Torches of Freedom

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pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game

Relying on some back-of-the-envelope Freudian analysis, including the idea of cigarettes as phallic objects and a source of oral satisfaction, he presented smokes as vital to a fuller life. And he hired a group of attractive women to march in the 1929 New York City Easter Day Parade, brandishing their Lucky Strikes, or “torches of freedom.”10 He had paid Ruth Hale, a prominent feminist, to sign the letter inviting the women to the march. “Light another torch of freedom! Fight another sex taboo!” it thundered.11 The historical record is somewhat muddled as to the real effect of the stunt, precisely because of Bernays’s natural tendency to take credit as the mysterious puppet master behind the scenes.12 Perhaps seduced by an irresistible story, many have accepted his version of events, in which the “Torches of Freedom” parade marks a kind of social turning point. No less astute a critic of propaganda than Noam Chomsky allows that Bernays’s “major coup, the one that really propelled him into fame in the late 1920s, was getting women to smoke.”13 It is of course impossible to assign—or deny—definitive credit for something as complex as a change in social norms.

No less astute a critic of propaganda than Noam Chomsky allows that Bernays’s “major coup, the one that really propelled him into fame in the late 1920s, was getting women to smoke.”13 It is of course impossible to assign—or deny—definitive credit for something as complex as a change in social norms. Suffice it to say that contemporary reporting of the “Torches of Freedom” event was relatively thin. The New York Times buried its account of the protest halfway through its story on the presumably more urgent subject, the Easter Parade itself: “About a dozen young women strolled back and forth [on Fifth Avenue] while the parade was at its peak, ostentatiously smoking their cigarettes….One of the group explained that the cigarettes were ‘torches of freedom’ lighting the way to the day when women would smoke on the street as casually as men.”14 The Washington Post would not mention the demonstration until 1991, by which time the event had gathered significance by reason of the story’s propagation; in the end, Bernays’s signal triumph may have been the particularly good job he did capturing the attention of historians

Anyone, apparently, could be a hippie, or at least work with that desire for individuality and freedom to book billings.26 Perhaps no effort better typified the dexterity of advertising’s old guard than the campaign for Virginia Slims. Introduced in 1967 by Philip Morris as a Benson & Hedges spinoff for women, Slims were just as long but even thinner. Leo Burnett’s creative department dusted off the old 1920s saw of smoking as women’s liberation to produce a version styled for second-wave feminism. Now the “torches of freedom” were being carried by women in floral print minidresses. The jingle ironically casts this return to one of modern advertising’s lowest points as the ultimate step in the steady march of progress: You’ve come a long way, baby To get where you’ve got to today You’ve got your own cigarette now, baby You’ve come a long, long way What was the secret to how the attention industries cheated death yet again, even when the whole zeitgeist of the late 1960s and ’70s was seemingly against them?

pages: 525 words: 146,126

Ayn Rand Cult by Jeff Walker

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, buy and hold, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Elliott wave, George Gilder, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, price stability, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, school vouchers, Torches of Freedom

When Rand left Russia and arrived in America, she found a culture which has been described as a “cult of the self.” American advertisers were promoting cigarettes to women as “torches of freedom.” Numerous 1920s fads appear to have left their mark on the impressionable young immigrant from Russia: curves were being abandoned in favor of straight lines, dieting was becoming fashionable, short bobbed hair was giving women a boyish look, and a new International Style was taking hold in architecture, emphasizing those straight lines. Rand became a lifelong dieter via amphetamines, never substantially changed her helmet of short hair, and bought an International Style house near Los Angeles. Even the faces of Rand’s male heroes are made up of ‘straight lines’, and “the fire in a man’s hand” is Rand’s rhapsodic updating of “torches of freedom.” The explicit defense of selfishness and individual rights along proto-Objectivist lines was also a staple of 1920s business theory.

Franck 1997; ‘“The virtue of . . .” Steele 1988; “what is good . . .” etc. Rand 1997, pp. 27, 78. Page 230: “special favors sought . . .” Ryerson 1986; “vulgar selfishness” Sciabarra 1995, pp. 234–35. Page 231: “In the ideal . . .” Eksteins 1989, p. 177. Page 232: “To claim that . . .” Franck 1995; “Since he is . . .” Wolf nd. Page 233: “A little bravura . . .” Pierpont 1995; “cult of the . . .” Collier 1991, p. 64; “torches of freedom” Torrey 1992, p. 32 “fire held in . . .” Rand 1957, p. 65. Page 234: “If value judgments . . .” Peikoff 1989a. Page 235: “not ‘Man must . . .” Rand 1997, p. 276; “a sketch of . . .” Fred Miller Jr 1992; “underdeveloped and very . . .” Nathaniel Branden 1996b; “her arguments about . . .” Mack 1997; “I understand that . . .” Kelley 1992. Page 236: “Ayn Rand’s position . . .” Franck 1992; Objectivist philosopher Allan Gotthelf . . .

pages: 273 words: 34,920

Free Market Missionaries: The Corporate Manipulation of Community Values by Sharon Beder

anti-communist, battle of ideas, business climate, corporate governance,, full employment, income inequality, invisible hand, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Powell Memorandum, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, risk/return, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Torches of Freedom, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, young professional

During the First World War, propaganda was used for the first time ‘as a systematic weapon of war’.11 Business leaders were not slow to learn from this demonstration of how public opinion could be shaped and harnessed, and they hired the very men who had achieved it to defend their public reputations and fight the unions.12 These men included Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays, each of whom has been cited as the father of modern public relations. Bernays was the first to write books on public relations and apply theory to their practice, seeking to utilize psychology, sociology and other social sciences to manipulate the desires and beliefs of members of the public in ways that went far beyond mere publicity and advertising. One of his most famous public relations 4 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES strategies was the 1929 Torches of Freedom March he organized on behalf of the American Tobacco Company. It involved women marching through New York streets smoking cigarettes, thus associating women’s rights and liberation with smoking without linking the march to his client.13 Bernays was a key proponent of the idea that ‘changing the public’s opinion – using public relations techniques – about troublesome social movements and labour unions, was far more effective than hiring goons to club people’.14 Despite a general improvement in public acceptance of large corporations, public relations expanded in the 1920s, as part of a ‘conscious policy of managing public attitudes to retain’ corporate power.

Ayer & Son 31 Nabisco 50 Nader, Ralph 64, 185, 198 Nadler, Richard 175, 176, 182, 183, 191 NAFTA 150 National Alliance of Businessmen 65 National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) 1935 Convention 30 1970s campaigns 75 anti-socialist message 38 campaign spending 26 community program outreach 18, 19 and Coors 109 decentralized approach 18–19 discredited 30 economic education programmes 46, 47, 49–50, 53 employee education 55–56 free market message 20–3 funding for associations 47 and pensions 172 post-war campaigns 35–36 pre-war political campaign 4–5, 13, 14–26 reactions to campaign 19–20 techniques 15–18 National Association of Secondary School Principals 52, 53 National Better Business Bureau 52 National Center for Employee-Ownership (NCEO) 179 National Center for Policy Analysis 176 National Council on Economic Education (NCEE) 203, 209–210, 214–219, 220 see also Joint Council on Economic Education (JCEE); education, standards in economics National Economic Council 48, 54 National Education Association 47, 52 National Education Business Partnership Network 214 National Education Program 54, 71 National Electric Light Association (NELA) 194 National Farmers Federation 132, 133, 137 see also McLachlan, Ian National Federation of Building Trades Employers 113 National Federation of Enterprise Agencies 214 National Federation of Independent Business 65 National Foundation for Consumer Credit 54 National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship 209, 212 National Industrial Conference Board 45 National Restaurant Association 172 National Science Teachers Association 52 National Tax Limitation Committee 118 nationalism 21, 25 nationalization 94 Nelson, Brendan 180 neo-classical economics 6–9, 94–95, 105, 159, 220 neo-liberalism 93–105 see also economics, economic rationalism; ideology, free market Nestlé 73, 211 New Deal 14, 15, 24, 117, 222 New Right 127, 130–131, 159, 160 New York Stock Exchange 53, 195 New York Times 45 New Zealand civil service 163 deregulation 152–155, 156, 163–165 economic advisers 152–156 economic literacy 218 New Right 130 privatizations 132, 138 social justice 153, 154, 163–164 258 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES think tanks 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 138 Treasury 152–156 US influence 154 Washington consensus 149 New Zealand Association of Economists 155 New Zealand Business Roundtable 104, 132, 133, 135, 155, 156 News Corporation 201 newspapers, campaigns 5, 15–17, 18, 26, 34–35, 68, 70, 71, 87, 110, 117, 120 Nimmanahaeminda, Tarrin 148 Niskanen, William 118 Nixon, Richard 64, 97, 99 Noble, Edward 109 Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (NAIRU) 99 North Limited 135 OECD 152, 154, 156, 159 Olin Foundation 73, 110, 119, 171, 209 opinion leaders 36 opinion polls/surveys 30–32, 56, 57, 66, 68, 86, 215–218 see also Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) Opinion Research Corporation (ORC) 31, 35, 39–41, 45, 52, 55, 57–58 Ortiz, Guillermo 148 Packard, David 72 parent–teacher associations 36 patriotism 5, 14, 16, 21, 22, 25, 26, 33, 36 pensions, privatization 171–173, 181–184 see also social security People’s Bicentennial Commission 66 Pepsico 73 Perle, Richard 121 Pfizer 119, 222 Philip Morris 69, 119, 222 Phillips Petroleum 70, 73 Pinochet, Augusto 97, 145–146 planning 96, 103 Poleconomy 87 policy institutes see think tanks political freedom, and free market 8, 21, 38, 41, 42, 48, 50, 67, 88, 95, 131, 145 pollsters’ role 30–32 Porter, Michael 132, 133, 134, 137 Powell, Lewis 63–64, 72, 73, 109 Pratt, Dick 133 Prebble, Richard 153 PricewaterhouseCoopers 210, 212 privatizations Adam Smith Institute 113 Australia 132, 138, 183–184, 196 Chicago School 96 France 196–197 Germany 196 New Zealand 132, 138 public choice theory 105 social security 171–173, 181–186 UK utilities 102, 195–196 Washington Consensus 148 Procter & Gamble 15, 33, 38, 65, 110, 119, 209, 211, 222 Productivity Promotion Council of Australia 82 Profit Sharing Council of America 180 Progress for America 172 Progress Party 128 Project Victoria 134–135, 156 propaganda, etymology of 3 Proshare 178, 202 Protestantism 231 Psychological Corporation 25, 31 Public Affairs Council 79 Public Choice Society 103 public choice theory 103–105, 111, 128, 223 Public Media Center 66 public speeches 16, 35, 36, 39, 71 see also speakers Quaker Oats Company 53 radio programmes see broadcasting Rainbow Warrior 153 Rand, Ayn 127 Read, Leonard 45, 46, 93 Reader’s Digest 45, 47, 49, 88 Reagan, Ronald 71, 97, 99–100, 101, 102, 103, 109, 110, 115–118, 121, 147, 149, 171, 182 regulation freedom from 5, 7, 8, 36, 37, 41, 83, 105, 149 See also free market, economic freedom opposition to 14, 21, 23-25, 38, 41, 46, 74, 86, 95, 98, 100, 102, 103, 110, 115, 116, 151, 176 see also government Reith, Peter 180–181 religion economics as religion 230–231 free market scriptures 6–9 missionary zeal 87 Protestantism and capitalism 231 Republic Steel 26, 33, 38, 58 Richardson, Ruth 132, 153 Rio Tinto 212 Roach, Ian 130 Robinson, Claude 45 Rochester University 96, 154 Roosevelt, Franklin 13, 14, 18 Roosevelt, Theodore 3 Rotary Clubs 36, 88 Roux, Michael 161 Royal Bank of Canada 220 Rumsfeld, Donald 171 Ryerson Inc. 70 Saint-Gobain 196–197 Santos 129, 130 Scaife, Richard Mellon 110 Scaife Foundations 73, 119, 171, 212, 223 Scanlan, Phil 135 school teachers 26, 36, 40, 41, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, INDEX 259 69, 70, 72–74, 80–81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 202–203, 209–210, 212, 222, 223–224 schools see education Schwab, Klaus 185 Sears/ Sears Roebuck 50, 57, 70 Securities Industry Foundation for Economic Education (SIFEE) 203–204 share ownership annual general meetings 197 Australia 174, 180–181, 201–202 children 194–195 classes of shares 199, 201 decision-making power 197–202 election of boards 197–198 employee share ownership 177–181 holdings within shareholdings 201 institutional investors 198–199 ‘public’ ownership 193–197 school education 202–204 shareholder democracy 8, 191–204 and social justice 192 statistics 199–202 Stock Market Game 203–204 United Kingdom 177, 178–179, 199, 200 US statistics 182–183, 201 wider ownership 173–177, 184–186 Shared Capitalism Institute 184–185 Shatner, William 70 Shell 73, 119, 127, 129, 133, 212, 222 Shell Australia 130, 135 Shell Canada 224 Shell Live Wire 214 Sherman, Alfred 113 Shultz, George 99 Simon, William 73 Singleton, John 127–128 Small Business Service 213, 231 Smith, Adam 6–7, 95 Smith Richardson Foundation 73, 110, 119 social justice Australia 165, 192 and free market 151–152, 153 New Zealand 153, 154, 163–164 and shareholder democracy 192 United Kingdom 149 social security 41, 96, 98 see also pensions, privatization socialism 38, 41, 47, 48, 49, 57, 71, 84 socially responsible corporate behaviour 174 Society for the Development of Austrian Economics 128 Society for Individual Liberty 128 South Korea 218 Southern California Edison 45 Soviet Union 59, 96 Spain 138 speakers 16, 18, 19, 26, 47, 50, 54, 63, 72, 80, 82, 85, 87, 88, 129 see also public speeches Standard Oil 3, 15, 31, 50, 51, 69 standards, economics courses 218–221, 222, 223 Stanford University 147, 148 Stanolind Oil and Gas Company 56–57 State Electricity Commission of Victoria 138 Stock Market Game 203–204 Stone, John 132, 133, 134, 137, 161 structural adjustments 146, 148–152 Students in Free Enterprise (SIFE) 222 Sturgess, Gary 159–160, 161 Suncor 224 supply-side economics 100–102, 110 Sydney Institute 135–136, 204 Sydney Stock Exchange 82 Tasman Economics see Tasman Institute Tasman Institute 133–135, 138 taxation Australia 88, 128, 131, 132, 158, 164 free market ideology 95, 96, 118 IMF 147 New Zealand 153 public opinion 88, 175, 176 opposition to 14, 21, 23, 24, 35, 53, 82 Reagan era 116 shareholdings 174, 178, 179, 195, 196 social security 171, 172 supply-side economics 100, 101–102 United Kingdom 149, 178, 179 Washington Consensus 148, 149 technopols 149 see also economic advisers Telecom NZ 213 television see broadcasting Telstra (Australia) 196, 204 ‘Ten Pillars of Economic Wisdom’ 47–48 Tenneco 73 Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) 216–217, 218 Texas Bureau for Econmic Understanding 71, 72 Texas Corporation 15 Texas University 73 Thailand 138, 148 Thatcher, Margaret 97, 99, 111–114, 116, 149, 196 think tanks Australia 84, 127–138 dissemination of free market ideology 110–122 funding 109, 110–111, 119 influence mechanisms 119–122 influence on economics teaching 223 and Mont-Pèlerin Society 94 New Zealand 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 138 United Kingdom 111–115 United States 115–122 Third Millennium 184 Thomas, Jean-Pierre 185–186 ‘thought leaders’ 36 TNT Express 211 tobacco, and women 4 Torches of Freedom March 1929 4 trade unions and Advertising Council campaign 33–34 Australia 87, 88, 133 banning 109 260 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES and economics education campaigns 53 and NAM campaigns 4 and people’s capitalism 177 post-war business propaganda 23–6 United Kingdom 98, 149–150 Trades Union Congress 179 Trotter, Ron 156 Truman, Harry 26, 38, 48 Tullock, Gordon 103 Turbull, Shann 180 UCLA 96 Uncle Abner 15, 17, 21 unemployment 16, 46, 68, 113, 97–100, 145, 150, 151, 153, 164, 174, 231 Unilever 209, 212 United Kingdom children and enterprise 209, 210, 211–212, 213–214 civil service 89, 163 economic education 79–81, 211, 213–4, employee share ownership 177, 178–179 inflation policies 98 Labour Party 48, 114 privatizations 102, 113, 138, 195–196 public view of business ethics 231 share ownership 195–196, 198–200 Thatcher economics 99, 149 think tanks 111–115 Washington consensus 154 welfare state 48, 150 universities 1970s free market education 72–74 Australian economics courses 89 centres of private enterprise 221–222 economics 96, 147–148 influence 154, 159 and Mont-Pèlerin Society 94 University of Canberra 160 University of Chicago 58, 94, 96, 99, 147 see also Chicago School University of Miami 74 University of Southern California 73 University of Virginia 96 Uranium Information Centre 224 US Chamber of Commerce 25, 26, 35, 36, 46, 47, 53, 63–64, 72, 75, 86, 117 US Civil Aeronautics Board 102 US Industrial Council (USIC) 70–71 US Steel 18, 22, 31, 50, 51, 54, 193 USIC Educational Foundation 71 utility companies 5, 138, 194, 195–196 see also electricity companies Vanderbilt, Cornelius 2 Victorian Employers’ Chamber of Commerce and Industry 135 Victorian Employers Federation 134 Victorian Farmers Federation 134 Victorian Gas and Fuel Corporation 138 Vodafone 212 Voice of America 80 Volker, William 94 W.

Radical Chic & Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers by Tom Wolfe

full employment, means of production, plutocrats, Plutocrats, South of Market, San Francisco, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom

Sixty strong, sixty loud, sixty wild, they come swinging into the great plush gold-and-marble lobby of the San Francisco City Hall with their hot dogs, tacos, Whammies, Frostees, Fudgsicles, french fries, Eskimo Pies, Awful-Awfuls, Sugar-Daddies, Sugar-Mommies, Sugar-Babies,, chocolate-covered frozen bananas, malted milks, Yoo-Hoos, berry pies, bubble gums, cotton candy, Space Food sticks, Frescas, Baskin-Robbins boysenberry-cheesecake ice-cream cones, Milky Ways, M&Ms, Tootsie Pops, Slurpees, Drumsticks, jelly dougnuts, taffy apples, buttered Karamel Korn, rootbeer floats, Hi-C punches, large Cokes, 7-Ups, Three Musketeer bars, frozen Kook-Aids--with the Dashiki Chief in the vanguard. In no time at all the man's dashiki is practically flapping in the breeze from the hurricane of little bodies swirling around, roaring about with their creaming wavy gravy food and drink held up in the air like the torches of freedom, pitching and rolling at the most perilous angles, a billow of root-beer float here ... a Yoo-Hoo typhoon there ... The kids have discovered the glories of the City Hall lobby. Such echoes! Their voices ricochet off the marble in the most groovy way. Screams work best, screams and great hollow shrieks ... and the most high-toned clatter of sixty pairs of little feet running at top speed ...

pages: 147 words: 39,910

The Great Mental Models: General Thinking Concepts by Shane Parrish

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Barry Marshall: ulcers, bitcoin, Black Swan, colonial rule, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, delayed gratification, feminist movement, index fund, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, mandelbrot fractal, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ponzi scheme, Richard Feynman, statistical model, stem cell, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Torches of Freedom

Bernays approached designers, architects, and cabinetmakers in an effort to persuade them to design kitchen cabinets that included special compartments for cigarettes, and he spoke to the manufacturers of kitchen containers to add cigarette tins to their traditional lines of labeled containers for coffee, tea, sugar, and flour.7 The result was a complete shift in the consumption habits of American women. It wasn’t just about selling the cigarette, it was reorganizing society to make cigarettes an inescapable part of the American woman’s daily experience. Bernays’s efforts to make smoking in public socially acceptable had equally startling results. He linked cigarette smoking with women’s emancipation. To smoke was to be free. Cigarettes were marketed as “torches of freedom.” He orchestrated public events, including an infamous parade on Easter Sunday in 1929 which featured women smoking as they walked in the parade. He left no detail unattended, so public perception of smoking was changed almost overnight. He both normalized it and made it desirable in one swoop. Although the campaign utilized more principles than just inversion, it was the original decision to invert the approach that provided the framework from which the campaign was created and executed.

pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart,, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

‘We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of,’ he wrote in his book Propaganda, ‘… It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind.’27 Bernays invented the ‘public relations’ industry and rapidly became America’s master wire-puller, convincing women (on behalf of the American Tobacco Corporation) that cigarettes were their ‘torches of freedom’, while persuading the nation (on behalf of the Beech-Nut Packing Company’s pork department) that bacon and eggs were the ‘hearty’ all-American breakfast.28 Drawing on his uncle’s insights into the workings of the human mind, Bernays knew that the secret to influencing preferences lay not in advertising a product’s attributes (it’s bigger, faster, shinier!) but in associating that product with deeply held values, such as freedom and power.

Kagel, J. and Roth, A. (1995) The Handbook of Experimental Economics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press pp. 253–348, cited in Beinhocker, E. (2007) The Origin of Wealth, London: Random House, p. 120. 26. Henrich, J. et al. (2001) ‘In search of Homo Economicus: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies’, Economics and Social Behavior, 91: 2, pp. 73–78. 27. Bernays, E. (2005) Propaganda, New York: Ig Publishing, pp. 37–38. 28. Edward L. Bernays video interview on the Beech-Nut Packing Co., available at, and on ‘Torches of Freedom’, available at: 29. Ryan, R. and Deci, E. (1999) ‘Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions’, Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, pp. 54–67. 30. Schwartz, S. (1994) ‘Are there universal aspects in the structure and content of human values?’, Journal of Social Issues 50: 4, pp.19–45. 31. Veblen, T. (1898) ‘Why is economics not an evolutionary science?’

pages: 475 words: 156,046

When They Go Low, We Go High: Speeches That Shape the World – and Why We Need Them by Philip Collins

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, Copley Medal, Corn Laws, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, invention of the printing press, late capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rosa Parks, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, Torches of Freedom, World Values Survey

But freedom brings responsibilities and burdens and we have to face them in the spirit of a free and disciplined people. On this day our first thoughts go to the architect of this freedom, the father of our nation, who, embodying the old spirit of India, held aloft the torch of freedom and lighted up the darkness that surrounded us. We have often been unworthy followers of his and have strayed from his message, but not only we but succeeding generations will remember this message and bear the imprint in their hearts of this great son of India, magnificent in his faith and strength and courage and humility. We shall never allow that torch of freedom to be blown out, however high the wind or stormy the tempest. This is Nehru’s acknowledgment of his split with Gandhi, which was both stylistic and intellectual. Nehru erects a bridge between his own beliefs and Gandhi’s by describing them both, rather flatly, as lovers of freedom.

pages: 255 words: 90,456

Frommer's Irreverent Guide to San Francisco by Matthew Richard Poole

Bay Area Rapid Transit, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, game design, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, old-boy network, pez dispenser, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, upwardly mobile

The city’s more modern role as a catalyst for social change and the avantgarde began in the 1950s when a group of young writers and philosophers—including Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac— challenged the materialism and conformity of American society 2 by embracing anarchy and Eastern philosophy, expressing their notions in poetry. They adopted a uniform of jeans, sweaters, sandals, and berets, called themselves “Beats,” and hung out in North Beach bars such as Vesuvio, Caffe Trieste, Tosca, and Enrico’s Sidewalk Cafe (all of which are still in business). In the 1960s the torch of freedom passed from the Beats and North Beach to the hippies and Haight-Ashbury, but it was a radically different torch. The hippies replaced the Beats’ angst, jazz, and poetry with love, communalism, rock music, and a back-to-nature philosophy. Timothy Leary (and many others) experimented with LSD and exhorted youth to “turn on, tune in, and drop out.” In 1967, during the Summer of Love, thousands of young people streamed into the city in search of drugs, sex, and the sounds of the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, and Big Brother and the Holding Company.

pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation,, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

He realized that the real desire for women was not the cigarettes themselves but the liberty to pursue the same things as men. During the 1929 New York Easter Parade, he arranged for a group of attractive young debutantes, including his own secretary, Bertha Hunt, to march in their Sunday best. On Bernays’s signal, the women all lit up a Lucky Strike cigarette. Hunt’s press release described the march as “Lighting the Torches of Freedom” in the interests of gender equality. And being the master of PR, Bernays saw to it that media throughout the world covered the event. The idea was that anyone against the idea of women smoking would appear to be against their liberty and freedom. Although this did not completely do away with the taboo against women’s smoking, the number of women taking up smoking skyrocketed (American Tobacco’s revenues jumped by $32 million in 1928 alone).6 In his memoirs, Bernays wrote, “It was on this day I learned that age-old customs could be broken down by a dramatic appeal, disseminated by the network of media.”7 When you consider that the average person sees more than three thousand advertising messages per day, it is not surprising that we have become so seduced by the pull of the new and the desire for more.8 Influencers like Bernays were part of a wider force, which engineered and reinforced a system that converted consumers’ wants into needs into everyday habits.

pages: 333 words: 86,628

The Virtue of Nationalism by Yoram Hazony

Berlin Wall, British Empire, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, Mahatma Gandhi, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, urban planning, Westphalian system

In taking up arms in the name of their own national state and their own self-determination, the Jews, as many Europeans and others now see it, have simply taken up the same evil that led Germany to build the camps. The details may differ, but the principle, in their eyes, is the same: Israel is Auschwitz. Try to see this through European eyes. Imagine being a proud Dutchman today, whose nation held high the torch of freedom in that hopeless uprising against Catholic Spain, a war of independence that lasted eighty years. “Yet I am willing to give this up,” he says to himself, “to sacrifice this heritage with its dreams of past glory, and to say good-bye to the state founded by my forefathers, for the sake of something higher. I will make this painful sacrifice for the sake of an international political union that will ultimately embrace all humanity.

pages: 354 words: 93,882

How to Be Idle by Tom Hodgkinson

Albert Einstein, Alexander Shulgin, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deskilling, financial independence, full employment, Gordon Gekko, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Lao Tzu, liberal capitalism, moral panic, New Urbanism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, spinning jenny, Torches of Freedom, trade route, wage slave

[Contemporary novelist] Ethel Mannin recalled how flagrant such behaviour seemed in those early years: ' The year would have been 1 9 1 6 or 1 9 1 7, not later. The girl, whose name I remember as Monica, gave me a De Reszke Turkish cigarette from a small packet, and there we two young girls viciously sat, with our pot of tea and our toasted scones, smoking, and in public . . . ' This craving for independence was also exploited in the 1 920s by the manufacturers of Lucky Strike, who cleverly branded their cigarettes as ' torches of freedom ' in a successful effort to attract female smokers. The idea was repeated in the emancipated 1 960s by Virginia Slims, with their ' You 've Come a Long Way, Baby' tagline. Doubtless the Bohemian ladies of leisure enjoyed the aura of devilmay-care loucheness that smoking conferred on them. And back in the nineteenth century, Baudelaire had observed in his ' Les Salons de 1 848 ' the same attitude in prostitutes of the Paris bordellos: 'Prostrate they display themselves in desperate attitudes of boredom, in bar room indolence, with masculine cynicism, smoking cigarettes to kill time with the resignation of oriental fatalism. ' Smoking is shocking, stinky, useless, harmful to the health; no wonder its use is opposed by those unfortunates, epitomized by New York's Mayor Bloomberg, who feel weighed down by a sense of civic responsibility (my New York friend Tom says that there are so many people smoking in the street that you have to go inside for a breath of fresh air) .

pages: 516 words: 159,734

War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower

anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway

He proceeded to collect millions of feet of enemy film, to cut and edit this until the expressions of the Axis powers became lean anti-Axis images, and to juxtapose the menacing faces and words of the enemy against the bright hope and accomplishments of the American people and their allies. To be inspired with the will to win, Capra told his associates as they embarked on this work, Americans needed to be shown that they were fighting for the existence of their country, and at the same time were carrying the “torch of freedom” for a better postwar world–a world in which conquest, exploitation, and economic evils had been eliminated, and peace and democracy prevailed. This seemed a clear line, and a familiar one to anyone who recalled the idealistic Allied propaganda of World War One. A team of seven Hollywood writers was asked to prepare rough scenarios for a sequence of films conveying this message. Although the assignment seemed straightforward enough, the draft outlines Capra received upset him greatly, for in his eyes they were “larded with Communist propaganda.”

The Cigarette: A Political History by Sarah Milov

activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, global supply chain, imperial preference, Indoor air pollution, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, land tenure, new economy, New Journalism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, Torches of Freedom, trade route, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Quote from William Anderson (Tobacco Growers Information Committee), “Tobacco Industry Fear Being Taxed to Death,” Richmond News Leader, February 24, 1969. 114. D. T. Frederickson, “Action on Smoking and Health,” January 26, 1968, R. J. Reynolds Records, UCSF Library, 115. Amanda Amos and Margaretha Haglund, “From Social Taboo to ‘Torch of Freedom’: The Marketing of Cigarettes to Women,” Tobacco Control 9 (2009): 3–8; Edward L. Bernays, Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel Edward L. Bernays (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965), 382–395. 116. “Smoking, the Destruction of Self,” New England Journal of Medicine 279, No. 5 (August 1, 1968): 267–268. 117. “Group Will Spur Suits against Cigarette Makers,” New York Times, January 29, 1969. 118.

Frommer's San Francisco 2012 by Matthew Poole, Erika Lenkert, Kristin Luna

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-work, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The cafes of North Beach were the center of bohemian life in the ’50s: the Black Cat, Vesuvio, Caffe Trieste and Tosca Cafe, and Enrico’s Sidewalk Café. When the tour buses started rolling in, rents went up, and Broadway turned into strip club row in the early 1960s. Thus ended an era, and the Beats moved on. The alternative scene shifted to Berkeley and the Haight. Police arrest Lenny Bruce after deeming performance “obscene” at the Jazz Workshop in North Beach. The 1960s: The Haight The torch of freedom had been passed from the Beats and North Beach to Haight-Ashbury and the hippies, but it was a radically different torch. The hippies replaced the Beats’ angst, anarchy, negativism, nihilism, alcohol, and poetry with love, communalism, openness, drugs, rock music, and a back-to-nature philosophy. Although the scent of marijuana wafted everywhere—on the streets, in the cafes, in Golden Gate Park—the real drugs of choice were LSD (a tab of good acid cost $5) and other hallucinogens.

pages: 742 words: 202,902

The Brilliant Disaster: JFK, Castro, and America's Doomed Invasion of Cuba's Bay of Pigs by Jim Rasenberger

affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Gunnar Myrdal, Kitchen Debate, land reform, Torches of Freedom, William of Occam

He probably suspected he would never occupy the office himself. He was sixty-six years old, serving under a president soon entering his last year in the White House, and the building would not be habitable for many months to come. But Dulles would be here in name: Allen Welsh Dulles. There it was, engraved in the cornerstone that he and the president had come this morning to lay. As we lay this stone conscious that others have put the torch of freedom and of human dignity in our hands, we pray for a new resolve now that the precious gains of Christian civilization are threatened by sinister forces without pity or conscience … If not Allen Dulles’s crowning achievement, this building would be at least a suitable palace for the empire he had built under President Eisenhower. When complete, the Langley complex would be second in size only to the Pentagon among government agencies.

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Or it could go on a shopping spree and buy Netflix, Tesla, Twitter, Dropbox, Pandora, and Spotify. When it was done buying those companies, it would still have $59 billion in cash to spend on anything else it wants. See 57.  In this famous TV advertisement aired only once—during the 1984 Super Bowl—a young rebel representing Apple hurls “a torch of freedom” into the screens on which the face of “IBM” drones on. The promise is that with Apple's new colorful day, 1984 (the year) will not be like 1984, the Orwellian dystopia. If the reader is unfamiliar with the advertisement, its Wikipedia page will explain its significance: 58.  See Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006).

pages: 1,073 words: 314,528

Strategy: A History by Lawrence Freedman

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Black Swan, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, circulation of elites, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, collective bargaining, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, defense in depth, desegregation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory,, endogenous growth, endowment effect, Ford paid five dollars a day, framing effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, lateral thinking, linear programming, loose coupling, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mental accounting, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, social intelligence, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, unemployed young men, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

His more famous campaigns were encouraging “bacon and eggs” for breakfast by getting leading physicians to endorse the need for a “hearty” breakfast, having famous figures from vaudeville meet with President Calvin Coolidge in an attempt to boost his image, and—notably—an imaginative stunt for the American Tobacco Company. He persuaded ten debutantes to light up with their cigarettes during the 1929 Easter Parade, thereby notionally striking a blow for feminism by undermining the taboo against women smoking in public. The cigarettes became “torches of freedom.”42 Bernays invited obvious criticisms: usurping the role of democracy by taking upon himself to shape peoples’ thoughts, encouraging mass effects rather than individual responsibility, and relying on cliché and emotional attitudes rather than intellectual challenge. Bernays argued that in an age of mass media, the techniques were unavoidable and propaganda was ubiquitous. People and groups had a right to promote their ideas and the competition in doing so was healthy for both democracy and capitalism.

pages: 1,157 words: 379,558

Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger

air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, plutocrats, Plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

When, for instance, the company wanted to do something dramatic in 1929 to counter the taboo against women smoking on the street, Bernays was allowed to engage the services of psychiatrist A. A. Brill, who counseled Hill that cigarettes were symbols of freedom for women as well as “a sublimation of oral eroticism; holding a cigarette in the mouth excites the oral zone,” as Bernays recounted this flash of profundity. Thus, Brill concluded, “Cigarettes, which are equated with men, become torches of freedom.” This last phrase sounded so uplifting that Bernays, with Hill’s blessing, organized a “freedom march” led by ten debutantes and some prominent feminists who strode up six blocks of Fifth Avenue while smoking extravagantly as part of the Easter Sunday parade of finery. The stunt won enough publicity for Hill to seek analyst Brill’s renewed counsel a few years later for a billboard campaign to show women smoking.

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

“Today we reclaim New York’s skyline with a towering beacon to New York and our nation’s resilience,” Governor Pataki declared at the unveiling of the master plan’s iconic visual landmark in mid-December 2003. “The Freedom Tower will be a proud new symbol of our country’s strength—and a monument to our two lost icons.” What the rhetoric promised, the architectural model put on view: a “unique geometrical torque of the building’s tower” creating an asymmetrical form with a soaring offset 1,776-foot spire designed to “echo the profile of the Statue of Liberty’s arm holding the Torch of Freedom.”47 Symbolism infused the iconic tower’s tribute to the American creed of freedom in every dimension: in name, height, size, and location—at the northwest corner of the site to complete the spiraling composition of the master plan’s towers. The model’s formal unveiling at Federal Hall, the classical building where the first U.S. Congress met and wrote the Bill of Rights and George Washington was inaugurated as president, conferred additional historic meaning on this early act of political symbolism.

pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, post-work, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

Until 1931 the responsibility for dealing with civilian ‘revolutionary movements’ belonged to Thomson’s Directorate of Intelligence and, after its demise, to the Special Branch. Kell was obliged to tell chief constables in 1925 that MI5 was’only concerned with Communism as it affects the Armed Forces of the Crown’. ‘Civil’ subversion was Thomson’s responsibility.5 MI5’s New Year card for 1920 showed the attractive figure of ‘Liberty and Security’ in diaphanous gown, holding aloft the torch of freedom and standing on a pedestal erected by the heroic efforts of British fighting and working men (stage right). But ‘Liberty and Security’ is menaced by an assortment of subversives (stage left): a defeated Hun in pumpernickel helmet (by now a reminder of past dangers rather than a present menace), the rebel Irish (a much smaller threat on the mainland than in Ireland) and Bolshevik revolutionaries.

Parks Directory of the United States by Darren L. Smith, Kay Gill

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Asilomar, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donner party, El Camino Real, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hernando de Soto, indoor plumbing, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration

Liberty and Ellis islands are accessible by ferry service only. Ferries are operated by Circle Line-Statue of Liberty Ferry, Inc. from Battery Park in New York City and Liberty State Park in Jersey City, New Jersey. Facilities: Rest rooms (u), restaurant/snacks, visitor center (u), museum/exhibit, self-guided tour/trail. Activities: Guided tours. Special Features: The famous 152-foot copper statue bearing the torch of freedom was a gift of the French people in 1886 to commemorate the alliance of the two nations in the American Revolution. Designed by Frederick Bartholdi, the statue came to symbolize freedom for immigrants. Nearby Ellis Island, through which nearly 12 million immigrants passed (1892-1954), was reopened to the public in 1990 as the country’s only museum devoted entirely to immigration. ★333★ SUNSET CRATER VOLCANO NATIONAL MONUMENT c/o Flagstaff Area National Monuments 6400 N Hwy 89 Flagstaff, AZ 86004 Web: Phone: 928-526-0502; Fax: 928-714-0565 Size: 3,040 acres.