86 results back to index

pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Since he didn’t have the assistance, the resources, the time, or the inclination, he didn’t attempt to index the entire web for his link analysis. Instead he did a kind of prewash. He typed a query into AltaVista, took the first two hundred results, and then used that subset for his own search. Interestingly, the best results for the query were often not included in those AltaVista solutions. For instance, if you typed in “newspaper,” Alta-Vista would not give you links for The New York Times or The Washington Post. “That’s not surprising, because AltaVista is about matching strings, and unless The New York Times happened to say, ‘I’m a newspaper!’ AltaVista is not going to find it,” Kleinberg explains. But, he suspected, he’d have more luck if he checked out what those 200 sites pointed to. “Among those 200 people who were saying ‘newspapers,’ someone was going to point to The New York Times,” he says.

He had a tough time convincing his bosses to open up the engine to the public. They argued that there was no way to make money from a search engine but relented when Monier sold them on the public relations aspect. (The system would be a testament to DEC’s powerful new Alpha processing chip.) On launch day, AltaVista had 16 million documents in its indexes, easily besting anything else on the net. “The big ones then had maybe a million pages,” says Monier. That was the power of AltaVista: its breadth. When DEC opened it to outsiders on December 15, 1995, nearly 300,000 people tried it out. They were dazzled. AltaVista’s actual search quality techniques—what determined the ranking of results—were based on traditional information retrieval (IR) algorithms. Many of those algorithms arose from the work of one man, a refugee from Nazi Germany named Gerard Salton, who had come to America, got a PhD at Harvard, and moved to Cornell University, where he cofounded its computer science department.

“For thirty years,” wrote one academic in tribute a year later, “Gerry Salton was information retrieval.” The World Wide Web was about to change that, but the academics didn’t know it—and neither did AltaVista. While its creators had the insight to gather all of the web, they missed the opportunity to take advantage of the link structure. “The innovation was that I was not afraid to fetch as much of the web as I could, store it in one place, and have a really fast response time. That was the novelty,” says Monier. Meanwhile, AltaVista analyzed what was on each individual page—using metrics like how many times each word appeared—to see if a page was a relevant match to a given keyword in a query. Even though there was no clear way to make money from search, AltaVista had a number of competitors. By 1996, when I wrote about search for Newsweek, executives from several companies were all boasting the most useful service.

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The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See by Gary Price, Chris Sherman, Danny Sullivan

AltaVista, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, dark matter, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, natural language processing, pre–internet, profit motive, publish or perish, search engine result page, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, Vannevar Bush, web application

Table 1.1 A Timeline of Internet Search Technologies Year 1945 1965 1972 1986 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000+ Search Service Vannevar Bush Proposes “MEMEX” Hypertext Coined by Ted Nelson Dialog—First Commercial Proprietary System OWL Guide Hypermedia Browser Archie for FTP Search, Tim Berners-Lee creates the Web Gopher: WAIS Distributed Search ALIWEB (Archie Linking), WWWWander, JumpStation, WWWWorm EINet Galaxy, WebCrawler, Lycos, Yahoo! Infoseek, SavvySearch, AltaVista, MetCrawler, Excite HotBot, LookSmart NorthernLight Google, FAST Hundreds of search tools 16 The Invisible Web In 1995 Infoseek, AltaVista, and Excite made their debuts, each offering different capabilities for the searcher. Metasearch engines—programs that searched several search engines simultaneously—also made an appearance this year (see Chapter 3 for more information about metasearch engines). SavvySearch, created by Daniel Dreilinger at Colorado State University, was the first metasearch engine, and MetaCrawler, from the University of Washington, soon followed.

LawCrawler provides the ability to limit your search to certain types of law related resources. These resources include a legal dictionary, legal NewsLaw reviews, U.S. government sites, the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Legal Code, U.S. Supreme Court opinions, and information published by all federal circuit courts—even worldwide sites with legal information. Because LawCrawler is powered by the AltaVista search engine software, the searcher can also employ any of the advanced search capabilities provided by AltaVista, but the search is usefully restricted to the specific legal information domains indexed by LawCrawler. LawCrawler is part of the FedLaw service, which has numerous other legal resources, including a targeted directory. 42 The Invisible Web PsychCrawler This site is sponsored by an organization with knowledge of the topic, the American Psychological Association, which has a vested interest in making sure that high-quality material is crawled.

The Foundation Finder (http://lnp.fdncenter .org/finder.html) from the Foundation Center is an excellent place to begin your search. 18. Translation Tools. Web-based translation services are not search tools in their own right, but they provide a valuable service when a search has turned up documents in a language you don’t understand. Translation tools accept a URL, fetch the underlying page, translate it into the desired language and deliver it as a dynamic document. AltaVista ( provides such a service. Please note the many limitations and frequent translation issues that often arise. These tools, while far from perfect, will continue to improve with time. Another example of an Invisible Web translation tool is EuroDicAutom ( cgi-bin/edicbin/ ), described as “the multilingual terminological database of the European Commission’s Translation Service.” 19.

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Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet by Charles Arthur

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil,, Firefox, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, John Gruber, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, PageRank, pre–internet, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, turn-by-turn navigation, upwardly mobile

The race at first looked as though it would go to the swift and the large. Compaq took a lead with AltaVista, a search engine set up essentially to show off the power of the 64-bit Alpha chip it had acquired along with Digital Equipment Corporation. The chips could chomp through huge indexes; all AltaVista needed then was to crawl the web and index it, and it would dominate; and it could make money by selling advertisements on its opening search page. That worked. But, as the web grew, the results it served up became polluted. Spam and porn sites began using ‘invisible’ text – white on a white background, or sized so small humans could not see it, but AltaVista’s crawler could. The problems with spam became increasingly annoying for users. But AltaVista’s revenues kept rising as more people came online. It wasn’t because it had significantly improved the user experience or its search results; it was because advertisers were buying more and more advertising slots.

If you couldn’t turn business that came your way from Google into sales, that wasn’t Google’s fault; it was your own. And nobody else seemed as good at driving traffic to sites. It was as Page and Brin had wanted: people came to the site and left it quickly. More and more, they exited via an advertisement. According to Jupiter Media Metrix data, in January 2001 AltaVista had more than 10 million visitors, and Google just under 9 million. AltaVista’s revenue however was collapsing, from $63 million in the quarter ending April 2000 to around $28 million in the three months to July 2001 (and at a thumping loss). A quarter of AltaVista’s staff had been laid off in September 2000. As revenue plummeted, so did the visitors essential to attract advertising revenue, to below 8 million in June 2001. In the same month, according to Media Metrix, Google had 13.4 million visitors. During the first half of 2001, it had become the busiest standalone search engine on the world wide web – a position it has held ever since.

(Page and Brin left it in a drawer in Stanford while they tried to get some more funding and figure out the mechanics of setting up the company that would be able to accept it. Bechtolsheim got about 1 per cent of the business.) At the time the site was answering about 10,000 queries a day; in September, around the time Gates and Stephens met, Page and Brin were just about to hire the company’s first employee, Craig Silverstein. Like Apple, Google was a minnow compared to the leader in its field – the search engine AltaVista, which had earned $50 million in sponsorship revenue in 1997 and was receiving 80 million hits per day. Even so, at the end of the year, Google was named one of the top 100 websites by PC Magazine. Given how few queries it was answering, that was a harbinger of things to come. Internet search At the time, despite its 1997 press release about MSN, internet search was not a high priority for Microsoft (or Apple, whose executives have never thought of it as a ‘web’ company).

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Nine Algorithms That Changed the Future: The Ingenious Ideas That Drive Today's Computers by John MacCormick, Chris Bishop

Ada Lovelace, AltaVista, Claude Shannon: information theory, fault tolerance, information retrieval, Menlo Park, PageRank, pattern recognition, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush

However, the word-location trick and the metaword trick certainly convey the flavor of how real search engines construct and use indexes. The metaword trick did help AltaVista succeed—where others had failed—in finding efficient matches to the entire web. We know this because the metaword trick is described in a 1999 U.S. patent filing by AltaVista, entitled “Constrained Searching of an Index.” However, AltaVista's superbly crafted matching algorithm was not enough to keep it afloat in the turbulent early days of the search industry. As we already know, efficient matching is only half the story for an effective search engine: the other grand challenge is to rank the matching pages. And as we will see in the next chapter, the emergence of a new type of ranking algorithm was enough to eclipse AltaVista, vaulting Google into the forefront of the world of web search. 3 PageRank: The Technology That Launched Google The Star Trek computer doesn't seem that interesting.

For now, let's focus on the matching phase.? ALTAVISTA: THE FIRST WEB-SCALE MATCHING ALGORITHM Where does our story of search engine matching algorithms begin? An obvious—but wrong—answer would be to start with Google, the greatest technology success story of the early 21st century. Indeed, the story of Google's beginnings as the Ph.D. project of two graduate students at Stanford University is both heartwarming and impressive. It was in 1998 that Larry Page and Sergey Brin assembled a ragtag bunch of computer hardware into a new type of search engine. Less than 10 years later, their company had become the greatest digital giant to rise in the internet age. But the idea of web search had already been around for several years. Among the earliest commercial offerings were Infoseek and Lycos (both launched in 1994), and AltaVista, which launched its search engine in 1995.

Among the earliest commercial offerings were Infoseek and Lycos (both launched in 1994), and AltaVista, which launched its search engine in 1995. For a few years in the mid-1990s, AltaVista was the king of the search engines. I was a graduate student in computer science during this period, and I have clear memories of being wowed by the comprehensiveness of AltaVista's results. For the first time, a search engine had fully indexed all of the text on every page of the web—and, even better, results were returned in the blink of an eye. Our journey toward understanding this sensational technological breakthrough begins with a (literally) age-old concept: indexing. PLAIN OLD INDEXING The concept of an index is the most fundamental idea behind any search engine. But search engines did not invent indexes: in fact, the idea of indexing is almost as old as writing itself. For example, archaeologists have discovered a 5000-year-old Babylonian temple library that cataloged its cuneiform tablets by subject.

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I'm Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 59 by Douglas Edwards

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, book scanning, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, commoditize, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Googley, gravity well, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, microcredit, music of the spheres, Network effects, PageRank, performance metric,, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, second-price auction, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, stem cell, Superbowl ad, Y2K

By 2001 we felt we were clearly better than Inktomi results-wise, clearly better than AltaVista, clearly better than FAST. We had the best search engine." And what about Google's comparative quality the year before, when Netscape had become a partner? "Netscape was kind of crazy to switch their search to us," Urs confessed. He believed they made the change "in part because they didn't care about search that much ... It was a cost center." Not to mention that Omid Kordestani happened to be an excellent salesperson. "Omid could type in 'IBM' on Google and type in 'IBM' on AltaVista," Urs recalls, "and say 'Hey look, aren't our results better?' That was the level of sophistication. Our search was good, but our coverage was bad. You had all kinds of queries where we didn't have the page and AltaVista or Inktomi had it. People's expectations were just low."

It was likely a waste of buff-colored stationery and a thirty-three-cent stamp, because I was looking for the next big thing and I was pretty sure they weren't it. Search was so 1997. Still, since I'd sent Google a résumé, I figured I should give their product a try. I went to their site and entered the name of a girl I'd known in high school but hadn't heard from in twenty years. Even AltaVista, which I viewed as the best search engine available, had never found a trace of her, so my expectations were low when I hit the enter key. And there she was. Google listed her current contact information as the first result. I tried more searches. They all worked better than they had on AltaVista. I no longer begrudged Google the stationery and the stamp. Other signs pointed to something out of the ordinary. Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins were the Montagues and Capulets of Silicon Valley venture capital (VC) firms. They had enviable success records individually—Yahoo, Amazon, Apple, Cisco Systems, Sun Microsystems—and an intense rivalry that usually kept them from investing in the same startup.

My life balance was about to get knocked on its inner ear. In less than a year I would be working sixteen-hour days and Jay would depart Google to pursue personal goals that were at odds with those of the company. What were Google's goals in late 1999? Hell if I knew. We were a search engine. What did search engines do? They searched. I assumed that we wanted to be the best damn search engine on the planet. Even better than AltaVista. It seemed unlikely we'd ever be a giant like Yahoo, given their head start, but maybe someday we'd be big enough to make Inktomi share the market for supplying portals with technology. There were no mouse pads imprinted with our mission statement or motivational posters on the walls urging us to surpass our sales targets as there had been at the Merc. If Googlers, or anyone else, had a clear vision of the company's future, they kept it hidden.

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Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation,, first-price auction, information asymmetry, information retrieval, intangible asset, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, longitudinal study, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

So in a way, each search engine’s sponsored-search platform is both cooperating with its own organic search service and in competition with that same organic search service! It was that way in the beginning and is still the same today. To get traffic, Overture entered into agreements with large Web portals of the time (e.g., CNN, Yahoo!, Microsoft) to serve advertisements on their Web sites (i.e., monetizing their existing traffic). Overture also purchased existing Web search engines, AltaVista and Potpourri: Yahoo! acquired Overture in 2003 and was later subsumed with Microsoft’s Bing sponsored-search platform in 2010, effectively taking Overture out of the sponsored-search business. Personally, I find it sad. But, the world moves on. 14 Understanding Sponsored Search In 2000, Google launched its first advertising effort, Google AdWords, although the pricing was at first based on number of impressions [11].

A SERP is the entire page and all content shown by a search engine in response to a searcher clicking a search or submit button or, if the search engine provides automated searching, by typing in the query. The space on the SERP is known as the screen real estate. To see the entire SERP, a searcher may have to scroll on the browser to the bottom portion of the SERP. Potpourri: Why do search engines list the advertisements in a separate listing? One of the major reasons was a complaint to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed by Commercial Alert in July 2001 against AltaVista, AOL Time Warner, Direct Hit Technologies, iWon, LookSmart, Microsoft, and Lycos [27]. The complaint alleged that the confusion caused in consumers who saw mixed paid and unpaid results in a combined listing constituted fraud in advertising by the search engines. After that, by convention, the sponsored results are listed separately, or at least labeled as sponsored if they are integrated with organic results.

Human Information behaviors are the conduits for human information processing, which is the methods of making sense of the information that we gather. Figure 3.3.╇ Framework of human information behavior, information-seeking behavior, and Â�information-searching behavior. Potpourri: Interestingly, the first academic studies of Web information searching using query logs from search engines (Excite, Infoseek, and AltaVista) all came out within a few months of each other (late 1998 and early 1999) and in the same outlet (SIGIR Forum). The three journal articles are: Jansen, B.J., Spink, A., Bateman, J., & Saracevic, T. (1998). Real life information retrieval: A study of user queries on the Web. SIGIR Forum, 32(1), 5–17. Kirsch, S. (1998). Infoseek’s experiences searching the Internet. SIGIR Forum, 32(2), 3–7. Silverstein, C., Henzinger, M., Marais, H., & Moricz, M. (1999).

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Designing Great Data Products by Jeremy Howard, Mike Loukides, Margit Zwemer

AltaVista, Filter Bubble, PageRank, pattern recognition, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, text mining

We don’t claim that the Drivetrain Approach is the best or only method; our goal is to start a dialog within the data science and business communities to advance our collective vision. Objective-based data products We are entering the era of data as drivetrain, where we use data not just to generate more data (in the form of predictions), but use data to produce actionable outcomes. That is the goal of the Drivetrain Approach. The best way to illustrate this process is with a familiar data product: search engines. Back in 1997, AltaVista was king of the algorithmic search world. While their models were good at finding relevant websites, the answer the user was most interested in was often buried on page 100 of the search results. Then, Google came along and transformed online search by beginning with a simple question: What is the user’s main objective in typing in a search query? The four steps in the Drivetrain Approach. Google realized that the objective was to show the most relevant search result; for other companies, it might be increasing profit, improving the customer experience, finding the best path for a robot, or balancing the load in a data center.

This is not to say that Amazon’s recommendation engine could not have made the same connection; the problem is that this helpful recommendation will be buried far down in the recommendation feed, beneath books that have more obvious similarities to “Beloved.” The objective is to escape a recommendation filter bubble, a term which was originally coined by Eli Pariser to describe the tendency of personalized news feeds to only display articles that are blandly popular or further confirm the readers’ existing biases. As with the AltaVista-Google example, the lever a bookseller can control is the ranking of the recommendations. New data must also be collected to generate recommendations that will cause new sales. This will require conducting many randomized experiments in order to collect data about a wide range of recommendations for a wide range of customers. The final step in the drivetrain process is to build the Model Assembly Line.

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The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

The New York Times apparently did not consider Google important enough to write about until its columnist Max Frankel mentioned Google among a list of search engines in November 1999.10 GOOGL E ’S WAYS A ND ME A N S 57 The first serious consideration of Google by the New York Times, the leading American newspaper, was a de facto endorsement by the technology writer Peter Lewis in September 1999. “Until recently my favorite search engines were Hotbot ( and Alta Vista (www,” Lewis wrote. “Hotbot is useful for finding popular Web sites, and AltaVista is good at ferreting out obscure information. Alta Vista in particular returns a bazillion potential hits when it is asked to scour the Net for a word or phrase. But the larger the World Wide Web becomes, the more important it becomes for search engines to return fewer results, not more. Few people have time to click through 70,482 query matches hoping that the one they want, the most relevant one, is in there somewhere.

Many of Google’s positions correspond roughly with the public interest (such as giving empty support to a network neutrality policy and “safe-harbor” exemptions from copyright liability). Others, such as fighting against stronger privacy laws in the United States, do not.13 REN D E R UNTO CA ESA R 19 When confronted with questions about its dominance in certain markets, Google officials always protest that, on the Internet, barriers to entry are low, and thus any young firm with innovative services could displace Google the way Google displaced Yahoo and AltaVista in the early days of the twenty-first century. With Google unable or unwilling to leverage its advantages though some sort of lockdown, such as holding users’ content and data hostage with technology or exclusive contracts so that they must continue to use Google services, they point out that users could easily migrate to the next Google-like company. As Google’s lawyer Dana Wagner says, “Competition is a click away.”14 Of course, that argument relies on the myth that Internet companies are weightless and virtual.

Because most of my research drew on sources available on microfilm, search engines had not yet become an integral part of my professional life. I was aware of the techno-utopian conversations about electronic archives and the global delivery of knowledge, but I didn’t think very hard about them. I had a book to write and sell. The Web, for me, was a platform for self-promotion. And existing search engines, like Yahoo, were not helping in that effort. Since about 1995 I had been using Yahoo and AltaVista for my Web navigation. I had a brief and passionate involvement with a much better and faster Web search service, Northern Light, until, facing a revenue shortage, it became a specialized portal for corporate clients (and remains so today). I first learned 234 NOTES TO PAGE 81 about Google from an e-mail list called Red Rock Eater, written and edited by Phil Agre, a professor of information studies at UCLA.

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Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky

AltaVista, barriers to entry,, commoditize, George Gilder, index card, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, PageRank, Paul Graham, profit motive, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, slashdot, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, thinkpad, VA Linux, web application

Indeed there is an awful lot of academic research into concepts like stemming, in which the word you searched for is de-conjugated, so that searching for "searching" also finds documents containing the word "searched" or "sought." So when the big Internet search engines like Altavista first came out, they bragged about how they found zillions of results. An Altavista search for Joel on Software yields 1,033,555 pages. This is, of course, useless. The known Internet contains maybe a billion pages. By reducing the search from one billion to one million pages, Altavista has done absolutely nothing for me. The real problem in searching is how to sort the results. In defense of the computer scientists, this is something nobody even noticed until they starting indexing gigantic corpora the size of the Internet. But somebody noticed.

But somebody noticed. Larry Page and Sergey Brin over at Google realized that ranking the pages in the right order was more important than grabbing every possible page. Their PageRank algorithm1 is a great way to sort the zillions of results so that the one you want is probably in the top ten. Indeed, search for Joel on Software on Google and you'll see that it comes up first. On Altavista, it's not even on the first five pages, after which I gave up looking for it. __________ 1. See Antialiased Text Antialiasing was invented way back in 1972 at the Architecture Machine Group of MIT, which was later incorporated into the famous Media Lab. The idea is that if you have a color display that is low resolution, you might as well use shades of gray to create the "illusion" of resolution.

Web sites become flexible services that can interact, and exchange and leverage each other's data. That's a "feature" of this exciting .NET architecture. The fact that it is so broad, vague, and high level that it doesn't mean anything at all doesn't seem to be bothering anyone. Or how about: Microsoft .NET makes it possible to find services and people with which to interact. Oh, joy! Five years after Altavista went live, and two years after Larry Page and Sergei Brin actually invented a radically better search engine (Google), Microsoft is pretending like there's no way to search on the Internet and they're going to solve this problem for us. The whole document is exactly like that. There are two things going on here. Microsoft has some great thinkers. When great thinkers think about problems, they start to see patterns.

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The New Kingmakers by Stephen O'Grady

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Heinemeier Hansson, DevOps, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Paul Graham, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator

Oracle would follow with its own .com in December 1988, as would Microsoft in May of 1991. For businesses that had evolved to sell technology to businesses, it was difficult to grasp the wider implications of a public Internet. At Microsoft, in fact, it took an internal email from Bill Gates—subject line “The Internet Tidal Wave”—to wake up the software giant to the opportunity. By the time Google followed in Altavista’s footsteps, however, the desire for large vendors to extend their businesses to the Web was strong. Strong enough that they were willing to put their traditional animosity aside and collaborate on standards around what was being referred to as “web services.” Eventually encompassing more than a hundred separate standards, web services pushed by the likes of IBM, Microsoft, and Sun Microsystems were an attempt by the technology industry to transform the public Internet into something that looked more like a corporate network.

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Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

So, I took him up on his offer to arrange an introduction to Digital. I stayed at Digital from April 1994 to May 1998, four years during which I had three different jobs and seven different bosses. I was a vice president in charge of the Software Group Strategy and then development for the AltaVista business unit. Those were the very early days of the internet. Digital had an e-mail product, a firewall product, and several other products related to the internet, including the search engine, all in the AltaVista business unit. The search engine became most closely linked to the AltaVista name. It was a very tumultuous period in Digital's history, which culminated in the sale of the company to Compaq Computer Company in 1998. Ghaffari: Did you observe that there were many women along the way in your career in technology? Horan: Now, that's a really interesting question.

She was in charge of development of the Lotus brand (1998–2002), followed by strategy for the Software Group (2003–2004), and then information management (2004–2006). She became vice president of Business Process and Architecture Integration (2006–2007) and then headed Enterprise Business Transformation (through April 2011). Before coming to IBM, Ms. Horan was vice president of the Software Group and the AltaVista business unit at Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC; 1994–1998). She was also vice president of Development and Engineering at the Open Software Foundation (1989–1994). Ms. Horan has been a member of the board of directors of MicroVision in Redmond, Washington, since July 2006 and serves on the Audit and Compensation Committees. She is also in great demand as a keynote speaker and expert on corporate IT, CIO strategies and responsibilities, and women in leadership topics.

. _______________ 2 Iris Associates was a software development company founded in late 1984 by Ray Ozzie to build the collaborative “groupware” and e-mail software product known as Lotus Notes. IBM purchased Lotus in 1995. Ghaffari: You made quite a progression from nuts-and-bolts software engineering to strategic software development. How did that transformation happen? Horan: Yes, it's interesting that I started out truly working on the bits and bytes of computers. Then I moved into operating systems and device drivers, which still were close to the hardware. AltaVista and Lotus Notes were more collaborative tools—information resources that allowed for searching and sharing across departments and, ultimately, companies. I definitely started to see possibilities—I think it was the advent of the internet that started me thinking, “Wait a minute. There's a whole new proposition here and some interesting opportunities to explore new areas.” Ghaffari: Tell me how your people management responsibilities grew.

pages: 174 words: 56,405

Machine Translation by Thierry Poibeau

AltaVista, augmented reality, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, crowdsourcing, easy for humans, difficult for computers,, Google Glasses, information retrieval, Internet of things, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, natural language processing, Necker cube, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Robert Mercer, Skype, speech recognition, statistical model, technological singularity, Turing test, wikimedia commons

Lastly, we will see that machine translation also provides useful tools for professional translators, even if most automatic tools are not developed directly with this in mind. Free Online Software Since the 1990s, several free machine translation systems have emerged on the Internet. One of the first systems, Babelfish, appeared at the end of the 1990s provided by the search engine AltaVista (the most popular search engine at the time). Babelfish was in fact the result of an agreement between AltaVista and Systran, the technology provider for Babelfish. Babelfish was later sold to Yahoo in 2003 and eventually replaced in 2012 by Bing Translator, a product developed and owned by Microsoft. Today the most well-known free translation service on the Internet is without a doubt Google Translate. Google has conducted research on machine translation since the beginning of the 2000s in order to develop its own solution.

John Hutchins, on behalf of the European Association for Machine translation, (2010). “Compendium of translation software.” Index Adamic language, 40 Adams, Douglas, 1, 256 Adequacy. See Evaluation measure and test Advertisement, 226, 229, 232 Aeronautic industry, 243, 250 Agglutinative language, 214–216, 261 Agreement (linguistic), 175 Aligned texts. See Parallel corpus ALPAC Report, 35, 75–83, 199 AlphaGo, 182 AltaVista, 227 Ambiguity, 15–18, 21, 23, 40, 56–59, 64–65, 72, 178, 239, 252, 261 American defense agencies, 77, 88. See also Defense industry American intelligence agencies. See American defense agencies Analogy. See Example-based machine translation Analytical language, 215–216 Android, 240 Apertium. See Machine translation systems Apresjan, Yuri 69 Arabic, 56, 164, 165, 192, 209, 228, 250 Ariane-78 system.

pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop,, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test,, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

He imagined the machine’s activity: “Over the week-end it retrieved over 10,000 documents, scanned them all for sections rich in relevant material, analyzed all the rich sections into statements in a high-order predicate calculus, and entered the statements into the data base.” Licklider realized that the approach he described would eventually be superseded. “Certainly, a more sophisticated approach will be feasible before 1994,” he wrote, looking three decades into the future.25 He was remarkably prescient. In 1994 the first text-crawling search engines, WebCrawler and Lycos, were developed for the Internet, and they were quickly followed by Excite, Infoseek, AltaVista, and Google. Licklider also predicted something that was counterintuitive but has turned out to be pleasantly true: that digital information would not completely replace print. “As a medium for the display of information, the printed page is superb,” he wrote. “It affords enough resolution to meet the eye’s demand. It presents enough information to occupy the reader for a convenient quantum of time.

So he named his Web pages and the software that ran them WikiWikiWeb, wiki for short.82 Dan Bricklin (1951– ) and Ev Williams (1972– ) in 2001. Jimmy Wales (1966– ). Sergey Brin (1973– ) and Larry Page (1973– ). In his original version, the syntax Cunningham used for creating links in a text was to smash words together so that there would be two or more capital letters—as in CapitalLetters—in a term. It became known as CamelCase, and its resonance would later be seen in scores of Internet brands such as AltaVista, MySpace, and YouTube. WardsWiki (as it became known) allowed anyone to edit and contribute, without even needing a password. Previous versions of each page would be stored, in case someone botched one up, and there would be a “Recent Changes” page so that Cunningham and others could keep track of the edits. But there would be no supervisor or gatekeeper preapproving the changes. It would work, he said with cheery midwestern optimism, because “people are generally good.”

It was called a crawler, because it crawled from server to server on the Internet compiling an index. The two most famous were named, like the comic book couple, Archie (for FTP archives) and Veronica (for Gopher). By 1994 a variety of enterprising engineers were creating crawlers that would serve as search tools for the Web. These included the WWW Wanderer built by Matthew Gray at MIT, WebCrawler by Brian Pinkerton at the University of Washington, AltaVista by Louis Monier at the Digital Equipment Corporation, Lycos by Michael Mauldin at Carnegie Mellon University, OpenText by a team from Canada’s University of Waterloo, and Excite by six friends from Stanford. All of them used link-hopping robots, or bots, that could dart around the Web like a binge drinker on a pub crawl, scarfing up URLs and information about each site. This would then be tagged, indexed, and placed in a database that could be accessed by a query server.

pages: 338 words: 74,302

Only Americans Burn in Hell by Jarett Kobek

AltaVista, coherent worldview, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, East Village, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, haute couture, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, mandelbrot fractal, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, sexual politics, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996

When he first held the compact disc and its jewel case, Jacob had no idea what the hell was in his hands. But the ultracontrast black-and-white cover art convinced him into an impulse buy. Jacob went home and listened to Transilvanian Hunger. He used the Internet, then in its pre-Google days, to search on Darkthrone and Transilvanian Hunger. Jacob used a search engine called AltaVista. AltaVista helped Jacob find out that Darkthrone was one of the foremost bands in the second wave of a subgenre called Black Metal. AltaVista also helped Jacob find out that the words printed on the album’s back insert—Norsk Arisk Black Metal—translated to NORWEGIAN ARYAN BLACK METAL. Jacob had that old familiar feeling. Heavy Metal, of which Black Metal was a subgenre, was like all rock music in the Twentieth Century AD: totally indebted, and dependent upon, the influence of African-American blues and R&B.

pages: 153 words: 45,871

Distrust That Particular Flavor by William Gibson

AltaVista, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, edge city, informal economy, Joi Ito, means of production, megastructure, pattern recognition, proxy bid, telepresence, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

Is this leisure—this browsing, randomly linking my way through these small patches of virtual real-estate—or do I somehow imagine that I am performing some more dynamic function? The content of the Web aspires to absolute variety. One might find anything there. It is like rummaging in the forefront of the collective global mind. Somewhere, surely, there is a site that contains . . . everything we have lost? The finest and most secret pleasure afforded new users of the Web rests in submitting to the search engine of AltaVista the names of people we may not have spoken aloud in years. Will she be here? Has he survived unto this age? (She isn’t there. Someone with his name has recently posted to a news group concerned with gossip about soap stars.) What is this casting of the nets of identity? Do we engage here in something of a tragic seriousness? In the age of wooden television, media were there to entertain, to sell an advertiser’s product, perhaps to inform.

Today, in its clumsy, larval, curiously innocent way, it offers us the opportunity to waste time, to wander aimlessly, to daydream about the countless other lives, the other people, on the far sides of however many monitors in that postgeographical meta-country we increasingly call home. It will probably evolve into something considerably less random, and less fun—we seem to have a knack for that—but in the meantime, in its gloriously unsorted Global Ham Television Postcard Universes phase, surfing the Web is a procrastinator’s dream. And people who see you doing it might even imagine you’re working. “…the search engine of AltaVista”? Blimey. Spoken from a pre-Google universe. A tender and unformed time indeed. For all of that, though, when I read this now I think that what I should more accurately have called the Web did become what I expected it to. Though in the way of these things, it became so much else as well. I LEARNED OF SCIENCE FICTION and history in a single season. History I found in the basement of an old brick house I happened to pass each day, on my way to elementary school, in a small town in Virginia.

pages: 260 words: 40,943

Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions by Stuart McClure, Joel Scambray, George Kurtz

AltaVista, bash_history, Larry Wall, MITM: man-in-the-middle, peer-to-peer, remote working, web application

He said this switch was new to him, and he didn’t know how to turn off the default accounts and passwords. We’d hate to guess how many phone phreaks were salivating over the prospect of making free calls at that organization. Needless to say, you can gain additional insight into the organization and the technical prowess of its staff just by reviewing their postings. Lastly, you can use the advanced searching capabilities of some of the major search engines like AltaVista or Hotbot. These search engines provide a handy facility that allows you to search for all sites that have links back to the target organization’s domain. This may not seem significant at first, but let’s explore the implications. Suppose someone in an organization decides to put up a rogue web site at home or on the target network’s site. This web server may not be secure or sanctioned by the organization.

Sometimes the most outlandish search yields the most productive results. P:\010Comp\Hacking\381-6\ch01.vp Friday, September 07, 2001 10:37:32 AM 7 ProLib8 / Hacking Network Security Color profile: GenericExposed: CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen 8 Secrets and Solutions, Third Edition / McClure, Scambray & Kurtz / 9381-6 / Chapter 1 Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions Figure 1-1. With the AltaVista search engine, use the directive to query all sites with links back to the target domain. EDGAR Search For targets that are publicly traded companies, you can consult the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) EDGAR database at, as shown in Figure 1-3. One of the biggest problems organizations have is managing their Internet connections, especially when they are actively acquiring or merging with other entities.

Often organizations will scramble to connect the acquired entities to their corporate network with little regard for security. So it is likely that you may be able to find security weaknesses P:\010Comp\Hacking\381-6\ch01.vp Friday, September 07, 2001 10:37:32 AM ProLib8 / Hacking Network Security Color profile: GenericExposed: CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen Secrets and Solutions, Third Edition / McClure, Scambray & Kurtz / 9381-6 / Chapter 1 Chapter 1: Figure 1-2. Footprinting With AltaVista, use the directive to query the site for the specified string (for example, “mudge”). in the acquired entity that would allow you to leapfrog into the parent company. Attackers are opportunistic and are likely to take advantage of the chaos that normally comes with combining networks. With an EDGAR search, keep in mind that you are looking for entity names that are different from the parent company.

pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

AltaVista, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man,, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

The problems There are at least seven insurmountable obstacles between the world as we know it and meta-utopia. I'll enumerate them below:. 2.1 People lie Metadata exists in a competitive world. Suppliers compete to sell their goods, cranks compete to convey their crackpot theories (mea culpa), artists compete for audience. Attention-spans and wallets may not be zero-sum, but they're damned close. That's why: A search for any commonly referenced term at a search-engine like Altavista will often turn up at least one porn link in the first ten results. Your mailbox is full of spam with subject lines like "Re: The information you requested." Publisher's Clearing House sends out advertisements that holler "You may already be a winner!" Press-releases have gargantuan lists of empty buzzwords attached to them. Meta-utopia is a world of reliable metadata. When poisoning the well confers benefits to the poisoners, the meta-waters get awfully toxic in short order. 2.2 People are lazy You and me are engaged in the incredibly serious business of creating information.

You'd be an unpleasant, unlikable jerk, the kind of person that is sometimes referred to as a "slashdork." As radical as Yahoo!'s conceit was, Slashdot's was more radical. But as radical as Slashdot's is, it is still inherently conservative in that it presumes that editorship is necessary, and that it further requires human judgment and intervention. Google's a lot more radical. Instead of editors, it has an algorithm. Not the kind of algorithm that dominated the early search engines like Altavista, in which laughably bad artificial intelligence engines attempted to automatically understand the content, context and value of every page on the Web so that a search for "Dog" would turn up the page more relevant to the query. Google's algorithm is predicated on the idea that people are good at understanding things and computers are good at counting things. Google counts up all the links on the Web and affords more authority to those pages that have been linked to by the most other pages.

pages: 422 words: 104,457

Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

Somehow, with the polka-dot couch, the ducks, the castle, and Weinberg’s auburn hair, I had allowed myself to be lulled into thinking that it was more of a hobby than an actual company. But they appeared to be dead serious. It reminded me of when I was a reporter at the San Francisco Chronicle in the late 1990s. I was dismissive of this newfangled search engine Google. I remember thinking: How could its reliance on machine-based page ranking be better than the hand-curated results on my favorite search engine, AltaVista? Now I was sitting on a polka-dot couch in suburban Philadelphia wondering how a few guys working in a castle could pose a threat to a search engine that pulls in nearly $30 billion a year. And yet, in the technology industry, some of the best ideas sound crazy at first. * * * I really didn’t want to quit using Gmail. Most of my hacker friends used it—even the ones who were paranoid about privacy.

The Internet was brand-new, and the few advertisers buying ads were not worried about targeting—anonymous or not. Most Internet ad buyers were other dot-coms trying to generate buzz for their initial public offerings. Meanwhile, Engage Technologies was at the center of the dot-com hurricane that was about to make landfall. Engage was part of a conglomerate of Internet companies—ranging from search engines AltaVista and Lycos to websites and—that resulted from a buying spree by the entrepreneur David Wetherell. In the fall of 1999, Wetherell appeared on the cover of BusinessWeek under the headline “Internet Evangelist.” His conglomerate, CMGI, was a poster child for the dot-com boom, with a massive stock market value of $10 billion, despite the fact that it was losing $127 million a year on revenues of just $176 million.

Aaronson, Trevor Abdulla, Husain Abdulmutallab, Umar Farouk Abine Abrams, Martin accountability Accurint Acquisti, Alessandro Acxiom Adblock Plus ADFGVX cipher Adium Adler, Jim Adobe Reader AdThis adversary, identifying advertisers and ad-tracking blocking Afghanistan Afifi, Yasir AgileBits Ahmed, Bilal airlines. See also travel airport body scanners Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Alexander, Keith al-Qaeda AltaVista Al-Wefaq party Amazon American Academy of Pediatrics American Business Information American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) American Express American Revolution Americans for Democracy and Human Rights Anderson, Nate Anderson, Ross Andreessen, Marc Android phones anonymizing software Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972) anti-tracking software antivirus software antiwar protests “anxious awareness” AOL Appelbaum, Jacob Apple.

pages: 331 words: 104,366

Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins by Garry Kasparov

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, computer age, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, Freestyle chess, Gödel, Escher, Bach, job automation, Leonard Kleinrock, low earth orbit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, rolodex, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

If I recall correctly, the shouting was being done by Stepan Pachikov, a computer scientist who shared the direction of the computer club with me. His contributions to handwriting recognition software at the Soviet company ParaGraph were used in the Apple Newton. He later moved to Silicon Valley and founded Evernote, the ubiquitous note-taking app. I once made a television commercial for the search engine company AltaVista. If you want to know what happened to AltaVista, you can google it! This fits the axiom of Bill Gates. Bill Gates, The Road Ahead (New York: Viking Penguin, 1995). CHAPTER 4. WHAT MATTERS TO A MACHINE? “I checked it very thoroughly,” said the computer. Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (New York: Del Rey, 1995), Kindle edition, locations 2606–14. In my lectures on the human-machine relationship, I’m fond of citing Pablo Picasso.

Far-fetched? Certainly, but I don’t think you have to have my suspicious mind to wonder if lightbulb companies would sell an indestructible and everlasting bulb if they could make one. But resisting change and delaying it to squeeze a few more dollars out of an existing business model usually just makes the inevitable fall all the worse. I once made a television commercial for the search engine company AltaVista in 1999, but that didn’t mean I wanted to follow it to oblivion when the chess equivalent of Google came along. I was in my twenties when the digital information wave rolled over the chess world, and it was a fairly gradual one, not a tsunami. Flicking through games on a screen was far more efficient than on printed materials, a real competitive advantage but not a nuclear bomb. The impact of the Internet a few years later was just as great, dramatically accelerating the information warfare that Grandmasters wage against each other over the board.

pages: 223 words: 60,909

Technically Wrong: Sexist Apps, Biased Algorithms, and Other Threats of Toxic Tech by Sara Wachter-Boettcher

Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, Grace Hopper, job automation, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

I had stumbled my way into a job as a copywriter at a small ad agency. We marketed luxury real estate in planned communities: 5,000-square-foot stucco homes with subzero appliances and infinity-edge pools. Within six months, I’d exhausted all the ways one could possibly describe a house on a golf course in the desert. Then I saw the ad for a web writer. I wasn’t sure what a web writer did, to be honest. But I figured, why not? I’d been using the web since AltaVista was the search engine of choice. Besides, whatever the job was, it sounded a hell of a lot more interesting than hawking granite countertops. It turns out 2007 was a good time to enter tech (and, uh, get as far away from real estate as possible). Facebook was just starting to transform from a college-centric site to the behemoth it’s since become. Fledgling messaging service twttr had just renamed itself Twitter.

Abler, Erin, 32–33 Acxiom data brokers, 104 advertising and collection of gender information, 65–66 Facebook’s selections for users, 10 and filtering, 65 and proxy data, 110–112 and Reddit, 162 and value of user data, 96 Airbnb, 20 Alciné, Jacky, 129–130, 132–133, 135, 137–138 alcohol use, 17–18 algorithms biases in, 144–145, 176 and clean design aesthetic, 143 and COMPAS, 120–121, 125–129, 145 and debiasing word-embedding systems, 140 described, 121–123 and edge cases, 137 and Facebook’s use of proxy data, 112 and Friends Day Facebook feature, 84 and Google, 123, 136, 144 and neural networks, 131–133 and News Feed Facebook feature, 168 and social media trends, 10 and training data, 145–146, 171 and Trending Facebook feature, 149, 166–167, 169 and Yelp, 123–125 Allen, Paul, 182 AltaVista, 2 alt-right movement, 153, 164 Apple and emoji suggestions, 80 iPhone location settings, 105–108 and Siri’s female voice, 36 and Siri’s responses to crises, 6–7, 7 and Siri’s teasing humor, 88–89 smartwatches from, 13 and use of personas, 27 and workforce diversity, 19–20 artificial intelligence and failure to understand crises, 6–7 and loss of jobs, 192 Siri as, 88–89 word-embedding systems, 139–140 Automattic, 183 “average” users, 38–44, 47 Barron, Jesse, 114–115 Batman, Miranda, 57 Bawcombe, Libby, 40–42 Beyoncé, 55 bias.

pages: 615 words: 168,775

Troublemakers: Silicon Valley's Coming of Age by Leslie Berlin

AltaVista, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, discovery of DNA, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, Leonard Kleinrock, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, packet switching, Ralph Nader, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, union organizing, upwardly mobile, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Once again, researchers under Taylor’s direction helped to lay the foundations for a new wave of technical innovations based on easy-to-use distributed computing systems. Among other projects, his team at DEC helped to develop reliable computer networks, multiprocessor machines, and an electronic book. One researcher, Mike Burrows, was also an essential contributor to AltaVista, the world’s first blazingly fast search engine. AltaVista came to market three years before Google was founded.35 * * * I. Taylor’s list further included a systems implementation language with a matching optimized machine architecture; programming environments; personal workstations; interactive text formatters; server stations for printing, filing, and mail; bitmap displays; electronic mail with transport and authentication facilities; and “a complete, distributed systems architecture accommodating all the above.”

—and those companies, many funded by Don Valentine’s Sequoia Capital or Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, have begotten others. (Stanford has been a limited partner in both venture firms’ funds, as well.) Ampex begat Memorex and Oracle, as well as Atari, which begat many other video game companies including Activision, the company behind Call of Duty. Research staff from the Computer Science Laboratory at Xerox PARC begat Microsoft Word, as well as AltaVista, Ethernet, the pioneering networking company 3Com, and Adobe. As recently as 2016, several of the most senior members of the research staff at Google were former PARC employees. Even companies that cannot trace their lineage to a Valley predecessor—Facebook, for example—have moved to the region to take advantage of its unique network and resources. It takes a certain kind of audacity to think that you can launch a company, much less invent an industry—and audacity often veers into arrogance.

., 35 Alcorn, Al, xvi, 32–40, 107–31, 168–75, 269–82, 344–48, 369–70 at Ampex, 37–38, 41, 53, 107 Atari career of, 109–10, 120, 124, 171–75, 364 Bushnell and, 39–40, 107, 169, 173–75, 269–73, 276 Cyan Engineering and, 169–70 Dabney and, 38–40, 107 engineering studies of, 32–37, 40 family of, 36–37, 130–31 game design and, 111, 116, 120, 130–31; see also Pong game Gerard and, 168–75, 269–74 holographic technology and, 279–82 at Hubbard Radio & TV Repair, 32–34, 109 Keenan and, 169, 172–73, 269–71, 276 People’s Park and, 33–35 Vietnam War protests and, 32–36 work-study program of, 37–40, 107 Alcorn, Katie, 110, 117 Altair minicomputer kits, 209–11, 244 AltaVista, 343, 366 Alto computer system, 92, 101–6, 141, 146, 214–17, 224, 287–88 Alvarez, Fawn, xvi, 41–46, 159–67, 308–15, 370 childhood of, 43, 176 promotions of, 165–66, 308–12 ROLM career of, 41–46, 159, 222, 309–12, 370 Alvarez, Vineta: Diehl’s recruitment of, 44–45 education and training of, 42 experience and skills of, 44 at Fairchild Semiconductor, 42, 45 at Lockheed, 42, 45 at ROLM, 41, 44–45, 159 at Sylvania, 42–44 Alvarez family, 41–42, 46, 159, 167, 370 Amazin’ Software, see Electronic Arts American Cancer Society, 142 American Electronics Association, 62, 151, 254n, 320, 361 American Management Association, 52 American Microsystems, 242 American Production and Inventory Control Society, 181, 316 Ames, Glenn C., 36 Ampex, 38–40, 364 as Alcorn’s “nerd paradise,” 37–38, 53, 107 audio and video products of, 37 Poniatoff and, 37 Silicon Valley location of, 37, 41 Videofile system and, 38, 364 Andrew, Don, 27 answering machines, 160 see also voice mail systems Apple Computer, xii Alto demo and, 287–88, 290, 369 Apple Education Foundation and, 237–38 branding and, 238–39, 292–93, 304, 356 business plan of, 228–32, 235–38, 359 competitors of, 230, 235, 240, 247, 250, 295, 359 consumer market and, 244–50 educational software and, 237–38 employees of, 195, 233–36, 241–43, 248, 283–90, 296–98, 356–57 as Fortune 500 company, 358–59 growth of, 228, 242, 249, 300, 306, 356–57 headquarters of, 176n, 241, 356 IBM and, 304–6 initial public offering of, 287, 293–96, 306 investors in, 77, 84, 90, 128, 149–50, 230–33, 249, 294–95 Jobs and, see Jobs, Steve launch of, 208–10, 232 Lisa computer and, 288, 294, 297, 333, 357 McKenna and, 238–39, 373–74 Markkula and, see Markkula, Armas Clifford “Mike” media and, 298, 302–3, 356 reputation of, 305–6 Scott and, 234–38, 242–43, 247, 298–99 Sculley and, 357–58 software programs and, 294–95 West Coast Computer Faire and, 239–41 Wozniak and, see Wozniak, Steve Apple I computer, 207–8, 212–13, 228–30 Apple II computer, 208, 212, 222, 228, 231, 235–50, 284–85, 293–95, 298, 302–4, 356, 358 Apple III computer, 294, 297–98, 358 Apple Macintosh, 290, 294, 297, 302, 305, 348, 357–58, 369 Applied Electronics Lab, 57 arcade games, 126, 157, 271–72, 274–76, 344, 347 Army, U.S., 28–29, 191 Arpanet: construction of, 18–21, 94 controversy over, 158 Engelbart demo and, 27 first transmission of, xii, 6, 9 funding for, 16–17, 23 initiation of, 17–18 interactive computing and, 24 as Internet precursor, xii, xv, 6, 24, 30, 92, 103, 376 Taylor and, xv, 7, 9, 12, 15–23, 104n Xerox and, 103, 107 ASK Computer Systems: ASKNET and, 321, 361, 364 Boeing and, 177–79 Browne and, 86–87, 177–78, 182, 324–27 business plan of, 82–83, 178–79, 186 culture of, 182–85, 326 customers of, 79–80, 85–87, 177–81, 314, 360–61 employees of, 80, 86–87, 176–78, 182–83, 315, 323–25, 360–61 headquarters of, 78, 181–82, 322–26 Hewlett-Packard and, 176–86, 313–14 Hughes Aircraft and, 179–81 IPO of, 84, 318–20, 324–25, 360 launch of, 76, 146 MANMAN manufacturing software and, 84–87, 102, 176–81, 184–86, 259n, 314, 321–22, 360, 364, 371 marketing of, 75, 79, 180–82 media and, 322, 360 Powertec Systems and, 177 sales and profits of, 82, 85–88, 179–81, 186, 314, 321–22, 360 as software provider, 76, 80, 83, 91, 157, 222 Tymshare partnership and, 83–84, 149, 179 see also Kurtzig, Sandra ASKNET, 321, 361, 364 Association of University Technology Managers, 145 Asteroids game, 274, 278 AT&T, 103, 160–61, 353–54 Atari, xii Alcorn and, xvi, 168–75, 269–82 arcade games and, 274–75, 344 Bally licensing and, 113–16 Bushnell and, 107–31, 173–75, 269–73, 364 competitors of, 121–23, 250, 269–71, 274, 278, 285, 345–46 culture of, 121–22, 170–71, 174, 249, 280–81 customers of, 113–14, 118–19 Cyan Engineering and, 169–70 Dabney and, 107–22 employees of, 118–19, 123–24, 169–73, 269–82 game design and, 274–77 Gran Trak game and, 124, 130 growth and success of, 122, 130 Home Pong game, 130, 157, 281 investors and, 119, 168–69, 187; see also Warner Communications Jobs and Wozniak at, 208, 230, 233 launch of, 38–40, 58, 110 marketing and, 129–30, 269 new product development and, 272–73 Pong game and, xvi, 112–23 profits and stock of, 172–75, 274, 344–46 salaries at, 173, 277–78 Sears and, 129–30 Valentine and, 126–29, 154, 168–69, 173 VCS game system and, 270–78, 345 Atkinson, Bill, 357 Atomic Energy Commission, 203 Bally, 109, 113–16, 125n, 346 Baran, Paul, 21 Barnes, Andy, 266–67 BASIC programing language, 66, 149, 207–9 Bayh-Dole Act, 264–65 Beat the Dealer (Thorp), 99 Bechtolsheim, Andy, 364–65 Bell and Howell, 292–93 Bell Labs: Kurtzig and, 64–69 mainframe computers and, 67–68, 83 Spencer and, 336 time-sharing service and, 65–69, 83 UNIX operating system and, 353n Berg, Paul, 136n, 142–44, 263 Berkeley Computer Corporation (BCC), 96, 102n Beverly Hills, Calif., 66, 77 Beyers, Bob, 264n biotechnology industry, xiii, xiv, xvi, 138–40, 187, 194, 256–58, 262, 349, 366, 375 see also Genentech birth control pill, 203, 235 Blue, Al, 18–21, 30 Boeing, 177–80 Bolt Beranek and Newman, 7, 22–23, 28, 94–96 Bottarini, Roger, 177–78 Bowers, Ann, 150, 297, 300 Boyer, Herb: Cohen-Boyer patent application and, 202–4, 260–67 recombinant DNA process and, 135–43 and Reimers, 194, 200–201, 208, 256–57, 260–67 and Swanson, 194–204 Brand, Stewart, 90, 226 Braniff, Ron, 319, 370 Breakout game, 208 Brin, Sergey, xii, 351 Bristow, Steve, 118–20, 125, 130, 172–73, 272, 281 Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, 191–92 Brown, Jerry, 255, 360 Browne, Marty, 86–87, 177–78, 182, 323–27 see also ASK Computer Systems Burrows, Mike, 343 Bushnell, Nolan: and Alcorn, 39–40, 107, 169, 173–75, 269–73, 276 Ampex and, 38–40, 107–10 Atari and, 107–31, 169–75, 269–73, 364 business cultures, 4, 22, 50, 67, 121–22, 177–78, 182–85, 280–81, 326, 354–55 business startups, see start-up companies BusinessWeek, 185, 257, 317, 321, 322 Byers, Brook, 192n, 195, 258, 262 Byte Shop, 207, 228–29, 234, 247 calculators, 48, 86, 160, 183, 213, 216, 225 California, University of: at Berkeley, 11, 15, 32–36, 56–57, 96, 177, 226, 342 at Los Angeles (UCLA), 6–7, 21, 30, 65, 68, 333 at San Francisco (UCSF), 133–40, 144, 195, 374 at Santa Barbara, 21 California Commission on Industrial Innovation, 255 Call of Duty game, 278, 366 Caltech, 50–51, 62 Cambridge, Mass., 7, 28, 188, 263 Carnegie Mellon University, 11, 99, 289, 342 Carsten, Jack, 151–52 Carter, Gene, 50, 51–52, 213, 234, 241–43, 246, 294–95, 365 Carter, Jimmy, 286 Carterfone regulatory decision, 160 cassette drives, 244 cassette players, 209, 230, 239, 284 CB radios, 231, 259 CBX system, 160–61, 308, 312, 352 Cetus, 192–94, 199, 202, 257–58, 266 Chang, Annie, 136–37 Chicago, Ill., 3–4, 74–75, 113–15, 120, 129, 266, 322 Christensen, Clayton, 213 Chuck E.

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Different: Escaping the Competitive Herd by Youngme Moon

AltaVista, Atul Gawande, business cycle, commoditize, creative destruction, hedonic treadmill, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, young professional

It started innocently enough; I had just purchased a new laptop and a friend of mine told me I needed to download a program cal ed Netscape and use it to get on the internet. “Start by typing in Yahoo!” she told me. Back then we stil used awkward terms like “cyberspace,” “the infobahn,” and “the information superhighway” to refer to the web, and the only way most people knew to get onboard was by using Yahoo! or one of the other portals—AOL, Excite, AltaVista. The funny thing was, none of us were exactly clear on what we were supposed to be doing online; al we knew was that there were swirling currents of information out there and if you wanted to tap into them, you needed a guide, a virtual shepherd if you wil . This is what the search portals provided; they promised to hold our hands as we ventured into this unregulated ocean of content. For me, everything began and ended with Yahoo!

Then weather. Personals. Email. Auctions. And with each new addition to its homepage, a new piece of the internet opened up to me. Games. Online classifieds. A calendar service. Travel information. Every day, a new feature, a new benefit to explore. Job listings. Horoscopes. Entertainment news. This was augmentation-by-addition at the rate of hyperspeed, and because al of the major search portals—Excite, AltaVista, AOL—were caught in the wave, within a few years al of them had evolved into online smorgasbords offering a swol en buffet of information and services: These companies were not just setting the competitive pace for the industry, they were setting the consumption standard for how people accessed information on the web. And if ever there was a time when it would’ve seemed easy to be a prognosticator—that is, easy to predict what the Portal of the Future would look like—this reckoned to be the time, because the evolutionary trajectory of the category couldn’t have appeared more clear.

pages: 597 words: 119,204

Website Optimization by Andrew B. King

AltaVista, bounce rate, don't be evil,, Firefox, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, information retrieval, iterative process, Kickstarter, medical malpractice, Network effects, performance metric, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application

. --> </style></head><body> <MTIf name="main_index"> <div class="widget-cloud widget"> <h3 class="widget-header">Tag Cloud</h3> <div class="widget-content"> <ul class="widget-list"> <MTTags limit="20" sort_by="rank"> <li class="rank-<$MTTagRank max="10"$> widget-list-item"><a href="<$MTTagSearchLink$>"><$MTTagName$></a></li> </MTTags> </ul> </div> </div> </MTIf> For more details on using Movable Type, see the documentation at Deploy strange attractors A general rule of thumb is that the home page of a website gets the most traffic. There are exceptions, however. You can buck the trend by creating "strange attractors" to generate buzz and, thus, get links. Free online tools can garner a large number of links quickly. Babel Fish, a translator from AltaVista that is available at, is a good example of a useful free online tool (see Figure 1-19). Figure 1-19. Babel Fish, a free language-translator tool Free web-based tools, Flash configurators (such as a clothes colorizer, or a hotel reservation system/calendar), and Ajax mashups all are elements that wow your audience and provide compelling and useful services that are bound to help.

Symbols #content container div, Use container cells for descendant selectors #footer container div, Use container cells for descendant selectors #masthead container div, Use container cells for descendant selectors * selector, Step 5: Write a Description Meta Tag 301 response code, Reduce risky redirects, Request statistics resource moved, Reduce risky redirects server redirects, Request statistics 304 response code, Speed checklist, Request statistics caching static objects, Speed checklist object in browser cache, Request statistics 404 response code, Web Server Log Analysis, Request statistics HTML reference errors, Request statistics log analyzer support, Web Server Log Analysis :hover pseudoclass, Step 4: Convert JavaScript Behavior to CSS , Tip #10: Replace JavaScript Behavior with CSS Techniques A A records, Optimizing Parallel Downloads A/B tests, Website Success Metrics, Multivariate testing with Google Website Optimizer controlled experiments, Website Success Metrics multivariate testing, Multivariate testing with Google Website Optimizer Accept-Encoding header, Compressing content in Apache Accept-Ranges header, Three ways to cache in ActiveX controls, Rolling Your Own Ajax Solution, User Experience Testing Software ad campaigns, Pay-per-Click Optimization, Pay-per-Click Basics and Definitions, Differences in Bulk Editing: Uploading Spreadsheets Versus the AdWords Editor, Differences in Geotargeting, Tracking and Metrics, Broad matches versus direct bidding, Adjusting Bids, Website Optimization Metrics, Website Success Metrics, Classes of Metrics differences in bulk editing, Differences in Bulk Editing: Uploading Spreadsheets Versus the AdWords Editor, Differences in Geotargeting duplicate keywords, Broad matches versus direct bidding importance of metrics, Website Optimization Metrics metrics tracking ROI by, Website Success Metrics PPC recommendations, Tracking and Metrics SEM metrics, Classes of Metrics setting up, Pay-per-Click Basics and Definitions targeting, Pay-per-Click Optimization tracking phone call conversions, Adjusting Bids ad clicks, Ad clicks ad copy, Pay-per-Click Optimization, Pay-per-Click Basics and Definitions, Optimizing Ad Copy, Testing ads the easy way: AdWords optimized ad serving, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing ad groups, Pay-per-Click Optimization, Pay-per-Click Basics and Definitions, Organizing and Optimizing Ad Groups, Guidelines for Grouping, Guidelines for Grouping, Example Themed Ad Groups, Optimizing Ad Groups After Launch, Adjusting Bids grouping guidelines, Guidelines for Grouping optimizing after launch, Optimizing Ad Groups After Launch optimizing bids, Adjusting Bids PPC optimization and, Pay-per-Click Optimization, Pay-per-Click Basics and Definitions themed, Organizing and Optimizing Ad Groups, Guidelines for Grouping, Example Themed Ad Groups ad spend, Differences in Bulk Editing: Uploading Spreadsheets Versus the AdWords Editor AddEncoding directive, Compressing content in Apache Adobe Creative Suite, Put it on paper and build graphical mockups Adobe ImageReady, Obscure navigation Adobe Photoshop, Step 2: Resize and Optimize Images, Step 2: Resize and Optimize Images, Flash optimization tips ads, Pay-per-Click Basics and Definitions, Ads loaded AdWords Editor, Differences in Bulk Editing: Uploading Spreadsheets Versus the AdWords Editor, Broad matches versus direct bidding, Example Themed Ad Groups duplicate keywords, Broad matches versus direct bidding functionality, Differences in Bulk Editing: Uploading Spreadsheets Versus the AdWords Editor Keyword Grouper, Example Themed Ad Groups aesthetics, Unprofessional design Ajah (Asynchronous JavaScript and HTML), Consider Ajah, Method 2: Make Requests with Unique URIs, Method 2: Make Requests with Unique URIs Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), Deploy strange attractors, Common Web Page Problems, Ajax Optimization, Common Problems with Ajax, Ajax: New and Improved JavaScript Communications, Rolling Your Own Ajax Solution, Rolling Your Own Ajax Solution, An Illustrative Example, Relying on Ajax Libraries, An Illustrative Example, Prelude to Ajax optimizations, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Remove JavaScript Comments, Conditional comments, Reduce Whitespace Carefully, Use JavaScript Shorthand, Use JavaScript Shorthand, Use String Constant Macros, Avoid Optional Constructs and Kill Dead Code Fast, Avoid Optional Constructs and Kill Dead Code Fast, Shorten User-Defined Variables and Function Names, Inline Localized Functions, Every Byte Counts, Bundle Your Scripts, Bundle Your Scripts, Monitor User Rendering Time, Practice Error Awareness, Practice Error Awareness, Memory leaks and garbage collection in Internet Explorer, Minimizing HTTP Requests, Choosing Data Formats Wisely, Minimizing HTTP Requests, Choosing Data Formats Wisely, Choosing Data Formats Wisely, Choosing Data Formats Wisely, Addressing the Caching Quandary of Ajax, Method 3: Make Requests with an Old If-Modified-Since Header, Addressing Network Robustness, Addressing Server and Content Error, Out-of-order responses, Addressing Server and Content Error, Polling Carefully, Polling Carefully, Understanding the Ajax Architecture Effect, Client-Side Performance Techniques, Delay Script Loading architecture effect, Understanding the Ajax Architecture Effect avoiding optional constructs, Avoid Optional Constructs and Kill Dead Code Fast best practices, Ajax Optimization bundling scripts, Bundle Your Scripts, Bundle Your Scripts byte-shaving techniques, Every Byte Counts caching quandary, Addressing the Caching Quandary of Ajax, Method 3: Make Requests with an Old If-Modified-Since Header common problems, Common Problems with Ajax data format considerations, Choosing Data Formats Wisely error awareness, Practice Error Awareness, Practice Error Awareness example, An Illustrative Example, Relying on Ajax Libraries, An Illustrative Example, Prelude to Ajax optimizations, Relying on Ajax Libraries garbage collection, Memory leaks and garbage collection in Internet Explorer improved communication, Ajax: New and Improved JavaScript Communications, Rolling Your Own Ajax Solution JavaScript shorthand, Use JavaScript Shorthand, Use JavaScript Shorthand localized functions, Inline Localized Functions minimizing HTTP requests, Minimizing HTTP Requests, Choosing Data Formats Wisely, Minimizing HTTP Requests, Choosing Data Formats Wisely, Choosing Data Formats Wisely monitoring rendering time, Monitor User Rendering Time network robustness, Addressing Network Robustness, Addressing Server and Content Error, Addressing Server and Content Error polling support, Polling Carefully, Polling Carefully reducing whitespace, Reduce Whitespace Carefully remapping built-in objects, Shorten User-Defined Variables and Function Names removing comments, Remove JavaScript Comments, Conditional comments server/content error, Out-of-order responses shortening names, Avoid Optional Constructs and Kill Dead Code Fast staging loading, Client-Side Performance Techniques, Delay Script Loading strange attractors, Deploy strange attractors string constant macros, Use String Constant Macros web page considerations, Common Web Page Problems XHR object support, Rolling Your Own Ajax Solution Ajax libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries Hello World example, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries, Relying on Ajax Libraries open source, Relying on Ajax Libraries Ajile library, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) Akamai CDN, The Benefits of a Content Delivery Network alert( ) statement, Use String Constant Macros, Bundle Your Scripts AllowOverride All command, Target files by extension for caching AltaVista Babel Fish translator, Deploy strange attractors, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, Website Success Metrics controlled experiments, Website Success Metrics scarcity principle, The six persuaders social proof, The six persuaders Analog tool, Web Server Log Analysis anchor text, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Write headlines that pop, Step 8: Add Keywords Tactically keyphrases in, Step 8: Add Keywords Tactically keyword placement, Write headlines that pop ranking factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity anonymous functions, Inline Localized Functions AOL Pagetest, Firebug: A simple alternative, Speed Up Your Site, AOL Pagetest, AOL Pagetest, Speed Up Your Site, Speed Up Your Site, CSS sprites, CSS sprites Apache servers, Three ways to cache in, A specific caching example, Compressing content in Apache cache control, A specific caching example content negotiation, Compressing content in Apache ETags, Three ways to cache in apachectl command, Target files by extension for caching website, Optimizing videos for the Web Artz, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Google, Yahoo!

pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

Brin and Page were unknowns and Conway remembers them approaching Fanning and saying, “What does it feel like to be on the cover of all those magazines?” “You guys have a really cool search product,” responded Fanning. “You’ll be more famous than I am!” Danny Sullivan, a former reporter who left newspapers in 1996 to publish a Web newsletter called Search Engine Watch (now called Search Engine Land), and who is the closest approximation to an umpire in the search world, remembers the early buzz about Google. The initial search engines—AltaVista, Highbot, Lycos, Excite, Infoseek, GoTo, Yahoo—were more interested in becoming “sticky portals” that trapped users on their sites, which diluted their focus on search. And when they performed a search, they were not impartial, allowing advertisers to buy their way to the top of the search results. Google, by contrast, “was really dedicated to search,” and refused to allow advertisers to distort the “science” of their search results.

Instead, he said, “The biggest milestone was for Larry and Sergey and Eric to conclude they were going to work together. It did not happen overnight. They learned to adapt. Bill was very helpful in that, and I was too, in a less key way.” By the end of 2003, the Google rocket was cruising. Its search now controlled 60 percent of the market outside the United States, which produced nearly a third of its revenues. Many of its search competitors—AltaVista, Infoseek, Excite, HotBot—had crashed or would soon crash. Yahoo and Microsoft had jumped into the search business, but Google soared far above them. Already it was common to say “I’ll Google it,” rather than, “I’ll search it.” Google’s employee roster nearly tripled in size between 2002 and 2003, reaching 1,628 at the start of 2004. Like a child outgrowing his clothes, the company had become too big for its two-building campus on Bayshore Parkway in Mountain View.

INDEX Abrams, Jonathan AdSense advertising formula Google charges mechanism of revenue sharing Advertising, traditional concerns about Google data collection methods versus Google methods Internet, impact on as marketing companies online ads, increase in outlook for future recession of 2008, impact on spending on ads, increase in Advertising by Google. See Google advertising AdWords beginning, limitations of CPC (cost per click), adoption of keywords, advertiser bidding on limitations of upgrading Aiken, Paul Airplane test Allen, Herbert III All Things Digital Conference AltaVista Amazon and cloud computing electronic book sales Anderson, Chris Andreessen, Marc and Campbell on decline of newspapers on Google and Netscape new media ventures of Android AOL Google exit from powered by Google deals Apple Apple/Google board members and Campbell Google mobile phone competition as wave maker See also Jobs, Steve; specific products Armstrong, Michael Armstrong, Tim leaves Google role at Google Arnold, Stephen E.

Canary Islands Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

AltaVista, call centre, carbon footprint, G4S, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, urban sprawl

You don’t have to be a masochist to enjoy the challenge of walking from road level up to La Rambleta at the top of the cable car, followed by a zoom down in the lift, but neither should you take this walk lightly. People unused to serious hiking will find this a very strenuous walk. Get off the bus (request the driver to stop) or leave your car at the small road-side parking area (signposted ‘Montaña Blanca’ and ‘Refugio de Altavista’) 8km south of the El Portillo visitor centre and set off along the 4WD track that leads uphill. En route, you can make a short (half-hour, at the most), almost-level detour along a clear path to the rounded summit of Montaña Blanca (2750m), from where there are splendid views of Las Cañadas and the sierra beyond. For the full ascent to La Rambleta, allow about five hours (one way). If you’re intending on taking the cable car back down it’s vital that you allow sufficient time (and have enough food supplies) to walk back down the mountain if the cable car has to close early.

Maybe the most spectacular, and certainly the hardest, walk in the park is the climb to the summit of Pico Viejo, then along the ridge that connects this mountain to Teide and then up to the summit of Teide. Allow at least nine hours for this hike (one way) and be prepared to walk back down Teide again if the cable car is closed. In fact, for this walk it’s actually better to walk to the Refugio de Altavista at 3270m on the first day, overnight there and then continue your ascent to the summit of Teide the following morning as this will allow you most of the second day to descend Teide on foot if required. Information The park has two excellent visitor centres: El Portillo (922 92 37 71; Carretera La Orotava-Granadilla; 9am-4pm) in the northeast, with an adjacent botanical garden; and Cañada Blanca (Carretera La Orotava-Granadilla; 9am-4pm) in the south, which has an informative 15-minute video presentation about the history, ecology, flora and fauna of the park.

Risco del Gato HOTEL €€€ (928 87 71 75;; Calle Sicasimbre 2; s/d €84/141; ) Accommodation is in spacious and luxurious suites, complete with whirlpool bathrooms, inner patio and small private garden. Located 200m from the white sandy beach of Sotovento, additional facilities include a spa centre, tennis courts, a fitness centre and three restaurants; in other words – the works. MORRO JABLE Apartamentos Altavista APARTMENTS € (928 54 01 64; Caleta Abubilla 8; 1-/2-person apt €45/55; ) Easy to find (but not so easy to park) opposite the modern church in the old town; you can’t miss the multicoloured exterior. The apartments are large, have terraces and are painted a sunny yellow; several have sea views. There is also a rooftop solarium complete with pergola. Sol Jandia Mar APARTMENTS €€ (928 54 13 25;; Avenida Jandia s/n; 2-/4-person apt €70/80; ) Part of the solidly reliable Melia hotel chain, this centrally located hotel provides excellent value, with large modern apartments brightly furnished with dark-blue fabrics and wood fittings.

pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Eventually, he settled on Internet search.19 In the mid-1990s, the Internet was growing exponentially. The landscape was chaotic: a jumble of random websites, personal webpages, university sites, news sites, and corporate properties. Pages were popping up all over the place. But there was no good central or authoritative directory that could help people navigate to where they wanted to go or find a particular song, article, or webpage. Search engines and directory portals like Yahoo!, AltaVista, and Excite were crude and sometimes had to be curated by hand. Search algorithms were extremely primitive, matching searches word for word without the ability to find the most relevant results. Despite their primitive technology and awful search results, these early search sites attracted huge amounts of traffic and investment. The young programmers who started them were rich beyond belief. In the parlance of Silicon Valley, it was a market ripe for disruption.

If one value changed, then the whole thing would be recomputed.32 They folded it into an experimental search engine they called “BackRub” and put it up on Stanford’s internal network. The BackRub logo was creepy: it featured a black-and-white photo of a hand attached to a hairy arm rubbing a nude back. But it didn’t matter. As word spread, students started using it—and they were amazed. This student project was better than any commercial search engine available at the time, such as Excite or AltaVista. The dominant search companies were valued in the billions but did not understand their own business. “They were looking only at text and not considering this other signal,” Page said.33 The search engine, which the pair quickly renamed Google, became so popular it overwhelmed the bandwidth of Stanford’s network connection. Brin and Page realized they’d hit on something very special. Google was much bigger than a research project.

They had an initial $100,000 check from Andy Bechtolsheim, the cofounder of Sun Microsystems, a powerful computer company that itself had come out of an ARPA-funded 1970s computer research program at Stanford University.36 The initial small investment was followed by a $25 million tranche from two powerful venture capital outfits, Sequoia Capital and Kleiner Perkins.37 Brin and Page couldn’t be happier. Flush with cash, the two young entrepreneurs hired a couple of their Stanford Digital Library Initiative colleagues and plowed their energy into improving Google’s still-rudimentary search engine. All the early search engine companies, from Lycos to Yahoo!, AltaVista to AOL, realized that they were sitting on something new and magical. “People came to our servers and they’d leave tracks. We could see every day exactly what people thought was important on the Internet,” Tim Koogle, Yahoo’s first CEO, said.38 “The Net is all about connection.… We sat in the middle, connecting people.” Yahoo! tried leveraging the data to gain insight into consumer demand, but its engineers barely scratched the surface of the valuable data they were amassing.

pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill,, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian,, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott:, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

Looking at tens of thousands of dollars to get advertising in subways and other venues, they realized that this wasn’t going to be a cost-effective model either. Rather than stick to one business idea, Wales and Shell wanted to keep the firm experimental. There were no proven business models for the Internet then, and they wanted to stay nimble. “Learning from mistakes was the fun part,” says Shell. They started to see what was getting attention—Yahoo!, AltaVista, and Excite were the search engines of the time and were gathering lots of momentum. (It would be a few years before the Google juggernaut would be part of the scene.) It was increasingly clear that transaction services were complex—delivery of goods and handling customer service made such a business hard to start up or scale up. Directory services were much cheaper. Put listings online, and if people found it useful they would return.

Index Adams, Clifford, 59, 62, 66–67, 73, Atlantic Monthly, 47, 171 140–41 “Atonality” article, 40 Adobe Systems, 52 Attribution ShareAlike, 212 advertising, 22, 31, 33 “Autaugaville” article, 102–3 Wikipedia and, 9, 11, 136–38, 215, 226 Afghanistan, 159 African languages, 157–58 Bambara language, 158 Alabama, 17–18 barn raising, 187–88 “Albert Einstein” article, 181 Beck, Kent, 47 Alexa, 183 “Beer goggles” article, 92 Alexander, Christopher, 46 Beesley, Angela, 184, 196 ALIWEB, 34 Bell, Andrew, 16 “All your base are belong to us” article, 118 Bengali language, 160 Alt, Gary, 204 Benkler, Yochai, 108, 111 Altavista, 22 Berners-Lee, Tim, 51–55, 59 Anthony, Seth (Sethilys), 106–11 Bomis, Inc., 21–23, 31–35, 41, 45, 66, “Anti-tank dog” article, 118 72, 79, 88–89, 136, 137, 171, 174, ants, 81–82, 83 183–84 Apache, 140 Bomis Browser, 22 “Apex” article, 106 “Boston molasses disaster” article, 118 Aphaia, 146–47 Brandt, Daniel, 192–94, 200, 210 Apple Computer, 27, 52, 222 Brief History of Hackerdom, A (Raymond), HyperCard, 47–51, 54–56 85 Arabic language, 144, 156, 157 Britannica, see Encyclopedia Britannica ArbCom (Arbitration Committee), 180–81, browsers, 51–55 184, 197, 223 Bryce, 139 ARPANET, 85–86 bulletin board systems, 83–84, 121, 170 Asian languages, 139–42, 144, 159–60 Bumm13, 109–11 Chinese, 141–44, 146, 150–55 Bush, Vannevar, 47 Japanese, 139, 140, 141–42, 144, “Bushism” article, 117 145–47 “Buttered cat paradox” article, 117 astroturfing, 121 “As We May Think” (Bush), 47 AtisWiki, 62 Calacanis, Jason, 215 Atkinson, Bill, 48, 51 CamelCase, 58, 62–64, 66–67, 73, 221 238_Index Cancelbots, 87, 88 wiki concept created by, 2, 4, 56–60, Canter & Siegel, 87 62, 65–66, 90 “Carmine DeSapio” article, 189 WikiWikiWeb created by, 44–45, 58–60 Catalan language, 152 Cunningham & Cunningham, 56 “Cathedral and the Bazaar, The” CvWiki, 62 (Raymond), 172–73, 175 Cyrillic script, 155–57 Cauz, Jorge, 209, 210 census data, 100–104, 106 Chase, Brian, 193 D’Alembert, Jean le Rond, 15 “Chewbacca Defense” article, 118 Danzig/Gdansk war, 122–30, 146 Chicago Options Associates, 20, 21, 22 Davis, Michael, 20, 184 “Chicken or the egg” article, 92 Death and Life of Great American Cities, China: The (Jacobs), 96–97 proverb from, 183 DejaNews, 86 Wikipedia in, 10, 141–44, 146, 150–55 Denker, Markus, 62 Yongle encyclopedia in, 15 DeSapio, Carmine, 189 Chris 73, 128–29 design patterns, 55, 59 Churchill, Winston, 81 Devouard, Florence, 3, 157, 184 CIA World Fact Book, The, 100 Diderot, Denis, 15, 115 Ciffolilli, Andrea, 175–76 Digg, 86 Citizendium, 190, 211–12 Digital Equipment Corporation, 27 CNN, 219 Digital Universe Foundation, 210–11 “Coase’s Penguin” (Benkler), 108 Digital World Africa 2006 Conference, 157 Cohen, Sacha Baron, 156 directory services, 22 Colbert, Stephen, 201–2 DMOZ, 23, 30, 223 Coleridge, Herbert, 70 Open Directory Project, 30–31, 33, 35 Collier’s Encyclopedia, 17 Discover, 126 Communications Decency Act, 191 discussion forums, 86 communities, 12, 81–83 Disney Corporation, 26–27 peer production in, 108–9 Distributed Proofreaders, 35 sidewalks and, 96–97 DMOZ, 23, 30, 223 Usenet, 83–88, 114, 170, 190, 223 “Dog” article, 90, 140, 212 Wikipedia, see Wikipedia community Dr.

pages: 337 words: 86,320

Everybody Lies: Big Data, New Data, and What the Internet Can Tell Us About Who We Really Are by Seth Stephens-Davidowitz

affirmative action, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Cass Sunstein, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Filter Bubble, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Nate Silver, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, quantitative hedge fund, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, working poor

Google harnessed Big Data in a way that no other company ever has to build an automated money stream. The company plays a crucial role in this book since Google searches are by far the dominant source of Big Data. But it is important to remember that Google’s success is itself built on the collection of a new kind of data. If you are old enough to have used the internet in the twentieth century, you might remember the various search engines that existed back then—MetaCrawler, Lycos, AltaVista, to name a few. And you might remember that these search engines were, at best, mildly reliable. Sometimes, if you were lucky, they managed to find what you wanted. Often, they would not. If you typed “Bill Clinton” into the most popular search engines in the late 1990s, the top results included a random site that just proclaimed “Bill Clinton Sucks” or a site that featured a bad Clinton joke.

A/B testing ABCs of, 209–21 and addictions, 219–20 and Boston Globe headlines, 214–17 in digital world, 210–19 downside to, 219–21 and education/learning, 276 and Facebook, 211 future uses of, 276, 277, 278 and gaming industry, 220–21 and Google advertising, 217–19 importance of, 214, 217 and Jawbone, 277 and politics, 211–14 and television, 222 Abdulkadiroglu, Atila, 235–36 abortion, truth about, 147–50 Adamic, Lada, 144 Adams, John, 78 addictions and A/B testing, 219–20 See also specific addiction advertising and A/B testing, 217–19 causal effects of, 221–25, 273 and examples of Big Data searches, 22 Google, 217–19 and Levitt-electronics company, 222, 225, 226 and movies, 224–25 and science, 273 and Super Bowl games, 221–26 TV, 221–26 African Americans and Harvard Crimson editorial about Zuckerberg, 155 income and, 175 and origins of notable Americans, 182–83 and truth about hate and prejudice, 129, 134 See also “nigger”; race/racism age and baseball fans, 165–69, 165–66n and lying, 108n and origins of political preferences, 169–71 and predicting future of baseball players, 198–99 of Stormfront members, 137–38 and words as data, 85–86 See also children; teenagers Aiden, Erez, 76–77, 78–79 alcohol as addiction, 219 and health, 207–8 AltaVista (search engine), 60 Alter, Adam, 219–20 Amatriain, Xavier, 157 Amazon, 20, 203, 283 American Pharoah (Horse No. 85), 22, 64, 65, 70–71, 256 Angrist, Joshua, 235–36 anti-Semitism. See Jews anxiety data about, 18 and truth about sex, 123 AOL, and truth about sex, 117–18 AOL News, 143 art, real life as imitating, 190–97 Ashenfelter, Orley, 72–74 Asher, Sam, 202 Asians, and truth about hate and prejudice, 129 asking the right questions, 21–22 assassinations, 227–28 Atlantic magazine, 150–51, 152, 202 Australia, pregnancy in, 189 auto-complete, 110–11, 116 Avatar (movie), 221–22 Bakshy, Eytan, 144 Baltimore Ravens-New England Patriots games, 221, 222–24 baseball and influence of childhood experiences, 165–69, 165–66n, 171, 206 and overemphasis on measurability, 254–55 predicting a player’s future in, 197–200, 200n, 203 and science, 273 scouting for, 254–55 zooming in on, 165–69, 165–66n, 171, 197–200, 200n, 203 basketball pedigrees and, 67 predicting success in, 33–41, 67 and socioeconomic background, 34–41 Beane, Billy, 255 Beethoven, Ludwig von, zooming in on, 190–91 behavioral science, and digital revolution, 276, 279 Belushi, John, 185 Benson, Clark, 217 Berger, Jonah, 91–92 Bezos, Jeff, 203 bias implicit, 134 language as key to understanding, 74–76 omitted-variable, 208 subconscious, 132 See also hate; prejudice; race/racism Big Data and amount of information, 15, 21, 59, 171 and asking the right questions, 21–22 and causality experiments, 54, 240 definition of, 14, 15 and dimensionality, 246–52 and examples of searches, 15–16 and expansion of research methodology, 275–76 and finishing books, 283–84 future of, 279 Google searches as dominant source of, 60 honesty of, 53–54 importance/value of, 17–18, 29–33, 59, 240, 265, 283 limitations of, 20, 245, 254–55, 256 powers of, 15, 17, 22, 53–54, 59, 109, 171, 211, 257 and predicting what people will do in future, 198–200 as revolutionary, 17, 18–22, 30, 62, 76, 256, 274 as right data, 62 skeptics of, 17 and small data, 255–56 subsets in, 54 understanding of, 27–28 See also specific topic Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, 255 Billings (Montana) Gazette, and words as data, 95 Bing (search engine), and Columbia University-Microsoft pancreatic cancer study, 28, 30 Black, Don, 137 Black Lives Matter, 12 Blink (Gladwell), 29–30 Bloodstock, Incardo, 64 bodies, as data, 62–74 Boehner, John, 160, 265 books conclusions to, 271–72, 279, 280–84 digitalizing, 77, 79 number of people who finish, 283–84 borrowing money, 257–61 Bosh, Chris, 37 Boston Globe, and A/B testing, 214–17 Boston Marathon (2013), 19 Boston Red Sox, 197–200 brain, Minsky study of, 273 Brazil, pregnancy in, 190 breasts, and truth about sex, 125, 126 Brin, Sergey, 60, 61, 62, 103 Britain, pregnancy in, 189 Bronx Science High School (New York City), 232, 237 Buffett, Warren, 239 Bullock, Sandra, 185 Bundy, Ted, 181 Bush, George W., 67 business and comparison shopping, 265 reviews of, 265 See also corporations butt, and truth about sex, 125–26 Calhoun, Jim, 39 Cambridge University, and Microsoft study about IQ of Facebook users, 261 cancer, predicting pancreatic, 28–29, 30 Capital in the 21st Century (Piketty), 283 casinos, and price discrimination, 263–65 causality A/B testing and, 209–21 and advertising, 221–25 and Big Data experiments, 54, 240 college and, 237–39 correlation distinguished from, 221–25 and ethics, 226 and monetary windfalls, 229 natural experiments and, 226–28 and power of Big Data, 54, 211 and randomized controlled experiments, 208–9 reverse, 208 and Stuyvesant High School study, 231–37, 240 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 57 Chabris, Christopher, 250 Chance, Zoë, 252–53 Chaplin, Charlie, 19 charitable giving, 106, 109 Chen, M.

pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Two years seems like an almost unfathomable amount of time for the people entrenched in it. I preach a bit more patience but the point remains: a lot will be determined by then. Predicting anything is tough with a new technology, because the changes are amplified drastically when the in-hindsight obvious uses are in place. Imagine trying to predict AltaVista, Geocities, and ICQ before web browsers existed, then imagine trying to predict Facebook, Reddit, and Google Earth in 2000 when AltaVista, Geocities, and ICQ were still Internet mainstays. Given that I will likely be wrong at least as often as I am right, what kind of services do I see evolving in a cryptocurrency wonderland? Amazing ones. Altcoins are currently plagued by speculative investing. This drives everything in the space. If the price goes down, the community demands that the developers announce something.

pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

A textbook publisher put out a yearly directory called the The Internet Yellow Pages, a bright door-stopper of a volume like the phone books for commercial numbers. Users consulted paper to find something on a screen. Most of the first websites I visited, I found out about in alt-weeklies and magazines. The internet was a place back then, not yet a person, so those guides were like AAA TripTiks. Google created demand for internet search as we now experience it. There were plenty of search engines in 1998—Excite, Lycos, AltaVista, WebCrawler, Yahoo, HotBot, Infoseek, Inktomi, Snap, Direct Hit, Magellan, Ask Jeeves—and none had an obvious revenue stream. The major players, like Lycos and Yahoo, sorted topics in directories with trees of categories (art, sports, news, local), which was helpful for users who logged on and found themselves unsure what to click next. These companies aimed to be “portals,” in the hope that users would save their URLs as browser home pages, with sidebars including headlines, weather, email, and other features.

There was an NPR segment in 2014 about the questions the New York Public Library fielded from the 1940s to the ’80s (“Before the Internet, Librarians Would ‘Answer Everything’—And Still Do,” December 28, 2014). Note cards documenting the questions were also featured on the NYPL Instagram account at the time. I got the number “2,738 websites in 1994” and other figures from the website Internet Live Stats. Also, it should be noted that Archie was the first internet search engine—created by Alan Emtage in 1989. There were several web search engines in the 1990s, including Excite, Lycos, AltaVista, WebCrawler, Yahoo, HotBot, Infoseek, Inktomi, Snap, Direct Hit, Magellan, and Ask Jeeves. For years, I could have sworn HotBot had the most relevant results, and I was surprised to learn many, many years later that it was only the skin for search that the Inktomi database provided. In addition to the Lycos and Yahoo model of directories, there was a user-sorted directory called DMOZ, which shut down in 2017.

pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Zipcar

Attention, Search, and Discovery As the World Wide Web blossomed in 1994, anyone with an Internet connection could publish content accessible to anyone else with an Internet connection. This massive influx of decentralized content almost immediately led to the emergence of a set of search engines and directories that facilitated discovery—among them, Yahoo (initially a hand-curated directory), Lycos, Infoseek, and Altavista. These search engines were able to index and organize the Web’s information with a reasonable level of comprehensiveness, but were unable to provide any reliable “quality” information in an automated way. It took until 1998 and the emergence of Google before we had a good search engine for not just finding what we wanted, but for focusing us on what might be pertinent—a reliable system for both discovery and for ranking.

See also Accommodation platforms blurring of boundaries and, 141–142 convenience of, 128 ease of using, 124 entrepreneurial nature of, 194 externalities, 140 financing of, 25 founding and growth of, 7–9, 131 gift aspect of, 39–40 gift economy aspects, 35 hotel taxes and, 186 impact on hotel industry, 121–122, 129, 216–217n11, 219n3 increased variety and consumption with, 121 local network effects, 120 as microentrepreneurship, 125 as micro-outsourcing, 77 peer regulation and, 151–152 pricing, supply, and merchandising, 194–195 regulation and, 131–136, 154, 155 search capability, 97 shared redistribution, 82 trust and, 61, 62, 64, 65, 98, 145, 147 Alaska Permanent Fund, 190 Alibaba, 48, 97, 99 Alone Together (Turkle), 45 Altavista, 96 Amazon, 37, 47, 54, 57, 91, 203 logistics, 99 market value, 96 price search comparisons and product offerings, 112 search capability, 97 user-generated reviews, 147 Walmart and, 98–99 American Hotel and Lodging Association (AHLA), 134–135 American Medical Association, 153, 192 Amtrak, 12 Andreessen, Marc, 59–60, 87 Andreessen Horowitz, 25, 87 AngelList, 42–43 Apple, 2, 55, 203 iTunes, 54, 56, 57, 91, 93 Apple Core Hotels, 121 Arthurs, H.

pages: 332 words: 97,325

The Launch Pad: Inside Y Combinator, Silicon Valley's Most Exclusive School for Startups by Randall Stross

affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, always be closing, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, index fund, inventory management, John Markoff,, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, transaction costs, Y Combinator

He eschews grand theories and favors empiricism: what works, works.6 In his own professional life, he has followed whatever path seemed most likely to lead to interesting work. After college, as a bored engineer at Intel, Buchheit decided to look for something that was more engaging than what he was doing. The idea of joining a startup that would likely soon die was just fine—he was single at the time and did not have a mortgage to worry about. In June 1999, he applied to Google, which then had only twenty-two employees. He was fairly certain that AltaVista would soon destroy the little startup, but he could see that Google had smart people and offered work that would let him learn something, and that’s all he was looking for. He told Jessica Livingston many years later, in Founders at Work, “It worked out well, but it wasn’t like I saw this company and said, ‘Oh, wow, this is going to succeed!’ I just thought it would be fun.”7 He made his first angel investments after he left Google in 2006, and continued after cofounding a new startup, FriendFeed, the next year.8 In 2010, he wrote, “I started investing in startups with the assumption that I don’t know what I’m doing (which is always true), but that the only way to actually learn anything is through experience.”

Note that not all terms may be searchable. Abbott, Ryan, 46, 171, 174, 177, 180, 181 Adidas, 234 Adpop Media, 46–47, 122–23, 129 AeroFS, 231 Airbnb, 4, 43, 88, 95 AirTV, 103–4 circumvention, 177–78 investors seeking next, 207 Kutcher, Ashton, 265n1 marketplace, 179 Sift Science, 210 Vidyard, 103–5, 120 Aisle50, 51–52, 191, 208–9, 223, 233 Akamai, 101 Albertsons, 209 Allen, Paul, 16 AlphaLab, 41 Altair BASIC, 11, 68 AltaVista, 204 Altman, Sam, 220 on buzzwords, 18–19 CampusCred, 111–14 interviewing finalists, 11, 21 Rap Genius, 196–202 Science Exchange, 173 Sift Science, 75–76 speaking style, 114, 115, 196 YC partner, 63, 150 Amarasiriwardena, Thushan, 127–28 Amazon, 126 Interview Street, 213 Mechanical Turk, 89, 90 movie rentals, 106 web services, 32, 101, 131, 132 Andreessen Horowitz, 4, 66, 230 Andreessen, Marc, 1–2, 4, 215, 239 Android, 17, 122, 147, 212 NFC, 157, 158 speech recognition, 210 Andrzejewski, Alexa, 54 angel investors, 28, 86–87, 189–90 AnyAsq, 166–67 Anybots, 12, 27, 40, 63 AOL, 124, 126 AppJet, 64, 204 Apple, 69 App Store, 100, 127 cofounders, 161 headquarters, 251n1 iOS devices, 122, 127–28, 142, 147, 172, 187, 209, 212 Sequoia Capital, 3 Snapjoy, 187 Arrington, Michael, 48–49 The Art of Ass-Kicking blog (Shen), 9 Artix, 25, 27, 29 Ask Me Anything, 166 Auburn University, 29 Auctomatic, 64, 66, 159, 204 Austin, TX, 42 Australia, 17, 238 Ballinger, Brandon, 70–76, 121, 134–38, 209–10 Barbie, 53 Bard College at Simon’s Rock, 52 Beatles, 200 Bechtolsheim, Andy, 86 Bellingham, WA, 101 Benchmark Capital, 5 Berkeley (UC) CampusCred, 20, 111 graduates of, 9, 68, 135, 164 Information, School of, 89, 90 newspaper, 136 students, 20, 52–53, 135 Venture Lab Competition, 53 women in computer science, 53 Bernstam, Tikhon, 122, 166, 185–86, 212, 228, 230–31 Bernstein, Mikael, 213–14 Betaspring, 42 Bible, 127, 197, 199, 200 Bill of Rights, 197 Bing Nursery School, 52 Birmingham, AL, 29, 33, 51, 203, 223 BizPress, 125, 147–48, 192 BlackBerry, 157, 184 Blackwell, Trevor Anybots, 27 interviewing finalists, 10, 11–12, 32–33 Kiko, 16 Viaweb, 25 YC partner, 27, 40, 57, 63 Blank, Steve, 77 Blogger, 57 Blomfield, Tom, 191 Bloomberg, Michael, 227 Bloomberg TV, 55, 12 BMW, 165 Books On Campus, 164 BoomStartup, 42 Boso, 57–58, 60 Boston, MA, 56 Boston University, 112 Boucher, Ross, 64 Boulder, CO, 41, 43, 53, 130 Box, 54 Boyd, E.

pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston

8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business cycle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito,, Larry Wall, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

Brady: Yes. Strategically, it was spot-on until Google showed up. Because we always thought it was going to be a leapfrogging game. No one is ever going to be able to get so far ahead that we’d ever be in strategic risk of kingmaking a full-text search engine, because you just can’t do that. Google ended up doing exactly that. At the time, until 2000/2001, we had Open Text first, then I think we had AltaVista, then Inktomi. So we just switched off as better technologies became available. We just switched out the old partners with the new ones and always had the best-of-breed search as our falloff. Livingston: Was this invisible to the users? Brady: Yes, it was largely invisible to our users. Even though their brands were there, you came to the front page of Yahoo; you searched; the search result had a Yahoo brand on the upper-left and the technology provider had a smaller brand.

But, as I say, for these people, it depends on their situation if they can take that risk of joining a startup or moving to a new city if they don’t live in the right place. For me, I was actually single at the time, I didn’t have a mortgage, so the idea of joining a little startup that may well be destroyed was just like, “That will be fun.” Because I kind of thought, “Even if Google doesn’t make it, it will be educational and I’ll learn something.” Honestly, I was pretty sure AltaVista was going to destroy Google. Repairing the disk electronics on an early Gmail prototype. C H A P T E 13 R Steve Perlman Cofounder,WebTV One weekend in 1995, Steve Perlman tested his theory that the Web could look as good on a TV screen as it did on a computer monitor. In 3 days of roundthe-clock effort, he built a thin client for surfing the Web, using a television as a display. He invited his friend Bruce Leak over to see what he’d built, and they knew right away it was a big enough idea for a startup.

That required all my spin abilities. Livingston: What did you tell them? Graham: I said that this was part of his graduate student career and that it was a common thing for people in graduate school to take jobs working in research labs during the summer and, yes, this was another company, but it was really more of a research lab than a company. That part was certainly true. When they tried to turn AltaVista into a company, it was disaster. Livingston: What was the next turning point after Robert left for his summer job? Graham: Our main angel investor, the metals trader, was encouraged that the big company had wanted to buy us, so that spring he’d put more money in—still angel-scale money. We weren’t desperately running out of money, but we were going to run out sometime in the fall. The angel investor decided that we needed to have a business guy as CEO and that he wasn’t going to give us any more money unless we got someone.

pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden,, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Former CEO John Donahoe of eBay, one of the first companies to establish a trust-based commerce network online, said, “I don’t know what Bitcoin will look like ten years from now, but I do think cryptocurrency and digital currency are growing technologies with tremendous potential. There is no reason why you shouldn’t have almost perfectly secure transfer of money with traceability. Cryptocurrency and digital currency are here to stay. And it will get more powerful, not less.” So what will be the future digital currency landscape? When I think of cryptocurrencies, I think of the search engines of the 1990s—WebCrawler, AltaVista, Lycos, Infoseek, Ask Jeeves, MSN Search, Yahoo!—and wonder if there is a Google among them. I think the vast majority of the cryptocurrencies in circulation today will disappear to nothing, but the category will endure. I think that the cryptocurrency that breaks out (whether it is Bitcoin or another) will shed its cryptolibertarian roots and embrace the responsibilities that come with being economically significant.

See also cancer African Robotics Network (AFRON), 21 aging, 19, 26, 63, 214 agriculture: American Civil War and, 7 Argentina and, 223 Belarus and, 208 data and, 178, 181–82 land and, 152, 178, 185 precision agriculture, 161–66, 181, 191–93 Rwanda and, 238 Soviet Union and, 68 Tanzania and, 235 technology and, 3, 5, 160–62 universal machine translation and, 160 Airbnb, 91–97 AIST, 17 Alexander, Keith, 129 Alibaba, 82, 228 AltaVista, 119 Amazon, 4, 31, 48, 90, 93, 98, 157 Andela, 234–35, 239, 248 Andreessen Horowitz, 105, 116, 119, 123, 149, 164 Andreessen, Marc, 103–5, 113–14, 116, 119, 186–87, 195, 204 antidepressants, 53–55. See also mental illnesses Apple, 36, 79, 87 application programming interfaces (APIs), 168 Apps4Africa, 236 Aramco, 122–23, 138, 224 Argentina, 104, 223 ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility robot), 16–17.

pages: 382 words: 105,819

Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee

4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel,, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

It allowed venture capitalists to identify losers and kill them before they burned through much cash. Winners were so valuable that a fund needed only one to provide a great return. When hardware and networks act as limiters, software must be elegant. Engineers sacrifice frills to maximize performance. The no-frills design of Google’s search bar made a huge difference in the early days, providing a competitive advantage relative to Excite, Altavista, and Yahoo. A decade earlier, Microsoft’s early versions of Windows failed in part because hardware in that era could not handle the processing demands imposed by the design. By 2004, every PC had processing power to spare. Wired networks could handle video. Facebook’s design outperformed MySpace in almost every dimension, providing a relative advantage, but the company did not face the fundamental challenges that had prevailed even a decade earlier.

Accel Partners, 54, 58 Acxiom, 226 addiction, 100–101, 106–7, 162, 206, 240, 246, 250, 253, 254, 257, 268, 269, 281 advertising, 17, 47, 68–69, 85–86, 105, 120, 125, 257, 283–84 Facebook and, 11–12, 47, 59–61, 63, 68–77, 85, 103, 119, 128–29, 130, 132, 143, 148, 173, 184, 185, 202, 207–9, 211, 217–19, 237–38, 258, 265, 270, 281 Google and, 47, 67–69, 86, 104, 173, 283–86 political, microtargeting in, 237–38 YouTube and, 103, 283–84 Albright, Jonathan, 125 Alcorn, Al, 34 algorithms, 66, 94, 98, 122, 128, 129, 169, 264 extreme views and, 92 of Facebook, 4, 9, 11, 66, 74, 76, 81, 87, 91, 128–29, 143, 166, 232, 235, 243, 270, 274, 277, 281 of Google, 66, 235 of YouTube, 92–93, 139, 274 Allen, Paul, 25 Altair, 34 Altavista, 42 Alter, Adam, 272 Amanpour, Christiane, 147 Amazon, 16, 27, 36, 38, 68, 137, 224, 262, 283 Alexa, 137, 262, 268, 271, 281 Echo, 236 market power of, 46 monopoly power and antitrust issues, 47–48, 136–40, 225–26, 246, 247, 261, 262, 284 Web Services, 40, 41, 137, 138 words associated with, 231 American Academy of Pediatrics, 273 Anderson, Chris, 109 Anderson, Fred, 14 Andreessen, Marc, 27, 36, 37, 43, 58 Android, 138, 204, 271, 282 angel investors, 48 anonymity, 37, 55, 92, 101, 123 antitrust and monopoly issues, 46–48, 136–41, 162, 220, 223, 224, 227, 234, 238, 246, 247, 250, 261–63, 277, 279, 281–83, 285–87 Amazon and, 47–48, 136–40, 225–26, 246, 247, 261, 262, 284 AT&T and, 224–25 Facebook and, 47–48, 100, 136–41, 162, 225–26, 234, 246, 247, 261, 263, 284 Google and, 47–48, 136–40, 162, 225–26, 234, 246, 247, 261–63, 282, 284 Microsoft and, 46–47, 154–55, 286 Apache, 40 Apple, 14, 25, 29–30, 34, 35, 38, 49, 50, 83, 118, 249 iPhone, 38, 84, 100, 105–6, 271 Jones and Infowars and, 228–29 market power of, 46 Onavo and, 140 privacy and, 38, 158, 271 Silver Lake and, 29–30 words associated with, 231 approval, need for, 98 Apture, 107 Arab Spring, 64, 243 ARPANET, 34–35 artificial intelligence (AI), 69, 84–85, 88, 98, 128, 151, 158, 219–20, 223, 236, 252, 260, 261, 263, 264, 267–69, 272 of Facebook, 10, 11, 69, 85, 87, 91, 95, 108, 203, 219–20, 230, 261 of Google, 108, 219–20, 253, 261 Associated Press, 124 AT&T, 224–25 Atari, 34 Atlantic, 195, 231 Attention Merchants, The (Wu), 120 attorneys general, 120, 172, 227 authoritarianism, 278, 279 automobiles, 158, 223 banks, 231–32 Bannon, Steve, 181, 182, 197, 199 Bast, Andy, 109 Belgium, 247 Bell Labs, 225 Berners-Lee, Tim, 36, 161 Bezos, Jeff, 27 Black Lives Matter, 8, 243, 250, 275 Blacktivist, 131 Bloomberg, 50 Blumenthal, Richard, 128 Bodnick, Marc, 14, 18, 59 Bogost, Ian, 195–96 Bolton, Tamiko, 161–62 Bono, 13, 18, 28–29, 30, 59–61, 159 Booker, Cory, 128 Bosworth, Andrew “Boz,” 160, 165 memo of, 204–6 bots, 90, 116, 124, 126, 174, 177, 227 bottomless bowl, 97 Box, 41 brain, 88 brain hacking, 81–82, 118, 141, 148 Brand, Stewart, 177 Brazil, 280 Brexit, 8–9, 96, 180, 196, 198, 244 Breyer, Jim, 58 Bricklin, Dan, 34 Brin, Sergey, 27 bro and hipster cultures, 49–50 Brotopia (Chang), 50 bullying, 87, 101–2, 205, 253, 269, 273, 280, 281 Bushnell, Nolan, 34 Business Insider, 141 BuzzFeed, 204 California, 227–28 environmental regulations in, 201 secession movement, 114, 115 Cambodia, 215, 246 Cambridge Analytica, 78, 180–98, 199, 202–4, 207, 208, 210, 213, 216–18, 251, 259 Cambridge University, 181 Candy Crush, 191, 269 capitalism, 200, 201, 220, 238, 262 Castor, Kathy, 210–11 cell phones, 36, 225 see also smartphones censorship, 252 Center for Humane Technology (CHT), 157, 166–67, 173, 188, 272 Chancellor, Joseph, 181, 186 Chang, Emily, 50 Chaos Monkeys (García Martínez), 71, 72, 73 Chaslot, Guillaume, 92 Chicago School antitrust philosophy, 137–39, 285, 286 children, 214, 240, 253–54 technology and, 106, 156, 166, 237, 255, 268, 269, 272–73, 279–80 China, 162, 205, 215–16 Cisco, 46 CityVille, 191 Clayton Act, 136 Clinton, Bill, 60 Clinton, Chelsea, 167 Clinton, Hillary, 5, 11, 117, 121, 124, 125, 130, 166 Facebook Groups and, 7–8 Clinton Foundation, 130 cloud, 38, 40, 41, 104, 249, 250 Amazon Web Services, 40, 41, 137, 138 CNBC, 118, 161 CNN, 130–31, 147, 161, 193, 229, 231 Coca-Cola, 141 Cohen, Michael, 209–10 Cold War, 32 Columbia University, 54 Common Sense Media, 119, 156–57, 167, 227, 272 Compaq Computer, 27, 35, 152 competition: lack of alteratives to Facebook and Google, 92, 100, 141, 223, 280 see also antitrust and monopoly issues computers, computing, 22, 25, 31–36, 108, 225 in classrooms, 273 cloud, see cloud minicomputers, 33, 46 PCs, 17, 22, 25, 29, 33–36, 40, 42, 45, 46, 273 Congress, 121–33, 135–36, 152, 154, 163, 200, 208, 222, 226, 238 House Energy and Commerce Committee, 209–10, 227 House Intelligence Committee, 123, 127–28, 132, 133, 167, 227 Senate Commerce Committee, 209 Senate Intelligence Committee, 12, 111–12, 127, 132 Senate Judiciary Committee, 128, 131, 132, 136, 209 Zuckerberg’s testimony before, 209–12, 216, 217 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), 174 conspiracy theories, 92–95, 115, 119, 121, 214, 228, 229, 234, 242, 243, 274 Pizzagate, 124–26, 130 Constitution, 12, 259 Fourth Amendment to, 201 content vendors, 283 Conway, Ron, 48 Cooper, Anderson, 81 copyrights, 281 Cosgrave, Paddy, 108–9 Cow Clicker, 195–96 Cox, Chris, 144 Cox, Joseph, 229–30 Cruz, Ted, 185 Currier, James, 47 Cyprus, 125 Czech Republic, 125 Dalai Lama, 31 dark patterns, 96 data and data privacy, 155, 158, 159, 203, 217, 220, 234–36, 238, 253, 258–59, 263–65, 269, 271–72, 277–84 Apple and, 38, 158, 271 Big Data, 158 browsing history, 218–19 Cambridge Analytica and, 78, 180–98, 199, 202–4, 207, 208, 210, 213, 216–18, 251, 259 combined sets of, 68, 285–86 and data as currency, 285 data ownership, 222, 237, 247, 259, 264 data portability, 247 Facebook’s banning of data brokers, 208 Facebook’s continuing threat to, 246 Facebook user data, 4–5, 9, 62, 72, 75–76, 78, 87, 131–32, 141–42, 174, 180–98, 202–4, 210–11, 216–19, 223, 258–59 Facebook user privacy settings, 97 fiduciary rule and, 226–27, 247, 260–61 Global Data Protection Regulation, 221, 222, 224, 259–60 and Internet of Things, 262, 268, 271 and internet as barter transaction, 285 internet privacy bill of rights, 221–24, 226–27 metadata, 68–69, 211, 217–20, 264 passwords and log-ins, 249–50, 271 “price” of data, 285–86 regulations and, 201 and value of data vs. services, 286 Zuckerberg’s attitudes regarding, 4–5, 55–56, 60, 141–42 Data for Democracy, 90, 122, 127 Dead & Company, 74 Defense, U.S.

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Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joan Didion, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

The impetus, again, seems to be a mix of frustration with Bloglines’s glitches and the availability of a decent and convenient alternative operated by the giant Google. During the 1990s, when the World Wide Web was new, it exerted a strong centrifugal force. It pulled us out of the orbit of big media outlets and sent us skittering to the outskirts of the info-universe. Early web directories like Yahoo and early search engines like AltaVista, whatever their shortcomings (perhaps because of their shortcomings), led us to personal web pages and other small, obscure, and often oddball sources of information. The earliest web loggers, too, took pride in ferreting out and publicizing far-flung sites. And, of course, the big media outlets were slow to move to the web, so their gravitational fields remained weak or nonexistent online. For a time, to bring my metaphor down to earth, the web had no mainstream; there were just brooks and creeks and rills, and the occasional beaver pond.

Abbas ibn Firnas, 329, 341 Abedin, Huma, 315 Abercrombie & Fitch, 244–45 accessibility, 99–100, 199–200, 268 instantaneous, 57, 232, 241, 264, 267 of music, 293 Adams, John, 325 Adderall, 304 Addiction by Design (Schüll), 218–19 Adorno, Theodor, 153–54 advertising, 15, 31, 168, 255, 258, 264 edginess in, 10–11 as pervasive, 64 search-linked, 279–80 in social media, 53–54 in virtual world, 27 see also marketing Advisory Council on the Right to Be Forgotten, 194 AdWords, 279 aesthetic emotions, 249–50 Against Intellectual Monopoly (Levine), 276 Agar, Nicholas, 339 Agarwal, Anant, 133 air disasters, 322–23 Air France Flight 447, 322 Akamai Technologies, 205 “Alastor” (Shelley), 88 Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, 272 algorithms, 113, 136, 145, 167, 174, 190–94, 237, 238, 242, 257, 258 allusion, cultural nuances of, 86–89 alphabet, ideograms vs., 234 Altamont concert, 42 AltaVista, 67 amateurs, 33 creativity of, 49 internet hegemony of, 4–8 media production by, 81 Amazon, 31, 37–38, 92, 142, 256, 277, 288 ambient overload, 90–92 America Online, 279–80 “Amorality of Web 2.0, The” (Carr), xxi–xii Amtrak derailment, 323 analog resources, 148–50 Anders, Günther, 321 Anderson, Chris, 68 Andreessen, Marc, xvii Andrews, James, 134 Android phones, 156, 283 anticonsumerism, 83–85 anxiety, 186, 304 Apple, 125 Apple Corps, 71 Apple II, 76–77 archiving, cultural memory and, 325–28 Arendt, Hannah, 310–11 Aristotle, 174, 307–9 art: allusion in, 89 bundling of musical tracks as, 42–43 by-number, 71–72 digitalization of, 223 emotional response to, 249–50 “free” vs.

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

This is before the Web happened.” When the Web emerged, companies, led by Yahoo, started to organize it for consumers. Yahoo began as a directory of directories. Anytime someone put up a new website, Yahoo would add it to its directory, and then it started breaking websites down into groups—finance, news, sports, business, entertainment, et cetera. “And then search came along,” said Cutting, “and Web search engines, like AltaVista, started cropping up. It had cataloged twenty million Web pages. That was a lot—and for a while it leapfrogged everyone. That was happening around 1995 to ’96. Google showed up shortly thereafter [in 1997] with a small search engine, but claiming much better methods. And gradually it proved itself.” As Google took off, Cutting explained, he wrote an open-source search program in his spare time to compete with Google’s proprietary system.

It was the first phone designed not just to relay text messages, but to combine digital wireless mobile broadband connectivity to the Internet with a touchscreen and an open operating system that eventually ran downloadable apps. Qualcomm later created the first mobile telephone–based app store, called Brew, which was marketed by Verizon in 2001. Paul Jacobs recalls the exact moment when he knew a revolution was about to happen. It was Christmas 1998 and he was sitting on the beach in Maui. “I took out a prototype of the pdQ 1900 they had sent me and I typed in ‘Maui sushi’ into the AltaVista search engine. I was wirelessly connected using Sprint. Up came a sushi restaurant in Maui. I don’t remember the name of the restaurant, but it was good sushi! I knew viscerally right then that what I had theorized—having a phone with the connectivity of a Palm organizer connected to the Internet—would change everything. The day of the disconnected PDA was over. I searched for something I cared about that had nothing to do with technology.

Louis Park Agadez, Niger age of accelerations; dislocation and; education and; human adaptability as challenged by; as inflection point; innovation as response to; leadership and; the Machine and; Moore’s law and; social technologies and agriculture: in Africa and Middle East; climate change and; monocultures vs. polycultures in Airbnb; trust and air-conditioning Aita, Samir algorithms; human oversight and; self-improving Alivio Capital Allen, Paul Allisam, Graham Almaniq, Mati Al Qaeda Al-Shabab AltaVista Amazon (company) Amazon rain forest Amazon Web Services American Civil Liberties Union American Dream American Interest American University of Iraq “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Then and Now” (Kauffman Foundation) Amman, Jordan amplifying, as geopolitical policy Andersen, Jeanne Anderson, Chris Anderson, Ross Anderson, Wendell Andreessen, Marc Andrews, Garrett Android AngularJS Annan, Kofi Anthropocene epoch Anthropocene Review anti-Semitism APIs (application programming interfaces) Apple; see also Jobs, Steve Applebaum, Anne Apple Newton Apple Pay apps revolution Arab Awakening Arabic, author’s study of Arab-Muslim world, golden age of Arafat, Yasser architects, software for Armstrong, Neil artificial intelligence (AI); intelligent algorithms and; intelligent assistance and Ashe, Neil Ashraf, Quamrul Assad, Bashar al- Associated Press Astren, Fred AT&T; intelligent assistance and; iPhone gamble of; lifelong learning and; as software company Atkinson, Karen atmosphere: aerosol loading in; CO2 in; ozone layer of ATMs Auguste, Byron Austria Austro-Hungarian Empire Autodesk automation, see computers, computing autonomous systems; see also cars, self-driving Autor, David Azmar Mountain Bajpai, Aloke Baker, James A., III balance of power Bandar Mahshahr, Iran bandwidth Bangladesh bankruptcy laws bank tellers Barbut, Monique baseball, class-mixing and BASIC Bass, Carl Batman, Turkey Bee, Samantha Beinhocker, Eric Beirut: civil war in; 1982 Israeli-Palestinian war in Bell, Alexander Graham Bell Labs Bennis, Warren Benyus, Janine Berenberg, Morrie Berenberg, Tess Berkus, Nate Berlin, Isaiah Berlin Wall, fall of Bessen, James Betsiboka River “Better Outcomes Through Radical Inclusion” (Wells) Between Debt and the Devil (Turner) Beykpour, Kayvon Bible Bigbelly garbage cans big data; consumers and; financial services and; software innovation and; supernova and Big Shift Big World, Small Planet (Rockström) “Big Yellow Taxi” (song) Bingham, Marjorie bin Laden, Osama bin Yehia, Abdullah biodiversity: environmental niches and; resilience and biodiversity loss; climate change and biofuels biogeochemical flows biomass fuels biotechnology bioweapons birth control, opposition to Bitcoin black elephants Blase, Bill blockchain technology Blumenfeld, Isadore “Kid Cann” Bobby Z (Bobby Rivkin) Bodin, Wes Bohr, Mark Bojia, Ayele Z.

pages: 128 words: 38,847

The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age by Tim Wu

AltaVista, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, Donald Trump, income inequality, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, open economy, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, The Chicago School

Everything was fast and chaotic; no position was lasting. One day, AOL was dominant and all-powerful; the next, it was the subject of business books laughing at its many failures. Netscape rose and fell like a rocket that failed to achieve orbit (though Microsoft had something to do with that). MySpace, the social media pioneer, was everywhere and then nowhere. Search engines and social media sites seemed to come and go: Altavista, Bigfoot, and Friendster were household names one moment and gone the next. The chaos made it easy to think that bigness—the economics of scale—no longer really mattered in the new economy. If anything, it seemed that being big, like being old, was just a disadvantage. Being big meant being hierarchical, industrial, dinosaurlike in an age of fleet-footed mammals. Better maybe to stay small and stay young, to move fast and break things.

pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, twin studies, uber lyft, women in the workforce

Grateful as I am to Sergey Brin for the search engine, and to Steve Jobs for my Macbook, and to Brahmagupta (via Al Khwarizmi and Fibonacci) for zero, do I really think that if they had not been born, the search engine, the user-friendly laptop and zero would not by now exist? Just as the light bulb was ‘ripe’ for discovery in 1870, so the search engine was ‘ripe’ for discovery in 1990. By the time Google came along in 1996, there were already lots of search engines: Archie, Veronica, Excite, Infoseek, Altavista, Galaxy, Webcrawler, Yahoo, Lycos, Looksmart . . . to name just the most prominent. Perhaps none was at the time as good as Google, but they would have got better. The truth is, almost all discoveries and inventions occur to different people simultaneously, and result in furious disputes between rivals who accuse each other of intellectual theft. In the early days of electricity, Park Benjamin, author of The Age of Electricity, observed that ‘not an electrical invention of any importance has been made but that the honour of its origin has been claimed by more than one person’.

Abd al-Malik 262–3 Acemoglu, Daron 97–8 Act of Union (UK, 1707) 281, 283 Acton, John Dalberg-Acton, Lord 219, 241–2 Adams, Douglas 20 Adams, John 120–1 Adler, Alfred 269 Afghanistan 32, 258 Africa 82–5, 87, 134, 158, 183, 194, 197, 206, 229, 231, 233 Africa Governance Initiative 232 Agar, Herbert 252 AIG 287, 294 Akbar 87 Aktion T4 programme (1939) 203 Al Khwarizmi 119 Al Qaeda 3 Alaska 80, 81, 82 Alexander the Great 262 Allison, John, The Financial Crisis and the Free Market Cure 293 Altavista 120 Amazon (company) 188 American Eugenics Society 204 American Federation of Teachers 180 American Museum of Natural History 200, 201 American Revolution 220–2, 243, 250, 282n American University 139 Ammon, Otto 198 Anderson, Terry 235–6 Anti-Corn Law League 245 Antonopoulos, Andreas 313–14 Apollonius of Tyana 257–8 Apple Computer 223, 319 Aquinas, Thomas 39, 51 Arabia 86, 260 Archie (search engine) 120 Arendt, Hannah 253 Argentina 190 Aristotle 8, 11 Arnhart, Larry 27 Arpanet 300–1 Arrow, Kenneth 137, 138 Arthur, Brian, The Nature of Technology: What it is and How it Evolves 126 Asia 82, 86, 229, 303 Assange, Julian 303 Association of Community Organizers for Reform Now (ACORN) 290–2 Athens 101 Attila the Hun 87 Augustus, Emperor 239, 257 Auschwitz-Birkenau 193, 198, 214 Australia 34, 82, 123, 244 Austria 32, 247 Ayr Bank 282 Aztecs 259 Back, Adam 307 Bacon, Francis 15, 134 Bagehot, Walter 297; Lombard Street 285 Baldwin effect 57 Balko, Radley 241 Balliol College, Oxford 22 Bank of England 278, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 295 Bank of Scotland 281 Banque Royale 285–6 Baran, Paul 300, 301 Barlow, John 302 Basalla, George, The Evolution of Technology 128 Bastiat, Frédéric 102; Economic Harmonies 102 Bath 91 Baumard, Nicolas 259, 260 Bayle, Pierre, Thoughts on the Comet of 1680 16 Beagle (ship) 38 Behe, Professor Michael 50–1; Darwin’s Black Box 51 Behringer, Wolfgang 276 Beijing 193 Beinhocker, Eric 107 Belgium 32 Bell, Alexander Graham 119, 200 Bell, Andrew 186; An Experiment in Education, made at the Male Asylum at Madras; suggesting a System by which a School or Family may teach itself, under the Superintendence of the Master or Parent 186 Bellamy, Edward 249; Looking Back 249–50 Belloc, Hilaire 95 Benjamin, Park, The Age of Electricity 120 Benn, Sir Ernest 253 Bentham, Jeremy 35 Berkeley, Bishop George 12 Berlin, Isaiah 253 Berlin, Steven 299 Bernick, Evan 241 Beverley, Robert Mackenzie 43 Bezos, Jeff 222, 223 Big Pharma 133 Birmingham 91 Bismark, Otto von 247 bitcoin 298, 308–9, 310–12 Blackbird, reconnaissance plane 130 Blair, Tony 232 blockchain 313–14 313 A Blueprint for Survival (Club of Rome) 211–12 Blunt, John 285 Bodanis, David, Passionate Minds 20 Boston Tea Party 282n Botkin, Daniel 108 Botticelli, Sandro, Venus 12 Boudreaux, Don 35, 111, 113 Boulton, Matthew 278, 280 Bower, Doug 265–6 Boyd, Rob 78, 89 Boyer, Pascal 259, 260 Boyle, Robert 12 Boyle’s Law 120 Bracciolini, Gian Francesco Poggio 12 Bracken, Mike 255 Brahmagupta 119 Brasilia 92 Brazil 18, 125 Brenner, Sydney 70 Bridge International Academies group 184 Bright, John 246 Brin, Sergey 119 Bristol 91 British Eugenics Society 204 British Linen Bank 281 British Medical Association 115 Brogan, Colm, Who are ‘the People’?

The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel,, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

And the company that did this first and best of all was Google.6 THE GOOGLEPLEX By the time the NASDAQ crested in March of 2000, Google’s employee base had grown from six to sixty. It performed more than seven million searches a day, a figure that doubled in June, when Yahoo! stepped away from trying to run its own algorithmic search and made Google the featured engine on its portal. AltaVista, a comparably sophisticated engine nurtured within the research operation of the now-enfeebled Digital, remained Google’s most serious competition in the search game, but Brin and Page’s company was catching up fast. By September, the founders announced that Google now indexed 560 million Web pages and would run a version of its portal in ten languages. By the following January, encouraged by John Doerr, a curious Al Gore made a visit to Google during his first trip out to Silicon Valley after the election debacle.

They think about changing the world.”11 THE AD ENGINE Despite the hockey-stick growth and feverish media coverage, Google entered its fourth year in business without having turned a measurable profit. Engineering had been prioritized over all else. The company was burning cash on those ping-pong tables and toilet seats, and new VC money wasn’t forthcoming while the dot-com crash smoldered. The founders needed a way to monetize their search engine without turning its Zen-like simplicity into an ad-choked mess. That was already happening to AltaVista, the only Web crawler whose sophistication had rivaled that of Brin and Page’s creation, and which quickly had descended into banner-ad hell after a series of acquisitions that sent it from the research labs of Digital to the online advertising giant Overture (first known as But all that Overture lacked in design purity it made up for in its new model for monetizing search, which was to integrate advertising into the search itself.

You may need to scroll forward from that location to find the corresponding reference on your e-reader. Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 3, 101, 207, 208, 239, 244 Adweek, 315 AdWords and AdSense, 365 Air Force, 37, 38, 57 Albrecht, Bob, 118, 128, 134, 140 Alger, Horatio, 4, 170 Allaire, Paul, 296 Allen, Paul, 154, 155, 227–29, 351 Allison, Dennis, 140 Alsop, Stewart, 349 Altair, 135–36, 138–40, 142, 144–46, 154, 155, 227 AltaVista, 362, 365 Alto, 130, 131, 234, 243 Amazon, 1, 2, 221, 313–15, 317, 324, 354, 359, 366, 380–83, 389, 391, 392, 394, 396, 408, 410 Amazon Web Services (AWS), 381–83, 390–91 American Bankers’ Association, 160 American Challenge, The (Servan-Schreiber), 88, 89 American Electronics Association (AEA), 168, 171, 197, 350 American Research and Development (ARD), 70, 71 America Online (AOL), 306, 316, 317, 346, 358, 368–71 Ampex, 38, 74, 207, 249, 262 Anderson, Fred, 71, 72 Anderson, Harlan, 54 Andreessen, Marc, 2, 305, 306, 309, 316, 318, 338, 341–43, 348, 370, 390, 392–93, 399 Andrews, Paul, 155 Android, 378 Anokwa, Yaw, 408–10 Apollo program, 51, 67, 86, 396 Apple, 1–3, 42, 146–52, 154, 157, 178–84, 186–90, 191, 192, 194, 199–201, 207, 215, 217–21, 223, 227, 229, 231–37, 240–44, 247, 249, 257, 264–67, 270, 271, 273, 277, 280, 284, 289, 295, 304, 305, 322, 328, 336, 355, 356, 364, 366, 372, 375–79, 388, 391, 392, 394, 395, 401, 405, 410 Apple Bill, 218–19, 224 Armstrong, Neil, 65 Army, U.S., 24 ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency; renamed DARPA), 45, 57–58, 64, 133, 225, 226, 227, 246, 248, 287, 288, 312, 352 ARPANET, 64–66, 67, 130, 257, 258, 287, 304 Arrillaga, John, 80, 264 Asimov, Isaac, 257 Association for Computing Machinery, 125 AT&T, 61–64, 118, 129, 167, 193, 238, 305, 328 Atari, 106–8, 147, 149, 154, 185, 201 Atari Democrats, 193–94, 216, 217, 221, 222, 224, 290, 325 @Home, 306 Atlantic, 20, 58 Augmentation Research Center, 91 Auletta, Ken, 364 Ayres, Judith, 263 Azure, 383 Babbitt, Bruce, 193 Badham, John, 246–47 Ballmer, Steve, 228, 273, 340–42, 350, 366, 377 Bancroft, Pete, 161–63 Banham, Reyner, 198 Bank of America, 74, 88 Baran, Paul, 124 Barksdale, Jim, 305, 344 Barlow, John Perry, 258, 286–87, 291, 301, 327 Barram, Dave, 294–95, 297, 298 Bayh-Dole Act, 180 Bechtolsheim, Andy, 275, 277, 354 Bell Laboratories, 40, 364 Bentsen, Lloyd, 170–71 Berezin, Evelyn, 124 Berlin, Leslie, 105 Berman, Jerry, 301 Berners-Lee, Tim, 287–90, 305 Bezos, Jeff, 311–15, 354, 355, 380–82, 391, 402 Bidzos, Jim, 310, 311 Billboard, 357 Billionaire Boys Club, 285 Black, Shirley Temple, 79 Blackberry, 376 Blacks at Microsoft, 320, 322 Blodget, Henry, 359 Bloom, Allan, 253 Bloomberg, Michael, 402–3 Bloomfield, Mark, 168, 169, 222 Blue Origin, 402 Blumenthal, Michael, 170 Boeing, 29, 89–90, 232, 271, 314, 384 Boggs, David, 129–30 Boxer, Barbara, 331 Brand, Stewart, 118, 128, 130, 142, 247, 258 Bricklin, Dan, 188 Bridges, Harry, 48 Brin, Sergey, 351–55, 362–65, 373, 375, 404 Brown, Dean, 117, 125, 127, 128, 134–35 Brown, Jerry, 142–43, 156, 194, 212–14, 216, 219, 224, 225, 292, 293 Brown, Pat, 81, 142 Brown, Ron, 299 Bucy, Fred, 211 Bunker, George, 63 Bunker Ramo Corporation, 63, 64, 238 Bunnell, David, 139–40 Burning Man, 363, 369 Bush, George H.

pages: 387 words: 119,409

Work Rules!: Insights From Inside Google That Will Transform How You Live and Lead by Laszlo Bock

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, citizen journalism, clean water, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice,, experimental subject, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, helicopter parent, immigration reform, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, nudge unit, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, random walk, Richard Thaler, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tony Hsieh, Turing machine, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

In August 1998, Andy Bechtolsheim, one of the cofounders of Sun Microsystems, famously wrote a $100,000 check to “Google, Inc.” before the company was even incorporated. Less well known is that they moments later received a second $100,000 check from Stanford professor David Cheriton, on whose porch they had met Andy.24 Reluctant to leave Stanford to start a company, Larry and Sergey tried to sell Google but were unable to. They offered it to AltaVista for $1 million. No luck. They turned to Excite and at the urging of Vinod Khosla, a partner at venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, lowered the price to $750,000. Excite passed.iii This was before Google’s first advertising system, AdWords, was launched in 2000, before Google Groups (2001), Images (2001), Books (2003), Gmail (2004), Apps (spreadsheets and documents for businesses, 2006), Street View (2007), and dozens of other products we use every day.

Convincing people to give up their salaries and join this crazy little start-up was no easy task. Like many others, I took a pay cut to join Google, and still remember the words from my division CEO at GE on my last day: “Laszlo, this Google thing sounds like a cute little company. I wish you luck, but when it doesn’t work out, give me a call and we’ll have a job for you.” Google was also late to the search game, as Yahoo, Excite, Infoseek, Lycos, AltaVista, AOL, and Microsoft were already major players. We had to impress and inspire candidates, and convince them that Google had something special to offer. But even before we could persuade people to join, we had to figure out a new way to hire people, to ensure we had a better hiring result than other companies. Sifting the exceptional from the rest required radically rethinking hiring, and I’ll detail exactly how we did it in the next two chapters.

pages: 199 words: 43,653

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal

Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance,, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, IKEA effect, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator

The company noticed that 25 percent of tweets contained a link and therefore sought to make tweeting a Web site link as easy as possible.7 To ease the way for link sharing, Twitter created an embeddable Tweet button for third-party sites, allowing them to offer visitors a one-click way to tweet directly from their pages (figure 9). The external trigger opens a preset message, reducing the cognitive effort of composing the tweet and saving several steps to sharing. FIGURE 9 Searching with Google Google, the world’s most popular search engine, was not the first to market. When it launched in the late 1990s, it competed against incumbents such as Yahoo!, Lycos, AltaVista, and Excite. How did Google come to dominate the multibillion-dollar industry? For starters, Google’s PageRank algorithm proved to be a much more effective way to index the web. By ranking pages based on how frequently other sites linked to them, Google improved search relevancy. Compared with directory-based search tools such as Yahoo!, Google was a massive time-saver. Google also beat out other search engines that had become polluted with irrelevant content and cluttered with advertising (figure 10).

pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

, 250. 53 Ibid., 148. 54 Ibid., 168. CHAPTER 8 1 See Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999). 2 For examples of on-line mapping services, see at http://www.; Maps On Us at; and MapBlast! at http://www. 3 For examples of on-line translation Web sites, see AltaVista World/Translate at; at; and From Language to Language at 4 A short list of many examples of on-line dictionaries includes Merriam-Webster OnLine at; Cambridge Dictionaries Online at http://dictionary.; and at There are also sites that perform aggregate searches through multiple multilingual dictionaries, such as at 5 As we'll see in chapter 11, this is not a slight constraint.

pages: 200 words: 47,378

The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos

AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, financial exclusion, global reserve currency, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, Marc Andreessen, Oculus Rift, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, QR code, ransomware, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, the medium is the message, trade route, underbanked, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

"In network-centric systems, attacks cause the system to adapt, evolve, and become more resistant." 3.11.1. Attacks Build Resistance I’ve been involved with the internet since 1989. I remember very clearly, in the early days when lots of articles were written about how the internet was not resilient, could not scale to do voice, was not secure. I remember times when denial-of-service attacks would take down Yahoo, AltaVista, and even Google for hours, sometimes days. What happened between then and now? How many times have you seen Google go down in the last five years? Have people stopped attacking Google? Quite the opposite. Google can now sustain gigabits of denial-of-service anywhere in the world and dynamically reroute. The same applies for all internet applications. The attacks didn’t stop. The system became immune because, like a human immune system, if you are exposed to a virus and it doesn’t kill you, you evolve resistance, and the next time you’re exposed to the virus, it does nothing to you.

pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter,, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, lifelogging, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

Here is how the state of search looked two years later, in 1996. The volume of Internet traffic had grown by a factor of ten each year, from 20 terabytes a month worldwide in 1994 to 200 terabytes a month in 1995, to 2 petabytes in 1996. Software engineers at the Digital Equipment Corporation’s research laboratory in Palo Alto, California, had just opened to the public a new kind of search engine, named AltaVista, continually building and revising an index to every page it could find on the Internet—at that point, tens of millions of them. A search for the phrase truth universally acknowledged and the name Darcy produced four thousand matches. Among them: The complete if not reliable text of Pride and Prejudice, in several versions, stored on computers in Japan, Sweden, and elsewhere, downloadable free or, in one case, for a fee of $2.25.

Aaboe, Asger, 2.1, 2.2 abacus, 4.1, 8.1 A B C Universal Commercial Electric Telegraphic Code, The (Clauson-Thue), 5.1, 5.2 abstraction logic and, 2.1, 2.2 in mathematical computation origins of thinking and words representing, 2.1, 3.1 Adams, Brooks Adams, Frederick Adams, Henry Aeschylus African languages; see also talking drums Aharonov, Dorit Airy, George Biddell “Algebra for Theoretical Genetics, An” (Shannon), 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 algebra of logic, prl.1, 8.1; see also symbolic logic algorithmic information theory, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5 algorithm(s) to calculate complexity, 12.1, 12.2 to control accuracy and speed of communication, 7.1, 7.2 data compression to describe biological processes, 10.1, 10.2 to generate uninteresting number, 12.1, 12.2 historical evolution of, 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, 7.1 Lovelace’s operations for Analytical Engine as for measurement of computability for measurement of information, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4 number tables based on, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 for proof of number’s randomness, 12.1, 12.2 to reconstruct phylogeny scientific method as, 12.1, 12.2 Shor’s factoring, 13.1, 13.2 Turing machine, 7.1, 7.2 Alice in Wonderland (Carroll) Allen, William alphabet(s) as code evolution of, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 evolution of telegraph coding systems and, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 information transmission capacity of, 6.1, 7.1 letter frequency in, 1.1, 7.1 Morse code representation of order of letters in, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 organization of information based on, 3.1, 3.2 AltaVista, epl.1, epl.2 altruism, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3 American Telephone & Telegraph, prl.1, 6.1, 7.1 amino acids, 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6 Ampère, André-Marie, 5.1, 5.2 amplitude modulation, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 analog technology, 8.1, 8.2 Analytical Engine, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1 Analytical Society, 4.1, 4.2 Anatomy of Melancholy, The (Burton) Anglo-American Cyclopedia, The (Borges) Anglo-Saxon speech, 3.1, 3.2 anthropocentrism antiaircraft guns and artillery, prl.1, 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 12.1, 12.2 aperiodic crystals, 9.1, 10.1 Arabic numerals Arcadia (Stoppard), 9.1, 9.2, 14.1 Aristotle and Aristotelian philosophy, prl.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 14.1, 14.2 Armani, Giorgio, 14.1, 14.2 Arte of Rhetorique, The (Wilson) artificial intelligence, prl.1, 12.1; see also machines, attribution of thinking to Ashby, W.

Digital Accounting: The Effects of the Internet and Erp on Accounting by Ashutosh Deshmukh

accounting loophole / creative accounting, AltaVista, business continuity plan, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, data acquisition, dumpster diving, fixed income, hypertext link, interest rate swap, inventory management, iterative process, late fees, money market fund, new economy, New Journalism, optical character recognition, packet switching, performance metric, profit maximization, semantic web, shareholder value, six sigma, statistical model, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, telemarketer, transaction costs, value at risk, web application, Y2K

The SAS planning and budgeting solution is a typical solution, and most competing vendors offer similar functionalities. Enterprise Portals The word portal refers to a door, gateway or entrance, especially the one that is imposing. Internet portals are gateways to information stored at different locations. You have probably visited, which is a portal that provides organized information on various topics. There are also various search engines called Search Portals, such as Google and AltaVista, that can search for information based on terms and descriptions. These portals are referred to as public portals, because they are available to all users and only need connection with the Internet for use. The portal concept has been transported to the corporate world. These portals are called enterprise portals, Enterprise Information Portals (EIPs), business portals and corporate portals. These portals are private, meaning their use is restricted to authorized users.

This standard specifies document-locking protocols, metadata standards, deletion and retrieval functions and searching for resource location on the Web, and also supports copy-and-move operations. These are merely illustrative examples; WebDAV can also provide a front end for knowledge management solutions. A searching facility is the capability to access, browse and retrieve information based on the user’s requirements. Search facilities are enabled by search-and-retrieval engines. These are similar to Google or AltaVista. Different types of queries, such as simple queries (one word), term queries (search for a term such as enterprise portals), Boolean queries (words connected by and or or) and linguistic queries (different forms of the word), are supported by these search engines. Advanced searches, such as searches based on author or date, are also possible. An enterprise portal provides access to Copyright © 2006, Idea Group Inc.

pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Our site was always relatively fast, but even for a historically “fast” site like ours, we realized huge gains in performance from this one simple change. I won’t lie to you. Performance isn’t easy. It’s been a long, hard road getting to where we are now – and we’ve thrown a lot of unicorn dollars toward really nice hardware to run everything on, though I wouldn’t call any of our hardware choices particularly extravagant. And I did follow my own advice, for the record. I distinctly remember switching from AltaVista to Google back in 2000 in no small part because it was blazing fast. To me, performance is a feature, and I simply like using fast websites more than slow websites, so naturally I’m going to build a site that I would want to use. But I think there’s also a lesson to be learned here about the competitive landscape of the public internet, where there are two kinds of websites: the quick and the dead.

pages: 229 words: 67,869

So You've Been Publicly Shamed by Jon Ronson

4chan, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, Clive Stafford Smith, cognitive dissonance, Desert Island Discs, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, PageRank, Ralph Nader, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, urban planning, WikiLeaks

And now here she was, working with Farukh to reduce herself to safe banalities - to cats and ice cream and Top 40 chart music. We were creating a world where the smartest way to survive is to be bland. * There was a time when Michael Fertik wouldn’t have needed to be so calculating. Back in the mid 1990s search engines were only interested in how many times a particular keyword appeared within a page. To be the number-one Jon Ronson search term on AltaVista or HotBot you just had to write Jon Ronson over and over again. Which for me would be the most fantastic website to chance upon, but for everyone else, less so. But then two students at Stanford, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, had their idea. Why not build a search engine that ranked websites by popularity instead? If someone is linking to your page, that’s one vote. A link, they figured, is like a citation - a nod of respect.

pages: 232 words: 71,024

The Decline and Fall of IBM: End of an American Icon? by Robert X. Cringely

AltaVista, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, compound rate of return, corporate raider, full employment, if you build it, they will come, immigration reform, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Paul Graham, platform as a service, race to the bottom, remote working, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application

Followup / October 23, 2009 / 1:17 pm COMMENTS FROM 2011 Clever Project I remember reading an article in 1996 about IBM’s clever project involving weighted graphs of hyperlinks. The Clever project seemed like a very interesting piece of research and the Google founders seem to have agreed. Why didn’t IBM turn this into a publicly accessible search engine? Vijay / January 14, 2011 / 2:00 am IBM thought they could sell search engine The project actually started a number of years earlier, very close to the time Google was breaking into the market and AltaVista was the preferred search engine. It was IBM’s belief they could search and index the whole Internet, then SELL it as a premium service to companies and universities. It never occurred to IBM management that one could offer such a service for FREE and pay for it with advertising. IBM’s mindset was in the past, firms would be willing to pay a premium for an IBM branded service. Google’s mindset was in the future, Internet based services should be free.

pages: 260 words: 67,823

Always Day One: How the Tech Titans Plan to Stay on Top Forever by Alex Kantrowitz

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, Firefox, Google Chrome, hive mind, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Jony Ive, knowledge economy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, new economy, Peter Thiel, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft, wealth creators, zero-sum game

For Google, more openness and debate will only help it make more thoughtful decisions in the future. It will also preserve the hive mind, which, no matter how difficult to manage at times, is the reason Google can come together and tackle projects as complex as the Assistant. Without its communications tools and associated openness, Google’s name might not be a verb, but among the likes of Lycos, AltaVista, Ask Jeeves, and Excite—companies that made noise in search but ultimately couldn’t adapt. CHAPTER 4 TIM COOK AND THE APPLE QUESTION Marques Brownlee is the type of person Apple has taken an interest in of late. Brownlee is a YouTube star, with more than ten million subscribers who regularly consume his crisply shot reviews of the latest technology products. A modern-day tastemaker, Brownlee is among a new class of influencers shaping perceptions of technology companies today.

pages: 611 words: 188,732

Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel,, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator

Scott Hassan: We got the search engine to a certain point and then Larry built this little interface. You go to this web page, and then on top of the web page there was a single box, very similar to Google’s search box today, right? It’s just a single box, and beside the box was another drop-down box, and “Which search engine do you want to use?” Brad Templeton: There was a bunch: Excite, Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, and Inktomi—that one was done at UC Berkeley. Scott Hassan: So, you could select one of those other search engines, and then you’d type in your little query and you’d hit Search, and what it would do, it would split the screen in half. On the left-hand side it would just pose that query to the search engine you chose, and then on the right-hand side it would then pose it to our search engine, so that you could compare the results side by side.

And about two hours after we did that we got our first AdWords customer: Lively Lobsters in Kingston, Rhode Island. Ryan Bartholomew was the owner and sole employee. Ryan Bartholomew: I didn’t even know what I was doing, I just thought it was cool to buy lobsters for five bucks off the boat and try to ship them to buyers. And I was just working around the clock trying to figure out ways to get my listing out there. This was back in the days of Yahoo and AltaVista and I don’t even remember the others. But Google was around and very new, and I was up at two in the morning playing around on Google looking for something or other. David Cheriton: The web had grown from this very early stage where there was a small amount of content and you could sort of find things with the help of Yahoo, to the case where the content had grown so rapidly, and had attracted all of these compromisers and game players, that it became harder and harder to find things.

Designing Search: UX Strategies for Ecommerce Success by Greg Nudelman, Pabini Gabriel-Petit

access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, augmented reality, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, information retrieval, Internet of things, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, social web, speech recognition, text mining, the map is not the territory, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, zero-sum game, Zipcar

She has also taught Information Organization and Retrieval and a course called Search Engines: Technology, Society, and Business, which includes a set of popular video lectures (also available on YouTube). Keith Instone is the information architecture lead for IBM’s digital presences. He is also active in various user experience community efforts. You can find him online at Erin Malone is currently a Partner at Tangible UX and has over 20 years of experience designing applications, social experiences and best practices for companies like Intuit, Yahoo!, AOL, AltaVista, Ask, and a host of startup companies. She was the founding editor-in-chief of Boxes and Arrows and a founding member of the IA Institute. She co-authored Designing Social Interfaces (O’Reilly Media / Yahoo Press, 2009) with Christian Crumlish. Peter Morville is a writer, speaker, and consultant. He is best known for helping to create the discipline of information architecture. His bestselling books include Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (O’Reilly, 2006) and Ambient Findability (O’Reilly, 2005).

pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation,, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

Clearly we aren’t about to drop such help, especially as the store of human knowledge expands. So what we’re really dealing with is a question of attitude. Has the Internet turned a helpful tactic into a monostrategy? Seife continues: As the Web grew, my browsers began to bloat with bookmarked Web sites. And as search engines matured, I stopped bothering even with bookmarks; I soon relied on AltaVista, HotBot, and then Google to help me find—and recall—ideas. My meta-memories, my pointers to ideas, started being replaced by meta-meta-memories, by pointers to pointers to data. Each day, my brain fills with these quasi-memories, with pointers, and with pointers to pointers to pointers, each one a dusty IOU sitting where a fact or idea should reside. As for me, I’ve grown tired of using a brain that’s full of signposts only, a head full of bookmarks and tags and arrows that direct me to external sources of information but never to the information itself.

pages: 255 words: 78,207

Web Scraping With Python: Collecting Data From the Modern Web by Ryan Mitchell

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, cloud computing,, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, optical character recognition, random walk, self-driving car, Turing test, web application

If you go to just about any large web‐ 222 | Appendix C: The Legalities and Ethics of Web Scraping site and look for its robots.txt file, you will find it in the root web folder: http:// The syntax for robots.txt files was developed in 1994 during the initial boom of web search engine technology. It was about this time that search engines scouring the entire Internet, such as AltaVista and DogPile, started competing in earnest with sim‐ ple lists of sites organized by subject, such as the one curated by Yahoo! This growth of search across the Internet meant an explosion in not only the number of web crawlers, but in the availability of information collected by those web crawlers to the average citizen. While we might take this sort of availability for granted today, some webmasters were shocked when information they published deep in the file structure of their website became available on the front page of search results in major search engines.

pages: 273 words: 72,024

Bitcoin for the Befuddled by Conrad Barski

Airbnb, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buttonwood tree, cryptocurrency, Debian,, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Isaac Newton, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, node package manager, p-value, peer-to-peer, price discovery process, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, software as a service, the payments system, Yogi Berra

Draconian laws passed against Bitcoin in one country may merely shift its use and development (and associated jobs!) to other countries. Can Bitcoin Be Supplanted by Another Cryptocurrency? All of us had a front-row seat when Google appeared out of nowhere with its superior search engine technology and left a long list of defunct, and now almost forgotten, search engines in its wake. Does anyone remember the search engine powerhouses of Lycos or Altavista? Is it possible that Bitcoin will similarly fade into obscurity when some new, better cryptocurrency comes along? Developers who contribute to the core Bitcoin protocol tend to be very conservative. Not only does no developer want to take the blame for introducing a bug into a multibillion-dollar system, but even if a more radical feature was added, the Bitcoin community would be unlikely to accept it.

Frommer's Mexico 2008 by David Baird, Juan Cristiano, Lynne Bairstow, Emily Hughey Quinn

airport security, AltaVista, Bartolomé de las Casas, centre right, colonial rule, East Village, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Maui Hawaii, out of africa, Pepto Bismol, place-making, Skype, sustainable-tourism, the market place, urban planning

Now a museum, the Rivera studio holds some Museo Estudio Diego Rivera 134 CHAPTER 4 . MEXICO CITY of the artist’s personal effects and mementos, as well as changing exhibits relating to his life and work. (Don’t confuse Rivera’s studio with his museum, the Anahuacalli; see above.) The museum is not accessible by Metro. Calle Diego Rivera and Av. Altavista (across from San Angel Inn), Col. San Angel. & 55/5616-0996. Admission $1 (55p); free Sun. Tues–Sun 10am–6pm. By taxi, go up Insurgentes Sur to Altavista and make a left. During Lenin’s last days, Stalin and Trotsky fought a silent battle for leadership of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union. Trotsky stuck to ideology, while Stalin took control of the party mechanism. Stalin won, and Trotsky was exiled to continue his ideological struggle elsewhere. Invited by Diego Rivera, an ardent admirer of his work, he settled here on the outskirts of Mexico City to continue his writings on political topics and Communist ideology.

Iztacala–Coyoacán buses run from the center to this suburb. If you’re coming from San Angel, the quickest and easiest way is to take a cab for the 15-minute ride to the Plaza Hidalgo. Francisco Sosa, a pretty street, is the main artery into Coyoacán from San Angel, which you can also walk. Or you can catch the Alcantarilla–Col. Agrarista bus heading east along the Camino al Desierto de los Leónes or Avenida Altavista, near the San Angel Inn. Get off when the bus reaches the corner of Avenida México and Xicoténcatl in Coyoacán. San Angel Eight kilometers (5 miles) south of the city center, San Angel (sahn ahn-hehl) was once a weekend retreat for Spanish nobles but has long since been absorbed by the city. It’s a stunningly beautiful neighborhood of cobblestone streets and colonial-era homes, with several worthwhile museums.

Drugstore Farmacias del Ahorro (& 777/322-2277) offers hotel delivery service, but you must ask the front desk of your hotel to place the order, because the pharmacy requires the name of a hotel employee. It has 12 locations around the city, but the individual pharmacies have no phone. They are open daily from 7am to 10pm. Elevation Cuernavaca sits at 1,533m (5,028 ft.). Hospital Hospital Inovamed, Calle Cuauhtémoc 305, Col. Lomas de la Selva (& 777/311-2482, -2483, or -2484). Internet Access MarkSoft Internet, Otilio Montano, Col. Altavista (www.marksoft, serves coffee and Internet access for $3 (£1.65) per 15 minutes. You can also try Café Internet Net-Conn, Morelos Norte 360-A, Col. Carolina 168 C H A P T E R 5 . S I LV E R , S PA S & S P I R I T U A L C E N T E R S (& 777/317-9496), which offers high-speed access for $2.50 (£1.40) per hour, as well as color laser printers, Web cams, scanners, and other equipment.

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

This prodigious growth of sites, pages, and hyperlinks was central to Page and Brin’s project and it’s why they named their search engine Google—Sergey Brin’s unintentional misspelling of the word googol, a mathematical term signifying the number1.0 × 10100, which has come to mean an unimaginably large number. What if all the content on the Web, all those 26 million pages with their hundreds of millions of hyperlinks, could be sorted and indexed? Page and Brin wondered. What if Google could organize all the world’s digital information? There already were technologies from well-funded startups like Lycos, AltaVista, Excite, and Yahoo, vying to build a winner-take-all search engine for navigating the Web. But Brin and Page beat them all to it with an astonishingly original method for determining the relevance and reliability of a Web page’s content. Just as Vannevar Bush’s Memex worked through an intricate system of “trails,” Page and Brin saw the logic of the Web in terms of hyperlinks. By crawling the entire Web and indexing all its pages and links, they turned the Web into what Brin, a National Science Foundation fellow at Stanford, identified as “a big equation.”

pages: 301 words: 89,076

The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

The second point is that Metcalf’s law helps explain the tendency of the virtual economy to act as a winner-take-all contest. In the 2000s, Facebook had a few competitors, like MySpace, but everyone wanted to be on Facebook since everyone else was on Facebook; that was where you could find your friends. Likewise, I can remember when Google was the new search engine challenging incumbents like Yahoo. Victory was not all assured but once Google started winning, it gained users that made it win faster. Lycos, Altavista, and the like all went by the wayside. Even a search engine “born big,” like Microsoft’s Bing, has trouble challenging the leader’s primacy due to Metcalf’s law. The power of networks and the eruptive pace of raw computing and transmission power are not the only thing driving the inhumanly fast pace of digitech. There is something very different about innovation in the digital world compared to the industrial world.

pages: 294 words: 81,292

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat

AI winter, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Automated Insights, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, drone strike, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

Clever programming shouldn’t be confused with intelligence, of course, but I’d argue that Google and the like are intelligent tools, not just clever programs. They have mastered a narrow domain—search—with ability no human could touch. Furthermore, Google puts the Internet—the largest compilation of human knowledge ever amassed—at your fingertips. And significantly, all that knowledge is available in an instant, faster than ever before (sorry Yahoo, Bing, Altavista, Excite, Dogpile, Hotbot, and the Love Calculator). Writing has often been described as outsourcing memory. It enables us to store our thoughts and memories for later retrieval and distribution. Google outsources important kinds of intelligence that we don’t possess, and could not develop without it. Combined, Google and you are ASI. In a similar way, our intelligence is broadly enhanced by the mobilization of powerful information technology, for example, our mobile phones, many of which have roughly the computing power of personal computers circa 2000, and a billion times the power per dollar of sixties-era mainframe computers.

pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil,, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Even then, it should be noted that most of this banker’s views that the basis for wealth has evolved from land to labour to information were formed back in the 1970s, when technology first hit the banking system and moved us to an information economy. Today, this vision is realised and businesses exist as information economies and they fight based upon information. Google is not a monopoly as there were and are plenty of search engines around - Ask Jeeves, Lycos, Altavista, Bing, etc - but Google won this game early on by making algorithmic analysis of data more relevant and organised. They continue to do this today by making searches contextual and geographically localised. Facebook is the same. Facebook has had plenty of other players before them - Friendster, Friends Reunited, Bebo, MySpace, etc - and we forget very quickly these other players when one wins out.

pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

In 1993, there were a million Internet hosts; now there are a billion. Space travel is poised to follow the trajectory of the Internet, becoming demilitarized and then massively commercialized (Figure 17). Leaving Earth may soon be cheap and safe enough that it becomes an activity for the masses rather than the experience of a privileged few. Some of the recently formed space companies will be like Netscape and Altavista—the web-browser and search-engine leaders in 1995 and now long forgotten—and some will become behemoths like Google. The next decade promises to be very interesting. Figure 17. The space program also had visionaries who aimed for a permanent human presence in space. Progress was spurred by a military superpower rivalry and fostered by NASA. Private investment has recently begun so the space industry sits now where the Internet was in the early 1990s. 5 Meet the Entrepreneurs _______________________ The Radical Designer Entrepreneurs are like the high-octane fuels needed to take space travel to the next level—volatile and sometimes hard to handle, but capable of unprecedented performance.

The Art of SEO by Eric Enge, Stephan Spencer, Jessie Stricchiola, Rand Fishkin

AltaVista, barriers to entry, bounce rate, Build a better mousetrap, business intelligence, cloud computing, dark matter,, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, optical character recognition, PageRank, performance metric, risk tolerance, search engine result page, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, social web, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Steven Levy, text mining, web application, wikimedia commons

Reading level shown in Google results The optimum reading levels for different businesses will vary based on the nature of the content they publish. For example, if you have built a site targeted at children, a younger reading level is appropriate. Contrast that with content on the latest advances in artificial intelligence algorithms, where a much higher reading level would be expected. Keyword Stuffing/Lack of Synonyms Keyword stuffing used to be the basic approach of spammers, back in the days when AltaVista was the leading search engine. There are still many people who believe that repeating the same keyword over and over on a web page will lead to higher rankings for that phrase. They create documents that include way too many instances of the same word, and often don’t make much use of synonyms for the keyphrase. This is an indicator of a focus on search engines and not users, and may correlate with lower-quality documents.

Index update latency improved by about 10,000 times over this period. Whereas updates took Google months in 1999, in 2009 Google was detecting and indexing changes on web pages in just a few minutes. These are staggering changes in Google’s performance power, but this is just part of the changing search environment. Some of the early commercial search engines, such as Web Crawler, InfoSeek, and AltaVista, launched in the mid-1990s. At that time, web search engines’ relevancy and ranking algorithms were largely based on keyword analysis. This was a simple model to execute and initially provided pretty decent results. However, there was (and is) too much money in search for such a simple model to stand. Spammers began abusing the weakness of the keyword algorithms by stuffing their pages with keywords, and using tactics to make them invisible to protect the user experience.

pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Instead of trying to memorize a passage in the book or remember an important statistic, I took an easier path, storing the location of the desirable memory instead of the memory itself. Every dog-ear is a meta-memory, a pointer to an idea I wanted to retain but was too lazy to memorize. The Internet turned an occasional habit into my primary way of storing knowledge. As the Web grew, my browsers began to bloat with bookmarked Websites. And as search engines matured, I stopped bothering even with bookmarks; I soon relied on AltaVista, HotBot, and then Google to help me find—and recall—ideas. My meta- memories, my pointers to ideas, started being replaced by meta-meta-memories, by pointers to pointers to data. Each day, my brain fills with these quasi-memories, with pointers, and with pointers to pointers, each one a dusty IOU sitting where a fact or idea should reside. Now when I expend the effort to squirrel memories away, I store them in the clutter of my hard drive as much as in the labyrinth of my brain.

pages: 392 words: 108,745

Talk to Me: How Voice Computing Will Transform the Way We Live, Work, and Think by James Vlahos

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer age, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jeff Bezos, lateral thinking, Loebner Prize, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

An ingenious programmer, he spent a few minutes cranking out some code that would enable a computerized agent, or bot, to automatically write Hoffer back instead. It worked, and Hoffer got his stock quote. This tiny exchange suggested something much bigger to Hoffer and Kay. At the time, the world was obsessed by the web. Netscape fought Internet Explorer in the browser wars. The search engines AltaVista, Yahoo, and a newcomer called Google battled for the public’s allegiance. Going on quests to find information online was such a cultural phenomenon that it had acquired a sporty nickname—“surfing the web.” Hoffer and Kay, though, weren’t sold on surfing. The stock quote bot had given them a very different idea, one they believed would make interacting with computers more natural, powerful, and fun.

pages: 326 words: 106,053

The Wisdom of Crowds by James Surowiecki

AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Cass Sunstein, coronavirus, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, experimental economics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Howard Rheingold, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, interchangeable parts, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, market design, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, offshore financial centre, Picturephone, prediction markets, profit maximization, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

But if possible, it’s worth letting yourself be a little amazed at what happened during those routine searches. Each time, Google surveyed billions of Web pages and picked exactly the pages that I would find most useful. The cumulative time for all the searches: about a minute and a half. Google started in 1998, at a time when Yahoo! seemed to have a stranglehold on the search business—and if Yahoo! stumbled, then AltaVista or Lycos looked certain to be the last man standing. But within a couple of years, Google had become the default search engine for anyone who used the Internet regularly, simply because it was able to do a better job of finding the right page quickly. And the way it does that—and does it while surveying three billion Web pages—is built on the wisdom of crowds. Google keeps the details of its technology to itself, but the core of the Google system is the PageRank algorithm, which was first defined by the company’s founders, Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, in a now-legendary 1998 paper called “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.”

pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel,, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Fortunately, thanks to Berners-Lee, each straw on the Web bore a unique address, or URL, and most of them contained hyperlinks that connected one bit of straw to another. Still, the World Wide Web consisted of billions of items, with more pouring in every second. How could they possibly manage to organize it in such a way that would allow people to find that one specific straw they needed? Let’s say you wanted information on Tim Berners-Lee. The reigning approach of AltaVista, then the leading search engine, assumed that the document you’d most want would be the one with the most mentions of Tim Berners-Lee. Page and Brin thought that was silly. Just because the words appeared many times didn’t mean it would necessarily offer the best, most useful information on the subject. But what would? Here, Larry Page relied on an insight from his parents’ background in academia, where the most desirable papers on a topic were never the ones that just repeated a term or name endlessly, but the one that other papers cited most frequently.

pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

Once upon a time, the list of all websites was twenty pages long. I still have a book that has the entire World Wide Web printed as an appendix. Then the list got too long to print and sites like Yahoo! organized them into categories. Then the category list got too large to keep updated, and Lycos invented the full-text search. This was too slow, so Digital Equipment Corporation built a natty search engine called Altavista to show how to do it properly. The results for any search got too long, so Google invented the ranked search, which pretty much fixed the search issue. Google also threw all the clutter off the main page. Less is more. The dot-com boom bubbled in 1999, driven by the dream of cheap access to millions -- no, billions -- of consumers. Investors threw huge amounts of money at firms whose business plan typically went: "1.

pages: 386 words: 116,233

The Millionaire Fastlane: Crack the Code to Wealth and Live Rich for a Lifetime by Mj Demarco

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, bounce rate, business process, butterfly effect, buy and hold, cloud computing, commoditize, dark matter, delayed gratification, demand response, Donald Trump, fear of failure, financial independence, fixed income, housing crisis, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, Lao Tzu, Mark Zuckerberg, passive income, passive investing, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, wealth creators, white picket fence, World Values Survey, zero day

Nope, successful entrepreneurs take existing concepts and make them better. They take poorly met needs and solve them better. Skip the big idea and go for the big execution. You don't need an idea that has never been done before. Old ideas suffice; just take it and do it better! Execute like no one has! Years ago, what if Sergey Brin and Larry Page looked at the Internet landscape and said “Gee, there are plenty of search engines out there-Yahoo, Snap, AltaVista-why start Google? It's being done!” Thankfully, they didn't, and now Google is the most used search engine, and because of it, Brin and Page are now billionaires. A brand-spanking new idea? Nope, a need solved better with big execution. Department stores have been around for decades, but that didn't stop Sam Walton from creating Wal-Mart. It was an open road when the road seemed closed. Hamburgers were around for decades, but that didn't stop Ray Kroc from starting McDonalds.

pages: 382 words: 117,536

March of the Lemmings: Brexit in Print and Performance 2016–2019 by Stewart Lee

Airbnb, AltaVista, anti-communist, Boris Johnson, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, Donald Trump, Etonian, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, white flight

Nobodies. Nothing. 156 I do remember getting online, when an Internet was set up for the first time for me and Richard Herring in our writers’ office at Avalon’s HQ in Leicester Place, in around 1997, and wondering what would happen if I put Green on Red’s 1981 EP Two Bibles and Markley, A Group’s 1970 album Markley, A Group – two records that had been on my wants list for a while – into the AltaVista search engine. And when I realised that all that stood between me and them was raising the rather large sums the dealers wanted for them, my heart sank a little. It was all over, the great record-collecting adventure, and now those record-collector heroes of the post-war era who invented the concept of Delta blues as a thing by going round shacks in the Deep South with handfuls of cash, would be at home, pallid and unhealthy, clicking online buttons in dimly lit rooms. 157 The trick in performance here was to have talked about general nostalgia so much that when I suddenly doubled back into talking specifically about S&M, it was a shocking and funny surprise. 158 I do think this, so it was easy to perform with conviction, but I am also aware it is ludicrous. 159 I have set this routine in the rural Worcestershire landscapes that I remember my adoptive mother’s parents describing to me as a child.

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

To translate just one sliver, the full English edition of Wikipedia, into just one other major language would cost at least $100 million and take over 10,000 person-years.20 Even if someone were willing to pay for it, there may not be enough translators living to make the attempt, depending on the destination language. Computer-driven translation engines can automate the task somewhat; they can often give us the gist of what a foreign utterance means. But as users of every engine from the 1990s’ AltaVista Babelfish to today’s Google Translate can attest, much meaning, most clarity and all style are still lost in translation. That’s because whereas human translators start by recognizing the whole meaning of the source and then try to express it faithfully in destination-language terms, computers start by recognizing individual words—or at best, phrases—and then stitch together foreign analogs with no conception of the overall result.

pages: 1,064 words: 114,771

Tcl/Tk in a Nutshell by Paul Raines, Jeff Tranter

AltaVista, iterative process, off grid, place-making, Silicon Valley

This chapter is designed to help new Tcl programmers better understand the Tcl language, especially when written code does not perform as expected or produces errors. Much of the material in this chapter was selected from postings to the Usenet newsgroup comp.lang.tcl. Beginning programmers often seek help with coding problems, and suggested answers are given. These postings, along with the author's personal experiences, are presented here. Note Web addresses change over time. Use web search engines such as Yahoo!, AltaVista, Infoseek, and HotBot to help locate the Tcl FAQs if the links noted are out of date. Other excellent sources of "how to" material available on the Web include these: The Tcl Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), by Larry Virden This is an up-to-date, comprehensive list of frequently asked questions and answers—well worth reading. See˜lvirden/tcl-faq/. Tcl Usage FAQ, by Joe Moss This covers specific Tcl language usage questions and answers.

pages: 482 words: 125,973

Competition Demystified by Bruce C. Greenwald

additive manufacturing, airline deregulation, AltaVista, asset allocation, barriers to entry, business cycle, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, Everything should be made as simple as possible, fault tolerance, intangible asset, John Nash: game theory, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, packet switching,, price discrimination, price stability, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, yield management, zero-sum game

In 1997 the company bought Tandem Computers, a firm that specialized in producing fault-tolerant machines designed for uninterruptible transaction processing. A year later it bought Digital Equipment Corporation, a former engineering star in the computing world which had fallen from grace as its minicomputer bastion was undermined by the personal computer revolution. At the time of the purchase, Compaq wanted DEC for its consulting business, its AltaVista Internet search engine, and some in-process research. Technology acquisitions are notoriously hard to digest, and Tandem and DEC were no exceptions. Compaq lost its focus on operational efficiency, its own profitability plummeted, and in 2002, it sold itself to Hewlett-Packard. The Compaq story is so intertwined with the history of the PC that it is easy to miss the more general significance.

pages: 531 words: 125,069

The Coddling of the American Mind: How Good Intentions and Bad Ideas Are Setting Up a Generation for Failure by Greg Lukianoff, Jonathan Haidt

AltaVista, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, helicopter parent, hygiene hypothesis, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed

Twenge is an expert on how generations differ psychologically and why. She calls the generation after the Millennials iGen (like iPhone), which is short for “internet generation,” because they are the first generation to grow up with the internet in their pockets. (Some people use the term Generation Z.) Sure, the oldest Millennials, born in 1982, searched for music and MapQuest directions using Netscape and AltaVista on their Compaq home computers in the late 1990s, but search engines don’t change social relationships. Social media does. Marking the line between generations is always difficult, but based on their psychological profiles, Twenge suggests that 1994 is the last birth year for Millennials, and 1995 is the first birth year for iGen. One possible reason for the discontinuity in self-reported traits and attitudes between Millennials and iGen is that in 2006, when iGen’s oldest were turning eleven, Facebook changed its membership requirement.

pages: 803 words: 415,953

Frommer's Mexico 2009 by David Baird, Lynne Bairstow, Joy Hepp, Juan Christiano

airport security, AltaVista, Bartolomé de las Casas, centre right, colonial rule, East Village, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, low cost airline, low cost carrier, out of africa, Pepto Bismol, place-making, Skype, sustainable-tourism, the market place, urban planning, young professional

Now a museum, the Rivera studio holds some of the artist’s personal effects and mementos, as well as changing exhibits relating to his life and work. (Don’t confuse Rivera’s studio with his museum, the Anahuacalli; see above.) The museum is not accessible by Metro. Museo Estudio Diego Rivera Calle Diego Rivera and Av. Altavista (across from San Angel Inn), Col. San Angel. & 55/5616-0996. Admission $1 (50p); free Sun. Tues–Sun 10am–6pm. By taxi, go up Insurgentes Sur to Altavista and make a left. During Lenin’s last days, Stalin and Trotsky fought a silent battle for leadership of the Communist Party in the Soviet Union. Trotsky stuck to ideology, while Stalin took control of the party mechanism. Stalin won, and Trotsky was exiled to continue his ideological struggle elsewhere. Invited by Diego Rivera, an ardent admirer of his work, he settled here on the outskirts of Mexico City to continue his writings on political topics and Communist ideology.

If you’re coming from San Angel, the quickest and easiest way is to take a cab for the 15minute ride to the Plaza Hidalgo. Francisco Sosa, a beautiful cobblestone street surrounded by old aristocratic homes, is the main artery into Coyoacán from San Angel, which you can also walk. Or you can catch the Alcantarilla–Col. Agrarista bus heading east along the Camino al Desierto de los Leónes or Avenida Altavista, near the San Angel Inn. Get off when 103 the bus reaches the corner of Avenida México and Xicoténcatl in Coyoacán. San Angel Eight kilometers (5 miles) south of the city center, San Angel (sahn ahn-hehl) was once a weekend retreat for Spanish nobles but has long since been absorbed by the city. It’s a stunningly beautiful neighborhood of cobblestone streets and colonial-era homes, with several worthwhile museums.

Digital Photography: The Missing Manual by Chris Grover, Barbara Brundage

AltaVista, Firefox, sensible shoes

Membership in TrekEarth is free, and signup is simple. When you post a photo, you're encouraged to provide a note that describes the photo and the place. Many of the notes are beautifully written and, as you might imagine, it's not unusual to find a photo with comments and critiques written in a few different languages. Fortunately, TrekEarth also provides translation links via Babel Fish ( Chapter 15. Emailing Your Photos Ever since Kodak rolled out the Brownie camera, photographers have been slipping snapshots into envelopes and sending them off to friends and family. The same thing goes on today, but with email, it's faster and cheaper. Emailing photos takes just a few clicks and costs nothing (assuming you already have an email account). Email's perfect for quickly sending off a single photoor even a handful of photosto friends, family, and co-workers

pages: 444 words: 130,646

Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

This advantage is operative for Facebook (where most people know that their friends and family will have accounts) and Google (users provide it with data and resources to make its search better, and advertisers pay to advertise on Google knowing that it is where people will search, hence Google has even more money available to improve its products). This is true even for nonsocial platforms like eBay (where buyers know that the largest number of sellers are offering items, and sellers know that the largest number of buyers will see their items). It is true that network effects did not provide absolute protection early in the race to commercialize the internet: MySpace was beaten out by Facebook, for example, and Yahoo and Altavista by Google—they had gotten started earlier, but had not yet established in as dominant a position. Network effects doesn’t protect companies from initial missteps, especially in the early years before they pulled way ahead of everyone else, and such dominance does not occur independent of the quality of the company’s product. Google’s new method of ranking web pages was clearly superior to the earlier competitors.

pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game

The most successful contestant would be the one that truly understood the new platform and how it would be used. By the late 1990s, as Microsoft’s content initiative faded, word was spreading about a new company named Google, whose specialty was search. Search became a major application as the Internet got more populated, fast becoming wild and woolly, too vast to tune in to like a TV channel. There were a number of search engines running—Lycos, Magellan, AltaVista, Excite, Yahoo!, which originally launched as an Internet directory, to name a few. But it was soon clear that Google did search better than anyone else; its inventors were smart, its algorithm was wicked, and its code was tight. With a simple search box placed on a white page, it was both elegant and technically a quantum leap over what was then available. But all who followed the company knew it had one massive and potentially fatal problem.

pages: 1,535 words: 337,071

Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World by David Easley, Jon Kleinberg

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, clean water, conceptual framework, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Douglas Hofstadter, Erdős number, experimental subject, first-price auction, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Gödel, Escher, Bach, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, information retrieval, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, longitudinal study, market clearing, market microstructure, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Pareto efficiency, Paul Erdős, planetary scale, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Simon Singh, slashdot, social web, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vannevar Bush, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

If there is a way to do this, then this walk can be opened up into a path from A to B in the graph; if there is no way to do this, then there is no path from A to B. 13.4 The Bow-Tie Structure of the Web In 1999, after the Web had been growing for the better part of a decade, Andrei Broder and his colleagues set out to build a global map of the Web, using strongly connected components as the basic building blocks [79]. For their raw data, they used the index of pages and links from one of the largest commercial search engines at the time, AltaVista. Their influential study has since been replicated on other, even larger snapshots of the Web, including an 398 CHAPTER 13. THE STRUCTURE OF THE WEB Figure 13.8: A schematic picture of the bow-structure of the Web (image from [79]). early index of Google’s search engine [55] and large research collections of Web pages [132]. Similar analyses have been carried out for particular well-defined pieces of the Web, including the links among articles on Wikipedia [82].

Figure 13.8 shows the original schematic image from Broder et al. [79], depicting the relation of IN, OUT, and the giant SCC. Because of the visual effect of IN and OUT as large lobes hanging off the central SCC, Broder et al. termed this the “bow-tie picture” of the Web, with the giant SCC as the “knot” in the middle. The actual sizes of the different 400 CHAPTER 13. THE STRUCTURE OF THE WEB pieces shown in the Figure come from the 1999 AltaVista data, and are long since obsolete — the main point is that all three of these pieces are very large. As Figure 13.8 also makes clear, there are pages that belong to none of IN, OUT, or the giant SCC — that is, they can neither reach the giant SCC nor be reached from it. These can be further classified as (3) Tendrils: The “tendrils” of the bow-tie consist of (a) the nodes reachable from IN that cannot reach the giant SCC, and (b) the nodes that can reach OUT but cannot be reached from the giant SCC.

pages: 433 words: 53,078

Be Your Own Financial Adviser: The Comprehensive Guide to Wealth and Financial Planning by Jonquil Lowe

AltaVista, asset allocation, banking crisis, BRICs, buy and hold, correlation coefficient, cross-subsidies, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, fixed income, high net worth, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, offshore financial centre, Own Your Own Home, passive investing, place-making, Right to Buy, risk/return, short selling, zero-coupon bond

Useful sites include: Primary Care Trust (England) Rent-a-Room Relief Safe Home Income Plans (SHIP) 83 Victoria Street London SW1H 0HW Tel: 0844 669 7085 Scottish Government Search engines (examples) Simplyhealth Society of Pension Consultants Tel: 020 7353 1688 Z01_LOWE7798_01_SE_APP.indd 406 05/03/2010 09:51 Appendix B n Useful contacts and further information 407 Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners Artillery House (South) 11–19 Artillery Road London SW1P 1RT Tel: 020 7340 0500 Answerphone for list of members: 020 7340 0506 Solicitor – to find one Look in the Yellow Pages under ‘Solicitors’ or contact the following professional bodies for a list of their members in your area: Law Society 113 Chancery Lane London WC2A 1PL Tel: 0870 606 2555 Law Society of Northern Ireland 96 Victoria Street Belfast BT1 3GN Tel: 028 9023 1614 Law Society of Scotland 26 Drumsheugh Gardens Edinburgh EH3 7YR Tel: 0131 226 7411 Spread betting firms (examples) Stockbroker – to find one See separate entries for: Association of Personal Client Investment Managers and Stockbrokers London Stock Exchange Z01_LOWE7798_01_SE_APP.indd 407 05/03/2010 09:51 408 Appendix B n Useful contacts and further information Tax advice See separate entries for: Accountants Chartered Institute of Taxation Society of Trust and Estate Practitioners Tax Aid Tax Help for Older People Tax Aid Room 304 Linton House 164–180 Union Street London SE1 0LH Tel: 0845 120 3779 Tax Credits Office Tel: 0845 300 3900 Tax Help for Older People Helpline: 0845 601 3321 Tax Office See entry for HM Revenue and Customs.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

In their early days: Paddy Kamen (5 Jul 2001), “So you thought search engines offer up neutral results? Think again,” Toronto Star, search engines visually differentiated: Gary Ruskin (16 Jul 2001), Letter to Donald Clark, US Federal Trade Commission, re: Deceptive advertising complaint against AltaVista Co., AOL Time Warner Inc., Direct Hit Technologies, iWon Inc., LookSmart Ltd., Microsoft Corp. and Terra Lycos S.A., Commercial Alert, Heather Hippsley (27 Jun 2002), Letter to Gary Ruskin re: Complaint requesting investigation of various Internet search engine companies for paid placement and paid inclusion programs, US Federal Trade Commission,

pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

Bean Catalogue (20) Wal-Mart (33) Skechers (NR) New Balance Athletic Shoe (22) Miller Lite (87) Starbucks (6) Radisson (48) BP Gasoline (79) Inter-Continental Hotels (NR) Sears Catalogue (30) Verizon Wireless (37) (26) Diet Coke (47) Mobil Gasoline (25) T-Mobile Wireless (76) Bell South Long Distance (28) Adidas Athletic Shoe (23) (42) J. Crew Catalogue (54) FedEx (50) Westin Hotels (73) (35) Hilton Hotels (36) (34) Sanyo Mobile Phone (NR) (38) (51) Like so many traditional consumer product companies, Kodak, a firm whose traditional profits rested on film for traditional cameras and are now under siege from new digital photographic technologies, is not even on the top 200 brands list. With an eye on the new branding philosophy, and a hoped for comeback, it recently shifted its focus from cameras to girls’ identity politics, deciding that by opting for cameras that are both giveaway and throwaway (the money is in developing the film!)

Bleeding Edge by Pynchon, Thomas

addicted to oil, AltaVista, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Burning Man, carried interest, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, East Village, Hacker Ethic, index card, invisible hand, jitney, late capitalism, margin call, Network effects, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, Y2K

“And are we talking recent here, or will this mean going back into history, unreadable legacy software, statutes about to run?” “Nah, this is one of the dotcoms that didn’t go under last year in the tech crash. No old software,” half a decibel too quiet, “and maybe no statute of limitations either.” Uh-oh. “’Cause see, if all you want’s an asset search, you don’t need a forensic person really, just go on the Internet, LexisNexis, HotBot, AltaVista, if you can keep a trade secret, don’t rule out the Yellow Pages—” “What I’m really looking for,” solemn more than impatient, “probably won’t be anyplace any search engine can get to.” “Because . . . what you’re looking for . . .” “Just normal company records—daybooks, ledgers, logs, tax sheets. But try to have a look, and that’s when it gets weird, everything stashed away far far beyond the reach of LexisNexis.”

Lonely Planet Mexico by John Noble, Kate Armstrong, Greg Benchwick, Nate Cavalieri, Gregor Clark, John Hecht, Beth Kohn, Emily Matchar, Freda Moon, Ellee Thalheimer

AltaVista, Bartolomé de las Casas, Burning Man, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, New Urbanism, off grid, place-making, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, traffic fines, urban sprawl, wage slave

Upstairs is a treasure trove of Mexican baroque and medieval European paintings. About 50m west of the plaza is the 16th-century Iglesia de San Jacinto (Map) and its peaceful gardens. MUSEO CASA ESTUDIO DIEGO RIVERA Y FRIDA KAHLO If you saw the movie Frida, you’ll recognize this museum (Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo Studio Museum; Map; 5550-1518;, in Spanish; Diego Rivera 2, cnr Av Altavista; admission M$10, free Sun; 10am-6pm Tue-Sun), 1km northwest of Plaza San Jacinto. Designed by their friend, the architect and painter Juan O’Gorman, the innovative abode was the home of the artistic couple from 1934 to 1940, with a separate house for each of them. Rivera’s house preserves his upstairs studio, while Frida’s (the blue one) has changing exhibits from the memorabilia archives. The closest bus stop is metrobús’s La Bombilla.

The big draw, however, is the collection of a dozen mummies in the crypt. Thought to be the bodies of 17th-century benefactors of the order, they were uncovered during the revolution by Zapatistas looking for buried treasure. MUSEO DE ARTE CARRILLO GIL One of the city’s first contemporary art spaces, this museum (Map; 5550-6260; Av Revolución 1608; admission M$15, free Sun; 10am-6pm Tue-Sun; Altavista) was founded by Yucatecan businessman Álvaro Carrillo Gil to store a large collection of works that he had amassed over many years. Unfortunately, he died several months after the 1974 inauguration. Long ramps in the center of the remodeled building lead up to cutting-edge temporary exhibits and some of the lesser-known works by Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. JARDíN DE LA BOMBILLA In this tropically abundant park spreading east of Avenida Insurgentes, paths encircle the Monumento a Álvaro Obregón (Map), a monolithic shrine to the postrevolutionary Mexican president.

If your Spanish is up to it, you might like to sample Mexico City’s lively theater scene. The Spanish-language website MejorTeatro (, in Spanish) covers the major venues. Performances are generally Thursday to Sunday evenings with weekend matinees. Other cultural options: Centro Cultural Helénico (Map; 4155-0919;, in Spanish; Guadalupe Inn, Av Revolución 1500; tickets M$250-400; Altavista) Complex includes 450-seat Teatro Helénico for major productions and cabaret-style La Gruta theater. Foro Shakespeare (Map; 5553-4642;, in Spanish; Zamora 7, Condesa; tickets M$150-280; Chapultepec) Small independent theater with eclectic program. Teatro Blanquita (Map; 5512-8264; Eje Central Lázaro Cárdenas 16, Centro; tickets from M$175; Bellas Artes) Classic variety theater and concert venue near Plaza Garibaldi.

pages: 894 words: 190,485

Write Great Code, Volume 1 by Randall Hyde

AltaVista, business process, Donald Knuth, John von Neumann, locality of reference, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

The SCSI command set is very powerful, and it is designed for high-performance applications. It is sufficiently large and complex that space limitations prevent its inclusion here. Readers interested in a deeper look at SCSI programming should refer to The Book of SCSI (by Gary Field, Peter M. Ridge, et al., published by No Starch Press). The complete SCSI specifications appear at various sites on the Web. A quick search for “SCSI specifications” on AltaVista, Google, or any other decent Web search engine should turn up several copies of the specifications. 12.20 The IDE/ATA Interface Although the SCSI interface is very high performance, it is also expensive. A SCSI device requires a sophisticated and fast processor in order to handle all the operations that are possible on the SCSI bus. Furthermore, because SCSI devices can operate on a peer-to-peer basis (that is, one peripheral may talk to another without intervention from a host computer system), each SCSI device must carry around a considerable amount of sophisticated software in ROM on the device’s controller board.

pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden,, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

This huge increase in concentration appears to have several causes. The most important is the nature of the technology of these new companies, which creates what economists call “winner take all” dynamics. Take Google, for instance. Founded in 1998, when there were already several successful search engines for the Internet, Google quickly distinguished itself because of its superior search algorithm. While its competitors, such as Yahoo! and AltaVista, ranked websites by the number of times they included the term being searched for, the founders of Google, Sergei Brin and Larry Page, came up with a much better approach when they were graduate students at Stanford University. This approach, which came to be called the PageRank algorithm, ranked a web page according to its relevance estimated from how many other pages also mentioning the search term linked to this website.

pages: 982 words: 221,145

Ajax: The Definitive Guide by Anthony T. Holdener

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, business process, centre right, create, read, update, delete, database schema, David Heinemeier Hansson,, Firefox, full text search, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, information retrieval, loose coupling, MVC pattern, Necker cube, p-value, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, sorting algorithm, web application

Chapter 16, Search: The New Frontier Chapter 17, Introducing Web Services Chapter 18, Web Services: The APIs Chapter 19, Mashups Chapter 20, For Your Business Communication Needs Chapter 21, Internet Games Without Plug-ins Chapter 16 CHAPTER 16 Search: The New Frontier 16 Search has long been a critical component of the Web. Without a search capability, a vast amount of the Web would never be viewed. Even before Google, the likes of Yahoo!, Excite, AltaVista, and WebCrawler were serving up search results to the public so that the Web could live up to its potential as a useful communication medium. As time went on, site searching became more sophisticated and companies began to offer more specialized searching. Think of the types of search Google offers, for instance—web, images, blogs, books, groups, and so on. This kind of specialization allows users to find content that is more specific to their areas of interest in the first place.