Kitchen Debate

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pages: 563 words: 136,190

The Next Shift: The Fall of Industry and the Rise of Health Care in Rust Belt America by Gabriel Winant

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, blue-collar work, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, deskilling, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, future of work, ghettoisation, independent contractor, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, price stability, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, the built environment, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working poor

The USWA struck the entire basic steel industry in 1946, 1949, 1952, 1956, and 1959. Across this period, in addition to securing fringe benefits, workers also won dramatic wage gains that easily outstripped inflation. By the end of the 1950s, the union secured increases that made its members the very symbol of the postwar promise to the US working class. In his 1959 “kitchen debate” with Nikita Khrushchev, Richard Nixon made steel labor his first talking point. “Our steel workers as you know, are now on strike. But any steel worker could buy this house. They earn $3 an hour.”19 Although labor costs per ton were rising fast and plant productivity was not keeping pace, the industry remained profitable because labor was a relatively small proportion of all costs—but the trend was unsustainable.

Data from American Iron and Steel Institute, Annual Statistical Report, qtd. in Tiffany, The Decline of American Steel, 27. 17. Census of Population, 1950, table 35; John D. Stephens and Brian P. Holly, “City System Behaviour and Corporate Influence: The Headquarters Location of US Industrial Firms, 1955–75,” Urban Studies 18, no. 3 (October 1981), 296. 18. Census of Population, 1950, table 83. 19. “The Kitchen Debate—Transcript,” July 24, 1959, available at http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/16/1959-07-24.pdf. 20. Stein, Running Steel, 7–36; Lichtenstein, State of the Union, 122–25; Meg Jacobs, Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), 179–261. 21.

Henderson, interview; I-1-A, WEMHOHPR; I-22-B, p. 47, WEMHOHPR; I-8-A, WEMHOHPR; Earline Coburn, interview with Gabriel Winant, July 20, 2016. 49. I-5-B, WEMHOHPR. 50. Beth Novak diary, July 24 1961-July 25, 1961. 51. See also Karen Olson, Wives of Steel: Voices of Women from the Sparrows Point Steelmaking Communities (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005). 52. The Kitchen Debate—Transcript, July 24, 1959, available at http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/16/1959-07-24.pdf; S-25-C, pp. 8–9, WEMHOHPR. 53. McColloch, “Modest but Adequate”; “Out-of-Work Steelworker’s Family in Dire Plight,” Pittsburgh Courier, April 1, 1960; Henry, interview. 54.


pages: 376 words: 110,321

Consider the Fork: A History of How We Cook and Eat by Bee Wilson

Albert Einstein, British Empire, Fellow of the Royal Society, haute cuisine, Kitchen Debate, lateral thinking, Louis Pasteur, refrigerator car, sexual politics, the scientific method, Upton Sinclair, Wall-E

It was the most high-profile exchange between Soviets and Americans since the Geneva Summit of 1955, but far more informal. Laughing and sometimes jabbing fingers at one another, the two men debated the merits of capitalism and communism. Which country had the more advanced technologies? Which way of life was better? The conversation—which has since been christened the Kitchen Debate—hinged not on weapons or the space race but on washing machines and kitchen gadgets. The occasion was the opening day of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park, a municipal park of “leisure and culture.” This was the first time many Russians had encountered the American lifestyle firsthand: the first time they tasted Pepsi-Cola or set eyes on big American refrigerators.

On chopsticks, see Barthes (1982), Chang (1977), Coe (2009), Hosking (1996), Ishige (2001). Bill Clinton’s speech about sporks is available at http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/63940-I, accessed July 2011. Also on sporks, see Koerner (2006), Lawrence (2010), and www.spork.org. CHAPTER SEVEN: ICE Much has been written about the Kitchen Debate. See, for example, Reid (2002), Reid (2005), Reid (2009), Oldenziel and Zachmann (2009), Larner (1986). For a contemporary account, see Salisbury (1959). On the history of ice, see David (1994a), Beckmann (1817), Masters (1844). The greatest book on America and refrigeration is the panoramic and phenomenally scholarly Anderson (1953).

Kurti, Nicholas, and Kurti, Giana, eds. (1988). But the Crackling Is Superb: An Anthology on Food and Drink by Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Bristol, Hilger. Lamb, Charles (2011). A Dissertation upon Roast Pig and Other Essays. London, Penguin. Larner, John W. (1986). “Judging the Kitchen Debate.” OAH Magazine of History, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–26. Larson, Egon (1961). A History of Invention. London, Phoenix House. Lawrence, Keith (2010). “Costs Add Up for Jail’s ‘Sporks,’ Other Items.” McClatchy-Tribune Business News, July 6. Leach, Helen M. (1982). “Cooking Without Pots: Aspects of Prehistoric and Traditional Polynesian Cooking.”


The Limits of the Market: The Pendulum Between Government and Market by Paul de Grauwe, Anna Asbury

"Robert Solow", banking crisis, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, means of production, Money creation, moral hazard, Paul Samuelson, price discrimination, price mechanism, profit motive, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Simon Kuznets, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, very high income

For many people in the post-war period the rise of governments as the controllers of economies seemed an inevitable and permanent  % 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1900 1903 1906 1909 1912 1915 1918 1921 1924 1927 1930 1933 1936 1939 1942 1945 1948 1951 1954 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 MARGINAL TAX RATES IN HIGHEST INCOME BRACKETS T HE GREAT ECONOM IC P ENDULUM US UK Germany France Figure .. Highest rates of personal income tax Source: Piketty, <http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/en/capital21c2> fact. Many people saw the superiority of centrally planned economies as self-evident. In the famous  Kitchen Debate between Richard Nixon, then vice president of the United States, and Nikita Khrushchev, then leader of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev declared with great conviction that the Soviet Union would catch up with the US before the end of the century. Many people were indeed convinced that this would happen.

.  Gini coefficients b global capitalism b global financial crisis ()  immigration – imperialism  import protection  income, share of total going to top % f,   INDEX income distribution –b, , , –,  income equality and economic growth trade-off , f,  income inequality , f, , , ,  reformist scenario  United Kingdom and United States  income per capita , f income redistribution policies  income tax f, ,  on highest incomes , , –, , , – productivity, labour costs and public sector  in selected countries f India five-year plans  gross domestic product (GDP) per capita f individual rationality and collective rationality –, –, ,  environment (external limit)  external limits of governments  industrial production, worldwide  inequality –,  assets – reduction  and social and political instability , f wealth ,  world –b see also income inequality inflation and lender of last resort –b insolvency/bankruptcy , ,  interbank market  interest rates , –, – on Spanish and British ten-year government bonds f internal contradictions of capitalism –,  internal limits of capitalism – internal limits of free market system –, , ,  internal limits of government – winner-takes-all phenomenon – International Monetary Fund (IMF) ,  investment boom  in eurozone  projects (efficiency)  public  as share of GDP  ‘invisible hand’ ,  Ireland eurozone government bond spreads, ten-year f global financial crisis ()  labour costs, gross hourly f Italy eurozone government bond spreads, ten-year f gross domestic product (GDP) per capita f labour costs, gross hourly f social security spending as percentage of government spending f Jacobson Schwartz, A. n Japan gross domestic product (GDP) per capita f liberalization and material prosperity  Kahneman, D.  Keynes, J. M. –, – Khrushchev, N.  Kitchen Debate ()  Kuznets, S./Kuznets curve , f,  labour costs  burden – and employer contributions in European Union f, f gross hourly , f hourly and national competitiveness f Northern Europe  Latvia labour costs, gross hourly f lender of last resort European Central Bank (ECB) – and inflation –b Lenin, V. , ,  liberalization , , –b Liebknecht, K. – linear theories on the rise and fall of capitalism – Lenin, V.  Liebknecht, K. – Luxemburg, R. – Marx, K. – Polanyi, K. – Schumpeter, J. –  INDEX liquidity crisis , , , –b Lithuania labour costs, gross hourly f Lomborg, B. –,  Luxembourg employer contribution and labour costs  labour costs, gross hourly f Luxemburg, R. , – McAfee, A.  Malta labour costs, gross hourly f market fundamentalists –, , f market/government hierarchy – economic values hierarchy –b labour costs, high and prosperity – labour costs burden – productivity, labour costs and public sector – market sector ,  market system –, , – competition and cooperation  return of (s) – rise of – technological progress  see also free market system; self-regulation in the market system Marx, K. , –b, , –, – material production , b, – Mayans in Middle America  Mediterranean model and social security  minimum reserve requirements b money base b, f money supply b, f,  moral hazard –, –,  motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic –, , – Netherlands eurozone government bond spreads, ten-year f labour costs, gross hourly f social security spending as percentage of government spending f New Deal  Nixon, R.  non-linearity –, , – North America gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, average annual growth in , f, f,  growth production per capita since industrial revolution , f see also United States Northern Europe labour costs f, ,  labour costs, high and prosperity  productivity, labour costs and public sector –,  North Korea , f Norway labour costs, gross hourly f Olson, M.  Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) – social security spending as percentage of government spending f Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT)  outsourcing  ownership rights  Packard, V.


The Smart Wife: Why Siri, Alexa, and Other Smart Home Devices Need a Feminist Reboot by Yolande Strengers, Jenny Kennedy

"side hustle", active measures, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, game design, gender pay gap, Grace Hopper, hive mind, Ian Bogost, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, Milgram experiment, Minecraft, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Turing test, Wall-E, women in the workforce

We are not the first scholars to notice that traditional forms of domestic labor have been mostly absent from visions of the smart home or substantially undervalued.37 Lynn Spigel, an esteemed professor of screen cultures, analyzed early smart home visions from 1940 to 1960 in the postwar, Cold War, and space-race United States. She found that these visions depicted women liberated from chores primarily associated with the kitchen, while vastly undervaluing and underacknowledging the other domestic work that women were doing at the time. For example, the “kitchen debate” between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev in 1959 depicted the United States’ future “as one huge kitchen of tomorrow,” but ignored the “sweeping, washing, vacuuming, and tidying-up” that tied women to other domestic spheres.38 In one of the few gendered analyses of the smart home, sociology professor Anne-Jorunn Berg suggests this oversight is because technology is traditionally “men’s domain,” whereas the home is traditionally women’s.

See Rosie (The Jetsons) Jewish communities, 93 Jibo, 21, 49, 59, 249n42 Jobs, Steve, 10, 193 Johansson, Scarlett, 133, 134 Joi (Blade Runner 2049), 125 Joler, Vladen, 97–98, 99, 103, 107, 189, 220 June smart oven, 40 K (Blade Runner 2049), 125 KAI (Kasisto), 170–171, 219 Kawaii (cuteness), 68–70 Kember, Sarah, 150 Kessler, Suzanne, 62 Khrushchev, Nikita, 32 Killer apps, 28 Kim, Hyunsuk, 58–59 Kindle (Amazon), 81, 82, 83, 106 King, Ynestra, 80 Kircher, Athanasius, 189 Kismet, 51, 71, 73 Kissamitaki, Maritsa, 110 Kitchen appliances, 40 Kitchen debate (Nixon and Khrushchev), 32 Kondo, Akihiko, 126 Kuyda, Eugenia, 171 Lady Gaga, 126, 210 Lang, Fritz, 153 Large-eyed robots, 56, 68–69 Lars and the Real Girl (film), 130–131, 218 Laundroid robot, 29 Laundry assistants, 29–30, 34–35 La Vie Électrique (Robida), 150 Legal rights for robots, 173, 174 Legend, John, 165 Lennar Corporation, 82 Leong, Dymples, 104 L’Éve Future (Villiers), 152–153 Levy, David, 117, 126 LG, 26, 145–146, 148 Li, Fei-Fei, 212–213 Liautaud, Susan, 188 Light, Ann, 210 Likability of social robots, 64–65, 77 Lily (robosexual woman), 126 Limp, David, 79 Lin, Patrick, 135 Linguistic traits of robots, 68 Living democracies, 105–106 Lopez-Neira, Isabel, 201, 202 Lora DiCarlo, 123 Loss of control over smart wives, 193–194 Love and Sex with Robots (Levy), 117 Love Me (documentary), 129 Lumidoll, 119 Lutron, 92 Ma, Ricky, 133, 134 Maalsen, Sophia, 195 MacKay, Kevin, 85 Made by Humans (Broad), 172 Mail-order bride industry, 128–129 Maines, Rachel, 148 Maiti, Aki, 71 Male-identified robots and assistants, 16, 21, 71, 113–114, 161–162, 165 Malesky, Edmund, 85 Male-specific smart wives, 35–37 Manga (comic books), 65, 66, 68–69 Manners when using smart wives, 167–168 Manual work involved with smart homes, 43 Marcussen, Benita, 131–132 Maria (Metropolis), 67, 153 Mariette (Blade Runner 2049), 125 Marital rape, 8 Marketing smart wives to women, 182–186 Marriage and wife drought, 6–8 Marriage to smart wives, 126, 221 Marriage Trafficking (Quek), 129 Masculinity and technology, 10–11, 32, 34, 43–44, 176, 177–181, 202, 204 Matsui, Tatsuya, 71 Matsuko Deluxe, 210 Matsukoroid, 210 Mattel, 196–197 Maushart, Susan, 6, 7, 8 McCann, Hannah, 209 McKenna, Wendy, 62 McMahon, John, 25, 41 McMullen, Matt, 109, 112, 114, 115, 118, 121 Media equation theory, 159 Media reports of male violence against women, 214 Media representations of smart wives, 214–215, 217–219 Mellor, Mary, 86 Men & Dolls (Marcussen), 131–132 Metropolis (film), 67, 153 Meyerowitz, Joanne, 5 Microsoft as Big Five member, 85 Cortana, 11, 83, 146, 148, 154, 182 employment at and gender, 9 ethical guidelines for AI, 226 Ms.

See Pepper (SoftBank Robotics) SolanaX (RealDollX), 120–121 Solutionism, 28 Somnox, 51 Son, Masayoshi, 51–52 Søndergaard, Marie, 221 Sone, Yuji, 65, 67, 68, 74 Sophia (Hanson Robotics), 146, 147, 148, 174 Søraa, Roger, 55, 56 South Korea, 4, 40, 41 Special Eurobarometer survey on public attitudes toward robots (2012), 40 Spigel, Lynn, 32 Spotify, 192 Spousal rape, 8 Stalking, 199–200 STAR Labs, 64, 67, 171 Star Trek (TV series), 79, 102–105, 106, 107, 198 Staying with the Trouble (Haraway), 208 Stepford Wives (original film and remake), The, 14, 15, 198, 217, 218 Sterling, Bruce, 85 Su, Norman Makoto, 132–133 Submissive-dominant sexual fantasies, 138 Subservience of smart wives, 164–165, 167 Sung, Ja-Young, 40 Surveillance capitalism, 194–195, 224 Surveillance technologies, 177, 193–198 Sustainable Maintainer (Panasonic), 29 Sweeney, Miriam, 158 Takagi, Shin, 135 Takahashi, Tomotaka, 70–71 Talk-Bot (C & C Creations), 160–162 Talking statue (Kircher), 189 Tamagotchi, 71, 219–220 Tanczer, Leonie, 193, 194, 201 Tau (film), 198 Tay (Microsoft), 157–158 Technochauvinism, 28 Technology of Orgasm (Maines), The, 148 Technology promoted through use of women’s bodies, history of, 149–151 Technosexual experiences and human relationships, 117–118 Teigen, Chrissy, 165 Teledildonic devices, 118, 123 Terminator (film series), The, 67, 198 Thermomix, 40 Tolmie, Peter, 43 Tomb Raider (video game), 136 To Save Everything, Click Here (Morozov), 28 Transdisciplinary approach to technology, need for, 213 Treatment of technologies by users, 159–161 Trottla, 135 TrueCompanion.com, 115 Roxxxy, 113, 114, 118, 134–135 Tsuchiya, Hideo, 128 Tufekci, Zeynep, 187–188 Turkle, Sherry, 16, 71, 196–197 Twitter, 98, 157–158 Tyler, Meagan, 136 Uncanny valley theory, 67–68, 118 UNESCO and EQUALS Skills Coalition, report on gender divides in digital skills, 10, 162, 166, 172, 178, 179, 203, 213 Unicole Unicron, 139 UNI Global Union, 225 United Kingdom computer science work and gender, 10 energy consumption, 99 jet plane command systems, 16 1950s’ housewife, 3–4 unpaid care of people with dementia, 53 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 199 United States and Amazon, 81, 84 Bud-E beer fridge, 35–36 Classification and Ratings Administration, 222 computer science work and gender, 9 digital voice assistant market, 8, 79 and ecological footprint model, 86 gender and uptake of smart wives, 9 jet plane command systems, 16 and The Jetsons, 25 marital rape, 8 1950s’ housewife, 3–4 Nixon and Khrushchev’s kitchen debate, 32 Orthodox Jewish communities, 93 right to repair laws, 106 stalking, 200 survey on gender equality in technology sector, 11 Unpaid care of people with dementia, 53 Uptake of smart wives, 1–2, 9, 30–31 Usability and functionality of smart wives, 31, 39, 183–184 Vacuum cleaners. See Robotic vacuum cleaners (robovacs) Vatter, Brian, 124 Vatter, Suki, 124 Verrill, Timothy, 201 Vertesi, Janet, 124 Vesta (Amazon), 26–27, 150–151 Vibrators, 123, 124, 148–149 Video games, 11, 135–137, 146, 148 Video streaming, 100 Villiers de l’Isle-Adam, Auguste, 152–153 Vinclu, 12–13 Virtual reality porn, 13, 118, 123–124 Vivi (iQiyi), 155 Voice-activated assistants.


pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, social intelligence, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

The peasant knowledge we mentioned in Chapter 2 allows us to remember the present and see the unseen extremism of our domination. But how does such ‘dissenting consent’ work in the context of dialogical exchange? The paradoxical ‘visible intrigue’ of cold war politics presents a myriad of examples of this cat and mouse game. The famous ‘Kitchen Debate’ might serve as a useful illustration. When, during the early 1960s, the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was shown around a model American kitchen at a trade exhibition in Moscow by US vice-president Richard Nixon, an unexpected debate ensued before the world’s media. Nixon knew full well that the press in the Soviet Union was highly censored.

capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 General Motors plant (Michigan) ref1 Goffee, R. ref1 Goldman Sachs ref1 The Good Soldier Svejk (Hasek) ref1 Gordon, D. ref1 Gorz, A. ref1, ref2 Graeber, D. ref1 Groundhog Day (Ramis) ref1 Guattari, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 on criticism/criticality ref1 and de-subjectification ref1 language ref1, ref2 Gujarat NRE ref1 Gulf of Mexico oil spill (2010) ref1 Hamper, B. ref1 Hanlon, G. ref1 Hardt, M. ref1 Hart, A. ref1 Harvard Business Review (HBR) ref1 Harvey, D. ref1, ref2 Hayek, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 health and safety ref1, ref2 ‘Help to Buy’ support scheme ref1 Hirschhorn, N. ref1 Hodgkinson, T. ref1 holiday policy ref1 Houellebecq, Michel ref1, ref2, ref3 human capital ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 human relations movement ref1 Human Resource Management (HRM) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 humour ref1 ‘I, Job’ function ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and biopower ref1, ref2 and death drive ref1, ref2 as escape into work ref1 and illness ref1, ref2, ref3 resisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 see also escape; totality refusal see also work, as all-encompassing; working hours illegal immigrants, deportations ref1 illness ref1, ref2 collective ref1, ref2 see also Social Patients’ Collective as desirable experience ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 of managers ref1, ref2 and productive power ref1, ref2 as weapon against capitalism ref1 ‘immersion room’ exercise ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 imperceptibility ref1 see also invisibility incentivization ref1 indexation process ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 informality and authoritarianism ref1, ref2 see also deformalization insecurity ref1 Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) ref1, ref2, ref3 invisibility ref1, ref2 ‘Invisible Committee’ ref1, ref2 Italian autonomist thought ref1, ref2 Jameson, F. ref1 Jones, G. ref1 Junjie, Li ref1 Kamp, A. ref1 Kein Mensch ist illegal ref1 Kellaway, L. ref1 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) ref1 Keynes, J.M. ref1, ref2 Khrushchev, Nikita ref1, ref2 Kim, Jonathan ref1 King, Stephen ref1 ‘Kitchen Debate’ ref1 Kramer, M. ref1, ref2 labour unions ref1 dissolution of ref1, ref2 language, evolution of ref1 Larkin, P. ref1 Latour, B. ref1, ref2 Laval, C. ref1, ref2 Lazzarato, M. ref1, ref2 leaders backgrounds ref1 remuneration and bonuses ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 see also managers Lefebvre, H. ref1 Leidner, R. ref1 Lewin, D. ref1 liberation management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 life itself, enlisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 lines of flight ref1, ref2 Lordon, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 Lucas, R. ref1, ref2 Lukács, G. ref1 Lynch, R. ref1 McChesney, R. ref1 McGregor, D. ref1 management ref1, ref2 and class function ref1, ref2 as co-ordination ref1 and inducement of willing obedience ref1, ref2 information deficit ref1 and power ref1, ref2 self-justification rituals ref1 as transferable skill ref1, ref2 managerialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and abandonment ideology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and boundary management ref1 and conflict-seeking behaviour ref1 division between managers and managed ref1, ref2 general principles of ref1 and leadership ref1 profligate management function ref1 refusing ref1 and securitization ref1 as self-referential abstraction ref1 managers as abandonment enablers ref1, ref2 and deformalization ref1 and engagement of workers ref1, ref2 lack of practical experience ref1 overwork ref1, ref2 see also leaders Marcuse, H. ref1 Market Basket supermarket chain ref1 Marx, K. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Maslow, A. ref1 Matten, D. ref1 meat consumption ref1 Meek, J. ref1 Meyerson, D. ref1 Michelli, J. ref1 Miller, W.I. ref1 Mitchell, David ref1 mobile technology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Modafinil ref1, ref2 Monaghan, A. ref1 money ref1, ref2 see also accumulation Mooney, G. ref1 Moore, A.E. ref1 Moore, Michael ref1, ref2 music industry ref1 Naidoo, Kumi ref1 NASA ref1 Natali, Vincenzo ref1 Negri, A. ref1, ref2 neoliberal capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and bureaucracy ref1 and ideal worker ref1, ref2 and non-work time ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 resisting ref1, ref2 see also post-labour strategy and threat of abandonment ref1, ref2 and truth telling ref1, ref2, ref3 neoliberalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and class relations ref1, ref2, ref3 and disciplinary power ref1 and human-capital theory ref1 and impossibility ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and micro-fascism ref1 and reign of technocrats ref1 role of state ref1 and truth telling ref1, ref2 and worker engagement ref1, ref2, ref3 Nestlé ref1 New Public Management ref1, ref2 New Zealand, and capitalist deregulation ref1 New Zealand Oil and Gas (NZOG) ref1 Newman, Maurice ref1 Nietzsche, Friedrich ref1, ref2 Nixon, Richard ref1, ref2 Nyhan, B. ref1 obsession ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Onionhead program ref1 overcoding ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 The Pain Journal (Flanagan) ref1, ref2, ref3 paranoia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 overwork/paranoia complex ref1, ref2 Paris Commune ref1, ref2 Parkinson’s Law ref1 Parnet, C. ref1 Parsons, T. ref1 Peep Show (TV comedy) ref1 pensions ref1, ref2 personnel management ref1 see also Human Resource Management Peters, T. ref1 Philip Morris ref1 Pike River Coal mine (New Zealand) ref1 Pollack, Sydney ref1 Pook, L. ref1 Porter, M. ref1, ref2 post-labour strategy, recommendations ref1 postmodernism ref1, ref2, ref3 power ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and truth telling ref1 Prasad, M. ref1 Price, S. ref1 private companies, transferring to public hands ref1 privatization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 profit maximization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 quantitative easing ref1 Rand, Ayn ref1 rationalization ref1, ref2, ref3 Reifler, J. ref1 reserve army of the unemployed ref1 Ressler, C. ref1 results-only work environment (ROWE) ref1, ref2, ref3 Rimbaud, A. ref1 Rio+20 Earth Summit (2012) ref1 ‘riot grrrl’ bands ref1 rituals of truth and reconciliation ref1 Roberts, J. ref1 Roger Award ref1 Roger and Me (Moore) ref1 Rosenblatt, R. ref1 Ross, A. ref1, ref2 Ross, K. ref1 Rudd, Kevin ref1 ruling class fear of work-free world ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 Sade, Marquis de ref1 Sallaz, J. ref1 Saurashtra Fuels ref1 Scarry, E. ref1 Securicor (G4S) ref1 Segarra, Carmen ref1 self-abnegation ref1 self-employment ref1 self-management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 self-preservation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 self-sufficiency ref1, ref2, ref3 shareholder capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 shift work ref1, ref2 see also working hours Shragai, N. ref1 sleep and circadian rhythms ref1 as form of resistance ref1 working in ref1, ref2, ref3 smart drugs ref1, ref2 Smith, Roger ref1 smoking and addiction ref1 dangers of ref1, ref2 scientific research ref1 sociability ref1, ref2 ‘the social’ ref1, ref2 social factory ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and structure of work ref1 social media ref1 Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission ref1 Social Patients’ Collective (SPK) ref1, ref2, ref3 social surplus (commons) ref1, ref2, ref3 socialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Sontag, S. ref1 Spicer, A. ref1 stakeholder management ref1, ref2 Starbucks ref1 state, theory of ref1 subcontracting ref1, ref2, ref3 subsidization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 suicide as act of refusal ref1 Freud’s definition ref1 work-related ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 surplus labour ref1, ref2 surplus living wage ref1 ‘tagged’ employees ref1 ‘tagged’ prisoner ref1 Tally, Richard ref1 taxation ref1, ref2, ref3 Taylor, F.W. ref1 Taylor, S. ref1 Taylorism ref1 technological progress, and emancipation from labour ref1 Thatcher, Margaret ref1 Thatcherism ref1 They Shoot Horses Don’t They?


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Molly Turner, director of public policy for the short-term rental lodging website Airbnb, pins the turning point to an iconic image: Richard Nixon, in Moscow, introducing Nikita Khrushchev to the modern marvel of the washing machine available for private consumption in every American home. Beginning with the era of that washing machine, Turner argues, we forgot how to share. In the so-called Kitchen Debate, Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev dispute their countries’ relative merits while touring the United States exhibit in Moscow in 1959. Image: Associated Press We came to prize instead personal ownership — of multiple cars, of large homes with private backyards and space inside for appliances that would never fit in a modest city walk-up.


pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

Shortly before our move, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and Vice President Richard Nixon had met in a brand-new, fully furnished kitchen of a model home. Although it looked like one that could be in any suburb in America, the home was built in Moscow’s Sokolniki Park as part of a cultural exchange program. On July 24, 1959, while television cameras rolled, the two world leaders held an impromptu “kitchen debate.” “Any steel worker could buy this house,” Nixon pointed out.1 “They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.” “In Russia, all you have to do to get a house is to be born in the Soviet Union,” Khrushchev fired back. The subject soon shifted to global politics and nuclear weapons, but Nixon’s words, no less than the house itself, vividly encapsulated the postwar American Dream: a private home, complete with a television set, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and a car or two in the driveway, all accessible to members of the working class like my parents.

Plurality service-class tracts are negatively correlated with average income (–0.49) and the share of adults who are college graduates (–0.45). Plurality working-class tracts are also negatively correlated with average income (–0.56) and the share of adults who are college graduates (–0.78). CHAPTER 8: SUBURBAN CRISIS 1. Dis, “The Nixon-Khrushchev ‘Kitchen Debate,’” Everything2, April 26, 2000, http://everything2.com/title/The+Nixon-Khrushchev+%2522Kitchen+Debate%2522. 2. On dead malls, see Nelson D. Schwartz, “The Economics (and Nostalgia) of Dead Malls,” New York Times, January 3, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/01/04/business/the-economics-and-nostalgia-of-dead-malls.html.


pages: 544 words: 168,076

Red Plenty by Francis Spufford

affirmative action, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, asset allocation, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer age, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Kim Stanley Robinson, Kitchen Debate, linear programming, market clearing, MITM: man-in-the-middle, New Journalism, oil shock, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, RAND corporation, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method

Helen Szamuely (London: Bantam, 1989) and G.I.Khanin, ‘1950s: The Triumph of the Soviet Economy’, Europe– Asia Studies vol. 55 no. 8 (December 2003), pp. 1187–1212; for the way in which the 1950s and 1960s saw the successful fulfilment of promises made in the 1930s, see Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, pp. 67–114. 3 The Soviet economy had grown at 6%, 7%, 8%: for the vexed question of Soviet growth rates, see below, introduction to part II. I have chosen here for Khrushchev, as seems likely, to believe the official Soviet figures, which naturally gave the highest rate. 4 Let’s compete on the merits of our washing machines: this is the famous ‘kitchen debate’. See Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 417–18; and the coverage in the New York Times, vol. CVIII no. 37,072, 25 July 1959, pp. 1–4. 5 Without me, they’ll drown you like kittens: for this prophecy of Stalin’s, see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 331. For the pipe-emptying and forehead-tapping episodes, see pp. 167–8 and 230. 6 For the time being, you are richer than us: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 427. 7 If I’d known there would be pictures like these: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 426. 8 Were you in the war, Mr Lodge?

Helen Szamuely (London: Bantam, 1989) and G.I.Khanin, ‘1950s: The Triumph of the Soviet Economy’, Europe– Asia Studies vol. 55 no. 8 (December 2003), pp. 1187–1212; for the way in which the 1950s and 1960s saw the successful fulfilment of promises made in the 1930s, see Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, pp. 67–114. 3 The Soviet economy had grown at 6%, 7%, 8%: for the vexed question of Soviet growth rates, see below, introduction to part II. I have chosen here for Khrushchev, as seems likely, to believe the official Soviet figures, which naturally gave the highest rate. 4 Let’s compete on the merits of our washing machines: this is the famous ‘kitchen debate’. See Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 417–18; and the coverage in the New York Times, vol. CVIII no. 37,072, 25 July 1959, pp. 1–4. 5 Without me, they’ll drown you like kittens: for this prophecy of Stalin’s, see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 331. For the pipe-emptying and forehead-tapping episodes, see pp. 167–8 and 230. 6 For the time being, you are richer than us: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 427. 7 If I’d known there would be pictures like these: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 426. 8 Were you in the war, Mr Lodge?

Ziegelbaum, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Astronautics Information Translation 22, 1 May 1961 (JPL, Calfornia Institute of Techology) – Gagarin’s first flight Life Magazine vol. 47 no. 6 (10 August 1959), pp. 28–35 – pictures of the American exhibition Literaturnaya Gazeta no. 27 (1969), p. 10 – trial of deputy director of pig farm New York Times vol. 108 no. 37,072 (25 July 1959), pp. 1–4 – Khrushchev and Nixon’s ‘kitchen debate’ at the American exhibition Time Magazine, 12 February 1965, ‘Borrowing from the Capitalists’ – Liberman and economic reform Websites Banknotes http://commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category: Banknotes_of_the_Soviet_ Union,_1961 Russian cars www.autosoviet.com Alexander [Aleksandr] Galich www.galichclub.narod. ru/biog. htm The Jewish Women’s Archive http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/berg-raissa-lvovna Soviet literature www.sovlit.com Michael Swanwick’s blog http://floggingbabel.blogspot.com/2008/02/khrushchev-isnt-he-russian-novelist. html [sic] Unrealised Moscow http://www.muar.ru/ve/2003/moscow/index_e. htm Film and television Adam Curtis, dir., ‘The Engineers’ Plot’ (TV documentary), programme 1 of Pandora’s Box, BBC TV 1992 Georgii Daniela, dir., Ya shagayu po Moskve (‘I Walk around Moscow’), 1964 Marlen Khutsiev, dir., Zastava Ilicha/Mne Dvadtsat’ Let (‘Ilich’s Gate’/‘I Am Twenty’), 1961 released 1965 Marlen Khutsiev, dir., Iyulskii Dozhd’ (‘July Rain’), 1967 Mikhail Romm, dir., Devyat’ dnei odnogo goda (‘Nine Days in One Year’), 1962 About the Author Francis Spufford, a former Sunday Times Young Writer of the Year (1997), has edited two acclaimed literary anthologies and a collection of essays about the history of technology.


pages: 372 words: 115,094

Reagan at Reykjavik: Forty-Eight Hours That Ended the Cold War by Ken Adelman

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Sinatra Doctrine, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

That deceit gave the Soviets an edge that lasted right up to the present. “In fact, we are still behind.” Once embarked on this roll of Soviet duplicity, Ronald Reagan proved unstoppable. Consequently, at Reykjavik on that Sunday morning came the most remarkable debate over American and Soviet social and political systems, even exceeding the Nixon-Khrushchev “kitchen debate” in the summer of 1959. The president identified the basic problem: “Each side has mistrusted the other.” But each side has not been equally at fault. “The evidence is all on our side.” The mistrust started with Lenin. With growing unease at where this latest Reagan stream of consciousness was taking them, Gorbachev tried to divert it with a wisecrack about Reagan’s previous talk of Karl Marx.

Fix-It”), 123, 224 The Meetings of President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev, Reykjavik (briefing book), 11–13 Momper, Walter, 277 Mondale, Walter, 67 Montblanc pen, 294, 361n294 Morris, Edmund, 322–23 Moscow summit of 1988 agreement to, 73, 253 arrival of Reagans, 256–59 discussions and public activities, 260–61, 262–65 human rights objectives, 263 press coverage, 259–60 Reagan objectives, 265 Reagan “walkabout,” 261–62 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 202 MS Baltika (ship), 47 MS George Ots (ship), 47, 91, 187 Muggeridge, Malcolm, 341 MV Sirius (ship), 47 National Security Council (NSC) Adelman attendance, 20 appointment of Carlucci, 227 appointment of Powell, 243 arms control meetings, 68 post-Reykjavik review, 217–20 at Reykjavik, 34, 120, 163 Newton, Wayne, 339 New York Times, 17, 20, 32, 49, 66–67, 114, 210, 215, 223, 257, 262, 271, 276, 308, 335–36 Nicaragua, 224–27, 232, 241–42 Nitze, Paul, 96, 101, 114–24, 129, 131, 173, 231, 235, 308, 341 Nixon, Richard/Nixon administration arms control talks, 59–60, 73, 175 assessment of Reykjavik, 3, 297–98 Khrushchev “kitchen debate,” 143 Kissinger role in, 18 political resurrection, 27 relations with China, 260 relations with Soviets, 26, 119 SALT I talks, 116–17 visit to Iceland, 42 visit to Moscow, 258 Nobel Peace Prize Gorbachev (1990), 327–28 Kissinger–Le Duc Tho (1973), 327 Mandela–de Klerk (1993), 327 Reagan considered for, 156, 327 Sakharov (1975), 264 Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968, 59 North, Oliver, 194, 224–25 North Korea, 59, 131, 155, 307, 311–12 nuclear testing, 56–57, 130, 143–44, 255–56, 303, 306–7 Nunn, Sam, 201–2, 308 Obama, Barack, 120, 250, 303–4, 309 Oberdorfer, Don, 2, 242, 314, 321 O’Connor, Sandra Day, 338 October 9 (Thursday) Reagan arrival, 34, 41–44 Reagan briefing book, 11–13 White House departure, 7–9 October 10 (Friday) Gorbachev arrival, 46–47 Gorbachev visit to Bessastidir, 48 Reagan visit to Bessastidir, 44–45 U.S. media reporting, 51 October 11 (Saturday a.m.)


pages: 840 words: 202,245

Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present by Jeff Madrick

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bear Stearns, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, inventory management, invisible hand, John Meriwether, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Money creation, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, tail risk, Tax Reform Act of 1986, technology bubble, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, union organizing, V2 rocket, value at risk, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

He was stoned by angry crowds in South America, gaining him headlines at home and winning him more sympathy as America’s defender. Late in his second term, he again made sensational headlines for a televised impromptu discussion in 1959 with the Russian leader, Nikita Khrushchev. The confrontation took place in the up-to-date American model home built for an exposition in Moscow. Captured on color videotape, the “kitchen debate” showed a still young Nixon strongly defending American material plenty and holding his own against the older, experienced Soviet head of state. His critics resented his mix of opportunism and pandering, and Nixon was indeed easy to ridicule. Helen Gahagan Douglas had tagged him years earlier as Tricky Dick, and the name stuck.

He and Nancy had bought a lovely new house in Pacific Palisades and GE furnished it with its latest appliances. He occasionally hosted the program from the house, proud of his possessions. It is hard to imagine Richard Nixon proud of a GE refrigerator. Nixon never lived the American way of life he extolled in the kitchen debates with Khrushchev. Reagan did, and admired it. The former liberal critic was turning into a full-fledged outspoken conservative. A decade later, he wrote that he was greatly relieved he had recovered from the liberal disease. He had been, as he put it in Where’s the Rest of Me?, a “near hopeless hemophilic liberal.

., 2.1, 3.1, 3.2; anticommunism of, prl.1, 3.3, 3.4; background of, 3.5; congressional campaign of (1946), 3.6; economic policies of, 1.1, 1.2, 2.2, 2.3, 3.7, 4.1, 6.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 10.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 14.1; foreign policy of, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11; gubernatorial campaign of (1962), prl.1, 3.12, 7.1; inflation policies of, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 11.4; “kitchen debate” of, 3.16, 7.2; New Economic Policy of, 3.17; as president, prl.1, prl.2, 3.18, 16.1; presidential campaign of (1960), prl.1, prl.2, 3.19, 7.3, 10.2; presidential campaign of (1968), 3.20; presidential campaign of (1972), 2.4, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24; Reagan compared with, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7; as Republican, prl.1, prl.2, 3.25, 3.26; reputation of, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29; resignation of, 3.30, 3.31, 7.8, 14.2; Senate campaign of (1950), 3.32, 7.9; vice-presidential campaign of (1952), 3.33; vice-presidential campaign of (1956), 3.34; Vietnam policy of, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40; Watergate scandal and, 3.41, 3.42, 3.43, 3.44, 3.45, 9.5, 10.3, 14.3 Nobel Prize, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 7.1, 9.1, 14.1, 15.1, 15.2 Noryl, 12.1, 12.2 NOW (negotiable order of withdrawal) accounts nuclear power, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2 Obama, Barack, 2.1, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), prl.1, 3.1, 11.1 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of the Comptroller of the Currency oil industry, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 9.2, 13.1, 15.1, 17.1, 17.2 oil prices, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 9.1, 9.2, 12.1, 14.1, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 19.1, 19.2 Okun, Arthur Olson, John Onassis, Aristotle O’Neal, Stan, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4 “open society,” 253–4 Open Society Institute Oppenheimer, J.


pages: 497 words: 124,144

Red Moon Rising by Matthew Brzezinski

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Kitchen Debate, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, skunkworks, trade route, Vanguard fund, walking around money, white picket fence

Visiting a mockup of an American kitchen displayed at the fair, the two leaders launched into an impromptu argument over missiles that ended with the red-faced first secretary jabbing a pudgy finger in the vice president’s chest and growling: “You want to threaten? We will answer threats with threats.” Nixon’s eventual opponent, John F. Kennedy, would make much of the unstatesmanlike buffoonery of the “kitchen debate,” and he would owe a large debt to the continued fallout from Sputnik and the missile gap for his electoral victory the following year. But it would be Nixon who would preside over the White House when Kennedy’s pledge to put a man on the moon was finally realized in 1969. Some would say this was fitting since he had advocated, as vice president, for Ike to shoot for the moon.

., 277 KGB (formerly NKVD), 18, 27, 29, 32, 62, 64, 67, 75, 109, 111–12, 123, 145, 152, 199, 200 Khrushchev, Nikita apartments built by, 19–20 arms race and Soviet economy and, 36–39 background and education of, 20–23 coup attempt and, 109–13, 190 Cuba and, 101, 270–72 de-Stalinization and, 41–42 Explorer launch and, 268 fall of, 271–72 fear of nuclear attack and, 23–26 Korolev honored by, 203–4 legacy of, 274–75 military spending and, 54, 191–92 Nixon and “kitchen debate,” 275 OKB-1 and, 278 R-7 development and, 21–23, 26–30, 34–44, 54, 56, 64–65, 71–72, 98, 101, 128–29, 191–92, 204–6, 269 R-16 development and, 246–47, 271 rise to power of, 18–20, 28, 41–42 satellite program and, 42–44, 114, 143–44, 148–50 secret speech of, on Stalin’s crimes, 18, 30–33, 41–42, 60, 62–64, 73, 75, 93–94, 128 Sputnik I and, 160, 180, 184, 187–89, 195–96, 199–206 Sputnik II and, 209–12, 216–17, 245 summit of 1955 and, 24 U-2 and, 124–27, 129–31 uprisings of 1956 and, 62–64, 73–77 Vanguard failure and, 241, 257 “we will bury you” speech of, 109–10 Zhukov ouster by, 188–95 Khrushchev, Sergei career of, 100–101, 272 father’s political life and, 41, 111, 192, 194, 195 R-7 and, 18, 20–22, 27–29, 34, 36, 39–40, 42–44, 98 Sputnik and, 195–96, 203, 205 U-2 and, 125, 130–31 Killian, James, 53, 93, 135, 218–19, 223–24, 243, 249–50 Killian report, 53, 117 Kim Il Sung, 88–89 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 137 Kirichenko, Aleksei, 18, 27–38, 195 Knerr, Hugh, 9 Kodak company, 116 Kolyma mines, 66, 100 Korean War, 24, 47, 80, 89–90, 183 Korolev, Sergei, 186, 195, 220, 261, 266 background and early career of, 103–9 death and legacy of, 273–75 dog in space with Sputnik II and, 209–12, 217 honors awarded to, 203–4 illness of, after Sputnik II and doubts about R-7, 245–47 Khruschev okays projects of, 27–29, 33–36, 39–44, 56 known only as Chief Designer, 27 marries Ksenia, 106–8 marries Nina, 99–100 Nobel Prize denied to, 203 orbital velocity problem and, 262 overselling of R-7 and Glushkov cause problems for, 64–72 R-7 delays and, 95–103 R-7 first successful flight and, 113–14, 129 R-7 loading problem and, vs.


pages: 627 words: 127,613

Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990 by Kristina Spohr, David Reynolds

anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, oil shock, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shared worldview, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

In fact, Nixon had made his political name as an anti-communist crusader, rising to prominence in Congress on the back of his campaign to prove that Alger Hiss, a State Department official under suspicion of spying for the Soviet Union, had lied about his activities. Dwight D. Eisenhower selected Nixon as his running mate in the 1952 presidential election in order to reassure Republican conservatives. Nixon’s 1959 trip to the Soviet Union as vice president had been contentious yet politically profitable after he got into an animated ‘kitchen debate’ with Nikita Khrushchev over the relative merits of American and Soviet consumerism.2 In short, Nixon was a figure whose political trajectory had been fuelled by confrontation, not détente. Time had not entirely mellowed Nixon’s fundamental suspicion of communists in general and Russian communists in particular.

Without any precedent for a presidential visit to the Soviet Union, Nixon’s staff raided the itineraries and communiqués of other Western leaders for ideas, including West Germany’s Willy Brandt, Harold Wilson of Great Britain, Charles de Gaulle of France, and Pierre Trudeau of Canada. They also looked at Dwight D. Eisenhower’s aborted 1960 summit and even Nixon’s vice-presidential kitchen debate visit in 1959.30 In the end Washington agreed on a nine-day visit, with regional stops in Leningrad and Kiev. The public symbolism of each moment was choreographed to the last detail, in some cases almost absurdly. Nixon’s PR team decided that David Eisenhower, the late president’s grandson and Nixon’s son-in-law, should say goodbye to the president at Andrews Air Force Base in order to underline the fact that Nixon was ‘doing something that [President] Eisenhower was unable to do’—a point that was likely lost on most members of the American public.31 The White House’s obsession with the media caused problems in the Kremlin.


Reaganland: America's Right Turn 1976-1980 by Rick Perlstein

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, affirmative action, airline deregulation, Alistair Cooke, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, death of newspapers, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, disinformation, Donald Trump, energy security, equal pay for equal work, facts on the ground, feminist movement, financial deregulation, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, land reform, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, oil shock, open borders, Potemkin village, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, traveling salesman, unemployed young men, union organizing, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, wages for housework, walking around money, War on Poverty, white flight, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, yellow journalism, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

His young protégé watched and learned. In 1959, Safire cleverly maneuvered the two most powerful men in the world into the “typical American home” set up at the American National Exhibition in Moscow’s Sokolniki Park by a McCrary PR client. There, Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev semi-spontaneously engaged in a legendary “kitchen debate” over the relative merits of the communism and capitalism. As Safire told the story in his 1963 book, The Relations Explosion, a manual on how to manipulate public perception, Khrushchev’s security forces attempted to block a New York Times reporter from the enclosure. Safire claimed the man was there to demonstrate the refrigerator—then that a Life magazine photographer was with the manufacturer of the washing machine.

In April he teed off on Paul Warnke for “ideological bias” in his hiring practices; in May, he went after two State Department officials with a supposedly corrupt business connection to a TV station; in June, the target was Vice President Mondale, for supposedly installing a “gang of four” of pro-administration prosecutors in the Justice Department; none of these seeds took root with other investigators. Then, after the revelation of Pat Caddell’s ten-thousand-word political strategy memo, Safire lamented that the Carter administration believed “the way to stay in the corridors of power is to turn them into halls of mirrors.” Which, coming from the architect of the Kitchen Debate, was pretty rich. He hoped to exploit as a point of leverage Carter’s self-anointment as something better than a politician: easier, after all, to knock a man down when he’s perched on a pedestal. He hoped to prick journalists into going after Jimmy Carter in the same way they’d supposedly sabotaged Nixon or else be dismissed as Democratic hacks.

William Safire “William Safire, Political Columnist and Oracle of Language, Dies at 79,” NYT, September 27, 2009; Eric Alterman, Sound and Fury: The Making of the Punditocracy (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 35; Garry Wills, “William Safire at the Top of the Heap,” New York, November 28, 1977. legendary “kitchen debate” William Safire, The Relations Explosion: A Diagram of the Coming Boom and Shakeout in Corporate Relations (New York: Macmillan, 1963). inaugural was “Pedestrian Inaugural,” NYT, January 24, 1977. “the infamous ‘Doar Plan’ ” “Rejected Counsel,” NYT, February 3, 1977. “Will Mr. Civiletti inform” “Helping the House Corruption Grand Jury,” NYT, February 28, 1977.


pages: 742 words: 202,902

The Brilliant Disaster: JFK, Castro, and America's Doomed Invasion of Cuba's Bay of Pigs by Jim Rasenberger

affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Gunnar Myrdal, Kitchen Debate, land reform, Seymour Hersh, Torches of Freedom, William of Occam

Beyond very real and definable anxieties regarding nuclear obliteration, a vaguer insecurity seemed to grip many Americans of the 1950s. This was reflected in edgy bestsellers such as The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit and The Ugly American, in which American might, for all its obvious fecundity and influence, was portrayed as a tenuous and at some level hollow proposition. Richard Nixon’s so-called kitchen debate with Nikita Khrushchev in the summer of 1959, in which the two men squabbled about the respective merits of their nation’s kitchen appliances, would be hailed as a victory for Nixon’s debating skills and a rousing defense of American prosperity and industry, but in the end Nixon’s argument was strikingly vapid.

.: Castro’s 1959 visit to, 22–25 Castro’s 1960 visit to, 86–88, 89 New York Daily News, 20 New York Post, 23, 24 New York Times, 1, 3, 13, 20, 25, 30, 88, 107, 115, 166, 168, 170, 175, 196, 216, 314, 319, 320, 330, 331, 358, 379, 380, 383, 385, 390, 397 Nitze, Paul, 125, 158, 159, 198 Nixon, Julie, 317 Nixon, Richard, xv, xviii, 11–12, 385 anticommunism of, 21, 78, 94 Castro as election issue for, 51, 77, 79, 80, 90, 91–94, 95, 103 Castro’s meeting with, 19, 21–22 in covert-action planning, 50–51, 53, 55, 80 Dulles’s Kennedy briefing questioned by, 79 Dulles’s visit to, 307 Kennedy grudge of, 94, 396, 397 Kennedy’s assessment by, 381–82 at Kennedy’s inauguration, 114 Kennedy’s post-invasion meeting with, 317–18 “kitchen debate” of, 18–19 presidency of, 396–99 in presidential debates, 91–94, 396 Noel, James, 144, 295 Nolan, John E., Jr., 369–70, 371, 372, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378–79 Norstad, Lauris, 314 Obama, Barack, xix Oberdorfer, Louis, xix, 368, 370, 373, 377 O’Connell, James, 89 O’Donnell, Kenneth, 250, 281, 286, 287, 296 oil industry, 76–77 Oliva, Erneido, 228, 246, 254, 257, 258, 261, 262, 263, 267, 279, 295, 300, 301, 302, 357, 379 Opa Locka air base, 84, 120, 284, 295, 375 Operation Ajax, 44 Operation Alert, 19–20 Operation Bumpy Road, 107–8, 153 Operation Mongoose, 352, 360, 398 Operation Success, 44, 61–62, 67, 68 see also Guatemala, CIA-backed coup in Operation Trinidad, 118, 137, 138, 175, 185, 268 Operation Zapata: Acheson’s criticism of, 147 aerial reconnaissance in, 148, 171, 177, 190, 196, 207, 230, 271 air strikes critical to, 140, 148, 175, 176, 181–82, 190, 221, 222, 225, 389 air strikes curtailed in, 185, 209–10 air-strike strategy compromised in, 182 Battle of the Rotunda in, 258, 260–63 cancellation deadline for, 183, 201, 213 Castro’s knowledge of, 170–71, 185 casualties in, 85, 193, 206, 246, 262, 262n, 267, 279, 291, 292, 294, 321, 323, 323n combat in, 231, 232, 243, 244, 246, 247–49, 250–51, 252, 254–58, 259, 260–63, 267, 271, 273, 276–77, 291, 294–95, 300–302, 392 commencement of, 4–6, 186 conflicting goals for, 140, 162, 175, 189, 221 contingency plan for, 157, 389 coral as obstacle in, 230, 231, 232, 233, 237, 238 crisis response to, 269–70, 271, 272–73, 274, 277, 279–80, 282, 283–84, 285–87 diversionary landing aborted in, 191 end goal of, 228–29 evidence of U.S. involvement in, 202 final military preparations for, 4, 5–6, 157, 183–84 first air strike in, 189–96, 198, 202, 206, 207–8 first progress report in, 200–201, 203 follow-up air-strike approval questioned in, 217–18, 220–21 follow-up air strike approved in, 264 follow-up air-strike cancellation in, 211, 221, 222–24, 225–26, 233–36, 245, 247, 258, 306, 307, 332, 340, 385, 391 follow-up air strikes required in, 208, 209, 210, 229 formulation of, 138–40 intelligence lacking in, 272, 277, 279–80, 336 internal Cuban support critical to, 157, 171 internal Cuban uprisings expected in, 229, 341, 389, 392, 393 Kennedy administration’s final briefing on, 181–83, 221 Kennedy’s approval of, 216 Kennedy’s comprehension of, 166, 391, 394 Kennedy’s conflict about, 213, 390–91, 394–95 Kennedy’s denials and, 180–81, 278 Kennedy’s review of, 147, 148, 155–63, 165–66, 175 landing strategy for, 227–28, 251 Last Stand in, 300–301 miscommunication in, 290 political concerns about, 148, 149–50, 151–52, 158–59, 160, 162, 164–65, 171–73, 178–79, 218–19, 223, 234, 298–99, 395 possible remedies for canceled air strikes in, 234–35, 240–42 press coverage of, 166–67, 168–70, 175 propaganda efforts in, 239–40, 257, 264–65 Rules of Engagement for, 178, 299 ruses considered for, 165 ruse used in, 190, 194–95, 198, 202, 203, 204, 205, 216 Stevenson’s briefing on, 172–73, 198, 205 Stevenson’s denial of, xiv, 203, 204–5, 216–17 Stevenson’s protest against, 218–19, 220, 221 strategic concerns about, 141, 160, 162, 175–76 U.S. deniability in, 152–53, 160, 165, 175, 179, 189, 195, 216, 221, 241, 327 U.S. military intervention debated for, 283–84, 392, 393 U.S. military intervention prohibited in, 184, 229, 265–66, 271, 273, 274, 277, 282, 306, 333, 393 U.S. military support assumed in, 209, 210, 229 U.S.


pages: 288 words: 83,690

How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

After the war, suburban culture became a weapon in the Cold War fight against the Soviet Union. In 1959, in an iconic moment of television, Vice President Richard Nixon debated the merits of American culture with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev in front of a model American home decked out with every modern appliance available, in what came to be known as the “kitchen debates.” These material goods—the toaster and the television, the canned foods and Pepsi products—Nixon argued, were the best proof yet that Americans were living a lifestyle superior to that of the communist Russians. Hollywood got in on the propaganda too. In 1961’s Bachelor in Paradise, Bob Hope plays a critical essayist who goes to a California subdivision to write an analysis of suburban life, only to fall in love with a real estate agent and move there.


pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, post-work, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

One was a conscious policy: the Cold War saw frenetic efforts by U.S. industrial planners91 to find ways to apply existing technologies to consumer purposes, to create an optimistic sense of burgeoning prosperity and guaranteed progress that, it was hoped, would undercut the appeal of radical working-class politics. The famous 1959 “kitchen debate” between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev made the politics quite explicit: “your communist ‘worker’s state’ may have beat us into outer space,” Nixon effectively argued, “but it’s capitalism that creates technology like washing machines that actually improve the lives of the toiling masses.”


pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman

3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The future is already here, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

They decided to do so by creating a real-life suburban home, the sort of house Richie Cunningham lived in, in the television series Happy Days. It was in this home’s kitchen that Nixon met Khrushchev. If you look up the CIA transcript it reads like a comedy sketch where the director has asked one to be reasonable, and the other to act the defensive, blustering ruddy-cheeked oaf. Can you tell who was given which directions? The Kitchen Debate - transcript 24 July 1959 [Both men enter kitchen in the American exhibit.] Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to dishwasher.] Khrushchev: We have such things. Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses.


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, starchitect, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

The blood-soaked Stalin era weighed heavily on his conscience, for a start, and it seems he genuinely wanted to make amends by delivering the happiness that communism had always held out to its adherents. But this was as much a response to international as domestic politics. In 1959 the world’s two superpowers had locked horns on one of the most bizarre battlegrounds in history, a show kitchen at the American National Exhibition in Moscow. The famous ‘kitchen debate’ that took place there between Khrushchev and Vice-President Nixon was a pivotal moment in the Cold War, when the Fordist American dream of mass consumerism went head to head with the Soviet ideal of Red Plenty. The American show kitchen was consciously intended as propaganda by white goods – or rather pastel pink and canary-yellow goods, for in true late Fordist style the units and appliances supplied by General Electric were available in a wide variety of colours.


pages: 1,213 words: 376,284

Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, critique of consumerism, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, Herbert Marcuse, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, Pier Paolo Pasolini, post-industrial society, Post-Keynesian economics, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Incapable of delivering on big white goods, the GDR in 1959 shifted its focus to the ‘thousand little things needed in daily life’ like screws, sewing needles and spare parts. Delegations travelled to Sweden and West Berlin to study dry cleaning and DIY.178 If socialist consumers wanted things, they would need to learn to repair them. The material race, then, was already in full swing when vice-president Nixon sparred with Khrushchev in the famous kitchen debate at the international exhibition in Moscow on 24 July 1959. The fully equipped six-room ranch house cost $14,000. Any American worker could afford that, Nixon challenged Khrushchev. The Soviets had sent Sputnik into space two years earlier and the Soviet leader was not easily shaken: in the Soviet Union all new houses had this kind of equipment, he hit back.

S. 3, 151–2 jewellery 41, 47, 48, 123, 138, 143, 146, 206, 228, 362, 381, 434, 511, 527 Jews 86, 290, 598, 600, 615; department stores owned by 196, 300 Jiangnan 44, 46 Jihad 616, 618–19 Jin Ping Mei (The Plum in the Golden Vase ) 48, 51 Jingdezhen 44, 88 Johannesburg 252 Johansen, Hans-Peter 337 John Paul II 606 Johnson, Lyndon B. 304, 501 jollyboys 60 jukeboxes 311–12 Kaffee-Messmer 172 Kahneman, Daniel 453 kakusa shakai 371 Kallen, Horace 289 Kambli, Konrad 118 Kames, Henry Home, Lord 102 Kant, Immanuel 95 Karo women 142 Karstadt (department store) 199 Katona, George 340, 342 Keep Sunday Special Campaign 479 Kekkonen, Urho 419 Kelley, Florence 156 Kellogg’s 517 Kennedy, John F. 550–51, 552; Consumer Bill of Rights (1962) 387, 550–51, 553 Kent 61, 76 Kenya 573, 591, 594 Kerala 365, 379–80, 381 Keynes, John Maynard 284–5, 420, 445, 449 Keynesianism 427–8 khadi 297–8 khat 80, 168 Khatris of Benares 146 Khmer Rouge 680 Khomeini, Ruhollah 616 Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich 327, 329–30 kimono 358 kinetoscopes 212 King, Gregory 59 King, Martin Luther 324–5 Kipling, Rudyard 124 Kirov works 294–5 kitchens 14, 189, 222, 240, 242, 249–51; first electric kitchen 249; Frankfurt Kitchen 249–50; functionalist 249–50, 270; Moscow exhibition kitchen debate 329; in Shanghai 249, 250; shared 225; as social spaces 674–5; standardized, built-in 240, 250; toilets in 189; working class 270 Kleenex 631 kleptomaniacs 197 Klopp, Jürgen 563 knitting frame 59 Knonau, Gerold Meyer von 117 Knossos 626 Knox Hat Company 494–5 Kocher, Emil Theodor 118 Kohler, Walter 240 Kohler Company 240 kola nuts/extract 80, 168 Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) 375 Kolonialwarenladen 164 Kombinat Haushaltsgeräte 336 Kon Wajiro 359, 378 Korea: Korean War 307, 504, 542; North 607; South see South Korea Kozintsev, Grigori 292 Kracauer, Siegfried 211–12, 215 Kritischer Konsum 576 Krueger, Alan 453 Krupp, Alfred 523 Krupp steel maker 166, 523 Kyoto 358 Kyrk, Hazel 239, 289 La Pradelle, Michele de 583 La Roque, Jean de 87, 90, 92 labelling 6, 68–9, 156, 565–6, 570, 577 see also branding labour and work: absenteeism 471, 529, 530, 531; balance between work and leisure 443–55, 446; children’s 133, 156, 287, 485, 490; consumption as part of labour exchange 59–60; department stores and the creation of new work 196; DIY 260–61, 262, 292; and early deprivation 309; factory labour/labourers 79, 166, 210, 214, 239, 260, 294, 337; free labour 91, 122, 129; housework see housework; and idleness see idleness; ‘industrious revolution’ 74–5; industry and the wage worker 1; the labourer as a consumer 117; Marx and the exploitation of 113; migrant labour/workers 58, 64, 334, 383, 512 see also remittances, migrant worker; non-wage benefits see company leisure activities; company services, and corporate-led consumption; holidays: paid; part-time 480, 481; polarization of work and leisure 443, 455, 468–73; principle of equivalence of work and play 503; Puritan work ethic 455; and remittances see remittances, migrant worker; slave labour see slavery/slaves; as source of wealth 449; specialization/division 24, 54, 110; sweated labour/goods and sweatshops 128, 155, 156, 184, 355, 567, 578; travelling/commuting to work 14, 200, 340, 454, 457, 685, 686; unpaid work 144–5, 447, 448, 450, 458 see also housework; US industrial worker hours 216; women’s 43, 281, 447, 457, 480, 481, 659 see also housework; ‘work hard, play hard’ motto 468; working conditions 157; working hours 75, 133, 216, 403, 443–4, 445, 446, 447, 449–51, 477 see also Sundays Labour Party, UK 303, 304, 343–4, 346–7, 554, 640; New Labour 548, 549 Lady Guide Association 198 Lady’s Shopping Manual 201 Lahire, Bernard 346 Lancet 167 land theft 133 landfills 626, 632, 634, 640, 642, 644 Lang, Olga 359–60, 368–9 Lange, Cornelis Pieterse de 55 laozi 191 Lascia o raddoppia?

Holiday programme of the Nazi leisure organization Strength Through Joy (Kraft Durch Freude), 1938. 42. Soviet advertisement: ‘In America, a bottle of ketchup stands on every table in a restaurant and in every housewife’s cupboard’, 1937. 43. The Soviet stand of appliances at the 1959 Moscow exhibition, where Nixon and Khrushchev had their ‘kitchen debate’. The limits of Americanization 44. 1958 brochure of the eighth Italian song festival at Sanremo. 45. Domenico Modugno taking off with the winning song ‘Nel blu dipinto di blu’ (Volare), inspired by two Chagall paintings, at Sanremo, 1958. 46. Rural nostalgia: a 1997 stamp celebrating Finnish Tango. 47.


pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, American ideology, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Herbert Marcuse, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Seymour Hersh, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog

This hucksterism. Hadn’t Richard Nixon worked as a carnival barker as a boy in Prescott, Arizona? Hadn’t the organizer of the Committee of 100, an advertising executive, proclaimed, upon discovering Richard Nixon in 1946, “This is salable merchandise!”? They would laugh at Nixon’s line from the so-called Kitchen Debate with Nikita Khrushchev in Moscow in 1959: “There are some instances where you may be ahead of us, for example, in the development of the thrust of your rockets for the investigation of outer space; there may be some instances in which we are ahead of you—in color television, for instance.” Soft-drink CEO Donald Kendall would later get Nixon his job at a New York law firm in 1963 as quid pro quo for the vice president’s arranging for Khrushchev to be photographed with a bottle of Pepsi.

Everything was political. His job itself had roots in a chit: Mudge, Stern, Baldwin, and Todd was the first firm to take Don Kendall up on his offer to throw Pepsi’s international legal work to whichever firm offered Richard Nixon a job (that repaid Nixon for having Nikita Khrushchev drink Pepsi during the 1959 Kitchen Debate visit). When a columnist wrote that Nixon spent only one day a week at the law office and the rest scheming politics, Nixon wrote each of his clients individually to say it wasn’t true. In fact it was only half-true. His office—a museum of political kitsch: silver plates engraved with testimonials, commemorative gavels, keys to cities, a long walnut cabinet filled with signed photographs of heads of state in the line of sight of visitors sitting across from Nixon at the polished walnut desk—was where he did his politics.

Safire appealed to Salisbury’s news sense (more absurd still: if its importance was its newsworthiness, a front-page article about it would do just as well). Finally, Safire pulled out his final argument. He appealed to the halcyon memories they shared of Moscow, in 1959, when Salisbury had been the pool reporter for the Kitchen Debate, and Safire was flacking the American exhibition. Salisbury reminded Safire that for him to even consider the request the appraisal would have to be submitted before the afternoon deadline. If so, he promised to read and consider it. A gaggle of reporters gathered in the Nixon, Mudge antechamber awaiting the promised document.


The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations by Christopher Lasch

cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, feminist movement, full employment, George Santayana, impulse control, Induced demand, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Norman Mailer, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, road to serfdom, Scientific racism, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, yellow journalism

, 80 : The Culture cf Narcissism he be- performance from a poor one, as in the Hiss case, when came certain that Whittaker Chambers was telling the truth " because "I did not feel that [his performance] was an act. watching the Army-McCarthy hearings on television, After he re" I prefer professionals to amateur actors. During his famous kitchen debate with Nikita Khruschchev, marked scornfully, " " Nixon was sure that Khruschchev "was going through an act, and he later reproached Marshal Georgi Zhukov with underestimating tlje intelligence of the Soviet people. They aren't dumb. They know when somebody is acting and when it s the real thing-particularly when the acts have been so amateurish.


pages: 335 words: 111,405

B Is for Bauhaus, Y Is for YouTube: Designing the Modern World From a to Z by Deyan Sudjic

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, dematerialisation, deskilling, edge city, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, light touch regulation, market design, megastructure, moral panic, New Urbanism, place-making, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

He had already been to America by this time. He had even seen the work of Charles Eames and Buckminster Fuller at first hand, albeit in Russia. Kaplický had seen the American National Exhibition in Moscow, designed by George Nelson with an installation by Charles and Ray Eames, during which Khrushchev had the famous kitchen debate with Richard Nixon. Kaplický made his way to London in 1968, but not before he had painted, in careful Cyrillic, a sign on a wall at the National Museum in Prague, inviting the Russian neighbours to go back to where they had come from, and checking with his mother that he had got the grammar right.


pages: 366 words: 119,981

The Race: The Complete True Story of How America Beat Russia to the Moon by James Schefter

Berlin Wall, Burning Man, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, Kitchen Debate, low earth orbit, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan

Vice President Richard Nixon was there for the unveiling, and so was Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. When Nixon showed the premier through the U.S. exhibit, he extolled the virtues of American society. Khrushchev listened for only a few moments before challenging him in front of reporters and cameras. The so-called Kitchen Debate turned into a loud, finger-wagging confrontation over the merits of socialism versus American-style democracy. Then a funny thing happened. When the verbal imbroglio ended, reporters and photographers wandered away. Nixon took Khrushchev behind the exhibit’s panels and kitchen equipment, where they had a polite and respectful conversation.


pages: 428 words: 134,832

Straphanger by Taras Grescoe

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar

Nixon boasted that the General Electric oven and range, the washing machine topped with Dash detergent, and the government-backed, 25-year mortgage were all within reach of the average American steelworker. Scoffing at the electric lemon juicer, Khrushchev satirically asked if Americans also had machines that would spoon-feed them their dinner and chew it for them, too. Eyewitnesses say the kitchen debate, as it became known, had no clear victor, but Nixon, photographed confidently jabbing Khrushchev in the chest as he stressed America’s lead in material goods, ended up winning the propaganda battle. The next day, the Soviets struck back. First deputy premier Frol Kozlov, who had traveled extensively in the United States, told the assembled press that the New York subway was “lousy.”


pages: 556 words: 141,069

The Profiteers by Sally Denton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, clean water, corporate governance, crony capitalism, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, profit motive, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, William Langewiesche

Stephen Bechtel Sr. privately railed against the campus demonstrators as Communist rabble-rousers. (9) In July 1959 in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev and Vice President Richard Nixon engaged in a heated exchange about capitalism and communism. Tempers flared as the two men taunted each other. Dubbed the “Kitchen Debate,” the tense confrontation came to epitomize the Cold War and the fervent anticommunist sentiments of the Bechtel family. (10) Steve Bechtel Sr. had cultivated a close relationship with the Iranian shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, seen here with President Nixon at a reviewing stand in Washington, DC.


pages: 418 words: 134,401

First Friends: The Powerful, Unsung (And Unelected) People Who Shaped Our Presidents by Gary Ginsberg

affirmative action, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, forensic accounting, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Seymour Hersh, traveling salesman, two and twenty, urban planning

“Bill listened to representatives of the Bush administration give answers to questions about domestic policy, economic policy at Bilderberg,” Hillary remembered, “and he thought their answers were so weak that I knew he came out of it very fired up and thinking maybe he would actually run that year. It was very important to his decision to run.” Four months later, standing on the steps of the old Capitol in downtown Little Rock, Bill Clinton announced his candidacy for president of the United States. Just a decade removed from his kitchen debate with Jordan about whether to leave politics for good, Clinton now stood as one of only five credible candidates—still a long shot but with a clear path to the nomination if everything went right. And everything seemed to be going right by the middle of January 1992, when he outraised, outhustled, and outsmarted his opponents.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

But from the vantage point of the real East – from the Middle East to the Far East – the world seemed simply to have been carved up between two rival Wests, a capitalist one and a communist one. The people in charge looked roughly similar. Indeed, in many ways the Soviet Union longed to imitate the United States, to build the same weapons – and also the same consumer goods. As Khrushchev made abundantly clear in his ‘kitchen debate’ with Nixon, the Soviets aspired to match the Americans product for product. Sartorially there was little to choose between the two men. Clad in perfect black and white, as if to confound the colour television technology he was supposed to be marketing, Nixon looked like the dour Californian lawyer he was.


pages: 585 words: 151,239

Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, Ida Tarbell, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, McDonald's hot coffee lawsuit, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

The suburban dream: mother and daughter wave goodbye to father as he drives to work in January 1949. Real GDP had increased 4.2 percent the previous year. A re-creation of the first McDonald’s restaurant, which was opened in Des Plaines, Illinois, by Ray Kroc on April 15, 1955. The “kitchen debate” between Vice President Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev during a tour of the American National Exhibition in Sokolniki Park in Moscow, 1959. General Electric advertises an automatic dishwasher in 1948. Dishwashers and other “electronic servants” liberated Americans, particularly women, from domestic drudgery and enormously increased the amount of time available for leisure.


The Cigarette: A Political History by Sarah Milov

activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, American Legislative Exchange Council, barriers to entry, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, global supply chain, Herbert Marcuse, imperial preference, Indoor air pollution, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, land tenure, new economy, New Journalism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, Torches of Freedom, trade route, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

USDA Economic Research Service, Tobacco Situation 1959–1960, 6. 89. Brandt, Cigarette Century, 136–148. 90. John Fischer, “The Country Slickers Take Us Again,” Harper’s Magazine, December 1955. 91. The reporter quoted, Harrison Salisbury, was the New York Times longtime Russian affairs correspondent most famous for reporting on the “Kitchen Debate” between Nixon and Khrushchev a few years later. His observations of the Iowa farm visit were quoted by Fischer, the editor of Harper’s, in the “Country Slickers” article cited in note 90. 92. Farm Policy, 113. 93. “Public Found Divided on Farm Subsidy,” Los Angeles Times, August 28, 1953. 94.


pages: 615 words: 168,775

Troublemakers: Silicon Valley's Coming of Age by Leslie Berlin

AltaVista, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bear Stearns, beat the dealer, Bill Atkinson, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, discovery of DNA, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, independent contractor, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, Leonard Kleinrock, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, packet switching, Ralph Nader, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, union organizing, upwardly mobile, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

The boldly lettered AMPEX sign was a landmark to drivers along the five-year-old Bayshore/101 Freeway that connected San Francisco to the Peninsula. The company’s reach extended deep into American culture. In 1948, Bing Crosby had agreed to continue broadcasting his popular radio show only if he could use the new Ampex recorder to tape-delay his broadcasts. In 1959, Ampex technology had recorded the famous “kitchen debate” between Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow. A few years later, Ampex video recorders had captured images of Earth sent by astronauts circling the moon aboard Apollo 8.13 His mother’s connection got Alcorn an interview at Ampex.


pages: 598 words: 172,137

Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bear Stearns, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, independent contractor, index fund, industrial cluster, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Nixon to Khrushchev: The United States Is a “Classless Society” In Washington, a bipartisan political consensus gave its blessing to sharing America’s wealth democratically and to linking corporate profits to the American Dream of steady work, rising pay, and generous benefits. In 1959, at the heart of the Cold War, Richard Nixon, as vice president under Dwight Eisenhower, bragged about America’s shared prosperity in his “kitchen debate” with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev at the U.S. exhibition in Moscow. Nixon rattled off to his Communist adversary the bounty enjoyed by the American middle class—three-fourths of America’s 44 million families owned their own homes, and collectively they owned 56 million cars, 50 million television sets, and 143 million radios.


pages: 526 words: 160,601

A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America by Bruce Cannon Gibney

1960s counterculture, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bear Stearns, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate personhood, Corrections Corporation of America, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, failed state, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Menlo Park, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Savings and loan crisis, school choice, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Snapchat, source of truth, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Figures for American civilian casualities are not available, but are usually assumed to range from negligible to up to 120,000, which is a tiny fraction of the 16 million estimated civilian deaths in the Soviet Union, the 6 million in Poland, and the 13 million in China. There is considerable debate about the exact numbers each nation lost, but the general conclusion is that German, Chinese, and Soviet losses were immense—tens of millions. 8. Davidson, Justin. “The Kitchen Debate’s Actual Kitchen.” New York, 8 May 2011, nymag.com/realestate/features/commack-moscow-2011-5/. 9. Ibid.; US Census, Current Population Reports, Current Income (1961) at table B (for 1959 incomes). 10. Zillow.com; FRED, MEFAINUSA672N. Long Island is a different place now and 358 Towline Road has had some upgrades over the years, which explains some of the relative price increase.


pages: 762 words: 206,865

Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth by Frederick Kempe

Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, disinformation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, index card, Kitchen Debate, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, zero-sum game

Now he was working impatiently through multiple channels to land an early summit meeting with Kennedy in hopes it would solve his Berlin problem. During the campaign, the Soviet leader’s instructions to his top officials had been clear, regarding both his desire for a Kennedy win and his distaste for Richard Nixon, who as Eisenhower’s anticommunist vice president had humiliated him in Moscow during their so-called Kitchen Debate over the relative advantages of their two systems. “We can also influence the American presidential election!” he had told his comrades then. “We would never give Nixon such a present.” After the election, Khrushchev had crowed that by refusing to release the airmen he had personally cost Nixon the few hundred thousand votes he would have required for his victory.


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, hockey-stick growth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

“Of the nine parks featured in the display,” the Stanford University Bulletin proudly informed its readers, “the co-sponsors considered the Stanford Park the most photogenic.”13 Then, in the fall of 1959, none other than Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev came to visit IBM San Jose as he made a swing through California on the heels of his “kitchen debate” in Moscow with Vice President Richard Nixon. IBM executives were apprehensive about the visit. Khrushchev had caused a stink in Los Angeles a day earlier after not being allowed to visit Disneyland. He showed up in San Jose wearing a longshoreman’s cap given to him by the firebrand San Francisco labor organizer Harry Bridges earlier that morning.


pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

McCloy (1945), cited from Judt 2005, p. 39. 534 “atomic bomb itself”: Churchill, cited from Reynolds 2000, p. 36. 534 “create on the whole”: Internal Kremlin report (1953), cited from Holloway 1994, p. 337. 534 “Strange as it”: Churchill, speech to the House of Commons (1955), cited from Gaddis 2005, p. 65. 536 “Let’s be frank”: Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, speech at Bedford (July 20, 1957), cited from Sandbrook 2005, p. 80. 536 “residents from raw estates”: Philip Larkin, “Here” (1964), reprinted in Larkin 2004, p. 79. 537 “Snub-nosed monsters”: John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (1939), chapter 5. 540 “if allowed to”: Riesman 1964 (first published 1951), p. 64. 541 “Anything that makes” etc.: Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev, the “Kitchen Debate” (Moscow, July 24, 1959), cited from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=176. 542 “Flog the driver!” etc.: joke cited from Reynolds 2000, p. 541n. 544 “The dearest people”: China Youth Journal (September 27, 1958), cited from Becker 1996, p. 106. 544 “The Party Secretary”: Bo Yibo, Retrospective of Several Big Decisions and Incidents (1993), cited from Becker 1996, pp. 107–108. 544 “It is not”: Lu Xianwen (autumn 1959), cited from Becker 1996, p. 113. 544 “The air is filled”: Report from Jiangxi (autumn 1958), cited from Spence 1990, p. 580. 545 “Communism is paradise”: Song by Kang Sheng (1958), cited from Becker 1996, p. 104. 545 “No one in our family”: Informant, cited from Becker 1996, p. 136. 545 “The worst thing”: Informant, cited from Becker 1996, p. 138. 546 “It was class hatred”: “Li XX,” public poster in Beijing (September 2, 1966), cited from MacFarquhar and Schoenhals 2006, p. 127. 546 “This was the week”: President Richard Nixon, toast at a dinner in Shanghai (February 27, 1972), cited from Reynolds 2000, p. 329. 547 “bookworms who”: Zhang Tiesheng (1973), cited from Spence 1990, p. 638.


pages: 1,242 words: 317,903

The Man Who Knew: The Life and Times of Alan Greenspan by Sebastian Mallaby

"Robert Solow", airline deregulation, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Bear Stearns, Benoit Mandelbrot, bond market vigilante , Bretton Woods, business cycle, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, energy security, equity premium, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Money creation, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nixon shock, Nixon triggered the end of the Bretton Woods system, Northern Rock, paper trading, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Savings and loan crisis, savings glut, secular stagnation, short selling, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield curve, zero-sum game

And yet there was something about Nixon that still left Greenspan with an odd feeling. The candidate’s syntax was too exquisite; his attire was too impeccable; there was an impression of stiffness.28 Eight years earlier, on a visit as vice president to Moscow, this same Nixon had had the panache to hold an impromptu “kitchen debate” against Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev before an array of flashbulbs. But now, in the comfort of his own office, he seemed almost wooden. Sincerity, Greenspan would learn, did not come easily to Nixon. • • • Beyond the calm of the candidate’s office, America was broiling. The Newark violence was only one of forty-six riots in that summer of 1967.29 A total of eighty-one people died in the mayhem, and the destruction of property ran into the millions of dollars.30 Polls suddenly found “crime and lawlessness” rocketing toward the top of citizens’ concerns, displacing the cost of living and unemployment.31 Undeterred by the moderates on the campaign staff, Greenspan pressed his libertarian diagnosis more forcefully than ever.