citizen journalism

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Twitter and Tear Gas: The Power and Fragility of Networked Protest by Zeynep Tufekci

4chan, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, index card, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of writing, loose coupling, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

It seemed clear to me that civilians were getting hurt in the cross fire, but it was impossible to establish even the scale of the deaths or injuries. People, trapped in their homes, were not reliable witnesses either. I talked to other journalists, including the team at 140journos, a citizen journalism verification and dissemination platform profiled in chapter 2, whose members had developed some of the most advanced methods I had seen for verification of citizen media in Turkey. They were also stumped.31 There was rarely enough information to do the kind of thorough checking they can do when citizen journalists are reporting from the ground. The round-the-clock curfew had made most of their ordinary methods useless. Unable to verify, they, too, resorted to the “here are some claims, and here are some counterclaims” style of reporting, which did not offer clarity.

The experience of the news blackout of the bombing of the Kurdish village of Roboski had exposed many people to the fact that the mass media could block out major news stories. But the public sphere had been transformed. It was now a digitally networked public sphere. People had learned to pull out their phones, not just to see what was up, but also to document and share. The team members at 140journos told me that they had struggled in their first year to find citizen journalists reporting from events, and they would sometimes have to call and try to persuade people to take a picture and tweet it. People used to ask them, why bother? Who is going to see this, and why will it matter? But in the year leading up to Gezi, social media became the place where real news circulated, and many people learned the importance of documentation by ordinary citizens. As soon as they noticed something, many people pulled out their phones and took pictures, and they expected groups like 140journos to curate and share.

Efficient cause in Aristotle’s schema is the act that brings about the change. This is often closest to the everyday meaning of the word “cause,” and closest to philosopher David Hume’s sense of the word as it is used in modern times. Efficient cause is all about the doing and who is performing the actions. We can talk about movement participants’ actions as the “efficient cause”: people who took to the streets, posted about democracy on Facebook, tweeted as citizen journalists breaking censorship, occupied a park in protest, or braved repression are the efficient cause of a movement. Efficient cause focuses on agency. If a car hits a tree and knocks it down, the efficient cause is just that: the car hitting the tree. Because it is closest to everyday usage, this layer of causality needs the least explanation. The final cause, sometimes called the “root cause,” is the purpose that catalyzes events leading toward an outcome.

The Despot's Accomplice: How the West Is Aiding and Abetting the Decline of Democracy by Brian Klaas

Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, citizen journalism, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global pandemic, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Skype, Steve Jobs, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

In January 2010, six months into a tumultuous period of post-election protests in Iran, Voice of America announced that it had developed a tailor-made, state-of-the-art new iPhone app to help the Iranian people raise their collective digital voices against the oppressive regime. With the new app, it was argued, Iranian “citizen journalists” could directly upload their photos and videos to a server so that abuses could be easily documented and beamed around the world. It was a well-intentioned idea. â•… There were several problems. First, due to sanctions championed by the United States itself, it was illegal for Apple to sell its iPhones in Iran. Second, the App Store—necessary to buy and download apps— therefore didn’t exist in Iran. Third, at the time, the only mobile carrier of iPhones worldwide was AT&T—which didn’t operate in Iran. Even if an Iranian “citizen journalist” had managed to smuggle an iPhone into the country and unlock it for use on alternative data networks, there were none in Iran at the time that would have supported iPhone data transmission.

Even if an Iranian “citizen journalist” had managed to smuggle an iPhone into the country and unlock it for use on alternative data networks, there were none in Iran at the time that would have supported iPhone data transmission. So, the app could still be useful, but only if the user had an active Wi-Fi connection. But at that point, the savvy citizen journalist who had smuggled an iPhone into Iran, unlocked the phone, and found an alternative source from which to download it, could just use a laptop or a desktop computer to upload the images.1 135 THE DESPOT’S ACCOMPLICE â•… It was therefore difficult to imagine how the app provided anything of value even to the most determined citizen journalist in Iran’s failed Green Revolution protest movement. Voice of America never publicly disclosed how much it paid the app’s developer, Intridea, to develop the product, but it was almost certainly a sizeable sum. It was a poetic and poignant mistake, illustrating broader failures of democracy promotion: one wing of geopolitically driven democracy promotion (sanctions against Iran) ensured that the effort from another (an iPhone app) simply wasn’t feasible.

€ € € 256 INDEX Air Force One, 58 Ajax, 22, 38, 230 Alert, Nunavut, 231 Alfonso IX, King of Léon, 30–1 Algeria, 155 Aliyev, Ilham, 82–5 Allende, Salvador, 45–7 amplification effect, 57 Anaconda Copper, 48 Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 38 Angola, 112–13 Antananarivo, Madagascar, 7, 85, 86 Apple, 20, 83, 135–6, 145, 151 Arab Spring (2011), 2, 10, 12–16, 18, 65, 94, 124–6, 130, 132–3, 163, 168, 218 Argentina, 34–5, 149, 156 Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, 114–15, 117 Aristogeiton, 28 Aristophanes, 29 Aristotle, 29 Armenia, 59–60, 209 Armitage, Richard, 53 Asghabat, Turkmenistan, 25 Ashkelon, Israel, 102 Asian financial crisis (1997), 196 Abbas, Mahmoud, 100 Abbottabad, Pakistan, 53 Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, King of Saudi Arabia, 172 Abdullah II, King of Jordan, 18, 214 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 19, 105, 106–7 Abraham, 124 Achilles, 22, 230 Afghanistan, 2, 5, 20, 49, 54, 67, 69, 70, 78, 98, 136–8, 213 1982 arrival of Bin Laden, 78 2001 US-led invasion, 70, 71, 84, 98 2009 presidential election, 70–1 2014 presidential election, 71; power-sharing agreement, 75–6; USAID announces women’s empowerment project, 136–8, 145 Afifi, Omar, 163–4, 247 African-Americans, 176, 207, 250 Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 168 Ahmed, Mohammed, 123–4, 126, 130, 224 AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), 116, 207 257 INDEX al-Assad, Bashar, 120 AT&T, 135 Athena, 22 Athens, 20, 27–30, 31, 156 Australia, 29–30, 112, 153, 156 Azerbaijan, 20, 82–5, 90, 209, 211, 238 Ba’ath party, 63, 72, 77, 124, 128 Badawi, Raif, 16 Baghdad, Iraq, 72 Bahrain, 59, 155, 209, 225 Bangkok, Thailand, 198, 200, 202, 203, 223 Bangladesh, 106 Bardo Museum attack (2015), 131 Barraket Essahel affair (1991), 123, 126, 224 Basra, Iraq, 72, 73 beheadings, 11, 12, 16, 19 Beijing Consensus, 206–7 Belarus, 3, 19, 60–7, 154, 192–5, 205–6, 212, 218, 222 1991 dissolution of Soviet Union; independence, 192–3 1994 presidential election; Lukashenko comes to power, 193–4 1996 Commonwealth with Russia established, 194 2002 proposal for re-integration with Russia, 194 2004 US passes Belarus Democracy Act, 63, 194; referendum on Lukashenko’s third term; Western sanctions, 63 2006 presidential election, 61; EU asset ban on Lukashenko, 63 2010 presidential election, 61–2, 65; Statkevich impris- 258 oned for organizing protest, 61–2, 222 2015 economic crisis, 64; release of political prisoners, 65, 222; presidential election, 64–5; pressured by Russia to host military base, 65, 195 2016 EU suspends sanctions, 65, 67, 195 Belarus Democracy Act (2004), 63, 194 Belgian Congo (1908–60), 42 Belgium, 43–4, 90, 220 Ben Ali, Zine El Abidine, 13, 123–33, 155 benign dictatorship, 215, 220 Benin, 23, 27, 156 Berlin Wall, 35, 201 Bermudo II “the Gouty”, King of Léon, 30, 231 Bever, James, 101 Bhumibol Adulyadej, King of Thailand, 165 Biamby, Philippe, 117 Bible, 179 Big Brother, 180 Bin Laden, Osama, 18, 50, 52–3, 78 Binti Salan Mustapa, Sumiati, 12 Biya, Paul, 121 Black Hawk Down incident (1993), 116 Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), 211 blackballing, 29 Blagoy, Ivan, 208 Blair, Anthony “Tony”, 6, 92 Blueberry Hill (Fats Domino), 207 Boehner, John, 181 Bohemian Rhapsody (Queen), 121 Boko Haram, 177 Bolivia, 143, 154 INDEX Bolšteins, Ludvigs, 147 Bono (Paul Hewson), 92 Boston University, 111 Botswana, 149 Bourguiba, Habib, 126 BP (British Petroleum), 38 Bradley effect, 176, 250 Brazil, 56, 149, 152, 156 Bremer, Lewis Paul, 72 Brexit, 1 bribery, 170–1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 94 Brunei, 155, 229 bubonic plague, 6 BudgIT, 171 Buenos Aires, Argentina, 34 Bulgaria, 149 Burkina Faso, 177–8 Burundi, 95 Bush, George Herbert Walker, 115, 121, 190 Bush, George Walker, 54–7, 63, 69, 99, 100, 101, 190, 194, 201 Bush, Sarah, 59 Cairo, Egypt, 9–10, 13, 163–4, 218 California, United States, 26, 188, 209 Cambodia, 59 Cameroon, 121 Canada, 94, 112, 143, 153, 155, 156, 230–1 Caravana de la Muerte, 47 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 52, 73 Carothers, Thomas, 52, 73, 141, 144, 189 Carter Center, 89, 238 Carter, James Earl “Jimmy”, 116, 120, 238 Caspian Sea, 84 Castro, Fidel, 49 Castro, Raul, 49 caudillos, 33 Cédras, Raoul, 115–20 censorship, 161–3, 165 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 20, 39–49, 59, 98, 201, 207, 208 Chan-ocha, Prayuth, 164, 203 Charles I, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, 31 Chemonics, 58, 138 Chicago, Illinois, 182 Chile, 27, 36, 38, 45–8, 153, 220, 225 Chiluba, Frederick, 190 China, 4, 23–7, 105–6, 109, 168– 70, 176, 190, 191–2, 196–212, 215–16, 218, 221, 223, 229 1958 launch of Great Leap Forward, 24 1990 Deng Xiaoping’s “24-Character Strategy”, 206 1992 propaganda-industry tax introduced, 209 2003 SARS outbreak, 25–6 2013 endorsement of Azerbaijani election, 211; monitoring of Malagasy election, 211 2014 Umbrella Movement protests in Hong Kong, 168–9, 176, 221; rail deal with Thailand, 203 2016 Lunar New Year celebrations, 208; Mong Kok riots, 169 China Central Television (CCTV), 207–9 Chow, Holden, 169 Christianity, 105, 179 Churchill, Winston, 22, 190, 215 259 INDEX Ciftci, Bilgin, 20, 161–3, 165, 176 citizen journalism, 135 citizen participation, 27 Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, 185, 188 City on a Hill, 10, 35, 179, 188, 189 Cleisthenes, 28 climate change, 209 Clinton, Hillary, 5–6, 112, 178, 190 Clinton, William “Bill”, 52, 92, 102, 112, 115–16, 184, 190 Cobra Gold, 201 Cold War, 1, 20, 35–6, 37–50, 55, 66, 75, 81, 93, 149, 150, 200–1, 204, 221 Colombia, 27, 33, 171, 189 Commonwealth of Independent States Observation Mission (CISEMO), 211 Communist Party of China, 208 of Moldova, 195 of Thailand, 199 Community College of Denver, 209 Confucius Institutes, 209 Congo, 20, 36, 38, 42–4, 47, 48, 95, 121 Congress, US, 32, 33, 35, 184, 194 Connecticut Compromise, 32–3 constitutions, 31–2, 150–1, 190, 197 Contadora Island, Panama, 117 COPPPAL (Conferencia Permanente de Partidos Políticos de América Latina y el Caribe), 211 Corner House, Riga, 147–8, 160, 225 corruption, 73, 82, 99, 107, 139, 260 170–1, 197, 200, 201, 209, 210, 219 Côte d’Ivoire, 3, 19, 104–10, 111, 119 2000 presidential election, 104 2002 outbreak of civil war, 104 2010 presidential election, 104–5; outbreak of violence, 105–6, 119; Gbabgbo offered asylum in the US, 111 2011 UN/French intervention, 106, 108–10; Gbabgbo extradited to ICC, 106, 109, 119 2015 presidential election, 110 Council of Europe, 84 Council of Five Hundred, 29 counterfeit democracies, 3, 6–9, 20, 23, 33–4, 52, 70, 73, 79, 82–90, 158–9, 173, 175, 204, 210, 216–17, 220, 223 Crimea, 64, 65 crisis of democracy, 180 Critias, 29 Croatia, 75 Cuba, 45, 49–50, 176 curse of low expectations, see Madagascar Effect Daily Show, The, 53 Dark Ages, 30, 219 Dayton, Mark, 186–7 DDoS (Distributed Denial-ofService), 168 death squads, 47, 114, 117 Delian League, 29 democracy deficit, 180 democracy promotion industry, 58–60, 138 democracy wars, 67, 69–79, 220 Democratic Party, 35, 58, 84, 92, 124, 142, 182–8 INDEX Democratic Republic of the Congo, see Congo demos, 27, 28 Deng Xiaoping, 206 Denmark, 77, 220 Denver, Colorado, 209 Department for International Development (DFID), 59 Department of Defense, 115 Detention Site Green, Udon Thani, 201 Development Alternatives Inc., 138 Development Assistance Committee (DAC), 58 Devlin, Larry, 43 Diamond, Larry, 171 Dictator’s Learning Curve, The (Dobson), 210 digital communications, 49, 125, 161–75, 207, 208, 221, 223 Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (DINA), 48 direct democracy, 28–9 disabled rights, 141, 144 disinformation, 207–8 Dobson, Will, 210 “Don’t Forget Me” (GooGoosha), 140 Dubai, 82 Duékoué, Côte d’Ivoire, 105 Dulles, Alan, 41 Durack, Western Australia, 29–30 Duvalier, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc”, 114 Ebola, 184 echo chamber effect, 165 Egypt, 6, 9–10, 13–16, 27, 88, 155, 163–4, 225 1987 US aid payments begin, 14 2001 EU Association Agreement, 155 2008 Afifi exiled to US, 163 2009 Clinton describes Mubaraks as ‘friends of my family’, 6; Obama’s Cairo speech, 9–10, 218 2011 Tahrir Square protests begin, 10, 13, 163–4; Mubarak ousted, 13, 164 2012 Morsi elected president, 14; anti-Morsi demonstrations begin, 164, 247 2013 coup d’état; el-Sisi comes to power, 14–16, 88, 164; Saudi Arabia announces aid package, 15 Eid al-Kabir, 124 Eisenhower, Dwight David, 38, 43 elections campaign finance, 185–8, 238 foreign aid/intervention, 97–110, 143 “free and fair”, 8, 14, 88–90, 102, 159, 193 gerrymandering, 180–5, 188, 251 grade inflation, 88–9, 158, 159 inclusivity, 24, 129–31, 221 observation/monitoring, 8, 65, 81, 83–4, 88–90, 102, 158–9, 173–4, 178, 211, 223 polling, 174–6 respect for, 5, 37–48 rigging of, 22–3, 34, 61, 63–4, 70–1, 83–5, 87, 112, 158–9, 166, 210–11 short-term thinking, 26, 54, 56 turnout, 180, 184 Electoral Integrity Project, 189, 238 Elizabethville, Congo, 43 “emerging democracy”, 88 Emory University, 136 261 INDEX “End of History”, 163, 214 English Civil War (1642–51), 31 Ennahda party, 126–8 Equatorial Guinea, 6, 11, 121, 173, 220 Erdoggan, Recep Tayyip, 20, 161–3, 176 Eritrea, 11, 24 Estonia, 17, 149, 151 Ethiopia, 27 Eton College, Berkshire, 202 European Commission, 150 European Parliament, 84, 180 European Partnership for Democracy (EPD), 58 European Union (EU), 2, 3, 56, 61–3, 65–7, 84, 90, 100, 143, 145, 148–56, 160, 180, 195, 214, 223, 225, 247 1999 European Parliament elections, 180 2004 Eastern Bloc countries accede to Union, 148–9 2005 intervention in Palestinian election campaign, 100 2006 asset ban on Lukashenko government, 63 2008 aid given for Ghanaian election, 143 2009 Eurozone crisis begins, 180, 190 2013 endorsement of Azerbaijani election, 84; endorsement of Malagasy election, 90 2014 Riga designated European Capital of Culture, 148, 225 2015 Riga summit; Juncker slaps Orbán, 150 2016 Belarus sanctions suspended, 65, 67, 195; Zimbabwe sanctions suspended, 247; UK € 262 holds membership referendum, 1 Eurozone crisis, 180, 190 Facebook, 125, 161–3, 165, 168, 172, 223 Falls Church, Virginia, 163 famine, 24 Fatah, 99–102 Fats Domino, 207 Ferjani, Said, 125–33, 142, 156, 221, 224 Fidesz Party, 150–2 financial crisis (2008–9), 185, 206 FixMyStreet, 171 Florida, United States, 117 Forces Nouvelles, 106 Ford, Gerald, 45 Foreign Affairs, 53 foreign aid, 14–15, 47, 49, 52, 57, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 100–1 Fourteen Points (1918), 35 France, 2, 33, 44, 55–6, 58, 72, 89, 106, 108–10, 115, 129, 214, 225 “free and fair”, 8, 14, 88–90, 102, 159, 193 free speech, 94, 103, 161–3, 165, 188 free trade zones, 152–60 Freedom House, 139, 140, 189 Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 189 Front Populaire Ivorien, 105 FSB (Federal’naya sluzhba bezopasnosti), 61 Fukuyama, Francis, 74, 163, 214 fungibilty, 95 Gaddafi, Muammar, 24, 76–9, 102, 113, 129 Gambia, The, 121 Gandhi, Jennifer, 136 INDEX Gaza, Palestine, 100–1, 240–1 Gbabgbo, Laurent, 105–10, 111, 119 General Motors, 48 Geneva Convention, 177 Geneva, Switzerland, 140 George III, King of the United Kingdom, 31 Georgia, 143 Geraldton, Western Australia, 30 Germany, 17, 23, 35, 44, 56, 58, 74–5, 103–4, 147–8, 165, 189, 201, 204, 208, 213, 223 Gerry, Elbridge, 181–2 gerrymandering, 180–5, 188, 251 Ghana, 17, 143, 144, 171 Ghani, Rula, 137 globalization, 153 Globe & Mail, 94 golden handcuffs, 111, 119–21, 154 golden parachutes, 19, 116–21 Gollum, 20, 161–3, 165, 176 Google, 164 GooGoosha (Gulnara Karimova), 140, 145 Government Organized NonGovernmental Organizations (GONGOs), 209–10, 212 grade inflation, 88, 99, 158, 159 Great Leap Forward (1958–61), 24 Greece, 20, 21, 22, 27–30, 31, 156, 230 Green Revolution (2009), 135–6, 166–8 gridlock, 184–5, 187 Guardian, 166 gun regulation, 186–7 gunboat diplomacy, 116, 118, 120 Gutiérrez, Luis, 182 Guyana, 171, 220 Guys and Dolls, 40 Hague, William, 77 Haiti, 114–21 Hamas, 99–104, 241 Harmodius, 28 Harvard University, 45 health care, 184–5 Henry IV “the Impotent”, King of Castile and Léon, 30, 231 Herodotus, 29 Higiro, Robert, 94 Hipparchus, 28 Hitler, Adolf, 23, 103–4, 165 HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), 116, 207 Hobart, Tasmania, 153 homosexuality, 12, 20 Hong Kong, 168–70, 176, 221 House of Representatives, 33, 181 human rights, 10, 11, 52, 54, 57, 64, 113, 118, 139, 209, 213 Humphrey, Hubert, 21 Hungary, 150–2, 160, 171 Hussein, Saddam, 63, 72, 73, 79, 124, 156–7 I Paid a Bribe, 170–1 Ibragimbekov, Rustam, 82 Iceland, 88 Iglesias, Julio, 140 “illiberal democracy”, 227 Illinois, United States, 182–3 Iloniaina, Alain, 222–3 imihigo program, 93 Immunization of the Revolution, 127 inclusion, 24, 129–31 India, 56, 98, 152, 156, 170–1, 172, 220 Indonesia, 27, 156, 218 Indyk, Martin, 102 insidious model effect, 46, 48 Inter-Commission Working Group 263 INDEX on International Cooperation, 211 Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), 52, 53 International Criminal Court (ICC), 106, 109, 118, 119 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 105 International Republican Institute (IRI), 58, 142 Internet, 49, 125, 161–75, 207, 208, 221, 223 iPad, 151 iPhones, 20, 83, 135–6, 145 Iran, 26, 30, 36, 38, 47, 48, 69, 98, 117, 135–6, 145, 208, 232 1951 nationalization of AngloIranian Oil Company, 38 1953 Operation Ajax; Mossadegh ousted, 38–42, 98, 208 1979 Islamic Revolution, 42, 117, 216 2009 intervention in Lebanese election, 98; presidential election; Green Revolution protests, 135–6, 166–8 2010 VOA announces “citizen journalism” iPhone app, 135–6, 145 2015 nuclear deal, 26 Iraq, 2, 5, 20, 49, 63, 67, 72–5, 77, 78, 79, 98, 124, 128, 129, 133, 156–7, 198, 213 1979 Saddam comes to power, 72, 129 1990 invasion of Kuwait, 156 2003 US-led invasion, 63, 72–3, 77, 84, 98, 156, 201, 234; de-Ba’athification campaign, 72, 77, 124, 128 2006 formation of al-Maliki government, 73 264 2015 IS execute election officials, 74 Ireland, 90, 217 Islam, 11, 12, 16, 99, 105, 123–6, 129, 131, 177, 218 Islamic State (IS), 74, 78, 131 Islamism, 99, 123–6, 129, 131, 177 Israel, 14, 99–104 Italy, 98, 192 Jackson, Peter, 162 Jammeh,Yahya, 121 Japan, 17, 24, 35, 56, 58, 74–5, 89, 112, 154, 156, 164, 204, 206, 217, 218, 220 al-Jazeera, 76 Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, 172 Joan of Portugal, Queen consort of Castile, 231 Jobs, Steve, 151 Johnson, Boris, 202 Jordan, 18, 60, 155 Juncker, Jean-Claude, 150 Kabila, Joseph, 121 Kabul, Afghanistan, 70 Kagame, Paul, 6, 91–6 Kagan, Robert, 217–18 Kakul Military Academy, 53 Kallel, Abdallah, 124 Kant, Immanuel, 118 Karbala, Iraq, 201 Karegeya, Patrick, 94 Karimov, Islam, 139–40, 142, 154 Karimova, Gulnara, 139–40, 145 Karnataka, India, 170 Karoui, Nébil, 131 Karzai, Hamid, 70 Katanga, Congo, 43–4 Keane, John, 30 INDEX Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 11, 35–6, 55, 190, 192 Kenya, 220 KGB (Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti), 3, 61–2, 147–8, 194, 225 Khan, Rana Sanaullah, 52 Khomeini, Ruhollah, 167 Kim Jong-un, 136, 181 Kingdom of Ebla, 28 Kipling, Rudyard, 69 Kissinger, Henry, 44–7, 214 knee-jerk reactions, 26, 55 Koch Brothers, 185–6 Konrad Adenauer Foundation, 58, 189 Kounalakis, Eleni, 151 kratos, 27 Kununurra, Western Australia, 30 Kuwait, 156, 229 Kyrgyzstan, 185 2011 NATO-led intervention, 76–7; death of Gaddafi, 76–7, 113 2013 Political Isolation Law, 77, 128 LINE, 164–5 Literary Digest, 174 lobbying, 186–7 local-level democracy, 3, 18, 169–73 locusts, 6–7 London, England, 132–3 long-term thinking, 4, 46, 48, 51–67, 138, 141, 234 Lord of the Rings (Tolkien), 20, 161–3, 165, 176 “Luck Be a Lady Tonight”, 40 Lukashenko, Alexander, 61–7, 154, 193–5, 206, 222 Lumumba, Patrice, 42–4 Lumumbashi, Congo, 43 Lake, Anthony, 117 Landon, Alf, 174 Langouste (Ramakavélo), 87 Laos, 200 Latin Earmuffs, 182 Latvia, 147–50, 151–2, 154, 160, 225 League of Democracies, 152–60, 212 Lebanon, 98 Léon, 30–1, 231 Léopoldville, Congo, 43 Levy, Phil, 157 Libya, 2, 5, 20, 24, 49, 67, 69, 76–9, 102, 113, 128, 129, 133, 156, 213 1969 coup d’état; Gaddafi comes to power, 78, 113, 129 2008 Rice makes visit, 76 MacCann, William, 34 Madagascar, 3, 6–9, 17, 20, 59, 85–91, 96, 200, 220, 222–3, 234–5 1991 Panorama Convention, 87 1992 presidential election, 87 1993 population census, 89 2006 presidential election, 85–6 2009 coup d’état; Rajoelina comes to power, 6, 90 2012 Rajoelina announces capture of bandits’ sorcerer, 7 2013 general election, 8, 89–90, 211, 222–3 Madagascar Effect, 6–8, 17, 81, 96, 159, 204, 234–5 Madison, James, 31–2 Malaysia, 153, 218 al-Maliki, Nouri, 73–4 Mao Zedong, 23, 24 265 INDEX marketplace of ideas, 24, 219 Mauritius, 220 May, Theresa, 26 McCain, John, 77 McMahon, Michael, 83 McSpedon, Joe, 49 Megara, 156 Mejora Tu Escuela, 171 El Mercurio, 47 Merkel, Angela, 208 Mesopotamia, 28 Mexico, 27, 149, 155, 156, 171, 172, 178 MI6, 43 Miami, Florida, 117 Miloševicc, Slobodan, 98, 120 Minnesota, United States, 21, 186–7 Minsk, Belarus, 19, 61–2, 66, 192, 193 Mo Ibrahim Foundation, 119 Mobutu, Joseph-Desiré, 43–4 Mogadishu, Somalia, 116 Moghaddam, Ismail Ahmadi, 167 Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, 39–42, 117 Moldova, 195–6 Mondale, Walter, 21 Mong Kok riots (2016), 169 Mongolia, 17, 30, 189 Morjane, Kamel, 130 Morocco, 155, 171 Morsi, Mohammed, 14, 15, 164, 247 Moscow, Russia, 210 Mossadegh, Mohammed, 38–42, 43, 232 Mosul, Iraq, 72, 73 al-Moubadara, 130 Mubarak, Hosni, 6, 13, 164 Mugabe, Robert, 112–13, 157–8 Mugenzi, Rene Claudel, 94–5, 189 € 266 Muhirwa, Alice, 93 Muñiz de Urquiza, María, 90 Munyuza, Dan, 94 Musharraf, Pervez, 51–7 Myanmar, 218, 225 Nasiri, Nematollah, 40 Nation, The, 198 National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO), 197 National Democratic Institute (NDI), 58, 92, 142 National Endowment for Democracy (NED), 58, 60, 144, 247 National Rifle Association (NRA), 186–7 Native Americans, 32, 33 Nawabshah, Pakistan, 51 Nazi Germany (1933–45), 23, 44, 74–5, 103–4, 147–8, 165 Nepal, 98 Netherlands, 58, 89, 143 Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy, 58 New Stanford Hospital, Palo Alto, 26 NewYork Times, 71, 93, 185–6 New Zealand, 112, 156, 209 Nicaragua, 24, 98 Nidaa Tounes, 131 Niger, 185 Nigeria, 171, 172 Nixon, Richard, 44–7 Niyazov, Saparmurat, 25 Nobel Prize, 18, 24, 131, 156, 163 non-alignment, 43 non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 58–60, 141–2, 144, 158, 209–10, 212, 238 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 45, 55, 77 INDEX North Carolina, United States, 183 North Korea, 4, 11, 136, 138, 144, 173, 176, 181 Norway, 24, 77, 205, 219 nuclear power/weapons, 26, 192 Nunavut, Canada, 153, 230–1 Nunn, Sam, 116 Nuristan, Afghanistan, 70 Nyaklyayew, Uladzimir, 61–2, 65 Nyamwasa, Faustin Kayumba, 94 Obama, Barack, 6, 9–10, 14, 49, 54, 55, 57–8, 76, 96, 111, 183, 204, 205, 218 Obiang, Teodoro, 6, 121 Odysseus, 22, 153 oil, 4, 11, 16, 24, 84, 192, 229 olive oil, 125 Operation Ajax (1953), 38–42, 98, 208 Operation Desert Storm (1991), 156 Operation Enduring Freedom (2001–14), 70 Operation Uphold Democracy (1994–5), 116 Orbán, Viktor, 150–2 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), 64 Ortega, Daniel, 98 Orwell, George, 15, 101, 199 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 192 Ouattara, Alassane, 105–10, 119 Oxford University, 198, 202 OxfordGirl, 166 Pakistan, 18, 50–7, 70, 220, 233 Palestine, 99–104, 108, 240–1 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 99 Panama, 117 Panorama Convention (1991), 87 Papua New Guinea, 188 parliaments, 31 partisan engagement, 99–104 Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), 156 People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD), 197, 202 Pericles, 29 Persia, 28 Peru, 153 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 33 Philippines, 218 Pinochet, Augusto, 47–8, 225 Piromya, Kasit, 204–5 Plateau Dokui, Abidjan, 107 Plato, 29 Poland, 201 Political Isolation Law (2013), 77, 128 polling, 174–6 Pomerantsev, Peter, 210 Pongsudhirak, Thitinan, 165 Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 117 Portugal, 218, 231 Pouraghayi, Saeedah, 167 Powell, Colin, 116, 120 Préval, René, 117 Price, Melissa, 30 Princeton University, 186 prisoner’s dilemma, 200 process engagement, 99–100 propaganda-industry tax, 209 protectionism, 177 proto-democracy, 28 Public Diplomacy of the Public Chamber of Russia Elections, 211 Pul-i-Charki, Kabul, 71 Putin, Vladimir, 63, 64–5, 194–5, 204, 207, 214 267 INDEX al-Qaeda, 18, 50, 52–3, 55, 78, 177, 234 Qatar, 155, 229 Qatif, Saudi Arabia, 11, 16 Queen, 121 racism, 176, 218, 250 Rajoelina, Andry, 6 Ramadan, 126 Ramakavélo, Desiré-Philippe, 86–7 Rao, Bhaskar, 170 Rassemblement des Républicains, 105 Ratchaburi, Thailand, 199 Ravalomanana, Marc, 6 Reagan, Ronald, 35–6, 55 realpolitik, 4, 45, 48, 98, 104 refugees, 208 representative democracy, 30–3 Republican Party, 39, 58, 79, 124, 142, 181, 182–8 Rever, Judi, 94 Riahi, Taghi, 39–40 Rice, Condoleeza, 76, 102 Riga, Latvia, 147–8, 150, 160, 225 rock lobster, 87 Rojanaphruk, Pravit, 198–9, 221, 223–4 Romania, 149, 209 Rome, Ancient (753 BC–476 AD), 21, 30 Romney, Mitt, 112 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 39, 174 Roosevelt, Kermit, 38–40, 208 Roosevelt, Theodore “Teddy”, 39 de Rosas, Juan Manuel, 34–5 Roskam, Peter 183 rule of law, 10, 27, 73, 77, 136, 159, 209, 218 Rumsfeld, Donald, 145 Russia Today (RT), 207–9 268 Russian Federation, 24, 27, 60–1, 63–5, 82, 106, 140, 149, 190, 191–6, 204, 205–12, 214, 221, 229 1996 Commonwealth with Belarus established, 194 2002 proposal for re-integration of Belarus, 194 2005 support for Moldovan opposition on Transnistria, 195–6; Russia Today established, 207 2010 Putin sings Fats Domino’s Blueberry Hill, 207 2013 endorsement of Azerbaijani election, 211 2014 annexation of Crimea; intervention in Ukraine, 64, 65; RT reports “genocide” in Ukraine, 207; RT reports CIA behind Ebola outbreak, 207 2015 NED banned, 60; pressure on Belarus to host military base, 65, 195 2016 RT report on rape of “Lisa” in Germany, 208; Putin praised by Trump, 214 Rwanda, 6, 20, 91–6, 120, 185, 189, 215, 216 Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), 91 San Diego State University, 209 sanctions, 52, 62–5, 67, 103, 106, 135–6, 145, 156–8, 160, 195, 247, 253 Sandinista National Liberation Front, 98 Sandy Hook massacre (2012), 186 dos Santos, José Eduardo, 112–13 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 108 INDEX SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), 25–6 Saudi Arabia, 5–6, 9–12, 15–16, 19–20, 85, 98, 138, 144, 200, 216, 229 1962 slavery abolished, 11 2009 intervention in Lebanese election, 98; children sentenced to prison and lashes for stealing exam papers, 11, 16; Jeddah floods, 172 2010 Indonesian maid mutilated by employer, 11, 12; arms deal with US, 10–12 2011 Qatif protests, 16 2013 aid package to Egypt announced, 15; purchase of US naval craft announced, 16; Badawi sentenced to prison and lashes, 16 Saudi Arabia Effect, 5, 9, 16, 85, 138, 200 Schneider, René, 45 School of the Americas, 115 Seattle, Washington, 77 Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), 43 Sen, Amartya, 24 Senate, US, 32–3, 187 Senegal, 42, 121 September 11 attacks (2001), 18, 52–3, 55, 70 Serbia, 98, 120 Shanghai Cooperation Organization, 211 Sharif, Nawaz, 51–2, 233 Shinawatra, Thaksin, 196, 199, 201, 202, 205 Shinawatra,Yingluck, 198 short-term thinking, 3–4, 26, 46, 48, 51–67, 120, 138, 141, 234 Shushkevich, Stanislav, 192–3 Siberia, 147, 148 Sidick, Koné Abou Bakary, 107–9 Sierra Leone, 88, 171, 209 Singapore, 23, 24, 27, 93, 155, 215, 216, 217, 229 Siripaiboon, Thanakorn, 165 el-Sisi, Abdel Fattah, 15 Skujenieks, Knuts, 148 Skype, 62 slavery, 11, 29, 32 social media, 49–50, 125, 161–70, 173, 176, 199, 207, 208, 223 Socrates, 29 Solon, 28 Somalia, 42, 116 Sophocles, 29 Sopko, John, 137 Sousse attacks (2015), 131 South Africa, 27, 94, 157, 189 South Korea, 17, 27, 112, 152, 156, 218 Soviet Union (1922–91), 1, 22–3, 35–6, 37–50, 61, 64, 82, 121, 147–8, 150, 160, 192–4, 201, 204, 206–7 Spain, 218 Sparta, 28, 29 St John’s College, Oxford, 202 Stalin, Joseph, 23 Stanford University, 171 State Department, 11, 15, 54, 202 state power, 27 Statkevich, Mikalai, 61–2, 65, 222 Stewart, Jon, 53 Sting (Gordon Sumner), 140 Stockholm Syndrome, 199 Sudan, 206 Sukondhapatipak, Werachon 198 Sundaravej, Samak, 197 Super PACs, 185 Supreme Court, US, 185, 188 Sweden, 92, 220 269 INDEX Switzerland, 118, 140, 205 Syria, 78, 120, 131, 198, 208, 217, 224, 225 Szájer, József, 151 Tahrir Square, Cairo, 10, 13, 163–4 Taiwan, 27, 218 Taliban, 18, 52, 56, 71, 138 tame democracy promotion, 59 Taming of Democracy Assistance, The (Bush), 59 Tarakhel Mohammadi, 70–1 Tasmania, Australia, 153 Tasting and Grumbling, 197 Tea Party, 185 terrorism, 11, 16, 18, 19, 20, 26, 52–3, 55, 63, 70, 78, 97, 100, 101, 131, 156, 201, 234 Tetra Tech, 138 Thailand, 3, 19, 27, 154, 164–5, 196–206, 212, 221, 223–4, 253 1973 pro-democracy uprising, 199 1976 student protests, 199 1982 launch of Cobra Gold exercises with US, 201 2003 troops dispatched to Iraq, 201 2006 coup d’état, 196, 197 2008 judicial coup, 196, 197, 202, 253 2010 protests and crackdown, 202 2014 NCPO coup d’état, 164, 196–206, 221; junta gives out free haircuts, 154; rail deal with China, 203; junta releases LINE “values stickers”, 164–5 2015 man arrested for insulting Tongdaeng, 165 270 2016 constitutional referendum, 197, 223 Thirty Tyrants, 29 Thucydides, 28, 29 time horizon, 55 Tobruk, Libya, 77 Togo, 170, 177–8 Tolkien, John Ronald Reuel, 20, 161–3, 165, 176 Tongdaeng, 165 torture, 11, 28, 43, 48, 52, 124–7, 132, 139, 141, 222, 224 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 153 Transnistria, 196 transparency, 26, 82, 170, 174, 212, 218 Tripoli, Libya, 77 Trojan War, 22 Trump, Donald, 1, 20, 25, 79, 178, 180, 187, 188, 204, 205 Tudeh Party, 41, 232 Tunisia, 12–13, 17, 18, 19, 27, 65, 77, 123–33, 142, 143, 144, 155, 156, 209, 218, 221, 224–5 1987 coup d’état; Ben Ali comes to power, 124, 126, 129 1991 Barraket Essahel affair, 123, 126, 224 1995 EU Association Agreement, 155 2010 self-immolation of Bouazizi; protests begin, 12, 126, 224 2011 ousting of Ben Ali, 13, 124–6, 130 2014 assembly rejects bill on political exclusion, 128; law on rehabilitation and recognition of torture victims, 224; presidential election, 130 2015 Bardo Museum and Sousse attacks, 131, 156; National INDEX Dialogue Quartet awarded Nobel Peace Prize, 18, 131 Tunisia’s Call, 131 Turkey, 20, 27, 39, 149, 161–3, 165, 176 Turkmenistan, 11, 25, 26, 138, 144, 154 Twitter, 49, 162, 163, 166, 168, 176, 199, 208 U2, 92 Udon Thani, Thailand, 201 Uganda, 166, 176 Ukraine, 2, 27, 64, 65, 171, 198, 207, 213 Umbrella Movement (2014), 168, 176, 221 United Arab Emirates (UAE), 229 United Kingdom (UK), 1–3, 31, 33, 38, 43–4, 56, 58, 71–2, 92, 94–5, 126, 129, 132–3, 156, 166, 171–2, 180, 189, 202, 214 1707 Acts of Union, 31 1947 Churchill’s statement on democracy, 22, 190, 215 1951 Mossadegh nationalizes Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, 38 1987 Ferjani arrives in exile, 126 1999 European Parliament election, 180 2003 invasion of Iraq, 72–3 2009 OxfordGirl tweets on Iranian Green Revolution, 166; Blair meets with Kagame, 6, 92 2011 intervention in Libya, 77; Kagame appears on BBC radio; threat against Mugenzi, 94–5, 189 2012 launch of FixMyStreet, 171 2016 EU membership referendum, 1 United Nations (UN), 104, 105, 106, 108–10, 118, 130, 132, 140, 152 United States (US) 1787 Constitutional Convention, 31 1812 redrawing of Massachusetts senate election districts, 181–2 1869 Wyoming grants women vote, 33 1870 non-white men receive vote, 33 1913 Seventeenth Amendment enacted, 32 1917 Wilson’s “safe for democracy” speech, 35 1918 Wilson’s Fourteen Points, 35 1920 women receive vote, 33 1924 protections to ensure Native American voting rights, 33 1936 presidential election, 174 1948 CIA intervention in Italian election, 98 1953 Operation Ajax; Mossadegh ousted in Iran, 38–42, 98, 208 1960 plot to assassinate Lumumba with poisoned toothpaste, 43 1961 Foreign Assistance Act, 14–15 1962 Saudi Arabia pressured into abolishing slavery, 11; Cuban Missile Crisis, 50 1963 Kennedy’s Berlin speech, 35; assassination of Kennedy, 192 271 INDEX 1965 protections to ensure minority voting rights, 33 1973 ousting of Allende in Chile, 47 1982 launch of Cobra Gold exercises with Thailand, 201 1987 Reagan’s Berlin speech, 35; aid payments to Egypt begin, 14 1988 Reagan’s “city on a hill” speech, 10, 35, 179, 188, 189 1990 intervention in Nicaraguan election, 98 1991 launch of Operation Desert Storm in Iraq, 156 1992 presidential and House of Representatives elections, 183–4 1993 Clinton assumes office, 115; Battle of Mogadishu, 116 1994 launch of Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, 116; Cessna crash at White House, 116; Cédras given “golden parachute”, 116–17 1997 USAID Cambodia claims to have “exceeded expectations”, 59 1999 Pakistan urged to return to democracy, 52, 53 2001 September 11 attacks, 18, 52–3, 55, 70; cooperation with Pakistan begins, 52–3, 55; invasion of Afghanistan, 70, 71, 84, 98 2002 Bush announces new approach for Israel/Palestine conflict, 99 2003 invasion of Iraq, 63, 72–3, 77, 84, 98, 156, 201, 234 272 2004 Belarus Democracy Act, 63, 194 2005 Senate vote on armorpiercing bullet ban, 187; intervention in Palestinian election campaign, 99–104 2006 Musharraf appears on The Daily Show, 53 2008 Afifi arrives in exile, 163, 247; Rice’s visit to Libya, 76 2009 Obama assumes office, 55, 57; Clinton describes Mubaraks as “friends of my family”, 6; Obama’s Cairo speech, 9–10, 218; military helicopter drops ballot boxes in Afghanistan, 70; Kagame receives Clinton Global Citizen award, 92 2010 VOA announces “citizen journalism” app for Iran, 135, 145; Citizens United v.

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Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

Circumstances can suddenly transform anyone with a smartphone into a citizen journalist. If you film a political demonstration or action by the police, you may end up possessing information that powerful interests would like to suppress. Something similar, after all, happened to Laura Poitras. She began her adult life as a chef. After she started making films with strong political themes, she became a target for government harassment. In other words: this stuff can happen to anyone. Smartphone-wielding citizens were arrested for filming the deaths of Philando Castile, Eric Garner, Freddie Gray, and Alton Sterling. In Ferguson, Missouri, civilians were also detained for filming officers after the fatal police shooting of Michael Brown. “The possibility of citizen journalism is thrilling, but we’re also seeing this pushback around if you are the person who provided the video information; there’s pressure on you from power structures,” Kirsten continued.

When you tag friends in a photo, you’re also adding their faces to a massive biometric database. In other words: social media is not the place to dance like no one’s watching. If you’re an activist or a citizen journalist, consider building a toolkit that supports your work in the field. At protests or political events, consider stashing your cellphone in a simple Faraday bag that blocks it from sending or receiving signals. (As of this writing, they’re available online for about $11 apiece.) This might seem like the modern-day equivalent of wearing a tinfoil hat, but it’s not — police have tracked cell signals at Occupy Wall Street and other civic demonstrations to identify the people who are participating. Security researchers also urge citizen journalists to back up their footage to a trusted space in the cloud, in case their devices are confiscated. The American Civil Liberties Union maintains a tool called the Mobile Justice App, which allows smartphone users to transmit video directly to the organization.

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We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics,, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

In 2004 a self-organised investigation by US bloggers forced a television news network to withdraw a story claiming that President George W. Bush had received preferential treatment during his military service, by showing that the documents the network had relied upon were fakes. The website Slashdot, a meeting-place for nerds and geeks, gets 3 million visitors a day, mainly people who take part in scores of self-moderated discussions.9 OhmyNews in South Korea brings together 55,000 citizen journalists to provide a news service that rivals that of traditional, mainly conservative newspapers and television stations.10 YouTube and Flickr have enabled the widespread sharing of video and photographs and allow people to rate and sort content using tags and collaborative filters. So We-Think is vital to allow us to make the most of the extraordinary opportunities now available to us to create and contribute content.

Collaborative filtering and the book reviews and ratings on Amazon, and social tagging tools like Technorati and del.i.cious, through which people help one another find interesting material on the web, fit into this category. Only when all our five conditions come together at scale to provide a deliberate, conscious form of social creativity in which many people contribute and collaborate does Full We-Think emerge. OhmyNews, the South Korean citizen-journalist news service fits in here, as do mass computer games like World of Warcraft and scientific collaborations like the project to unravel the worm’s genome. Full We-Think is the deliberate and organised combination of contributions from a mass of distributed and independent participants. It would be silly to suggest that We-Think can work in every situation and that it is always the best organisational recipe.

Sprawling networked organisations can be thrown off balance by events in far-flung economies: British banks can be upended when lots of low-income households do not repay their mortgages in the US Midwest; the biggest oil company in the world can have its reputation tarnished by mistakes at a refinery in Alaska. Leaders in all walks of life operate in a far more open environment, under constant scrutiny from the media, regulators, their employees and now the wider world of citizen journalists, armed with their camera phones and blogs. Closed leadership is too slow for this world because too many decisions have to be passed upwards for approval. Closed leadership is also out of kilter with the increasingly democratic ethos of the times. Authority is now more likely to be questioned and less likely to be meekly followed. Employees’ support cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be renewed time and again.

The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

“They have secured seats on campaign planes, at The Tao of Pirates | 51 political conventions and in presidential debates, and have become a driving force in news events themselves.” In fact, they now have so much power around the world, they are deciding who gets to run the place. Citizens on Patrol Citizen journalists are countering the homogenization of the news media the same way pirate DJs counter bland radio playlists. The online newspaper OhmyNews was established in South Korea in 2000, with a full-time staff of seven people. Today it has a team of thirty-five thousand citizen journalists who provide 80 percent of its content,* which makes it one of the nation’s most powerful media platforms. The OhmyNews motto is “Every Citizen Is a Reporter,” but as founder Oh Yeon Ho says, “The slogan is not only about changing journalism, but about changing all of society.”

The $565 million market† motivates the pirates who produce 95 percent of all Chinese DVDs sold, but the side effect is free speech on a scale that renders movie censorship irrelevant. “Forbidden things are always attractive,” subversive Chinese blogger Muzimei‡ later said. “The politicians at the top introduce policies. The people at the bottom find a way around them.” Thanks to advances in technology, people everywhere are running rings around censors and regulators. From citizen journalists to bloggers and those producing and broadcasting their own online con*For those unfamiliar with New York, the Canal Street area in Manhattan’s Chinatown is one of piracy’s main hubs, where vast numbers of knocked-off DVDs, handbags, and fragrances are traded daily. The value of the pirate DVD market in China, according to a 2006 study released by the Motion Picture Association of America, is $565 million.

I’m publishing this, and I guess you’re readin’ this, in part to figure that out, huh?” These days, everyone has pretty much figured out it was. Blogs have gone mainstream, with tens of millions and counting,* providing information on anything and everything. Today there are political blogs left, right, and center, sports blogs, pet blogs, makeup blogs, gadget blogs, shopping blogs, and even blog blogs.† The mainstream news media are being undermined by bloggers and citizen journalists offering a wider variety of local and niche cov- *At a rate of seventy thousand new blogs created every day, according to Technorati. The aforementioned Technorati is the biggest blog blog of them all, reporting on what the rest of the blogosphere is talking about. It saw its readership increase by more than 700 percent in 2005. † 50 | THE PIRATE’S DILEMMA erage. But they also are regularly beating the pros at the networks to some of the world’s biggest stories.

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WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Chapter 6 1 President Barack Obama, “Transparency and Open Government,” January 21, 2009, andOpenGovernment. 2 President Barack Obama, “Freedom of Information Act,” January 21, 2009, 3 William Branigin, “Democrats Take Majority in House; Pelosi Poised to Become Speaker,” The Washington Post, November 8, 2006, AR2006110700473.html. 4 A full list of participants in the Open House Project can be found here: 5 John Wonderlich, “Open House Project Retrospective,” The Open House Project, October 14, 2008, open-house-project-retrospective. It’s also worth noting that press credentialing for citizen journalists and bulk access to congressional floor and committee video were two recommendations that the project made the least progress on. 6 Micah L. Sifry, “Obama as Crowdsourcer; Organizing the Country for Change and Accountability,”, February 8, 2009, 7 Clint Hendler, “Obama on,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 9, 2009, 8 Edward Luce and Tom Braithwaite, “US stimulus tsar to unleash 1m inspector-generals,” The Financial Times, August 20, 2009, cms/s/0/e731fd52-8db0-11de-93df-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1 AZfFLMQT. 9 Earl Devaney, “Chairman’s Corner,”, March 22, 2010, www. 10 Clay Johnson, “ Stop with the Data Defense, Start with the Conversation,” March 30, 2010, recoverygov-stop-data-defense-start-conversation. 11 Earl Devaney, “Chairman’s Corner,”, October 27, 2010, 197 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 198 Becky Hogge, “Open Data Study,” Open Society Foundations Information Program, May 2010, communication/ar ticles_publications/publications/open-datastudy-20100519.

The 600,000 people who had put their hearts, minds, mousepads, and checkbooks together for Howard Dean and, at least for a time, driven a fairly obscure small-state governor to the center of the presidential campaign had just gotten a taste of their own power. “We all felt the muscle flex of this new progressive movement and were stunned by it,” recalled Nicco Mele, Dean’s webmaster.6 Bloggers, the leaders of a new citizen journalism, were seeing their traffic multiply into the hundreds of thousands as readers flocked to sites that were more participatory and transparent than traditional media. People were learning how to ferret out information and force it into public view—and embarrassing all kinds of powerful targets, from Senator Trent Lott and CBS anchor Dan Rather to the Diebold electronic voting machine company, which tried to suppress the leak of embarrassing internal emails and instead saw them spread by activists onto hundreds of servers across the web.7 (Shades of WikiLeaks!)

Since he became a political blogger, he has also 87 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY backed a few maverick candidates for office. In 2007, he ran the Social Democrats’ online campaign; he backed Ivo Josipovic in his campaign for Croatia’s (largely ceremonial) presidency; and more recently he helped an unknown candidate for mayor of Zagreb come from nowhere to grab forty percent of the vote against the incumbent. He is now looking to start a “serious citizen journalism site” that would offer analytical, behindthe-news reporting, blending citizen contributions with professional moderation. I asked him why he does what he does. “It’s hard to express,” he says. “I just want to see a better country.” But he is muckraking for a harder reason too: “Croatian history is full of ‘unfinished’ stories, and unless we start talking and resolving them we will be forever burdened by our past.”

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Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet by Linda Herrera

citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks

Badawy was the first person to post the before and after photos of Khaled, images that were quickly picked up by the Ayman Nour Facebook page and the online newspaper Al-Youm al-Saba`a. Badawi blogged that the police targeted Khaled because he had posted a video of a group of policemen dividing the spoils of a drug bust. Even though Khaled was not known among the community of bloggers and activists in Alexandria, the explanation of him as a brave citizen journalist picked up traction with “youth of the internet” (shabab al-internet). At the hands of seasoned activists, Khaled’s life became a blank slate on which to write a compelling story. The heroic narratives that circulated about Khaled held little resemblance to the actual person. In a richly investigated piece in Jadaliyya called “Saeeds of Revolution: De-Mythologizing Khaled Saeed,” Amro Ali reveals that the image and life of Khaled Said were “distorted almost beyond recognition.”

Even after the group disbanded, Kefaya remained a critical reference point for horizontal coalition politics. Egypt’s parliamentary and first multi-candidate presidential elections in 2005 served as crucial milestones in the evolution of online opposition politics. Young citizens took it upon themselves to document and publicize the array of fraud and intimidation against candidates and voters. Haitham, a blogger who was nineteen years old at the time, took his first steps toward citizen journalism in 2005. He explains: I was very interested in carrying out an experiment to supervise an election from inside a poll station. I went to a small village outside of Alexandria and started to monitor what was happening. I saw how people would sell their votes and write “yes” for Mubarak just for money. I took pictures and posted them on my blog. He wasn’t working for a particular political party or candidate, just acting as an independent citizen with an online voice.

People need to have access to media and an ability to campaign and get their messages out. It’s very difficult to judge the true strength of these groups in the current environment. With blogging and internet connectivity on the rise, MEPI entered into the arena of youth cyberjournalism and cyberactivist training. MEPI earmarked resources to support NGOs to train cyberactivists in how to use communication tools and internet platforms for citizen journalism and democracy-promotion activities. Alongside MEPI, the State Department was busy developing what it called “Diplomacy 2.0.” Karen Hughes, the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs from 2005 to 2007, attempted to bring public diplomacy to the digital age. She established regional media hubs in Brussels, London, and Dubai with the intention of spreading news about US foreign policy in overseas broadcast media.

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Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy by Robert W. McChesney

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, death of newspapers, declining real wages, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of journalism, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, informal economy, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the medium is the message, The Spirit Level, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, yellow journalism

No child labor, yet, but if there were more page views in it . . .”100 David Watts Barton left the Sacramento Bee in 2007 to work at the Sacramento Press, a hyperlocal digital news operation. In the Columbia Journalism Review, he described the extreme difficulty of producing credible journalism based on volunteer labor. “Editing costs money. Citizen journalists are cheap and they can even be good. But even great journalists need some editing; citizen journalists need a lot of it. . . . Without journalism jobs, we don’t have journalism.”101 Commercial media’s attitude toward journalism labor became apparent in the Journatic brouhaha following a whistleblower’s exposé aired on public radio’s This American Life in the summer of 2012. Journatic is a shadowy “hyperlocal content provider” that reportedly eschews publicity to the point where its site contains code that lessens its appearance in Google search results.

As I assess the state of journalism in the United States today, it becomes evident that the Internet is not the cause of journalism’s problems. Digital technology has only greatly accelerated and made permanent trends produced by commercialism that were apparent before the World Wide Web, Craigslist, Google, or Facebook existed. I then look at the various efforts at generating digital journalism by the traditional news media, entrepreneurs, citizen journalists (a colloquial term for unpaid journalists), and nonprofit organizations. Although I find scant evidence that what is occurring online today could plausibly generate a popular journalism sufficient for a free and self-governing society, the notion that the Internet could provide the basis for a radically improved democratic journalism is another matter altogether. There I believe the celebrants are clearly on to something very big.

See advertising and marketing to children children’s cell phone use, 2 Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), 266–67n151 Chile, 101 China, 10, 31, 32, 43, 125, 126, 163 “Chinese wall” (journalism). See journalistic firewall chipset market, 133 Christianity, 242n83 Christian Science Monitor, 185 “church-state separation” (journalism). See journalistic firewall Cisco, 131, 145, 260n36 “citizen journalists,” 174, 175, 191, 200, 277n101 citizenship news voucher (proposed), 211–14 civil liberties ratings and rankings, 207 class, 14, 25, 27, 29, 32, 203–4, 237n13. See also middle class; poor people; wealthy people; working class classification of documents. See government classification of documents climate change, 282n11 Clinton, Bill, 106 cloud computing, 136, 161, 260n36 Cognitive Surplus (Shirky), 6, 9 Comcast, 77, 110, 113, 124, 131, 137 commercialism and commercialization, 24, 69, 76, 102, 103, 104, 120–29 alienating effect of, 70 commercialization of friendship, 157 international index of, 46 in journalism, 83, 86, 90–91 Michael Sandel on, 45 public antipathy to, 67–68, 75, 102 commercials, television.

pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Luckily, thanks to the expansion of online news sources, new media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, and the ever-decreasing size and cost of camera phones and video cameras, the ability to commit acts of journalism is spreading to everyone. As a result, citizen journalism is rapidly emerging as an invaluable part of delivering the news. Nothing demonstrated the power of citizen journalism better than the 2009 uprising in Iran. People tweeting from demonstrations and uploading video of brutal violence taken with their camera phones were able to tell a story, in real time, that a tightly controlled mainstream media was unable to cover with the same speed and depth. Citizen journalism often works best when filling a void—attending an event that traditional journalists are kept from or have overlooked—or by finding the small but evocative story happening right next door. People are becoming increasingly creative in exploring ways to find these facts and tell these stories. New media and citizen journalists are taking traditional journalism’s ability to bear witness, and spreading it beyond the elite few—thereby making it harder for those elite few to get it as wrong as they’ve gotten it again and again.

pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden,, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Many community tweeters did not trust each other, or trusted only those they had preexisting social ties to. Eventually, Twitter feeds were clogged with advertisements and misinformation, and communities had to move on to other hashtags and develop sophistication in interpreting what was coming over their feeds. Communities rapidly develop their own hashtags and keywords and documentary techniques. The Witness Project encourages people to document the abuses they see, and coaches citizen journalists on how to use care with their work. In Monterrey, some tweeters were “halcons” or falcons, people who watched Twitter traffic at the behest of the gangs, looking for tips about police maneuvers and informants.16 Tweeters competed to break news and correct one another. Social media help people cope during civil strife. First, they follow the news and keep track of family and friends. Most of the time, people use the internet for entertainment, sports, and culture.

The startup Premise, for example, uses mobile apps to collate pricing information for the world’s food staples, from onions to milk.68 The internet of things is going to have a big impact on current events. The job of monitoring a problem, verifying that something can be done, and complying with expectations for solving it is tough, especially in global contexts. Fortunately, there is a growing number of vigilante watchers, citizen journalists, hacktivists, and whistle blowers. In many countries, the government is also the largest employer. And payroll is a big target for corrupt officials. So any system that helps the government pay its employees properly makes the entire economy a little more transparent and efficient. In Afghanistan, when the government started paying its police officers using “mobile money” through mobile phones, many officers were surprised at the size of their paychecks.

A single road, passable only during the dry season, weaves through the western part of South Sudan. But tracking technologies improve faster than these thugs’ ability to discover new hiding spots. In some cases, people are able to muster significant information resources toward undermining the credibility of poor leaders, then organize opponents for a coordinated push. These information cascades start as small examples of citizen journalism, efforts to document police abuse, or political jokes. They can grow to topple a dictator. Dirty networks are not always governments, but bad governments are often networked with drug lords, corrupt generals, or holy thugs. Social media can be used against those kinds of political actors too, as a way of undermining their control or as a way of coping during moments of extreme violence. A powerful country is going to be one that has the capacity to use big data to solve its own domestic social inequalities.

pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The commercial pressure, corporate corruption, government distortion, and celebrity scandals that contort our public discourse are enough to make anyone wish for a massive media overthrow. It’s no wonder, then, that people find solace in the idea of an amateur utopia, a public sphere where the unsavory issue of money is sidestepped and pure-hearted citizen journalists work unsullied. Davies dismisses the vision. “The fact is that reporting is difficult—it involves real skills, some of them quite obscure; it needs resources and time; it also, I think, needs to be accountable.” There might be some very good stuff published under the auspices of citizen journalism, Davies acknowledges. “But the dangers are clear.” Idealizing citizen journalists, imagining them as necessarily agenda-less and untainted, is one such danger. But the problem, as Davies knows, goes deeper than the overblown battle of amateurs versus professionals, journalists versus bloggers, print versus digital, old media versus new, or analog immigrants versus digital natives.

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

Robert Cottrell, ‘My Life as a Screen Slave’, Financial Times, 15 February 2013 70. fact-checking sites include,, and For one account of verification, see Malachy Browne, ‘Storyful: Verifying Citizen Journalism’, Free Speech Debate, 71. Jefferson 1787 in Boyd, ed. 1950 [1787], 72. Coleman et al. 2009, 45 73. for an interesting discussion of citizen journalism, see Turi Munthe, ‘Has Demotix Democratised Journalism?’, Free Speech Debate, 74. Newman et al., eds. 2014, 66 75. Gant 2007 76. U.S. Senate, ‘Senate Manual Containing the Standing Rules, Orders, Laws, and Resolutions Affecting the Business of the United States Senate’, 77.

Chen Yi then posted a detailed statement of how the RMB 114,550 she had received in contributions had been spent—some RMB 40,000 for her mother’s surgery, the rest to a charity for children with leukaemia. Chen Yi was the one who had initially ‘gone public’, and since the public had given money there was in some sense a public interest in knowing that it had been properly spent. The irony is that it took a clear violation of her privacy to correct the ‘false light’ cast by the original citizen-journalist enquiry.46 Now consider the hounding of an apparatchik called Zhou Jiugeng, the head of the real estate department in the Jiangning district of the city of Nanjing. In December 2008, he warned that developers selling properties at a price below the actual cost would be prosecuted. A day later, a post titled ‘Eight Questions to Property Bureau Chief Zhou’ started a flesh search. Within three days, netizens had posted pictures of Zhou smoking expensive cigarettes and wearing a Vacheron-Constantin watch reportedly worth some RMB 100,000; another three days, and someone revealed that Zhou’s brother was a property developer.

The executive, the legislature and the judiciary (in British terms: government, parliament and the courts) all have a part to play, as does the media. But as we saw in chapter 4, in the internet age nobody quite knows where the media begin and end. For example, is WikiLeaks part of the media? Or is it, as the title of a film about it suggested, the fifth estate? What about networks of bloggers, citizen journalists, civil society activists and NGOs? Are they a sixth estate? Where do we fit into this picture the use of information and communications technologies, such as encryption and Tor, to counter the repressive potential of those same technologies? I shall touch only briefly on the roles that can be played by executive, judiciary and legislature, say a few words about the media and then argue that all these constraints will be inadequate without the contribution of two particular kinds of free speech: leaking and whistleblowing.

pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp,, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

“There is now a constant ‘price tag’ on violent responses from oppressors: Somebody will catch those moments with a simple camera and upload it on YouTube,” as Srdja Popovic, a leader of the Serbian youth group Otpor! (which agitated for the overthrow of Slobodan Miloševic in the late 1990s) told The European. Do sousveillance and citizen journalism supplant traditional journalism? Not really—even the most committed citizen documentarians don’t have the time or resources to do the legwork that journalists, at their best, do. Instead, it’s become clear that citizens and traditional media have a symbiotic relationship. Because citizen journalists are more widespread, they capture things traditional media cannot. But their voices become amplified when they attract the attention of old media, with its audiences in traditional corridors of power. In the Iranian uprising of 2009 and Syrian uprising of 2011, the governments banned (or severely limited) international media, so citizen reports became the only path to foreign coverage; but those reports were given additional force when disseminated in the mainstream

In the early 1990s, I believed that as people migrated online, society’s worst urges might be uncorked: pseudonymity would poison online conversation, gossip and trivia would dominate, and cultural standards would collapse. Certainly some of those predictions have come true, as anyone who’s wandered into an angry political forum knows. But the truth is, while I predicted the bad stuff, I didn’t foresee the good stuff. And what a torrent we have: Wikipedia, a global forest of eloquent bloggers, citizen journalism, political fact-checking—or even the way status-update tools like Twitter have produced a renaissance in witty, aphoristic, haiku-esque expression. If this book accentuates the positive, that’s in part because we’ve been so flooded with apocalyptic warnings of late. We need a new way to talk clearly about the rewards and pleasures of our digital experiences—one that’s rooted in our lived experience and also detangled from the hype of Silicon Valley.

Sanger, “A Tunisian-Egyptian Link That Shook Arab History,” The New York Times, February 13, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013,; Jillian York, “The Arab Digital Vanguard: How a Decade of Blogging Contributed to a Year of Revolution,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 13, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2012): 33–42, accessed March 26, 2013, “Most of their marches and protests”: Sahar Khamis and Katherine Vaughn, “Cyberactivism in the Egyptian Revolution: How Civic Engagement and Citizen Journalism Tilted the Balance,” Arab Media & Society 14 (Summer 2011), accessed March 26, 2013, “Fear was embodied”: Wael Ghonim, Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People Is Greater Than the People in Power: A Memoir (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012), Kindle edition. a collective action problem: Zeynep Tufekci, “New Media and the People-Powered Uprisings,” MIT Technology Review, August 30, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013,

pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, online collectivism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

It powers a vast range of sites from Global Voices to the Kenyan citizen media website Ushahidi, to several Arabic blogging community websites. It also powers the blogs of some of China’s most cutting-edge bloggers. One of the WordPress fans who clamored for a photo with Mullenweg at Beijing WordCamp was Zhou Shuguang, a twenty-eight-year-old vegetable seller turned blogger who writes under the pen name Zola. This “citizen journalist” has traveled the country writing about hot topics on the Chinese Internet. In 2006 he catapulted to fame as the “nailhouse blogger” whose on-site reports of a dramatic standoff between a Chongqing couple and local property developers helped break down a national media ban on the incident. In 2007 he was detained and escorted back to his home in Changsha after attempting to cover protests in the Northeast.

Though the Internet has transformed Chinese society in many ways, the regime has also succeeded in adopting technology to its advantage in ways I had not imagined—ways I have spent much time over the past several years trying to understand. After I left China in 2001 and moved to Japan as CNN’s Tokyo bureau chief, my fascination with the Internet’s effect on global politics broadened. On a trip to South Korea, I reported on how Roh Moo-hyun won the presidency in December 2002 by a narrow margin thanks to eleventh-hour online and mobile activism by readers of OhMyNews, one of the world’s first online citizen journalism ventures. In January 2003 a friend introduced me to “Where is Raed?” the blog of an Iraqi man in Baghdad writing under the pseudonym Salam Pax. As the United States and its allies prepared to invade, he ranted cynically against Saddam Hussein’s regime, the Bush administration, and almost everyone and everything else. As the web publishing magnate Nick Denton aptly put it, he was the “Anne Frank of the war . . . and its Elvis.”

April Media wasted no time in disseminating a viral video showing footage of the indignant Chinese netizens confronting the US ambassador. The video ended with a commentary condemning the United States for interfering in other countries’ affairs, and warning that the United States could turn China into yet another Iraq if the Chinese people were not vigilant. The government had no direct hand in this act of “citizen journalism” or the video; it was a spontaneous product of China’s nationalist commons. The motivations of Rao’s band of young, nationalistic media activists are similar to those of China’s patriotic hackers—often loose alliances of computer whizzes who engage in patriotic hacking missions, and whose relationship to the government is often unclear. In 2009, a team of information warfare researchers affiliated with the University of Toronto uncovered a cyber-espionage network they dubbed “GhostNet,” involving at least 1,295 infected computers in 103 countries.

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

According to research by ComScore, Six Apart and Gawker Media, 50 million people visited blog sites in the US in the first quarter of 2005 — about 30% of all US internet users or one-sixth of the entire US population. By the time you read this there will probably be 100 million blogs. What’s more, they aren’t all reading about “social-lights” like Ms Hilton; many of the most popular sites are about politics (sorry, Paris). With this self-publishing or “citizen journalist” trend in full swing, are newspapers old news? Not quite, as they are already using innovation to improve their products. Some of the best new ideas include compact formats for commuters (in the UK, The Times and the Independent were available in a choice of two sizes for a while), kids’ newspapers (four daily newspapers from Play Bac Presse in France) and newspapers written entirely by readers.

It’s still unclear at this early stage what a fully blown reader-produced newspaper would look like, but it’s certain that the amateur genie is already out of the bottle. Whether this is good or bad news depends on your point of view. Some claim that this democratization of the media is the best thing that’s happened since Gutenberg, whereas others see nothing but hyperactive half-wits writing on water. For example, citizen journalism gives no weight to expertise. — the 17thmost-visited site on the internet — is written by millions of anonymous amateurs. In contrast, — ranked around 5,000 — is written by over 4,000 named experts, including 100 Nobel Prize winners. One of the biggest questions arising from this type of innovation is: who owns openly created content? The answer to this question will drive new business models and radically transform the relationship between media owners and their audiences.

But while there is a symbiotic relationship developing between mainstream media companies (for example newspapers, radio and Media and Entertainment 107 television networks) and social media (for example bloggers, podcasters, vloggers and online social networks), the relationship is unequal; so-called free content is rarely free. Indeed, much social media content that is not worthless is often stolen from a mainstream media company, which paid to produce it in the first place. Hence the real cost of citizen journalism could be the death of the very sources on which it depends. Who then will hold governments and corporations to account? Famous for fifteen minutes If the cost of creating and distributing digital media content is now very low, in the future it will be practically zero. This means that anyone with an idea (and, hopefully, a rudimentary grasp of spelling) can become a one-person pundit on any topic that interests him or her.

pages: 359 words: 96,019

How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos,, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional

In December 2015, a shooting in San Bernadino, California killed fourteen people and injured seventeen more. As the tragedy unfolded, Snapchat created a live story open to everyone in the United States. The story brought viewers photos and videos from the scene as well as narrative developments and statements from authorities. It brought users citizen journalism, aggregated and narrated by professionals. Internally, Snapchat calls everything it produces “content,” and Hamby’s crew follows suit, but the intentions of his team are clear: to use the platform to mix high-quality professional journalism with citizen-journalist-produced documentation of breaking news stories. Snapchat has the potential to broadcast stories curated from users on the ground at the core of the action. But it remains to be seen if users want hard-hitting news in the same app that they employ to send videos of themselves vomiting rainbows to each other.

Snapchat would later post specific geofilters at Uber, Airbnb, and Pinterest’s locations, urging their employees to come work at Snapchat. In December 2015, a shooter killed fourteen people and injured seventeen more in San Bernadino, California. As the tragedy unfolded, Snapchat created a live story, bringing viewers photos and videos from the scene as well as narrative developments and statements from authorities. This potent format, aggregating the best clips from citizen journalists and adding professional narration, led some to believe that Snapchat could be the next big platform for journalists. But the hype was short-lived, as Snapchat decided to favor more lighthearted content. In January 2016, Republican senator Ted Cruz mocked fellow nominee Donald Trump for skipping the final Republican debate with a geofilter asking, “Where is Ducking Donald?” Snapchat frequently advertised without using the word “Snapchat.”

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, buy and hold, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, don't be evil,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

“Most journalists are on the bus and are fed the candidates’ official lines,” she recalls. “With Off the Bus we had over twelve thousand citizen journalists acting as the real eyes and ears of the campaigns.” The innovation was popular with readers. During the last election not only was The Huffington Post the most-viewed stand-alone political news site, but HuffPo’s readership doubled in 2008 compared with 2007 and redoubled in 2009.5 The HuffPo also has media monitors keeping watch on TV and radio shows, pointing out moments and outrages worthy of comment. When the so-called Tea Parties were organized across the country in 2009, HuffPo had thousands of citizen journalists sending photographs and stories about what was happening on the ground. During the 2009 auto company bankruptcies, readers created an interactive map of GM dealerships that were closing down.

At a glance, her Huffington Post sure looks the part—an online newspaper read by more than 20 million people per month and growing at a rate of 50 percent per year.1 Huffington is the site’s cofounder and editor-in-chief, and she says it is one of the most widely read, linked to, and frequently cited media brands on the Internet. But the HuffPo, as it’s called, is not just paving the journalistic cow path, or simply turning atoms into bits. Rather, it represents a new model of content production built on a new species of community. It has a small paid staff of 150, and relies on more than 3,000 contributors2 to produce content on every conceivable topic. It has another 12,000 “citizen journalists” who are its “eyes and ears.” Its readers also produce much of the HuffPo’s content to the tune of over 2 million contributions per month.3 Huffington says her readers’ engagement and insights are essential to HuffPo’s value. Huffington cofounder Jonah Peretti believes that the news model is no longer a passive relationship of news handed down but “a shared enterprise between its producer and its consumer.”4 Huffington’s goals are clear: “We want to be the Internet newspaper, covering everything and catering to every interest,” she says, but “driving this from our distinct editorial viewpoint.”

Just as IBM’s participation in the Linux community was a factor in helping the company transition from commodity operating systems to lucrative consulting services, newspapers can exploit the power of collaborative innovation to move from commodity news to exciting new models and services that give readers and other participants a major role in value creation. Imagine the news ecosystem of the future, with thousands and perhaps millions of contributors plugging in at different levels: citizen journalists who upload photos, videos, and eyewitness accounts; feature bloggers who only get paid based on advertising revenue; professional reporters who focus on higher-value activities like investigative journalism; and a new layer of knowledge curators who repurpose or remix all this content into new offerings. With organizations like The Huffington Post, this vision is becoming reality and many more are sure to follow.

pages: 291 words: 90,200

Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells

access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation,, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

Other critical bloggers, such as Mohamed Abbou (2005) and Slim Boukdir (2008), were jailed for their exposure of government’s wrongdoings. These growing free voices that spread on the Internet in spite of censorship and repression found a powerful ally in satellite television beyond government control, particularly Al Jazeera. There was a symbiotic relationship between mobile phone citizen journalists uploading images and information to YouTube and Al Jazeera using feeds from citizen journalism and then broadcasting them to the population at large (40 percent of Tunisians in urban centers watched Al Jazeera, since official television had been reduced to a primitive propaganda tool). This Al Jazeera–Internet link was essential during the weeks of the revolts, both in Tunisia and in relation to the Arab world. Al Jazeera went so far as to develop a communication program to allow mobile phones to connect directly to its satellite without requiring sophisticated equipment.

It contributed to a powerful demonstration effect that fed the unfolding of the uprisings in the Arab countries. While Western mainstream media lost interest in daily reporting on Egypt once Mubarak was removed from power, Al Jazeera continued to connect the Egyptian protesters to the Egyptian and Arab public opinion. The quality of Al Jazeera reporting, conducted at great risk by its journalists, was supported by the station’s openness to citizen journalism. Many of the feeds and information that it broadcast came from activists on the ground and from ordinary citizens that were recording history-making with their cell phones. By broadcasting live, and by keeping a permanent focus on developments in the public space, professional mainstream media created a certain mantle of protection for the movement against violent repression, as the international supporters of Mubarak first, and of SCAF later tried to avoid embarrassment vis-à-vis global public opinion because of unjustified repressive actions of their protégés.

pages: 474 words: 120,801

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Elected officials and government offices now are likely to produce their own media material or communicate directly with voters online. Single-issue interest groups now throw up their own candidates rather than participating in the political process at arm’s length. With barriers to participation lower than they have ever been, the field of rivals has grown. An aspiring politician must consider alliances and anticipate attacks from a shape-shifting milieu of parties, activists, funders, opinion makers, citizen journalists, watchdogs, and advocates of all sorts. Empowering Individuals The expanding role for individuals—nonpoliticians, nonprofessionals—may be the most exciting and challenging effect of the political centrifuge. It results from the collapse of the organizational and cultural barriers that separated people in the profession of politics from those outside. The declining relevance of major political parties and the proliferation of direct, plug-and-play ways to jump into the political discourse have made those barriers obsolete.

Now, not only is that hierarchy under threat but the boundaries of journalism as a profession have fallen, as one after another upstart venture has shown itself able to compete with, if not surpass, established journalistic outlets. The Huffington Post, for example, which used to be derided by mainstream media as a rip-off aggregator, has beefed up its reporting staff and won the Pulitzer Prize for national reporting in 2012. Widespread digital and cellphone cameras and video recorders have catapulted “citizen journalism” to the forefront, with ordinary people competing with paparazzi for celebrity shots (which online brokers then market to the tabloids) or supplying raw evidence of police brutality or early images of a natural disaster. (It should be noted, however, that David Wood, the Pulitzer Prize–winner at The Huffington Post, has decades of reporting experience.) Meanwhile, the ease of publishing on the Internet has turned blogs on everything from electoral politics to fiscal policy, rock music, and business travel into credible and revenue-earning specialty sources that often outperform beat reporters and magazine analysts.

In 2012, for example, the Nieman Journalism Lab profiled three European newspaper companies that are successfully pursuing different strategies to thrive in the digital age: Sanoma, Finland’s largest news company, has pioneered new ways to profitably convert its print subscribers to digital access; Norway’s Schibsted, the world’s eighth-biggest news company, operates in twenty-eight countries and gets more than a third of its revenues from digital offerings, or about three times as much as the average newspaper; Switzerland’s Zeitung Online is experimenting with “hyperlocalism,” winning readers by ignoring stories about President Obama and world affairs in favor of those about the town mayor and canton politics. The rise of small, outsider, and citizen journalism and social networking in the media may prove complementary to some of the existing players. Among the new forces are also independent investigative groups with nonprofit funding such as ProPublica, an “independent, nonprofit newsroom” (to use its own descriptor) whose partnerships with established newspapers in the United States have already begun to win awards (in ProPublica’s case, a 2011 Pulitzer Prize).

pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, business cycle, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer,, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

It worships the creative amateur: the self-taught filmmaker, the dorm-room musician, the unpublished writer. It suggests that everyone—even the most poorly educated and inarticulate amongst us—can and should use digital media to express and realize themselves. Web 2.0 “empowers” our creativity, it “democratizes” media, it “levels the playing field” between experts and amateurs. The enemy of Web 2.0 is “elitist” traditional media. Empowered by Web 2.0 technology, we can all become citizen journalists, citizen videographers, citizen musicians. Empowered by this technology, we will be able to write in the morning, direct movies in the afternoon, and make music in the evening. Sounds familiar? It’s eerily similar to Marx’s seductive promise about individual self-realization in his German Ideology: Whereas in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, shepherd or critic.

And only tyrants forbid their subjects to make political criticisms—loving to hate a politician in public is hardly an expansion of democracy. It’s the result of democracy. Lessig has confused what makes democracy possible—certain political, not cultural, mechanisms—with what democracy makes possible: free “expression.” Lessig isn’t the only one singing 2.0’s praises who seems confused about fundamental terms. Jay Rosen, a professor of journalism at New York University, is maybe the most voluble booster of the “citizen journalism” that he believes fulfills the blogosphere’s social promise. Rosen has started a blog-based initiative called Assignment Zero, in which anyone, journalist or not, can file an “investigative” news article. Rosen called this “crowdsourcing” in an interview with The New York Times’s David Carr, who reported the story without expressing the slightest skepticism and without presenting an opposing view to Rosen’s.

Bebo Bell, Daniel Belting, Hans Berkman Center for Internet and Society Best Buy Bezos, Jeff Biofeedback The Biscuit Report Bishop, Jonathan BitTorrent BlackBerry Black Eyed Peas Blade phone Blair, Ian Blockbuster Blogger Blogging Blogosphere Bloom, Allan Bodkin, Tom Bomis Bonaventure (Saint) Bono Bookheimer, Susan Boredom Boyd, Danah Brain attention and Broca’s area in computational modeling of development of of Digital Immigrants of Digital Natives digital technology influencing evolution and experience and structures of expert reading and genetics and Google use and hypertext minds and interactivity and Internet impact on malleability of neuroplasticity in reading and retraining sensory stimulation and structure of techno, burnout and Brain gap Brand, Stewart Branson, Richard Briggs, Pam Brilliant, Larry Brin, Sergey Britannica Online Broca’s area Brooks, David Brown, Scott Budweiser Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) Bush, George W. BusyBody Butler, Judith Byrne, David CAD. See Computer-aided design Calvinism Camera phones Campaign Wiki Carl’s Jr. Carr, David Carr, Nicholas CDDB Cell phones cameras in in Kenya task switching and Centralization Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Chevy Tahoe Chua, Amy Cicierega, Neil Citizendium Citizen journalism Citizen media Civic causes, Net Geners and Civic disengagement Civic engagement Click Health Clinton, Hillary Clocks Cloudmark Club Penguin CNN CNN Pipeline Coates, Tom Cognition Digital Native differences in Internet use and multitasking and Cognitive psychology Cognitive science Cognitive surplus Cohan, Peter Cohen, Leonard Col, Cynthia Collaboration Collective intelligence Comcast Company of Friends Complex adaptive networks Comprehension Compressed workweeks Computer-aided design (CAD) Computer games.

pages: 286 words: 82,065

Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation,, future of journalism, Jason Scott:, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, post-work, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra

Now this will come to video … A half hour of how-to TV that now costs X hundreds of thousands of dollars to produce can be done quite respectably—and probably with more life and immediacy—for a few thousand dollars. New content producers will pop up all over, just as they did in blogs, and now they can distribute their content freely thanks to BitTorrent. That is where I want to play.” Jarvis sees a future in which citizen journalists and consumer content creators become central figures in the creation and consumption of editorial material. What makes his perspective so rare, and refreshing, is that he had a full-on membership in the ruling media elite. For him to step outside and go from a TimeWarner–Condé Nast creator of MSM (mainstream media) to a blogger, a position of some less authority and power, is a sign of just how intoxicating the promise of personal publishing is.

She goes on, “Today we live in the linked economy, not a walled-off content economy. The challenge is to find different ways to monetize links among media through advertising or micropayment or whatever, not subscription for exclusive content. In this environment, good journalism will survive, and even flourish, though most newspapers—except for a handful of the very best papers and magazines in every national market—probably will not. There will be more bottom-up, citizen journalism, which is great.” For Huffington and a whole host of other aggregator and curators, it comes down to where the law says they can link and share content without crossing the line into stealing. Attorney and Web publisher Dan Abrams of explains, “When we link, we follow the ‘fair use’ ground rules, quoting no more than two paragraphs from another medium and then linking to the original story on the original site.

pages: 297 words: 83,651

The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Of course, there often are holes in the news, not to mention official redactions. And the ‘9/11 Truth’ communities were often trying to exercise the kinds of critical reflection that there is generally little opportunity for. But they poked holes where there were none and interpreted those that did exist tendentiously. They were convinced that there was some hidden, forbidden knowledge somewhere, which only citizen journalists could uncover. This conviction that ‘they’ are hiding something from us was the shared ground of all the ‘Truth’ groups. Specific theories, such as that the Pentagon was hit by a missile strike, were secondary speculations. Some of those used to being in power now feel embattled, and are beginning to collapse into the same logic. This is not unusual. As Emma Jane and Chris Fleming’s analysis of conspiracy theories shows, the debunkers tend to share ‘the epistemological orientations and rhetorical armoury’ of those they critique.49 The performative contradictions become absurd, as when the behavioural economists Cass Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule recommended to the White House that it should take stringent measures against conspiracy theories – such as covert ‘cognitive infiltration’ of online communities, so as to plant doubts and undermine these groups from within.

In the mathematical language of informatics, collective wants can be manipulated, engineered and connected to a solution. And new technologies have only been as successful as they have been by positioning themselves as magical solutions. Not just to individual dilemmas, but to the bigger crises and dysfunctions of late capitalism. If mass media is a one-way information monopoly, turn to the feed, the blog, the podcast. If the news fails, turn to citizen journalism for ‘unfiltered’ news. If you’re underemployed, bid for jobs on TaskRabbit. If you’ve got little money but own a car, use it to make some spare money on the side. If you’re undervalued in life, bid for a share in microcelebrity. If politicians let you down, hold them to account on Twitter. If you suffer from a nameless hunger, keep scrolling. The business model of the platforms presupposes not just the average share of individual misery but a society reliably in crisis.

pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

News organizations will remain an important and integral part of society in a number of ways, but many outlets will not survive in their current form—and those that do survive will have adjusted their goals, methods and organizational structure to meet the changing demands of the new global public. As language barriers break down and cell towers rise, there will be no end to the number of new voices, potential sources, citizen journalists and amateur photographers looking to contribute. This is good: With so many news outlets scaling back their operations, particularly their international footprint, such outside contributors will be needed. The global audience benefits as well, through exposure to a greater range of issues and perspectives. The effect of having so many new actors involved, connected through a range of online platforms into the great, diffuse media system, is that major media outlets will report less and validate more.

Ideally, the business of journalism will become less extractive and more collaborative; in a story about rising tide levels in Bangkok, instead of just quoting a Thai river-cruise operator, the newspaper would link its article to the man’s own news platform or personal live stream. Of course, the chance for error increases in the inclusion of new, untrained voices—many respected journalists today believe that a full-bodied embrace of citizen journalism is detrimental to the field, and their concerns are not unwarranted. Global connectivity will introduce entirely new contributors to the supply chain. One new subcategory to emerge will be a network of local technical encryption specialists, who deal exclusively in encryption keys. Their value for journalists would not be content or source related but instead would provide the necessary confidentiality mechanisms between parties.

Cain, Herman calendar reminders California camera phones Cameron, David Canada Carnegie Mellon Carvin, Andy celebrities, 2.1, 2.2 cell towers censorship, 5.1, 6.1 censorship-circumvention applications Central Asia centralized authority Chalabi, Ahmed charities Charity Navigator, 7.1, nts.1 Chavez, Hugo Chechnya, 3.1, 3.2 Chemical Weapons Convention Cherry, Steven, n Chery Automobiles Chile, 3.1, 6.1 China, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3n, 141, 4.1, 6.1, 7.1 censorship in cyber attacks of, itr.1, 3.1, 3.2 “human-flesh search engines” in, 6.1, 6.2 intellectual property in Internet in, 3.1, 4.1 news covered up in shanzhai network in, 1.1 choices cholera Christian Science Monitor, 209 Church of Scientology CIA, 5.1, con.1 circulatory system Cisco citizen journalism citizen participation citizenship Clarke, Richard Clean-Slate Design of Resilient, Adaptive, Secure Hosts (CRASH) Clinton, Bill Clinton, Hillary, itr.1, 4.1 closed-circuit television (CCTV) cloud-based data storage, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 cloud storage CNN Effect, n Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) Code War Cohen, Rebecca Colao, Vittorio, 4.1, 4.2, 7.1 Cold War, 3.1, 6.1, 6.2 collaboration collective editing Colombia, 5.1, 7.1 commerce, 2.1, 6.1 commercial opportunities Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) communications communication technologies advance of cultural breakthroughs and Comodohacker computer modeling, n computer theft computer viruses, in Syria computer worms confirmation bias conflict-related internal migration Congo, 1.1, nts.1 warlords in connectivity, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, con.1 and decline of warfare, 6.1, 6.2 education and and end of control exiles and and government maneuverability health and news enhanced by obstacles to reconstruction and, 7.1, 7.2 revolutions and, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6 for states and citizens states’ power enhanced by terrorism aided by and WikiLeaks-like platforms Constantine, Larry, n Constitutional Democratic Rally copper cables copyright, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 Copyright Act (1987) Copyright Treaty (1996) corporations, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns corruption Côte d’Ivoire counter-radicalization.

pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart,, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

As part of my duties, I had to read hundreds of submitted articles that unveiled the worst failings of humanity, from abuse of power to accounts of serial killers to crippling corporate greed and more. The stories were so intense that I had to stop reading them at night. I came away inspired by the heroic work of many reporters who had dug into issues of enormous local, national, and global significance. And I was surprised to discover that the quality and depth of every submission transcended the vast majority of the output of bloggers or citizen journalists. Professionalism in journalism might not be sexy, it might seem old-fashioned, but it does matter. Consider what happened in the small town of Bell, California. The town’s mayor paid himself ever-larger salaries—over $800,000 a year—and engaged in the most crooked, crony capitalism, handing out other oversize salaries to his friends. Meanwhile, through a combination of lies and intimidation, he kept the largely poor, Hispanic city population in the dark, continuing to cut critical municipal services while giving himself and his buddies pay raises.

Can’t User-Generated Media Pick Up the Slack? Not necessarily. The institutions of Big News in this country emerged over the course of more than a century, fostering a culture that rewards journalism at its best through institutions like the Goldsmith Prize. Radical connectivity, by contrast, does not come with these values built in. There is no Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting by a Citizen Journalist. There is no “Sources Go Direct” Award for Courage and Honesty. On the contrary, we see an impetus, if anything, to turn journalistic writing into a commodity increasingly devoid of moral content. The Huffington Post, heralded as a successful online news business built on online advertising, uses a system called Blogsmith to manage and monitor publishing. Blogsmith tracks the amount of time a writer spends composing a piece and then compares it with the advertising revenue it generates once published.

CSI (Crowd-Sourced Investigations) The Texas Tribune is an example of a new organization providing accountability journalism, but Britain’s venerable Guardian newspaper (founded in 1821) offers a compelling glimpse of an old big institution experimenting and trying to find its way. In recent years, the Guardian has offered a free blogging platform to online opinion leaders, hosted chatrooms and discussion boards, and emerged as an early convert to podcasting. The Guardian was also one of the first news organizations in the world to turn its Web site into an open platform for Web developers and aspiring citizen journalists everywhere, launching the application programming interface (API), allowing Web developers globally to use a wide range of Guardian content in their apps. Perhaps the Guardian’s most interesting innovations involve crowd-sourced investigative reporting. In 2009, more than 2 million pages of expense reports from members of Parliament in the U.K. were made available to the public.

The Data Journalism Handbook by Jonathan Gray, Lucy Chambers, Liliana Bounegru

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, business intelligence, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Heinemeier Hansson, eurozone crisis, Firefox, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, game design, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Julian Assange, linked data, moral hazard, MVC pattern, New Journalism, openstreetmap, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, social graph, SPARQL, text mining, web application, WikiLeaks

We learn about how data sources have been used to augment and improve coverage of everything from elections to spending, riots to corruption, the performance of schools to the price of water. As well as larger media organizations such as the BBC, the Chicago Tribune, the Guardian, the Financial Times, Helsingin Sanomat, La Nación, Wall Street Journal, and the Zeit Online, we learn from smaller initiatives such as California Watch, Hack/HackersBuenos Aires, ProPublica, and a group of local Brazilian citizen-journalists called Friends of Januária. The Opportunity Gap The Opportunity Gap used never-before-released U.S. Department of Education civil rights data and showed that some states, like Florida, have levelled the field and offer rich and poor students roughly equal access to high-level courses, while other states, like Kansas, Maryland, and Oklahoma, offer less opportunity in districts with poorer families.

To summarize, stories like these become possible when you use data to produce evidence to test independently allegations being made by sources who may have their own agendas. These stories also are a good example of the necessity for strong public records laws; the reason the government requires hospitals to report this data is so that these kinds of analyses can be done, whether by government, academics, investigators, or even citizen journalists. The subject of these stories is important because it examines whether millions of dollars of public money is being spent properly. — Steve Doig, Walter Cronkite School of Journalism, Arizona State University Care Home Crisis A Financial Times investigation into the private care home industry exposed how some private equity investors turned elderly care into a profit machine and highlighted the deadly human costs of a business model that favored investment returns over good care.

With the Internet as another important ally, residents can now better access information such as budget and other local data. Figure 3-24. The Friends of Januária citizen media project teaches key skills to citizens to turn them into data journalists After taking part in twelve workshops, some of the new citizen reporters from Januária began to demonstrate how this concept of accessing publicly available data in small towns can be put into practice. For example, Soraia Amorim, a 22 year-old citizen journalist, wrote a story about the number of doctors that are on the city payroll according to Federal Government data. However, she found that the official number did not correspond with the situation in the town. To write this piece, Soraia had access to health data, which is available online at the website of the SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde or Unique Health System), a federal program that provides free medical assistance to the Brazilian population.

pages: 788 words: 223,004

Merchants of Truth: The Business of News and the Fight for Facts by Jill Abramson

23andMe, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alexander Shulgin, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital twin, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, haute couture, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, performance metric, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pre–internet, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social intelligence, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

McInnes had to laugh. His former best friend had bullshitted his way into the Times. But in the ensuing five years, Smith, like Peretti, would transform his little company, building Vice on the back of the ascendancy of YouTube. The video site was overflowing with amateur uploads and bootlegged clips, and Smith saw an opportunity to mimic aspects of its alluring, uncut aesthetic while outclassing the citizen journalists with higher quality videos and stories told “from the edge.” To bring along a young audience, the stories would be told from street level, often in rarely shown sites in the Third World, by people with absolutely no training in the news. Could this be the transformational vision that advertisers had been seeking to reach the bullshit-detecting young audiences they so yearned to win over? Bullshitter Shane certainly thought so.

He and Robinson could call for fast changes, as the McKinseyites urged them to, but a combination of arrogance and tradition was embedded in the historic Times Building. The Times had been setting the news agenda for so long that its primacy was taken for granted, especially by its journalists, who never dreamed the authority of their institution could be challenged by the new digital competitors, or by bloggers (Keller called them “bloggers in bathrobes”), or by so-called citizen journalists who were witnessing international events like the tsunami in Indonesia and writing about them in real time, or, ultimately, by readers using the new platforms of Google and Facebook. Insulated as it was, the Times convinced itself that although the mechanics of the industry were changing, the fact remained that “it wasn’t a story until it was in the Times.” Most Times editors barely noticed when competitors had a scoop, unless it was the Washington Post or the Wall Street Journal.

., 71–72, 199 Carroll, Wallace, 71 cats, internet and, 36 CBS News, 3–4, 60 Center for Investigative Reporting, 236 Cernovich, Mike, 283, 299, 324, 338 Chandler family, 225, 226 Charleston Gazette-Mail, 8 Charlottesville, Va., white nationalist rally in, 353–55 “Charlottesville: Race and Terror” (documentary), 354–55 Chartbeat, 243–47, 262, 266 Chasing Hillary (Chozick), 381 Chattanooga Times, 65 Chen, Steve, 53 Chozick, Amy, 318–19, 371, 381 Christmas in Darfur (documentary), 356 Chunn, Nancy, 78 Cillizza, Chris, 239, 266, 411, 4054 citizen journalists, 72 classified advertising: decline of, 26, 67, 89 Post’s reliance on, 26, 83, 89 Clayton, Tracy, 320 clickbait headlines, 280, 413, 414–16 BuzzFeed’s use of, 139, 267 Chartbeat and, 244 Post’s use of, 228, 267–68, 280, 406, 414–16 Times’s avoidance of, 74, 218 Clinton, Bill, Lewinsky scandal and, 239, 284 Clinton, Hillary, 132 Abramson and, 377–78 private email server used by, 178, 379–80 Times mistrusted by, 377–78 Clinton, Hillary, in 2016 election campaign, 287, 290, 299, 300, 315, 318, 322 Election Night and, 371 email investigation and, 377 Times’s coverage of, 378–79 Clinton Cash (Schweizer), 378–79 Clinton Foundation, 378 CNBC, 375 CNN, 54, 55, 60, 385–86, 411 travelogues of, 152 Trump’s attacks on, 325 Vice’s targeting of, 346, 348, 369 cognitive biases, 309–10 Cohen, Michael, 327 Cohn, Nate, 370 Coleman, Greg, 122 Coll, Steve, 86–87, 88, 90 Collectively, 165 Columbia Journalism Review, 290, 381, 389, 394 Columbia Record, 234 Comedy Central, 120 Comey, James, 377, 384, 392 Committee to Protect Journalists, 421 Confessore, Nick, 372, 374 Conrad, Deborah, 178 conspiracy theories: Facebook and, 296 internet and, 283 contagious media, 18, 30, 285 see also virality Contagious Media LLC, 33 Conway, Kellyanne, 339 Cook, Tim, 213 Cooper, Anderson, 315, 428 Cooper, Frank, 336, 337 Coppins, McKay, 130, 132, 305–7, 313 Coppola, Sofia, 51 Costa, Robert, 406, 407 Couric, Katie, 17 Cox, Chris, 32, 277 Craigslist, 26, 68, 86, 89 Cramer, Richard Ben, 130, 318, 322 Cramer, Ruby, 130, 313, 318–21, 322 Creators Project, 162–63 Creighton, Andrew, 364–65 CrowdTangle, 295, 304, 340 Cruz, Ted, 138 Daily (podcast), 373 Daily Beast, 362, 364 Daily Mail, 429 Daily Show, 79 Daily Wire, 429 Dairieh, Medyan, 174–75 data journalism, 290 data mining: as accepted part of online world, 271 BuzzFeed’s reliance on, 109–10, 112–13, 330 by Facebook, 271, 274, 278, 341 David, Laurie, 21 Davis, Charles, 164 Dawkins, Richard, 17 DealBook, 189–90, 375 “Dear Kitten” (Purina ad), 122–23 Death of Cool, The (McInnes), 369 Democratic National Committee, leaked documents of, 381–82 Democratic Party, hacked emails of, 319 Denton, Nick, 246–47 Denver Guardian, 300 Denver Post, 423–24 DeploraBall, 338 DeVigal, Andrew, 197 Devil’s Bargain (Green), 285 digital news media: aggregation sites in, 284 emotional resonance as touchstone of, 273, 275–76, 280 Facebook as platform for, 272–73 fact-checking and, 310 iPhone’s impact on, 32–33 low wages paid by, 175 news cycle and, see news cycle, speeding up of pivot to video of, 328–29, 347 print reporters’ disdain for, 238 pro-Trump wing of, 338–39 “social news” prioritized by, 275 targeting of readers by, 279–80, 281 traditional news media challenged by, 2, 4, 5, 6 vague job titles in, 239, 249 see also BuzzFeed; Vice Media Dillon, Robbie, 47–48 Dish, The (blog), 137 Dog House, 76 Dolnick, Sam, 193, 197, 205, 373, 394–96 Dowd, Maureen, 68, 75, 388, 411 Dow Jones, 67 Downie, Leonard, 7, 84, 89, 93, 98, 228, 229, 262 Drudge, Matt, 21, 30, 73, 239, 284 Drudge Report, 21, 73, 239, 284, 285 Dubuc, Nancy, 369 Duenes, Steve, 204 Duhaime-Ross, Arielle, 351 Dunham, Lena, 224 Dunlap, David, 396–97, 402 “Editing White Female” (Glasser), 223 Elder, Miriam, 141, 143 elections, U.S.: of 2004, 20, 21 of 2008, 98, 99, 126 of 2012, 128–29, 131–33, 135–37 elections, U.S., of 2016, 2 BuzzFeed coverage of, 138, 313–17, 320 divisiveness of, 281 Facebook and, 303 fake news and, 320, 322 Russian interference in, 326, 341–42, 381, 382, 383 see also Clinton, Hillary, in 2016 election campaign; Trump, Donald, in 2016 election campaign Emanuel, Ari, 178 Emergent, 310 Emerson Collective, 343 emotional charge, of news stories, 111 Entous, Adam, 406, 411 Esquire, 268 Eyebeam, 18–19 Facebook, 6, 31–32, 106, 108, 132, 204, 275, 415 accused of liberal bias, 292–93 Audience Optimization Tool of, 282 beginnings of, 95–96 BuzzFeed added to list of trusted sources of, 317 BuzzFeed’s community-specific pages on, 337–38 BuzzFeed’s reliance on, 103, 104, 132, 153, 272, 276, 277, 295, 301, 303–4, 311, 329, 428 Cambridge Analytica and, 279, 298 conspiracy theory stories on, 296 constantly changing algorithms of, 105–6, 271–72, 282, 290–91, 295, 302, 329, 332, 337 criticized for lack of control over content, 154 Custom Audiences tool of, 298 dangerous omnipotence of, 400 Dark Post tool of, 298–99 data mining by, 271, 274, 278, 341 data security issues of, 279, 342, 400 decline of sharing on, 282 demographic of, 106–7 digital advertising dominated by, 7, 27, 254, 367, 397, 404, 428 emotional resonance as touchstone for, 273 expanded reach of publishers’ posts on, 291 explosive growth of, 31, 104 fake news spread by, 277, 289, 295, 296–97, 317, 322, 427–28 growing influence of, 274, 280, 303, 309 human editors controversy at, 291–94, 295–96, 317 Instant Articles on, 267, 280–81, 329–30, 412 Like button of, 107–8, 109 live-video streaming tool of, 314 news content on, 124 in pivot to video, 329, 332 political ads on, 278 political polarization and, 273–74, 279–80, 281, 282–83, 312 Post and, 96–97, 232–33 priority of friends vs. publishers’ posts on, 276, 281–82 psychographics and, 278–79 publishers and, 272–73 ranking of stories on, 275–77 Russian fake news spread by, 289, 341–42, 420 “sentiment data” of, 303–5 “social contagion” experiment of, 303 supposed neutrality of, 274 targeted advertising on, 277–78, 298, 341 Facebook (cont.)

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The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game

It was a news aggregation site for wire service stories (you could bash the Old Media and feed off it at the same time) and a forum for truth telling, in the spirit of the Swift Boat Vets and other citizen journalists. The great thing about New Media was anybody could do it. Breitbart would fly to New York all the time and make sure he got invited to mainstream media parties, where he drank their appletinis and pinot noir and made them think he was on their side, but at the end of dinner he would get in their faces and say, “You guys don’t get it. The American people are now in control of the narrative, and you can’t grab it for yourself and drive it off the cliff.” Everything changed for Breitbart on the August day in 2009—the year the Chicago Tribune eliminated its foreign desk and The Washington Post closed its three remaining domestic bureaus in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles—when a young citizen journalist named James O’Keefe walked into his house with a batch of raw videos.

FOR LAURA, CHARLIE, AND JULIA CONTENTS Title Page Copyright Notice Dedication Prologue PART I 1978 Dean Price Total War: Newt Gingrich Jeff Connaughton 1984 Tammy Thomas Her Own: Oprah Winfrey Jeff Connaughton 1987 Craftsman: Raymond Carver Dean Price Tammy Thomas Mr. Sam: Sam Walton 1994 Jeff Connaughton Silicon Valley 1999 Dean Price Tammy Thomas 2003 Institution Man (1): Colin Powell Jeff Connaughton PART II Dean Price Radish Queen: Alice Waters Tampa Silicon Valley 2008 Institution Man (2): Robert Rubin Jeff Connaughton Tammy Thomas Dean Price Just Business: Jay-Z Tampa PART III Jeff Connaughton 2010 Citizen Journalist: Andrew Breitbart Tampa Dean Price Tammy Thomas Tampa Prairie Populist: Elizabeth Warren Wall Street 2012 Silicon Valley Jeff Connaughton Tampa Tammy Thomas Dean Price Note A Note on Sources Acknowledgments Also by George Packer A Note About the Author Copyright PROLOGUE No one can say when the unwinding began—when the coil that held Americans together in its secure and sometimes stifling grip first gave way.

.… Khloe Kardashian forgot to get a bikini wax before her husband, Lamar Odom, came to town, so her sister Kourtney—who has been waxing herself for years—offered to do the job. The story ended with a badly burned vagina.… OBAMA SIGNS OVERHAUL OF FINANCIAL SYSTEM … REPUBLICANS WIN HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES WITH VICTORIES NATIONWIDE … I never thought about love when I thought about home / I still owe money to the money to the money I owe / The floors are falling out from everybody I know CITIZEN JOURNALIST: ANDREW BREITBART In February 1969—when the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, the most trusted man in America, was watched by twenty million viewers, or one in six households—a three-week-old baby boy of Irish descent was adopted in Los Angeles by a Jewish steakhouse owner and his banker wife, Gerald and Arlene Breitbart, and given the name Andrew. When Andrew was two, The New York Times and The Washington Post published the Pentagon Papers, defying threats by the Nixon White House.

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The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

“Protest in an Information Society: A Review of Literature on Social Movements and New ICTs.” Information, Communication & Society 9, no. 2 (2006): 202-224. Geen, R. G. “Social Motivation.” Annual Review of Psychology 42, no. 1 (1991): 377-399. Giridharadas, Anand. “‘Buycotting’: Boycotts Minus the Pain.” New York Times, October 10, 2009. Greer, C., and E. McLaughlin. “We Predict a Riot? Public Order Policing, New Media Environments and the Rise of the Citizen Journalist.” British Journal of Criminology (2010). Harkins, S. G., and R. E. Petty. “Effects of Task Difficulty and Task Uniqueness on Social Loafing.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43, no. 6 (1982): 1214-1229. Heil, Alan L. Voice of America: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. Hesse, Monica. “Facebook Activism: Lots of Clicks, but Little Sticks.” Washington Post, July 2, 2009.

Instead, it announced that it would select twenty Twitter users, ten Internet bloggers, thirty student journalists, five representatives from portal Internet sites, and five government officials to tour the wreckage by randomly picking them from among the applicants. But the South Korean government went one step further than the Chinese, allowing all participants to take photos and videos—a state-engineered triumph of citizen journalism. Their plans, however, may have been spoiled by the North Korean authorities, who were unbelievably quick to colonize the capitalist cyberspace as well. In August 2010 they took their anti-South propaganda campaign to Twitter, setting up an account—supposedly through their foreign supporters—meant to challenge the South Korean version of events a hundred forty characters at a time. What Barbara Streisand Could Teach Nicolae Ceauşescu In the last few years of the Soviet Union’s existence, its most progressive leaders were fond of touting—half-jokingly, of course—their commitment to the “Sinatra doctrine”: the notion that Central and Eastern European states were free to go their own way, very much along the lines of Sinatra’s song “My Way.”

pages: 579 words: 160,351

Breaking News: The Remaking of Journalism and Why It Matters Now by Alan Rusbridger

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Filter Bubble, forensic accounting, Frank Gehry, future of journalism, G4S, high net worth, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks

Around two thirds of the work was what you might call ‘top down’: the newspaper telling the citizens about the workings of the assorted institutions put in place to regulate or order local and civic life. The other third of the news flowed the other way, bottom up. This was not a Bowling Alone world – the deracinated hollowed-out communities described by Robert Putnam 25 years later in America. There was bubbling social and institutional activity all around, and where we lacked the resources to cover it ourselves we recruited local stringers (today they might be called ‘citizen journalists’) to file accounts of discussion groups and scout sports days and charity baking mornings for the local hospital scanner. Every name sold a paper, as the news editor would remind us at regular intervals. We were duly encouraged to cram as many names as possible into our reports. Every picture sold a paper, too, so photographers knew to take group pictures and collect the names for the captions.

If you were a journalist from the pre-internet age this was more than risible. It was offensive. Journalists had mortgages: we were professionals. How dare some Californian hostess imagine she could undercut the work of proper paid commentaries by publishing the work of writers who were doing it for nothing? Those who believed this had contempt for large parts of what Web 2.0 represented. They would curl their lip as they spat out the phrase ‘citizen journalist’. ‘Would you like a “citizen brain surgeon” for a tumour?’ they sneered. ‘How about a “citizen dentist”?’ As if reading two books plus-a-bit-of-shorthand to ‘qualify’ as a journalist was the equivalent of six years of a neurosurgical residency on top of a four-year medical degree to be a brain surgeon. In any event, the Huffington Post was not widely expected to succeed. Emily, typically, was not so sure.

Joseph ref1 Canary Wharf ref1, ref2, ref3 Canonbury ref1 Carlson, Tucker ref1 Carman, George (QC) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n Carney, Mark ref1 Carter, Graydon ref1 Carter-Ruck lawyers ref1 Carvin, Andy ref1 Catch Me If You Can (film) ref1 Caulfield, Mr Justice ref1 Cecil, Lord Robert ref1 censorship ref1, ref2, ref3 CERN ref1 challenge ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Champaign News Gazette (newspaper) ref1, ref2 Channel 4 (TV) ref1, ref2 Chaos Monkeys (Martínez) ref1, ref2 Chapman, Jessica ref1 charity ref1 Charles, Prince ref1 Chartbeat ref1 Chehadé, Fadi ref1 Chernin, Peter ref1 Chicago Online ref1 Chicago Sun-Times (news-paper) ref1 Chicago Tribune (newspaper) ref1, ref2 China ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Chippendale, Peter ref1 Chomsky, Noam ref1, ref2 Churchill, Prime Minister Sir Winston ref1, ref2, ref3 ‘churnalism’ ref1, ref2 CIA ref1 CiF (Comment is Free) ref1, ref2 CiF Belief ref1, ref2n circulation ref1, ref2, ref3 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n bulk sales ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n, ref8n decline ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 gains ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 international ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 citizen journalists (stringers) ref1, ref2 Citizen Kane (film) ref1 City of London ref1 City University of New York (CUNY) ref1 Clapper, James ref1, ref2 Claridge’s hotel ref1, ref2 classified material ref1, ref2, ref3 Clegg, Nick (MP) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Clerkenwell ref1 ‘click-through rate’ (CTR) ref1 clickbait ref1, ref2 climate change ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n Clinton, President Bill ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Clinton, Hillary ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Clooney, George ref1 Cobain, Ian ref1 Cobbet, William ref1 Code of Practice ref1 Coile, Peter ref1 Colao, Vittori ref1 colour ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Colvin, Marie ref1 Comey, James ref1 Committee of Imperial Defence (UK) ref1 Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) ref1, ref2n ‘commodity news’ ref1 Common Purpose ref1 complexity ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 composing room ref1, ref2 ComScore ref1, ref2n concentration camps ref1 Conn, David ref1 consent ref1 Conservative Party ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 content management system ref1, ref2 convergence ref1 Coogan, Steve ref1 Cook, Tim ref1 Corn, David ref1 correction ref1, ref2 corruption ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Coulson, Andy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Cox, Jo (MP) ref1 Craigslist ref1, ref2 The Creation of the Media (Starr) ref1 cricket ref1 Crossman, Richard ref1 crowdfunding ref1 crowdsourcing ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Crown Prosecution Service ref1, ref2 Crowther, Geoffrey ref1 Culture Media & Sports committee (UK) ref1 CUNY ref1 CVs ref1, ref2 cybercrime ref1 cyberspace ref1 Dacre, Paul ref1, ref2, ref3n, ref4n Dagens Nyheter (newspaper) ref1, ref2 Daily Dish ref1 Daily (iPad newspaper) ref1 Daily Mail & General Trust ref1 Daily News (newspaper) ref1 Daily Sketch (newspaper) ref1 Dangerous Estate (Williams) ref1 Danks, Melanie ref1, ref2 Danny (IT expert) ref1 data ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Davies, Nick ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n, ref5n Davis, David (MP) ref1, ref2 Dayton Ohio peace accord ref1 De Correspondent ref1, ref2 de Tocqueville, Alexis ref1 ‘dead-tree journalism’ ref1, ref2 Deadline (film) ref1 deadlines ref1 Dean, Malcolm ref1n ‘death knock’ ref1 Deedes, Lord Bill ref1, ref2 Deedes, Jeremy ref1 Deepwater Horizon ref1 defamation ref1, ref2 Defence Advisory (DA) Notice system ref1, ref2, ref3 deference ref1 Defoe, Daniel ref1, ref2 Delane, John ref1, ref2 Delaunay hotel ref1, ref2 Delingpole, James ref1, ref2 Deller, Jeremy ref1 democracy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 Democratic National Committee (DNC) ref1, ref2 Department of Justice (US) ref1 Der Spiegel (magazine) ref1, ref2, ref3 Desmond, Richard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n Despicable Me (film) ref1 Dewey, John ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n Diamond, Bob ref1 Diana, Princess ref1 Diawara, Fatoumata ref1 Dickens, Charles ref1, ref2 Die Zeit (newspaper) ref1 Digg ref1 ‘Digital News Report’ (RISJ) ref1 Dixon, Hugo ref1 Dixon, Jeremy ref1, ref2n docu-tainment ref1, ref2 donations ref1, ref2 doorstep reporting ref1, ref2, ref3 Dorsey, Jack ref1 bubble ref1 Dowler, Milly ref1, ref2n Downie, Len ref1n Downing Street ref1, ref2 drinks culture ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 Drudge ref1 drugs ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 duty ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 DVDs ref1 Dworkin, Ronald ref1, ref2 eBay ref1, ref2, ref3 Economist (magazine) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Edelman Trust Barometer ref1n Edison, Thomas ref1 editorials ref1, ref2, ref3 Edmondson, Ian ref1 education ref1, ref2 Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. ref1 El País (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 election (US 2016) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Electoral Commission ref1 electric cars ref1 Electronic Information Service ref1 The Elements of Journalism (Kovach/Rosenstiel) ref1 Elizabeth II, Queen ref1 Ellingham Hall (Suffolk) ref1 Ellis, Michael (MP) ref1 Ellison, Sarah ref1 Ellsberg, Daniel ref1 Emap ref1 eMarketer ref1 Enders Analysis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 endowment ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n Engelberg, Steve ref1 The Enlightenment ref1, ref2 Enron ref1 environment ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Enzensberger, Hans-Magnus ref1 Ernst & Young ref1 Espionage Act (1917) ref1 EternalBlue ref1n Euromyth ref1 Europe ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 European Commission (EC) ref1 European Convention on Human Rights ref1, ref2 European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ref1 European Court of Justice (ECJ) ref1, ref2, ref3 European (newspaper) ref1, ref2 European Union (EU) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Euston Project ref1 Evans, Sir Harold ref1, ref2, ref3 Evans, Rob ref1, ref2 Evans, Timothy ref1, ref2n experimentation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Facebook ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3 passim, 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Fitzsimons, Sheila ref1n, ref2n Flat Earth News (Davies) ref1 Fleet Street ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Flickr ref1, ref2, ref3 Folwell, Steve ref1 food production ref1, ref2 Forbes (magazine) ref1 Ford, John ref1, ref2 foreign correspondents ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US 1977) ref1 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) courts ref1 Foreign Office ref1 Forgan, Liz ref1, ref2 fossil fuels ref1 Fourth Estate ref1 Fox TV ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref6 Frankel, Max ref1 Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (newspaper) ref1 free newspapers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 free press ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 free speech ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 freebies ref1, ref2, ref3 Freedland, Jonathan ref1, ref2 Freedom Act (2015) ref1 Friedman, Thomas ref1 Friendly, Fred ref1 G4S security guards ref1, ref2n G-20 protests (2009) ref1 Gaddafi, Muammar ref1 GAFAT companies ref1, ref2 Gallagher, Tony ref1 Gaskell, John ref1 Gates, Bill ref1 GCHQ ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n Geary, Joanna ref1 Gehry, Frank ref1 Gellman, Barton ref1 Gentleman, Amelia ref1 George III, King ref1 germ (virus) ref1 Germany ref1, ref2 Gibson, Janine ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Gillespie, Fulton ref1 Gillmor, Dan ref1, ref2, ref3n Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) ref1 Gledhill, Ruth ref1 Glocer, Tom ref1 Glover, Stephen ref1, ref2, ref3n, ref4n Goldacre, Ben ref1, ref2n Goldman, William ref1, ref2 Goldman Sachs ref1, ref2 Good, Jennifer ref1 Goodale, James ref1 Goodman, Clive ref1, ref2 Goodman, Elinor ref1 Google ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 passim, ref1, ref2 Goranzon, Anders ref1 Gordon, David ref1, ref2, ref3n Gordon, Michael ref1 Gore, Vice President Al ref1 Gorwa, Robert ref1 Gove, Michael ref1 Gowers, Andrew ref1 Graham, Don ref1, ref2 Graham, James ref1 Graham, Katherine (Kay) ref1, ref2, ref3 Granada TV ref1, ref2 Grant, Hugh ref1 Gray, Charles (QC) ref1, ref2, ref3n Great Barrier Reef ref1 Great Integration ref1 Greenslade, Roy ref1, ref2, ref3n Greenwald, Glenn ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Greer, Ian ref1 Guardian Australia ref1 Guardian Cities ref1 Guardian Media Group (GMG) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11n, ref12n Board ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n, ref9n Guardian News and Media (GNM) ref1, ref2n Guardian Unlimited ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n Gulliver, Stuart ref1, ref2 gun control ref1 Gurfein, Judge Murray ref1 GUS retail group ref1 Gutenberg, Johannes ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Haaretz (newspaper) ref1 Hack Attack (Davies) ref1, ref2 Hacked Off ref1 Hagel, John ref1 Haig, General Al ref1, ref2 Hamilton, Neil (MP) ref1, ref2, ref3n Hankey, Sir Maurice ref1 Hanks, Tom ref1 Hansard ref1, ref2 hard knocks, school of ref1, ref2 Harding, James ref1 Harford, Tim ref1 Harlow Technical College ref1 Harris, Wendy ref1 Hartwell, Lord ref1 Hastings, Max ref1, ref2, ref3n Hayden, Michael V. ref1 Hayden, Teresa Nielsen ref1 Hayley, Sir William ref1 Hazlitt, William ref1, ref2 Hearst, William Randolph ref1, ref2 Henry, Georgina ref1, ref2 Henry Jackson Society ref1 Herald Sun (newspaper) ref1 Here Comes Everybody (Shirky) ref1 Hetherington, Alistair ref1, ref2 Hewlett, Steve ref1 Heywood, Jeremy ref1, ref2 Higgins, Eliot ref1 High Court ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Hillsborough disaster (1989) ref1, ref2, ref3n Hinton, Les ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Hirsch, Fred ref1, ref2, ref3n Hislop, Ian ref1 HMRC ref1 Hoare, Sean ref1, ref2 Hodgson, Godfrey ref1 Hoffman, Dustin ref1, ref2 Hoffman, Reid ref1, ref2 Holder, Eric ref1 Hollywood ref1 Home Affairs committee (UK) ref1 Home Office ref1 The Home Organist (magazine) ref1 Hong Kong ref1 Hooper, David ref1 Hopkins, Nick ref1 Horowitz, Ami ref1 Horrie, Chris ref1 Hotel Bristol (Villars) ref1, ref2 HotWired ref1 House of Commons ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 House of Lords ref1, ref2 Houston, Robin ref1 How to Spend It (magazine) ref1 HSBC ref1, ref2, ref3 Huffington, Arianna ref1, ref2n Huffington, Michael ref1 Huffington Post ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n Human Genome Project ref1 Human Rights Act (1998) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n Humanity United ref1 Hunt, Henry ref1 Hutton report (2004) ref1 ‘idea agora’ ref1 i-escape ref1 Iliffe of Yattendon, Lord ref1 Imanuelsen, Peter ref1 immigration ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Independent on Sunday (newspaper) ref1 Indonesia ref1 InFacts ref1 ‘influence model’ ref1 Infomediary ref1 information chaos ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) ref1 ‘information superhighway’ ref1, ref2, ref3 Ingrams, Richard ref1 injunctions ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Ink (Graham) ref1 Inkster, Nigel ref1 ‘innovation blindness’ ref1 Instagram ref1 integrated model ref1 integrity ref1 Intelligence Community programmes (US) ref1 ‘intelligence porn’ ref1 Intelligence and Security committee (UK) ref1, ref2 Intercept ref1 The Internet for Dummies (series) ref1 Internet Explorer ref1 intrusion ref1 investigative journalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n Investigatory Powers Act (2016) (UK) ref1 Investigatory Powers Tribunal (IPT) (UK) ref1, ref2 ‘invisible mending’ ref1 iPad ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 iPhone ref1, ref2 iPlayer ref1 IRA ref1, ref2 Iran ref1, ref2 Iraq wars ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Ireland ref1 Irish Independent (newspaper) ref1, ref2 Irish Times (newspaper) ref1 Irons, Jeremy ref1 Isaacson, Walter ref1 iTunes ref1 ITV ref1, ref2 James, Clive ref1 James, Erwin ref1 Jarvis, Jeff ref1, ref2, ref3 Jay, Peter ref1 Jenkins, Simon ref1, ref2 Jersey ref1 Jobs, Steve ref1 Johnson, Boris (MP) ref1, ref2 Johnson, Graham ref1 Johnston Press Ltd ref1n Jonathan of Arabia (TV) ref1 Jones, George ref1 Joseph Rowntree Foundation ref1 journalism accountability ref1, ref2 dead-tree ref1, ref2 investigative ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n seven deadly sins ref1n traditional ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 training ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Jowell, Tessa ref1 Judicial Redress Act (2016) ref1 Junius ref1 ‘junk news’ ref1 Jupiter Research ref1 Kaplan Educational publishing ref1 Katine (Uganda) ref1 Katz, Ian ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Kaufer, Stephen ref1 Keller, Bill ref1, ref2, ref3 Kelner, Simon ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n Kenya ref1, ref2 ‘keyword pages’ ref1 Khatchadourian, Raffi ref1 King, Dave ref1, ref2 King’s College, London ref1 Kings Place offices ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Kinsley, Michael ref1 Kirwan, Peter ref1 Knight Ridder ref1, ref2 Knopfler, Mark ref1 Kovach, Bill ref1 Krauze, Andre ref1 Kushner, Jared ref1 La Repubblica (newspaper) ref1 Laborde, Jean-Paul ref1 Labour Party ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Lamb, Larry ref1 Lambert, Richard ref1 Lanchester, John ref1, ref2 Large Hadron Collider ref1 Larson, Jeff ref1 Law Commission (UK) ref1 Lawrence, Felicity ref1 Lawson, Dominic ref1 lawyers ref1n Le Monde (newspaper) ref1, ref2 Leave campaign group ref1 Lebedev, Alexander ref1, ref2n Lebedev, Evgeny ref1n legacy media ref1 legality ref1 Lehman Brothers ref1, ref2 Leigh, David ref1, ref2 Leipzig, mayor of ref1 Lelyveld, Joseph ref1 Leonard, Joe ref1 letters ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 newsletters ref1, ref2, ref3 readers’ ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Leveson, Lord Justice Brian ref1, ref2, ref3n Leveson Inquiry ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n Levin, Bernard ref1, ref2n Lewinsky, Monica ref1 Lewis, Paul ref1, ref2, ref3 Lewis, Will ref1 libel actions ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n, ref8n, ref9n libel laws ref1, ref2 Liberal Democrat party ref1, ref2 Liberty ref1 Liberty and Security in a Changing World (2013 report) ref1 lies see under falsehood lighthouse model ref1, ref2 LinkedIn ref1, ref2, ref3 links ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n Linotype machine ref1, ref2, ref3 Linux ref1 Lippmann, Walter ref1 Littlewoods ref1 Lloyd, John ref1 Lloyds Bank ref1 Local Government Act (1972) ref1 Local World Ltd ref1, ref2, ref3n London Daily News (newspaper) ref1 London Evening Standard (newspaper) ref1 London Review of Books ref1, ref2 London School of Economics ref1n Lonely Planet ref1 ‘long tail’, theory of ref1 Los Angeles Times (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Lowry, L.S. ref1, ref2n loyalty scheme ref1 Ludgate Circus ref1 Ludlow machine ref1, ref2 Luxx (magazine) ref1 Luyendijk, Joris ref1 MacAskill, Ewen ref1, ref2, ref3 McCabe, Douglas ref1 McCabe, Eamonn ref1 McCain, John ref1 McCall, Carolyn ref1, ref2, ref3 Macedonia ref1 MacKenzie, Kelvin ref1 McKibben, Bill ref1, ref2 McKillen, Paddy ref1 McKinsey & Co ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 MacLennan, Murdoch ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Macron, President Emmanuel ref1 MacroWikinomics (Tapscott) ref1 MacTaggart lecture (2009) ref1 Mail Online ref1, ref2, ref3 Mainstream Media (MSM) ref1, ref2, ref3 Major, Prime Minister John ref1 The Making of the English Working Class (Thompson) ref1 Malmo ref1 Manchester Evening News (MEN) (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n Manchester Guardian (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Mandelson, Peter (MP) ref1 Manning, Chelsea ref1, ref2, ref3 Marks, Vic ref1 Marland, Caroline ref1 ‘marmalade dropper’ ref1, ref2n Martínez, Antonio García ref1, ref2 Mashable ref1, ref2 ‘The Masque of Anarchy’ (poem) ref1 Massachusetts Institute of Technology ref1 ref1 Mauro, Ezio ref1 Maxwell, Robert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n May Corporation Ltd ref1 May, Prime Minister Theresa ref1, ref2, ref3 Mayes, Ian ref1, ref2 Mead/Lexis ref1 Medejski, John ref1 Media Guardian ref1 media law ref1 media section ref1 Media Show (radio) ref1 Media Standards Trust (MST) ref1 Meeker, Mary ref1 Melbourne, Florida ref1, ref2 Merkel, Chancellor Angela ref1 Metcalfe, Jane ref1 metrics ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Metro (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3n Meyer, Philip ref1, ref2 MI5 ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n MI6 ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n Miami Herald (newspaper) ref1 Michelin tyres ref1 Microsoft ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Middle East ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 ‘middle market’ ref1 Middleton, Julia ref1 migrant workers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Miliband, Ed (MP) ref1 Miliband, Ralph ref1, ref2 Mill, John Stuart ref1 Miller, Andrew ref1n, ref2n Miller, Sienna ref1 Milton, John ref1, ref2, ref3 Miranda, David ref1, ref2 Mirror Group Newspapers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 mobile devices ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 moderation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Monaco ref1 Monbiot, George ref1 monitoring ref1 Monsanto ref1 Moore, Charles ref1, ref2, ref3 Moore, Michael ref1 Moran, Chris ref1 Morgan, Daniel ref1 Morgan, Piers ref1 Morgan Stanley ref1 morning conference ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Morozov, Evgeny ref1 Moses, Sir Alan ref1 Mossberg, Walt ref1 Mother Jones (magazine) ref1 Movable Type ref1 Mowatt, Roger ref1 Mowlam, Mo (MP) ref1, ref2n MPs ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 MSN ref1 Mubenga, Jimmy ref1, ref2 Mugabe, President Robert ref1 Mulcaire, Glenn ref1, ref2, ref3 Mumsnet ref1 Murdoch, James ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Murdoch, Rupert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Murdoch, Wendi ref1 Murdoch empire ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16n Murray, Douglas ref1 Murray, Scott ref1, ref2 Murrow, Edward R. ref1 Muslims ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Mutter, Alan ref1 mutualisation ref1, ref2, ref3 Myners, Paul ref1, ref2 MySpace ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 National Security Agency (NSA) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 National Theatre ref1 National Union of Journalists ref1, ref2 Naughton, John ref1 NCND policy (never confirm nor deny) ref1 Negroponte, Nicholas ref1 Netherlands, Queen of the ref1 netiquette ref1 Netscape ref1, ref2 Neuberger, Lord ref1 Nevin, Charles ref1 New Republic (magazine) ref1 New Statesman (magazine) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 New York Observer (newspaper) ref1 New York offices ref1, ref2, ref3 New York Post (newspaper) ref1 New York Times v.

pages: 299 words: 91,839

What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis

23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, commoditize, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, different worldview, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, G4S, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Maybe we need a new virtual currency all the world could share that could become the basis of new financial systems. How does Googlebucks sound? In Google we trust. Public Welfare St. Google’s Hospital Google Mutual Insurance St. Google’s Hospital: The benefits of publicness Too often when I find myself in a discussion about citizen journalists, some member of the press’ curmudgeonly class—thinking himself quite clever and apparently believing he just thought of this himself—will growl at me: “Why should I trust a citizen journalist? You wouldn’t want a citizen surgeon, would you?” No, I wouldn’t. But I do want health care to open up to the Google age and take full advantage of the opportunities it presents to gather and share more data; to link patients with better treatment and information; to connect them with fellow patients in a community of shared experience and need; and to use the potential of collaborative tools and the open-source movement to advance medical science.

pages: 125 words: 28,222

Growth Hacking Techniques, Disruptive Technology - How 40 Companies Made It BIG – Online Growth Hacker Marketing Strategy by Robert Peters

Airbnb, bounce rate, business climate, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, digital map, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, pull request, revision control, ride hailing / ride sharing, search engine result page, sharing economy, Skype, TaskRabbit, turn-by-turn navigation, ubercab

Even more importantly, the Twitter API was made easily available to developers so that there are more than 100,000 companion apps for the service from client readers to photo sharing services that enhance the user experience. A tweet can be sent from a 20-year-old cell phone as a text message. There is no need to sit down at a computer. For this reason, Twitter seems to readily turn members into citizen journalists during news events and natural disasters. This lends an unusual degree of social relevance to the community that has made it even more acceptable in the eyes of mainstream culture. For instance, much of the information that reached the west from the Arab Spring democracy movement (2010-2013) did so via Twitter. Much of Twitter’s success stems from the sweet spot of having found a perfect product idea for the time that paired exceptional built-in virality with high social relevance.

pages: 308 words: 96,604

American Pain: How a Young Felon and His Ring of Doctors Unleashed America’s Deadliest Drug Epidemic by John Temple

airport security, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, illegal immigration, Mason jar, McMansion, offshore financial centre

Turned out, she was posting the videos on her YouTube account, narrating her adventures as she went: “And now we got two security guys that are gonna come and tell me to get off their lot, maybe, I don’t know.” She shot video of Tennessee and Kentucky license plates, tsk-tsking until someone tapped on her window. “Get away from my car. Get away from my car!” Later, Cafiero interviewed the woman for a segment on pain clinics, identifying her as a “citizen journalist.” The citizen journalist looked delighted to be in the studio, a big smile on her face, and told a story about being waylaid by American Pain guards. “One has a knife and the other has a set of keys in between his knuckles. He goes . . .” scowling and deepening her voice, “‘You don’t want any of this! You better come with us.’ ” One day at the clinic, some staffers who hadn’t seen Carmel Cafiero’s reports asked Derik about them.

pages: 173 words: 54,729

Occupying Wall Street: The Inside Story of an Action That Changed America by Writers For The 99%

Bay Area Rapid Transit, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, income inequality, McMansion, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, We are the 99%, young professional

Inside the park, police with megaphones shouted, “Please get out of the park,” while passing out leaflets explaining that they were clearing the park. “Whose park? Our Park!” some responded. Others started gathering their possessions. Many reported feeling disoriented by the NYPD’s use of loud sound devices. One videographer stood filming in the middle of Cedar Street, facing the park. “For your safety, we’re asking you to move,” police demanded. “I don’t see why I have to move,” said citizen journalist Barbara Ross. “I am not scared. I am not blocking anything. I know my rights.” For the next two hours, she filmed cops pepper spraying resisters, trashing library books, wrecking the park’s sacred space, and completely demolishing the twomonth encampment. Two female officers eventually forced Barbara behind barricades on Trinity Place, where she could no longer witness the destruction. The cops fenced off the park: by 1 a.m. no one was allowed past the barricades.

pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

4chan, AGPL, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian,, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WikiLeaks

No one can deny the scale of Internet and mobile phone penetration in the Arab World. People in the region are becoming increasingly aware of the potentials offered by technology for social and political change. Artists, social workers and young intellectuals are resorting to information and communication venues in order to disseminate their work, gain wider reception and create more interaction. Despite the emergence of such highly connected communities of citizen journalists, cyber artists and digital activists, the techies who provide support and infrastructure to these communities, are still working in isolation, not really benefiting from this regional networking. While their social role is not always recognized by their communities and sometimes even by the techies themselves, they play a pivotal role, they are builders of communities, facilitators of communication between communities, they offer support, hand holding and transfer of skills and knowledge and they are transforming into gatekeepers to an increasing diversity of voices and information.

pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

In less than a fortnight, Julian Assange will be in this building, waiting to speak to the press about the Afghan War Logs. The man I’m waiting for today, Massachusetts-based hacker and scholar Ethan Zuckerman, is also a man who wants to take people outside their comfort zones and make them think. In 2004, along with journalist and China expert Rebecca MacKinnon, Ethan founded Global Voices, an international network of multilingual citizen journalists that works to get reporting from non-Western parts of the world more exposure on the web. While he was still a student at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, Ethan had co-founded the online community-hosting portal, which sold to Lycos in the late nineties. On graduation, Ethan spent a year in Ghana on a Fulbright scholarship before returning to the United States at the turn of the Millennium to found GeekCorps, a kind of VSO for geeks which sends people with technical skills to the developing world to help with computer-related projects.

pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man,, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation,, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

(To be sure, on many broadband networks this final link is shared among several unrelated subscribers, causing miniature tragedies of the commons as a file-sharing neighbor slows down the Internet performance for someone nearby trying to watch on-demand video.) The ability to tinker and experiment without watching a meter provides an important impetus to innovate; yesterday’s playful webcams on aquariums and cubicles have given rise to Internet-facilitated warehouse monitoring, citizen-journalist reporting from remote locations, and, as explained later in this book, even controversial experiments in a distributed neighborhood watch system where anyone can watch video streamed from a national border and report people who look like they are trying to cross it illegally7 However, an absence of measurement is starting to have generative drawbacks. Because we cannot easily measure the network and the character of the activity on it, we are left incapable of easily assessing and dealing with threats from bad code without laborious and imperfect cooperation among a limited group of security software vendors.

By devising tools and practices to connect distant individuals already building upon one another’s data, we can promote the feedback loops found within functioning communities and build a framework to allow the nicely part of Benkler’s “sharing nicely” to blossom.129 Enabling Reputation Bankruptcy As biometric readers become more commonplace in our endpoint machines, it will be possible for online destinations routinely to demand unsheddable identity tokens rather than disposable pseudonyms from Internet users. Many sites could benefit from asking people to participate with real identities known at least to the site, if not to the public at large. eBay, for one, would certainly profit by making it harder for people to shift among various ghost accounts. One could even imagine Wikipedia establishing a “fast track” for contributions if they were done with biometric assurance, just as South Korean citizen journalist newspaper OhmyNews keeps citizen identity numbers on file for the articles it publishes.130 These architectures protect one’s identity from the world at large while still making it much more difficult to produce multiple false “sock puppet” identities. When we participate in other walks of life—school, work, PTA meetings, and so on—we do so as ourselves, not wearing Groucho mustaches, and even if people do not know exactly who we are, they can recognize us from one meeting to the next.

Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide by Henry Jenkins

barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, Columbine, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, George Gilder, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, means of production, moral panic, new economy, profit motive, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, slashdot, Steven Pinker, the market place, Y Combinator

We need to create a context where we listen and learn from one another. We need to deliberate together. 50 Skenovano pro studijni ücely 239 Conclusion Democratizing Television? The Politics of Participation In A u g u s t 2005, former Democratic vice president Albert Gore helped to launch a new cable news network, Current. The network's stated goal was to encourage the active participation of young people as citizen journalists; viewers were intended not simply to consume C u r rent's programming but also to participate i n its production, selection, and distribution. A s Gore explained at a press conference i n late 2004, "We are about empowering this generation of young people i n the 18to-34 population to engage i n a dialogue of democracy and to tell their stories of what's going on i n their lives, i n the dominant m e d i u m of our time.

., 206-207, 211-212, 216, 219, 221, 223, 230, 234 " B u s h i n 30 seconds" contest, 219-220 Business Week, 66 "Bert is E v i l , " 1-3 beta reading, 179-181 Bible, 122,193, 204 Big Brother, 51-53,109 Billboard, 61 Bilson, Danny, 97,105-106,123 Bin Laden, Osama, 221 Bioware, 162-164 BitTorrent, 251 Black Box Fallacy, 14-16, 24, 212 Black, Rebecca, 181 Blade Runner, 115,123 Blair Witch Project, The, 97,101-103, 115,119 bloggers/blogging/blogs, 212-218, 237, 241, 252 blue A m e r i c a , 235, 237, 239 B M W , 207 Bochco, Stephen, 116 Bollinger, D a n , 32-34, 51, 57 Bollywood, 4 Borders, 110 Boston, 45 brain d r a i n , 38 brain trusts, 38-40, cable television, 66 C a m p a i g n 2004, 22, 29, 208-239, 246 C a m p b e l l , Joseph, 98,120 Carey, M a r i a h , 61 Carlson, Tucker, 225, 227 Cartoon N e t w o r k , 132 Casablanca, 97-98,101 Cassidy, K y l e , 149 Castells, M a n u e l , 129 casuals, 74, 76-77, 81 CBS, 25, 36-37, 45-46, 48, 54, 57, 60, 211-213, 220, 225 cease-and-desist, 152,186,189 Celebrity Deathmatch, 148 Center for Deliberative Democracy, 235 Center for Information and Research on C i v i c Learning and Engagement, 223 C h a d w i c k , Paul, 101,111-113,125, 128 C h a n C h e n , 113 C h a n , E v a n , 124 C h a n , Jackie, 109 Skenováno pro studijní ucely Index Charlie's Angels, 108 cheating, 259 Cheney, Richard, 219, 230 Cheskin Research, 15 C h i c k - f i l - A , 200 Children's Television Workshop, 2 chilling, 188 ChillOne, 26, 28, 31-32, 34-35, 37, 39-40, 42-46, 48-51, 54-57 China, 108,110,112-113 Chomsky, N o a m , 247 C h o w Yun-Fat, 113 Christian Gamers G u i l d , 201 Christianity, 21-22, 98,100,119, 169-171,192-195,197-204 Christopher Little Literary Agency, 185 C h u n g , Peter, 101 Ciao Bella, 70 citizen, informed vs. monitorial, 208, 225-226, 258-259 citizen journalists, 240 Clarkson, Kelly, 61 "click through," 65 Clinton, W i l l i a m J., 219 Cloudmakers, 123,125,127, 232 C N N , 1-3,124,140,192, 225 Coca-Cola Company, 60, 68-69, 70, 73, 87-88, 91, 92, 207 co-creation, 105-107 code, 163 Cohen, Ben, 206, 72 Cold Mountain, 200 Cole, Jeanne, 150 collaborationism, 134,167, 169-170, 187 collaborative authorship, 96,108¬ 113 Collective Detective, 233 collective intelligence, 2, 4, 20, 22, 26-27, 29, 50, 52-54, 63, 95,100, 127, 129,170,184, 208, 226, 235, 245-247, 254 Colson, Charles, 201-202 Columbine, 192 C o m e d y Central, 224-225 comics, 14, 96,101-102,108-109, 111, 132,164, 249-250 commercial culture, 135 commodity, 27 commodity exploitation, 62-63 communal media, 245 Comparative M e d i a Studies program, 12, 68, 80, 85,151 complexity, 33, 94-95, 259 Concepción, Bienvenido, 143 Concrete, 101, 111 consensus, 86 consensus culture, 236 convergence, 2-8,10-12, 14-24, 26, 59, 64, 68, 83, 95,104,114,170, 208, 212, 220, 242 convergence, corporate, 18,109-110, 157, 259 convergence culture, 15, 21, 23,132, 137,176-177, 204, 212, 242, 247, 259-260, 248, 257 convergence, grassroots, 18, 57, 109-110, 136-137, 157, 215, 259 Coombe, Rosemary J., 189 Coors Brewing Company, 69 Cops, 132 copyright, 137-138,154,167,189-190, 248 Corliss, Richard, 127 "cosplay," 113-114 Counterstrike, 163 Cowboy Bebop, 101 Creative Artists Agency, 60, 67 Crest toothpaste, 70 critical pessimism, 247-248 critical utopianism, 247-248 Crossfire, 225 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, 109, 112-113 cult films, 97-98 cultural activator, 95 cultural attractor, 95 culture.

pages: 218 words: 65,422

Better Living Through Criticism: How to Think About Art, Pleasure, Beauty, and Truth by A. O. Scott

barriers to entry, citizen journalism, conceptual framework, death of newspapers, hive mind, Joan Didion, Marshall McLuhan, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sexual politics, sharing economy, social web, the scientific method

The images that the antagonists project of one another are wearyingly familiar and at this point comically—or perhaps depressingly—distorted. An unwashed, sexually frustrated blogger is squirreled away in his mother’s basement, undermining the efforts of trained professionals who are, to reverse the image, lazy and entitled fat cats determined to guard their privilege from the brave and idealistic labor of citizen journalists. The hard work of thinking and writing is further imperiled by the quick, cheap, superficial trickery of aggregation and content farming. Or else the guardians and gatekeepers of the cultural elite have, at long last, been routed by an empowered and skeptical vox populi. But anyone who actually reads, including, presumably, the prophets and doomsayers who herald and bewail the rise of the new digital dispensation, knows that things are not so simple.

pages: 281 words: 71,242

World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer

artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism

Most of Silicon Valley, however, agreed. During the early years of the Internet, theorists of technology aggressively celebrated amateurism. Elites had a chokehold on the country that prevented the masses from expressing their creativity. Clay Shirky described the pent-up genius as “cognitive surplus.” The Internet helped unleash this surplus—it allowed bloggers to express the truths that careerist pundits dared not speak; citizen journalists scored new scoops; Wikipedia soon trumped Britannica with its depth and range. The amateurs could produce such brilliance because of the purity of their passion. As Shirky wrote: “Amateurs are sometimes separated from professionals by skill, but always by motivation; the term itself derives from the Latin amare—‘to love.’ The essence of amateurism is intrinsic motivation: to be an amateur is to do something for the love of it.”

pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Today, there are 5 million members—making it one of the largest advocacy groups in America, significantly larger than the NRA. Together, our members have given over $120 million in small donations to support causes we’ve identified together—health care for everyone, a green economy, and a flourishing democratic process, to name a few. For a time, it seemed that the Internet was going to entirely redemocratize society. Bloggers and citizen journalists would single-handedly rebuild the public media. Politicians would be able to run only with a broad base of support from small, everyday donors. Local governments would become more transparent and accountable to their citizens. And yet the era of civic connection I dreamed about hasn’t come. Democracy requires citizens to see things from one another’s point of view, but instead we’re more and more enclosed in our own bubbles.

pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

Quite the contrary: for Gaddafi and Mengistu, a weak new government in Khartoum, which by its own definition was only “transitional,” represented an easy target rather than a credible negotiating partner. It was about this time that the Sudanese defense minister went to Tripoli to sign the “protocol.” Meanwhile, the United States, which was occupied with helicopter drops and other acts of mercy in the far west of the country, was merely a bystander to this whole process. The Libyans also were active in the west; they took bold, strategic advantage of the famine while U.S. citizens, journalists in particular, were looking the other way. On the Sabbath Friday, August 23, 1985, six days before the Buram helicopter drop, a Libyan relief convoy of forty-three trucks and trailers, escorted by Libyan soldiers, rolled into the Darfur capital of El Fasher with an undisclosed number of weapons hidden beneath sacks of grain and dried milk powder. Around the same time, tribal chiefs from other parts of Darfur and adjacent Kordofan were being invited to Tripoli as guests of Colonel Gaddafi.

pages: 232 words: 78,701

I'm Judging You: The Do-Better Manual by Luvvie Ajayi

affirmative action, bitcoin, Burning Man, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, clean water, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Skype, Snapchat, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, upwardly mobile

I remember exactly how I felt the moment I saw the tweet saying that Michael Jackson had died, and how comforting it was to share my grief with countless people who felt the gut punch just as hard as I did. Social media has transformed our ways of communicating, and it has turned journalism on its head. I praise this aspect of the changed media landscape because at its most beautiful and useful, we get moments like my friend connecting with Richard in Haiti. The digital age has also allowed the rise of citizen journalists; people can tell stories that combat the false narratives spread by the mainstream media. You can live-tweet what is actually happening at a protest, so there’s a different perspective from the tales of violence and mayhem on the nine o’clock news. You can write a blog post about the state of education in your district, so that when funding is cut, we have the stories of those who are actually affected.

pages: 281 words: 78,317

But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

I can imagine the cognition of my current worldview slowly dissolving, in the same way certain dreams dissolve within the same instant I wake up and realize that I was not experiencing my actual life. Every so often, minor news stories will surface suggesting something major about science is already shifting. “NASA successfully tests engine that uses no fuel [and] violates the laws of physics,” read an August 1, 2014, headline in the citizen-journalist-run Examiner. Nine months later, the Silicon Valley–based Tech Times proclaimed, “NASA may have accidentally discovered faster-than-light travel.” Both articles were about the EmDrive, an experimental rocket thruster that supposedly violates Newton’s Third Law (the conservation of momentum). By the time any reader reached the conclusion of these articles, it was clear that the alleged breakthroughs were more interesting than practical.

pages: 240 words: 74,182

This Is Not Propaganda: Adventures in the War Against Reality by Peter Pomerantsev

"side hustle", 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, call centre, citizen journalism, desegregation, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, mega-rich, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, South China Sea

Laws … You can’t just bomb civilians, children, old people like this. Scores of young men and women were constantly scurrying around the city, filming and uploading video of the damage at what they called the ‘Aleppo media centre’. Some had travelled to Beirut for video training from humanitarian organisations. ‘Capture the crimes and this will help stop the atrocities,’ they had been told. They were now ‘citizen journalists’, ‘media activists’. President Assad’s helicopters were circling over their town, hovering overhead, then pushing off barrel bombs – oil drums, fuel tanks and gas cylinders filled with explosives and metal fragments – onto the city. Aleppo’s citizens were helpless beneath them. But they could film, and that, they felt, hoped, connected them to something greater and more powerful than the helicopters.

pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Joi Ito, Julian Assange,, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, offshore financial centre,, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The product isn’t the problem. Online publications that Twitter on a 24-7 schedule face the same difficulties, and even the inventive start-up Politico has said it makes most of its revenue on the print edition it distributes in Washington, D.C.14 At most online start-ups, any interest in journalistic innovation seems to come from the desire to cut costs, which is why more of them are experimenting with “citizen journalism” than, say, professionally shot video. For all the talk about how people now consume information differently, the real online revolution is in advertising. For more than a century, marketers funded content without caring much about it; they just needed a way to reach consumers. (Advertising without content was called junk mail and generally ignored.) Now they can reach potential customers directly—on search results pages, through social networks, and on their own sites.

“That’s not how people are consuming news,” she said.38 This is true, of course, but mostly because the Huffington Post and other online sites use Sun stories to draw in readers. The Sun, she implied, would just have to adjust. Rather than apply regular media economics to online publications, which would involve spending more money on reporting, most technology executives push traditional publications to adapt online economics: inexpensive ads and content that costs as little as possible. Their ideas for the future of journalism include citizen journalism, nonprofit-funded reporting, and various innovations based on publicly available data. But they don’t seem to involve many journalists. Few companies have done more to promote these ideas than Google, which has used the public discussion about the future of journalism to push its own priorities. In April 2010, the Knight Commission on the Information Needs of Communities in a Democracy, a group funded by the John S. and James L.

As the media executive and news business blogger Alan Mutter pointed out, U.S. newspapers now spend $4.4 billion a year on reporting, while nonprofit journalism institutions raised only $144 million over the last four.42 “The finding about that in general is that the content is great and the funding model is very unstable,” says Nicholas Lemann, dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. “Then there are these experiments in crowdsourcing and other forms of social production, and my view is that they haven’t really delivered the goods.” Although nonprofit groups like the Knight Foundation have become enamored with citizen journalism projects, their track record has been uneven at best. A 2010 study by the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism that examined the news “ecosystem” of Baltimore over the course of a week found that traditional media produced 95 percent of the stories with new information and that newspapers were responsible for most of them.43 (It also found that 80 percent of all stories contained no new information at all, which is damning for old and new media alike.)

pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

Today, an inkjet printer that costs about fifty dollars can reproduce digital photos with an unnoticeable difference in resolution. This has also happened with mainframe computing to the point where the super computer that lives in our pocket is our most powerful technological device. It’s clear that technology is disrupting industry and breaking down almost everything that was once mass. Just as large media has had to learn to share the stage with citizen journalism, the factory will soon be sharing the market with digital craftspeople operating out of their home. Desktop publishing is about to be joined by desktop manufacturing. Smart entrepreneurs are already starting to build ‘bridge industries’ for 3D printing, which will teach and build the market in the pre–saturation phase of the coming years. Online 3D digital print shops such as Ponoko — which produces what you want using your designs or those of other people and sends the finished product right to your door — are emerging.

The strategy needs to be one of embracing the unknown and of exploring all commercial possibilities. It’s hard to imagine that a build-stuff-on-demand world will ever exist. But it was probably hard for pre-industrial artisans to imagine what factories and production would eventually become, or how the first transistors would transform us into an information age. What’s certain is that social media and citizen journalism will evolve into social design and social manufacturing. It’s the way it’s always been, excluding the 200-year halcyon period of the industrial era. Dad vs daughter I’ve been thrilled to own a 3D printer for a few years now. I purchased one when they hit their Altair moment (the Altair 8800 is regarded as the first affordable personal computer and the spark of the home computer revolution).

We’re all media companies Everyone is a media company today. While not everyone has embraced it, this is true for anyone who’s connected to the internet. If we’re plugged into the web, we’re a valid form of media, plain and simple. If we have the ability to send a message to more than one recipient simultaneously, we’re the media, even at a micro level. And it doesn’t mean we have to be using the tools of citizen journalism either. People don’t have to be creating traditional media output (written words, video content, audio content) to be media. If you send a text message to a group of recipients via a web app, that’s media. You’re delivering content to a permission-based audience. You have their eyes and ears. You have their attention, and that’s the asset that matters, especially when we’re living in a world of absolute channel explosion.

pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

These became known as the Palmer Raids, which began with the rounding up and deportation of a few hundred left writers and activists, including Emma Goldman in 1919, even though she was a naturalized American citizen. In January 1920 Palmer, working with local police, undertook a massive campaign of arrests, interrogation, false imprisonment, and deportation. Thousands were arrested including large numbers of US citizens. Journalists were specially targeted, files seized, and papers closed down. Many were held for weeks in basements and building hallways with no access to bathrooms, food, or lawyers. Many others were beaten or tortured, and in one instance a prisoner “jumped” out of a window and died.16 Buffalo’s police chief was quoted as saying, “It’s too bad we can’t line them up against a wall and shoot them.”17 The Massachusetts secretary of state said, “If I had my way I would take them out in the yard every morning and shoot them, and the next day would have a trial to see whether they were guilty.”18 In the end, the raids were found to be utterly illegal, but not before hundreds were deported, organizations disrupted, and lives destroyed.

pages: 317 words: 98,745

Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

Let’s imagine for a moment that you don’t own a computer, have never sent an email or text, and don’t know what “app” means. The thing that informs you, that prepares you for cocktail parties and other gatherings, is mainstream or “old” media – newspapers, radio, and TV. Look closely at this “old media”: How much of it is now “informed by,” even directed by, “new media,” by thousands, even millions, of “citizen journalists,” unpaid, unaccountable, but with cellphone cameras permanently at the ready, documenting events as they happen in real time, unfiltered, and, perhaps, unreliable. The other truth is that no one really knows what this hurricane will leave behind or where it will take us. We’re just struggling to hang on. Another chief difference between then and now is that today, through cyberspace, it is us, the users, who create the information, do the connecting, and sustain and grow this unique communications and technological ecosystem.

pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The growth game is still working, so place your bets. Evan and his partners successfully turned Twitter into a publicly traded, multibillion-dollar company and in the process sacrificed a potentially world-changing app to the singular pursuit of growth. Here was arguably the most powerful social media tool yet developed—from organizing activists in the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street movements to providing a global platform for citizen journalists and presidential candidates alike. And it wasn’t particularly expensive to create or maintain. It certainly didn’t require a multibillion-dollar cash infusion in order to keep functioning. Having taken in this much new capital, however, Twitter now needs to produce. It must grow. As of this writing, the $43 million Twitter profited last quarter is considered an abject failure by Wall Street.

pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, post-work, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Because it was developed in Sweden rather than the US, the team trusts it not to have a “back door” through which the US National Security Agency can peer in on their discussions. As its name suggests, WikiLeaks began as a “wiki” – a user-editable site (which has sometimes led to confusion with the user-editable Wikipedia; there is no association). But Assange and his colleagues rapidly found that the content and need to remove dangerous or incriminating information made such a model impractical. Assange would come to revise his belief that online “citizen journalists” in their thousands would be prepared to scrutinise posted documents and discover whether they were genuine or not. But while the “wiki” elements have been abandoned, a structure to enable anonymous submissions of leaked documents remains at the heart of the WikiLeaks idea. British encryption expert Ben Laurie was another who assisted. Laurie, a former mathematician who lives in west London and among other things rents out bomb-proof bunkers to house commercial internet servers, says when Assange first proposed his scheme for “an open-source, democratic intelligence agency”, he thought it was “all hot air”.

pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

anti-globalists, back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, do-ocracy, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

In the ensuing months Greece ‘got’ an immigration policy—albeit one where to claim asylum you have to queue overnight on a Friday, week after week, avoid being beaten by the gangs paid by the police to disrupt the queue, and then somehow bribe your way to the front. A policy where people of colour are shamelessly picked off the streets by plainclothes police and herded onto buses to be processed. One where previously buzzing immigrant neighbourhoods like Agias Pandelemonos in Athens have become, in a matter of months, quiet, orderly, and mostly white. But it has not stopped Golden Dawn. Theodora Oikonomides, a citizen journalist at the alternative radio network Radio Bubble, who has covered the rise of Golden Dawn, voices a fear common to many: ‘Golden Dawn’s favourite themes, such as xenophobia, homophobia and anti-Semitism have now become part of Greek public discourse, whether at the political or at the social level,’ she says. ‘By failing to take action against Golden Dawn while nodding and winking to its electorate at every opportunity, the Greek politicians—who are now in power with the support of European partners—have opened a Pandora’s box that will not close any time soon.’

pages: 319 words: 103,707

Against Everything: Essays by Mark Greif

1960s counterculture, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, income inequality, informal economy, Joan Didion, Norman Mailer, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, Ronald Reagan, technoutopianism, telemarketer, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, white flight

Unlike television, to which commercials were indigenous—the skunks, mosquitos, and snakes of that particular media ecology—the compulsory commercials preceding YouTube videos now, and now interrupting at intervals the replay of long recordings, are invasive species, purely extraneous and insulting. So vandalism has come to be the flip side of this extraordinary Taj Mahal, or vast, architecturally promiscuous city, made by users—YouTube’s, the organizer’s, vandalism of what we have created. Treasured things keep disappearing even as new ones appear. Whenever a controversial or newsworthy clip is heard to be posted—as witnesses and “citizen journalists” put up footage from their camera phones, and its presence even makes it into the front-page recounting of the news, precisely the kind of thing a collective repository should exist to keep and share—one’s immediate question is: “Is it still up?” Which asks, has the They gotten to it yet and removed it? The They are always disappearing things. Who knows why: taste, corporate request, government preference?

Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

In like manner, the early spread of the market form, only a few centuries ago, was accompanied by a spawn of usurers, pirates, smugglers, and monopolists, all seeking to elude state controls over their earnings and enterprises.23 In light of the military applications of netwar tactics, it would be foolish to presume that only benign outcomes should be expected from smart mobs. But any observer who focuses exclusively on the potential for violence would miss evidence of perhaps an even more profoundly disruptive potential—for beneficial as well as malign purposes—of smart mob technologies and techniques. Could cooperation epidemics break out if smart mob media spread beyond warriors—to citizens, journalists, scientists, people looking for fun, friends, mates, customers, or trading partners? Substitute the word “computers” for the words “smart mobs” in the previous paragraph, and you’ll recapitulate the history of computation since its birth in World War II. Lovegety and p2p Journalism Organized conflict is undoubtedly a site of intensive cooperation. Humans enjoy cooperating to each other’s benefit, as well, given the right conditions and payoff.

pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

affirmative action, business cycle, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

I highlight problems in order to inform the public and social policy debates. A good deal of what we call attention to as social scientists is related to the ultimate objective of our research. Social researchers who wish to inform and influence public policy are more likely to focus on a community’s problems than on its strengths. Their purpose is to stimulate thought so that policymakers, concerned citizens, journalists, and others will have a basis for understanding such problems and the need to address them. Given the reemergence of the discussion concerning the importance of genetic endowment, it is urgent that social scientists once again emphasize, for public policy purposes, the powerful and complex role of the social environment in shaping the life experiences of inner-city ghetto residents. Since the publication of The Bell Curve in late 1994, a genetic argument has resurfaced in public discussions about the plight of inner-city residents.

pages: 397 words: 110,222

Habeas Data: Privacy vs. The Rise of Surveillance Tech by Cyrus Farivar

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden,, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, John Markoff, license plate recognition, Lyft, national security letter, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, Port of Oakland, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Hackers Conference, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

This was also the first time that a major American media outlet had reported on the issue, and likely how many lawmakers first heard about the device that had already been in use for years. In the same article, Sherry Sabol, a veteran FBI attorney, sent the Journal a statement about stingrays, noting that the technology is “considered Law Enforcement Sensitive, since its public release could harm law enforcement efforts by compromising future use of the equipment.” In short, Rigmaiden unveiled a new chapter in the story of sophisticated surveillance to the public—citizens, journalists, lawyers, judges—that law enforcement had already known for years, mostly without telling anyone. * * * After Rigmaiden and Soghoian began corresponding, the doctoral student was introduced to Stephanie Pell, a former veteran federal prosecutor, who was then serving as counsel to the House Judiciary Committee. Notably, Pell had been one of four Miami-based lead prosecutors on the José Padilla case, who was implicated in the so-called dirty bomb plot.

pages: 344 words: 96,690

Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies by Charlene Li, Josh Bernoff

business process, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, demand response, Donald Trump, estate planning, Firefox, John Markoff, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, social intelligence, Tony Hsieh

The entire episode was covered by the Korea Times: See “Dunkin’s Production Faces Sanitation Criticism” by Kim Rahn, Korea Times, May 4, 2007, visible at 18. In 2006, Forrester Research released a report called “Social Computing”: Forrester’s report was called “Social Computing: How Networks Erode Institutional Power, And What to Do About It.” In this report we argued that technology-driven social phenomena—including blogs, wikis, social networks, file sharing, customer ratings, citizen journalism, and the like—are part of a single trend toward people connecting and depending on each other, rather than on institutions. (We now call that trend the groundswell.) According to the report, “To thrive in an era of Social Computing, companies must abandon top-down management and communication tactics, weave communities into their products and services, use employees and partners as marketers, and become part of a living fabric of brand loyalists.”

An amazing short story called “Microcosmic God”: Theodore Sturgeon’s “Microcosmic God” was first published in 1941. The story appears in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Vol. 1, edited by Robert Silverberg (New York: Orb, 2005). 25. Seven weeks, for a total investment of $12,107.09: See Guy Kawasaki’s June 3, 2007, blog post “By the Numbers: How I built a Web 2.0, User-Generated Content, Citizen Journalism, Long-Tail, Social Media Site for $12,107.09” on the blog How to Change the World at 26. As Chris Anderson, author of The Long Tail: See The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More by Chris Anderson (New York: Hyperion, 2006). The author’s blog is at or 27. Here’s what one FastLane reader, for example, said about one the new Pontiac GTO: See Bob Lutz’s January 25, 2005, blog post “Sharpening the Arrowhead” on the blog GM FastLane at 28.

pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

This is twice the percentage who believed that in the mid-1980s, before the proliferation of the net.24 As cultural philosopher Jürgen Habermas offered during his acceptance speech of a humanitarian award in 2006, “The price we pay for the growth in egalitarianism offered by the Internet is the decentralized access to unedited stories. In this medium, contributions by intellectuals lose their power to create a focus.”25 To be sure, the rise of citizen journalism brings us information that the mainstream media lacks either the budget for or fortitude to cover. Initial reports of damage during Hurricane Katrina came from bloggers and amateur videographers. However, these reports also inflated body counts and spread rumors about rape and violence in the Superdome that were later revealed not to have occurred.26 Footage and reporting from the Arab Spring and the Syrian revolution—where news agencies were limited or banned—were almost entirely dependent on amateur journalists.

See also specific topic ownership, 168–69, 204 pacing: collaborative, 100–101; digiphrenia and, 74, 93–109; importance of, 8; multiple timescales and, 135; overwinding and, 135, 141, 170 paranoia, 204, 218, 222, 240–41, 250, 261 patterns: apocalypto and, 251, 263, 264; fractalnoia and, 7, 197–205, 209, 216, 217–19, 229, 230–41; generating of, 217–19; as nonexistent, 201, 202; recognition of, 7, 219, 230–41, 264 Paul, Ron, 53 Perren, Jeff, 60n Pew Internet and American Life Project, 52 Pew Research, 51 Pinchbeck, Daniel, 253 Pinker, Steven, 227–28 planking, 43 plastic surgery, 149–51 play. See games politics: citizen journalism and, 52–53; fractalnoia and, 209, 212, 216; generational issues and, 18; narrative collapse and, 7, 18, 28, 43–50, 52–53, 64, 67; overwinding and, 134, 157; real-time, 43–50. See also Occupy Movement popular culture, 7, 23–34, 247. See also culture pork belly trades, 185–86 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). See stress Prechter, Robert, 229–30 present/presentism: blocking out of, 17; digiphrenia and, 86; as form of time travel, 259–60; futurism and, 17; hunter-gatherer society in eternal, 76–77; impact of, 4; multiple timescales and, 135; narrative collapse and, 17, 31, 50; negation of, 85; new “now” and, 1–8; overwinding and, 141; past as wound up into, 156–57; real-time news and, 48.

pages: 363 words: 123,076

The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, Capote, and the New Journalism Revolution by Marc Weingarten

1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, post-work, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor, yellow journalism

When President Johnson ramped up draft calls from 17,000 a month to 35,000 a month in July 1965, it triggered a wave of domestic protest that pulled in a large coalition of disparate groups, from students and businessmen to housewives and Social Security card carriers. Public figures were also starting to contribute their voices to the dissent. In 1967 the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation sponsored the International War Crimes Tribunal, a plenipotentiary forum whose board members included novelist James Baldwin and existential philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Using extensive testimony from Vietnamese citizens, journalists, medical experts, and military leaders, the tribunal sought to reprimand the United States for its illegal use of chemical weaponry, particularly napalm, against the North Vietnamese, comparing it to the war atrocities committed by the Nazis during World War II. The tribunal was great theater, a display of rhetorical fireworks and moving testimony. At one point Sartre branded tribunal no-show Secretary of State Dean Rusk a “mediocre functionary” and wondered how Rusk, “armed with the miserable arguments with which he amuses the press,” would fare in a face-to-face debate with Bertrand Russell.

pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX ACKNOWLEDGMENTS THERE MAY NOT be an end to the number of people who contributed to the making of this book, but there are two people who were at the beginning: Tom and Pat Gish. Tom and Pat have owned and operated the Mountain Eagle, a weekly newspaper in the mountains of Eastern Kentucky, for the past half century. Before bloggers or citizen journalists or the Web 2.0, the Gishes practiced a tough, inclusive, honest, and ultimately democratic style of journalism that has guided me since I arrived on their doorstep in 1975. Tom and Pat have shown a respect for the people of Letcher County that is unusual in journalism and almost entirely missing from public life. The Big Sort would have remained undiscovered without Bob Cushing. We met by chance, and it was due to his skill as a statistician and his curiosity as a scholar that we found the relationship between the economy, the culture, politics, and geography.

pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, do-ocracy, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, low cost airline, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

And did these boys need to be punished for it? Absolutely.”50 When these articles were brought to Anonymous’ attention, the group made a lot of noise, in turn bringing the incident to the nation’s attention. Eventually, a special prosecutor formally filed a criminal charge against Matthew Barnett—a single count of misdemeanor child endangerment. Anonymous’ interventions in these three cases triggered searing but divided responses. Citizens, journalists, and feminists disagreed over whether Anonymous’ interventions had helped or hurt sexual abuse victims. Ariel Levy, in a scathing New Yorker article, came down hard against the Anonymous (and other online activists), asserting that the appeal of the group was rooted in the public’s naive embrace of a simple archetype: “modern-day Peter Parkers—computer nerds who put on a costume and were transformed into superhero vigilantes.”51 Other responses were more nuanced, going beyond the vigilante argument.

pages: 387 words: 119,409

Work Rules!: Insights From Inside Google That Will Transform How You Live and Lead by Laszlo Bock

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, citizen journalism, clean water, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice,, experimental subject, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, helicopter parent, immigration reform, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, nudge unit, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, random walk, Richard Thaler, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tony Hsieh, Turing machine, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Charlotte Monico, a London-based member of our people operations team, is one of over a dozen Googlers to have taken part in the Olympic games. Vint Cerf, known as “the co-father of the Internet” for his seminal work co-inventing the Internet, is our lead evangelist. The inventor of the optical mouse (Dick Lyon) and founders or cofounders of Excite (Joe Kraus and Graham Spencer), Ushahidi (a crowdsourcing utility that allows citizen journalists and eyewitnesses to report violence in Africa, created by Ory Okolloh), Chrome (Sundar Pichai and Linus Upson), and Digg (Kevin Rose) work alongside one another and tens of thousands of other remarkable people. How can you tell if you have found someone exceptional? My simple rule of thumb—and the second big change to make in how you hire—is: “Only hire people who are better than you.” Every person I’ve hired is better than me in some meaningful way.

pages: 440 words: 128,813

Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg

carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty

According to conventional theories of the news media, and especially those advanced by journalists themselves, “the essence of real journalism . . . is the search for information of use to the public.”6 “Prevailing wisdom,” Jay Rosen writes, holds that journalists “give us timely information about matters of common importance; they entertain and enlighten us with compelling stories; they act as our surrogate and watchdog before the high and mighty, asking sharp questions and demanding straight answers; they expose wrongdoing and the abuse of public trust; and they put before us a range of views, through opinion forums marked as such.”7 But in practice, news audiences have always demanded that journalists do more—or maybe less—than provide them with information that will help them act as responsible democratic citizens. Journalists themselves disagree about the kinds of roles they should play in reporting public events such as the heat wave. During the crisis local newsrooms became the sites of conflicts between editors who wanted to generate large audiences through spectacular human interest stories and those who wanted to produce more substantive news reporting. But even the combatants in these disputes took for granted that the news coverage would employ standard journalistic material such as sensational visual images, provocative headlines, and dramatic story leads that cause little controversy in the newsroom and exert great influence over the content of the coverage.

pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation,, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

In countries such as China, the variety of local social networking tools is just as bewildering, with sites such as QQ, 51, Xiaonei, Chinaren, Kaixin001, 5460, Wangyou, and others. Individuals who do tireless outreach to their large networks are deemed to be influencers and are now courted by corporations to help sell new products and socialise ideas. Even less-frequent commentators can serve as “citizen journalists”, notifying others about their concerns or experiences with organisations. The Chinese author and blogger, Han Han, has received over 300 million views to his blog, making him the most-read blogger in China, and probably the entire world. In September 2010, the British magazine, New Statesman, listed Han Han at 48th place in the list of the world’s “50 Most Influential Figures 2010”.17 Han started as a writer when he was at high school, and won literary awards such as China’s New Concept Writing Competition.

pages: 103 words: 32,131

Program Or Be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age by Douglas Rushkoff

banking crisis, big-box store, citizen journalism, cloud computing, digital map, East Village, financial innovation, Firefox, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the printing press, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, WikiLeaks

Young people who saw in social networks a way to redefine themselves and their allegiances across formerly sacrosanct boundaries are now conforming to the logic of social networking profiles and finding themselves the victims of marketers and character assassination. Bankers who believed that digital entrepreneurship would revive a sagging industrial age economy are instead finding it impossible to generate new value through capital investment. A news media that saw in information networks new opportunities for citizen journalism and responsive, twenty-four-hour news gathering has grown sensationalist, unprofitable, and devoid of useful facts. Educated laypeople who saw in the net a new opportunity for amateur participation in previously cordoned-off sectors of media and society instead see the indiscriminate mashing and mixing up of pretty much everything, in an environment where the loud and lewd drown out anything that takes more than a few moments to understand.

pages: 367 words: 109,122

Revolution 2:0: A Memoir and Call to Action by Wael Ghonim

British Empire, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, financial independence, Khan Academy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Skype, WikiLeaks

The names of deceased citizens were used to cast false votes, and on occasion people who hadn’t voted found that their identities had been illegally appropriated and used in the ballot boxes (this happened to a friend of mine). Finally, State Security would pressure the civic workers responsible for sorting and counting the votes into rigging the results. Even so, the 2010 parliamentary elections were the worst in Egypt’s history. A group of young people sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood launched a Facebook page called “Monitoring—2010 Parliament.” It was delightful to see a page devoted to citizen journalism appearing on Facebook specifically to monitor the elections. They called themselves Rasd, an Arabic word that means “monitoring.” Judging from the way the page was run, its founders seemed both professional and young. I would later find out that one of the founders was actually none other than Amr El-Qazzaz, the guy to whom I had delegated the management of What a small world!

After the thugs retreated, they climbed onto the Sixth of October Bridge to throw yet more Molotov cocktails. Then the battle became deadly: snipers began targeting protesters and firing live ammunition from the top of the bridge. Martyrs began to fall, one after another, until a group of protesters was able to climb the bridge from behind the thugs and snipers and fight with them one by one. Citizen journalism and social media played a great role in informing the world of the events in the square and many other areas across Egypt. Rasd, whose page was linked to “Kullena Khaled Said” on Jan25, had twelve admins who regularly collected information, photos, and videos from protesters. Their page quickly became one of the major news sources on the Egyptian revolution. More than 350,000 people joined the page to keep up with the minute-to-minute updates, something traditional media simply couldn’t offer.

pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

The Web site, like Google, was free and offered links to stories in the Chicago Tribune, Chicago Daily Herald, and other local papers and Web sites. Aside from inviting citizens to blog, this local online “newspaper” was little more than a collection of links to work done by others. Lerer said there was promotional value for content providers like the Tribune. True. He said the more page views their content got the more advertising they’d sell. True. He said that “citizen journalists” often provide valuable information. True. But at a time when most newspapers proclaim local news as their potential salvation, these papers were suicidally supplying the Huffington Post with their own murder weapon. By 2009, the Huffington Post was discussing similar local editions in as many as fifty cities. What to do? Eric Schmidt once told me that he thought “Apple’s iTunes is a great example of compromise” between old and new media and, of course, users pay for their music there.

pages: 542 words: 132,010

The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner

Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), lateral thinking, mandatory minimum, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional

It doesn’t take an MBA to figure out what pharmaceutical companies need to do to expand their markets and boost sales. Critics call it “disease mongering.” Australians Roy Moynihan and David Henry, a journalist and a pharmacologist, respectively, wrote in the April 2006 edition of the journal Public Library of Science Medicine that “many of the so-called disease awareness campaigns that inform contemporary understanding of illness—whether as citizens, journalists, academics or policymakers—are underwritten by the marketing departments of large drug companies rather than by organizations with a primary interest in public health. And it is no secret that those same marketing depart- ments contract advertising agencies with expertise in ‘condition branding,’ whose skills include ‘fostering the creation’ of new medical disorders and dysfunctions.” The evidence assembled by Moynihan and Henry in their book Selling Sickness: How the World’s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All Into Patients is extensive.

pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game

Lavandeira gave up on (which was anyhow hard to type) and took as his nom de blog Perez Hilton. Who, exactly, was Perez Hilton supposed to be? Lavandeira posed as the “trashtastic Cuban cousin of Paris and Nicky [Hilton],” the socialite sister heiresses famous in the early 2000s. Over the latter part of the decade, Perez Hilton, and commercial imitators, like TMZ, presented a new face of blogging. Far from the highbrow musing of citizen journalists of the digital commons, the sort imagined at the turn of the millennium, the gossip blogs were full-fledged attention merchants in the most conventional sense. By 2007, Perez Hilton was claiming some four million unique visitors a day and selling advertisements for $9,000 a week.10 Perez Hilton was not the only wildly popular fictive persona made possible by the anonymity of the web. In 2006 the best-known face on YouTube was Lonelygirl15, a cute but awkward teenage girl whose first video was entitled “First Blog / Dorkiness Prevails.”

pages: 122 words: 38,022

Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

Compare the first election won by Obama, in which social media devotees reproduced the iconic but official blue-and-red stylized stencil portrait of the new president with HOPE printed across the bottom, a portrait created by artist Shepard Fairey and approved by the official Obama campaign, to the bursting forth of irreverent mainstream-baffling meme culture during the last race, in which the Bernie’s Dank Meme Stash Facebook page and The Donald subreddit defined the tone of the race for a young and newly politicized generation, with the mainstream media desperately trying to catch up with a subcultural in-joke style to suit two emergent anti-establishment waves of the right and left. Writers like Manuel Castells and numerous commentators in the Wired magazine milieu told us of the coming of a networked society, in which old hierarchical models of business and culture would be replaced by the wisdom of crowds, the swarm, the hive mind, citizen journalism and user-generated content. They got their wish, but it’s not quite the utopian vision they were hoping for. As old media dies, gatekeepers of cultural sensibilities and etiquette have been overthrown, notions of popular taste maintained by a small creative class are now perpetually outpaced by viral online content from obscure sources, and culture industry consumers have been replaced by constantly online, instant content producers.

pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, business cycle, butter production in bangladesh, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman,, experimental economics, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, intangible asset, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, negative equity, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra, your tax dollars at work

This is an update on the “time isn’t what it used to be” lesson seen in comparing pre- and postmodern Web-era market reaction to earnings surprise news, shown in Chapter 4. In fact, it didn’t take long for another major manipulation based on false news to occur. A legitimate news story followed a falsely planted one that had hammered Apple stock down by 5.4 percent, less than a month after the UAL presumed accident: CNN’s plunge into online citizen journalism backfired yesterday when the cable-news outlet posted what turned out to be a bogus report claiming that Apple Inc. Chief Executive Officer Steve Jobs had suffered a heart attack. Apple shares fell as much as 5.4 percent after the post on CNN’s and rebounded after the Cupertino, California–based company said the story was false. Atlantabased CNN, owned by Time Warner Inc., disabled the user’s account and said it tried unsuccessfully to contact the individual.3 208 Nerds on Wall Str eet The effects of real news are often less dramatic.

PIMCO December 2008 Market Commentary, +Market+Commentary/IO/2008/IO+Dow+5000+Gross+Dec+08.htm. 2. Relegence was an early first-wave company that did this. It was acquired by AOL, but remains in the news machine business ( Newcomers in 2007 and 2008 include Skygrid ( and StockMood (www.stockmood. com). aggregates a wide range of services. The Text Fr ontier 225 3. James Callan, “CNN’s Citizen Journalism Goes ‘Awry’ with False Report on Jobs,” Bloomberg News, October 4, 2008. 4. Paul Tetlock, Maytal Saar-Tsechansky, and Sofus Macskassy, “More Than Words: Quantifying Language (in News) to Measure Firms’ Fundamentals,” Journal of Finance 63 (June 2008): 1437–1467. (An earlier working version is available at the Social Science Research Network, 5. General Inquirer is found at˜inquirer/. 6.

pages: 767 words: 202,660

Two Georges by Richard Dreyfuss, Harry Turtledove

British Empire, citizen journalism, clean water

III Long before he got to the RAM headquarters in downtown New Liverpool, Bushell knew what sort of day it would be. Newsboys on every other street corner waved papers with screaming headlines. The big one was always the same, regardless of the daily: TWO GEORGES STOLEN! The number of exclamation points following the head did vary, from none in the staid New Liverpool Tory to four in the Citizen-Journal. Subheads also varied. SHAME! cried one. Another wailed, MONSTROUS CRIME! And a third declared, THE EMPIRE MOURNS! Some mentioned the Steamer King’s demise (only the Citizen-journal called him Tricky Dick, while the headline man for the Ledger was clever enough to link his murder to the theft of The Two Georges), while others went on talking about the theft itself. The newsboys were doing a land-office business. Men and women crowded round them, pressing shillings into their hands.

The real sun would be rising too soon. Bushell turned out the bedside lamp, flipped over onto his side, and did his best to sleep. In his army days, he’d had a knack for dropping off whenever he got the chance. Somewhere, over the years, he’d mislaid it. Even had he found it, it wouldn’t have done him much good. The telephone rang twice more in the waning hours of the night: a reporter from the New Liverpool Citizen-Journal and another from the Toronto American. “I’ll schedule a press conference for this afternoon.” Bushell said at last, yielding to the inevitable. Thanks to the interruptions, he’d had a bit more than an hour’s sleep when the alarm clock went off beside his head like a bomb. Groggily, he picked up the telephone. “Bushell.” Only when the clock kept on clattering did he realize what it was and turn it off.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

In Chapter 5, I mentioned the Italian company Hacking Team. Its computer and cell phone intrusion and monitoring products are used by the governments of Azerbaijan, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Oman, Panama, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, the UAE, and Uzbekistan. The Moroccan government employed Hacking Team’s software to target the citizen journalist group Mamfakinch via an e-mail that purported to be a message from an anonymous citizen in danger; the attached file contained a payload of malware. In 2011, arrested dissidents in Bahrain were shown transcripts of their private e-mail and chat sessions, collected by the government with tools provided by Nokia and Siemens. The conference ISS World—which stands for Intelligence Support Systems—has frequent trade shows in cities like Dubai and Brasilia.

pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel,, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

What sane small online publisher will now dare publish a memoir like Clancy Martin’s if it means foregoing a stable stream of income? Guernica’s is not an isolated case. In late 2011, Omoyele Sowore, a Nigerian exile living in New York, got a similar e-mail from Google. Sowore runs a website called Sahara Reporters, which mixes editorial writings on the state of affairs in Nigeria with reported stories contributed by a network of citizen journalists on the ground. One such story focused on police brutality in the region and included a number of graphic photos. Google’s algorithms found the images too violent and informed Sowore that it was suspending the site’s participation in AdSense. Pleas to Google were met with silence. Only after an intervention from a well-placed staffer with the Committee to Protect Journalism did Google agree, perhaps sensing that the story would yield very bad publicity if pushed by activist free speech NGOs, to reconsider its treatment of Sahara Reporters.

pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, longitudinal study, means of production, Mitch Kapor, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, QR code, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

The method of funding is determined according to the model and needs of the organization. But the blending can happen more organically, too. Take the case of YouTube or Wikipedia. No one is paid to post a video on YouTube, and yet approximately 72 hours of video are uploaded every minute. In some ways, YouTube could be considered the largest volunteer organization in the world. Or consider the rise of citizen journalism, flourishing on sites such as Wikinews and the South Korean OhmyNews, which offers anyone who has knowledge of breaking news events the opportunity to circumvent the biases that can distort so much of commercially-funded news coverage. Many of the most important markets operate across sectors. American hospitals and schools, for example, are now run by nonprofits, corporations, and governments.

pages: 187 words: 62,861

The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler

business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, twin studies, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar

More business school courses and businesses themselves began to emphasize and experiment with organizational models that were neither strictly market-based nor as hierarchical as had been thought necessary in the past. Instead they were built around the assumption that, given the right conditions, people would opt to cooperate and collaborate to serve the collective good of the organization—of their own free will. More radical still, the rise of peer production on the Net—from free and open-source software, to Wikipedia, to collaborative citizen journalism on sites like Daily Kos or Newsvine, to social networks like Facebook and Twitter—produced a culture of cooperation that was widely thought impossible a mere five or ten years ago. These changes did not happen at the fringes of society; they arose precisely in those places, like Silicon Valley, that represented the cutting edge of our social and economic trends. The business world finally began to sit up and take notice.

pages: 236 words: 66,081

Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age by Clay Shirky

Andrew Keen, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, experimental economics, experimental subject, fundamental attribution error, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Kevin Kelly, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, social software, Steve Ballmer, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, ultimatum game

A good contemporaneous description is Jeffrey Gettleman’s “Disputed Vote Plunges Kenya into Bloodshed,” The New York Times, December 31, 2007, (accessed January 6, 2010). 15 Ory Okolloh: Okollah’s role in founding Ushahidi is described by Dorcas Komo in “Kenyan Techie Honored for Role in Tracking Post-Election Violence,” Mshale: The African Community Newspaper, July 3, 2008, (accessed January 6, 2010). 16 Ushahidi had been better at reporting acts of violence: The Harvard study was written by Patrick Meier and Kate Brodock, “Crisis Mapping Kenya’s Election Violence: Comparing Mainstream News, Citizen Journalism, and Ushahidi,” Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, October 23, 2008, (accessed January 6, 2010). 21 an essay in 1997 called “Romancing the Looky-Loos”: Dave Hickey’s marvelous collection of essays, including “Romancing the Looky-Loos,” is Air Guitar: Essays on Art and Democracy (West Hollywood, CA: Foundation for Advanced Critical Studies, 1997): 146-54. 23 In 2010 the global internet-connected population will cross two billion people: There are many sources for predictions of growth of internet and mobile phone use.

pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Historically, cooperatives have been stable in the face of market competition where they did emerge, but not sufficiently competitive to force their way into markets already saturated by conventional firms. Conventions, imitation, and practice—not economic superiority—determined the presence or absence of cooperatives. The moment of opportunity is now, when the organization of production is still in flux. Second, we are in the cultural moment of cooperation. Wikipedia, free and open-source software (FOSS), citizen journalism, and other forms of commons-based peer production have made normal people encounter cooperation and its products as a matter of everyday practice. The decades-long insistence of expert economics that we should think of ourselves as self-interested rational actors acting with guile is bumping up against a daily reality that refutes it. Sciences, from evolutionary biology through the social sciences, psychology, and neuroscience, are all lining up to confirm that people are not the moral midgets and sociopaths that populate game theory and rational actor modeling—that many of us cooperate when we are in situations we understand as cooperative, and compete when we are in situations that we feel are competitive.

pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

And the new entrants, those who have the promise of easy access to consumers dangled in front of them, may find that the platform they depend on takes the lion’s share of the money. In addition to open-source software and open cultural content, many claims about the benefits of digital openness have centered on the changes it has brought to public debate and journalism. Glenn Reynolds’ book on blogging is called An Army of Davids: How Markets and Technology Empower Ordinary People to Beat Big Media, Big Government, and Other Goliaths.36 Newspapers have suffered, and citizen journalism in the form of blogs and social media commentary have become more prominent. But here too, the rise of the amateur and the embrace of openness have not led to the promised upending of powerful entrenched industries, or to the democratization of debate. The last sentence of Matthew Hindman’s The Myth of Digital Democracy is “It may be easier to speak in cyberspace, but it remains difficult to be heard.” 37 The book was one of the first that actually collected and analyzed large data sets to investigate online trends in consumption as well as production.

How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States by Daniel Immerwahr

Albert Einstein, book scanning, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, citizen journalism, City Beautiful movement, clean water, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, friendly fire, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Howard Zinn, immigration reform, land reform, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, urban planning, wikimedia commons

A general who landed on Little Diomede Island unannounced in 1969 was shocked to see armed men in uniform meet his plane. Had there been an alert? he asked. No, they explained, they were just prepared. * * * Alaska Natives toiled in obscurity. The same could not be said of the Japanese Americans from Hawai‘i who enlisted in the army. In May 1942 the 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) was formed from more than fourteen hundred men of Japanese descent, all U.S. citizens. Journalists took a great interest in this outfit, known as the “guinea pigs from Pearl Harbor.” “We knew that we had to be as good as any other Caucasian outfit,” recalled one member. “And we knew that we had to shed blood.” Japanese from Hawai‘i could feel the spotlight’s heat. And so they performed. When, the next year, the army called for troops of Japanese ancestry to form the 442nd Infantry Regiment, the slots reserved for mainland Japanese went unfilled (many were still in camps).

pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop,, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test,, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

There will be as many places to find fresh and engaging content as there are people who yearn to be heard. Good telling of human stories is the best way to keep the Internet and the World Wide Web from becoming a waste vastland.”65 EV WILLIAMS AND BLOGGER By 1999 blogs were proliferating. They were no longer mainly the playpen of offbeat exhibitionists like Justin Hall who posted personal journals about their lives and fancies. They had become a platform for freelance pundits, citizen journalists, advocates, activists, and analysts. But there was one problem: to publish and maintain an independent blog required some coding skills and access to a server. Creating user simplicity is one of the keys to successful innovation. For blogging to become a whole new medium that would transform publishing and democratize public discourse, someone had to make it easy, as easy as “Type in this box and then press this button.”

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

For the last quarter of a century, we’ve been told ad nauseam by tenured professors of journalism like New York University’s Jay Rosen that the Internet’s destruction of old media is a good thing because it democratizes the information economy. Making a lucrative career from peddling the idea of the online information consumer as “the People Formerly Known as the Audience,” Rosen has become a cheerleader for the decimation of the curated twentieth-century news industry. But Rosen—who was Arianna Huffington’s partner at a failed citizen journalism initiative called “OffTheBus” and who is now an “advisor” to Omidyar’s First Look Media—is wrong about the Internet’s democratization of media. “The people formerly known as the audience” are still the audience—only now they are angrier and mostly more ill-informed than ever. And “the people who used to be the media owners” remain the media owners. Only now they are called Bezos or Omidyar rather than Sulzberger, Graham, or Hearst.

pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The Autonomous Revolution has already started, and we won’t have much time to adapt to the new social, economic, and governance forms that it is unleashing, not to mention its new values. In what follows we will delve into the history of phase change, paying especial attention to the role of substitutional equivalences as they create new norms. While these equivalences may seem minor, the changes in the rules that they precipitate can be enormously important. When political blogs and “citizen journalism” first began to proliferate on the Internet less than twenty years ago, they seemed, if anything, to be a boon for democracy. Had we understood how radically the rules were changing, we might have recognized the darker implications of “fake news” much sooner. So too, we might have foreseen the dangers of a fully uncensored Web (child pornography, terrorism, etc.) on the one hand, and the politically biased censorship of social network content by the employees of their parent corporations on the other.

pages: 309 words: 79,414

Going Dark: The Secret Social Lives of Extremists by Julia Ebner

23andMe, 4chan, Airbnb, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, feminist movement, game design, glass ceiling, Google Earth, job satisfaction, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, off grid, pattern recognition, pre–internet, QAnon, RAND corporation, ransomware, rising living standards, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Transnistria, WikiLeaks, zero day

Slogans of the extreme right have made their way into official campaign posters and election manifestos. Apolitical internet sub-cultures have turned political, while the political space has adopted the bizarre cultural elements of online communities. Fun and evil join forces, making it more difficult to distinguish between harmless prank and prosecutable crime. Where do you draw the line between freedom of speech and hate crime? Between citizen journalism and information warfare? Between trolling and terrorism? These are not just legal questions. They are questions that touch the very heart of democratic identity. How libertarian or authoritarian do we want to be? And how far can we afford to go – financially, morally, politically? What happens if we over-censor? How detrimental would the backlash against the entire political system be? But equally, what is the cost of inaction?

pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers,, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Congressional Quarterly and Roll Call, owned by Britain’s Economist Group have, according to the chief executive, begun an “unprecedented” hiring spree, adding thirty-five new editorial positions alone.3 Democracy flourishes from the participation of the many, not from the reporting of a few legacy newspapers. Today, news reporting is also done by citizens or by journalists who have struck out on their own via websites. The popular Politico website is an LAW IS NOT THE SOLUTION TO BUSINESS PROBLEMS 147 example of this latter type of reporting. Citizen journalism can be as good quality or better than that done by people at established newspapers, and is certainly faster. Many breaking stories are reported by citizens on Twitter, Facebook, or on individual’s websites or blogs. Ordinary citizens, armed with cell phones that have camera and video capabilities, post stories with pictures as events are happening and now constitute an essential element of news reporting.

pages: 268 words: 109,447

The Cultural Logic of Computation by David Golumbia

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, American ideology, Benoit Mandelbrot, borderless world, business process, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction,, finite state, future of work, Google Earth, Howard Zinn, IBM and the Holocaust, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, web application

The first, expressed in liberal writings like those of Joseph Trippi and Markos Moulitsas, comes close to a kind of technological determinism: it suggests that the Internet is inherently democratizing, and we simply need to have faith that global computerization will produce democracy as a necessary side-effect. Trusting that the computer makes our political efforts qualitatively different from earlier ones, advocates of this position suggest that computer-based tools for fundraising, organizing, and citizen journalism will have a transformative effect on the public sphere: because the old media conglomerates will inevitably dissolve in the face of ubiquitous Internet access, we need do little more than use the computational tools engineers provide for us—as well as, no doubt, creating a few of our own—to effect significant, anti-authoritarian political change. In its best form—McChesney (2007), for example—this position embodies an admirable vision of citizen participation in the creation of the polis, something like a genuine liberal position.

pages: 379 words: 99,340

The Revolt of the Public and the Crisis of Authority in the New Millennium by Martin Gurri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Ayatollah Khomeini, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, business cycle, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, David Graeber, death of newspapers,, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, job-hopping, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, too big to fail, traveling salesman, University of East Anglia, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, young professional

In the current panic to cling to some remnant of the audience, this can mean anything at all. On the front page of the gray old Times, I’m liable to encounter a chatty article about frying with propane gas. CNN lavished hours of airtime on a runaway bride. The magisterial tones of Walter Cronkite, America’s rich uncle, are lost to history, replaced by the ex-cheerleader mom style of Katie Couric. One reason the notion of “citizen journalism” never got off the ground was the fundamental confusion about what the professional journalist is expected to do, other than squeeze out content like a milk cow. 1.2 No part of the news business endured a more humiliating thrashing from the tsunami than the daily newspaper, which a century before had been the original format to make a profit by selling news to the public. True confession: I grew up reading newspapers.

pages: 417 words: 97,577

The Myth of Capitalism: Monopolies and the Death of Competition by Jonathan Tepper

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, diversification, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, late capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, means of production, merger arbitrage, Metcalfe's law, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, passive investing, patent troll, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, undersea cable, Vanguard fund, very high income, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

About the Authors JONATHAN TEPPER is the coauthor of Endgame, a book on the sovereign debt crisis, and Code Red, a book on unconventional monetary policy after the global financial crisis. Jonathan is founder of Variant Perception, a macroeconomic research group that caters to hedge funds, banks, and family offices. Jonathan has worked as an equity analyst at SAC Capital and as a vice president in proprietary trading at Bank of America. Jonathan is a founder of Demotix, a citizen-journalism photo agency. In 2012 he and his partner Turi Munthe sold Demotix to Corbis, which was owned by Bill Gates. He received a BA with highest honors in history and honors in economics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Jonathan is a Rhodes Scholar and earned an MLitt in Modern History from Oxford University. Denise Hearn is Head of Business Development at Variant Perception, a global macroeconomic research and investment strategy firm.

pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The success of populists, on both the left and the right, should tell us that the hunger for changing course and achieving collective security is of a far greater importance to people than the hunger for factchecking. Perhaps the most urgent question posed by “climate mobilization” is whether technologies designed to destroy life should be repurposed for the sustenance and protection of life, both human and nonhuman. As in situations of “total war,” the task is to coordinate experts and amateurs working toward shared goals. “Citizen science” and “citizen journalism” might sound like a mild, if not dubious, form of mobilization, but they are one essential ingredient in how research and politics can be recombined. DIY air-monitoring practices, carried out by activists, have been instrumental in raising public concern about certain fracking sites and car emissions in city centers.12 The discovery that flying insects in Germany had fallen by 75% was made thanks initially to a club of amateur entomologists, establishing traps around the countryside.

Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

It asks about the space of relations of which data citizens are a part and at the same time about their absence in much current work concerning the data of the internet. We know about the power of platform owners, corporations and governments and ways in which data are being commodified, traced, analysed and traded; how issues and concerns about data ownership, privacy and protection are being debated and contested; how people use various platforms to do politics such as organize and mobilize political protests and engage in citizen journalism or forms of digital activism; how the sociotechnical arrangements that make up the internet seek to organize what people do and format the data that is generated; and how internet data are being analysed by corporations, governments and researchers to enact and know social worlds in ways that are challenging other sources and methods. But what do we know about the subjects and citizens of the internet?

pages: 339 words: 105,938

The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred

airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, new economy, Pareto efficiency, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, Thomas Bayes, trade liberalization, ultimatum game

in Cost-Benefit Analysis: Legal, Economic and Philosophical Perspectives. M. Adler and E. Posner (eds) Chicago, Chicago University Press Frank, R. (2004) ‘How not to buy happiness.’ Daedalus Spring: 69-79 Frank, R., T. Gilovich and D. Regan (1993) ‘Does studying economics inhibit cooperation?’ Journal ofEconomic Perspectives 7(2): 159-171 Frank, R., T. Gilovich and D. Regan (1996) ‘Do economists make bad citizens?’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(1): 187-192 Frederick, S. and G. Loewenstein (1999) ‘Hedonic adaptation’ in Well-Being: The Foundations ofHedonic Psychology. D. Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds) New York, Russell Sage Frederick, S., G. Loewenstein and T. O’Donoghue (2002) ‘Time discounting and time preference.’ Journal ofEconomic Literature 40: 351-401 Frey, B. (1997) ‘A constitution for knaves crowds out civic virtues.’

pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

“Home Buyers Are Scarce, So Renters Take Their Place,” New York Times, DILLON, Sam. (2009, April 22). “Large Urban-Suburban Gap Seen in Graduation Rates,” New York Times, diPASQUALE, D. and GLAESER, E. (1998). “Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?,” Journal of Urban Economics, vol. 45. DIVERSITY OFFICER MAGAZINE. (2008, November 3). “Higher birthrates among Sweden’s foreign-born,” DOBBS, Richard. (2010, August 16). “Megacities,” Foreign Policy, DOBBS, Richard, et al. (2012, June). “Urban world: Cities and the rise of the consuming class,” McKinsey & Company,

pages: 363 words: 105,689

The Power by Naomi Alderman

citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, Internet Archive, megacity

The things are tangled together now in his mind: lust and power, desire and fear. Perhaps it is because he has played the tape of that afternoon over so often in his mind, because he has longed for some forensic evidence, a photograph, or a video, or a sound recording, perhaps that is the reason that he thinks of reaching for his phone first, in the supermarket. Or perhaps some of the things they have been trying to teach them in college – about citizen journalism, about the ‘nose for the story’ – have been sinking in. He is in Goodies with his friend Isaac a few months after that day with Enuma. They are in the fruit aisle, inhaling the sweet fug of ripe guava, drawn to them from across the store like the tiny flies that settle on the surface of the over-ripe, split-open fruit. Tunde and Isaac are arguing about girls, and what girls like. Tunde is trying to keep his shame buried very far down in his body so his friend will not be able to guess that he has secret knowledge.

pages: 370 words: 107,983

Rage Inside the Machine: The Prejudice of Algorithms, and How to Stop the Internet Making Bigots of Us All by Robert Elliott Smith

Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, AI winter, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, animal electricity, autonomous vehicles, Black Swan, British Empire, cellular automata, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, corporate personhood, correlation coefficient, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, discovery of DNA, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Gerolamo Cardano, gig economy, Gödel, Escher, Bach, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, p-value, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Pierre-Simon Laplace, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, stochastic process, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, twin studies, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, women in the workforce

To be fair, Gove was specifically talking about experts ‘from organisations with acronyms saying that they know what is best’, his point being that many economic experts had failed to accurately predict the financial crisis of 2008 and, therefore, couldn’t possibly pronounce on the impending impact of Brexit. Journalists seized on the abbreviated form of his comment, because it reflects the increasingly populist spirit of today. Gove has a point, in that statistically averaged ‘user-generated’ content and ‘citizen journalism’ has now gained greater acceptance than the opinions of ‘so-called’ experts. One could argue that the joint opinion of the masses has taken the place of experts, government officials and the defamed mainstream media. This point of view is highlighted by Gove’s concluding comment: ‘I’m not asking the public to trust me. I’m asking them to trust themselves.’ This is only one illustration of how people appear to have lost faith in experts in favour of popular opinion.

pages: 443 words: 116,832

The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan

active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day

Stever, “The New Policy World of Cybersecurity,” Public Administration Review 71, no. 3 (2011): 455–460; Richard J. Harknett, John P. Callaghan, and Rudi Kauffman, “Leaving Deterrence Behind: War-Fighting and National Cybersecurity,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 7, no. 1 (2010); Richard J. Harknett and James A. Stever, “The Cybersecurity Triad: Government, Private Sector Partners, and the Engaged Cybersecurity Citizen,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 6, no. 1 (2009); Richard J. Harknett, “The Risks of a Networked Military,” Orbis 44, no. 1 (2000): 127–143; Richard J. Harknett, “Information Warfare and Deterrence,” Parameters 26, no. 3 (1996): 93–107. 14. Former NSA and CIA Director Michael Hayden wrote, “[T]hese weapons are not well understood by the kind of people who get to sit in on meetings in the West Wing.… I recall one cyber op, while I was in government, that went awry.… In the after-action review it was clear that no two seniors at the final approval session had left the Situation Room thinking they had approved the same operation.”

pages: 398 words: 120,801

Little Brother by Cory Doctorow

airport security, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas Bayes, web of trust, zero day

Natalie and her students rewire toy robot dogs from Toys R Us and turn them into bad-ass toxic-waste detectors. They unleash them on public parks where big corporations have dumped their waste and demonstrate in media-friendly fashion how toxic the ground is. Like many of the hacks in this book, the tunneling-over-DNS stuff is real. Dan Kaminsky, a tunneling expert of the first water, published details in 2004 ( The guru of "citizen journalism" is Dan Gillmor, who is presently running the Center for Citizen Media at Harvard and UC Berkeley -- he also wrote a hell of a book on the subject, "We, the Media" (O'Reilly, 2004). If you want to learn more about hacking arphids, start with Annalee Newitz's Wired Magazine article "The RFID Hacking Underground" ( Adam Greenfield's "Everyware" (New Riders Press, 2006) is a chilling look at the dangers of a world of arphids.

pages: 388 words: 125,472

The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent

After all, such internships help to ensure that only those with prosperous parents can afford to be exploited and enter the media – or, for that matter, a whole range of other professions from politics to law. Mandating all media organizations to include a ‘conscience clause’ in their contracts would allow journalists to turn down work that was either unethical or illegal. Stronger trade unions, too, would shift the balance of power away form media barong and editors to journalists. The Internet and social media offer some hope of breaking the stranglehold of the mainstream press. Citizen journalism now has an unprecedented platform, helping to scrutinize and challenge the myths, distortions and outright lies peddled by wealthy mogul-owned media outlets. Social media is already increasingly used by activists to bypass an unsympathetic Establishment media: whether that be by organizing protests, disseminating information that is otherwise ignored, providing a platform for voices that are otherwise not heard or by challenging the narratives peddled by mainstream outlets.

pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden,, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

If I describe these conditions without permitting my indignation to interfere, then I have lifted this particular phenomenon out of its context in human society and have thereby robbed it of part of its nature, deprived it of one of its important inherent qualities.”76 So it is for me and perhaps for you: the bare facts of surveillance capitalism necessarily arouse my indignation because they demean human dignity. The future of this narrative will depend upon the indignant citizens, journalists, and scholars drawn to this frontier project; indignant elected officials and policy makers who understand that their authority originates in the foundational values of democratic communities; and, especially, indignant young people who act in the knowledge that effectiveness without autonomy is not effective, dependency-induced compliance is no social contract, a hive with no exit can never be a home, experience without sanctuary is but a shadow, a life that requires hiding is no life, touch without feel reveals no truth, and freedom from uncertainty is no freedom.

pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, animal electricity, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

The word selfies first appeared in 2002 on an Australian internet forum, but selfies really exploded with the iPhone, which, with the addition of the FaceTime cam in 2010, gave people, for better or worse, an easy way to snap photos of themselves and then filter the results. The deluge of integrated cameras hasn’t led solely to narcissistic indulgence, of course. Most of the time, people use the iSight to snap photos of their food or their babies or some striking-at-the-moment-not-so-much-at-home landscape shot. But it’s also given us all the ability to document a lot more when the need comes. The immensely portable high-quality camera has given rise to citizen journalism on an unprecedented scale. Documentation of police brutality, criminal behavior, systematic oppression, and political misconduct has ramped up in the smartphone era. Mobile video like that of Eric Garner getting choked by police, for instance, helped ignite the Black Lives Matter movement, and it has in other cases provided crucial evidence for officer wrongdoing. And protesters from Tahrir to Istanbul to Occupy have used iPhones to take video of forceful suppression, generating sympathy, support, and sometimes useful legal evidence in the process.

pages: 444 words: 127,259

Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer,, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Y Combinator

After years as a Republican, she did an about-face and fashioned herself a progressive, embracing eco-friendly policies and supporting John Kerry’s presidential run. Her progressive streak, coupled with John Kerry’s loss to George W. Bush in 2004, eventually led to Huffington’s first stab at a true online media destination, what the New Yorker called “a kind of liberal foil to the Drudge Report.” With venture funding and an old tech executive partner, in 2005 she launched the Huffington Post. The site pioneered an early form of “citizen journalism”—in reality, freelancers farmed the web for others’ articles to summarize, aggregate, and repost on the Huffington Post’s website. Mainstream journalists pilloried the idea. Huffington and her partners laughed all the way to the bank; she sold the Huffington Post to AOL in 2011 for $315 million, personally netting more than $20 million. Huffington was impossible to pigeonhole. There was no cause, no point of view that others felt was consistent throughout her life.

pages: 505 words: 147,916

Adventures in the Anthropocene: A Journey to the Heart of the Planet We Made by Gaia Vince

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, bank run, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, mobile money, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, supervolcano, sustainable-tourism

A Nepali peasant with a smartphone on Google, now has more access to information than the president of the United States did fifteen years ago.3 In the Philippines most communications between the government and citizens take place by SMS texting. In Malaysia, flood warnings are sent by text message, and across the world, from quake-struck Haiti to the famines of East Africa, evacuations and relief for natural disasters are coordinated by SMS. In India, tribal groups are using mobile phones for ‘citizen journalism’, spreading information and giving voice to disenfranchised groups. During the Arab Spring of 2011, citizens organised themselves to fight oppressive regimes using mobile phones, even bypassing government Internet and network clampdowns by accessing social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook through apps and proxy servers. Across Africa, voting in national elections with a smartphone can cut election fraud by 60%.4 In Afghanistan, the police receive their government salaries through mobile phone banking because it cuts down on fraud.

pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill

active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, Kickstarter, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

Although part of the point was to push back against claims that al Shabab was responsible for the humanitarian disaster and had prevented aid from reaching Somalia, a special guest was also there. Introduced as the al Qaeda envoy to the humanitarian crisis in Somalia, a white man with a keffiyeh wrapped around his face was identified as Abu Abdullah al Muhajir. Local al Shabab leaders said he was an American citizen. Journalists watched as Muhajir and his allies distributed food, Islamic books and clothes at the camp, which housed more than 4,000 people. The al Qaeda delegation also brought an ambulance. “To our beloved brothers and sisters in Somalia, we are following your situation on a daily basis,” Muhajir declared in English. “And, though we are separated by thousands of kilometers, you are consistently in our thoughts and prayers.”

pages: 823 words: 220,581

Debunking Economics - Revised, Expanded and Integrated Edition: The Naked Emperor Dethroned? by Steve Keen

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, central bank independence, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, collective bargaining, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, diversification, double entry bookkeeping,, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market microstructure, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, place-making, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific mainstream, seigniorage, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, stochastic process, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, total factor productivity, tulip mania, wage slave, zero-sum game

Barber (ed.), The Works of Irving Fisher, vol. 10, London: Pickering and Chatto. Fisher, I. (1933) ‘The debt-deflation theory of great depressions,’ Econometrica, 1: 337–55. Frank, R. H., T. Gilovich and D. T. Regan (1993) ‘Does studying economics inhibit cooperation?’ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(2): 159–71. Frank, R. H., T. Gilovich and D. T. Regan (1996) ‘Do economists make bad citizens?’ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(1): 187–92. Franklin, J. and A. Daoud (1988) Introduction to Proofs in Mathematics, New York: Prentice-Hall. Freeman, A. and G. Carchedi (1996) Marx and Non-Equilibrium Economics, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Freeman, S. and F. E. Kydland (2000) ‘Monetary aggregates and output,’ American Economic Review, 90(5): 1125–35. Friedman, M. (1953) ‘The methodology of positive economics,’ reprinted in B.

pages: 1,028 words: 267,392

Wanderers: A Novel by Chuck Wendig

Black Swan, centre right, citizen journalism, clean water, Columbine, coronavirus, currency manipulation / currency intervention, game design, global pandemic, hiring and firing, hive mind, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Lyft, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, private military company, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, uber lyft, white picket fence

She kicked a small stone and it went skidding across the road. “Meanwhile I think he’s in denial about everything else. About me, about Nessie. About the farm, which—you know, I have no idea if we even have a farm anymore. He won’t talk about it, not any of it. And I don’t want to talk to him anyway.” “At least you got a new camera.” “I did. And I’ve got a little money in my pocket since the newspeople are buying my photos, now.” “Citizen journalism is the future, they say.” “Is it?” Shana shrugged. “I dunno. I hope I get to be a part of it, because I think I’ve found what I want to do with my life.” “Most people never find that.” “Did you?” “I did.” Marcy shrugged. “And then I took a bat to the head.” But maybe, just maybe, she’d found something new. Something right here. With these people. With her angels. She’d do anything to protect them.