also symbolic role of goods adaptation: diminishing marginal utility 51, 68; environmental 169; evolutionary 226 advertising, power of 140, 203–4 Africa 73, 75–7; life-expectancy 74; philosophy 227; pursuit of western lifestyles 70; growth 99; relative income effect 58, 75; schooling 78 The Age of Turbulence (Greenspan) 35 ageing populations 44, 81 agriculture 12, 148, 152, 220 Aids/HIV 77 algebra of inequality see inequality; mathematical models alienation: future visions 212, 218–19; geographical community 122–3; role of the state 205; selfishness vs. altruism 137; signals sent by society 131 alternatives: economic 101–2, 139–40, 157–8; hedonism 125–6 see also future visions; post-growth macroeconomics; reform altruism 133–8, 196, 207 amenities see public services/amenities Amish community, North America 128 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith) 123, 132 angelised growth see green growth animal welfare 220 anonymity/loneliness see alienation anthropological perspectives, consumption 70, 115 anti-consumerism 131 see also intrinsic values anxiety: fear of death 69, 104, 115, 212–15; novelty 116–17, 124, 211 Argentina 58, 78, 78, 80 Aristotle 48, 61 The Art of Happiness (Dalai Lama) 49 arts, Baumol’s cost disease 171–2 assets, stranded 167–8 see also ownership austerity policies xxxiii–xxxv, 189; and financial crisis 24, 42–3; mathematical models 181 Australia 58, 78, 128, 206 authoritarianism 199 autonomy see freedom/autonomy Ayres, Robert 143 backfire effects 111 balance: private interests/common good 208; tradition/innovation 226 Bank for International Settlements 46 bank runs 157 banking system 29–30, 39, 153–7, 208; bonuses 37–8 see also financial crisis; financial system basic entitlements: enterprise as service 142; income 67, 72–9, 74, 75, 76, 78; limits to growth 63–4 see also education; food; health Basu, Sanjay 43 Baumol, William 112, 147, 222, 223; cost disease 170, 171, 172, 173 BBC survey, geographical community 122–3 Becker, Ernest 69 Belk, Russ 70, 114 belonging 212, 219 see also alienation; community; intrinsic values Bentham, Jeremy 55 bereavement, material possessions 114, 214–15 Berger, Peter 70, 214 Berry, Wendell 8 Better Growth, Better Climate (New Climate Economy report) 18 big business/corporations 106–7 biodiversity loss 17, 47, 62, 101 biological perspectives see evolutionary theory; human nature/psyche biophysical boundaries see limits (ecological) Black Monday 46 The Body Economic (Stuckler and Basu) 43 bond markets 30, 157 bonuses, banking 37–8 Bookchin, Murray 122 boom-and-bust cycles 157, 181 Booth, Douglas 117 borrowing behaviour 34, 118–21, 119 see also credit; debt Boulding, Elise 118 Boulding, Kenneth 1, 5, 7 boundaries, biophysical see limits (ecological) bounded capabilities for flourishing 61–5 see also limits (flourishing within) Bowen, William 147 Bowling Alone (Putnam) 122 Brazil 58, 88 breakdown of community see alienation; social stability bubbles, economic 29, 33, 36 Buddhist monasteries, Thailand 128 buen vivir concept, Ecuador xxxi, 6 built-in obsolescence 113, 204, 220 Bush, George 121 business-as-usual model 22, 211; carbon dioxide emissions 101; crisis of commitment 195; financial crisis 32–8; growth 79–83, 99; human nature 131, 136–7; need for reform 55, 57, 59, 101–2, 162, 207–8, 227; throwaway society 113; wellbeing 124 see also financial systems Canada 75, 206, 207 capabilities for flourishing 61–5; circular flow of the economy 113; future visions 218, 219; and income 77; progress measures 50–5, 54; role of material abundance 67–72; and prosperity 49; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; role of shame 123–4; role of the state 200 see also limits (flourishing within); wellbeing capital 105, 107–10 see also investment Capital in the 21st Century (Piketty) 33, 176, 177 Capital Institute, USA 155 capitalism 68–9, 80; structures 107–13, 175; types 105–7, 222, 223 car industry, financial crisis 40 carbon dioxide emissions see greenhouse gas emissions caring professions, valuing 130, 147, 207 see also social care Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Williams) 213 causal path analysis, subjective wellbeing 59 Central Bank 154 central human capabilities 64 see also capabilities for flourishing The Challenge of Affluence (Offer) 194 change see alternatives; future visions; novelty/innovation; post-growth macroeconomics; reform Chicago school of economics 36, 156 children: advertising to 204; labour 62, 154; mortality 74–5, 75, 206 Chile xxxiii, xxxvii, 58, 74, 74, 75, 76 China: decoupling 88; GDP per capita 75; greenhouse gas emissions 91; growth 99; life expectancy 74; philosophy 7; post-financial crisis 45–6; pursuit of western lifestyles 70; relative income effect 58; resource use 94; savings 27; schooling 76 choice, moving beyond consumerism 216–18 see also freedom/autonomy Christian doctrine see religious perspectives chromium, commodity price 13 Cinderella economy 219–21, 224 circular economy 144, 220 circular flow of the economy 107, 113 see also engine of growth citizen’s income 207 see also universal basic income civil unrest see social stability Clean City Law, São Paulo 204 climate change xxxv, 22, 47; critical boundaries 17–20; decoupling 85, 86, 87, 98; fatalism 186; investment needs 152; role of the state 192, 198, 201–2 see also greenhouse gas emissions Climate Change Act (2008), UK 198 clothing see basic entitlements Club of Rome, Limits to Growth report xxxii, xxxiii, 8, 11–16, Cobb, John 54 collectivism 191 commercial bond markets 30, 157 commitment devices/crisis of 192–5, 197 commodity prices: decoupling 88; financial crisis 26; fluctuation/volatility 14, 21; resource constraints 13–14 common good: future visions 218, 219; vs. freedom and autonomy 193–4; vs. private interests 208; role of the state 209 common pool resources 190–2, 198, 199 see also public services/amenities communism 187, 191 community: future visions of 219–20; geographical 122–3; investment 155–6, 204 see also alienation; intrinsic values comparison, social 115, 116, 117 see also relative income effect competition 27, 112; positional 55–61, 58, 71, 72 see also struggle for existence complexity, economic systems 14, 32, 108, 153, 203 compulsive shopping 116 see also consumerism Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (CoP21) 19 conflicted state 197, 201, 209 connectedness, global 91, 227 conspicuous consumption 115 see also language of goods consumer goods see language of goods; material goods consumer sovereignty 196, 198 consumerism 4, 21, 22, 103–4, 113–16; capitalism 105–13, 196; choice 196; engine of growth 104, 108, 120, 161; existential fear of death 69, 212–15; financial crisis 24, 28, 39, 103; moving beyond 216–18; novelty and anxiety 116–17; post-growth economy 166–7; role of the state 192–3, 196, 199, 202–5; status 211; tragedy of 140 see also demand; materialism contemplative dimensions, simplicity 127 contraction and convergence model 206–7 coordinated market economies 27, 106 Copenhagen Accord (2009) 19 copper, commodity prices 13 corporations/big business 106–7 corruption 9, 131, 186, 187, 189 The Cost Disease: Why Computers get Cheaper and Health Care Doesn’t (Baumol) 171, 172 Costa Rica 74, 74, 76 countercyclical spending 181–2, 182, 188 crafts/craft economies 147, 149, 170, 171 creative destruction 104, 112, 113, 116–17 creativity 8, 79; and consumerism 113, 116; future visions 142, 144, 147, 158, 171, 200, 220 see also novelty/innovation credit, private: deflationary forces 44; deregulation 36; financial crisis 26, 27, 27–31, 34, 36, 41; financial system weaknesses 32–3, 37; growth imperative hypothesis 178–80; mortgage loans 28–9; reforms in financial system 157; spending vs. saving behaviour of ordinary people 118–19; and stimulation of growth 36 see also debt (public) credit unions 155–6 crises: of commitment 192–5; financial see financial crisis critical boundaries, biophysical see limits (ecological) Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi 127 Cuba: child mortality 75; life expectancy 74, 77, 78, 78; response to economic hardship 79–80; revolution 56; schooling 76 Cushman, Philip 116 Dalai Lama 49, 52 Daly, Herman xxxii, 54, 55, 160, 163, 165 Darwin, Charles 132–3 Das Kapital (Marx) 225 Davidson, Richard 49 Davos World Economic Forum 46 Dawkins, Richard 134–5 de Mandeville, Bernard 131–2, 157 death, denial of 69, 104, 115, 212–15 debt, public-sector 81; deflationary forces 44; economic stability 81; financial crisis 24, 26–32, 27, 37, 41, 42, 81; financial systems 28–32, 153–7; money creation 178–9; post-growth economy 178–9, 223 Debt: The First Five Thousand Years (Graeber) 28 decoupling xix, xx, xxxvii, 21, 84–7; dilemma of growth 211; efficiency measures 84, 86, 87, 88, 95, 104; green growth 163, 163–5; historical perspectives 87–96, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95; need for new economic model 101–2; relationship between relative and absolute 96–101 deep emission and resource cuts 99, 102 deficit spending 41, 43 deflationary forces, post-financial crisis 43–7, 45 degrowth movement 161–3, 177 demand 104, 113–16, 166–7; post-financial crisis 44–5; post-growth economy 162, 164, 166–9, 171–2, 174–5 dematerialisation 102, 143 democratisation, and wellbeing 59 deposit guarantees 35 deregulation 27, 34, 36, 196 desire, role in consumer behaviour 68, 69, 70, 114 destructive materialism 104, 112, 113, 116–17 Deutsche Bank 41 devaluation of currency 30, 45 Dichter, Ernest 114 digital economy 44, 219–20 dilemma of growth xxxi, 66–7, 104, 210; basic entitlements 72–9, 74, 75, 76, 78; decoupling 85, 87, 164; degrowth movement 160–3; economic stability 79–83, 174–6; material abundance 67–72; moving beyond 165, 166, 183–4; role of the state 198 diminishing marginal utility: alternative hedonism 125, 126; wellbeing 51–2, 57, 60, 73, 75–6, 79 disposable incomes 27, 67, 118 distributed ownership 223 Dittmar, Helga 126 domestic debt see credit dopamine 68 Dordogne, mindfulness community 128 double movement of society 198 Douglas, Mary 70 Douthwaite, Richard 178 downshifting 128 driving analogy, managing change 16–17 durability, consumer goods 113, 204, 220 dynamic systems, managing change 16–17 Eastern Europe 76, 122 Easterlin, Richard 56, 57, 59; paradox 56, 58 eco-villages, Findhorn community 128 ecological investment 101, 166–70, 220 see also investment ecological limits see limits (ecological) ecological (ecosystem) services 152, 169, 223 The Ecology of Money (Douthwaite) 178 economic growth see growth economic models see alternatives; business-as-usual model; financial systems; future visions; mathematical models; post-growth macroeconomics economic output see efficiency; productivity ‘Economic possibilities for our grandchildren’ (Keynes) 145 economic stability 22, 154, 157, 161; financial system weaknesses 34, 35, 36, 180; growth 21, 24, 67, 79–83, 174–6, 210; post-growth economy 161–3, 165, 174–6, 208, 219; role of the state 181–3, 195, 198, 199 economic structures: post-growth economy 227; financial system reforms 224; role of the state 205; selfishness 137 see also business-as-usual model; financial systems ecosystem functioning 62–3 see also limits (ecological) ecosystem services 152, 169, 223 Ecuador xxxi, 6 education: Baumol’s cost disease 171, 172; and income 67, 76, 76; investment in 150–1; role of the state 193 see also basic entitlements efficiency measures 84, 86–8, 95, 104, 109–11, 142–3; energy 41, 109–11; growth 111, 211; investment 109, 151; of scale 104 see also labour productivity; relative decoupling Ehrlich, Paul 13, 96 elasticity of substitution, labour and capital 177–8 electricity grid 41, 151, 156 see also energy Elgin, Duane 127 Ellen MacArthur Foundation 144 emissions see greenhouse gas emissions employee ownership 223 employment intensity vs. carbon dioxide emissions 148 see also labour productivity empty self 116, 117 see also consumerism ends above means 159 energy return on investment (EROI) 12, 169 energy services/systems 142: efficiency 41, 109–11; inputs/intensity 87–8, 151; investment 41, 109–10, 151–2; renewable xxxv, 41, 168–9 engine of growth 145; consumerism 104, 108, 161; services 143, 170–4 see also circular flow of the economy enough is enough see limits enterprise as service 140, 141–4, 158 see also novelty/innovation entitlements see basic entitlements entrepreneur as visionary 112 entrepreneurial state 220 Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands 62 environmental quality 12 see also pollution environmentalism 9 EROI (energy return on investment) 12, 169 Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus) 9–11, 132–3 evolutionary map, human heart 136, 136 evolutionary theory 132–3; common good 193; post-growth economy 226; psychology 133–5; selfishness and altruism 196 exchange values 55, 61 see also gross domestic product existential fear of death 69, 104, 115, 212–15 exponential expansion 1, 11, 20–1, 210 see also growth external debt 32, 42 extinctions/biodiversity loss 17, 47, 62, 101 Eyres, Harry 215 Fable of the Bees (de Mandeville) 131–2 factor inputs 109–10 see also capital; labour; resource use fast food 128 fatalism 186 FCCC (Framework Convention on Climate Change) 92 fear of death, existential 69, 104, 115, 212–15 feedback loops 16–17 financial crisis (2008) 6, 23–5, 32, 77, 103; causes and culpability 25–8; financial system weaknesses 32–7, 108; Keynesianism 37–43, 188; nationalisation of financial sector 188; need for financial reforms 175; role of debt 24, 26–32, 27, 81, 179; role of state 191; slowing of growth 43–7, 45; spending vs. saving behaviour of ordinary people 118–21, 119; types/definitions of capitalism 106; youth unemployment 144–5 financial systems: common pool resources 192; debt-based/role of debt 28–32, 153–7; post-growth economy 179, 208; systemic weaknesses 32–7; and wellbeing 47 see also banking system; business-as-usual model; financial crisis; reform Findhorn community 128 finite limits of planet see limits (ecological) Fisher, Irving 156, 157 fishing rights 22 flourishing see capabilities for flourishing; limits; wellbeing flow states 127 Flynt, Larry 40 food 67 see also basic entitlements Ford, Henry 154 forestry/forests 22, 192 Forrester, Jay 11 fossil fuels 11, 20 see also oil Foucault, Michel 197 fracking 14, 15 Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) 92 France: GDP per capita 58, 75, 76; inequality 206; life-expectancy 74; mindfulness community 128; working hours 145 free market 106: financial crisis 35, 36, 37, 38, 39; ideological controversy/conflict 186–7, 188 freedom/autonomy: vs. common good 193–4; consumer 22, 68–9; language of goods 212; personal choices for improvement 216–18; wellbeing 49, 59, 62 see also individualism Friedman, Benjamin 176 Friedman, Milton 36, 156, 157 frugality 118–20, 127–9, 215–16 fun (more fun with less stuff) 129, 217 future visions 2, 158, 217–21; community banking 155–6; dilemma of growth 211; enterprise as service 140, 141–4, 147–8, 158; entrepreneur as visionary 112; financial crisis as opportunity 25; and growth 165–6; investment 22, 101–2, 140, 149–53, 158, 169, 208; money as social good 140, 153–7, 158; processes of change 185; role of the state 198, 199, 203; timescales for change 16–17; work as participation 140, 144–9, 148, 158 see also alternatives; post-growth macroeconomics; reform Gandhi, Mahatma 127 GDP see gross domestic product gene, selfish 134–5 Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) 54, 54 geographical community 122–3 Germany xxxi; Federal Ministry of Finance 224–5; inequality 206; relative income effect 58; trade balance 31; work as participation 146 Glass Steagal Act 35 Global Commodity Price Index (1992–2015) 13 global corporations 106–7 global economy 98: culture 70; decoupling 86–8, 91, 93–5, 95, 97, 98, 100; exponential expansion 20–1; inequality 4, 5–6; interconnectedness 91, 227; post-financial crisis slowing of growth 45 Global Research report (HSBC) 41 global warming see climate change Godley, Wynne 179 Goldman Sachs 37 good life 3, 6; moral dimension 63, 104; wellbeing 48, 50 goods see language of goods; material goods; symbolic role of goods Gordon, Robert 44 governance 22, 185–6; commons 190–2; crisis of commitment 192–5, 197; economic stability 34, 35; establishing limits 200–8, 206; growth 195–9; ideological controversy/conflict 186–9; moving towards change 197–200, 220–1; post-growth economy 181–3, 182; power of corporations 106; for prosperity 209; signals 130 government as household metaphor 30, 42 governmentality 197, 198 GPI (Genuine Progress Indicator) 54, 54 Graeber, David 28 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 35 Great Depression 39–40 Greece: austerity xxxiii–xxxiv, xxxvii, 43; energy inputs 88; financial crisis 28, 30, 31, 77; life expectancy 74; schooling 76; relative income effect 58; youth unemployment 144 Green Economy initiative 41 green: growth xxxvii, 18, 85, 153, 166, 170; investment 41 Green New Deal, UNEP 40–1, 152, 188 greenhouse gas emissions 18, 85, 86, 91, 92; absolute decoupling 89–92, 90, 92, 98–101, 100; dilemma of growth 210–11; vs. employment intensity 148; future visions 142, 151, 201–2, 220; Kyoto Protocol 18, 90; reduction targets 19–20; relative decoupling 87, 88, 89, 93, 98–101, 100 see also climate change Greenspan, Alan 35 gross domestic product (GDP) per capita 3–5, 15, 54; climate change 18; decoupling 85, 93, 94; financial crisis 27, 28, 32; green growth 163–5; life expectancy 74, 75, 78; as measure of prosperity 3–4, 5, 53–5, 54, 60–1; post-financial crisis 43, 44; post-growth economy 207; schooling 76; wellbeing 55–61, 58 see also income growth xxxvii; capitalism 105; credit 36, 178–80; decoupling 85, 96–101; economic stability 21, 24, 67, 80, 210; financial crisis 37, 38; future visions 209, 223, 224; inequality 177; labour productivity 111; moving beyond 165, 166; novelty 112; ownership 105; post-financial crisis slowing 43–7, 45; prosperity as 3–7, 23, 66; role of the state 195–9; sustainable investment 166–70; wellbeing 59–60; as zero sum game 57 see also dilemma of growth; engine of growth; green growth; limits to growth; post-growth macroeconomy growth imperative hypothesis 37, 174, 175, 177–80, 183 habit formation, acquisition as 68 Hall, Peter 106, 188 Hamilton, William 134 Hansen, James 17 happiness see wellbeing/happiness Happiness (Layard) 55 Hardin, Garrett 190–1 Harvey, David 189, 192 Hayek, Friedrich 187, 189, 191 health: Baumol’s cost disease 171, 172; inequality 72–3, 205–6, 206; investment 150–1; and material abundance 67, 68; personal choices for improvement 217; response to economic hardship 80; role of the state 193 see also basic entitlements Heath, Edward 66, 82 hedonism 120, 137, 196; alternatives 125–6 Hirsch, Fred xxxii–xxxiii historical perspectives: absolute decoupling 86, 89–96, 90, 92, 94, 95; relative decoupling 86, 87–9, 89 Holdren, John 96 holistic solutions, post-growth economy 175 household finances: house purchases 28–9; spending vs. saving behaviour 118–20, 119 see also credit household metaphor, government as 30, 42 HSBC Global Research report 41 human capabilities see capabilities for flourishing human happiness see wellbeing/happiness human nature/psyche 3, 132–5, 138; acquisition 68; alternative hedonism 125; evolutionary map of human heart 136, 136; intrinsic values 131; meaning/purpose 49–50; novelty/innovation 116; selfishness vs. altruism 133–8; short-termism/living for today 194; spending vs. saving behaviour 34, 118–21, 119; symbolic role of goods 69 see also intrinsic values human rights see basic entitlements humanitarian perspectives: financial crisis 24; growth 79; inequality 5, 52, 53 see also intrinsic values hyperbolic discounting 194 hyperindividualism 226 see also individualism hyper-materialisation 140, 157 I Ching (Chinese Book of Changes) 7 Iceland: financial crisis 28; life expectancy 74, 75; relative income effect 56; response to economic hardship 79–80; schooling 76; sovereign money system 157 identity construction 52, 69, 115, 116, 212, 219 IEA (International Energy Agency) 14, 152 IMF (International Monetary Fund) 45, 156–7 immaterial goods 139–40 see also intrinsic values; meaning/purpose immortality, symbolic role of goods 69, 104, 115, 212–14 inclusive growth see inequality; smart growth income 3, 4, 5, 66, 124; basic entitlements 72–9, 74, 75, 76, 78; child mortality 74–5, 75; decoupling 96; economic stability 82; education 76; life expectancy 72, 73, 74, 77–9, 78; poor nations 67; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; tax revenues 81 see also gross domestic product INDCs (intended nationally determined commitments) 19 India: decoupling 99; growth 99; life expectancy 74, 75; philosophy 127; pursuit of western lifestyles 70; savings 27; schooling 76 indicators of environmental quality 96 see also biodiversity; greenhouse gas emissions; pollution; resource use individualism 136, 226; progressive state 194–7, 199, 200, 203, 207 see also freedom/autonomy industrial development 12 see also technological advances inequality 22, 67; basic entitlements 72; child mortality 75, 75; credible alternatives 219, 224; deflationary forces 44; fatalism 186; financial crisis 24; global 4, 5–6, 99, 100; financial system weaknesses 32–3; post-growth economy 174, 176–8; role of the state 198, 205–7, 206; selfishness vs. altruism 137; symbolic role of goods 71; wellbeing 47, 104 see also poverty infant mortality rates 72, 75 inflation 26, 30, 110, 157, 167 infrastructure, civic 150–1 Inglehart, Ronald 58, 59 innovation see novelty/innovation; technological advances inputs 80–1 see also capital; labour productivity; resource use Inside Job documentary film 26 instant gratification 50, 61 instinctive acquisition 68 Institute for Fiscal Studies 81 Institute for Local Self-Reliance 204 institutional structures 130 see also economic structures; governance intended nationally determined commitments (INDCs) 19 intensity factor, technological 96, 97 see also technological advances intentional communities 127–9 interconnectedness, global 91, 227 interest payments/rates 39, 43, 110; financial crisis 29, 30, 33, 39; post-growth economy 178–80 see also credit; debt Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 18, 19, 201–2 International Energy Agency (IEA) 14, 152 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 45, 156–7 intrinsic values 126–31, 135–6, 212; role of the state 199, 200 see also belonging; community; meaning/purpose; simplicity/frugality investment 107–10, 108; ecological/sustainable 101, 152, 153, 166–70, 220; and innovation 112; loans 29; future visions 22, 101–2, 140, 149–53, 158, 169, 208, 220; and savings 108; social 155, 156, 189, 193, 208, 220–3 invisible hand metaphor 132, 133, 187 IPAT equation, relative and absolute decoupling 96 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 18, 19, 201–2 Ireland 28; inequality 206; life expectancy 74, 75; schooling 76; wellbeing 58 iron cage of consumerism see consumerism iron ore 94 James, Oliver 205 James, William 68 Japan: equality 206; financial crisis 27, 45; life expectancy 74, 76, 79; relative income effect 56, 58; resource use 93; response to economic hardship 79–80 Jefferson, Thomas 185 Jobs, Steve 210 Johnson, Boris 120–1 Kahneman, Daniel 60 Kasser, Tim 126 keeping up with the Joneses 115, 116, 117 see also relative income effect Kennedy, Robert 48, 53 Keynes, John Maynard/Keynesianism 23, 34, 120, 174, 181–3, 187–8; financial crisis 37–43; financial system reforms 157; part-time working 145; steady state economy 159, 162 King, Alexander 11 Krugman, Paul 39, 85, 86, 102 Kyoto Protocol (1992) 18, 90 labour: child 62, 154; costs 110; division of 158; elasticity of substitution 177, 178; intensity 109, 148, 208; mobility 123; production inputs 80, 109; structures of capitalism 107 labour productivity 80–1, 109–11; Baumol’s cost disease 170–2; and economic growth 111; future visions 220, 224; investment as commitment 150; need for investment 109; post-growth economy 175, 208; services as engine of growth 170; sustainable investment 166, 170; trade off with resource use 110; work-sharing 145, 146, 147, 148, 148, 149 Lahr, Christin 224–5 laissez-faire capitalism 187, 195, 196 see also free market Lakoff, George 30 language of goods 212; material footprint of 139–40; signalling of social status 71; and wellbeing 124 see also consumerism; material goods; symbolic role of goods Layard, Richard 55 leadership, political 199 see also governance Lebow, Victor 120 Lehman Brothers, bankruptcy 23, 25, 26, 118 leisure economy 204 liberal market economies 106, 107; financial crisis 27, 35–6 life expectancy: and income 72, 73, 74, 77–9, 78; inequality 206; response to economic hardship 80 see also basic entitlements life-satisfaction 73; inequality 205; relative income effect 55–61, 58 see also wellbeing/happiness limits, ecological 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 20–2; climate change 17–20; decoupling 86; financial crisis 23–4; growth 21, 165, 210; post-growth economy 201–2, 226–7; role of the state 198, 200–2, 206–7; and social boundaries 141; wellbeing 62–63, 185 limits, flourishing within 61–5, 185; alternative hedonism 125–6; intrinsic values 127–31; moving towards 215, 218, 219, 221; paradox of materialism 121–23; prosperity 67–72, 113, 212; role of the state 201–2, 205; selfishness 131–8; shame 123–4; spending vs. saving behaviour 118–21, 119 see also sustainable prosperity limits to growth: confronting 7–8; exceeding 20–2; wellbeing 62–3 Limits to Growth report (Club of Rome) xxxii, xxxiii, 8, 11–16 ‘The Living Standard’ essay (Sen) 50, 123–4 living standards 82 see also prosperity Lloyd, William Forster 190 loans 154; community investment 155–6; financial system weaknesses 34 see also credit; debt London School of Economics 25 loneliness 123, 137 see also alienation long-term: investments 222; social good 219 long-term wellbeing vs. short-term pleasures 194, 197 longevity see life expectancy love 212 see also intrinsic values low-carbon transition 19, 220 LowGrow model for the Canadian economy 175 MacArthur Foundation 144 McCracken, Grant 115 Malthus, Thomas Robert 9–11, 132–3, 190 market economies: coordinated 27, 106; liberal 27, 35–6, 106, 107 market liberalism 106, 107; financial crisis 27, 35–6; wellbeing 47 marketing 140, 203–4 Marmot review, health inequality in the UK 72 Marx, Karl/Marxism 9, 189, 192, 225 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 11, 12, 15 material abundance see opulence material goods 68–9; identity 52; language of 139–40; and wellbeing 47, 48, 49, 51, 65, 126 see also symbolic role of goods material inputs see resource use materialism: and fear of death 69, 104, 115, 212–15; and intrinsic values 127–31; paradox of 121–3; price of 126; and religion 115; values 126, 135–6 see also consumerism mathematical models/simulations 132; austerity policies 181; countercyclical spending 181–2, 182; decoupling 84, 91, 96–101; inequality 176–8; post-growth economy 164; stock-flow consistent 179–80 Mawdsley, Emma 70 Mazzucato, Mariana 193, 220 MDG (Millennium Development Goals) 74–5 Meadows, Dennis and Donella 11, 12, 15, 16 meaning/purpose 2, 8, 22; beyond material goods 212–16; consumerism 69, 203, 215; intrinsic values 127–31; moving towards 218–20; wellbeing 49, 52, 60, 121–2; work 144, 146 see also intrinsic values means and ends 159 mental health: inequality 206; meaning/purpose 213 metaphors: government as household 30, 42; invisible hand 132, 133, 187 Middle East, energy inputs 88 Miliband, Ed 199 Mill, John Stuart 125, 159, 160, 174 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 74–5 mindfulness 128 Minsky, Hyman 34, 35, 40, 182, 208 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 11, 12, 15 mixed economies 106 mobility of labour, loneliness index 123 Monbiot, George 84, 85, 86, 91 money: creation 154, 157, 178–9; and prosperity 5; as social good 140, 153–7, 158 see also financial systems monopoly power, corporations 106–7 The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth (Friedman) 82, 176 moral dimensions, good life 63 see also intrinsic values moral hazards, separation of risk from reward 35 ‘more fun with less stuff’ 129, 217 mortality fears 69, 104, 115, 212–15 mortality rates, and income 74, 74–6, 75 mortgage loans 28–9, 35 multinational corporations 106–7 national debt see debt, public-sector nationalisation 191; financial crisis 38, 188 natural selection 132–3 see also struggle for existence nature, rights of 6–7 negative emissions 98–9 negative feedback loops 16–17 Netherlands 58, 62, 206, 207 neuroscientific perspectives: flourishing 68, 69; human behaviour 134 New Climate Economy report Better Growth, Better Climate 18 New Deal, USA 39 New Economics Foundation 175 nickel, commodity prices 13 9/11 terrorist attacks (2001) 121 Nordhaus, William 171, 172–3 North America 128, 155 see also Canada; United States Norway: advertising 204; inequality 206; investment as commitment 151–2; life expectancy 74; relative income effect 58; schooling 76 novelty/innovation 104, 108, 113; and anxiety 116–17, 124, 211; crisis of commitment 195; dilemma of growth 211; human psyche 135–6, 136, 137; investment 150, 166, 168; post-growth economy 226; role of the state 196, 197, 199; as service 140, 141–4, 158; symbolic role of goods 114–16, 213 see also technological advances Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Thaler and Sunstein) 194–5 Nussbaum, Martha 64 nutrient loading, critical boundaries 17 nutrition 67 see also basic entitlements obesity 72, 78, 206 obsolescence, built in 113, 204, 220 oceans: acidification 17; common pool resources 192 Offer, Avner 57, 61, 71, 194, 195 oil prices 14, 21; decoupling 88; financial crisis 26; resource constraints 15 oligarchic capitalism 106, 107 opulence 50–1, 52, 67–72 original sin 9, 131 Ostrom, Elinor and Vincent 190, 191 output see efficiency; gross domestic product; productivity ownership: and expansion 105; private vs. public 9, 105, 191, 219, 223; new models 223–4; types/definitions of capitalism 105–7 Oxfam 141 paradoxes: materialism 121–3; thrift 120 Paris Agreement 19, 101, 201 participation in society 61, 114, 122, 129, 137; future visions 200, 205, 218, 219, 225; work as 140–9, 148, 157, 158 see also social inclusion part-time working 145, 146, 149, 175 Peccei, Aurelio 11 Perez, Carlota 112 performing arts, Baumol’s cost disease 171–2 personal choice 216–18 see also freedom/autonomy personal property 189, 191 Pickett, Kate 71, 205–6 Piketty, Thomas 33, 176, 177 planetary boundaries see limits (ecological) planning for change 17 pleasure 60–1 see also wellbeing/happiness Plum Village mindfulness community 128 Polanyi, Karl 198 policy see governance political leadership 199 see also governance Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts 41 pollution 12, 21, 53, 95–6, 143 polycentric governance 191, 192 Poor Laws 10 poor nations see poverty population increase 3, 12, 63, 96, 97, 190; Malthus on 9–11, 132–3 porn industry 40 Portugal 28, 58, 88, 206 positional competition 55–61, 58, 71, 72 see also social comparison positive feedback loops 16–17 post-growth capitalism 224 post-growth macroeconomics 159–60, 183–4, 221; credit 178–80; degrowth movement 161–3; economic stability 174–6; green growth 163–5; inequality 176–8; role of state 181–3, 182, 200–8, 206; services 170–4; sustainable investment 166–70 see also alternatives; future visions; reform poverty 4, 5–6, 216; basic entitlements 72; flourishing within limits 212; life expectancy 74, 74; need for new economic model 101; symbolic role of goods 70; wellbeing 48, 59–60, 61, 67 see also inequality; relative income effect power politics 200 predator–prey analogy 103–4, 117 private credit see credit private vs. public: common good 208; ownership 9, 105, 191, 219, 223; salaries 130 privatisation 191, 219 product lifetimes, obsolescence 113, 204, 220 production: inputs 80–1; ownership 191, 219, 223 productivity: investment 109, 167, 168, 169; post-growth economy 224; services as engine of growth 171, 172, 173; targets 147; trap 175 see also efficiency measures; labour productivity; resource productivity profits: definitions of capitalism 105; dilemma of growth 211; efficiency measures 87; investment 109; motive 104; post-growth economy 224; and wages 175–8 progress 2, 50–5, 54 see also novelty/innovation; technological advances progressive sector, Baumol’s cost disease 171 progressive state 185, 220–2; contested 186–9; countering consumerism 202–5; equality measures 205–7, 206; governance of the commons 190–2; governance as commitment device 192–5; governmentality of growth 195–7; limit-setting 201–2; moving towards 197–200; post-growth macroeconomics 207–8, 224; prosperity 209 prosocial behaviour 198 see also social contract prosperity 1–3, 22, 121; capabilities for flourishing 61–5; and growth 3–7, 23, 66, 80, 160; and income 3–4, 5, 66–7; limits of 67–72, 113, 212; materialistic vision 137; progress measures 50–5, 54; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; social perspectives 2, 22, 48–9; state roles 209 see also capabilities for flourishing; post-growth macroeconomics; sustainable prosperity; wellbeing prudence, financial 120, 195, 221; financial crisis 33, 34, 35 public sector spending: austerity policies 189; countercyclical spending strategy 181–2, 182; welfare economy 169 public services/amenities: common pool resources 190–2, 198, 199; future visions 204, 218–20; investment 155–6, 204; ownership 223 see also private vs. public; service-based economies public transport 41, 129, 193, 217 purpose see meaning/purpose Putnam, Robert 122 psyche, human see human nature/psyche quality, environmental 12 see also pollution quality of life: enterprise as service 142; inequality 206; sustainable 128 quality to throughput ratios 113 quantitative easing 43 Queen Elizabeth II 25, 32, 34, 37 quiet revolution 127–31 Raworth, Kate 141 Reagan, Ronald 8 rebound phenomenon 111 recession 23–4, 28, 81, 161–3 see also financial crisis recreation/leisure industries 143 recycling 129 redistribution of wealth 52 see also inequality reforms 182–3, 222; economic structures 224; and financial crisis 103; financial systems 156–8, 180 see also alternatives; future visions; post-growth economy relative decoupling 84–5, 86; historical perspectives 87–9, 89; relationship with absolute decoupling 96–101, 111 relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72 see also social comparison religious perspectives 9–10, 214–15; materialism as alternative to religion 115; original sin 9, 131; wellbeing 48, 49 see also existential fear of death renewable energy xxxv, 41, 168–169 repair/renovation 172, 220 resource constraints 3, 7, 8, 11–15, 47 resource productivity 110, 151, 168, 169, 220 resource use: conflicts 22; credible alternatives 101, 220; decoupling 84–9, 92–5, 94, 95; and economic output 142–4; investment 151, 153, 168, 169; trade off with labour costs 110 retail therapy 115 see also consumerism; shopping revenues, state 222–3 see also taxation revolution 186 see also social stability rights: environment/nature 6–7; human see basic entitlements risk, financial 24, 25, 33, 35 The Road to Serfdom (Hayek) 187 Robinson, Edward 132 Robinson, Joan 159 Rockström, Johan 17, 165 romantic movement 9–10 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 35, 39 Rousseau, Jean Jacques 9, 131 Russia 74, 76, 77–80, 78, 122 sacred canopy 214, 215 salaries: private vs. public sector 130, 171; and profits 175–8 Sandel, Michael 150, 164, 218 São Paulo, Clean City Law 204 Sardar, Zia 49, 50 Sarkozy, Nicolas xxxi, 53 savage state, romantic movement 9–10 savings 26–7, 28, 107–9, 108; investment 149; ratios 34, 118–20, 119 scale, efficiencies of 104 Scandinavia 27, 122, 204 scarcity, managing change 16–17 Schumpeter, Joseph 112 Schwartz, Shalom 135–6, 136 schooling see education The Science of Desire (Dichter) 114 secular stagnation 43–7, 45, 173 securitisation, mortgage loans 35 security: moving towards 219; and wellbeing 48, 61 self-development 204 self-expression see identity construction self-transcending behaviours see transcendence The Selfish Gene (Dawkins) 134–5 selfishness 133–8, 196 Sen, Amartya 50, 52, 61–2, 123–4 service concept/servicization 140–4, 147–8, 148, 158 service-based economies 219; engine of growth 170–4; substitution between labour and capital 178; sustainable investment 169–70 see also public services SFC (stock-flow consistent) economic models 179–80 shame 123–4 shared endeavours, post-growth economy 227 Sheldon, Solomon 214 shelter see basic entitlements shopping 115, 116, 130 see also consumerism short-termism/living for today 194, 197, 200 signals: sent out by society 130, 193, 198, 203, 207; social status 71 see also language of goods Simon, Julian 13 simplicity/simple life 118–20, 127–9, 215–16 simulations see mathematical models/simulations slow: capital 170; movement 128 smart growth 85, 163–5 see also green growth Smith, Adam 51, 106–7, 123, 132, 187 social assets 220 social boundaries (minimum standards) 141 see also basic entitlements social care 150–1 see also caring professions social comparison 115, 116, 117 see also relative income effect social contract 194, 198, 199, 200 social inclusion 48, 69–71, 114, 212 see also participation in society social investment 155, 156, 189, 193, 208, 220–3 social justice 198 see also inequality social logic of consumerism 114–16, 204 social stability 24, 26, 80, 145, 186, 196, 205 see also alienation social status see status social structures 80, 129, 130, 137, 196, 200, 203 social tolerance, and wellbeing 59, 60 social unrest see social stability social wage 40 social welfare: financial reforms 182–3; public sector spending 169 socialism 223 Sociobiology (Wilson) 134 soil integrity 220 Solon, quotation 47, 49, 71 Soper, Kate 125–6 Soros, George 36 Soskice, David 106 Soviet Union, former 74, 76, 77–80, 78, 122 Spain 28, 58, 144, 206 SPEAR organization, responsible investment 155 species loss/extinctions 17, 47, 62, 101 speculation 93, 99, 149, 150, 154, 158, 170; economic stability 180; financial crisis 26, 33, 35; short-term profiteering 150; spending: behaviour of ordinary people 34, 119, 120–1; countercyclical 181–2, 182, 188; economic stability 81; as way out of recession 41, 44, 119, 120–1; and work cycle 125 The Spirit Level (Wilkinson and Pickett) 71, 205–6 spiritual perspectives 117, 127, 128, 214 stability see economic stability; social stability stagflation 26 stagnant sector, Baumol’s cost disease 171 stagnation: economic stability 81–2; labour productivity 145; post-financial crisis 43–7, 45 see also recession state capitalism, types/definitions of capitalism 106 state revenues, from social investment 222–3 see also taxation state roles see governance status 207, 209, 211; and possessions 69, 71, 114, 115, 117 see also language of goods; symbolic role of goods Steady State Economics (Daly) xxxii steady state economies 82, 159, 160, 174, 180 see also post-growth macroeconomics Stern, Nicholas 17–18 stewardship: role of the state 200; sustainable investment 168 Stiglitz, Joseph 53 stock-flow consistent (SFC) economic models 179–80 Stockholm Resilience Centre 17, 201 stranded assets 167–8 see also ownership structures of capitalism see economic structures struggle for existence 8–11, 125, 132–3 Stuckler, David 43 stuff see language of goods; material goods; symbolic role of goods subjective wellbeing (SWB) 49, 58, 58–9, 71, 122, 129 see also wellbeing/happiness subprime lending 26 substitution, between labour and capital 177–178 suffering, struggle for existence 10 suicide 43, 52, 77 Sukdhev, Pavan 41 sulphur dioxide pollution 95–6 Summers, Larry 36 Sunstein, Cass 194 sustainability xxv–xxvi, 102, 104, 126; financial systems 154–5; innovation 226; investment 101, 152, 153, 166–70, 220; resource constraints 12; role of the state 198, 203, 207 see also sustainable prosperity Sustainable Development Strategy, UK 198 sustainable growth see green growth sustainable prosperity 210–12; creating credible alternatives 219–21; finding meaning beyond material commodities 212–16; implications for capitalism 222–5; personal choices for improvement 216–18; and utopianism 225–7 see also limits (flourishing within) SWB see subjective wellbeing; wellbeing/happiness Switzerland 11, 46, 157; citizen’s income 207; income relative to wellbeing 58; inequality 206; life expectancy 74, 75 symbolic role of goods 69, 70–1; existential fear of death 212–16; governance 203; innovation/novelty 114–16; material footprints 139–40; paradox of materialism 121–2 see also language of goods; material goods system dynamics model 11–12, 15 tar sands/oil shales 15 taxation: capital 177; income 81; inequality 206; post-growth economy 222 technological advances 12–13, 15; decoupling 85, 86, 87, 96–8, 100–3, 164–5; dilemma of growth 211; economic stability 80; population increase 10–11; role of state 193, 220 see also novelty/innovation Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre 8 terror management, and consumption 69, 104, 115, 212–15 terrorist attacks (9/11) 121 Thailand, Buddhist monasteries 128 Thaler, Richard 194 theatre, Baumol’s cost disease 171–2 theology see religious perspectives theory of evolution 132–3 thermodynamics, laws of 112, 164 Thich Nhat Hanh 128 thrift 118–20, 127–9, 215–16 throwaway society 113, 172, 204 timescales for change 16–17 tin, commodity prices 13 Today programme interview xxix, xxviii Totnes, transition movement 128–9 Towards a Green Economy report (UNEP) 152–3 Townsend, Peter 48, 61 trade balance 31 trading standards 204 tradition 135–6, 136, 226 ‘Tragedy of the commons’ (Hardin) 190–1 transcendence 214 see also altruism; meaning/purpose; spiritual perspectives transition movement, Totnes 128–9 Triodos Bank 156, 165 Trumpf (machine-tool makers) Germany 146 trust, loss of see alienation tungsten, commodity prices 13 Turkey 58, 88 Turner, Adair 157 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (2015) 19 UBS (Swiss bank) 46 Ubuntu, African philosophy 227 unemployment 77; consumer goods 215; degrowth movement 162; financial crisis 24, 40, 41, 43; Great Depression 39–40; and growth 38; labour productivity 80–1; post-growth economy 174, 175, 183, 208, 219; work as participation 144–6 United Kingdom: Green New Deal group 152; greenhouse gas emissions 92; labour productivity 173; resource inputs 93; Sustainable Development Strategy 198 United Nations: Development Programme 6; Environment Programme 18, 152–3; Green Economy initiative 41 United States: credit unions 155–6; debt 27, 31–32; decoupling 88; greenhouse gas emissions 90–1; subprime lending 26; Works Progress Administration 39 universal basic income 221 see also citizen’s income University of Massachusetts, Political Economy Research Institute 41 utilitarianism/utility, wellbeing 50, 52–3, 55, 60 utopianism 8, 38, 125, 179; post-growth economy 225–7 values, materialistic 126, 135–6 see also intrinsic values Veblen, Thorstein 115 Victor, Peter xxxviii, 146, 175, 177, 180 vision of progress see future visions; post-growth economy volatility, commodity prices 14, 21 wages: and profits 175–8; private vs. public sector 130, 171 walking, personal choices for improvement 217 water use 22 Wealth of Nations, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes (Smith) 123, 132 wealth redistribution 52 see also inequality Weber, Axel 46 welfare policies: financial reforms 182–3; public sector spending 169 welfare of livestock 220 wellbeing/happiness 47–50, 53, 121–2, 124; collective 209; consumer goods 4, 21, 22, 126; growth 6, 165, 211; intrinsic values 126, 129; investment 150; novelty/innovation 117; opulence 50–2, 67–72; personal choices for improvement 217; planetary boundaries 141; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; simplicity 129; utilitarianism 50, 52–3, 55, 60 see also capabilities for flourishing western lifestyles 70, 210 White, William 46 Whybrow, Peter 68 Wilhelm, Richard 7 Wilkinson, Richard 71, 205–6 Williams, Tennessee 213 Wilson, Edward 134 wisdom traditions 48, 49, 63, 128, 213–14 work: as participation 140–9, 148, 157, 158; and spend cycle 125; sharing 145, 146, 149, 175 Works Progress Administration, USA 39 World Bank 160 World Values Survey 58 youth unemployment, financial crisis 144–5 zero sum game, growth as 57, 71

INDEX Locators in italic refer to figures absolute decoupling 84–6; historical perspectives 89–96, 90, 92, 94, 95; mathematical relationship with relative decoupling 96–101, 111 abundance see opulence accounting errors, decoupling 84, 91 acquisition, instinctive 68 see also symbolic role of goods adaptation: diminishing marginal utility 51, 68; environmental 169; evolutionary 226 advertising, power of 140, 203–4 Africa 73, 75–7; life-expectancy 74; philosophy 227; pursuit of western lifestyles 70; growth 99; relative income effect 58, 75; schooling 78 The Age of Turbulence (Greenspan) 35 ageing populations 44, 81 agriculture 12, 148, 152, 220 Aids/HIV 77 algebra of inequality see inequality; mathematical models alienation: future visions 212, 218–19; geographical community 122–3; role of the state 205; selfishness vs. altruism 137; signals sent by society 131 alternatives: economic 101–2, 139–40, 157–8; hedonism 125–6 see also future visions; post-growth macroeconomics; reform altruism 133–8, 196, 207 amenities see public services/amenities Amish community, North America 128 An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith) 123, 132 angelised growth see green growth animal welfare 220 anonymity/loneliness see alienation anthropological perspectives, consumption 70, 115 anti-consumerism 131 see also intrinsic values anxiety: fear of death 69, 104, 115, 212–15; novelty 116–17, 124, 211 Argentina 58, 78, 78, 80 Aristotle 48, 61 The Art of Happiness (Dalai Lama) 49 arts, Baumol’s cost disease 171–2 assets, stranded 167–8 see also ownership austerity policies xxxiii–xxxv, 189; and financial crisis 24, 42–3; mathematical models 181 Australia 58, 78, 128, 206 authoritarianism 199 autonomy see freedom/autonomy Ayres, Robert 143 backfire effects 111 balance: private interests/common good 208; tradition/innovation 226 Bank for International Settlements 46 bank runs 157 banking system 29–30, 39, 153–7, 208; bonuses 37–8 see also financial crisis; financial system basic entitlements: enterprise as service 142; income 67, 72–9, 74, 75, 76, 78; limits to growth 63–4 see also education; food; health Basu, Sanjay 43 Baumol, William 112, 147, 222, 223; cost disease 170, 171, 172, 173 BBC survey, geographical community 122–3 Becker, Ernest 69 Belk, Russ 70, 114 belonging 212, 219 see also alienation; community; intrinsic values Bentham, Jeremy 55 bereavement, material possessions 114, 214–15 Berger, Peter 70, 214 Berry, Wendell 8 Better Growth, Better Climate (New Climate Economy report) 18 big business/corporations 106–7 biodiversity loss 17, 47, 62, 101 biological perspectives see evolutionary theory; human nature/psyche biophysical boundaries see limits (ecological) Black Monday 46 The Body Economic (Stuckler and Basu) 43 bond markets 30, 157 bonuses, banking 37–8 Bookchin, Murray 122 boom-and-bust cycles 157, 181 Booth, Douglas 117 borrowing behaviour 34, 118–21, 119 see also credit; debt Boulding, Elise 118 Boulding, Kenneth 1, 5, 7 boundaries, biophysical see limits (ecological) bounded capabilities for flourishing 61–5 see also limits (flourishing within) Bowen, William 147 Bowling Alone (Putnam) 122 Brazil 58, 88 breakdown of community see alienation; social stability bubbles, economic 29, 33, 36 Buddhist monasteries, Thailand 128 buen vivir concept, Ecuador xxxi, 6 built-in obsolescence 113, 204, 220 Bush, George 121 business-as-usual model 22, 211; carbon dioxide emissions 101; crisis of commitment 195; financial crisis 32–8; growth 79–83, 99; human nature 131, 136–7; need for reform 55, 57, 59, 101–2, 162, 207–8, 227; throwaway society 113; wellbeing 124 see also financial systems Canada 75, 206, 207 capabilities for flourishing 61–5; circular flow of the economy 113; future visions 218, 219; and income 77; progress measures 50–5, 54; role of material abundance 67–72; and prosperity 49; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; role of shame 123–4; role of the state 200 see also limits (flourishing within); wellbeing capital 105, 107–10 see also investment Capital in the 21st Century (Piketty) 33, 176, 177 Capital Institute, USA 155 capitalism 68–9, 80; structures 107–13, 175; types 105–7, 222, 223 car industry, financial crisis 40 carbon dioxide emissions see greenhouse gas emissions caring professions, valuing 130, 147, 207 see also social care Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Williams) 213 causal path analysis, subjective wellbeing 59 Central Bank 154 central human capabilities 64 see also capabilities for flourishing The Challenge of Affluence (Offer) 194 change see alternatives; future visions; novelty/innovation; post-growth macroeconomics; reform Chicago school of economics 36, 156 children: advertising to 204; labour 62, 154; mortality 74–5, 75, 206 Chile xxxiii, xxxvii, 58, 74, 74, 75, 76 China: decoupling 88; GDP per capita 75; greenhouse gas emissions 91; growth 99; life expectancy 74; philosophy 7; post-financial crisis 45–6; pursuit of western lifestyles 70; relative income effect 58; resource use 94; savings 27; schooling 76 choice, moving beyond consumerism 216–18 see also freedom/autonomy Christian doctrine see religious perspectives chromium, commodity price 13 Cinderella economy 219–21, 224 circular economy 144, 220 circular flow of the economy 107, 113 see also engine of growth citizen’s income 207 see also universal basic income civil unrest see social stability Clean City Law, São Paulo 204 climate change xxxv, 22, 47; critical boundaries 17–20; decoupling 85, 86, 87, 98; fatalism 186; investment needs 152; role of the state 192, 198, 201–2 see also greenhouse gas emissions Climate Change Act (2008), UK 198 clothing see basic entitlements Club of Rome, Limits to Growth report xxxii, xxxiii, 8, 11–16, Cobb, John 54 collectivism 191 commercial bond markets 30, 157 commitment devices/crisis of 192–5, 197 commodity prices: decoupling 88; financial crisis 26; fluctuation/volatility 14, 21; resource constraints 13–14 common good: future visions 218, 219; vs. freedom and autonomy 193–4; vs. private interests 208; role of the state 209 common pool resources 190–2, 198, 199 see also public services/amenities communism 187, 191 community: future visions of 219–20; geographical 122–3; investment 155–6, 204 see also alienation; intrinsic values comparison, social 115, 116, 117 see also relative income effect competition 27, 112; positional 55–61, 58, 71, 72 see also struggle for existence complexity, economic systems 14, 32, 108, 153, 203 compulsive shopping 116 see also consumerism Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (CoP21) 19 conflicted state 197, 201, 209 connectedness, global 91, 227 conspicuous consumption 115 see also language of goods consumer goods see language of goods; material goods consumer sovereignty 196, 198 consumerism 4, 21, 22, 103–4, 113–16; capitalism 105–13, 196; choice 196; engine of growth 104, 108, 120, 161; existential fear of death 69, 212–15; financial crisis 24, 28, 39, 103; moving beyond 216–18; novelty and anxiety 116–17; post-growth economy 166–7; role of the state 192–3, 196, 199, 202–5; status 211; tragedy of 140 see also demand; materialism contemplative dimensions, simplicity 127 contraction and convergence model 206–7 coordinated market economies 27, 106 Copenhagen Accord (2009) 19 copper, commodity prices 13 corporations/big business 106–7 corruption 9, 131, 186, 187, 189 The Cost Disease: Why Computers get Cheaper and Health Care Doesn’t (Baumol) 171, 172 Costa Rica 74, 74, 76 countercyclical spending 181–2, 182, 188 crafts/craft economies 147, 149, 170, 171 creative destruction 104, 112, 113, 116–17 creativity 8, 79; and consumerism 113, 116; future visions 142, 144, 147, 158, 171, 200, 220 see also novelty/innovation credit, private: deflationary forces 44; deregulation 36; financial crisis 26, 27, 27–31, 34, 36, 41; financial system weaknesses 32–3, 37; growth imperative hypothesis 178–80; mortgage loans 28–9; reforms in financial system 157; spending vs. saving behaviour of ordinary people 118–19; and stimulation of growth 36 see also debt (public) credit unions 155–6 crises: of commitment 192–5; financial see financial crisis critical boundaries, biophysical see limits (ecological) Csikszentmihalyi, Mihalyi 127 Cuba: child mortality 75; life expectancy 74, 77, 78, 78; response to economic hardship 79–80; revolution 56; schooling 76 Cushman, Philip 116 Dalai Lama 49, 52 Daly, Herman xxxii, 54, 55, 160, 163, 165 Darwin, Charles 132–3 Das Kapital (Marx) 225 Davidson, Richard 49 Davos World Economic Forum 46 Dawkins, Richard 134–5 de Mandeville, Bernard 131–2, 157 death, denial of 69, 104, 115, 212–15 debt, public-sector 81; deflationary forces 44; economic stability 81; financial crisis 24, 26–32, 27, 37, 41, 42, 81; financial systems 28–32, 153–7; money creation 178–9; post-growth economy 178–9, 223 Debt: The First Five Thousand Years (Graeber) 28 decoupling xix, xx, xxxvii, 21, 84–7; dilemma of growth 211; efficiency measures 84, 86, 87, 88, 95, 104; green growth 163, 163–5; historical perspectives 87–96, 89, 90, 92, 94, 95; need for new economic model 101–2; relationship between relative and absolute 96–101 deep emission and resource cuts 99, 102 deficit spending 41, 43 deflationary forces, post-financial crisis 43–7, 45 degrowth movement 161–3, 177 demand 104, 113–16, 166–7; post-financial crisis 44–5; post-growth economy 162, 164, 166–9, 171–2, 174–5 dematerialisation 102, 143 democratisation, and wellbeing 59 deposit guarantees 35 deregulation 27, 34, 36, 196 desire, role in consumer behaviour 68, 69, 70, 114 destructive materialism 104, 112, 113, 116–17 Deutsche Bank 41 devaluation of currency 30, 45 Dichter, Ernest 114 digital economy 44, 219–20 dilemma of growth xxxi, 66–7, 104, 210; basic entitlements 72–9, 74, 75, 76, 78; decoupling 85, 87, 164; degrowth movement 160–3; economic stability 79–83, 174–6; material abundance 67–72; moving beyond 165, 166, 183–4; role of the state 198 diminishing marginal utility: alternative hedonism 125, 126; wellbeing 51–2, 57, 60, 73, 75–6, 79 disposable incomes 27, 67, 118 distributed ownership 223 Dittmar, Helga 126 domestic debt see credit dopamine 68 Dordogne, mindfulness community 128 double movement of society 198 Douglas, Mary 70 Douthwaite, Richard 178 downshifting 128 driving analogy, managing change 16–17 durability, consumer goods 113, 204, 220 dynamic systems, managing change 16–17 Eastern Europe 76, 122 Easterlin, Richard 56, 57, 59; paradox 56, 58 eco-villages, Findhorn community 128 ecological investment 101, 166–70, 220 see also investment ecological limits see limits (ecological) ecological (ecosystem) services 152, 169, 223 The Ecology of Money (Douthwaite) 178 economic growth see growth economic models see alternatives; business-as-usual model; financial systems; future visions; mathematical models; post-growth macroeconomics economic output see efficiency; productivity ‘Economic possibilities for our grandchildren’ (Keynes) 145 economic stability 22, 154, 157, 161; financial system weaknesses 34, 35, 36, 180; growth 21, 24, 67, 79–83, 174–6, 210; post-growth economy 161–3, 165, 174–6, 208, 219; role of the state 181–3, 195, 198, 199 economic structures: post-growth economy 227; financial system reforms 224; role of the state 205; selfishness 137 see also business-as-usual model; financial systems ecosystem functioning 62–3 see also limits (ecological) ecosystem services 152, 169, 223 Ecuador xxxi, 6 education: Baumol’s cost disease 171, 172; and income 67, 76, 76; investment in 150–1; role of the state 193 see also basic entitlements efficiency measures 84, 86–8, 95, 104, 109–11, 142–3; energy 41, 109–11; growth 111, 211; investment 109, 151; of scale 104 see also labour productivity; relative decoupling Ehrlich, Paul 13, 96 elasticity of substitution, labour and capital 177–8 electricity grid 41, 151, 156 see also energy Elgin, Duane 127 Ellen MacArthur Foundation 144 emissions see greenhouse gas emissions employee ownership 223 employment intensity vs. carbon dioxide emissions 148 see also labour productivity empty self 116, 117 see also consumerism ends above means 159 energy return on investment (EROI) 12, 169 energy services/systems 142: efficiency 41, 109–11; inputs/intensity 87–8, 151; investment 41, 109–10, 151–2; renewable xxxv, 41, 168–9 engine of growth 145; consumerism 104, 108, 161; services 143, 170–4 see also circular flow of the economy enough is enough see limits enterprise as service 140, 141–4, 158 see also novelty/innovation entitlements see basic entitlements entrepreneur as visionary 112 entrepreneurial state 220 Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands 62 environmental quality 12 see also pollution environmentalism 9 EROI (energy return on investment) 12, 169 Essay on the Principle of Population (Malthus) 9–11, 132–3 evolutionary map, human heart 136, 136 evolutionary theory 132–3; common good 193; post-growth economy 226; psychology 133–5; selfishness and altruism 196 exchange values 55, 61 see also gross domestic product existential fear of death 69, 104, 115, 212–15 exponential expansion 1, 11, 20–1, 210 see also growth external debt 32, 42 extinctions/biodiversity loss 17, 47, 62, 101 Eyres, Harry 215 Fable of the Bees (de Mandeville) 131–2 factor inputs 109–10 see also capital; labour; resource use fast food 128 fatalism 186 FCCC (Framework Convention on Climate Change) 92 fear of death, existential 69, 104, 115, 212–15 feedback loops 16–17 financial crisis (2008) 6, 23–5, 32, 77, 103; causes and culpability 25–8; financial system weaknesses 32–7, 108; Keynesianism 37–43, 188; nationalisation of financial sector 188; need for financial reforms 175; role of debt 24, 26–32, 27, 81, 179; role of state 191; slowing of growth 43–7, 45; spending vs. saving behaviour of ordinary people 118–21, 119; types/definitions of capitalism 106; youth unemployment 144–5 financial systems: common pool resources 192; debt-based/role of debt 28–32, 153–7; post-growth economy 179, 208; systemic weaknesses 32–7; and wellbeing 47 see also banking system; business-as-usual model; financial crisis; reform Findhorn community 128 finite limits of planet see limits (ecological) Fisher, Irving 156, 157 fishing rights 22 flourishing see capabilities for flourishing; limits; wellbeing flow states 127 Flynt, Larry 40 food 67 see also basic entitlements Ford, Henry 154 forestry/forests 22, 192 Forrester, Jay 11 fossil fuels 11, 20 see also oil Foucault, Michel 197 fracking 14, 15 Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) 92 France: GDP per capita 58, 75, 76; inequality 206; life-expectancy 74; mindfulness community 128; working hours 145 free market 106: financial crisis 35, 36, 37, 38, 39; ideological controversy/conflict 186–7, 188 freedom/autonomy: vs. common good 193–4; consumer 22, 68–9; language of goods 212; personal choices for improvement 216–18; wellbeing 49, 59, 62 see also individualism Friedman, Benjamin 176 Friedman, Milton 36, 156, 157 frugality 118–20, 127–9, 215–16 fun (more fun with less stuff) 129, 217 future visions 2, 158, 217–21; community banking 155–6; dilemma of growth 211; enterprise as service 140, 141–4, 147–8, 158; entrepreneur as visionary 112; financial crisis as opportunity 25; and growth 165–6; investment 22, 101–2, 140, 149–53, 158, 169, 208; money as social good 140, 153–7, 158; processes of change 185; role of the state 198, 199, 203; timescales for change 16–17; work as participation 140, 144–9, 148, 158 see also alternatives; post-growth macroeconomics; reform Gandhi, Mahatma 127 GDP see gross domestic product gene, selfish 134–5 Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) 54, 54 geographical community 122–3 Germany xxxi; Federal Ministry of Finance 224–5; inequality 206; relative income effect 58; trade balance 31; work as participation 146 Glass Steagal Act 35 Global Commodity Price Index (1992–2015) 13 global corporations 106–7 global economy 98: culture 70; decoupling 86–8, 91, 93–5, 95, 97, 98, 100; exponential expansion 20–1; inequality 4, 5–6; interconnectedness 91, 227; post-financial crisis slowing of growth 45 Global Research report (HSBC) 41 global warming see climate change Godley, Wynne 179 Goldman Sachs 37 good life 3, 6; moral dimension 63, 104; wellbeing 48, 50 goods see language of goods; material goods; symbolic role of goods Gordon, Robert 44 governance 22, 185–6; commons 190–2; crisis of commitment 192–5, 197; economic stability 34, 35; establishing limits 200–8, 206; growth 195–9; ideological controversy/conflict 186–9; moving towards change 197–200, 220–1; post-growth economy 181–3, 182; power of corporations 106; for prosperity 209; signals 130 government as household metaphor 30, 42 governmentality 197, 198 GPI (Genuine Progress Indicator) 54, 54 Graeber, David 28 Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 35 Great Depression 39–40 Greece: austerity xxxiii–xxxiv, xxxvii, 43; energy inputs 88; financial crisis 28, 30, 31, 77; life expectancy 74; schooling 76; relative income effect 58; youth unemployment 144 Green Economy initiative 41 green: growth xxxvii, 18, 85, 153, 166, 170; investment 41 Green New Deal, UNEP 40–1, 152, 188 greenhouse gas emissions 18, 85, 86, 91, 92; absolute decoupling 89–92, 90, 92, 98–101, 100; dilemma of growth 210–11; vs. employment intensity 148; future visions 142, 151, 201–2, 220; Kyoto Protocol 18, 90; reduction targets 19–20; relative decoupling 87, 88, 89, 93, 98–101, 100 see also climate change Greenspan, Alan 35 gross domestic product (GDP) per capita 3–5, 15, 54; climate change 18; decoupling 85, 93, 94; financial crisis 27, 28, 32; green growth 163–5; life expectancy 74, 75, 78; as measure of prosperity 3–4, 5, 53–5, 54, 60–1; post-financial crisis 43, 44; post-growth economy 207; schooling 76; wellbeing 55–61, 58 see also income growth xxxvii; capitalism 105; credit 36, 178–80; decoupling 85, 96–101; economic stability 21, 24, 67, 80, 210; financial crisis 37, 38; future visions 209, 223, 224; inequality 177; labour productivity 111; moving beyond 165, 166; novelty 112; ownership 105; post-financial crisis slowing 43–7, 45; prosperity as 3–7, 23, 66; role of the state 195–9; sustainable investment 166–70; wellbeing 59–60; as zero sum game 57 see also dilemma of growth; engine of growth; green growth; limits to growth; post-growth macroeconomy growth imperative hypothesis 37, 174, 175, 177–80, 183 habit formation, acquisition as 68 Hall, Peter 106, 188 Hamilton, William 134 Hansen, James 17 happiness see wellbeing/happiness Happiness (Layard) 55 Hardin, Garrett 190–1 Harvey, David 189, 192 Hayek, Friedrich 187, 189, 191 health: Baumol’s cost disease 171, 172; inequality 72–3, 205–6, 206; investment 150–1; and material abundance 67, 68; personal choices for improvement 217; response to economic hardship 80; role of the state 193 see also basic entitlements Heath, Edward 66, 82 hedonism 120, 137, 196; alternatives 125–6 Hirsch, Fred xxxii–xxxiii historical perspectives: absolute decoupling 86, 89–96, 90, 92, 94, 95; relative decoupling 86, 87–9, 89 Holdren, John 96 holistic solutions, post-growth economy 175 household finances: house purchases 28–9; spending vs. saving behaviour 118–20, 119 see also credit household metaphor, government as 30, 42 HSBC Global Research report 41 human capabilities see capabilities for flourishing human happiness see wellbeing/happiness human nature/psyche 3, 132–5, 138; acquisition 68; alternative hedonism 125; evolutionary map of human heart 136, 136; intrinsic values 131; meaning/purpose 49–50; novelty/innovation 116; selfishness vs. altruism 133–8; short-termism/living for today 194; spending vs. saving behaviour 34, 118–21, 119; symbolic role of goods 69 see also intrinsic values human rights see basic entitlements humanitarian perspectives: financial crisis 24; growth 79; inequality 5, 52, 53 see also intrinsic values hyperbolic discounting 194 hyperindividualism 226 see also individualism hyper-materialisation 140, 157 I Ching (Chinese Book of Changes) 7 Iceland: financial crisis 28; life expectancy 74, 75; relative income effect 56; response to economic hardship 79–80; schooling 76; sovereign money system 157 identity construction 52, 69, 115, 116, 212, 219 IEA (International Energy Agency) 14, 152 IMF (International Monetary Fund) 45, 156–7 immaterial goods 139–40 see also intrinsic values; meaning/purpose immortality, symbolic role of goods 69, 104, 115, 212–14 inclusive growth see inequality; smart growth income 3, 4, 5, 66, 124; basic entitlements 72–9, 74, 75, 76, 78; child mortality 74–5, 75; decoupling 96; economic stability 82; education 76; life expectancy 72, 73, 74, 77–9, 78; poor nations 67; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; tax revenues 81 see also gross domestic product INDCs (intended nationally determined commitments) 19 India: decoupling 99; growth 99; life expectancy 74, 75; philosophy 127; pursuit of western lifestyles 70; savings 27; schooling 76 indicators of environmental quality 96 see also biodiversity; greenhouse gas emissions; pollution; resource use individualism 136, 226; progressive state 194–7, 199, 200, 203, 207 see also freedom/autonomy industrial development 12 see also technological advances inequality 22, 67; basic entitlements 72; child mortality 75, 75; credible alternatives 219, 224; deflationary forces 44; fatalism 186; financial crisis 24; global 4, 5–6, 99, 100; financial system weaknesses 32–3; post-growth economy 174, 176–8; role of the state 198, 205–7, 206; selfishness vs. altruism 137; symbolic role of goods 71; wellbeing 47, 104 see also poverty infant mortality rates 72, 75 inflation 26, 30, 110, 157, 167 infrastructure, civic 150–1 Inglehart, Ronald 58, 59 innovation see novelty/innovation; technological advances inputs 80–1 see also capital; labour productivity; resource use Inside Job documentary film 26 instant gratification 50, 61 instinctive acquisition 68 Institute for Fiscal Studies 81 Institute for Local Self-Reliance 204 institutional structures 130 see also economic structures; governance intended nationally determined commitments (INDCs) 19 intensity factor, technological 96, 97 see also technological advances intentional communities 127–9 interconnectedness, global 91, 227 interest payments/rates 39, 43, 110; financial crisis 29, 30, 33, 39; post-growth economy 178–80 see also credit; debt Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 18, 19, 201–2 International Energy Agency (IEA) 14, 152 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 45, 156–7 intrinsic values 126–31, 135–6, 212; role of the state 199, 200 see also belonging; community; meaning/purpose; simplicity/frugality investment 107–10, 108; ecological/sustainable 101, 152, 153, 166–70, 220; and innovation 112; loans 29; future visions 22, 101–2, 140, 149–53, 158, 169, 208, 220; and savings 108; social 155, 156, 189, 193, 208, 220–3 invisible hand metaphor 132, 133, 187 IPAT equation, relative and absolute decoupling 96 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 18, 19, 201–2 Ireland 28; inequality 206; life expectancy 74, 75; schooling 76; wellbeing 58 iron cage of consumerism see consumerism iron ore 94 James, Oliver 205 James, William 68 Japan: equality 206; financial crisis 27, 45; life expectancy 74, 76, 79; relative income effect 56, 58; resource use 93; response to economic hardship 79–80 Jefferson, Thomas 185 Jobs, Steve 210 Johnson, Boris 120–1 Kahneman, Daniel 60 Kasser, Tim 126 keeping up with the Joneses 115, 116, 117 see also relative income effect Kennedy, Robert 48, 53 Keynes, John Maynard/Keynesianism 23, 34, 120, 174, 181–3, 187–8; financial crisis 37–43; financial system reforms 157; part-time working 145; steady state economy 159, 162 King, Alexander 11 Krugman, Paul 39, 85, 86, 102 Kyoto Protocol (1992) 18, 90 labour: child 62, 154; costs 110; division of 158; elasticity of substitution 177, 178; intensity 109, 148, 208; mobility 123; production inputs 80, 109; structures of capitalism 107 labour productivity 80–1, 109–11; Baumol’s cost disease 170–2; and economic growth 111; future visions 220, 224; investment as commitment 150; need for investment 109; post-growth economy 175, 208; services as engine of growth 170; sustainable investment 166, 170; trade off with resource use 110; work-sharing 145, 146, 147, 148, 148, 149 Lahr, Christin 224–5 laissez-faire capitalism 187, 195, 196 see also free market Lakoff, George 30 language of goods 212; material footprint of 139–40; signalling of social status 71; and wellbeing 124 see also consumerism; material goods; symbolic role of goods Layard, Richard 55 leadership, political 199 see also governance Lebow, Victor 120 Lehman Brothers, bankruptcy 23, 25, 26, 118 leisure economy 204 liberal market economies 106, 107; financial crisis 27, 35–6 life expectancy: and income 72, 73, 74, 77–9, 78; inequality 206; response to economic hardship 80 see also basic entitlements life-satisfaction 73; inequality 205; relative income effect 55–61, 58 see also wellbeing/happiness limits, ecological 3, 4, 7, 11, 12, 20–2; climate change 17–20; decoupling 86; financial crisis 23–4; growth 21, 165, 210; post-growth economy 201–2, 226–7; role of the state 198, 200–2, 206–7; and social boundaries 141; wellbeing 62–63, 185 limits, flourishing within 61–5, 185; alternative hedonism 125–6; intrinsic values 127–31; moving towards 215, 218, 219, 221; paradox of materialism 121–23; prosperity 67–72, 113, 212; role of the state 201–2, 205; selfishness 131–8; shame 123–4; spending vs. saving behaviour 118–21, 119 see also sustainable prosperity limits to growth: confronting 7–8; exceeding 20–2; wellbeing 62–3 Limits to Growth report (Club of Rome) xxxii, xxxiii, 8, 11–16 ‘The Living Standard’ essay (Sen) 50, 123–4 living standards 82 see also prosperity Lloyd, William Forster 190 loans 154; community investment 155–6; financial system weaknesses 34 see also credit; debt London School of Economics 25 loneliness 123, 137 see also alienation long-term: investments 222; social good 219 long-term wellbeing vs. short-term pleasures 194, 197 longevity see life expectancy love 212 see also intrinsic values low-carbon transition 19, 220 LowGrow model for the Canadian economy 175 MacArthur Foundation 144 McCracken, Grant 115 Malthus, Thomas Robert 9–11, 132–3, 190 market economies: coordinated 27, 106; liberal 27, 35–6, 106, 107 market liberalism 106, 107; financial crisis 27, 35–6; wellbeing 47 marketing 140, 203–4 Marmot review, health inequality in the UK 72 Marx, Karl/Marxism 9, 189, 192, 225 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 11, 12, 15 material abundance see opulence material goods 68–9; identity 52; language of 139–40; and wellbeing 47, 48, 49, 51, 65, 126 see also symbolic role of goods material inputs see resource use materialism: and fear of death 69, 104, 115, 212–15; and intrinsic values 127–31; paradox of 121–3; price of 126; and religion 115; values 126, 135–6 see also consumerism mathematical models/simulations 132; austerity policies 181; countercyclical spending 181–2, 182; decoupling 84, 91, 96–101; inequality 176–8; post-growth economy 164; stock-flow consistent 179–80 Mawdsley, Emma 70 Mazzucato, Mariana 193, 220 MDG (Millennium Development Goals) 74–5 Meadows, Dennis and Donella 11, 12, 15, 16 meaning/purpose 2, 8, 22; beyond material goods 212–16; consumerism 69, 203, 215; intrinsic values 127–31; moving towards 218–20; wellbeing 49, 52, 60, 121–2; work 144, 146 see also intrinsic values means and ends 159 mental health: inequality 206; meaning/purpose 213 metaphors: government as household 30, 42; invisible hand 132, 133, 187 Middle East, energy inputs 88 Miliband, Ed 199 Mill, John Stuart 125, 159, 160, 174 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 74–5 mindfulness 128 Minsky, Hyman 34, 35, 40, 182, 208 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 11, 12, 15 mixed economies 106 mobility of labour, loneliness index 123 Monbiot, George 84, 85, 86, 91 money: creation 154, 157, 178–9; and prosperity 5; as social good 140, 153–7, 158 see also financial systems monopoly power, corporations 106–7 The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth (Friedman) 82, 176 moral dimensions, good life 63 see also intrinsic values moral hazards, separation of risk from reward 35 ‘more fun with less stuff’ 129, 217 mortality fears 69, 104, 115, 212–15 mortality rates, and income 74, 74–6, 75 mortgage loans 28–9, 35 multinational corporations 106–7 national debt see debt, public-sector nationalisation 191; financial crisis 38, 188 natural selection 132–3 see also struggle for existence nature, rights of 6–7 negative emissions 98–9 negative feedback loops 16–17 Netherlands 58, 62, 206, 207 neuroscientific perspectives: flourishing 68, 69; human behaviour 134 New Climate Economy report Better Growth, Better Climate 18 New Deal, USA 39 New Economics Foundation 175 nickel, commodity prices 13 9/11 terrorist attacks (2001) 121 Nordhaus, William 171, 172–3 North America 128, 155 see also Canada; United States Norway: advertising 204; inequality 206; investment as commitment 151–2; life expectancy 74; relative income effect 58; schooling 76 novelty/innovation 104, 108, 113; and anxiety 116–17, 124, 211; crisis of commitment 195; dilemma of growth 211; human psyche 135–6, 136, 137; investment 150, 166, 168; post-growth economy 226; role of the state 196, 197, 199; as service 140, 141–4, 158; symbolic role of goods 114–16, 213 see also technological advances Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Thaler and Sunstein) 194–5 Nussbaum, Martha 64 nutrient loading, critical boundaries 17 nutrition 67 see also basic entitlements obesity 72, 78, 206 obsolescence, built in 113, 204, 220 oceans: acidification 17; common pool resources 192 Offer, Avner 57, 61, 71, 194, 195 oil prices 14, 21; decoupling 88; financial crisis 26; resource constraints 15 oligarchic capitalism 106, 107 opulence 50–1, 52, 67–72 original sin 9, 131 Ostrom, Elinor and Vincent 190, 191 output see efficiency; gross domestic product; productivity ownership: and expansion 105; private vs. public 9, 105, 191, 219, 223; new models 223–4; types/definitions of capitalism 105–7 Oxfam 141 paradoxes: materialism 121–3; thrift 120 Paris Agreement 19, 101, 201 participation in society 61, 114, 122, 129, 137; future visions 200, 205, 218, 219, 225; work as 140–9, 148, 157, 158 see also social inclusion part-time working 145, 146, 149, 175 Peccei, Aurelio 11 Perez, Carlota 112 performing arts, Baumol’s cost disease 171–2 personal choice 216–18 see also freedom/autonomy personal property 189, 191 Pickett, Kate 71, 205–6 Piketty, Thomas 33, 176, 177 planetary boundaries see limits (ecological) planning for change 17 pleasure 60–1 see also wellbeing/happiness Plum Village mindfulness community 128 Polanyi, Karl 198 policy see governance political leadership 199 see also governance Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts 41 pollution 12, 21, 53, 95–6, 143 polycentric governance 191, 192 Poor Laws 10 poor nations see poverty population increase 3, 12, 63, 96, 97, 190; Malthus on 9–11, 132–3 porn industry 40 Portugal 28, 58, 88, 206 positional competition 55–61, 58, 71, 72 see also social comparison positive feedback loops 16–17 post-growth capitalism 224 post-growth macroeconomics 159–60, 183–4, 221; credit 178–80; degrowth movement 161–3; economic stability 174–6; green growth 163–5; inequality 176–8; role of state 181–3, 182, 200–8, 206; services 170–4; sustainable investment 166–70 see also alternatives; future visions; reform poverty 4, 5–6, 216; basic entitlements 72; flourishing within limits 212; life expectancy 74, 74; need for new economic model 101; symbolic role of goods 70; wellbeing 48, 59–60, 61, 67 see also inequality; relative income effect power politics 200 predator–prey analogy 103–4, 117 private credit see credit private vs. public: common good 208; ownership 9, 105, 191, 219, 223; salaries 130 privatisation 191, 219 product lifetimes, obsolescence 113, 204, 220 production: inputs 80–1; ownership 191, 219, 223 productivity: investment 109, 167, 168, 169; post-growth economy 224; services as engine of growth 171, 172, 173; targets 147; trap 175 see also efficiency measures; labour productivity; resource productivity profits: definitions of capitalism 105; dilemma of growth 211; efficiency measures 87; investment 109; motive 104; post-growth economy 224; and wages 175–8 progress 2, 50–5, 54 see also novelty/innovation; technological advances progressive sector, Baumol’s cost disease 171 progressive state 185, 220–2; contested 186–9; countering consumerism 202–5; equality measures 205–7, 206; governance of the commons 190–2; governance as commitment device 192–5; governmentality of growth 195–7; limit-setting 201–2; moving towards 197–200; post-growth macroeconomics 207–8, 224; prosperity 209 prosocial behaviour 198 see also social contract prosperity 1–3, 22, 121; capabilities for flourishing 61–5; and growth 3–7, 23, 66, 80, 160; and income 3–4, 5, 66–7; limits of 67–72, 113, 212; materialistic vision 137; progress measures 50–5, 54; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; social perspectives 2, 22, 48–9; state roles 209 see also capabilities for flourishing; post-growth macroeconomics; sustainable prosperity; wellbeing prudence, financial 120, 195, 221; financial crisis 33, 34, 35 public sector spending: austerity policies 189; countercyclical spending strategy 181–2, 182; welfare economy 169 public services/amenities: common pool resources 190–2, 198, 199; future visions 204, 218–20; investment 155–6, 204; ownership 223 see also private vs. public; service-based economies public transport 41, 129, 193, 217 purpose see meaning/purpose Putnam, Robert 122 psyche, human see human nature/psyche quality, environmental 12 see also pollution quality of life: enterprise as service 142; inequality 206; sustainable 128 quality to throughput ratios 113 quantitative easing 43 Queen Elizabeth II 25, 32, 34, 37 quiet revolution 127–31 Raworth, Kate 141 Reagan, Ronald 8 rebound phenomenon 111 recession 23–4, 28, 81, 161–3 see also financial crisis recreation/leisure industries 143 recycling 129 redistribution of wealth 52 see also inequality reforms 182–3, 222; economic structures 224; and financial crisis 103; financial systems 156–8, 180 see also alternatives; future visions; post-growth economy relative decoupling 84–5, 86; historical perspectives 87–9, 89; relationship with absolute decoupling 96–101, 111 relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72 see also social comparison religious perspectives 9–10, 214–15; materialism as alternative to religion 115; original sin 9, 131; wellbeing 48, 49 see also existential fear of death renewable energy xxxv, 41, 168–169 repair/renovation 172, 220 resource constraints 3, 7, 8, 11–15, 47 resource productivity 110, 151, 168, 169, 220 resource use: conflicts 22; credible alternatives 101, 220; decoupling 84–9, 92–5, 94, 95; and economic output 142–4; investment 151, 153, 168, 169; trade off with labour costs 110 retail therapy 115 see also consumerism; shopping revenues, state 222–3 see also taxation revolution 186 see also social stability rights: environment/nature 6–7; human see basic entitlements risk, financial 24, 25, 33, 35 The Road to Serfdom (Hayek) 187 Robinson, Edward 132 Robinson, Joan 159 Rockström, Johan 17, 165 romantic movement 9–10 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 35, 39 Rousseau, Jean Jacques 9, 131 Russia 74, 76, 77–80, 78, 122 sacred canopy 214, 215 salaries: private vs. public sector 130, 171; and profits 175–8 Sandel, Michael 150, 164, 218 São Paulo, Clean City Law 204 Sardar, Zia 49, 50 Sarkozy, Nicolas xxxi, 53 savage state, romantic movement 9–10 savings 26–7, 28, 107–9, 108; investment 149; ratios 34, 118–20, 119 scale, efficiencies of 104 Scandinavia 27, 122, 204 scarcity, managing change 16–17 Schumpeter, Joseph 112 Schwartz, Shalom 135–6, 136 schooling see education The Science of Desire (Dichter) 114 secular stagnation 43–7, 45, 173 securitisation, mortgage loans 35 security: moving towards 219; and wellbeing 48, 61 self-development 204 self-expression see identity construction self-transcending behaviours see transcendence The Selfish Gene (Dawkins) 134–5 selfishness 133–8, 196 Sen, Amartya 50, 52, 61–2, 123–4 service concept/servicization 140–4, 147–8, 148, 158 service-based economies 219; engine of growth 170–4; substitution between labour and capital 178; sustainable investment 169–70 see also public services SFC (stock-flow consistent) economic models 179–80 shame 123–4 shared endeavours, post-growth economy 227 Sheldon, Solomon 214 shelter see basic entitlements shopping 115, 116, 130 see also consumerism short-termism/living for today 194, 197, 200 signals: sent out by society 130, 193, 198, 203, 207; social status 71 see also language of goods Simon, Julian 13 simplicity/simple life 118–20, 127–9, 215–16 simulations see mathematical models/simulations slow: capital 170; movement 128 smart growth 85, 163–5 see also green growth Smith, Adam 51, 106–7, 123, 132, 187 social assets 220 social boundaries (minimum standards) 141 see also basic entitlements social care 150–1 see also caring professions social comparison 115, 116, 117 see also relative income effect social contract 194, 198, 199, 200 social inclusion 48, 69–71, 114, 212 see also participation in society social investment 155, 156, 189, 193, 208, 220–3 social justice 198 see also inequality social logic of consumerism 114–16, 204 social stability 24, 26, 80, 145, 186, 196, 205 see also alienation social status see status social structures 80, 129, 130, 137, 196, 200, 203 social tolerance, and wellbeing 59, 60 social unrest see social stability social wage 40 social welfare: financial reforms 182–3; public sector spending 169 socialism 223 Sociobiology (Wilson) 134 soil integrity 220 Solon, quotation 47, 49, 71 Soper, Kate 125–6 Soros, George 36 Soskice, David 106 Soviet Union, former 74, 76, 77–80, 78, 122 Spain 28, 58, 144, 206 SPEAR organization, responsible investment 155 species loss/extinctions 17, 47, 62, 101 speculation 93, 99, 149, 150, 154, 158, 170; economic stability 180; financial crisis 26, 33, 35; short-term profiteering 150; spending: behaviour of ordinary people 34, 119, 120–1; countercyclical 181–2, 182, 188; economic stability 81; as way out of recession 41, 44, 119, 120–1; and work cycle 125 The Spirit Level (Wilkinson and Pickett) 71, 205–6 spiritual perspectives 117, 127, 128, 214 stability see economic stability; social stability stagflation 26 stagnant sector, Baumol’s cost disease 171 stagnation: economic stability 81–2; labour productivity 145; post-financial crisis 43–7, 45 see also recession state capitalism, types/definitions of capitalism 106 state revenues, from social investment 222–3 see also taxation state roles see governance status 207, 209, 211; and possessions 69, 71, 114, 115, 117 see also language of goods; symbolic role of goods Steady State Economics (Daly) xxxii steady state economies 82, 159, 160, 174, 180 see also post-growth macroeconomics Stern, Nicholas 17–18 stewardship: role of the state 200; sustainable investment 168 Stiglitz, Joseph 53 stock-flow consistent (SFC) economic models 179–80 Stockholm Resilience Centre 17, 201 stranded assets 167–8 see also ownership structures of capitalism see economic structures struggle for existence 8–11, 125, 132–3 Stuckler, David 43 stuff see language of goods; material goods; symbolic role of goods subjective wellbeing (SWB) 49, 58, 58–9, 71, 122, 129 see also wellbeing/happiness subprime lending 26 substitution, between labour and capital 177–178 suffering, struggle for existence 10 suicide 43, 52, 77 Sukdhev, Pavan 41 sulphur dioxide pollution 95–6 Summers, Larry 36 Sunstein, Cass 194 sustainability xxv–xxvi, 102, 104, 126; financial systems 154–5; innovation 226; investment 101, 152, 153, 166–70, 220; resource constraints 12; role of the state 198, 203, 207 see also sustainable prosperity Sustainable Development Strategy, UK 198 sustainable growth see green growth sustainable prosperity 210–12; creating credible alternatives 219–21; finding meaning beyond material commodities 212–16; implications for capitalism 222–5; personal choices for improvement 216–18; and utopianism 225–7 see also limits (flourishing within) SWB see subjective wellbeing; wellbeing/happiness Switzerland 11, 46, 157; citizen’s income 207; income relative to wellbeing 58; inequality 206; life expectancy 74, 75 symbolic role of goods 69, 70–1; existential fear of death 212–16; governance 203; innovation/novelty 114–16; material footprints 139–40; paradox of materialism 121–2 see also language of goods; material goods system dynamics model 11–12, 15 tar sands/oil shales 15 taxation: capital 177; income 81; inequality 206; post-growth economy 222 technological advances 12–13, 15; decoupling 85, 86, 87, 96–8, 100–3, 164–5; dilemma of growth 211; economic stability 80; population increase 10–11; role of state 193, 220 see also novelty/innovation Teilhard de Chardin, Pierre 8 terror management, and consumption 69, 104, 115, 212–15 terrorist attacks (9/11) 121 Thailand, Buddhist monasteries 128 Thaler, Richard 194 theatre, Baumol’s cost disease 171–2 theology see religious perspectives theory of evolution 132–3 thermodynamics, laws of 112, 164 Thich Nhat Hanh 128 thrift 118–20, 127–9, 215–16 throwaway society 113, 172, 204 timescales for change 16–17 tin, commodity prices 13 Today programme interview xxix, xxviii Totnes, transition movement 128–9 Towards a Green Economy report (UNEP) 152–3 Townsend, Peter 48, 61 trade balance 31 trading standards 204 tradition 135–6, 136, 226 ‘Tragedy of the commons’ (Hardin) 190–1 transcendence 214 see also altruism; meaning/purpose; spiritual perspectives transition movement, Totnes 128–9 Triodos Bank 156, 165 Trumpf (machine-tool makers) Germany 146 trust, loss of see alienation tungsten, commodity prices 13 Turkey 58, 88 Turner, Adair 157 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (2015) 19 UBS (Swiss bank) 46 Ubuntu, African philosophy 227 unemployment 77; consumer goods 215; degrowth movement 162; financial crisis 24, 40, 41, 43; Great Depression 39–40; and growth 38; labour productivity 80–1; post-growth economy 174, 175, 183, 208, 219; work as participation 144–6 United Kingdom: Green New Deal group 152; greenhouse gas emissions 92; labour productivity 173; resource inputs 93; Sustainable Development Strategy 198 United Nations: Development Programme 6; Environment Programme 18, 152–3; Green Economy initiative 41 United States: credit unions 155–6; debt 27, 31–32; decoupling 88; greenhouse gas emissions 90–1; subprime lending 26; Works Progress Administration 39 universal basic income 221 see also citizen’s income University of Massachusetts, Political Economy Research Institute 41 utilitarianism/utility, wellbeing 50, 52–3, 55, 60 utopianism 8, 38, 125, 179; post-growth economy 225–7 values, materialistic 126, 135–6 see also intrinsic values Veblen, Thorstein 115 Victor, Peter xxxviii, 146, 175, 177, 180 vision of progress see future visions; post-growth economy volatility, commodity prices 14, 21 wages: and profits 175–8; private vs. public sector 130, 171 walking, personal choices for improvement 217 water use 22 Wealth of Nations, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes (Smith) 123, 132 wealth redistribution 52 see also inequality Weber, Axel 46 welfare policies: financial reforms 182–3; public sector spending 169 welfare of livestock 220 wellbeing/happiness 47–50, 53, 121–2, 124; collective 209; consumer goods 4, 21, 22, 126; growth 6, 165, 211; intrinsic values 126, 129; investment 150; novelty/innovation 117; opulence 50–2, 67–72; personal choices for improvement 217; planetary boundaries 141; relative income effect 55–61, 58, 71, 72; simplicity 129; utilitarianism 50, 52–3, 55, 60 see also capabilities for flourishing western lifestyles 70, 210 White, William 46 Whybrow, Peter 68 Wilhelm, Richard 7 Wilkinson, Richard 71, 205–6 Williams, Tennessee 213 Wilson, Edward 134 wisdom traditions 48, 49, 63, 128, 213–14 work: as participation 140–9, 148, 157, 158; and spend cycle 125; sharing 145, 146, 149, 175 Works Progress Administration, USA 39 World Bank 160 World Values Survey 58 youth unemployment, financial crisis 144–5 zero sum game, growth as 57, 71


pages: 267 words: 71,123

End This Depression Now! by Paul Krugman

airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gordon Gekko, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Of the rest, a large chunk consisted of funds to extend unemployment benefits, another chunk consisted of aid to help sustain Medicaid, and a further chunk was aid to state and local governments to help them avoid spending cuts as their revenues fell. Only a fairly small piece was for the kind of spending—building and fixing roads, and so on—that we normally think of when we talk of stimulus. There was nothing resembling an FDR-style Works Progress Administration. (At its peak, the WPA employed three million Americans, or about 10 percent of the workforce. An equivalent-sized program today would employ thirteen million workers.) Still, almost $800 billion sounds to most people like a lot of money. How did those of us who took the numbers seriously know that it was grossly inadequate? The answer is twofold: history plus an appreciation of just how big the U.S. economy is.

., 153 Treasury bills, 153 Trichet, Jean-Claude, 186, 188, 195, 196 Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), 116 trucking industry, deregulation of, 61 Two-Income Trap, The (Warren and Tyagi), 84 Tyagi, Amelia, 84 UBS, 86 unemployment, 114, 198, 208 austerity policies and, xi, 189, 203–4, 207, 237–38 churning and, 9 college graduates and, 11–12, 16, 37, 144–45 confidence and, 94–96 definitions of, 7–8 demand and, 33, 47 in depression of 2008–, x, 5–12, 24, 110, 117, 119, 210, 212 in Europe, 4, 17, 18, 172, 176, 229, 236 government spending and, 209, 212 in Great Depression, 38 historical patterns of, 128–29 as involuntary, 6 lack of skills and, 35, 36–38 liquidity traps and, 33, 51, 152 Obama administration and, 110, 117 post-2009 decreases in, 4, 210, 211, 211, 229 prosperity and, 9 sense of well-being and, 6 stagflation and, 154 wages and, 52–53, 164–65 among youth, 11, 18, 229 see also job-creation policies unemployment, long-term, 9–10 in Great Depression, 38 health insurance and, 10 loss of skills in, 144 self-esteem and, 10–11 stigma of, 10, 15–16, 144 unemployment insurance, 10, 120, 121, 144, 216, 229 in Europe, 176 unionization, decline in, 82 United Kingdom, 59, 183 austerity programs in, 190, 199–202 depression of 2008– in, 199–202 EEC joined by, 167 government debt as percentage of GDP in, 139, 140, 140, 192 interest rates in, 182–83, 201 lend-lease program and, 39 turn to right in, 83 United States: as “center-right” country, 224 China’s trade with, 221 government debt as percentage of GDP in, 139, 140, 192 net international investment position of, 44 post-2009 recovery in, 4 pre-World War II military buildup in, 35, 38–39 risk of default by, 139 S&P downgrade of, 140 social safety net in, 10, 216 turn to right in, 83 universal health care, 18 Vanity Fair, 71 Very Serious People, xi, 190, 205 wages: devaluation and, 169–70, 180–81 downward nominal rigidity of, 164–65, 181 unemployment and, 52–53, 164–65 Wall Street (film), 80 Wall Street Journal, 134, 138 Warren, Elizabeth, 84 wars, economies and, 233–37 Weill, Sandy, 85 well-being, sense of, 5–6 unemployment and, 6 workers: as lacking skills, 35, 36–38 layoffs of, 41 technology as creating redundancies of, 36 see also unemployment Works Progress Administration, 121 World War II, 50, 107 government spending in, 148, 234–35, 235 lend-lease program in, 39 military buildup prior to U.S. entry into, 35, 38–39 U.S. debt after, 141 Yale University, 93 Yardeni, Ed, 132 Yglesias, Matthew, 87–88, 225 youth, unemployment among, 11, 18, 229 zero lower bound, of interest rates, 33–34, 51, 117, 135–36, 147, 151, 152, 163, 231, 236 Zimbabwe, 150 Zuckerberg, Mark, 78 Zuckerman, Mort, 95 Copyright © 2012 by Melrose Road Partners All rights reserved First Edition For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to Permissions, W.


pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

In the words of Bob Noyce, “The money doesn’t seem real. It’s just a way of keeping score” (http://www.stanford.edu/class/e140/e140a/content/noyce.html, originally published by Tom Wolfe in Esquire, December 1983). 16. Matt Taibbi, “The Great American Bubble Machine,” Rolling Stone, April 5, 2010, http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-great-american-bubble-machine-20100405. 17. Works Progress Administration, in 1939 renamed the Work Projects Administration. 18. John M. Broder, “The West: California Ups and Downs Ripple in the West,” Economic Pulse, New York Times, January 6, 2003, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/06/us/economic-pulse-the-west-california-ups-and-downs-ripple-in-the-west.html. 19. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/53/U3HH.html, accessed December 31, 2014. 20. For an example, see Heidi Shierholz and Lawrence Mishel, “A Decade of Flat Wages,” Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper #365, August 21, 2013, http://www.epi.org/publication/a-decade-of-flat-wages-the-key-barrier-to-shared-prosperity-and-a-rising-middle-class/. 21.

See income; salaries Wall Street, 51–53, 57–58, 95 Walmart, 139–40, 142–43 average revenue per employee, 139, 177 employee numbers, 116 warehouses, 101–2, 134–35 box unloading, 39 chaotic storage tracking, 135, 144 Waterloo, battle of (1815), 58 water quality, 168 Watson (IBM AI computer program), 26, 31, 36, 39, 150, 198 Watson Research Lab (IBM), 19 wealth, 3, 12, 109–19, 127, 132 from assets ownership, 14–15, 174–76 benefits of, 165–66 civic responsibility and, 58 disparities in, 164–65, 169–70, 176, 180–87 distribution of, 186 factors in creating, 12 fairer distribution of, 86–87 Forbes ranking of, 109, 113 HFT program transfer of, 57, 91 lifestyle embodiments of, 57, 109, 110–11, 112, 114 luxury item sales and, 117–18, 165–66 philanthropy and, 58, 113, 118–19 power from, 114–15 reinvestment vs. spending of, 117 super-wealthy and, 11, 111–13, 116–19, 118–19, 164–65 synthetic intellects’ accumulation of, 91–92 top 1 percent holders of, 11, 111–13 worker median salary and, 116 websites: advertising sale of space on, 64–72 electronic surveillance of visits to, 9, 64–75 individually targeted ads, 64–75 user identifier, 65, 66 WebTV, 127 weeding, 144 Weisel, Thom, 115 welfare recipients, 170 Wellington, Duke of, 58 Wellpoint, 150 wide-area high-bandwidth wireless communication, 126–27 wildfire extinguishers, 44 Winster.com, 119, 122–23, 124 wireless communications, 45 words, shifted meanings of, 191–92, 198, 203 workforce. See labor market working poor, 119–21 working women, 172 work-life balance, 171 workplace, 48 robot danger potential, 37–38 WPA (Works Progress Administration), 170 Yahoo, 67 Yeats, William Butler, 48 Zandi, Mark, 117 Zuckerberg, Mark, 223n15


pages: 740 words: 227,963

The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration by Isabel Wilkerson

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, California gold rush, card file, desegregation, Gunnar Myrdal, index card, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, labor-force participation, Mason jar, mass immigration, medical residency, Rosa Parks, strikebreaker, trade route, traveling salesman, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration

But even in the low-status laborer and domestic positions that were the caste-ordered preserve of colored people in the South, colored migrants to California faced stiff competition from the many immigrants already there, the Mexicans and Filipinos working the loading docks, the Europeans in personal service to the glamorous and the wealthy. “Even the seeming inapproachable shoe-shining field was competed for by the Greeks,” observed a report by the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s on the challenges facing black workers in Los Angeles.9 “Trained English servants succeeded them as valets and butlers.” The polyglot nature of Los Angeles made it harder for colored migrants to figure out this new terrain, where competition was coming from every direction and each minority was pitted against the others. “In certain plants, Mexicans and whites worked together,” the Works Progress Administration reported.10 “In some others, white workers accepted Negroes and objected to Mexicans. In others, white workers accepted Mexicans and objected to Japanese. White women worked with Mexican and Italian women, but refused to work with Negroes.… In the General Hospital, Negro nurses attended white patients, but were segregated from white nurses in dining halls: in a manufacturing plant white workers refused to work with Negroes, but worked under a Negro foreman.”

Anything with the least amount of status or job security seemed reserved for people who did not look like them and often spoke with an accent from a small eastern European country they had never heard of. They were running into the same sentiment, albeit on a humbler level, that a colored man in Philadelphia faced when he answered an ad for a position as a store clerk. “What do you suppose we’d want of a Negro?” the storekeeper asked the applicant.113 George had been struggling since he arrived. He had worked on a coal truck, dug ditches for the Works Progress Administration, delivered ice to the tenements on the South Side, and been turned away from places that said they weren’t hiring or just had nothing for him. He would just keep looking until he found something. Finally, he landed a job that suited his temperament on the soup-making line at the Campbell Soup plant, a place so big there was bound to be some work for him if the people were open to hiring him, which, fortunately for him, they were.114 The plant was on twenty-two acres at Thirty-fifth and Western by the panhandle tracks, where they mixed several thousand tomatoes and oxtails at a time to make soup for customers west of the Mississippi.

Webster from “Slaves of Cotton,” American Magazine, July 1906, p. 19. 82 “The first horn”: Ulrich B. Phillips, in Vance, Human Factors in Cotton Culture, p. 47. 83 Sometime in the 1930s: Interviews with Lasalle Frelix, a migrant from Brookhaven, Mississippi, in Chicago, 1996. 84 A bale of cotton: William C. Holley and Lloyd E. Arnold, Changes in Technology and Labor Requirements in Crop Production: Cotton, National Research Project Report no. A-7 (Philadelphia: Works Progress Administration, September 1937), pp. 19–54. Also Ronald E. Seavoy, The American Peasantry: Southern Agricultural Labor and Its Legacy: A Study in Political Economy, 1850–1995 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1998), pp. 37–47, cited in Holley, The Second Great Emancipation, p. 56. 85 The other brother: Interviews with Reuben Blye in Eustis, Florida, July 1997 and July 1998. 86 In North Carolina: Gilbert Thomas Stephenson, “The Separation of the Races in Public Conveyances,” The American Political Science Review 3, no. 2 (May 1909): 200–201. 87 standing in the way: David Levering Lewis, W.


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Some parts of the stimulus package seem to be more of the same—trying to prop up the old, failed economy. That strategy simply won’t work—but we could waste a lot of money and time trying. Instead, we need a new direction for our economy.” Faced with an even more devastating economic crisis, FDR responded with a large-scale public works program, including the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Works Progress Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps—programs that gave us much of the infrastructure that needs to be updated today.27 But instead of doing something similar—and instead of constructing a new economic vessel capable of navigating the stormy seas of the twenty-first century—we chose to grab a bucket and try to bail out the old sinking ship. Moving forward, the price we’ll pay for getting it wrong is extremely high.

Since August 2008, more than 150,000 state and local jobs have been eliminated, and the states’ combined budget gap for fiscal 2010 and 2011 is $380 billion.20, 21 The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities estimates that state and local deficits could cost the country an entire point off the GDP, which would, in turn, lead to the loss of another 900,000 jobs next year.22 This is why the Economic Policy Institute (EPI) recommends the federal government spend $150 billion on aid to state and local governments over the next year and a half, an investment that would save up to 1.4 million jobs.23 Congress and the president should also push through a muscular plan to create public-service jobs. “The federal government could provide jobs by … providing jobs,” writes Paul Krugman.24 “It’s time for at least a small-scale version of the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration.… There would be accusations that the government was creating make-work jobs, but the W.P.A. left many solid achievements in its wake. And the key point is that direct public employment can create a lot of jobs at relatively low cost.” In fact, the EPI estimates that one million jobs designed to “put unemployed Americans back to work serving their communities” could be created with an investment of $40 billion a year for three years.25 This approach is also favored by Princeton’s Alan Blinder.26 “Direct public-service employment is straightforward,” he says.


pages: 294 words: 77,356

Automating Inequality by Virginia Eubanks

autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, experimental subject, housing crisis, IBM and the Holocaust, income inequality, job automation, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, payday loans, performance metric, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, statistical model, strikebreaker, underbanked, universal basic income, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, zero-sum game

The programs were able to do so much for so many so quickly because of sufficient public funding—FERA alone eventually expended four billion dollars—and because they abandoned the in-depth investigations pioneered by scientific charity caseworkers. As during the depressions of 1819 and 1873, critics blamed relief programs for creating dependence on public assistance. Roosevelt himself had serious misgivings about putting the federal government in the business of providing direct relief. He quickly capitulated to middle-class backlash, shuttering FERA, the program that provided cash and commodities, and replacing it with the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Against the protests of some in the Roosevelt camp who called for the creation of a federal department of welfare, the administration shifted its focus from distributing resources to encouraging work. New Deal legislation undoubtedly saved thousands of lives and prevented destitution for millions. New labor laws led to a flourishing of unions and built a strong white middle class.

Ware, Nathanial Welch, Peggy welfare and public assistance benefits as personal property and due process eligibility modernization eligibility rules for and “mop-up” programs and privatization racial discrimination in sanctions social insurance as distinct from public assistance and voluntary resettlement plan “welfare queen” stereotype See also individual programs welfare diversion welfare rights movement and Adequate Income Act backlash against Mothers for Adequate Welfare National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO) success of West, Terry White, Magner white supremacy Wilde, Dylan Willis, Tom Wilmot, William Wong, Julia Carrie Workflow Management System (WFMS) Works Progress Administration (WPA) World Courts of Women World War II Xerox Yates, John Van Ness Yellow Pages test Young, Omega Zimmerman, Roger Zuckerberg, Mark MORE PRAISE FOR AUTOMATING INEQUALITY “In this remarkable chronicle of ‘how the other half lives’ in the age of automation, Eubanks uncovers a new digital divide—a totalizing web of surveillance ensnaring our most marginalized communities.


pages: 261 words: 78,884

$2.00 A Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America by Kathryn Edin, H. Luke Shaefer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, business cycle, clean water, ending welfare as we know it, future of work, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, impulse control, indoor plumbing, informal economy, low-wage service sector, mass incarceration, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, The Future of Employment, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

If these predictions are correct, the seemingly endless hunt for work won’t just be the lot of the $2-a-day poor; many in America will be joining them. If that is the case, we need to think bigger. Much bigger. If the private sector isn’t up to the task of producing enough jobs, one could make a strong argument that government itself ought to create a substantially larger share of the jobs than it does now—jobs like those provided by the Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression. Certainly, there is ample work to be done in our communities. The nation’s infrastructure is badly out-of-date in many places—often crumbling, sometimes downright dangerous. The National Park Service and state and local park districts are underfunded; this limits hours and upkeep. Safe, stimulating day care centers—the kind of environments our toddlers and preschoolers require to thrive—are too few.

See also Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP); Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) American attitudes about, 14–15, 17, 19 awareness of, 32–33, 170–71 benefit reductions with income, 97–98 block grant funding of, 24–28 demise of, 8–33 dependency created by, 14–17 duration of use of, 18 eligibility requirements for, 170–71 housing costs and, 4–5 impact of on poverty levels, 7–8 inadequacy of for survival, xiv–xv isolation created by, xx, 127, 158, 171–73 other aid programs and, 8–9 poor people isolated from, xx reasons for failure to apply for, 2, 8, 31–33, 47–48, 170–71 safety net provided by, 7–8, 10 time cost of, 2–3, 6–7 time limits on, xv, 7, 19–21, 25, 27–28, 41, 42 utilization rates of, 7–8, 17 values alignment with, 157–58, 171 welfare queens, 15–16 welfare reform, 10–11 aftermath of, 29–32 aid spending since, 9 based on employment stability, xxiii–xxiv caseloads after, 28–29 cash removed from, 25–28 Clinton in, 17, 20–29 Ellwood on, 18–20 future of, 157–74 low-wage job conditions and, 61–62 poverty increased by, 26–28, 132 Reagan on, 10–11, 15–17 Republican plan for, 24–29 rise of $2-a-day poverty since, xiv–xviii utilization rates since, 7–8 working conditions affected by, 61–62 work opportunity and, 158–72 work requirements in, 7, 17, 19–20, 24–25, 30–31 “white glove tests,” 14 WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children), xii Williams, Lynetta, 131–32 Wilson, William Julius, xx work ethic, 44–47, 57–59, 80, 89, 125, 157–58 workforce statistics, 124–27 work loading, 46, 61–62 work scheduling instability. See also just-in-time scheduling Works Progress Administration, 161 World Bank, xvi YouthBuild, 94 Zedlewski, Sheila, 26–27 zoning laws, 166 About the Authors KATHRYN J. EDIN, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Public Health at Johns Hopkins University, is the coauthor of Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage and Making Ends Meet: How Single Mothers Survive Welfare and Low-Wage Work.


pages: 538 words: 145,243

Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman

anti-communist, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate raider, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, mass immigration, means of production, mittelstand, Naomi Klein, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

(New York: Architectural Book Publishing Company, 1939), 19–23; Smith, Making the Modern, 76–78, 85–87; and Hildebrand, Designing for Industry, 60, 124. 37.Olsen and Cabadas, The American Auto Factory, 39; Biggs, The Rational Factory, 138–40, 151. For Ford tractors, see Reynold Wik, Henry Ford and Grassroots America (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1972), 82–97. 38.Biggs, The Rational Factory, 146, 151; Writers’ Program of the Works Progress Administration, Michigan: A Guide to the Wolverine State (New York: Oxford University Press, 1941), 221–24; Greg Grandin, Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford’s Forgotten Jungle City (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2009). Kingsford is now owned by The Clorox Company. The Clorox Company, “A Global Portfolio of Diverse Brands” (accessed Sept., 13, 2015), https://www.thecloroxcompany.com/products/our-brands/. 39.The Rouge foundry also made parts for Fordson tractors.

Biggs, The Rational Factory, 148–49, 152; Hounshell, From the American System to Mass Production, 268, 289. 40.Nelson, Industrial Architecture of Albert Kahn, Inc., 132; Biggs, The Rational Factory, 129, 141–57; Kahn, “Industrial Architecture”; Ferry, The Legacy of Albert Kahn, 113–16, 120–22, 129–301; The Reminiscences of Mr. B. R. Brown Jr., Benson Ford Research Center, Dearborn, Michigan; Works Progress Administration, Michigan, 220–21; Hildebrand, Designing for Industry, 91–92, 99, 102–08, 172–82. On Kahn’s and Ford’s antimodernism, see Albert Kahn, “Architectural Trend” (speech), April 15, 1931, Box 1, Albert Kahn Papers; Sward, Legend of Henry Ford, 259–75; and Smith, Making the Modern, 144–55 (though Smith’s interpretation is very different than mine). 41.In addition to Highland Park and River Rouge, Ford built major manufacturing plants in Canada and England that built finished cars and trucks and supplied parts to foreign branch plants.

., Historical Dictionary of World’s Fairs and Expositions, 1851–1988 (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990), 22; Nevins and Hill, Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1–2; Grandin, Fordlandia, 2; Richard Guy Wilson, Dianne H. Pilgrim, and Dickran Tashjian, The Machine Age in America 1918–1941 (New York: The Brooklyn Museum and Harry N. Abrams, 1986), 27; Nelson, Industrial Architecture of Albert Kahn, Inc., 97; Hildebrand, Designing for Industry, 206, 213; Works Progress Administration, Michigan, 286, 292–93; New York Times, Apr. 9, 1972; U.S. Travel Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, USA Plant Visits 1977–1978 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, n.d.). 44.David Roediger, “Americanism and Fordism—American Style: Kate Richards O’Hare’s ‘Has Henry Ford Made Good?’,” Labor History 29 (2) (Spring 1988), 241–52. 45.John Reed, “Why They Hate Ford,” 11–12; Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill, Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 88. 46.Edmund Wilson, “The Despot of Dearborn,” Scribner’s Magazine, July 1931, 24–36; Roediger, “Americanism and Fordism—American Style,” 243; Steven Fraser, Labor Will Rule: Sidney Hillman and the Rise of American Labor (New York: Free Press, 1991), 259–70; Filene, The Way Out, 199, 201, 215–17, 221.


pages: 514 words: 153,092

The Forgotten Man by Amity Shlaes

anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Frederick Winslow Taylor, invisible hand, jobless men, Mahatma Gandhi, plutocrats, Plutocrats, short selling, Upton Sinclair, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

The usual rebuttal to this from the right is that Hoover was a good man, albeit misunderstood, and Roosevelt a dangerous, even an evil one. The stock market of the 1920s was indeed immoral, too high, inflationary—and deserved to crash. Many critics on the right focus on monetary policy. Another set of critics focuses on Roosevelt’s early social programs. They argue that New Deal programs such as the Works Progress Administration of the Civilian Conservation Corps spoiled the United States and accustomed Americans to the pernicious dole. Yet a third set of critics, an angry fringe, has argued that Roosevelt’s brain trusters reported to Moscow. Stalin steered the New Deal and also pulled us into World War II, in their argument. For many years, now, these have been the parameters of the debate. It is time to revisit the late 1920s and the 1930s.

Congress in any case would do his work for him, restoring programs that had been in place before he cut them back in 1933. He also created new constituent groups. Roosevelt disliked handing out money to the poor. He wanted, as he said, to “quit this business of relief.” Instead he would create work now in other ways. That summer—the summer of 1935—Hopkins was spending the first dollars in the Works Progress Administration, a program that would, the papers said, start 100,000 projects and hire by the millions over the coming months. General Johnson would be the administrator, a job to replace his old post at the NRA. Here, Hopkins and Ickes, always competitive, were going head-to-head in an alphabet competition: Ickes had his PWA, and now Hopkins had the WPA. The WPA work was project-oriented: WPA staffers ran hospitals and dug ditches, opened libraries and served a million school lunches a day.

Speaking at a meeting of advertisers, he talked about the lexicon of the New Deal. He praised the New Deal—up to 1935. Since then, however, there had arisen “new and fantastic counterparts” to the early New Deal. These later counterparts were too intrusive, and Moley could not approve of them. In May the city itself provided reminders of the conflicts inherent in the New Deal. Roosevelt had created the Works Progress Administration to help labor; the same thought was behind his signature of the NIRA and the Wagner Act. But he had warned that the government would not always be able to afford to pay for the jobs. Now Roosevelt wanted to balance the budget, and some WPA jobs had to go. Instead of accepting the change, as perhaps Roosevelt expected them to do, the WPA workers were mimicking their private-sector brothers and striking.


Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government by Robert Higgs, Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr.

Alistair Cooke, American ideology, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, declining real wages, endowment effect, fiat currency, fixed income, full employment, hiring and firing, income per capita, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Tracing governmental employment during the 1930s, one encounters unusual complications. To tell this tale one must decide what to do about the "emergency workers." These people worked on programs administered by such emergency work-relief agencies as the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Youth Administration, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (under which a state relief agency operated in each of the states), the Civil Works Administration, and the Works Progress Administration. At the time they were not considered ordinary governmental employees. Subsequently economic statisticians counted them as unemployed members of the labor force, creating confusion and controversy among economists who study how the labor market operated during the Great Depression. 4 If one follows the conventional practice, counting the emergency workers Framework 26 20 18 Q) 16 () .E 14 0 .0 ~ 12 c: .~ .; ·0 10 '0 C Q) 8 () 6 Q; a. 4 2 o 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 64 71 78 Years Figure 2.3 All Government Civilian Employees as Percentage of Civilian Labor Force, 1900-1984 as unemployed, then the government's share of the civilian labor force appears to have remained almost constant during the 1930s, falling slightly between 1931 and 1933 before rising slowly to 7.2 percent in 1939.

The Tennessee Valley Authority, created during the legislative rush of the Hundred Days, joined with the massive hydroelectric projects in the West to make the federal government a major producer and seller of electricity-positions it has never relinquished. Federally sponsored workrelief programs-starting with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, the Civil Works Administration, and others in 1933 and blending into the Works Progress Administration in 1935-established a precedent for making the federal government the "employer of last resort." The commitment was reaffirmed by the Employment Act of 1946 and most recently by the Humphrey-Hawkins Act of 1978. A variety of make-work "training" schemes in the 1960s and the diverse jobs supported under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act in the 1970s testify to the enduring importance of the welfare-employment first provided by the federal government in 1933.7 7 The agricultural relief program struck down by the Butler decision came back to life, without the constitutionally offensive tax on processors, as the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936 and the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938.

., 102-103, 118, 148- 149, 158 White, William Allen, 78 Whitney, Eli, 71 Wiebe, Robert, 84, 90, 114 Wilson, William B., 143 Wilson, William L., 97 Wilson, Woodrow, 106, 110, 113, 117-118, 127-129, 132-133, 135, 139-140, 154,157-158,196-198,205,246. See also Progressive Era; World War I Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, 97 Wilson v. New, 118-121, 182 350 Witte, John F., 150 . Wood, Leonard, 127-128 Work-or-fight order, 218 Work relief, proposals in 1890s, 85-86 Works Progress Administration, 25, 190 World Bank, 260 World War I, 123-158, 196-198 World War II, 196-236, 245, 259 Index Yakus v. United States, 221-222 Yeager, Leland, 9, 243 Youngstown case, 246 Zaller, John, 15 Zeigler, Harman, 46, 69 PRAISE FOR Crisis and Leviathan "Insightful, compelling, and clear. Higgs breaks new ground in explicating the most important socio-political trend of our time-the growth of American government."


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

By the 1930s, with a subway line running under the boulevard, the three-hundred-plus neo-Tudor, Art Deco, and Art Moderne apartment buildings that lined it had become an extremely attractive place for immigrant families that had graduated from entry-level neighborhoods like the Lower East Side or Bensonhurst. Half my father’s family that emigrated from Poland between world wars ended up in the area. Even the Great Depression couldn’t destroy the Grand Concourse. The authors of the 1939 WPA Guide to New York commissioned by the New Deal’s Works Progress Administration wrote, “The Grand Concourse is the Park Avenue of middle-class Bronx residents, and a lease to an apartment in one of its many large buildings is considered evidence of at least moderate business success. The thoroughfare . . . is the principal parade-street of the borough, as well as a through motor route” (emphasis added). The “through motor route” description, and the date it was made, are both significant.

., 115 Walk scores, 115–118, 124–125 Walkability, 241–242 in Barcelona, 120–122 in Batesville, Arkansas, 120 in Chicago, 148–151 in Columbus, Ohio, 131–134 and Complete Streets, 151–152 and connectivity, 160 and innovative signals and beacons, 149 and leading pedestrian intervals, 149, 149n in Los Angeles, 117, 125–131 in New York City, 117, 134–139 in Oklahoma City, 139–141 in Pasadena, California, 125 in Portland, Oregon, 118–119, 120 and safety, 122–124 in San Francisco, 117, 119 in San Jose, 119–120 and shopping, 117 and sidewalks, 124 in Tampa, 141–142 and traffic, 123–125 and walk scores, 115–118, 124–125 in Washington, DC, 117 See also Walking Walkable and Living Communities Institute, 120 Walker, Jarrett, 69, 86, 160–161 Walking, 89–93, 156, 177 versus commuting by car or public transit, 93–97 versus driving, and positive contacts, 98–101 versus driving, and unfamiliar streets, perspectives on, 97–98 and the false goodbye, 143 health (physical and mental) benefits of, 93–97, 134 insights about, 142–152 and intelligence, 96–97 and memory and cognition, 96–97 and platooning, 145–146 and self-organizing system, 146 and shy distance, 147 and sidewalks, 147 and speed-density relationships, 146 and traffic flow, 144–146, 145n See also Cycling; Exercise; Health; Walkability Walking (Trevelyan), 94–95 Walkonomics, 116 Walkshops, 148 Wardrop Equilibrium, 106 Wardrop John Glen, 106 Washington, DC, walkability in, 117 West Side Highway, 45–46, 48, 57, 59, 230 Whitcomb, Morgan, 76–77 Who Framed Roger Rabbit? (film), 8, 9 Whyte, William “Holly,” 143–144 Wider versus narrower lanes, safety of, 58, 59–60, 60n Wiggins, Cynthia, 217–218 Williamsburg Bridge, and repair or rebuild debate, 56–60, 229 Woodbridge, Virginia, 76 Works Progress Administration, 29 World Trade Center, terror attack against, 92 World War I, 66 World War II, 15–16, 66 World’s Columbian expositions, 28 WPA Guide to New York City, 28, 30 Wright, Henry, 158 Wyoming, 190 Zak, Paul, 98–99 Zero-car family, 83 Zillow, 115–116 Zimride, 199 Zipcar, 75, 83 Zupan, Jeff, 146–147 Zurich aversion to cars in, 176, 177, 180 cycling and walking in, 177 as global city, 173–174 in-pavement sensors in, 179, 179n parking in, 177–180 streetcars and trolleybuses vs. cars, motorcycles/motorbikes in, 176 transportation network in, 174–180, 208–209 Zurich Public Transport, 208–209 Marquee Photography SAMUEL I.


pages: 408 words: 94,311

The Great Depression: A Diary by Benjamin Roth, James Ledbetter, Daniel B. Roth

bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, financial independence, Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, short selling, statistical model, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration

Whether the various programs of the New Deal constituted socialism or partial socialism depends on one’s definition of that elastic term, and many historians take the position that even if Roosevelt had to curtail aspects of the free market, it was in order to save capitalism. But certainly the National Industrial Recovery Act, Social Security, the Agricultural Administration Act, Securities and Exchange Act, and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation constituted government intervention into the minutiae of business activity that had no peacetime precedent in the United States. Furthermore, jobs programs in the Civil Works Administration, Works Progress Administration (WPA), and Civilian Conservation Corps resembled the types of government-sponsored employment that was often a feature of Socialist or Fascist governments. The fact that key parts of Roosevelt’s agenda were struck down as unconstitutional—which the legally trained Roth often pointed out—lends some credence to the idea that Roosevelt’s view of government and executive power tipped over into antidemocratic extremes.

In addition to this the government bought 2 1/2 million of preferred shares in the Dollar Bank and 1 1/4 million in the City Bank. In the last analysis therefore the government took over the bad mortgages and loans to keep open the banks. Who will pay for this remains to be seen. EDITOR’S NOTE Unfortunately, Volume IV of Roth’s diary was lost. It contained the entries for the second half of 1934 and all of 1935. The year 1935 saw the creation of new waves of New Deal legislation, including the Works Progress Administration—the largest of the New Deal agencies, which would employ 8.5 million Americans in a wide variety of jobs—and the National Labor Relations Act. The landmark Social Security Act was passed that year, providing federal assistance for the elderly for the first time in American history. At the same time, the Supreme Court that year declared the NRA to be an unconstitutional attempt to control commerce.


pages: 321 words: 92,258

Lift: Fitness Culture, From Naked Greeks and Acrobats to Jazzercise and Ninja Warriors by Daniel Kunitz

barriers to entry, creative destruction, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Islamic Golden Age, mental accounting, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Upton Sinclair, Works Progress Administration

Lore has it that the 1932 Olympics, held in Los Angeles, inspired locals to begin playing around with gymnastics in the sand south of Santa Monica Pier. But the formation of what came to be known as Muscle Beach is more firmly dated to 1934, when several gymnasts from Santa Monica High School began practicing at the playground on the beach. Two years later, one of them, Al Niederman, successfully petitioned the city to build a low platform on which to perform tricks, and two years after that, in 1938, the Works Progress Administration constructed a larger platform. There was already a rug on the sand for tumbling, and soon the city erected some parallel bars, horizontal bars, and rings. At the time, nightclubs featuring acrobatic acts were popular in the Los Angeles area, and it was around the gymnasts and those performers that the scene at the beach gelled. Beverly Jocher was part of a small troupe and recalls performing around the pools at beautiful hotels like the Beverly Hills Hotel.

., 140, 249 Wildman, Donahue “Don,” 221–22, 237 Williams, Serena, 272 Wilson, Billy, 277 Wimbledon, 119 Windship, George Barker, 120–22, 123, 124–28, 129, 130, 140, 142 wine, 110 wire-walking act, 111 Wisdom Foundation, 221 women, 161, 219–25, 231 aerobics and, 232–37, 239 and bodybuilding, 241, 243, 244–45, 260, 273–74, 276 in CrossFit, 271–72, 275 in Greece, 42–43 gymnastics for, 99, 102 in marathons, 231–32, 244 sweating by, 205 weightlifting by, 1–2, 17, 177, 178–79 see also feminism Working Girl (film), 245 Workout of the Day (WOD), 136 workout porn, 25–26 Workout video, 236–37 Works Progress Administration, 173 work-to-rest ratios, 259 World Calisthenics Organization, 88 World Cup, 261 World Jiu-Jitsu Championship, 261 World’s Columbian Exhibition, 156 World’s Strongest Man, 34–35, 133 World War I, 101 World War II, 209, 211 World Yoga Day, 84 Wounded Warriors, 104 wrestling, 33–34, 48, 70 in China, 60 in Egypt, 49 wukedao, 74 wu shu, 70 Xenophon, 43 Yasin-Bradley, Hassan, 89–92, 96, 103 Yeats, W.


pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Dos Passos wrote the manifesto for their second season: “Towards a Revolutionary Theatre,” in which he called for a theater that “draws its life and ideas from the conscious sections of the industrial and white collar working classes which are out to get control of the great flabby mass of capitalist society and mold it to their own purpose.” These radicals sought to change content and theatrical form. The new social theater would be “somewhere between a high mass . . . and a Barnum and Bailey’s circus.” During the New Deal, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) recruited Hallie Flanagan in 1935 to become the head of the Federal Theatre Project. This effort, which brought radicals and liberals together, became an effective tool for social change and perhaps was the last potent counterweight to the propaganda state. Production costs and scenic effects were limited. Money was used to pay salaries to the artists. Ticket prices were low. Theater suddenly became available to people across the country.

Conference of Catholic Bishops Van Agtmael, Peter Van Itallie, Jean-Claude Vietnam War and protest Violence Wall Street bailouts and Bell and communists manipulation and dishonesty on and Obama and World War I, Wallace, Graham Wallace, Henry Walling, William English Walzer, Michael War brutal and savage reality of and liberal class veterans See also Afghanistan war; Iraq war; Permanent war; World War I; World War II Warhol, Andy Warren, Earl Watergate Weather Underground Weavers Weber, Max Weisman, Fred Welfare Welles, Orson Wellstone, Paul West Bank White, Edward Douglas Whyte, William H. Wicker, Ireene Wieseltier, Leon WikiLeaks Wilson, Woodrow Winfrey, Oprah Wolin, Sheldon Women’s rights and equality Woods, Tiger Works Progress Administration (WPA) World War I, and conscription and crumbling of antiwar movement declaration of war end and aftermath of and end of liberal era and end of progressivism and industrial warfare and intellectuals and mass culture and mass propaganda and nationalism and repression of dissent World War II, Wright, Ann Wright, Ronald Yemen YouTube Yugoslavia Zuspann, Gary Zwally, Jay Nation Books New York www.nationbooks.org Copyright © 2010 by Chris Hedges Published by Nation Books, A Member of the Perseus Books Group 116 East 16th Street, 8th Floor New York, NY 10003 Nation Books is a co-publishing venture of the Nation Institute and the Perseus Books Group All rights reserved.


pages: 371 words: 93,570

Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans

"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K

The Computing Group at Langley ran all its analytical calculations by hand, using the material ephemera of the gig: slide rules, magnifying glasses, curves, and early calculating machines. Johnson is often quoted as saying that she was a computer back in the days “when the computer wore a skirt.” The last significant human computing project in the United States, a reference book of mathematical tables funded by the Works Progress Administration—and overseen by another female mathematician, Gertrude Blanch—was published just as computing machines made it effectively obsolete. Human computing thrived as a stopgap between the emergence of large-scale scientific research and the capacity of hardware to carry out its calculations; eventually, the tireless machines that emerged from the spike in computer science research during the Second World War wore down their competition.

., 60 Web: use of word, 153 see also World Wide Web Web sites and pages, 131, 135, 153, 154, 184, 186 life spans of, 170 for women, see women’s Web see also World Wide Web WELL, The, 132–35, 140, 149, 153, 179–80, 205–6, 209 Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 16 Wescoff, Marlyn, 39, 43, 48, 49 Westheimer, Ellen, 114 WHOIS, 119–20 Whole Earth Catalog, 100, 132 Whole Earth Review, 132, 183 Wilcox, Patricia (Pat Crowther), 84–94, 110 William the Conqueror, 155 Wired, 138, 194, 206 women, 4–5 computers as viewed by, 229 men posing as, 143–44, 179 and software vs. hardware, 51–52 women, working, 23–24 black, 24 wage discrimination and, 23, 77, 78 women.com, 205, 214–21 Women in Telecommunications (WIT), 141–42, 144, 205 Women’s Internet History Project, 143 Women’space, 239 women’s Web, 131, 216, 221, 223, 233 advertising and, 214–16, 218, 219, 221 iVillage, 214, 216–21 women.com, 205, 214–21 Women’s WIRE, 205–15 Women’s WIRE, 205–15 Woods, Don, 90 Word, 188–95, 201–3, 205, 214, 215 Works Progress Administration, 25 World War I, 24 World War II, 24, 25, 28–29, 31, 32, 34–37, 40, 45, 47, 50, 51, 53–55 atomic bomb in, 36 Pearl Harbor attack, 27–29, 32 World Wide Web, 102, 131, 152, 154, 159, 165, 168–72, 177, 203, 204, 222 browsers for, see browsers commercialization of, 204–5, 217, 241; see also advertising conferences on, 170, 173 early true believers and, 187–88, 196, 197, 202 hypertext and, 168–70, 201 links on, 168–70, 201 Microcosm viewer for, 172–73 number of women on, 214 search engines for, 115, 154 Semantic Web and, 174 see also Internet; Web sites and pages Xerox, 161 Xerox PARC, 162–66, 210 Y2K, 71, 194 Yankelovich, Nicole, 162 Zapata Corporation, 194, 201 Zeroes + Ones (Plant), 238 About the Author CLAIRE L.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, commoditize, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, fixed income, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, global pandemic, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, lifelogging, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

These have included reducing interest rates to make investment less risky; committing to purchases of goods and services by government agencies; funding infrastructural upgrades that require private sector labor; subsidizing the hiring of some workers; and providing federal credits for hiring. More directly, many governments have simply expanded their own payrolls to keep people gainfully employed. Most famously, in the United States, job creation in the time of the Great Depression took the form of the Works Progress Administration (WPA). Established by President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s executive order in 1933, it was a federal assistance program that put unemployed Americans to work directly on government-funded infrastructure projects and other community-improving efforts. Part of the WPA included a series of programs focused on arts and cultural programs, which nurtured the careers of artists and writers like painter Jackson Pollock and playwright Arthur Miller.

Department of Defense (DOD), 66 “Using the Head and Heart at Work” (Sadler-Smith), 117 Vanguard Group, 198–99, 223 augmentation approach, 88, 208, 210–11, 214, 217–20 Personal Advisor Services, 210–11, 213, 221 preparing employees, 219–20 technology vendors for, 213 Vardakostas, Alex, 205 Varshney, Lav, 122 Veale, Tony, 126 Warley, Richard, 183 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 18–19 Washington Mutual (WaMu), 89–91, 95 Wealthfront, 198, 213 Weaver, John Frank, 228, 229 Weikart, David, 118 Weinberg, Bruce, 7 Wells, H. G., 18 Wenger, Albert, 246–47 Wenger, Brittany, 46 Wiener, Norbert, 26–27, 64 Williams, Anson, 75 Wilson, Jim, 131 Wolfram, Stephen, 57 Wolfram Research, 57 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 238, 240, 243 World Economic Forum (WEF), survey, 7 World Poll, 7–8 “World Without Work, A” (Thompson), 242 Wozniak, Steve, 112 writing, 24, 126. See also journalism human-generated, 127 Scheherazade program, 126 What-If Machine (WHIM), 126 X.ai, 3 Xchanging, 49, 221, 222–23 XL Catlin, 131 Yale Center for Emotional Intelligence, 116, 117 Yeager, Chuck, 67 Zimmermann, Andy, 132, 139 Zinsser, William, 118 Zipcar, 100–102, 195 Zuin, Daniela, 183–85 ABOUT THE AUTHORS THOMAS H.


pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

I came to the job of commissioner twenty-six years after Robert Moses’s death in a city that Moses might still have recognized. Moses saw in New York a city struggling to modernize and weighed down by its past. And more than anyone before or since, Moses had the means, the power, and the motivation to do something about it. Enabled by successions of mayors and governors and fueled by billions of federal dollars in Works Progress Administration and Interstate Highway funds, Moses amassed as many as twelve directorships and leadership positions over vital public works agencies, from the New York City Parkway Authority to the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority to the state parks. The federal government created massive public works programs to build new urban roads and housing to replace the “slum” infrastructure of the nineteenth century.

See Traffic fatalities Walking lanes, 76, 77, 77 WalkNYC, 129, 130, 130, 131, 131–32, 133, 134 Wall Street, 73, 137 Wall Street Journal, 178, 201–2 Washington Post, 146 Washington Square Park, 12, 281 Wayfinding maps, in New York City, 129–32, 130, 131, 133, 134 Weekend Walks, 123 Weiner, Anthony, 174 Weinshall, Iris, 168, 171–72, 265 Wenceslas Square (Prague), 3 West Side Highway, 14–15 White, Paul Steely, 8, 177, 230 White flight, 10 Wickquasgeck Path, 73 Wider roads, 50–52, 54, 63–64 Wiley-Schwartz, Andy, 38, 89, 124 Williamsburg Bridge, 44 Willis Avenue Bridge, 144–45 Wolfson, Howard, 176, 181 Woloch, David, 163 Working Families Party, 238 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 15 World Health Organization (WHO), 228 World’s Fair (1939), 17 World’s Fair (1964), 233 Y Yanev, Bojidar, 271 Z Zipcar, 184, 284–85 “Zip” generation, 183–84, 284–85 Zip lines, during Summer Streets, 122 Looking for more? Visit Penguin.com for more about this author and a complete list of their books. Discover your next great read!


pages: 346 words: 97,330

Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

They made all the calculations at JPL behind the country’s earliest missile launches and bomber flights over the Pacific, as well as the United States’ first satellite and guided lunar missions. They even gave the Mars rover, the planetary exploration vehicle sent to Mars, its first launch plan.34 The majority of women at JPL had a similarly limited career path as the contract workers at Langley. Most started out as paid temps through the Works Progress Administration during World War II. JPL posted ads for part-time help in the mathematics and physics departments of surrounding colleges, calling out, in all caps, “COMPUTERS URGENTLY NEEDED.”35 Below the headline, the job description implied, clearly enough, that young women were its target audience: “Computers do not need advanced experience or degrees but should have an aptitude and interest in mathematics and computing machines.”36 In those days, if an office job didn’t require an advanced degree, that meant it was open to women.

See skilled work whiteness, 226 n3 Whitney, Eli, 43 Wilson, Holmes, 27, 30, 225 n29 women as computers, 39, 51–54 glass ceilings, 113–17 jobs open to, 53 piecework by, 42–43, 227 n8, 228 n9 schedule, 109 unions, 44–45 war time jobs, 229 n25 work-life balance, 105–10 workers advocacy of, 136–37 asset vs liability model, 54, 75–76 benefits for, 189–92 as customers, 144–47 Dashers, 157–58, 162 empathy for, 184–85 geographical location of, 223 n16 hope, xxvi–xxvii hypervigilance of, 76–80 inequality in treatment of, 91–93 isolation and lack of guidance, 80–84 learning from, 151–52, 172–77 men vs women, 109 motivations of, 100 needs of, 178–92 payment, lack of, 85–91 prioritization of, 147–55 ratings or reputation score, 70–71, 81–82, 89, 130, 179, 183–84 retention of, 149–50 as shareholders, 158–59 time use by, 79–80 types of, 171 value of, 140–43 views of, 39, 54 See also collaboration; employment, reasons for workflow, unevenness of, 67 work-life balance, 105–10, 155 workplace discrimination, 53–54, 113–17, 135–37, 172 workplace safety, xxiii–xxiv, 45–46, 60, 86, 97, 157, 190, 193–94 workplace wellness, 167 Works Progress Administration, 53 workspaces, 180–81 World War II, 47, 48, 53 Y Yelp, 3 YouTube, 183, 225 n29 Z Zaffar, 21–23, 25, 26, 130–31, 151, 161 About the Authors Mary L. Gray is a senior researcher at Microsoft Research New England and a fellow at Harvard University’s Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society. She is also on the faculty of the School of Informatics, Computing, and Engineering, with affiliations in the Media School, Anthropology, and Gender Studies, at Indiana University.


pages: 480 words: 112,463

The Golden Thread: How Fabric Changed History by Kassia St Clair

barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, butterfly effect, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Francisco Pizarro, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gravity well, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, out of africa, Rana Plaza, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Works Progress Administration

Women ran away far less frequently than men, likely because they were encouraged to become mothers at an early age and were unwilling either to leave without their children or to submit them to the hardships of living rough and on the run. Hunt-Hurst, p. 734. 11Terrell. 12White and White, p. 159; Prude, pp. 156, 146; Equiano, p. 138. 13Quoted in White and White, p. 181; Smith. 14Hope Franklin and Schweninger, p. 80; 15Jones. 16Quoted in White and White, p. 161. North Carolina Narratives, ed. by The Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of North Carolina, Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves (Washington: Library of Congress, 1941), xi, p. 286. 17White and White, pp. 164, 168; quoted in Prude, p. 143. 18Quoted in White and White, p. 176. 19Boopathi et al., p. 615. 20Moulherat et al. 21Beckert, Empire of Cotton, p. xiii; Romey; Yin. 22Handheld roller gins have been used in India since at least the fifth century. 23Beckert, Empire of Cotton, pp. 15–16. 24Quoted in Riello and Parthasaranthi, The Spinning World, p. 221. 25Quoted in Bailey, p. 38. 26Beckert, Empire of Cotton, p. 249. 27It is important to remember, however, that even during the height of the Industrial Revolution, Britain’s mechanised production of cloth was small fry on a global scale.

A19 E Eamer, Claire, ‘No Wool, No Vikings’, Hakai Magazine, 23 February 2016 <https://hakaimagazine.com/features/no-wool-no-vikings> ‘Earliest Silk, The’, New York Times, 15 March 1983, section Science <http://www.nytimes.com/1983/03/15/science/l-the-earliest-silk-032573.html> [accessed 21 August 2017] Eaton-Krauss, Marianne, ‘Embalming Caches’, The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 94 (2008), 288–93 Editorial Board, ‘One Year After Rana Plaza’, New York Times, 28 April 2014, section Opinion, p. 20 Equiano, Olaudah, The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings, 2nd edn (London: Penguin Classics, 2003) Espen, Hal, ‘Levi’s Blues’, New York Times, 21 March 1999, section Magazine <https://www.nytimes.com/1999/03/21/magazine/levi-s-blues.html> [accessed 29 March 2018] Estrin, James, ‘Rebuilding Lives After a Factory Collapse in Bangladesh’, Lens Blog, New York Times, 2015 <https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/04/23/rebuilding-lives-after-a-factory-collapse-in-bangladesh/> [accessed 22 September 2017] F Farchy, Jack, and Meyer, Gregory, ‘Cotton Prices Surge to Record High amid Global Shortages’, the Financial Times, 11 February 2011 <https://www.ft.com/content/3d876e64-35c9-11e0-b67c-00144feabdc0> [accessed 27 November 2017] Federal Trade Commission, Four National Retailers Agree to Pay Penalties Totaling $1.26 Million for Allegedly Falsely Labeling Textiles as Made of Bamboo, While They Actually Were Rayon, 3 January 2013 <https://www.ftc.gov/news-events/press-releases/2013/01/four-national-retailers-agree-pay-penalties-totaling-126-million> [accessed 19 September 2017] Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of North Carolina, ed., North Carolina Narratives, Slave Narratives: A Fold History of Slavery in the United States from Interview with Former Slaves (Washington: Library of Congress, 1941), XI Federation International de Natation, FINA Requirements for Swimwear Approval (FRSA) (Federation International de Natation, 5 August 2016), p. 26 Feinberg, David, ‘The Unlikely Pair of Brooklyn Designers Who Are Building a Better Space Suit – Motherboard’, Motherboard, 2013 <https://motherboard.vice.com/en_us/article/9aajyz/spaced-out-space-suit-makers-video> [accessed 7 December 2017] Feltwell, John, The Story of Silk (Stroud: Alan Sutton, 1990) ‘40 Years of Athletic Support: Happy Anniversary to the Sports Bra’, NPR (NPR, 2017) <https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2017/09/29/554476966/40-years-of-athletic-support-happy-anniversary-to-the-sports-bra> [accessed 8 January 2018] Fowler, Susanne, ‘Into the Stone Age With a Scalpel: A Dig With Clues on Early Urban Life’, New York Times, 8 September 2011, section Europe <https://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/08/world/europe/08iht-M08C-TURKEY-DIG.html> [accessed 16 March 2018] Franits, Wayne, Dutch Seventeenth-Century Genre Painting: Its Stylistic and Thematic Evolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004) Frankopan, Peter, The Silk Roads: A New History of the World (London: Bloomsbury, 2015) Freud, Sigmund, New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (New York: W.


pages: 338 words: 104,684

The Deficit Myth: Modern Monetary Theory and the Birth of the People's Economy by Stephanie Kelton

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, COVID-19, Covid-19, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discrete time, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, floating exchange rates, Food sovereignty, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, liquidity trap, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, urban planning, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, zero-sum game

No country has implemented a full-fledged job guarantee, but a number of countries have experimented with versions of the idea. In the 1930s, the US fought the Great Depression by directly creating millions of jobs under President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal. The Public Works Administration (PWA) put hundreds of thousands of men to work building schools, hospitals, libraries, post offices, bridges, and dams. In its first six years, the Works Progress Administration created about eight million construction and conservation jobs as well as thousands of jobs for writers, actors, and musicians. The National Youth Administration created 1.5 million part-time jobs for high school kids and 600,000 for college students. As MMT proposes, the jobs were federally funded, but the programs weren’t permanent, and they didn’t guarantee employment to all. Argentina’s Jefes de Hogar plan wasn’t a full-throated job guarantee either, but in 2001 it became “the only direct job creation program in the world specifically modelled after” the proposal developed by MMT economists.35 The program was launched as an emergency measure following a financial crisis that plunged the economy into recession and drove the official unemployment rate above 20 percent.

., and Darrick Hamilton, “The Federal Job Guarantee—A Policy to Achieve Permanent Full Employment,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, March 9, 2018, https://www.cbpp.org/research/full-employment/the-federal-job-guarantee-a-policy-to-achieve-permanent-full-employment. 25. It is not a make-work scheme. Many of the jobs could resemble those created under the New Deal programs of the 1930s. For example, many public works projects were undertaken through the Works Progress Administration, a lot of environmental work was performed under the Civilian Conservation Corps, and part-time jobs were created for 1.5 million high school students and 600,000 college students under the National Youth Administration. In contrast to many of the Roosevelt-era New Deal programs, which excluded blacks and other minority groups from participating, the job guarantee would ensure universal access to all. 26.


pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

But the experimental communities, nearly two-thirds of which were in the South, did not do at all well. Though not under the supervision of the Resettlement Administration, Arthurdale, in the abandoned coal-mining region of Reedsville, West Virginia, was one notable lightning rod. Constantly in the news because it was the pet project of Eleanor Roosevelt, this experimental community was accused of wasting money and Works Progress Administration man-hours. A reporter for the Saturday Evening Post argued that the community was not even functioning as an organ of relief because the screening process was geared toward accepting only those applicants whose success seemed assured, rather than bringing in the folks who most needed government assistance. In the end, Congress ensured the failure of Arthurdale by refusing to support a factory that would have produced furniture for the U.S.

Eric Hinderaker, Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1763–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 239–40, 244, 246; Holly Mayer, “From Forts to Families: Following the Army into Western Pennsylvania, 1758–1766,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 130, no. 1 (January 2006): 5–43, esp. 13, 21, 23–24, 36–38, 40. 9. On Colonel Henry Bouquet, see Bouquet to Anne Willing, Bedford, September 17, 1759, in The Papers of Colonel Henry Bouquet, ed. Sylvester E. Stevens et al., 19 vols. (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical Commission and Works Progress Administration, 1940–44), 3:371–72, 4:115–16. 10. For various meanings of “squat” and “squatting,” see Oxford English Dictionary; Melissa J. Pawlikowski, “‘The Ravages of a Cruel and Savage Economy’: Ohio River Valley Squatters and the Formation of a Communitarian Political Economy, 1768–1782” (paper presented at the Society of Historians of the Early American Republic, July 17, 2011, in possession of the author).

., 159 Wild River, 253 William the Conqueror, 80 Wilmot, David, 147 Wilson, Alex (journalist), 251 Wilson, Alexander (ornithologist), 113–14, 116 Wilson, Charles Morrow, 213 Wilson, Gretchen, 304 Wilson, Milburn Lincoln, 213–17, 223 Winning of the West, The (Roosevelt), 191 Winthrop, John, 5, 6, 10–12, 29–31, 35, 64 Win tribe, 200 Wirt, William, 102 Wister, Owen, 192 Wolfe, Tom, 280 women, 115, 170, 178–79, 183, 311 in American colonies, 27–28, 36–37, 40–41 childbearing by, 66–67, 100, 192–95, 203, 318 eugenics and, 192–97, 203 Wood, Grant, 234, 234 Woodbury, Levi, 142 Woodmason, Charles, 110 Woodruff, Judy, 284 Works Progress Administration, 221 World of Our Fathers (Howe), 276 World War I, 197–98, 202, 209 World War II, 223, 246 Yorba Linda, Calif., 245–46 You Can’t Sleep Here (Newhouse), 210 Young, Andrew, 282, 302 Looking for more? Visit Penguin.com for more about this author and a complete list of their books. Discover your next great read!


The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

., 217, 238-44, 270 history of, 241-42 Laurance Rockefeller and, 242-43 science economy of, 243 Woodstock Country Club, 243 Woodstock Inn, 243 Woodward Avenue (Detroit, Mich.), 190-91, 194, 247 Woolworth, F. W., 53 Woolworth Building (New York, N. Y. ), 75 Worcester, Mass. , 78 Wordsworth, William, 157 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 98 World War I, 67, 74, 76, 90, 100103, 180 art influenced by, 70-71 World War II, 76, 95, 100, 108, 165, 169, 193, 194, 212, 255 Atlantic City, N.J., as affected by, 228-30 national economy and, 103-4 WPA (Works Progress Administration), 98 Wren, Christopher, 63, 157 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 74, 164-65 Wright, Orville, 199 Wright, Wilbur, 199 Yaro, Robert, 264, 267 Yellow Coach company, 91 zoning, 34, 51-52, 55, 136, 169-70, 240, 246, 248, 255 cities and, 34, 51-52 countryside and, 264-65 development and, 263-65 farms and, 170 in Great Britain, 263 houses and, 169-70 Kentlands and, 258 "large lot," 170 local boards and, 259 in Los Angeles, Calif. , 209 mandatory open spaces and, 267 optional, 267 in Portland, Oreg. , 201-2 in Seaside, Fla., 256-57 suburbs and, 51-52, 55, 113-14, 117-18 3 0 3 M About the Author JAMES HOWARD KUNSTLER is the author of eight novels.


pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

Flink interprets these investment priorities as a transfer of wealth, with working-class streetcar riders in effect being “taxed by city planners and politicians to make possible middle-class automobile use.”2 In the 1930s, Franklin Delano Roosevelt embraced road building as a jobs program, with an eye also on the utility of highways for national defense (this at a time when Adolf Hitler was constructing his autobahn).3 Progressives embraced automobility as a government project well suited to the exercise of their enthusiasm for state-directed investment, rational planning, and national vigor in the tradition of Herbert Croly’s “New Nationalism,” which greatly influenced FDR. The Works Progress Administration, a key element of the New Deal, provided ten times as much funding for streets and highways as for public transportation.4 But it wasn’t until after the war, during the Eisenhower administration, that construction of the Interstate Highway System began. It was a project of Napoleonic ambition, undertaken in an era when the state enjoyed a level of prestige, credibility, and legitimacy that is hard for us to imagine in 2020.

See also neighborhoods as act of faith, 2–3 cities made for, 247–248 exposure in, 20 WALL-E (film), 6, 189 Wang, Forrest, 165 Warren County Fair, 185 Wasilla, 249 Werlin, Jacko, 139 White, Adam J., 291 Whitfield, Randy, 87–89 Wiener, Earl, 101 Williams, Bernard, 119–120, 283 windows, tinted, 253 women female riders, 192–194 girl-power affirmation, 194 in kitchen restaurant culture, 194–195 overcomer complex, 197–198 working-class, 195–196 working class, 196 Works Progress Administration, 38 World Health Organization, 242 World War One aerial combats, 173–176 calvary, 174–175 Churchill, Winston, 174, 177 RAF fighter pilots, 177–178 Richthofen, Manfred von, 174–176 wrecking yard. See junkyards Wyden, Ron, 302 Yamaha, 164 yam-houses, 69 yard wealth, 68–71 Yellow Vest movement, 29–30, 224–226 Zients, Jeffrey, 4 Zuboff, Shoshana, 273–274, 302–303, 305–306, 309 Zündapp, 139–140 © Shutterstock / Dudarev Mikhail Also by Matthew B.


pages: 142 words: 45,733

Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel

anti-communist, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, creative destruction, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

In any complex economy they support more or less double their number, not to mention underwriting all war, luxury, art, and thought. No one capable of doing anything economically valuable need be a charity case in receiving a living wage. Article 3 would stipulate the state’s responsibility for achieving full employment. The most traditional object of public employment is public works of the kind associated with the Work Progress Administration. Between 1936 and 1939, the WPA spent about 2 percent of GDP per year in employing two and half million people to build over 4,000 schools and 130 hospitals, and to repair or pave 280,000 miles of road. The stimulus of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act has been, by contrast, timorous and wasteful. According to Doug Henwood in his invaluable Left Business Observer: At most … ARRA has “saved or created”—a spongy concept—a number of jobs equal to about 0.5 percent of total employment … And this has come at a cost of almost $250,000 a job!


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Wright was laid off when the Great Depression drastically reduced the business of Chicago’s mail-order houses, and he began a peripatetic stream of jobs, selling life insurance on commission, cleaning streets, digging ditches, and eventually working for the Michael Reese Hospital. He apparently got that job because he had caught the eye of the wife of the great urban sociologist Louis Wirth. She also got him work writing the history of Illinois for the New Deal Works Progress Administration. He moved to New York in 1937, working on the WPA publication New York Panorama, which remains a wonderful description of big-city living. In 1938, the year after he came to New York, he won a $500 prize for a short story. His first book, a collection of stories called Uncle Tom’s Children, was published by Harper and Company. He won a Guggenheim Fellowship to write Native Son, and with that, he became a literary lion.

House of Lords: Routledge, Cains. 79 Carlos Slim ... dry goods store: Mehta, “Carlos Slim”; Carlos Slim Helú, biography of, www.carlosslim.com/biografia_ing.html. 79 “in a regime of ignorance”: Stigler, Organization of Industry, 206. 80 The great African-American writer... economic opportunity: Rowley, Richard Wright, 4 (birth), 40 (final move to Memphis—he had lived there briefly earlier), 48-49 (move to Chicago). 80 “I headed north ... beneath the stars”: Wright, Black Boy, 285. 80 In Chicago ... to do some writing: Rowley, Richard Wright, 55-60. 80 Even more important ... “help you to write”: Wright, “I Tried to Be a Communist.” 80 Wright was laid off... Louis Wirth: Rowley, Richard Wright, 62-68. 80 She also got him work ... Works Progress Administration: Ibid., 108-9. 81 e moved to New York ... big-city living: Ibid., 124 (move), 144 (Panorama). 81 In 1938 ... Harper and Company: Ibid., 138. 81 Guggenheim Fellowship to write Native Son: Ibid., 164. 81 A Southern sharecropper ... $445 a year: Braunhut, “Farm Labor Wage Rates in the South,” 193. 81 A black worker ... $5 a day: Raff and Summers, “Did Henry Ford Pay Efficiency Wages?”


pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson

"Robert Solow", air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, Jones Act, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The station owner let him use an old trailer that had been rusting in the yard. McLean Trucking Company opened for business in March 1934, with McLean, still running the service station, as the sole driver. Soon after, family ties helped once more when a local man agreed to sell McLean a used dump truck on installments of three dollars a week. With the truck, McLean won a contract to haul dirt for the Works Progress Administration, a federal public-works program that at one point employed more than eleven hundred people in Robeson County. Even after hiring a driver, McLean earned enough to buy a new truck to haul vegetables from local farms. According to a much repeated tale, one trip found McLean so poor that he couldn’t afford to pay the toll at a bridge along the way; he left a wrench with the toll collector as a deposit, redeeming it after selling his load in New York.4 This rags-to-riches tale fails to do justice to McLean’s immense ambition.

.: culture of; and flat rates; McLean purchase of; move of to New Jersey; ships of; shipyard of; and subsidies. See also McLean Industries; Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation; Sea-Land Service Weldon, Foster Wellington, New Zealand Westmoreland, William wharves; vertical piers Whirlpool Corporation whiskey shipments Whitehall Club White Star Line wholesaling Winston-Salem, NC Works Progress Administration World Bank Wriston, Walter Xerox Corp. Yokohamajapan Yom Kippur War York, PA Younger, Kenneth Zim Line


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Roosevelt emphasized government's new role, saying that "the aim of this whole effort is to restore our rich domestic market by raising its vast consuming capacity.... The pent-up demand of the people is very great and if we can release it on so broad a front, we need not fear a lagging recovery."47 The NIRA was followed by the Civil Works Administration in 1933 and 1934, which found jobs for more than 4 million unemployed workers. 48 In 1935 Roosevelt launched a still more ambitious job creation effort-the Works Progress Administration, or WPA. The aim of the WPA was to stimulate immediate consumer purchasing power by initiating what the Roosevelt administration called "light projects," programs that were labor-intensive, cost little to implement, and could be completed quickly. The idea was to use more manpower than materials and machinery and to get paychecks in the hands of as many laborers as possible, as quickly as possible.

(Willhelm), 79 Wilkinson, George, 195 Wilkinson, John, 123 Willhelm, Sidney, 77, 79, 80 Williams, Lynn, 224, 230 Wilson, William Julius, 76 Winpisinger, William, 8, 135 Womack, James, 94-95, 96, 99,100 Woolridge, Charles, 45 Workforce college graduates in the, 172 creation of the knowledge class, 174-76 creation of new cosmopolitans, 172-77 decline in wages for the, 168, 170 de-skilling of the, 182- 86 example of how trickle-down technology does not work, 165-66 impact of de-unionization on the, 168 impact of globalization on the, 169 impact of restructuring on middle management, 7, 170-72 part-time jobs for, 167-68 statistics on unemployment! underemployed, 166-67 two-tier system, 190- 94 violence, 196 Works Progress Administration (WPA),30 Workweek, reasons for an increase in hours in the, 223 Workweek, shortened historical development of, 221-23 labor's view of, 229-30 need for management to give in to, 229-33 public's interest in, 233 - 35 recent demands for, 224-27 share the work movement and, 26-29 women and, 234 World fairs, 48-49 World Labour Report, 201 Wyss, David, 34 Xerox, 148 XLAYER,114 Young, Jeffrey, 9 Youth violence, 209-11 Zaire, third/volunteer sector in, 283 Zalusky, John, 229-30 Zenith, 204-5 Zhirinovsky, Vladimir, 214-15 Zuse, Konrad, 64


pages: 505 words: 142,118

A Man for All Markets by Edward O. Thorp

3Com Palm IPO, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, beat the dealer, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, buy and hold, buy low sell high, carried interest, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, Edward Thorp, Erdős number, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, George Santayana, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, High speed trading, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, Mason jar, merger arbitrage, Murray Gell-Mann, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Norbert Wiener, passive investing, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, publish or perish, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, statistical arbitrage, stem cell, stocks for the long run, survivorship bias, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the rule of 72, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, Works Progress Administration

Eventually both became part of my tiny collection of possessions and followed me for the next thirty years. For the rest of my life I would meet Depression-era survivors who retained a compulsive, often irrational frugality and an economically inefficient tendency to hoard. Money was scarce and no one scorned pennies. Seeing the perspiring WPA workers in the streets (created by presidential order in 1935, “Works Progress Administration” was the largest of FDR’s New Deal programs to provide useful work for the unemployed), I borrowed a nickel and bought a packet of Kool-Aid, from which I made six glasses that I sold to them for a penny each. I continued to do this and found that it took a lot of work to earn a few cents. But the next winter, when my father gave me a nickel to shovel the snow from our sidewalk, I hit a bonanza.

Car dealers, however, cheered as the boost from replacement-car sales cleared inventory from their packed lots. As full-time and part-time unemployment rates continued to climb, unemployment insurance was repeatedly extended. This is good to the extent it is needed, but it would seem to be in the public interest to employ as many of those idle beneficiaries as possible in doing useful work. Programs like the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), which I remember from my childhood, built roads, bridges, and public works during the 1930s, and the improvement in our infrastructure benefited us all for decades. The real estate industry got its political handout. First-time homebuyers got an $8,000 fully refundable tax credit—“fully refundable” means you can apply for and get the $8,000 check even if you never paid a penny of tax in your life.


pages: 409 words: 129,423

Mapping Mars: Science, Imagination and the Birth of a World by Oliver Morton

Colonization of Mars, computer age, double entry bookkeeping, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, nuclear winter, planetary scale, RAND corporation, Richard Feynman, sexual politics, the scientific method, trade route, undersea cable, V2 rocket, Works Progress Administration

Plot every point on your map according to measurements made with respect to things in this well-defined network and it will be highly accurate. If, unlike Holland, your country is large, mountainous, and only sparsely supplied with steeples, setting up a reliable network in the first place can be hard work—the United States wasn’t properly covered by a single mapping network until the 1930s, when abundant Works Progress Administration labor was available to help with the surveying. But the principle of measuring the angles between lines joining landmarks has been used in basically the same way all over the Earth. Two problems make the mapping of other planets different, one conceptual, one practical. On Earth, experience allows you to know what the features you are mapping are: Hills, valleys, forests, and so on are easily recognized for what they are.

., 131, 132 Turrell, James, 73, 297 Tyrrhena Patera, 103 Tyrrhenian Sea, 15 “Under the Surface” (Brown), 153 Understanding Comics (McCloud), 116 United States Geological Survey (USGS), 40, 84, 88 Apollo missions, contribution to, 167 Gilbert building, 93, 94, 94n given Mars mapping role, 50 as link between Mars and the West, 85–88 Mars Digital Image Mosaic, 57 1:15,000,000 maps, 3–4 1:5,000,000 maps, 57 Pigwad, development of, 240 University of Washington Department of Nuclear Engineering, 254 Utopia Planitia, 2, 16, 104, 119–21 Valles Marineris, 46–47, 57, 101, 101n, 102, 121, 135, 143, 169 Grand Canyon, compared with, 146–48 influence on fictional landing sites, 289–90 “Value of Outrageous Geological Hypotheses, The” (Davis), 184 van Hoogstraten, Samuel, 49 Van Sant, Tom, 297 Vastitas Borealis, 97, 119 Venus, 81, 109n, 170, 214, 236n, 304 Verne, Jules, 295 Victoria, Queen, 58n Viking (missions), 2, 28, 39–40, 61, 184, 234n, 322 color cameras, 99–101, 228–30 crater pictures, 76 exobiology experiments, 301–2 landing sites, 227–28 picture archive, 193, 198, 234 replica lander, 322 success of, 61 Thomas Mutch Memorial Station, 322 “Viking Results—The Case for Man on Mars, The” (Clark), 243, 245 Vishniac, Wolf, 247, 300 von Braun, Wernher, 132, 260 Von Braun Planitia, 275 Voyage (Baxter), 289 Voyage to the Red Planet (Bisson), 289 Voyager, 214 Wagner, Richard, 267 Wallace, Alfred, 211–12 Wanderer Above the Sea of Mist (Friedrich), 134–25 Watchmen (Moore/Gibbons), 134–37 Watkins, Carleton, 235, 237 Watson, Ian, 174–75, 178, 179 Weinbaum, Stanley, 3 Wells, H. G., 3, 17, 108 White Mars, 213 White Mars (Penrose/Aldiss), 213n Wild Shore, The (Robinson), 173, 176 Wilhelms, Don, 119 Williamson, Jack, 178 Wise, Donald, 138 “Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, The” (Benjamin), 128 Works Progress Administration, 25–27 Woude, Jurrie van der, 41, 58–59 Wu, Sherman, 63 Xanthe Terra, 41–42, 102 Xiaotong, Fei, 321 Zelazny, Roger, 319 Zubrin, Robert, 259–72, 281, 289, 293, 305, 305n, 308–10, 317, 322


pages: 504 words: 129,087

The Ones We've Been Waiting For: How a New Generation of Leaders Will Transform America by Charlotte Alter

"side hustle", 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate personhood, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Hangouts, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job-hopping, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, passive income, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, white picket fence, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Three years into the Great Depression, Franklin Delano Roosevelt embarked on a series of government interventions in the economy designed to protect Americans from the ravages of the free market: the New Deal. He reorganized the banks through the Emergency Banking Act, put three million men to work planting an astonishing three billion trees in the Civilian Conservation Corps, and created millions more temporary government jobs through the Works Progress Administration and other new agencies. He regulated Wall Street for the first time by establishing the Securities and Exchange Commission and legalized collective bargaining—the key to union power—through the National Labor Relations Act. He created universal pensions (also known as Social Security) and ensured federal government protections for orphans and the disabled. Even though the New Deal perpetuated racial inequalities (people of color were largely excluded from the newly created jobs and the easy access to homeownership that would come after the war), it was still the largest expansion of the social safety net in American history.

., 271–72 first year in Congress, accomplishments during, 277 Green New Deal not cosponsored by, 279 in high school, 14–15 as intern for Obama’s Senate office, 82–83 9/11 terrorist attacks and, 14, 15 at orientation, for freshman to Congress, 267–68 at Women’s March, 198 Underwood, Lindsey, 15, 16 unemployment rates, during Great Recession, 96 Vanity Fair, 253, 266 Vaughan, Catherine, 208–9 Victor, Tommy, 111 Vietnam, 67 Violence Against Women Act, 30–31 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994), 30–31 Virginia Tech shooting, 53 Volpe, John Della, 221 voter ID laws, 152–53 voter suppression, 152–53 voting behavior, factors affecting, 151–53 Wall Street Journal, The, 208 War on Terror, 31, 63–77 Buttigieg and, 73–77 Crenshaw’s service and belief in, 63–67 draft, impact of lack of, 67–68 enlistment, income and geographical segregation in, 68 Iraq invasion, 67 isolationism of millennials, 73 lack of Ivy League participation in, 73, 74 Rose and, 18–19, 69–72 skepticism of millennials with, 67, 72 statistics of casualties in Iraq, 67 suicide rates of veterans, 72–73 Warren, Elizabeth, 117, 194, 286 Washington Post, The, 170, 252, 261–62, 280, 283 Watergate Babies, xviii, 276 West, Kanye, 115 West Wing, The (tv show), 5 West Wing Weekly, 284 White, Micah, 202 Whitmer, Gretchen, 224, 237 Wikipedia, 55 Winkler, David, 27 Winston, Braxton, xxi, 45–46, 121–24, 131–32, 136–38 affordable housing and, 136–37 Charlotte protests and, 126–28 elected to Charlotte City Council, 136 at Obama speech, 122 policing and, 137–38 Scott shooting and, 125–26 Wirth, Timothy, 276 women candidates for Congress, in 2018, 226–45 college education and, in baby boom generation, 46–47 raising children while working full-time, 32 Women’s March and, 198–201 women’s rights movement, 29 Women’s March, 198–201 Works Progress Administration, 217 World War II, 67, 68 Wright, Jeremiah, 16, 88 “Yes We Can” speech, of Obama, 87 YouTube, 57, 58 Zeldin, Lee, 158 zero tolerance policies, 37–38, 119 Zimmerman, George, 118 Zuckerberg, Mark, xv, 4, 59, 60, 197, 227 Zucotti Park. See Occupy Wall Street ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABOUT THE AUTHOR Charlotte Alter is a national correspondent for TIME, covering the 2016, 2018, and 2020 campaigns, youth social movements, and women in politics.


pages: 165 words: 48,594

Democracy at Work: A Cure for Capitalism by Richard D. Wolff

asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, feminist movement, financial intermediation, Howard Zinn, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, wage slave, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

Finally, consider the mutual gains from a possible alliance between supporters of WSDEs and supporters of a “green” New Deal. They might press jointly for a federal jobs program addressing both their goals. Both of them could likewise join those concerned with other specific outputs a federal jobs program might target (for example, child and elder care, cultural enrichment of the sort achieved by the Works Progress Administration in the 1930s, and so on). The political force of such an alliance might approach that of the alliance among the CIO and socialist and communist parties in the 1930s, which won the most massive federal jobs program in US history, filling more than twelve million jobs between 1934 and 1941. 11.2 Alliances with Cooperative Movements There is a long history in the United States and in many other countries of cooperative enterprises—including worker or producer co-ops.


pages: 182 words: 55,234

Rendezvous With Oblivion: Reports From a Sinking Society by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, edge city, Frank Gehry, high net worth, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

“One of the best presidents we ever had,” came the reply. * * * In walking around these small towns, it occurred to me that nostalgia must come naturally here. The greatness of the past and the dilapidation of the present are obvious with every step you take: the solid, carefully constructed buildings from the Benjamin Harrison era that are now crumbling, the grandiose swimming pool built by the Works Progress Administration under the New Deal. There is nostalgia in Marceline’s impressive Disney Hometown Museum, which carefully documents the town’s relationship with the filmmaker (the folks in town were gracious enough to open the museum, which is closed in winter, especially for me). Nostalgia also in the collection of Harry Truman memorabilia that filled the parlor of the century-old house where I stayed during my visit.


pages: 482 words: 147,281

A Crack in the Edge of the World by Simon Winchester

Albert Einstein, Asilomar, butterfly effect, California gold rush, Golden Gate Park, index card, indoor plumbing, lateral thinking, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, place-making, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, supervolcano, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

Crocker, 1907 The San Francisco Disaster Photographed: Fifty Glimpses of Havoc by Earthquake and Fire. New York: C. S. Hammond, 1906 Sonoma County Emergency Operations Plan. Santa Rosa, CA: Sonoma County Department of Emergency Services, 2000 William Lettis and Associates. Seismic Hazard Evaluation: Proposed Portola Valley Town Center, 765 Portola Road, Portola Valley, CA. Walnut Creek: William Lettis, 2003 Works Progress Administration. The WPA Guide to California: The Federal Writers’ Project Guide to 1930s California. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984 A Glossary of Possibly Unfamiliar Terms and Concepts Alquist–Priolo This term, used with easy familiarity by many Californians today, refers to the 1972 Earthquake Fault Zoning Act, which was sponsored by the Democrat state senator for Santa Clara, Alfred Alquist, and the Republican state assemblyman for Ventura, Paul Priolo.

* Any white passengers had their passports inspected, with courtesy, on board ship. * Father of Henry Cowell, the great American composer. * The legislators have evidently held mixed feelings about the murals, first displaying them in the capitol rotunda, then demoting them to storage, finally bringing them back – but this time to a smaller rotunda in the basement, where they will probably remain for good. * Such as the Works Progress Administration and the Federal Writers’ Project of the Depression years. Had the artists of the time not been supported, many would likely have starved. Such was not the case in San Francisco in 1906: artists could always push off to places less likely to be ruined, and evidently did. * These were the Chronicle and the Mills buildings and the Merchants’ Exchange: all three would be badly damaged in 1906


Coastal California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, flex fuel, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Lyft, Mason jar, New Journalism, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Wall-E, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Celebrate your freedom to read freely in the designated Poet’s Chair upstairs overlooking Jack Kerouac Alley, load up on ’zines on the mezzanine and entertain radical ideas downstairs in the new Pedagogies of Resistance section. oCoit TowerPUBLIC ART ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-249-0995; www.sfrecpark.org; Telegraph Hill Blvd; nonresident elevator fee adult/child $8/5; h10am-6pm Apr-Oct, to 5pm Nov-Mar; g39) The exclamation mark on San Francisco's skyline is Coit Tower, with 360-degree views of downtown and wraparound 1930s Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals glorifying SF workers. Initially denounced as communist, the murals are now a national landmark. For a wild-parrot's panoramic view of San Francisco 210ft above the city, take the elevator to the tower's open-air platform. To glimpse seven recently restored murals up a hidden stairwell on the 2nd floor, join the 11am tour Wednesday or Saturday (free; donations welcome). Beat MuseumMUSEUM ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %800-537-6822; www.kerouac.com; 540 Broadway; adult/student $8/5, walking tours $25; hmuseum 10am-7pm, walking tours 2-4pm Sat; g8, 10, 12, 30, 41, 45, jPowell-Mason) The closest you can get to the complete Beat experience without breaking a law.

A couple of blocks east on Santa Barbara St, Waterline has the Fox Wine tasting room, housed in a cool, multipurpose complex that offers beer and food too. 3Entertainment Santa Barbara’s appreciation of the arts is evidenced not only by the variety of performances available on any given night, but also its gorgeous, often historic venues. For a current calendar of live music and special events, check www.independent.com or www.newspress.com/top/section/scene. Santa Barbara BowlLIVE MUSIC ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %805-962-7411; http://sbbowl.com; 1122 N Milpas St; most tickets $35-125) Built by Works Progress Administration (WPA) artisans during the 1930s Great Depression, this naturally beautiful outdoor stone amphitheater has ocean views from the highest cheap seats. Kick back in the sunshine or under the stars for live rock, jazz and folk concerts in summer. Big-name acts like Brian Wilson, Radiohead and local graduate Jack Johnson have all taken the stage here. Zodo’s Bowling & BeyondBOWLING ( GOOGLE MAP ; %805-967-0128; www.zodos.com; 5925 Calle Real, Goleta; bowling lane per hour $22-55, shoe rental $4.50; h8:30am-1:30am Wed-Sat, to midnight Sun-Tue; c) With over 40 beers on tap, pool tables and a video arcade (Skee-Ball!)

To see coastal California’s contemporary art at its most experimental, browse the SoCal gallery scenes in Downtown LA and Culver City, then check out San Francisco’s Mission District and SOMA neighborhood. To find museums, art galleries, fine-art exhibition spaces and calendars of upcoming shows throughout SoCal, check out ArtScene (www.artscenecal.com) and Artweek LA (www.artweek.la) magazines. Latino Mural Movements in California Beginning in the 1930s, when the federal Works Progress Administration sponsored schemes to uplift and beautify cities across the country, murals came to define California cityscapes. Mexican muralists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and José Clemente Orozco sparked an outpouring of murals across LA that today number in the thousands. Rivera was also brought to San Francisco to paint murals at the San Francisco Art Institute, and his influence is reflected in the interior of San Francisco’s Coit Tower and hundreds of murals across the Mission District.


George Marshall: Defender of the Republic by David L. Roll

anti-communist, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, David Brooks, Defenestration of Prague, Donald Trump, European colonialism, fear of failure, invisible hand, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, one-China policy, one-state solution, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

“I have never heard Adolf so full of hate, his audience quite so on the borders of bedlam,” wrote CBS correspondent William Shirer. “What poison in his voice.”5 Soon after hearing Hitler’s speech, FDR asked Hopkins to quietly travel to the West Coast and assess the production capacity of the U.S. aircraft industry. In addition to being the president’s most trusted adviser, Hopkins was also head of the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a New Deal agency whose mission was to put Americans to work on infrastructure projects. Roosevelt felt Hopkins was the right man to make recommendations to expand production under a program the WPA could help finance and implement. The president was coming to the conclusion that France and Britain were likely to capitulate to Hitler’s demands not only in Czechoslovakia but elsewhere in Europe primarily because they could not come close to matching his airpower.

., 265 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 148 National Defense Act of 1916, 14 National Defense Act of 1920, 64–65, 106 National Guard, 14 National Security Act of 1947, 543, 563–65 National Security Council (NSC), 496, 575–77 National War College, 77–78, 82 Neely, Matthew, 105 neutrality laws, 119, 123, 135 New Deal, 100, 103 Civilian Conservation Corps camps, 103 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 108 The New York Times, 503 Nicholas II, Czar, 12, 18 Nichols, Donald, 556 Nicholson, James, 546 Niles, David, 489, 499–500 Nimitz, Chester, 280, 297 IX Corps, 579 Nixon, Richard, 457–58 Nobel Peace Prize, 597–99 Nomura Kichisaburo, 178, 188, 189 Normandy invasion, 328–37, 336, 338–39 North Africa, 231–34, 236–37, 250–60, 268 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) first general suggestion of, 534 formation of, 534 start of, 477 Vandenberg Resolution as the precursor of, 520, 533 Nourse, Edwin, 447, 456–57 Noyes, David, 527–28, 529–30 Obama, Barack, 599 O’Brien, Margaret, 302 O’Connor, Basil, 544–46 October surprise, 531 Olson, Lynne, 116–17, 137 101st Airborne, 351 175th Rifle Regiment of the First Ukrainian Army, 361 open warfare, 19 Operation ANVIL (later Operation DRAGOON), 307, 309–10, 317–18, 334, 337–40 Operation BOLERO, 213, 218, 224, 227–29, 234, 254 Operation DOWNFALL, 367 Operation DRAGOON (formerly Operation ANVIL), 340–41 Operation GYMNAST, 231–34, 236–37, 239 Operation Hawaii, 180 Operation OVERLORD (formerly Operation ROUNDUP), 266, 267–70, 272–74, 280–81, 284, 286–88, 290–96, 304–5, 307, 309–10, 318, 320, 328–29, 333, 336, 601–2.

See Page, Rose Wilson, Woodrow health concerns, 65 National Defense Act to expand the military, 14 policy of U.S. neutrality in WWI, 13–14 U.S. involvement in WWI, 15–16, 19 WWI armistice negotiations, 47, 53–55 Winn, James, Jr., 152, 262, 405, 603, 604 Winn, Molly Brown. See Brown Winn, Molly (GM’s stepdaughter) Wood, R. E., 118 Woodring, Harry, 104–7, 110–11, 118, 120–21, 139–40 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 108 World War I armistice negotiations, 47, 53–55 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 12 Cantigny, battle of, 24–34, 27 casualties, 55–56 continuous offensive strategic plan, 35–37 Eastern Front, 18 German U-boat attacks on the Lusitania and Sussex, 14, 136 horses, starvation of, 41–42 impending Russian withdrawal, 18–19 low morale during, 18 Meuse-Argonne offensive, 35–50, 39, 56, 600 “preparedness movement,” 14–15 rapid spread of, 12 Saint-Mihiel operation, 35–38, 39 separation of U.S. forces from Allied forces, 16, 19, 22 unrestricted submarine warfare, 14–15 U.S. involvement, 15 U.S. policy of neutrality, 13–14 victory parades, 59–61 Western Front, 13, 18, 23, 49–50 World War II ABDA theater, 197, 198–99, 210 attack in the Philippines, 193–94 Battle of Munda, 306–7 Battle of the Atlantic, 307 Battle of the Bulge, 321, 350–53 Battle of the Kursk Salient, 275 Cairo meeting with Chiang Kai-shek, 285–86 combat experience, 226 concentration camps, 312–14 D-Day invasion of Normandy, 328–37, 336, 338–39 “defensive, encircling” European strategy, 250–51 Dieppe Raid, 257 economic growth in the U.S., 265 European and Mediterranean theaters, 216–17, 233, 256–57, 268, 286–87, 308–10 “Germany first” strategic doctrine, 151–52, 171, 195–96, 198, 202, 211, 214, 218, 227–29, 251, 303–4, 315, 340, 581, 595–96 Germany’s surrender, 361–62 ground troops, 170–71, 236, 250 Japan’s conditional surrender, 370–71 Kasserine Pass setback, 257–58 LSTs (landing ships that carried tanks), 293, 307–10 MAGIC diplomatic message codes, 159, 171, 172, 178, 181–82, 186, 187–91, 342–48 the Manhattan Project, 321 Marshall Memorandum, 213–23 Messina surrender of German and Italian troops, 274–75 the motion picture industry’s role in, 301–2 need for increased U.S. military spending, 129–34 Pacific theater, 200–201, 204, 227–28 Persian Gulf Command, 289 Plan Dog memorandum, 150–51, 153 Potsdam Declaration, 368, 370–71 pre-war clashes, 122–23 propaganda, 207, 211, 278, 302, 362 Rouen attack, 265 secrecy, 318–19, 342–48, 355–56 start of, 124–27 support for, 193, 278 surrender of Belgium and France, 133–34 Tehran meeting with Stalin, 288–93 Tripartite Pact, 150, 193 unconditional surrender policy, 366, 370 U.S. declaration of a multifront global war, 193 V-E (Victory in Europe) Day, 362 Victory Program, 170, 264 V-J (Victory over Japan) Day, 371–72 Yalta Conference (Argonaut), 355–56 Yamamoto Isoruku, 177–80, 186 Yergin, Daniel, 520–21 Zanuck, Darryl, 302 Zhukov, Georgy, 357, 369 Zimmermann, Arthur, 15 Zimmermann Telegram, 15 Zongren, Li, 542 ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ About the Author David L.


pages: 144 words: 55,142

Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook by Cherie L. Weible, Karen L. Janke

Firefox, information retrieval, Internet Archive, late fees, optical character recognition, pull request, QR code, transaction costs, Works Progress Administration

Sensitive to cost, libraries often choose to limit service models at the cost of user preference; this restriction is obvious in the case of mandating electronic delivery for articles in order to reduce the cost of printing, but less obvious in the case of home delivery. Home delivery of physical books has a long history and will become a reality again. Though many are familiar with bookmobiles, few know that in 1935, during the Great Depression, Kentucky’s Pack Horse Library Project was established as one of the Works Progress Administration’s programs in eastern Kentucky.7 To provide reading materials to rural communities of eastern Kentucky, librarians would ride horses or mules, walk, or even row boats to deliver books and magazines to homes. By 1939, the thirty Packhorse “libraries” served over 48,000 families—almost 181,000 individuals—with 889,694 book circulations (amazing considering that they only had 154,846 books available) and 1,095,410 magazine circulations (again amazing—they only had 229,778 magazines).8 Past efforts such as these help us realize what our users want and what we are capable of.


pages: 710 words: 164,527

The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order by Benn Steil

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Charles Lindbergh, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, fiat currency, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lateral thinking, margin call, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, psychological pricing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, seigniorage, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, the market place, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration

Keynes’s General Theory had been published in 1936, and his ideas spread to Washington quickly. In particular, the view that governments should not hesitate to use deficit spending to counteract a recession—mainstream today, but widely considered irresponsible pre-Keynes—had gained influential supporters within the administration, including Harry Hopkins, director of the Federal Surplus Relief Administration and the Works Progress Administration (becoming Secretary of Commerce in 1938); Herman Oliphant, general counsel in Treasury; and Marriner Eccles (whose ideas predated Keynes), chairman of the Federal Reserve Board. White himself was forthright in opposing balanced-budget orthodoxy. “It would be wrong,” he argued in a meeting with Morgenthau and Viner in October 1937, “to balance the budget by deflationary measures such as increasing taxes or reducing government expenditures.”79 But Morgenthau was unswayed on the benefits of raising federal spending—a position from which he never deviated, even years later.

Hoover, John Edgar (1895–1972). American domestic intelligence official. Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1924–72. Alerted Truman, who distrusted him, to the existence of Soviet espionage networks at the highest levels of the U.S. government. Hopkins, Harry (1890–1946). American government official. Director, Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 1933–35; director, Works Progress Administration, 1935–38; secretary of commerce, 1938–40. One of FDR’s closest advisers, he helped formulate the New Deal and was a key architect of the Lend-Lease program. Hull, Cordell (1871–1955). American statesman. Secretary of state, 1933–44. An ardent supporter of free trade who believed that the economic and political crises of the 1930s were largely attributable to protectionist policies. Was determined to eliminate the British system of imperial preference.


The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.

affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

The Eight Mile-Wyoming neighborhood, with ample open land, attracted black migrants from the South who sought the independence and security of homeownership. The simple frame structure, photographed in 1942, was typical of the self-constructed houses in the area. Residents often converted undeveloped lots, like the one on the right, into cornfields and vegetable gardens. By the time the Works Progress Administration and the Detroit Housing Commission conducted the 1938 Real Property Survey of Detroit, residents of the Eight Mile area were among the city’s poorest residents. They lived in dire housing conditions. Still, in stark contrast to the majority of Detroit’s African American population, 91.7 percent of Eight Mile residents lived in single-family, detached homes. Two-thirds of the homes were owner-occupied, in contrast to only 37.8 percent of homes in the city.

David Katzman, Before the Ghetto: Black Detroit in the Nineteenth Century (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973), 80. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Census of Population, 1950, Census Tract Statistics for Detroit, Michigan and Adjacent Area, vol. 2, part 24 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952), Table 1, data for tracts 508, 528, 529, 534, 535, 536, 537, 543, 544, 547. (Hereafter referred to as 1950 Census.) 5. Detroit Housing Commission and Works Progress Administration, Real Property Survey of Detroit, Michigan, vol. 2 (Detroit: Bureau of Governmental Research, 1939), data for tracts 508, 528, 529, 534, 535, 536, 537, 543, 544, 547; for definitions of “substandard,” see vol. 1, pp. 33–34. (Hereafter referred to as Real Property Survey.) See also Alfred McClung Lee and Norman D. Humphrey, Race Riot: Detroit 1943 (New York: Octagon Books, 1968), 93; Detroit Tribune, July 3, 1943. 6.


pages: 261 words: 64,977

Pity the Billionaire: The Unexpected Resurgence of the American Right by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, bonus culture, business cycle, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, financial innovation, housing crisis, invisible hand, Kickstarter, money market fund, Naomi Klein, obamacare, payday loans, profit maximization, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, union organizing, Washington Consensus, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Obama and scandals of 1980s and self-pity and TARP and Tea Party as protection for truculent attitudes of Wall Street Journal Walsh, Michael “War of the Worlds” (radio drama) Washington, D.C., September 12, 2009 rally. See also 9/12 Project Washington Mutual Washington Post Weekly Standard Welles, Orson We Read the Constitution movement We the Living (Rand) Weyrich, Paul What Can I Do? (Crist) Wilentz, Sean Williams, Mark Wilson, Edmund Wilson, Woodrow Wizard of Oz (film) Works Progress Administration (WPA) World War I World War II Wriston, Walter YouTube About the Author THOMAS FRANK is the author of The Wrecking Crew, What’s the Matter with Kansas?, and One Market Under God. A former opinion columnist for the Wall Street Journal, Frank is the founding editor of the Baffler and a monthly columnist for Harper’s. He lives outside Washington, DC. ALSO BY THOMAS FRANK The Wrecking Crew What’s the Matter with Kansas?


pages: 246 words: 68,392

Gigged: The End of the Job and the Future of Work by Sarah Kessler

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, financial independence, future of work, game design, gig economy, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, law of one price, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, payday loans, post-work, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

And to some workers, companies like Uber really did provide a safety net of sorts. As one driver, former San Francisco Chronicle journalist John Koopman, explained: “When you’re falling straight down the financial cliff face, you reach out to grab hold of anything available to stop your descent and there, just before you land in a homeless shelter or move in with your sister, is Uber. I think of Uber as a modern-day version of the Works Progress Administration during the Depression. Thanks to Uber, I am not poor. I am just … nobody.”32 A new “independent worker” category offered something to all parties involved. Companies like Uber would not need to totally revamp their business models, because they wouldn’t commit to the full cost and liability of hiring employees, and their workers would have more rights and protections. The authors of the Brookings Institute report even got a little poetic about it, asking readers to imagine a tent: “With only the two poles, the middle of the tent will flap sloppily in any reasonably strong wind.


pages: 206 words: 70,924

The Rise of the Quants: Marschak, Sharpe, Black, Scholes and Merton by Colin Read

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of penicillin, discrete time, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Henri Poincaré, implied volatility, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market clearing, martingale, means of production, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Paul Samuelson, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Chicago School, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Works Progress Administration, yield curve

Fischer trained to be an engineer and moved early in his career to Washington, DC to take up the job as a manager and engineer with the Potomac Electric Power Company. Following in his father’s footsteps, he quickly obtained a law degree by studying evenings. It was in Washington that he met Elizabeth Clarke (Libby) Zemp. Like the Black clan, Libby too could trace her roots on her mother’s side to preRevolutionary times, also an the side of the South. Libby had left her native South Carolina to find work in Washington for the Roosevelt-era Works Progress Administration. They soon married, and Libby emerged as emotional and spiritual center of the family, the same role that Fischer’s mother Marianna had served when Fischer was a child. Fischer Sheffey Black Jr. was the first child of the marriage. When he was born on January 11, 1938, in Washington, DC, his young family was enjoying an almost rural life on four acres of land in Falls Church, not far outside of Washington.


pages: 183 words: 17,571

Broken Markets: A User's Guide to the Post-Finance Economy by Kevin Mellyn

banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mobile money, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, seigniorage, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

So would a plan to let the financial, especially the mortgage, markets clear through actually finding a bottom at which assets would find ready buyers.The window for bold action with bipartisan support was there, as it was in 1933. Whatever one thinks of the New Deal, Roosevelt treated the Depression as a national emergency equivalent to war and focused on nothing else in his famous 100 days. One of Roosevelt’s best early strokes was the Bank Holiday of 1933, which halted the implosion of the banking system. Public assistance programs and direct government make-work programs such as the Works Progress Administration (WPA) also made sense in the face of unemployment rates that were above 20 percent. This is the sort of direct action the electorate no doubt expected in 2009. Instead, the Democrats seemed to have gambled that the financial crisis would cause the public to welcome a vast extension of the federal government’s size and scope, just as the 1930s crisis had done. The result was a year-long, bruising fight over expanding the already extensive federal government control over the health care industry, or more accurately health insurance.


pages: 206 words: 9,776

Rebel Cities: From the Right to the City to the Urban Revolution by David Harvey

Bretton Woods, business cycle, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, David Graeber, deindustrialization, financial innovation, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, precariat, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, special economic zone, the built environment, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, urban planning, We are the 99%, William Langewiesche, Works Progress Administration

. , 1 32 Webber, Jeffrey, 1 4 1 -43, 1 5 1 Tiananmen Square, 1 1 7 West Bank, Palestine, 1 1 7 Tiebout, Charles, 82 Williamsburg, New York City, 78 Tokyo, 88 Wine Advocate, 98 Works Progress Admin istration Toronto, 1 37 Toxteth, Liverpool, 1 56 "lhe Tragedy of the Commons" ( Hardin), 68 Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), 58 (WPA), 52 World Bank, 75, 1 1 9, 1 37 Wo rld Developm ent Report (2009), 28-29, 34, 46, 50, 1 69n4 World Social Forum , xii, I l l , 1 1 9 I N D EX World Urban Forum (20 10), 1 37 Young, I ris, 1 52 World War I I , 9, 49, 50 Yunus, Muham mad, 2 1 World Wide Fund for Nature, 70 WPA. See Works Progress Administration (WPA) Zagreb, 236 Zapatistas, 1 22, 1 25 Zuccotti Park, New York City, xviii Yale University, 23 Zukin, Sharon, 1 4 1 87


pages: 243 words: 76,686

How to Do Nothing by Jenny Odell

Airbnb, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Burning Man, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Filter Bubble, full employment, gig economy, Google Earth, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Minecraft, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Port of Oakland, Results Only Work Environment, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, source of truth, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration

In an essay about such spaces, Eric Holding and Sarah Chaplin call CityWalk “a ‘scripted space’ par excellence, that is, a space which excludes, directs, supervises, constructs, and orchestrates use.”13 Anyone who has ever tried any funny business in a faux public space knows that such spaces do not just script actions, they police them. In a public space, ideally, you are a citizen with agency; in a faux public space, you are either a consumer or a threat to the design of the place. The Rose Garden is a public space. It is a Works Progress Administration (WPA) project from the 1930s, and like all WPA projects, was built by people put to work by the federal government during the Depression. I’m reminded of its beginnings every time I see its dignified architecture: that this rose garden, an incredible public good, came out of a program that itself was also a public good. Still, it wasn’t surprising to me to find out recently that the Rose Garden is in an area that almost got turned into condos in the seventies.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For this reason, traditional architecture may no longer be considered simply in its own terms but instead as representative of a traditional outlook and all that implies. dg By this logic, Classicism is verboten because of its attractiveness to the Third Reich, British imperialists, and Southern slave owners, among others—including, paradoxically, democratic Greeks, Jeffersonian Republicans, and the Works Progress Administration under Roosevelt. Unfortunately, this sort of guilt-by-association quickly turns into a no-win game. For example, modernism was appropriated by some of the worst totalitarian regimes, so by the same logic, it should no longer be an acceptable style. One can imagine a future in which, as every new style eventually becomes associated with some villain government or evil corporation, the only acceptable style remaining is the one that hasn’t been invented yet.


pages: 316 words: 87,486

Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

See also banks; financial crisis of 2008; stock market bailouts and Bill Clinton and blue states and compensation Democrats and deregulation and Dodd-Frank and financialization and fraud and Hillary Clinton and Obama and Social Security and Wall Street Journal Wal-Mart Wap, Fetty Warburg Pincus firm Warren, Elizabeth Washington Monthly Washington Post Watergate scandal Weisberg, Jacob Welfare Reform Act (1996) Wellesley College Wells Fargo WeWork White, Theodore White Collar (Mills) White House Conference on the New Economy (2000) White House Counsel White House Travel Office Whitewater scandal Who Owns the Future? (Lanier) Why doesn’t Microfinance Work? (Bateman) Wolfe, Tom Woman in Charge, A (Bernstein) Woodward, Bob Work of Nations, The (Reich) Works Progress Administration (WPA) WorldCom-MCI merger World War II Yale University Law Journal Yergin, Daniel YouTube Yunus, Muhammad yuppies Zuckerberg, Mark ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This book owes a tremendous debt to my two researchers, Alex Kelly and Zachary Davis, who did so much capable work on so many different subjects. The first round of thanks also includes the people who helped me with the passages of this book that were first published elsewhere: Dave Daley at Salon, Chris Lehman at Bookforum, and James Marcus and the crew at Harper’s.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

There are plenty of inventive financial arrangements that could put sustainability and civic responsibility front and center, yet so far they mostly go untried. In the digital realm, who stands for the public interest? The state remains the most powerful entity that can be employed to advance the cause of sustainable culture. Americans, however, are deeply skeptical of the government’s involvement in culture and the arts. The exceptions have been few and far between, including the Works Progress Administration (WPA) of the New Deal and the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and Public Broadcasting in the 1960s. With the founding of these institutions, the United States joined the rest of the developed world in providing state subsidy to creative endeavors. Direct government support of the arts petered out after the Cold War, during which fear of a Soviet planet prompted a variety of cultural outreach programs at the behest of the State Department, a concerted effort to contrast American dynamism to the drab Eastern Bloc.


pages: 760 words: 218,087

The Pentagon: A History by Steve Vogel

Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, cuban missile crisis, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration

McCloy, an astute Wall Street lawyer, had been recruited by Stimson earlier that year and quickly earned a reputation as the secretary’s top troubleshooter. Stimson told McCloy they needed someone with the “necessary drive” to speed up the construction program. “If only a good man could be found the problem would be solved,” Stimson said. But who? The secretary’s attention was directed to a dynamic Army Corps of Engineers lieutenant colonel, Brehon Somervell, who had turned around the Works Progress Administration program in New York City in four years as administrator. Stimson instructed McCloy to check with his New York connections about Somervell’s temperament and ability. McCloy found Somervell had a “reputation as a driver and almost fearless energetic builder…. They all added up to the conviction that whatever the form of the organization, he was the man to head it.” Somervell was already slotted for a humdrum assignment with a training command in the Midwest, but Marshall intervened.

Stimson wanted to see this man for himself. I suppose the fellow who built the Pyramids was efficient, too None of Brehon Somervell’s seven predecessors had fared well trying to tame New York City’s work-relief system. “Several had resigned in despair or disgust, one had died, probably of overwork, and none had lasted a year,” the New Yorker noted. There was no doubt that the New York office of the Works Progress Administration—the New Deal agency providing emergency public employment for the nation’s jobless—was in dire need of assistance. The New York WPA was one of the largest employers in the nation, providing jobs for 200,000 workers, and it spent one out of every seven WPA dollars in the nation. The program was grossly inefficient, in part because of its immensity but also because the city was home to powerful unions and left-wing parties that drew their support from the huge ranks of unemployed.


pages: 913 words: 219,078

The Marshall Plan: Dawn of the Cold War by Benn Steil

Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, imperial preference, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, open economy, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, Transnistria, Winter of Discontent, Works Progress Administration, éminence grise

Many questioned the Plan’s economic premises. New York representative John Taber said he had seen no “underfed people” in his European travels. Their problem was that they were simply “not working as hard or as vigorously as they should. We in the United States,” he said, “got where we are because we worked harder.”54 Nevada senator George Malone attacked the Plan as a “World-wide WPA scheme,” referring to Roosevelt’s Works Progress Administration, the largest New Deal agency. There was, he said, “no call for the United States to finance socialism all over Europe.”55 New York representative Jacob Javits, who acknowledged that Europe “desperately needed” aid, warned that “the threat of the continent going Communist must not scare the United States into doing something unwise or uneconomic.”56 Ohio representative George H. Bender assailed “the Truman Administration’s reckless policy of foreign expenditures,” which the president, he said, justified by creating “synthetic” crises.57 Michigan senator Homer Ferguson argued that loans should be extended only to companies operating in Europe, rather than their governments, as aid to governments only served to undermine free enterprise.58 This was no way, he said, “to develop democracy or fight communism.”59 Others demanded that any new foreign aid be tied to domestic demands: “No tax relief, no European relief!”

., 3, 12, 67, 86–87, 90, 103–4, 149, 151–52, 206, 228, 242 Warsaw Pact (1955), 275, 277, 379, 383–84, 387, 392, 393, 399 Washington, George, 1, 3, 13, 27, 43, 97, 320 Washington Daily News, 45 Washington Post, 45, 104, 193, 213 Waterloo, Battle of, 132 Webb, James, 319–20, 325 Wellstone, Paul, 393, 431 Western Union Defence Organization, 251–52, 253 wheat, 170, 243–44, 298, 353 Wherry, Kenneth, 225–26, 431 White, Harry Dexter, 8–9, 11, 39, 89, 108, 270, 372, 431 White, Theodore, 193 White, William, 193, 431 Wiley, Alexander, 223, 431 Wilson, Woodrow, 2, 88, 431 winter conditions (1947), 346, 569n–70n Wisner, Frank, 271, 315–16, 431 Women’s National Democratic Club, 201 Workers’ Party, 168 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 192 World Bank, 137, 197, 341, 569n World Trade Organization (WTO), 373 World War I, 1–2, 6–7, 17, 23, 61, 62, 71, 88, 101, 336, 358, 393 World War II, 1–2, 6–7, 15–16, 39, 44, 74, 215, 241–42, 296, 317, 326, 342, 344, 357, 369 World War III, 51, 52, 69, 231, 248, 250, 256, 258, 278, 279–80, 281, 287, 294, 317, 332 Wörner, Manfred, 398, 431 Wrong, Humphrey Hume, 309, 432 “X” (George Kennan), 30–32, 255–56, 326, 328 Yalta Conference (1945), 3, 6, 24, 47, 58, 61–62, 74, 75, 79, 82, 88, 128, 202, 205–6, 223, 241, 255, 268, 269, 277, 279, 281, 341, 356 Yanukovych, Viktor, 397, 432 Yeltsin, Boris, 385, 387, 388, 391, 432 Yezhov, Nikolai, 339, 432 Yugoslavia, 16, 40, 48, 78–79, 93, 119, 133, 136, 148, 185, 193, 228, 245, 278, 331, 372, 392, 399 Zenkl, Petr, 143–44, 236, 432 Zhdanov, Andrei, 180, 181–85, 186, 230, 235, 257, 432, 509n Zhukov, Georgy, 64, 65, 78, 107, 337, 357, 432 Zorin, Valerian, 237, 238–39, 432 ILLUSTRATION CREDITS INTERIOR p. xiv: AFP/Getty Images, http://www.gettyimages.com/license/159224463 p. 14: Public Domain p. 54: Everett Collection Inc.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

But neither, given the historical trend, is there any rational argument against enlarging the federal payroll to make room for a jobs program that would provide time-limited work for middle-and lower-income people struggling to find employment. This program would be especially helpful during recessions, but given routine job dislocations even in flush times, it would also be helpful during economic expansions. (Ehrenreich did the reporting for Nickel and Dimed, it’s worth remembering, during the tech boom.) The New Deal’s Works Progress Administration (later called the Work Projects Administration) is an obvious model. During the Great Depression it built roads and bridges, provided social services, and even made some lasting contributions to the arts. (Today the urgent public-works need isn’t the creation of new roads and bridges but the repair of existing infrastructure.) Over the course of its seven-year life the WPA created 3 million jobs per year at a cost of $10.7 billion, or the equivalent of $171 billion today.


pages: 288 words: 92,175

Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, From Missiles to the Moon to Mars by Nathalia Holt

Bill Gates: Altair 8800, British Empire, computer age, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, financial independence, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, labor-force participation, low earth orbit, Mars Rover, music of the spheres, new economy, operation paperclip, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Steve Jobs, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra

Early astronomers needed computers in the 1700s to predict the return of Halley’s Comet. During World War I, groups of men and women worked as “ballistic computers,” calculating the range of rifles, machine guns, and mortars on the battlefield. During the Depression era, 450 people worked for the U.S. government as computers, 76 of them women. These computers, meagerly paid as part of the Works Progress Administration, created something special. They filled twenty-eight volumes with rows and rows of numbers, eventually published by the Columbia University Press as the plainly named Mathematical Tables Project series. What they couldn’t know was that these books, filled to the brim with logarithms, exponential functions, and trigonometry, would one day be critical to our first steps into space. The dream of space exploration was what initially tugged at the Suicide Squad.


pages: 294 words: 96,661

The Fourth Age: Smart Robots, Conscious Computers, and the Future of Humanity by Byron Reese

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cognitive bias, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, estate planning, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, full employment, Hans Rosling, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mary Lou Jepsen, Moravec's paradox, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Another way to guarantee employment is for the government to hire the unemployed, as it did in the Depression. The government, as an employer of last resort, could hire 10 million people, pay them each $35,000 a year, and administer the program for about 3 percent of GNP. Just imagine how 10 million people could be put to work: building infrastructure, painting murals, planting saplings, and a million other activities that are in no sense “useless jobs.” During the Depression, the Works Progress Administration was able to employ millions and use their combined labor to bring the nineteenth-century infrastructure of the United States into the twentieth century. A similar effort to vault us into the twenty-first might just be due. What social forces would be against a UBI? Wouldn’t the wealthy be against it? Perhaps. But the prospect of having to live barricaded away from an increasingly rowdy mob might be incentive enough for some to get behind the UBI.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Ultimately, these programs were merged into the Resettlement Administration and then the Farm Security Administration, and included not only cooperative communities but also planned suburban settlements.22 Relief also meant having the government directly employ millions of people, setting an example for future administrations that government-sponsored public service was possible and beneficial.23 The Public Works Administration (PWA), later renamed the Works Progress Administration (WPA), employed 8 million people and spent over $10 billion on roads, bridges, post offices, stadiums, and airports.24 It employed writers, artists, actors, musicians, and historians in the largest government-funded cultural project in the history of the United States. The interviews that historians conducted with former slaves have been a cornerstone of historical research on slavery since their publication, helping to counteract an interpretation of slavery that included almost no African American voices.


pages: 366 words: 109,117

Higher: A Historic Race to the Sky and the Making of a City by Neal Bascomb

buttonwood tree, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, hiring and firing, margin call, market bubble, Ralph Waldo Emerson, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

., Skyscrapers: A Social History of the Very Tall Building in America (McFarland & Company, 1996) Einbinder, Harvey, An American Genius: Frank Lloyd Wright (Philosophical Library, 1986) Eksteins, Modris, Rites of Spring: the Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age (Houghton Mifflin, 1989) Ellis, Edward Robb, The Epic of New York City (Coward-McCann, 1966) Emery, Edwin, and Henry Ladd Smith, The Press and America (Prentice-Hall, 1954) Empire State, Inc., Commemorating the Completion of Empire State (1931) ———, Empire State: A History (Selecting Printing Company, 1931) Federal Writers’ Project of the Works Progress Administration in New York City, The WPA Guide to New York City: A Comprehensive Guide to the Five Boroughs of the Metropolis—Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, and Richmond (The New Press, 1992) Fenske, Gail G., The “Skyscraper Problem” and the City Beautiful: The Woolworth Building (Arizona State University, Ph.D. dissertation, 1988) Ferriss, Hugh, The Metropolis of Tomorrow (I. Washburn, 1929) Fitzgerald, F.


Lonely Planet's Best of USA by Lonely Planet

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, mass immigration, obamacare, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration

National output fell by 50%, hundreds of banks shuttered, and great swaths of the country seemed to disappear beneath enormous dust storms. Franklin D Roosevelt, elected president in 1932, helped rescue the nation from collapse. He bailed out banks, saved homeowners from foreclosure and added millions of jobs. He created massive projects like the Civilian Conservation Corps, which planted more than two billion trees, and the Works Progress Administration, a 600,000-strong workforce that built bridges, dams and other infrastructure. Brown vs Board of Education National Historic Site / WALTER BIBIKOW / GETTY IMAGES © Great Depression, the New Deal & World War II In October 1929, investors, worried about a gloomy global economy, started selling stocks. But all that selling caused everyone to panic, until they’d sold everything.


pages: 364 words: 108,237

Janesville: An American Story by Amy Goldstein

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, job-hopping, mass affluent, payday loans, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

It may be the most rain to fall on Janesville in a century, but, compared with the elusive matter of how to prevent thousands of jobs from vanishing, this is a challenge that he and his industrious city know how to tackle. Bob pivots away from the scared autoworkers to focus on nailing down an emergency grant for flood-devastated communities. The federal grant will allow the Job Center to create, in an echo of the Great Depression’s Works Progress Administration, a brigade to tackle the slow, mucky work of repairs. Yet a grant for the Job Center can’t tame nature. The Rock River rushes so hard and so high that it washes fish off course. Carp are now swimming on Main Street. Near the street’s northern end, in the flooded parking lot of the United Way of North Rock County, the carp find a favorite new spawning ground. Hearing about the misdirected fish, people in town regard it as a spectacle, not a disaster.


pages: 431 words: 106,435

How the Post Office Created America: A History by Winifred Gallagher

British Empire, California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, clean water, collective bargaining, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, white flight, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

Moreover, at a time when the arts were mostly a privilege of the rich, these handsome new post offices were adorned with murals that celebrated average folk and their local history. As FDR explained, this artwork for the people would be “native, human, eager and alive—all of it painted by their own kind in their own country, and painted about things they know and look at often and have touched and loved.” These postal murals are often attributed to the Works Progress Administration, but they were done under the aegis of the Treasury Department’s Section of Painting and Sculpture, which was less concerned with employing starving artists than with boosting beleaguered America’s morale. FDR took an especially keen interest in three of six new post offices designed for New York’s Dutchess County, his aristocratic family’s ancestral turf. The towns of Poughkeepsie and Rhinebeck were just miles away from the Roosevelts’ home in the village of Hyde Park, situated on the old thoroughfare that had first been called the King’s Highway, then the Albany Post Road.


pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

In the wake of decolonisation, however, most Latin American countries were controlled by autocratic governments, and by the early 20th century the United States began to exert a strong influence over the region. 4  ‘These measures, he said …’ Keynes outlined these ideas in 1933 in The Means to Prosperity (copies of which were sent to the governments of Britain and the United States), and more thoroughly in 1936 in his famous text The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. 5  ‘When Franklin Delano Roosevelt came …’ The Works Progress Administration was established in 1939 to employ unemployed citizens in public works projects. 6  ‘When the Second World War …’ The Roosevelt administration raised the top marginal tax rate to 75 per cent in 1939, and then to 94 per cent in 1944. It remained above 90 per cent until the mid-1960s. 7  ‘This new system relied on …’ In the United States, the key piece of legislation was the National Labor Relations Act of 1935, which facilitated trade unions and collective bargaining. 8  ‘Middle-class women, for example …’ Consider, for instance, Betty Friedan’s critique of women’s social subordination in her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. 9  ‘The progressive political parties that …’ See, for example, Frederick Cooper, Decolonization and African Society (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996). 10 ‘The policy suspended the long …’ In 1933 the United States signed the Convention on the Rights and Duties of States.


Western USA by Lonely Planet

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, edge city, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, Maui Hawaii, off grid, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Grace Cathedral CHURCH ( 415-749-6300; www.gracecathedral.com; 1100 California St; suggested donation adult/child $3/2; 7am-6pm Mon-Fri, from 8am Sat, 8am-7pm Sun, services with choir 8:30am & 11am Sun) Take a shortcut to heaven: hop the cable car uphill to SF’s progressive Episcopal church, where the AIDS Interfaith Memorial Chapel features a bronze Keith Haring altarpiece; stained-glass ‘Human Endeavor’ windows illuminate Albert Einstein in a swirl of nuclear particles; and pavement labyrinths offer guided meditation for restless souls. FISHERMAN’S WHARF Aquatic Park Bathhouse HISTORIC BUILDING ( 415-447-5000; www.nps.gov/safr; 499 Jefferson St, at Hyde St; 10am-4pm) A monumental hint to sailors in need of a scrub, this recently restored, ship-shape 1939 streamline moderne landmark is decked out with Works Progress Administration (WPA) art treasures: playful seal and frog sculptures by Beniamino Bufano, Hilaire Hiler’s surreal underwater dreamscape murals and recently uncovered wood reliefs by Richard Ayer. Acclaimed African American artist Sargent Johnson created the stunning carved green slate marquee doorway and the verandah’s mesmerizing aquatic mosaics, which he deliberately left unfinished on the east side to protest plans to include a private restaurant in this public facility.

This incredible library contains more than 3.5 million genealogy-related microfilms, microfiches, books and other records gathered from more than 110 countries. GREATER DOWNTOWN State Capitol HISTORIC BUILDING (www.utahstatecapitol.utah.gov; admission free; 8am-8pm Mon-Fri, 8am-6pm Sat & Sun) The grand, 1916 State Capitol is set among 500 cherry trees on a hill north of Temple Sq. Inside, colorful Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals of pioneers, trappers and missionaries adorn part of the building’s dome. Free hourly tours (from 9am to 4pm) start at the 1st-floor visitor center. Pioneer Memorial Museum MUSEUM (WWW.DUPINTERNATIONAL.ORG; 300 N MAIN ST; ADMISSION FREE; 9am-5pm Mon-Sat year-round, 1-5pm Sun Jun-Aug) Vast, four-story treasure trove of pioneer artifacts. City Creek PLAZA (Social Hall Ave, btwn Regent & Richards Sts) This LDS-funded, 20-acre pedestrian plaza with fountains, restaurants and retail along City Creek was under construction at the time of research.


pages: 376 words: 118,542

Free to Choose: A Personal Statement by Milton Friedman, Rose D. Friedman

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, Corn Laws, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, invisible hand, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The New Deal also included programs to provide security against misfortune, notably Social Security (OASI: Old Age and Survivors Insurance), unemployment insurance, and public assistance. This chapter discusses these measures and their later progeny. The New Deal also included programs intended to be strictly temporary, designed to deal with the emergency situation created by the Great Depression. Some of the temporary programs became permanent, as is the way with government programs. The most important temporary programs included "make work" projects under the Works Progress Administration, the use of unemployed youth to improve the national parks and forests under the Civilian Conservation Corps, and direct federal relief to the indigent. At the time, these programs served a useful function. There was distress on a vast scale; it was important to do something about that distress promptly, both to assist the people in distress and to restore hope and confidence to the public.


pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

affirmative action, business cycle, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

However, they maintain that their proposal is an improvement over the current system, “which offers a minimum wage if you find a job, but leaves millions of poor persons searching for work and many others poor even though they have jobs.” The final proposal under consideration here was advanced by the perceptive journalist Mickey Kaus of The New Republic. Kaus’s proposal is modeled on the Works Progress Administration (WPA), a large public works program announced in 1935 by Franklin D. Roosevelt in his State of the Union address. The public works jobs that Roosevelt had in mind included highway construction, slum clearance, housing construction, rural electrification, and so on. As Kaus points out: In its eight-year existence, according to official records, the WPA built or improved 651,000 miles of roads, 953 airports, 124,000 bridges and viaducts, 1,178,000 culverts, 8,000 parks, 18,000 playgrounds and athletic fields, and 2,000 swimming pools.


pages: 347 words: 112,727

Rust: The Longest War by Jonathan Waldman

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Anton Chekhov, computer age, David Brooks, digital map, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Golden Gate Park, index card, Isaac Newton, Mason jar, pez dispenser, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Works Progress Administration, Y2K

She’d been built in 1886, on top of Fort Wood, on Bedloe’s Island, and after two weeks of orphanage, was initially overseen by the US Light-House Board, which was part of the Treasury Department. She spent fifteen years in that agency’s care, and then twenty-three years under the War Department, before she was declared a national monument. Nine years later she was transferred to the National Park Service. In other words, a half century transpired before anyone with a sense of preservation took over caring for her. One of the first things the NPS did, with the Works Progress Administration, in 1937, was replace parts of her corroded iron frame. Good preservationists, they replaced iron bars with similar iron bars. But, because all of the work was done from the inside of the statue, they used self-tapping screws, rather than rivets. You could say they botched the job. Since then, the statue hadn’t received much better care; the monument hadn’t had an official superintendent since August 1964.


Chasing the Moon: The People, the Politics, and the Promise That Launched America Into the Space Age by Robert Stone, Alan Andres

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, feminist movement, invention of the telephone, low earth orbit, more computing power than Apollo, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, out of africa, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, traveling salesman, Works Progress Administration

Exasperated, Gernsback summoned Lasser into his office and told him, “If you like working with the unemployed so much, I suggest you go and join them.” Fired by the world’s leading publisher of science fiction, Lasser’s short career as America’s first advocate for space travel came to an end as well. His career change took him to an important job in Washington, D.C., where he was tapped to run the Workers Alliance of America, a trade union for those temporarily employed by the Works Progress Administration of President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal. At nearly the same moment that he dismissed David Lasser, Gernsback made a second decision that would significantly impact the life of Archie Clarke, a continent away. Eager to increase customer loyalty for his magazines, Gernsback introduced a readers’ club, the Science Fiction League, the world’s first science-fiction fan organization.


pages: 406 words: 115,719

The Case Against Sugar by Gary Taubes

Albert Einstein, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, epigenetics, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, the new new thing, the scientific method, Works Progress Administration

Russell suggested that some item of the diet was “markedly flesh-producing,” but without making any speculations about what it might be. Hrdlička had also weighed and measured some 250 Pima children, equally split between boys and girls, and reported that these children were lean, if not very lean (on average), by today’s standards. In 1938, a University of Arizona anthropologist weighed over two hundred Papago men applying for jobs in the Works Progress Administration and recorded that they, too, were lean, with an average weight of 158 pounds. Surveys of Papago children in the early 1940s and again in 1949 made no mention of obesity, although average weights increased by twenty pounds or more in both boys and girls between the two surveys. As for diabetes, if it was present among the Pima in the early years of the twentieth century, neither Russell nor Hrdlička had thought it worth mention.


pages: 457 words: 125,329

Value of Everything: An Antidote to Chaos The by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cleantech, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, European colonialism, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, Google Hangouts, Growth in a Time of Debt, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interest rate derivative, Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, rent control, rent-seeking, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software patent, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

It is wrong to interpret him as believing that what is needed from policy is to simply fix what the private sector does not do, or does badly, or at best invest ‘counter-cyclically' (i.e. increase investments during the downside of the business cycle). After the Great Depression, he claimed that even paying men simply to dig ditches and fill them up again could revive the economy - but his work inspired Roosevelt to be more ambitious than just advocating what today would be called ‘shovel-ready projects' (easy infrastructure). The New Deal included creative activities under the Works Progress Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Youth Administration. Equally, it is not enough to create money in the economy through quantitative easing; what is needed is the creation of new opportunities for investment and growth - infrastructure and finance must be embedded within the greater systemic plans for change. President John F. Kennedy, who hoped to send the first US astronaut to the moon, used bold language when talking about the need for government to be mission-oriented.


pages: 369 words: 121,161

Alistair Cooke's America by Alistair Cooke

Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, interchangeable parts, joint-stock company, Maui Hawaii, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

He had in the meantime shoved through Congress huge federal loans for public works, and at the same time he gave the industrial worker who had been hounded by company spies the right to organize and bargain. He handed out hard dollars to the unemployed and took three million youngsters off the streets to build highways and plant ten million trees. He mobilized actors in a federal theater and, in the happiest inspiration of the Works Progress Administration, hired unemployed scholars, writers, and local historians to produce several hundred volumes of guidebooks to the states. He stopped the automatic production of groaning farm surpluses, paid the Southern farmers to diversify their crops and built enormous dams to hold the flooding of the great river valleys – and then made the valleys flower through electricity and controlled irrigation.


pages: 415 words: 119,277

Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Instead the media presented a new Brooklyn with a different kind of authenticity that had little to do with its old working-class and ethnic origins. “Brooklyn-ness,” as the New York Times art critic Holland Cotter wrote in 2004, is now “a cultural ethnicity.”10 The contentious fate of the McCarren Park pool, a public recreational facility on the border between Williamsburg and Greenpoint, reflects this dramatic shift in Brooklyn’s image. Built by Robert Moses in the 1930s with funds from the federal Works Progress Administration, the swimming pool served an overcrowded tenement district of the working poor. During hot summer months in the 1930s and 1940s more than six thousand swimmers a day would pass through the majestic arch of its entry pavilion. In the 1970s, though, when more black and Puerto Rican residents moved into nearby neighborhoods and began to use the pool, racial conflicts broke out over who belonged there, as well as over who was responsible for mounting incidents of crime and vandalism.


pages: 385 words: 123,168

Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber

1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise

One reason it has been so little acknowledged, I think, is that under our current economic system, this is precisely what is not supposed to happen: in the same way as the fact that so many people feel so unhappy being paid to do nothing defies our common assumptions about human nature, the fact that so many people are being paid to do nothing in the first place defies all our assumptions about how market economies are supposed to work. For much of the twentieth century, state Socialist regimes dedicated to full employment created bogus jobs as a matter of public policy, and their social democratic rivals in Europe and elsewhere at least colluded in featherbedding and overstaffing in the public sector or with government contractors, when they weren’t establishing self-conscious make-work programs like the Works Progress Administration (WPA), as the United States did at the height of the Great Depression. All of this was supposed to have ended with the collapse of the Soviet bloc and worldwide market reforms in the nineties. If the joke under the Soviet Union was “We pretend to work; they pretend to pay us,” the new neoliberal age was supposed to be all about efficiency. But if patterns of employment are anything to go by, this seems to be exactly the opposite of what actually happened after the Berlin Wall came down in 1989.


pages: 424 words: 119,679

It's Better Than It Looks: Reasons for Optimism in an Age of Fear by Gregg Easterbrook

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, coronavirus, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, failed state, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Chicago School, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The New Deal introduced the notion of income-transfer programs, principally Social Security, enacted in 1935. (Canada already had a similar system; today all developed nations do.) New Deal legislation transferred money in other ways, including the National Industrial Recovery Act, whose primary purpose was to raise prices—today this sounds daft, but made sense for the conditions of the time—plus the 1935 bill that created the Works Progress Administration and the 1939 food stamps legislation. Federal intervention in the marketplace both helped the economy recover from the Depression and put inequality on a slope of decline, by transferring income toward the lower quintiles. By the 1960s, inequality was rising again and government intervened again, through enactment of Medicare and Medicaid, plus a range of social welfare programs, including cash payments, housing vouchers, and federal, state, and local funding for construction of low-income housing.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the sewing machine, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, undersea cable, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management

One Wyoming ranch woman called the day when electricity arrived my Day of Days because lights shone where lights had never been, the electric stove radiated heat, the washer turned, and an electric pump freed me from hauling water. The old hand pump is buried under six feet of snow, let it stay there! Good bye Old Toilet on the Hill! With the advent of the REA, that old book that was my life is closed and Book II is begun.77 Other New Deal programs were developed to provide jobs and reduce unemployment. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) at its peak in 1938 created 3 million jobs, equal to about 7 percent of the labor force. The WPA specialized in infrastructure—roads and public buildings—and is credited with constructing many of today’s U.S. post offices.78 The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) hired mainly young men, limited in number to 330,000 at any one time, to do manual work that focused on the planting of trees, increasing the amenities of national parks, and otherwise improving the infrastructure of government-owned land.

., 201 War of 1812, 4 washing machines, 121, 356–60 water, 57, 95; diffusion of running water in homes, 114; for farmhouses, 113; fluoridation of, 486–87; indoor plumbing, 122–25; mortality rates and, 215–16; running water, 216–17 water systems, 51 Watson (computer program), 593 Watt, James, 568 WCBW (television station), 413 wealth, 620 Weber, Adna, 104 Welty, Eudora, 166 Western Union, 179 Westinghouse, George, 192 Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, 128, 192 Wetzel, Donald, 450 Wheatstone, Charles, 177 White Castle (restaurant firm), 76, 167 white-collar employment, 256; in 1870, 56; after 1940, 501–3; gender differences in, 509 whites: families among, 631; as homicide victims, 241; life expectancy among, 210; literacy rates among, 174–75; Murray on decline of, 632 Whole Foods, 343 Wiener, Norbert, 592 Wi-Fi, on airplanes, 406–7 Wikipedia, 456, 579 Wilde, Oscar, 219 Wilson, Woodrow, 261 Windows 95 (operating system), 454 window screens, 113, 207 wireless telephony (radio), 21, 191, 192, 197 Wise, David, 493 The Wizard of Oz (film), 202, 421 WNBT (television station), 413 Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), 223 women: birth control for, 486; childbirth by, 229–31; clothing for (1870), 43; in colleges, 510–12; elderly, in labor force, 253; as housewives, 275–78; in labor force, 32–34, 248, 286–87, 326, 499, 504–10, 521, 526, 628, 642; in Ladies’ Protective Health Association, 221; market-purchased clothing for, 85–88; medical care for, 477; participation in labor force of, 249–50; ratio of men to, 630–31; social life of (1870), 49–50; tastes in clothing for, 350; teenagers (1870), 58; trapped at home (1870), 106; as victims of violence, 475–76; work hours of, 260; in working class (1870), 56; work of, 273–74 Wood, Edith Elmer, 303 Woolworth Building (New York), 90 Woolworth’s (chain stores), 90 Worcestershire sauce, 73 WordPerfect (word processing software), 453 word processors, 452 work: in 1870, 52–57; from 1870 to 1940, 254–58; after 1940, 498–504, 526; of American farmer, 261–66; by children, 282–85; in iron and steel industries, 267–69; in mining industry, 266–67; quality of, 10; wages for, 278–82; of women, 273–74; work week and hours, 258–61; See also employment workers’ compensation (WC), 230, 272–73 workforce. See labor force working class: American, versus European (1870), 29; housing for, 102–4, 111; life of (1870), 56–57; Riis on, 97 working hours, 10, 258–61, 325; in 1940, 520; decline in, 13–14, 326–27; eight-hour day, 543 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 315 World War II: aircraft production during, 397; contribution to Great Leap of, 537; economy during, 548–53; food rationing during, 335; Great Leap Forward and, 563–64; movies during, 414–15; productivity increase during, 18, 540, 546–47; radio news broadcasts of, 197, 413–14; women in labor force during, 504 World Wide Web, 454, 459; See also Internet Wozniak, Steve, 452 Wright Brothers, 568 Xerox Company, 442, 451 X-rays, 226 yellow journalism, 177 Young, David M., 144 youth: in 1870, 58–59; in labor force, 248, 251–52; social media used by, 457; after World War II, 499–500 YouTube, 456 zoning laws, 649 Zuckerberg, Mark, 457, 567 Zworykin, Vladimir, 412–14 THE PRINCETON ECONOMIC HISTORY OF THE WESTERN WORLD Joel Mokyr, Series Editor Growth in a Traditional Society: The French Countryside, 1450–1815 by Philip T.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

Roosevelt held that the free market should always be adjusted and regulated by government to meet the social needs of society. In his annual message to Congress in 1935, FDR argued that “Americans must forswear the conception of the acquisition of wealth which, through excessive profits, creates undue private power over private affairs and, to our misfortune, over public affairs as well.” His Works Progress Administration, ostensibly a massive employment relief program, also funded films, plays, and art projects dedicated to driving home this new message to a disheartened public. Murals depicted people working together to build bridges and grow food, while movies celebrated the communities and cooperatives that defined New Deal America. Corporations fought back. Edward Bernays, once an operative for Woodrow Wilson, turned against government and, along with other corporate public-relations men, sought to discredit FDR’s collectivism by showing how it threatened the personal freedom of individuals.


pages: 495 words: 138,188

The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, borderless world, business cycle, central bank independence, Corn Laws, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, inflation targeting, joint-stock company, Kula ring, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price mechanism, profit motive, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Whitbread’s minimum wage proposal, 112 Wicksell, Knut, 212 Wieser, Friedrich von, 212 Williams, F. E., 301–302 Wilson, Rev. Edward, 297, 300 Wilson, Woodrow, 23, 24 Wissel, Clark, 301 Wood, J., 297 Woollen industry, 36, 39, 77 Working class. See Labour. Workmen’s Compensation, 153–154 Workmen’s Compensation Act, 153–154 Workers’ Educational Association, 11 World War I, 21–22, 24, 197, 199, 221; compared with World War II, 30 W. P. A. (Works Progress Administration), 288 Wright, Quincy, 273 Young, Arthur, 112, 288, 289 Young, Sir W., 297 Young Plan, 224 Zamindar, 158 Zapotec Indians, 302 Zeisel, Hans, 11 Beacon Press 25 Beacon Street Boston, Massachusetts 02108–2892 www.beacon.org Beacon Press books are published under the auspices of the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations. © 1944, 1957, 2001 by Karl Polanyi First Beacon Paperback edition published in 1957 Second Beacon Paperback edition published in 2001 All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America 12 11 10 13 12 11 This book is printed on acid-free paper that meets the uncoated paper ANSI/NISO specifications for permanence as revised in 1992.


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, longitudinal study, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

The Corporation’s subsidiaries included the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Electric Home and Farm 286 NOTES TO PAGES 32 – 3 4 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. Authority, the RFC Mortgage Company, the Federal National Mortgage Association, and the Export-Import Bank. Its loans fiÂ�nanced New Deal programs like the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and the Works Progress Administration. Torbjorn Sirevag, The Eclipse of the New Deal (New York: Garland, 1985), 79; Timmons, Jesse H. Jones, 279–82. Bethany E. Moreton, “The Soul of the Service Economy: Wal-Mart and the Making of Christian Free Enterprise” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 2006), 47–49. Jesse H. Jones to the American Bankers Association, Chicago, September 5, 1933, quoted in Timmons, Jesse H. Jones, 200. Jesse H.


pages: 526 words: 155,174

Sixty Days and Counting by Kim Stanley Robinson

different worldview, dumpster diving, energy security, full employment, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, off grid, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, urban decay, Works Progress Administration

Let’s admit the free market botched this and we need to put our house in order. Health shouldn’t be something that can bankrupt you. It’s not a market commodity. Admitting that and moving on would remove one of the greatest fears of all. Another thing we could do would be to institute full employment. Government of the people, by the people, and for the people could offer jobs to everyone who wants one. It would be like the Works Progress Administration during the Depression, only more wide-ranging. Because there’s an awful lot of work that needs doing, and we’ve got the resources to get things started. We could do it. One of the more interesting aspects of full employment as an idea is how quickly it reveals the fear that lies at the heart of our current system. You’ll notice that anytime unemployment drops below 5 percent the stock market begins to flag, because capital has begun to worry that lower unemployment will mean “wage pressure,” meaning management faces a shortage in supply of labor and has to demand it, has to bid for it, pay more in competition, and wages therefore go up—and profits down.


pages: 501 words: 145,097

The Men Who United the States: America's Explorers, Inventors, Eccentrics and Mavericks, and the Creation of One Nation, Indivisible by Simon Winchester

British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, distributed generation, Donner party, estate planning, Etonian, full employment, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, James Watt: steam engine, Joi Ito, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

There were as many as a hundred such bodies, some of them so small and hidden from view as to escape government audit; some massive, with gigantic budgets that were rammed through Congress by presidential fiat (and later found to have been unconstitutional—except that by then they had done their job of helping lift America out of the Depression). The bigger of the alphabet agencies ranged from the AAA, the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, a vital part of FDR’s farm-relief program, down to the WPA, the Works Progress Administration. For eight years, the WPA provided gainful employment for millions of jobless Americans, undertaking all manner of public works. Writers wrote government-supported books, poets performed in government-backed slams, and artists and musicians were commissioned to beautify hitherto unadorned corners of federally administered property. Buried deep within this thick catalog of big government is the one agency that amply settled the hash of such profiteers as Samuel Insull.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Coughlin started out as a fan of FDR, declaring that “the New Deal is Christ’s deal,” but, unsurprisingly given Coughlin’s overtowering ego and idiosyncratic politics, the two soon fell out, and Coughlin lambasted Roosevelt as an agent of various international conspiracies. FDR dealt with these criticisms by introducing the second New Deal—Social Security to provide a safety net, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) to provide an economic stimulus, and rights for trade unions—to provide a payback to some of his strongest supporters. The Social Security bill, unveiled on January 17, 1935, and enacted into law seven months later on August 14, was by far the most significant of these measures because it was intended to provide a permanent entitlement rather than a short-term stimulus to the economy.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

The New Deal in the United States started to follow this prescription. Welfare legislation had been much more common in Europe than in the United States with its traditional partiality to individual liberty and self-help. In his famous “first hundred days,” President Franklin Delano Roosevelt shepherded through Congress laws giving direct relief to the jobless. Next came funding for work projects, later incorporated into the Works Progress Administration and the Public Works Administration, which built everything from aircraft carriers to schools, bridges, and roads. Millions entered the government’s payroll, constructing post offices, public art, and conservation projects. The major effort to coordinate industrial policies, the National Recovery Act, ran afoul of one of the strongest and most distinctive American values, the commitment to freedom over social planning, to individual rights over the general welfare.


Frommer's San Diego 2011 by Mark Hiss

airport security, California gold rush, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

You can also check out the HMS Surprise, which had a star turn in the film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World; a Soviet-era B-39 attack submarine; the Californian, a replica of a 19th-century revenue cutter; the Medea, a 1904 steam yacht; and the Pilot, which served as San Diego Bay’s official pilot boat for 82 years. From this vantage point, you get a fine view of the: 2 County Administration Center This complex was built in 1936 with funds from the Works Progress Administration, and was dedicated in 1938 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The 23-foot-high granite sculpture in front, Guardian of Water, was completed by Donal Hord—San Diego’s most notable sculptor—in 1939; it depicts a stoic woman shouldering a water jug. The other side of the building features carefully tended gardens. On weekdays, the building is open from 8am to 5pm; there are restrooms and a cafeteria inside.


pages: 552 words: 163,292

Boom: Mad Money, Mega Dealers, and the Rise of Contemporary Art by Michael Shnayerson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, corporate raider, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, estate planning, Etonian, high net worth, index card, Jane Jacobs, mass immigration, NetJets, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, rent control, rolodex, Silicon Valley, tulip mania, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, Works Progress Administration

Willem de Kooning, a Waldorf regular, was 44 in April 1948 when Egan gave him his first show—a series of black-and-white paintings that led Irving Sandler to call him “the most influential artist of his generation.” The Dutch-born De Kooning had grown up working-class in Rotterdam and, unlike most American artists, had formally apprenticed at a commercial decorating firm, immersing himself in Art Nouveau. He had arrived in New York as a stowaway in 1926 and supported himself by doing commercial art through the twenties. During the Depression, he had worked as a Works Progress Administration (WPA) artist, but a growing passion for his own art relegated him to penury by the late 1930s. It was on the verge of World War II that De Kooning’s circle expanded with the arrival of kindred spirits from the chaos of Europe: Marcel Duchamp, Marc Chagall, and André Breton, among others. De Kooning’s work through the early 1940s produced often gloomy, figurative portraits, but these eventually began to give way to more tumultuous compositions.


Frommer's San Francisco 2012 by Matthew Poole, Erika Lenkert, Kristin Luna

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-work, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The tower that soars above the building was inspired by the Campanile of Venice and the Cathedral Tower in Seville. In 2003, a 4-year renovation was completed and the building is now a spectacular mixed-use landmark building featuring a 660-foot-long, skylit nave, which had been partially filled in and destroyed in the 1950s. If you stop by the Ferry Building, you might also want to go to Rincon Center, 99 Mission St., to see the WPA (Works Progress Administration) murals painted by the Russian artist Refregier in the post office. Several important buildings are on or near Nob Hill. The Flood Mansion, 2222 Broadway St., at Webster Street, was built between 1885 and 1886 for James Clair Flood. Thanks to the Comstock Lode, Flood rose from being a bartender to one of the city’s wealthiest men. He established the Nevada bank that later merged with Wells Fargo.


pages: 603 words: 186,210

Appetite for America: Fred Harvey and the Business of Civilizing the Wild West--One Meal at a Time by Stephen Fried

Albert Einstein, British Empire, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, estate planning, glass ceiling, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, indoor plumbing, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, refrigerator car, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

BY 1935, THE DEPRESSION seemed as if it might be starting to lift, in response to a barrage of economic innovations from Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal, which was entering its second phase. Some of the New Deal programs became permanent parts of the American economy, such as Social Security, the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the FDIC, which insured bank deposits. Others had lasting impact, like the Works Progress Administration, which among its many jobs programs created public art all across the country. And some were experiments that ultimately failed, including the price and wage controls attempted under the short-lived National Recovery Administration (NRA), an attempt to create a “code of fair competition” for each industry. While declared unconstitutional in 1935, some of the NRA rules lived on in the 1936 Robinson-Patman Act, which made “fair trade” the law of the land, prohibiting discount prices or rebates of any sort.


pages: 613 words: 181,605

Circle of Greed: The Spectacular Rise and Fall of the Lawyer Who Brought Corporate America to Its Knees by Patrick Dillon, Carl M. Cannon

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Bernie Madoff, buy and hold, collective bargaining, Columbine, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, desegregation, energy security, estate planning, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, index fund, John Markoff, mandatory minimum, margin call, Maui Hawaii, money market fund, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, the High Line, the market place, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Then he turned somber, recounting the assault on trial lawyers such as himself, during the current decade, by corporate and Wall Street interests, various would-be populists, and politicians of various stripes, particularly conservatives in and out of the Bush administration who, in the name of “tort reform,” were making it more and more difficult for attorneys to seek redress in the name of shareholders. “But remember, no good deed goes unpunished,” he had warned the future lawyers in Pittsburgh, not aware that his speech contained an element foreshadowing his own life. Cucinotta turned the limo off Wilshire toward the stodgy-looking federal district courthouse, a Depression-era Works Progress Administration project finished in 1940. Lerach had appeared in its courtrooms hundreds of times. Finally, a right turn to their destination, 255 East Temple Street, the address of the twenty-one-story modern office tower sheathed in red granite named the Edward R. Roybal Federal Building. Because of the size and scope of the Los Angeles federal court jurisdiction—it services nearly eighteen million residents and processes nearly 12,000 criminal and civil cases yearly—two buildings, the old courthouse and the Roybal Building, handle the load.


The Splendid and the Vile: A Saga of Churchill, Family, and Defiance During the Blitz by Erik Larson

Albert Einstein, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, plutocrats, Plutocrats, traveling salesman, union organizing, Works Progress Administration

“He was deplorably untidy; his clothes looked as though he was in the habit of sleeping in them, and his hat as though he made a point of sitting on it. He seemed so ill and frail that a puff of wind would blow him away.” Yet this was Harry Hopkins, the man Churchill would later describe as playing a decisive part in the war. Hopkins was fifty years old, and now served as Roosevelt’s personal adviser. Before this point, he had led three major programs of Roosevelt’s Depression-era New Deal, including the Works Progress Administration, or WPA, which put millions of unemployed Americans to work. Roosevelt named him secretary of commerce in 1938, a post he held well into 1940 despite declining health. Surgery for stomach cancer had left him plagued by a mysterious suite of ailments that in September 1939 led his doctors to give him only a few weeks to live. He rallied, and on May 10, 1940, the day Churchill became prime minister, Roosevelt invited him to stay at the White House.


pages: 612 words: 179,328

Buffett by Roger Lowenstein

asset allocation, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, cashless society, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate raider, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, index card, index fund, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, Jeffrey Epstein, John Meriwether, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Paul Samuelson, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Predators' Ball, traveling salesman, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-coupon bond

Loomis, “The Inside Story of Warren Buffett,” Fortune, April 11, 1988. 17. Warren’s sisters declined to discuss their mother’s “moods” in detail, but confirmed that Leila had such outbreaks and provided background. 18. Peter Buffett. 19. Stuart Erickson. 20. Arthur W. Baum, “Omaha,” Saturday Evening Post, September 10, 1949. 21. “Omaha: A Guide to the City and Environs” (unpublished, part of the American Guide Series, Federal Writers’ Project, Works Progress Administration, 1930s). For descriptions of Depression Omaha, see also A Comprehensive Program for Historic Preservation in Omaha (Omaha: Landmarks Heritage Preservation Commission, 1980); Baum, “Omaha”; Larsen and Cottrell, The Gate City; and Leighton, “Omaha, Nebraska.” 22. “Buffett Files for Congress, Fights ‘Political Servitude,’ ” Omaha World-Herald, June 29, 1942. 23. Davis, “Buffett Takes Stock.” 24.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

This incredible library contains more than 3.5 million genealogy-related microfilms, microfiches, books and other records gathered from more than 110 countries. GREATER DOWNTOWN State Capitol HISTORIC BUILDING (www.utahstatecapitol.utah.gov; admission free; 8am-8pm Mon-Fri, 8am-6pm Sat & Sun) The grand, 1916 State Capitol is set among 500 cherry trees on a hill north of Temple Sq. Inside, colorful Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals of pioneers, trappers and missionaries adorn part of the building’s dome. Free hourly tours (from 9am to 4pm) start at the 1st-floor visitor center. Pioneer Memorial Museum MUSEUM (www.dupinternational.org; 300 N Main St; admission free; 9am-5pm Mon-Sat year-round, 1-5pm Sun Jun-Aug) Vast, four-story treasure trove of pioneer artifacts. City Creek PLAZA (Social Hall Ave, btwn Regent & Richards Sts) This LDS-funded, 20-acre pedestrian plaza with fountains, restaurants and retail along City Creek was under construction at the time of research.

Grace Cathedral CHURCH Offline map Google map ( 415-749-6300; www.gracecathedral.com; 1100 California St; suggested donation adult/child $3/2; 7am-6pm Mon-Fri, from 8am Sat, 8am-7pm Sun, services with choir 8:30am & 11am Sun) Take a shortcut to heaven: hop the car uphill to SF’s progressive Episcopal church, where the AIDS Interfaith Memorial Chapel features a bronze Keith Haring altarpiece; stained-glass ‘Human Endeavor’ windows illuminate Albert Einstein in a swirl of nuclear particles; and pavement labyrinths offer guided meditation for restless souls. FISHERMAN’S WHARF Aquatic Park Bathhouse HISTORIC BUILDING Offline map Google map ( 415-447-5000; www.nps.gov/safr; 499 Jefferson St, at Hyde St; 10am-4pm) A monumental hint to sailors in need of a scrub, this recently restored, ship-shape 1939 streamline moderne landmark is decked out with Works Progress Administration (WPA) art treasures: playful seal and frog sculptures by Beniamino Bufano, Hilaire Hiler’s surreal underwater dreamscape murals and recently uncovered wood reliefs by Richard Ayer. Acclaimed African American artist Sargent Johnson created the stunning carved green slate marquee doorway and the verandah’s mesmerizing aquatic mosaics, which he deliberately left unfinished on the east side to protest plans to include a private restaurant in this public facility.

New York’s 1913 Armory Show was merely the first in a series of exhibitions evangelizing the radical aesthetic shifts of European modernism, and it was inevitable that American artists would begin to grapple with what they had seen. Alexander Calder, Joseph Cornell and Isamu Noguchi produced sculptures inspired by surrealism and constructivism; the precisionist paintings of Charles Demuth, Georgia O’Keeffe and Charles Sheeler combined realism with a touch of cubist geometry. In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration’s (WPA) Federal Art Project, part of FDR’s New Deal, commissioned murals, paintings and sculptures for public buildings nationwide. WPA artists borrowed from Soviet social realism and Mexican muralists to forge a socially engaged figurative style with regional flavor. Abstract Expressionism In the wake of WWII, American art underwent a sea change at the hands of New York school painters such as Franz Kline, Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko.


pages: 1,336 words: 415,037

The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, yellow journalism, zero-coupon bond

His mother told him this story, although, he notes, “she may have been garnishing it just a bit.” But others recall the notebook. 15. In letters like one to his son Clarence in January 1931, he analyzed the effect of railroad automation on unemployment and suggested that the best solution for the Great Depression was a great public-works project. It seems ironic that he and his son Howard became such foes of Roosevelt when he initiated the Works Progress Administration after the next election. 16. Ernest Buffett letter to Fred and Katherine Buffett, undated, “ten years after you were married,” circa June 1939. 17. He died young, in 1937, in an auto accident in Texas. 18. Coffee with Congress, radio interview with Howard, Leila, Doris, and Roberta Buffett, WRC Radio, October 18, 1947, Bill Herson, moderator. (Note: This description is based on a tape of the broadcast.) 19.

Omaha to Have Belated Party,” Omaha World-Herald, August 9, 1933; “Nebraska Would Have Voted Down Ten Commandments, Dry Head Says,” Omaha World-Herald, November 15, 1944; “Roosevelt Issues Plea for Repeal of Prohibition,” Associated Press, July 8, 1933, as printed in Omaha World-Herald. 26. U.S. and Nebraska Division of Agricultural Statistics, Nebraska Agricultural Statistics, Historical Record 1866–1954. Lincoln: Government Printing Office, 1957; Almanac for Nebraskans 1939, The Federal Writers’ Project Works Progress Administration, State of Nebraska; Clinton Warne, “Some Effects of the Introduction of the Automobile on Highways and Land Values in Nebraska,” Nebraska History quarterly, The Nebraska State Historical Society, Vol. 38, Number 1, March 1957, page 4. 27. In Kansas, a banker sent to foreclose on a farm turned up dead, shot full of .22-and .38-caliber bullets and dragged by his own car. “Forecloser on Farm Found Fatally Shot,” Omaha World-Herald, January 31, 1933.


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Yankees were “shrewd and set in their ways,” Poles “slow-witted” and “stubborn and phlegmatic,” Jews “ambitious” but “aggressive and loud,” Italians “slow learning” and “emotional and temperamental” but musically and artistically inclined, African-Americans were carefree and happy, and (like Italian children) gifted in music and art. Carl F. Butts and Joseph Young, “Education in Connecticut: A Study of Public, Parochial, and Sunday School Education in Connecticut, with Emphasis on the Ethnic Factors” (Peoples of Connecticut Ethnic Heritage Project, Works Progress Administration, Federal Writers’ Project, New Haven Division, April 1939), box 37, folder 134:5a, 264 –65; Manuscripts and Archives, University of Connecticut Libraries, Storrs. Lassonde, “Learning to Forget.” Enrollments in the elementary schools ranged from 100 to a few hundred pupils, and between 1,500 and 2,000 students attended the junior high schools. The enrollment at Hillhouse was 4,261, and enrollment at Commercial High School stood at 2,036 in 1930.


pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin

accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

., 342n8 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 27, 31 Toyota, 106, 207, 402n113 Trade Act (1934), 94, Trade Act (1974) 151, 156, 164 224–5 Trade Expansion Act (1962), 125 transnational capitalist class, 11, 345n26 Treasury, Department of (US), 10, 13–7, 21, 32, 42, 48–9, 86–7, 119, 123–30, 134, 145, 151, 156–8, 170, 208, 214–6, 237–40, 243, 247, 251, 256–63, 266–70, 280–1, 313–6, 320–5, 335–6 1951 accord with Federal Reserve, 86, 122, 239, 369n76 and ‘An American Proposal,’ 362n3 and approaching 2007 crisis, 312–14, 439n.46 and Asian Crisis, 18, 247–61, 422n66 and Bretton Woods, 70–80, 366n42, 367n50 and deregulation, 178, 399n75 and the dollar crisis, 123–7, 130–1, 381n37, 382n46, 395n19 Exchange Stabilization Fund (ESF), 250, 252–3, 257 and IMF, 428n37 and New Deal, 61, 361n74 international division of, 250 failure containment, 18, 248, 266, 268, 302, 321–2, 332 lender of last resort, 250, 302 listening post for Wall Street, 250–1 Mexican bailout, 250–4, 420n21 under Obama, 320–4 See also banks/banking; bonds; crisis; finance; OCC Treaty of Detroit, 83–4 Treaty of Rome, 100, 113 Trilateral Commission, 163 Tripartite Monetary Agreement (1936), 72, 366n39 Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP 2008), 316–7 Truman, Harry, 86, 93–4, 105, 226, 360n62 Truman Doctrine, 94–5 Truth-in-Lending Act (1968), 142 Turkey, 51, 97, 105, 217, 231, 281, 287, 301, 303, 429n47 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 29 UK See Britain United Nations. 74, 97, 116, 156, 332 Charter of Economic Right (1974), 144, 219 Underwood Tariff (1913), 49 unemployment, 27, 29, 52, 54, 56, 59, 61, 80, 127, 133, 138, 140–1, 152, 165, 167–9, 171, 182–3, 197, 202, 260, 291, 304, 310, 321, 326, 329, 368n61, 397n46 unions, 29, 33–4, 52, 58–61, 82–4, 97, 103, 115, 136, 141, 171, 259, 271, 337, 398n66 attack on, 60, 82–4, 106, 127–8, 165, 172, 177 collective bargaining, 58–60, 83–4, 121, 136, 171 rank-and-file militancy, 83, 137, 171 strikes, 33, 58–61, 82–4, 127–8, 136, 140–1, 165, 171–2, 198, 258–9, 337 wage militancy, 104, 172, 385n17 weakness of, 171, 187, 205, 269, 337–8, 394n11, 397n46 See also individual unions United Auto Workers (UAW), 83–4, 136, 171, 397n46 US: balance of payments, 14, 19, 52, 74, 76–7, 118, 125–7, 129, 147–8, 156, 182, 224–5, 292, 300, 311, 313 banker for the world, 124, 126 Civil War, 27–9, 32 Constitution, 26, 32 economic restructuring (1980s–90s), 187–93 exports, 16, 34–5, 45, 49, 70, 80, 98, 100, 127, 207, 209–11, 229, 283, 291 films, 25, 50 food aid, 125, 156, 408n87 foreign production in, 210, 226, 281 isolationism misleading, 45–6, 50 as new ‘Great Power’ 36, 63, and imperialism, 1, 6–7, 11, 67–8, 87, 90, 232 early industrialization, 27–8 imports, 12, 19, 52, 70, 81, 89, 99–100, 151, 181, 188, 190, 207, 214, 225, 229, 283, 291, 334 lender of last resort, 250 Navy, 36, 47, 353n50 and global oil security, 103 trade deficits, 12, 17, 19, 183, 208, 291, 300 supports rivals, 89, 112, 201–2 unique responsibilities of, 334 United States Trade Representative (USTR), 17, 182, 280, 224, 226, 231–2 Underwood Tariff (1913), 152 Van Harten, Gus, 232 Venezuela, 215, 241 Versailles Treaty, 356n15 Vietnam War, 127, 129, 133, 143, 421n36 Vittoz, Stanley, 360n58 Vogel, David, 387n34 Vogel, Steven, 397n52 Volcker, Paul, 14, 18, 87, 124–6, 130–1, 141, 145, 152, 155, 163, 167–73 175, 177–81197, 206, 214–5, 236, 239, 262, 301, 305, 320, 322, 3 388n49, , 435n15 Volcker shock, 14, 127, 138, 163, 168–73, 178–9, 206–7, 214, 249, 397nn43–4 Volcker Rule, 323 Volkswagen, 101, 202 Wade, Robert, 429n33 Waddell, Brian, 361n68, 362n77, 365n30 Wagner Act (1935), 59–61, 361n63 Walker, Richard, 348n8 Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010), 322 See also Dodd–Frank Act Wal-Mart, 289 Walters, Andrew, 442n95 Warburg, Paul, 43 Warner, John DeWitt, 43 Washington, George, 25 Washington Consensus, 239, 282 Washington Mutual, 315 Watergate, 145 Watson, Justin, 142 Weiss, Linda, 422n57 White, Harry Dexter, 72, 74–6, 78, 80, 123, 240, 365n27, 366n39, 366n41, 367n48, 369n76 Williams, William Appleman, 343–4n16, 353n50 Williamson, John, 239, 388n53 Wilson, Woodrow (administration of), 45–8, 356n11, 356n15 Wilkins, Myra, 30 Wolf, Martin, 264, 320 Wood, Ellen Meiksins, 342n12 Woodcock, Leonard, 143 Wooley, John, 382n29 World Trade Center, 301 World War I (Great War), 5, 25, 29, 41–5, 48–54, 57–8, 76, 79, 81, 282, 330, 339 World War II, 7, 10–12, 26–7, 45–6, 49, 63, 69–72, 79–82, 89, 94, 128–9, 142, 195–6, 207, 224, 228, 318–9 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 60 World Bank, 9, 18, 91, 122 146, 220, 223, 239, 269, 278, 339, 418n2, 418n83, 424n95, 428n37 conception of, 75, 78 ‘effective states’ 18, 220, 241–2 and Mexican bailout, 254 Nixon vs, 155 protests against, 271 US dominates, 391n96 voting power in, 76 World Trade Organization (WTO), 17, 220, 223, 229–30, 233, 276, 291, 293–4, 296, 300 Yeo, Edwin, 158–9 yen, 203–4–207–10, 255, 261 Zetsche, Dieter, 201 Copyright First published by Verso 2012 © Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin 2012 All rights reserved The moral rights of the authors have been asserted 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Verso UK: 6 Meard Street, London W1F 0EG US: 20 Jay Street, Suite 1010, Brooklyn, NY 11201 www.versobooks.com Verso is the imprint of New Left Books Epub ISBN-13: 978-1-84467-945-4 British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Panitch, Leo.


pages: 801 words: 209,348

Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

When Reagan graduated in 1932, the American economy was in an unrelenting downward spiral. His father was out of work, and Reagan was desperate himself, looking at bleak career prospects to start his adult life. In the 1932 presidential election, the first he was eligible to vote in, he enthusiastically cast his ballot for FDR and then watched the government’s emergency measures resuscitate the economy. His father was a prime beneficiary, becoming the local head of the Works Progress Administration, which put people to work building roads and bridges. Reagan, as he came of age, saw the depths of misery afflicting the small-town merchant and the beleaguered farmer and, at the time, approved of the government’s role in easing the crisis. Soon after graduation, Reagan applied for a job at a local Montgomery Ward to head up the sports department, but he lost the job to a fellow basketball star from his high school.


pages: 389 words: 210,632

Frommer's Oregon by Karl Samson

airport security, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

One of the first settlers to visit Mount Hood was Samuel Barlow, who in 1845 had traveled the Oregon Trail and was searching for an alternative to taking his wagon train down the treacherous waters of the Columbia River. Barlow blazed a trail across the south flank of Mount Hood, and the following year he opened his trail as a toll road. The Barlow Trail, though difficult, was cheaper and safer than rafting down the river. The trail is now used for hiking and mountain biking. During the Great Depression, the Works Progress Administration employed skilled craftsmen to build the rustic Timberline Lodge at the tree line on the mountain’s south slope. Today the lodge is a National Historic Landmark and is the main destination for visitors to the mountain. The lodge’s vista of Mount Hood’s peak and of the Oregon Cascades to the south gets my vote for the state’s most unforgettable view. Don’t expect to have this mountain all to yourself, though.


pages: 756 words: 228,797

Ayn Rand and the World She Made by Anne C. Heller

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, Charles Lindbergh, conceptual framework, greed is good, laissez-faire capitalism, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, New Journalism, open borders, price stability, profit motive, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, wage slave, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, young professional

By the time the play had closed on April 4, 1936, three days before the publication of her novel, theatrical rights had been sold to producers in London, Vienna, Budapest, Berlin, Switzerland, Poland, and elsewhere. A return engagement was already filling seats in the El Capitan Theatre in Los Angeles, and a road show was about to open in Chicago. Somewhat ironically, Watkins had negotiated a contract with Franklin Roosevelt’s new federal Works Progress Administration to bring performances of the play to local theaters across the country. Although by 1936 Rand strongly disapproved of Roosevelt and his New Deal programs, the WPA provided her with royalties of ten dollars per performance, a small fortune, throughout the later 1930s. And because the play’s single courtroom setting made for easy staging, it also became a favorite of privately run summer-stock companies, generating a sometimes larger, sometimes smaller stream of income until her death.


Rough Guide to San Francisco and the Bay Area by Nick Edwards, Mark Ellwood

1960s counterculture, airport security, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, period drama, pez dispenser, Port of Oakland, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Provided there isn’t too long a line for the cramped elevator, the trip to the open-air viewing platform is well worth the few dollars – it’s a stunning, eightway panorama with unimpeded vistas in every direction. Coit Tower’s ground-floor lobby is notable for more than its handy restrooms: the frescoes wrapped around the interior’s base were part of a project overseen by the Public Works of Art Project (a forerunner to the better-known Works Progress Administration), which employed artists to decorate public and government buildings during the Depression. Over two dozen painters were chosen for this project – entitled Aspects of Life in California – all of them students of the famous Mexican Communist artist, Diego Rivera. As with much of Rivera’s work, the figures here are muscular and somber, emphasizing the Loopy Lillie, the fireman’s mascot | Telegraph Hill and around glory of labor, although there’s a wide variation in style and quality between panels despite their thematic cohesion.


pages: 941 words: 237,152

USA's Best Trips by Sara Benson

Albert Einstein, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, if you build it, they will come, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, McMansion, mega-rich, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, the High Line, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

Stop in the town of Hood River where you’ll find loads of great restaurants, two breweries and some of the best windsurfing and kiteboarding conditions in the world. It’s a great place to spend a few days taking windsurfing lessons, hiking and exploring Mt Hood, only 45 minutes away via Hwy 35. Be sure to eat at, sleep at or just plain walk around the historic Timberline Lodge on the south side of the mountain. Built by Oregon’s Works Progress Administration in 1936 and 1937, the 73,700-sq-ft log-and-stone lodge is a masterpiece of national-park architecture. Inside, the Cascade Dining Room serves expertly prepared, gourmet meals with an emphasis on local cuisine. The all-you-can-eat buffet breakfasts are a great way to enjoy the dining room if you’d rather not shell out for dinner. Continue west from Hood River along Hwy 84 and be absolutely certain to stop at Multnomah Falls.


pages: 898 words: 253,177

Cadillac Desert by Marc Reisner

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, clean water, Golden Gate Park, hacker house, jitney, Joan Didion, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, trade route, transcontinental railway, uranium enrichment, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

(Because of Ickes’s high-pitched squawk of a voice, Roosevelt, in private, called him Donald Duck.) Ickes ran not only the Interior Department—in which were the Bureau of Reclamation, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the National Park Service, and the Fish and Wildlife Service—but the Public Works Administration as well. The PWA was a catch basin of programs with a chameleon identity (it was also known as the Civil Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration) and interchangeable leaders (first Harry Hopkins, then Ickes, then Hopkins again). In a few years, it had overseen the building of the Lincoln Tunnel, the Washington Zoo, the Triborough Bridge, Fort Knox, Denver’s water-supply system, a deepwater port at Brownsville, Texas, the huge Camarillo Hospital in southern California, and the causeway to Key West. It built a dozen fantasyland bridges along Oregon’s coast highway.


Coastal California by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, airport security, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, Mason jar, McMansion, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Wozniak, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

In San Francisco Richard Diebenkorn and David Park became leading proponents of Bay Area Figurative Art, while San Francisco–born sculptor Richard Serra captured urban aesthetics in massive, rusting monoliths resembling ship prows and industrial Stonehenges. Pop artists captured SoCal’s ethos of conspicuous consumerism through Wayne Thiebaud’s still-life gumball machines, British émigré David Hockney’s acrylic paintings of LA pools and Ed Ruscha’s canvas and film studies. LATINO MURALS: TAKING IT TO THE STREETS Beginning in the 1930s, when the federal Works Progress Administration sponsored schemes to uplift and beautify cities across the country, murals came to define Californian cityscapes. Mexican muralists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and José Clemente Orozco sparked an outpouring of murals across LA that today number in the thousands. Rivera was also brought to San Francisco for murals at the San Francisco Art Institute, and his influence is reflected in the interior of San Francisco’s Coit Tower and scores of murals lining the Mission District, now being expanded by Precita Eyes (www.precitaeyes.org).


pages: 1,066 words: 273,703

Crashed: How a Decade of Financial Crises Changed the World by Adam Tooze

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, break the buck, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, global reserve currency, global supply chain, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open economy, paradox of thrift, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, éminence grise

This left $279 billion for discretionary spending, of which the president’s priorities of green energy and improvements to broadband received $27 billion and $7 billion, respectively.8 Altogether, the stimulus would patch up or replace 42,000 miles of road and 2,700 bridges. But unlike in the era of the New Deal, there would be no eye-catching logos, no charismatic monuments like those left by the Works Progress Administration.9 Nevertheless, it was substantial. In absolute terms it was on a par with the spending of the New Deal. Though it was smaller in relation to a much larger national economy, the Obama stimulus was concentrated over a shorter space of time.10 In 2009 it placed America alongside the Asian states in the league of activists, outstripping any discretionary fiscal measures taken in Europe.


pages: 972 words: 259,764

The Road Not Taken: Edward Lansdale and the American Tragedy in Vietnam by Max Boot

American ideology, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Golden Gate Park, jitney, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1975. ______. “Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence.” Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1976. U.S. Senate. “Executive Session of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.” Vol. XVII. 89th Congress, 1st sess., 1965. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1990. U.S. Works Progress Administration. Los Angeles in the 1930s: The WPA Guide to the City of Angels. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. ______. San Francisco in the 1930s: The WPA Guide to the City by the Bay. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011. ______. The WPA Guide to New York City. New York: New Press, 1939. Valeriano, Napoleon D., and Charles T. R. Bohannan. Counter-Guerrilla Operations: The Philippine Experience.


Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss

anti-communist, British Empire, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, long peace, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, traveling salesman, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

*26 In April 1945, Secretary Stimson wrote Roosevelt that Lash “should not be commissioned or assigned to sensitive duties” because he had not given up his political contacts or activities while in the Army. Contradicting his alleged hostility toward Lash, the President wrote Eleanor, six days before his death, that “probably the same crowd” (most likely he meant the FBI and G-2) was “trying to ‘get’ Joe.” He assured her that he was wiring Stimson “to do nothing further about withholding his commission until I get back.” *27 The Works Progress Administration, a cornerstone of Roosevelt’s early New Deal, which fought unemployment by offering millions of public works jobs, was a conservative bugaboo. *28 Some later speculated that he also suffered from one or more forms of cancer that may have spread to his brain. Most of his medical records disappeared after his death. *29 I have written at length about Roosevelt’s approach to the Holocaust, as well as his preparations for postwar Germany, in The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler’s Germany, 1941–1945 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002)


pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves. New York: Franklin Watts, 1974. Tragle, Henry I. The Southampton Slave Revolt of 1831. Amherst, Mass.: University of Massachusetts Press, 1971. Wiltse, Charles M., ed. David Walker’s Appeal. New York: Hill & Wang, 1965. *Woodward, C. Vann. Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction. Boston: Little, Brown, 1966. Works Progress Administration. The Negro in Virginia. New York: Arno Press, 1969. 10. THE OTHER CIVIL WAR Bimba, Anthony. The Molly Maguires. New York: International Publishers, 1970. Brecher, Jeremy. Strike! Boston: South End Press, 1979. *Bruce, Robert V. 1877: Year of Violence. New York: Franklin Watts, 1959. Burbank, David. Reign of Rabble: The St. Louis General Strike of 1877. Fairfield, N.J.: Augustus Kelley, 1966.


pages: 993 words: 318,161

Fall; Or, Dodge in Hell by Neal Stephenson

Ada Lovelace, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, bitcoin, blockchain, cloud computing, coherent worldview, computer vision, crossover SUV, cryptocurrency, defense in depth, demographic transition, distributed ledger, drone strike, easy for humans, difficult for computers, game design, index fund, Jaron Lanier, life extension, microbiome, Network effects, off grid, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, planetary scale, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, short selling, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

A windowless steel door, painted Parks Department green, bore testimony to generations of bored teens’ fruitless efforts to kick their way in—or, failing that, to attest to who sucked. A plaque next to the door supplied information they’d already seen in their glasses, which was that the tower had been erected by otherwise idle laborers during the Depression under the auspices of the Works Progress Administration. This seemed like the kind of historical/political minutia that Princeton kids ought to have heard of, so they all followed the inevitable hyperlink and spent a minute standing there reading about it. It was the sort of basically dead and inert topic that Wikipedia had actually been pretty good at covering, and enough time had passed that AIs had gone over all of this material and vetted it for mistakes.


Northern California Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Google bus, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, McMansion, means of production, Port of Oakland, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, the built environment, trade route, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Celebrate your freedom to read freely in the designated Poet’s Chair upstairs overlooking Jack Kerouac Alley, load up on zines on the mezzanine and entertain radical ideas downstairs in the new Pedagogies of Resistance section. oCoit TowerPUBLIC ART ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %415-249-0995; www.sfrecpark.org; Telegraph Hill Blvd; nonresident elevator fee adult/child $8/5; h10am-6pm Apr-Oct, to 5pm Nov-Mar; g39) The exclamation mark on San Francisco's skyline is Coit Tower, with 360-degree views of downtown and wraparound 1930s Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals glorifying SF workers. Initially denounced as communist, the murals are now a national landmark. For a wild-parrot's panoramic view of San Francisco 210ft above the city, take the elevator to the tower's open-air platform. To glimpse seven recently restored murals up a hidden stairwell on the 2nd floor, join the 11am tour Wednesday or Saturday (free; donations welcome). Beat MuseumMUSEUM ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %800-537-6822; www.kerouac.com; 540 Broadway; adult/student $8/5, walking tours $25; hmuseum 10am-7pm, walking tours 2-4pm Sat; g8, 10, 12, 30, 41, 45, jPowell-Mason) The closest you can get to the complete Beat experience without breaking a law.


The power broker : Robert Moses and the fall of New York by Caro, Robert A

Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, British Empire, card file, centre right, East Village, friendly fire, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, land reform, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

La Guardia LI Long Island LIE Long Island Expressway LIRR Long Island Rail Road LISPC Long Island State Park Commission MCTA Metropolitan Commuter Transportation Authority MRTC Metropolitan Rapid Transit Commission NYC New York City NYT The New York Times OHR Oral History Reminiscence(s) O'D William O'Dwyer PD Park Department PEM Paul Emanuel Moses Post New York Post PWA Public Works Administration RM Robert Moses TA New York City Tunnel Authority TBA Triborough Bridge Authority TBTA Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority WF World's Fair WPA Works Progress Administration WT New York World-Telegram WT&S New York World-Telegram and Sun INTRODUCTION : Wait Until the Evening NOTES Swimming team episode: Author's interviews with E. C. M. Richards; although no other person was present at the Moses-Richards poolside confrontation, Richards' over-all story of the dispute over the approach to Ogden Reid is confirmed by three other members of the team: George Gordon Hyde and two others who agreed to discuss the matter only after a guarantee of anonymity.

., 1090, 1130 Winthrop, Bronson, 185 Winthrop, Col. Henry Rogers, 149, 185, 278, 279, 299 Wise, Stephen S., 961 Witkin, Richard, n 44 Witt, Erwin, 1103, 1104 WNYC radio station, 611-12 Wolfe's Pond Park, 331, 335 Women's City Club, 92, 109, 435; and Title I, 969^76, 978, 983, 1006, 1025 Wood, Franklin S., n 20, 1128 Woodring, Harry H., 672-4 Woolworth, F. W., 150 Wordsworth, William, 284, 286, 555-6 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 471; aid for N.Y.C, 451, 453, 465, 468, 474, 491, 5ii, 513, 5i6, 540, 549, 566, 614, 704, 745, 989; RM and, 457, 476, 487, 515, 550, 569, 573; and non-park projects, 451, 464-5 World War I, 78, 82, 86, 580 World War II, 595, 833; Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel construction stopped by, 683, 689-90; public works construction stopped by, 692, 757, 796; traffic drought of, 690-1, 913 WPIX-TV, 1159 Wren, Sir Christopher, 508 Wright, Frank Lloyd, 471 Yale Alumni Weekly, 49, 51 Yale Courant, 39-40, 42, 43, 44 Yale Daily News, 40, 42 Yale Literary Magazine, 39, 40, 44, 46 Yale University: RM at, 1-2, 35, 38-47, 49, 64, 297, 469, 570, 614, 823, 1089; Kit Cat Club, 44, 46, 443; Minor Sports Association, 2, 3-4, 15, 42-4, 457 Yale Verse, 44 Zaretzki, Joseph, I ill, 1124 Zeckendorf, William, 484, 772-3, ion, 1061 Zenger, John Peter, 648 PHOTO CREDITS Arnold Newman: Section III: plates 4-$, 6.


Southwest USA Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Columbine, Donner party, El Camino Real, friendly fire, G4S, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), low earth orbit, off grid, place-making, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, walkable city, Works Progress Administration, X Prize

Occasional concerts are held here too. Utah State Capitol HISTORIC BUILDING (www.utahstatecapitol.utah.gov; 8am-8pm Mon-Fri, 8am-6pm Sat & Sun) The 1916 Utah State Capitol, modeled after the US capitol, cost an amazing $2.7 million to build back in the day. After six years, and 500 cherry trees, a full renovation of the building and grounds was completed in 2007. Look for colorful Works Progress Administration (WPA) murals of pioneers, trappers and missionaries adorning part of the building’s dome. Free hourly tours (from 9am to 4pm) start at the 1st-floor visitor center. Other Historic Buildings HISTORIC SITE (www.utahheritagefoundation.com) The Utah Heritage Foundation puts out a free self-guided downtown walking tour brochure available from the visitor center and online. It also has brochures for several other neighborhoods, and an MP3 downloadable audio tour of the Gateway and Warehouse district.


Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

During his first 100 days, he completed the rescue of the ailing banking system with the creation of deposit insurance. He sent $500 million to states for direct relief and saved a fifth of all homeowners from foreclosure. He also sent people back to work on a grand scale. He created the Civilian Conservation Corps, which gave jobs to 250,000 young men to work in the parks and forests; they would go on to plant two billion trees. He also created the Works Progress Administration (WPA), which put another 600,000 to work on major projects across the country – building bridges, tunnels, dams, power plants, waterworks, highways, schools and town halls. The New Deal wasn’t just about infrastructure. Some 5000 artists (including famed Mexican painter Diego Rivera) were employed painting murals and creating sculptures in public buildings – many still in existence today.


Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health by Laurie Garrett

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, collective bargaining, desegregation, discovery of DNA, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, employer provided health coverage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Induced demand, John Snow's cholera map, Jones Act, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, phenotype, profit motive, Project Plowshare, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, stem cell, the scientific method, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

., 1989, op. cit. 128. Among the many New Deal initiatives that affected health programs were Aid to Dependent Children (1933); the Civil Works Administration (1933); the federal Emergency Relief Administration (1933); the National Recovery Administration (1933); the Public Works Administration (1933); the Tennessee Valley Authority (1933); the Rural Electrification Administration (1935); the Works Progress Administration (1935); and the Social Security Act (1935). In the same period Congress passed a series of federal initiatives specific to health. They included the Venereal Diseases Act (1935); the National Cancer Act (1937); and the Venereal Diseases Control Act (1938). 129. One of the most colorful figures in the history of U.S. politics, La Guardia was an improbable hero. Just five feet one inch tall in his stocking feet, he had a high-pitched voice and was prone to often hilarious twists of speech—the author’s favorite being: “I think the reporter should get his facts straight before he distorts them.”


Parks Directory of the United States by Darren L. Smith, Kay Gill

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Asilomar, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donner party, El Camino Real, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hernando de Soto, indoor plumbing, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

Location: 17 miles southeast of Napoleon on the west shore of Beaver Lake. Facilities: 25 campsites with electrical hookups and showers, 2 camping cabins, picnic area, picnic shelters, boat ramp, hiking trails, swim beach, playground. Activities: Camping, hiking, boating, canoeing, fishing, swimming, water-skiing. Special Features: A stone cairn in the park commemorates the work accomplished by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) crews of the 1930s. ★3625★ North Dakota Forest Service 307 1st St E Bottineau, ND 58318 (701) 228-5422 - Phone (701) 228-5448 - Fax Web: www.ndsu.nodak.edu/forestservice Owns and manages approximately 13,278 acres of forest land in five designated state forests. ★3629★ BLACK TIGER BAY STATE RECREATION AREA 152 S Duncan Dr Devils Lake, ND 58301 Web: www.ndparks.com/Parks/DLSP.htm Phone: 701-766-4015 Location: 7 miles east of Devil’s Lake (5 miles south, then 3 miles west).

Facilities: Picnic areas with shelters, pond, swimming pool, amphitheater, playground, sports courts, ball fields, horse stables (for groups of disabled and disadvantaged persons), 18-hole golf course, arts center, rec center with weightroom facility. Activities: Hiking, biking, swimming, horseback riding, golf, basketball, tennis, football, soccer, baseball, softball. Special Features: Park’s stone grills, wooden pavilions, and walking trails were built in the late 1930s by Works Progress Administration. Chastain’s amphitheater hosts jazz, rock, and pop concerts during the summer. ★4806★ GRANT PARK 537 Park Ave SE Atlanta, GA 30312 Phone: 404-624-0697; Fax: 404-624-0823 Size: 131 acres. Location: In Southeast Atlanta; bordered by Boulevard on the east, Atlanta Ave on the south, Cherokee Ave on the west, Sydney St on the north and Park Ave on the northeast. Facilities: Picnic areas with pavilions, gazebo, recreation center, swimming pool, zoo, playgrounds, sports courts, ARLINGTON ★4803★ RIVER LEGACY PARKS 701 NW Green Oaks Blvd Arlington, TX 76006 Web: www.ci.arlington.tx.us/park/ Phone: 817-860-6752 885 10.


pages: 1,540 words: 400,759

Fodor's California 2014 by Fodor's

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, Downton Abbey, East Village, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, Kickstarter, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

On its end is the original branch of Ruby’s, a 1940s-esque burger-and-shake joint. | 400 Main St. | 92661 | 949/675–1905 | www.balboapavilion.com. Balboa Peninsula. Newport’s best beaches are on Balboa Peninsula, where many jetties pave the way to ideal swimming areas. The most intense bodysurfing place in Orange County and arguably on the West Coast, known as the Wedge, is at the south end of the peninsula. Created by accident in the 1930s when the Federal Works Progress Administration built a jetty to protect Newport Harbor, the break is pure euphoria for highly skilled bodysurfers. TIP Since the waves generally break very close to shore and rip currents are strong, lifeguards strongly discourage visitors from attempting it—but it sure is fun to watch an experienced local ride it. FAMILY | ExplorOcean/Newport Harbor Nautical Museum. The ExplorOcean/Newport Harbor Nautical Museum, in the Balboa Fun Zone (a small, historic amusement park), has exhibits on the history of the harbor, ocean explorers, and scientific aspects of the Pacific Ocean.


pages: 769 words: 397,677

Frommer's California 2007 by Harry Basch, Mark Hiss, Erika Lenkert, Matthew Richard Poole

airport security, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, Columbine, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, indoor plumbing, Iridium satellite, Joan Didion, Maui Hawaii, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

The park also contains recreational facilities such as tennis courts; playing fields for baseball, soccer, and polo; a golf course; riding stables; and fly-casting pools. Bus: 16AX, BX, 5, 6, 7, 66, or 71. BEACH CHALET Listed on the National Register of Historic places in 1981, the Spanish-Colonial Beach Chalet, 1000 Great Hwy., at the west end of Golden Gate Park near Fulton Street (& 415/386-8439), was designed by Willis Polk in 1925. In the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) commissioned Lucien Labaudt (who also painted the Coit Tower frescoes) to create frescoes, mosaics, and wood carvings of San Francisco life. Today, after a renovation several years back, the chalet houses the frescoes and other historic artifacts and details downstairs, a restaurant upstairs, and a great café in the back. Stop upstairs for a house-made brew and a glimpse of the expansive Pacific or head to the back dining room for glorious park views.


California by Sara Benson

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, buy and hold, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Khyber Pass, Loma Prieta earthquake, low cost airline, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, planetary scale, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, the new new thing, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Wall-E, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Influential multicultural theaters include Little Tokyo’s East West Players, while critically acclaimed outlying companies include the innovative Long Beach Opera and Costa Mesa’s South Coast Repertory. * * * When the 1906 earthquake hit San Francisco, the visiting Metropolitan opera lost all its costumes and tenor Enrico Caruso was thrown from his bed. Caruso never returned, but the Met played free shows in the rubble-choked streets. * * * * * * TAKING IT TO THE STREETS Beginning in the 1930s, when the federal Works Progress Administration sponsored schemes to uplift and beautify California cities, murals defined California cityscapes. Mexican muralists Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros and Jose Clemente Orozco sparked an outpouring of murals across LA that today number in the thousands. Rivera was also brought to San Francisco for murals at the San Francisco Art Institute, and his influence is reflected in the interior of San Francisco’s Coit Tower and some 250 murals lining the Mission District preserved and expanded by Precita Eyes.


Frommer's California 2009 by Matthew Poole, Harry Basch, Mark Hiss, Erika Lenkert

airport security, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Columbine, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, European colonialism, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, post-work, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

The Strawberry Hill boathouse handles boat rentals. Enter the park at K ezar Drive, an extension of F ell Street; bus riders can take no . 5, 6, 7, 16AX, 16BX, 66, or 71. BEACH CHALET Listed on the N ational R egister of H istoric places in 1981, the Spanish-Colonial Beach Chalet, 1000 Great Hwy., at the west end of Golden Gate Park near F ulton S treet ( & 415/386-8439), was designed b y Willis Polk in 1925. I n the 1930s, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) commissioned Lucien Labaudt (who also painted the Coit Tower frescoes) to cr eate frescoes, mosaics, and wood car vings of San F rancisco life. Today, after a r enovation sev eral y ears back, the chalet houses the frescoes and other historic ar tifacts and details do wnstairs, a r estaurant upstairs, and a S A N F R A N C I S CO great cafe in the back. S top upstairs for a house-made br ew and a glimpse of the expan- 125 sive Pacific, or head to the back dining r oom for glorious par k views.


pages: 2,323 words: 550,739

1,000 Places to See in the United States and Canada Before You Die, Updated Ed. by Patricia Schultz

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bretton Woods, Burning Man, California gold rush, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, estate planning, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Mars Rover, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, out of africa, Pepto Bismol, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, South of Market, San Francisco, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, wage slave, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, éminence grise

Many visitors to Portland take a day trip to Mount Hood—which reaches into the sky like a mighty incisor—and some make it a vacation destination. Campers may claim that a tent tucked into a forested glade is the best place to stay on Mount Hood, but those looking for creature comforts among the mountain wilderness will check in at Timberline Lodge. Built during the Depression by unemployed craftspeople hired by the Works Progress Administration, Timberline is the very model of rustic Northwest Craftsman design, with handmade furniture in the lodge rooms, handwoven curtains, and newel posts hewn from giant logs. The lodge’s Cascade Dining Room is considered the best on the mountain. This is also where you’ll begin the 41-mile Timberline Trail for a summertime trek encircling the mountain. There’s even summertime skiing at Timberline Ski Area—head for Palmer Lift reaching up to over 8,500 feet, making it the mountain’s highest; it stays open nearly year-round for skiing and snowboarding on its vast glacier.