Mahatma Gandhi

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pages: 370 words: 111,129

Inglorious Empire: What the British Did to India by Shashi Tharoor

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate raider, deindustrialization, European colonialism, global village, informal economy, joint-stock company, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Parkinson's law, trade route

Rowlatt Acts passed. 1920 Gandhi formulates the satyagraha strategy of non-cooperation and non-violence. Khilafat movement launched. 1922 Non-cooperation movement called off by Mahatma Gandhi after Chauri Chaura violence. 1927 & 1934 Indians permitted to sit as jurors and court magistrates. 1930 Jawaharlal Nehru becomes president of the Congress party. Purna Swaraj Resolution passed in Lahore. Will Durant arrives in India and is shocked by what he discovers of British rule. Mahatma Gandhi conducts the Salt March. 1935 Government of India Act. 1937 Provincial elections in eleven provinces; Congress wins eight. 1939 World War II breaks out.

Indeed, despite a brief stint in a Hong Kong bank, Wodehouse had no colonial connection himself, and the Raj is largely absent from his books. (There is only one notable exception I can recall, in a 1935 short story, ‘The Juice of an Orange’: ‘Why is there unrest in India? Because its inhabitants eat only an occasional handful of rice. The day when Mahatma Gandhi sits down to a good juicy steak and follows it up with roly-poly pudding and a spot of Stilton, you will see the end of all this nonsense of Civil Disobedience.’) But Indians saw that the comment was meant to elicit laughter, not agreement. (Mahatma Gandhi himself was up to some humorous mischief when, in 1947, far from sitting down to steak, he dined with the king’s cousin and the last viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, and offered him a bowl of home-made goat’s curd—perhaps from the same goat he took to England when he went to see the king in a loincloth!

It could only work against opponents vulnerable to a loss of moral authority, governments responsive to domestic and international public opinion, governments capable of being shamed into conceding defeat. The British, representing a democracy with a free press and conscious of their international image, were susceptible to such shaming. But in Mahatma Gandhi’s own day non-violence could have done nothing for the Jews of Hitler’s Germany, who disappeared into gas chambers far from the flashbulbs of a war-obsessed press. It is ironically to the credit of the British Raj that it faced an opponent like Mahatma Gandhi and allowed him to succeed. The power of non-violence rests in being able to say, ‘to show you that you are wrong, I punish myself’. But that has little effect on those who are not interested in whether they are wrong and are already seeking to punish you whether you disagree with them or not.


Amritsar 1919: An Empire of Fear and the Making of a Massacre by Kim Wagner

British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Mahatma Gandhi, trade route, Wall-E

The atmosphere at the meeting was in fact remarkably relaxed: the Sub-Inspector of the CID, Babu Obadullah, had been given a table next to the speaker’s platform, where he was sitting in full sight taking notes of the proceedings.88 During the course of the afternoon, several speeches were made, and patriotic poems recited, before the enthusiastic crowd, which intermittently broke out in what had by then become the familiar slogans at Amritsar: ‘Mahatma Gandhi ki jai’ and ‘Hindu-Mussalman ki jai’. It was only with great difficulty that the spectators were induced to quiet down so that the speakers could be heard.89 One poem by Pandit Kotu Mal was notable for being addressed to the higher authority of George V, or ‘King’, as well as a non-denominational ‘God’, or ‘Lord’: O King, nothing is hidden from Thee. It was their misfortune that a split took place between the representatives of the King and leaders of India, who unanimously protested against the Bill but the former made it into law.

The railway bridge was not just a link between the ‘native’ city and the Civil Lines – it was also a marker of distinct racialised spaces and symbolic of the enduring distance between rulers and ruled.4 During times of crisis, the extent of British rule became constricted to the imagined security of the Civil Lines, with its straight and leafy avenues, whereas the ‘native’ city came to be seen as the site of sedition and hence the geographic location of fear.5 While the hartal at Amritsar on 30 March had passed peacefully, events elsewhere spun out of control. At Delhi, scuffles thus broke out when Satyagraha volunteers tried to force local shops to close down and the police intervened and arrested two young men.6 As word spread that the authorities were clamping down on the protests, large crowds gathered in the area around Delhi railway station (now known as Old Delhi station), Queen’s Park (now Mahatma Gandhi Park) and Chandni Chowk. When armed police and British soldiers sought to push back the crowds, protesters started throwing stones and the troops subsequently opened fire on two occasions, killing at least eight people.7 A British officer, Brigadier-General R.E.H. Dyer, who commanded the 45th Brigade at Jullundur, 50 miles east of Amritsar, was at that time driving in a car through Delhi on a holiday with his wife and niece.

It was like a rustle in the trees before a storm. A dust-storm or an earthquake crossed his mind. He had seen people running about in just the same way in an earthquake. His sense of something impending was so strong that he even imagined a darkening of the sky. Someone was shouting that the shops were already closed in every quarter of the city. Then above the confused murmur he heard the cry of ‘Mahatma Gandhi-ki-jai’, and he remembered it was the hartal . . .32 In Amritsar, Melicent and Gerard continued to go about their ordinary routine, yet the pretence of normalcy became increasingly difficult to maintain: ‘We went to church but the road was guarded and the soldiers wore ball cartridges.33 After that no Englishman could get a tonga – the shops refused to serve us – a sais was beaten who had been sent to fetch a tonga.


Living With the Himalayan Masters by Swami Rama

Mahatma Gandhi

After fifteen days’ stay with the baba I came back with the conclusion that the art of living and being, whether in the world or outside it, lies in awareness toward the purpose of life and non-attachment. In the Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi In the late 1930s and early ’40s I had the opportunity to stay with Mahatma Gandhi in Vardha Ashram, where I met many gentle and loving souls. While I was there I observed Mahatma Gandhi serving a leper. The leper was a learned Sanskrit scholar who was frustrated and angry, but Mahatma Gandhi personally looked after him with great care and love. That was an example to all of us. The way in which he served the sick left a lasting impression on me. My master told me to observe Mahatma Gandhi particularly when he walked, and when I did so I found that his walk was quite different from the walk of other sages. He walked as though he were separate from his body.

I had several meetings with him, but he wouldn’t permit me to go to Tibet. Swami Rama before leaving for Tibet He suspected me of being a spy for the Indian Congress Party, which was then fighting the British government. There were two groups in India at that time: one was Mahatma Gandhi’s group, which practiced non-violence and used the methods of passive resistance and non-cooperation; the other was the Terrorist Party of India. I was not a member of either, but the political officer found two letters in my possession, one written by Pandit Nehru, and another from Mahatma Gandhi. These letters were non-political, but they caused the political officer to be even more suspicious, and I was put under house arrest and forced to stay in an inspection bungalow [a government house usually used for traveling inspectors or officials].

My First Days as a Swami A Constant Persecution Living on a Mount of Pebbles Temptations on the Path Should I Get Married? Spiritual Dignity Is Also Vanity A Miserable Experiment Charms of the World Two Naked Renunciates In the World and Yet Above To Lose Is to Gain VII. Experiences on Various Paths A Renowned Lady Sage With My Heart on My Palms and Tears in My Eyes Karma Is the Maker In the Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi “Not Sacrifice but Conquest”—Tagore Setting History Straight Maharshi Raman Meeting with Sri Aurobindo The Wave of Bliss Three Schools of Tantra The Seven Systems of Eastern Philosophy Soma VIII. Beyond the Great Religions A Christian Sage of the Himalayas My Meeting with a Jesuit Sadhu Jesus in the Himalayas A Vision of Christ Judaism in Yoga I Belong to None but God IX. Divine Protection Protecting Arms Lost in the Land of Devas The Land of Hamsas An Atheistic Swami An Appointment with Death X.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

“From Micro-Grids to Smart Grids,” Kidela, November 20, 2012, http://www.kidela.com /resources/blackout-from-micro-grids-to-smart-grids/ (accessed September 30, 2013). 43. Ibid. 44. “Mahatma Gandhi on Mass Production,” interview, May 16, 1936, http://www.tinytechindia .com/gandhiji2.html (accessed April 21, 2013). 45. Surur Hoda, Gandhi and the Contemporary World (Indo-British Historical Society, 1997). 46. “Mahatma Gandhi on Mass Production.” 47. Ibid. 48. Ibid. 49. Hoda, Gandhi and the Contemporary World. 50. “Mahatma Gandhi on Mass Production.” 51. Hoda, Gandhi and the Contemporary World. 52. The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. 83, June 7, 1942–January 26, 1944 (New Delhi: Publications Division of the Government of India, 1999), 113, http://www.gandhiserve.org /cwmg/VOL083.PDF (accessed November 14, 2013). 53. Mahatma Gandhi, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi: Encyclopedia of Ghandi’s Thoughts, ed.

Mahatma Gandhi, The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi: Encyclopedia of Ghandi’s Thoughts, ed. R. K. Prabhu and U. R. Rao (Ahmedabad, India: Jitendra T Desai Navajivan Mudranalaya, 1966), 243–44. 54. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. Edwin Cannan (London: Methuen, 1961), 1: 475. 55. “Mahatma Gandhi’s Views,” TinyTech Plants, http://www.tinytechindia.com/gandhi4.htm (accessed June 14, 2013). 56. Prarelal, Mahatma Gandhi: Poornahuti, vol. 10: The Last Phase, part 2 (Ahmedabad, India: Navajivan Trust, 1956), 522. Chapter 7 1. “Skype in the Classroom,” Skype, 2013, https://education.skype.com/ (accessed November 6, 2013); Sarah Kessler, “Skype CEO: Our Goal Is to Connect 1 Million Classrooms,” Mashable, September 21, 2011, http://mashable.com/2011/09/21/skype-in-the-classroom-tony-bates/ (accessed November 12, 2013). 2.

This development will spawn new business practices whose efficiencies and productivity take us to near zero marginal costs in the production and distribution of goods and services—easing us out of the capitalist period and into the collaboratist era. Among the first to glimpse the historical significance of a “Makers Infrastructure” were the local grassroots activists who constituted the Appropriate Technology Movement. The movement began in the 1970s and was inspired by the writing of Mahatma Gandhi, and later E. F. Schumacher, Ivan Illich, and—if it’s not too presumptuous—a book I authored called Entropy: A New World View. A new generation of DIY hobbyists, most of whom were veterans of the peace and civil rights movements, loosely affiliated themselves under the appropriate technology banner. Some preached a “back to the land” ethos and migrated to rural areas. Others remained in the poor, urban neighborhoods of major cities, often squatting and occupying abandoned neighborhood buildings.


pages: 186 words: 57,798

Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Kurlansky

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, desegregation, European colonialism, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, working poor

New York: Grove Press, The Wretched of the Earth. Fernea Elizabeth Warnock, and Mary Evelyn Hocking, Austin: University of Texas Press, The Struggle for Peace: Israelis and Palestinians. Fischer Louis. New York: Harper & Row, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhi M. K. Mahadev Desai, trans. London: Penguin Books, An Autobiography, or the Story of My Experiments with Truth. Gandhi M. K. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Raghavan Iyer, Gandhi M. K. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, For Pacifists. Gandhi M. K. New York: New Directions, Gandhi on Non-Violence: A Selection from the Writings of Mahatma Gandhi. Thomas Merton, Gandhi M. K. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications, Non-Violent Resistance (Satyagraha). Bharatan Kumarappa, Gandhi M. K. New York: Penguin Books, The Penguin Gandhi Reader. Rudrangshu Mukherjee, Gara Larry and Lenna Mae, Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, A Few Small Candles: War Resisters of World War II Tell Their Stories.

Therefore, I am happy to see that Mark Kurlansky has wholeheartedly taken up these themes in this book. I consider the cultivation of nonviolence and compassion as part of my daily practice. I do not think of it as something that is holy or sacred but as of practical benefit to myself. It gives me satisfaction; it gives me a sense of peace that is very helpful in maintaining sincere, genuine relationships with other people. Mahatma Gandhi took up the ancient but powerful idea of ahimsa, or nonviolence, and made it familiar throughout the world. Martin Luther King Jr. followed in his footsteps. The author is correct to point out that both men were regarded with suspicion by the authorities they opposed, but ultimately both achieved far-reaching and significant changes in the societies in which they lived. I think it is important to acknowledge here that nonviolence does not mean the mere absence of violence.

It is my firm belief that if we adopt the right approach and make determined efforts, even in circumstances where great hostility has come about over time, trust and understanding can be restored. This is the approach I too have adopted with regard to the Chinese authorities concerning the issue of Tibet. Responding to violence with more violence is rarely appropriate. However, discussing non-violence when things are going smoothly does not carry much weight. It is precisely when things become really difficult, urgent, and critical that we should think and act with nonviolence. Mahatma Gandhi's great achievement was to revive and implement the ancient Indian concept of nonviolence in modern times, not only in politics, but also in day-to-day life. Another important aspect of his legacy is that he won independence for India simply by telling the truth. His practice of nonviolence depended wholly on the power of truth. The recent unprecedented fall of oppressive regimes in several parts of the world has demonstrated once more that even decades of repression cannot crush people's determination to live in freedom and dignity.


pages: 202 words: 62,199

Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less by Greg McKeown

Albert Einstein, Clayton Christensen, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, loss aversion, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, Shai Danziger, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Vilfredo Pareto

“Oprah Talks to Thich Nhat Hanh,” O magazine, March 2010, www.oprah.com/spirit/Oprah-Talks-to-Thich-Nhat-Hanh/3. 20. BE 1. Eknath Easwaran, preface to The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas, ed. Louis Fischer (1962; repr., New York: Vintage, 1990), xx. 2. “Gandhiji’s Philosophy: Diet and Diet Programme,” n.d., Mahatma Gandhi Information Website, www.gandhi-manibhavan.org/gandhiphilosophy/philosophy_health_dietprogramme.htm. 3. library.thinkquest.org/26523/mainfiles/quotes.htm. 4. Albert Einstein, “Mahatma Gandhi,” in Out of My Later Years: Essays (New York: Philosophical Library, 1950). 5. Henry David Thoreau to H. G. O. Blake, March 27, 1848, in The Portable Thoreau, ed. Jeffrey S. Cramer (London: Penguin, 2012). 6. Proverbs 23:7. APPENDIX: LEADERSHIP ESSENTIALS 1. Guy Kawasaki, “From the Desk of Management Changes at Apple,” MacUser, December 1991, and then a follow-up piece, “How to Prevent a Bozo Explosion,” How to Change the World, February 26, 2006, http://blog.guykawasaki.com/2006/02/how_to_prevent_.html. 2.

So how can we all introduce more play into our workplaces and our lives? In his book, Brown includes a primer to help readers reconnect with play. He suggests that readers mine their past for play memories. What did you do as a child that excited you? How can you re-create that today? CHAPTER 8 SLEEP Protect the Asset EACH NIGHT, WHEN I GO TO SLEEP, I DIE. AND THE NEXT MORNING, WHEN I WAKE UP, I AM REBORN. —Mahatma Gandhi Geoff sat straight up in bed, in a panic. He felt as if a bomb had exploded in his head. He was sweating and discombobulated. He listened intensely. What was going on? Everything was silent. Perhaps it was a weird reaction to something he’d eaten. He tried to go back to sleep. The next night it happened again. Then a few days later it happened in the middle of the day. He had just returned from India and at first he thought it might be a reaction to malaria medicine he was taking in combination with the Benadryl he took to help him sleep when he was jet-lagged.

It would be an understatement to say he eschewed consumerism: when he died he owned fewer than ten items. More importantly, of course, he devoted his life to helping the people of India gain independence. He intentionally never held a political position of any kind, yet he became, officially within India, the “Father of the Nation.” But his contribution extended well beyond India. As General George C. Marshall, the American secretary of state, said on the occasion of Gandhi’s passing: “Mahatma Gandhi had become the spokesman for the conscience of mankind, a man who made humility and simple truth more powerful than empires.”3 And Albert Einstein added: “Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth.”4 It is impossible to argue with the statement that Gandhi lived a life that really mattered. Of course, we don’t have to try to replicate Gandhi to benefit from his example as someone who lived, fully and completely, as an Essentialist.


pages: 325 words: 97,162

The 5 AM Club: Own Your Morning. Elevate Your Life. by Robin Sharma

Albert Einstein, dematerialisation, epigenetics, Grace Hopper, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, index card, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, white picket fence

It’s more the old ‘early to bed, early to rise’ point.” “And as each of us does our part to make our personal revolutions, every relationship in our life—from the one we have with our craft to the connections we share with each other—improves with us,” offered the artist. “Sort of like Mahatma Gandhi’s words ‘Be the change you wish to see in the world,’” added the entrepreneur, her face glowing in the soft light of the candle as she rubbed her new ring. “I read a little about his life before I went to sleep last night.” “With all due respect,” pronounced The Spellbinder compassionately, “Mahatma Gandhi’s actual words have been adjusted over the years, to become a sound bite that suits a culture experiencing a collective deficit of attention.” “What he actually said,” interrupted the billionaire, “was, ‘If we could change ourselves, the tendencies in the world would also change.

‘Sheeple’ is what too many people now are. The excellent news is that this kind of power I speak of is available to anyone alive on the planet today. We might have forgotten and disowned this form of potency we have as life has hurt, disappointed and confused us. But it’s still there waiting for us to build a relationship with it. And develop it. All of the great teachers of history owned very few things, you know. When Mahatma Gandhi died he had about ten possessions, including his sandals, a watch, his eyeglasses and a simple bowl to eat from. Mother Teresa, so prosperous of heart and rich with the authentic power to influence millions, died in a tiny room containing almost no worldly goods. When she’d travel, she’d carry all her things in a white cloth bag.” “Why do so many of the heroes of humanity have so little?” asked the artist, now relaxing on the sand.

And realize domain dominance. External always expresses internal. And to experience empires in your outer life you need to develop your inner ones first,” reinforced the billionaire. He started to sip from a bottle of green-colored liquid that one of the fishermen had given him when he hopped out of the motor boat. If you looked very closely at the text printed on the glass, you’d read these words of Mahatma Gandhi: “The only devils in the world are those running in our own hearts. That is where the battle should be fought.” “As you consistently increase the inherent power inside you,” Mr. Riley continued, “you’ll actually begin to see an alternate reality flush with gorgeous opportunity and luxurious possibility. You’ll play in a universe of the marvelous that members of the majority can’t even perceive.


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, endogenous growth, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Treadle-powered machines, not so different from those made before 1914, were, in the 1960s, ‘by far the most important modern appliance’ in a small town of the district of Huaylas in Andean Peru.23 In Mae Hong Son, northern Thailand, in April 2002, treadle-operated Singers decorated with a sticker celebrating 150 years of Singer machines were on sale alongside white goods, next to an internet café. At the other end of the world, an expensive (male) tailor working alone making men’s suits in Lecce, Italy, also used a treadle-operated Singer.24 Treadle-powered sewing machines feature regularly in discussions of micro-credit initiatives supported by international development agencies. The sewing machine had a very particular place in the thinking of Mahatma Gandhi, as exemplary of an alternative approach to production. Gandhi was a strong opponent of the machine-based industries and famously argued not for mass production, but for production by the masses. Yet, he made what he called ‘intelligent exceptions’ to this hostility to industrially-made machines. ‘Take the case of the Singer Sewing Machine,’ he said. ‘It is one of the few useful things ever invented …’ His interviewer responded that he could not object to the factories that made them, to which Gandhi replied that he was ‘Socialist enough to say that such factories should be nationalized, or State-controlled’.

Yet the argument worked only for a closed system, if each nation was insulated from every other one. For the free-rider problem would otherwise also apply to governments – why should the Indian government fund research that would equally be exploited by Pakistani, or US citizens? We should recognise of course that in the 1950s the US dominated world research and development, and thus could be thought of as a closed system. 15. A national technology. Mahatma Gandhi reading newspaper clippings next to a Charkha (spinning wheel), the great symbol of the Indian National Congress. The spinning wheel was re-introduced into India in the twentieth century as a result of a campaign led by Gandhi to promote ‘production by the masses’. This implicit techno-nationalism is also found in another justification for national funding of research (and development). It is the idea that to overtake rich countries a nation needs to invent and innovate more, and that if it does not it will descend to the level of the poorest countries.

Tanis Day, ‘Capital-Labor substitution in the home’, Technology and Culture, Vol. 33 (1992), p. 322. 17. For some white European intellectuals in the interwar years, a critique of western industrial civilisation was built on celebration, often with noble savage overtones, of the ancient less corrupted cultures of Africa and Asia. A very few non-white intellectuals, and fewer African and Asians, were themselves putting this forward, among them Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi. See Michael Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology and Ideologies of Western Dominance (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989), pp. 380–401. 18. Gustavo Riofrio and Jean-Claude Driant, ¿Que Vivienda han construido? Nuevos Problemas en viejas barriadas (Lima: CIDAP/IFEA/TAREA, 1987). 19. Slums of the World, p. 25 – quoted in Mike Davis, ‘Planet of Slums’, New Left Review, second series, No. 26 (2004), pp. 5–34. 20. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Durban.pdf Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements (Development and Planning Unit, University College London).


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

The Kalpasar dam, which would raise the sea level and alter the ecology of hundreds of kilometers of coastline, was the cause of serious concerns amongst scientists in a 2007 report.23 It has made a sudden comeback in order to supply water to the Dholera Special Investment Region (SIR) in one of the most water-stressed zones not just in India but in the world. SIR is another name for a SEZ, a self-governed corporate dystopia of industrial parks, townships, and megacities. The Dholera SIR is going to be connected to Gujarat’s other cities by a network of ten-lane highways. Where will the money for all this come from? In January 2011 in the Mahatma (Gandhi) Mandir, Gujarat’s Chief Minister Narendra Modi presided over a meeting of ten thousand international businessmen from one hundred countries. According to media reports, they pledged to invest $450 billion in Gujarat. The meeting was deliberately scheduled to take place on the tenth anniversary of the massacre of two thousand Muslims in February 2002. Modi stands accused of not just condoning but actively abetting the killing.

(Anna withdrew that statement after a public outcry, but presumably not his admiration.)3 Despite the din, sober journalists have gone about doing what journalists do. We now have the backstory about Anna’s old relationship with the right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS).4 We have heard from Mukul Sharma, who has studied Anna’s village community in Ralegan Siddhi, where there have been no Gram Panchayat or cooperative society elections in the last twenty-five years. We know about Anna’s attitude to “harijans”: “It was Mahatma Gandhi’s vision that every village should have one chamar, one sunar, one kumhar and so on. They should all do their work according to their role and occupation, and in this way, a village will be self-dependent. This is what we are practicing in Ralegan Siddhi.”5 Is it surprising that members of Team Anna have also been associated with Youth for Equality, the antireservation (pro-“merit”) movement?


pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, Kickstarter, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

The Bikini Atoll bomb: the Atomic Age (© SuperStock) 17. General George Marshall and Zhou Enlai (© Gamma-Keystone / Getty Images) 18. Mao Zedong (© Underwood Photo Archives / SuperStock) 19. General Marshall with Chiang Kai-shek and his wife Mei-ling (© The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images) 20. Poverty and starvation in China (© Image Asset Management Ltd. / SuperStock) 21. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mohandas ‘Mahatma’ Gandhi (© The LIFE Picture Collection/Getty Images) 22. Mohammed Ali Jinnah (© AFP / Getty Images) 23. Communist partisans in Athens during the Greek Civil War (© Getty Images) 24. Greek partisans line up for battle (© Heritage Images / Getty Images) 25. Marshal Josef Broz Tito (© Getty Images) 26. Pro-Tito graffiti in Yugoslavia (© The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images) 27.

John Murray, London, 2007 Mastny, Vojtech, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: the Stalin Years. Oxford University Press, New York, 1996 Mazower, Mark, The Balkans. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 2000 ———, Inside Hitler’s Greece: the Experience of Occupation, 1941–1944. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1995 ———, (ed.), After the War Was Over: Reconstructing the Family, Nation, and State in Greece, 1943–1960. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2000 Mehta, Ved, Mahatma Gandhi and his Apostles. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1977 Menand, Louis, ‘Getting Real: George Kennan’s Cold War’, New Yorker, 14 November 2011 Menon, V. P., The Story of the Integration of the Indian States. Longmans, Green, London, 1956 ———, The Transfer of Power in India. Longmans, Green, London, 1957 Mikołajczyk, Stanisław, The Rape of Poland: Pattern of Soviet Aggression. Whittlesey House, New York, 1948 Miscamble, Wilson, From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War.

Cambridge, New York, 2005 Willoughby, John, ‘The Sexual Behaviour of American GIs during the Early Years of the Occupation of Germany’, Journal of Military History, vol. 62, January 1998 Wilson, Francesca, Aftermath: France, Germany, Austria, Yugoslavia, 1945 and 1946. Penguin, London, 1947 Wolff-Mönckeberg, Mathilde, On the Other Side: To My Children: From Germany, 1940–1945. Persephone Books, London, 2007 Wolpert, Stanley, Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001 ———, Jinnah of Pakistan. Oxford University Press, New York, 1984 ———, Nehru: A Tryst with Destiny. Oxford University Press, New York, 1996 Yergin, Daniel, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and the National Security State. André Deutsch, London, 1978 Zhukov, Georgi, The Memoirs of Marshal Zhukov. Jonathan Cape, London, 1971 Zubok, Vladislav, ‘“To Hell with Yalta”: The Soviet Union Opts for the Status Quo’, Cold War International History Project, Bulletin Nos. 6 and 7, Winter 1995/6 ———, A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev.


pages: 442 words: 130,526

The Billionaire Raj: A Journey Through India's New Gilded Age by James Crabtree

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, business climate, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism, young professional

I had taken the hour-long flight from Mumbai early that morning, on what was already a painfully hot day in one of the warmest months of the year. Traffic moved easily up the neat six-lane highway north from the airport towards Gandhinagar, the state capital and Modi’s longtime seat of power. Small scenes of his achievements as chief minister zipped by the window, from technology parks and glass office buildings to the Mahatma Mandir, a giant convention center named after Mahatma Gandhi, who was born in the state and for much of his life lived in a modest ashram nearby. The scene was prosperous and orderly; a model for the country Modi aspired to lead. Over the previous year he had crisscrossed India delivering rousing speeches attacking corruption and economic mismanagement. It was the most expensive election campaign the country had ever seen, and Modi’s message was simple: the ruling Congress, once the party of the poor, now stood firmly on the side of the super-rich.

Rejecting the divisions of caste, it formally claimed as Hindus all those whose religions viewed India as their spiritual homeland: a typology that included Sikhs and Jains, but pointedly excluded Muslims and Christians, who today make up about fourteen percent and two percent of the population respectively.11 It was an idea that had its most tragic consequence when Nathuram Godse, a Hindutva ideologue and former RSS activist, assassinated Gandhi in 1948, shooting him in the chest on his way to an evening prayer meeting. Nehru outlawed the organization, claiming “these people had the blood of Mahatma Gandhi on their hands,” one of three occasions on which the group has been banned since Independence.12 But a year later it was allowed to re-form. In the years that followed it went on to spawn a wider family of Hindu nationalist organizations, known as the Sangh Parivar, covering everything from trade unions and farmers’ organizations to youth and student groups, and eventually the BJP itself. Jasood Pathan, Modi’s childhood companion, played down the idea that his young friend had been a Hindu fanatic, telling me that many young boys in Vadnagar attended RSS meetings, mostly to stave off boredom.

For its adherents, Modi’s Gujarat embodied the best of what India was becoming: a churning entrepôt marked by industrialization and urbanization, a birthplace of billionaires, and home to a developing middle-class, consumerist society. Modi himself was fond of quoting India’s most famous national founder, claiming that his own model of business-friendly development would ultimately benefit the least privileged as well. “Mahatma Gandhi used to say: ‘What is there for the last man?’ ” Modi once told an interviewer. “So my development parameter is very simple. It is about how the poorest of the poor can benefit.”43 Yet after a decade of his rule, little such development had reached Juhapura, whose residents complained of unpaved roads, unreliable water supplies, and inadequate schooling. Kazi remained skeptical even of Modi’s signature promises to combat cronyism, noting the BJP politician’s friendliness with tycoons like Gautam Adani.


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Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Now, they fly through the air in trains at the rate of four hundred and more miles per day … Formerly, when people wanted to fight with one another, they measured between them their bodily strength; now it is possible to take away thousands of lives by one man working behind a gun from a hill … There are now diseases of which people never dreamt before, and an army of doctors is engaged in finding out their cures, and so hospitals have increased. This is a test of civilization … What more need I say? … This civilization is such that one has only to be patient and it will be self-destroyed. According to the teaching of Muhammad this would be considered a Satanic Civilization. Hinduism calls it the Black Age … It must be shunned. Mahatma Gandhi It is a people which by its sons (Robespierre, Descartes, etc.) has done much for humanity. I do not have the right to wish it evil. Senegalese student BURKE’S PROPHECY From the middle of the nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth, the West ruled over the Rest. This was the age not just of empires but of imperialism, a theory of overseas expansion that justified the formal and informal domination of non-Western peoples on both self-interested and altruistic grounds.

An estimated 57 per cent of the world’s population lived in these empires, which accounted for close to four-fifths of global economic output. Even at the time, their conduct aroused bitter criticism. Indeed, the word ‘imperialism’ is a term of abuse that caught on with nationalists, liberals and socialists alike. These critics rained coruscating ridicule on the claim that the empires were exporting civilization. Asked what he thought of Western civilization, the Indian nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi is said to have replied wittily that he thought it would be a good idea. In Hind Swaraj (‘Indian Home Rule’), published in 1908, Gandhi went so far as to call Western civilization ‘a disease’ and ‘a bane’.2 Mark Twain, America’s leading anti-imperialist, preferred irony. ‘To such as believe’, he wrote in 1897, ‘that the quaint product called French civilization would be an improvement upon the civilization of New Guinea and the like, the snatching of Madagascar and the laying on of French civilization there will be fully justified.’3 The Bolshevik leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was also being ironic when he called imperialism ‘the highest stage of capitalism’, the result of monopolistic banks struggling ‘for the sources of raw materials, for the export of capital, for spheres of influence, i.e., for spheres for profitable deals, concessions, monopoly profits and so on’.

From its New York headquarters at 458 (later 149) Broadway, Singer spread with astonishing speed to become one of the world’s first truly global brands, with manufacturing plants in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Russia and Scotland; at its peak, the Kilbowie factory at Clydebank covered a million square feet and employed 12,000 people. In 1904 global sales passed 1.3 million machines a year. By 1914 that figure had more than doubled. The brand logo – the ‘S’ wrapped around a sewing woman – was ubiquitous, to be seen even (according the firm’s advertising copywriters) on the summit of Mount Everest. In a rare concession to modernity, Mahatma Gandhi acknowledged that it was ‘one of the few useful things ever invented’ – praise indeed from the man who disdained even modern medicine.40 Singer exemplified the American advantage. Not only was the United States still attracting, as it always had, the world’s natural-born risk-takers. Now there were enough of them to constitute a truly unmatched internal market. Between 1870 and 1913 the United States overtook the United Kingdom.


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The Achievement Habit: Stop Wishing, Start Doing, and Take Command of Your Life by Bernard Roth

Albert Einstein, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, deskilling, fear of failure, functional fixedness, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, school choice, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, zero-sum game

We can emulate their positive attributes and guard against their negative ones. We can learn from a child as well as from a famous celebrity. It is important not to be disillusioned when you find out your idols have clay feet. They can still be your teachers. You might even be able to learn more from obviously imperfect people than from those still pretending to be perfect. Does the fact that Mahatma Gandhi was not a great father to his children invalidate his message and example? Does the fact that a politician had an illicit affair invalidate the good work she has done? You can choose a priori to rule certain influences out of your life, or you can be inclusive and take the relevant lessons from each. I believe the latter course leads to a richer life experience. CUTTING OTHERS DOWN I was part of a ten-person teaching team leading a weeklong intensive workshop in the d.school that we called Summer College.

Braverman points out that work that allows for self-expression satisfies human needs, and he traces the roots of the trend toward deskilling of both work and workers. In Braverman’s terms, the machines that enhance people’s skills are considered life-supporting, while those that deskill people and devalue their work are life-destroying.2 Perhaps the best spokesperson for the need to define the proper role of machines is Mahatma Gandhi. Asked whether he was opposed to machines, he answered,3 How can I be when I know that even this body is a most delicate piece of machinery? The spinning wheel is a machine, a little toothpick is a machine. What I object to is the craze for machinery, not machinery as such. The craze is for what they call labour-saving machinery. Men go on “saving labour” till thousands are without work and thrown on the open streets to die of starvation.

First, it is my homage to The Adjusted American for providing the first motivation for this book. Second, I like that it implies that it is normal for people to have a sane life even though we live in a crazy world. 1.Kurt Vonnegut, Player Piano (New York: Doubleday, 1952). 2.Harry Braverman, Labor and Monopoly Capital (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974). 3.Gandhi is quoted as having said this in Delhi in 1924 by Mahadev DeSai; cited in the preface to Mahatma Gandhi, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule (Ahmedabad, India: Jitendra T. Desai/Navajivan, 1938), pp. 5–6. 4.E. F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered (New York: HarperCollins, 1973). 5.Ibid., pp. 56–66. 6.Lawrence Weschler, Seeing Is Forgetting the Name of the Thing One Sees (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982). 7.The quest for personal autonomy in a harsh assembly line environment is insightfully portrayed in the short story “Joe, the Vanishing American” by Harvey Swados (1957).


pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

Even under the Mughal dynasty (1526–1857), when Muslim power expanded over almost all of India, the conquerors realized what the British would later discover: in order to take advantage of the subcontinent’s riches, it was easier to divide and rule the various regions than to seek absolute power. A majority of people were converted to Islam west of the Thar Desert and in the Ganges Delta basin (the same regions that now comprise Pakistan and Bangladesh), but almost everywhere else the majority of people remained Hindu. In 1947, as the British withdrew, India’s founding fathers, especially Mahatma Gandhi, had a vision of creating a multi-faith democratic state stretching east to west from the Hindu Kush to the Rakhine Mountains, and north to south from the Himalayas to the Indian Ocean. But Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who would go on to become Pakistan’s first leader, believed that because Muslims would be a minority in this state they required their own country. He wanted ‘a Muslim country for Muslims’ and helped invent a border which was partially drawn along religious, not geographical, lines.

A 2016 genetic study by Hyderabad’s Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology discovered a ‘profound influence on skin pigmentation’ within the class structure, the lighter skin tones being predominantly found among the ‘higher’ castes. National secular laws have in theory banned discrimination, but as the system is dominated by people in the higher castes who want to maintain it, the laws are not enforced. Many politicians are also reluctant to take real action as they rely on block votes from certain castes. The system is deeply embedded in the culture of the country. For example, Mahatma Gandhi, who was from one of the ‘higher’ castes, said: ‘I believe that if Hindu society has been able to stand, it is because it is founded on the caste system . . . To destroy the caste system and adopt the Western European social system means that Hindus must give up the principle of hereditary occupation which is the soul of the caste system. Hereditary principle is an eternal principle. To change it is to create disorder.’

., et al., ‘A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes’, Climatic Change, vol. 104, no. 1 (January 2011), pp. 89–111 Hasnain, Lieutenant General Syed Ata, ‘Why the fence on the line of control’, South Asia Defence and Strategic Review, May 2014 Jones, Reece, Violent Borders: Refugees and the Right to Move (London and New York: Verso, 2016) Lindley, Mark, ‘Changes in Mahatma Gandhi’s views on caste and intermarriage’, Hacettepe University (Ankara) Social Sciences Journal, vol. 1 (1999) Roy, Arundhati, ‘India’s shame’, Prospect Magazine, 13 November 2014 Shamshad, Rizwana, ‘Politics and origin of the India–Bangladesh border fence’, paper presented to the 17th Biennial Conference of the Asian Studies Association of Australia in Melbourne, 1–3 July 2008 ‘Skin colour tied to caste system, says study’, Times of India, 21 November 2016 Sukumaran Nair, P., Indo-Bangladesh Relations (New Delhi: APH Publishing, 2008) Tripathi, Sanjeev, ‘Illegal immigration from Bangladesh to India: toward a comprehensive solution’, Carnegie India, 29 June 2016 Chapter 6: Africa Agyemang, Felix, ‘The emergence of gated communities in Ghana and their implications on urban planning and management’, Developing Country Studies, vol. 3, no. 14 (July 2013), pp. 40–46 Aisien, Ebiuwa, and Oriakhi, Felix O.


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Brilliant, Crazy, Cocky: How the Top 1% of Entrepreneurs Profit From Global Chaos by Sarah Lacy

Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, BRICs, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, income per capita, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, megacity, Network effects, paypal mafia, QWERTY keyboard, risk tolerance, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game

Part of it is India’s democracy. Things just don’t get done quickly in a democracy serving more than 1 bil ion people who don’t speak the same language, don’t have jobs, and don’t have access to basic communications and infrastructure. And part of it is the nature of India. Before colonial times, India had never been a united country. During the struggle for independence, the founding fathers of India like Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru ultimately failed to keep the country united, with Pakistan being carved off as a Muslim state. Gandhi and Nehru refused to give into India’s Hindu majority, insisting that India—unlike Pakistan—remain a secular nation. That didn’t mean the country had no religion, but rather that none was above the others. The country bent so far to protect religious, linguistic, and territorial differences that unity was a chal enge for most of its modern history.

Unlike China, Indian cities don’t have the infrastructure to support a ful -scale migration, nor does India have a powerful, autocratic government that can mold new satel ite cities out of nothing. Delhi tried with Gurgaon, a city constructed so haphazardly that most of the companies operating there run off generators. India isn’t 10 years behind China, as many pundits say. What worked for China won’t work in India. India has to find another path to modernity. Even Mahatma Gandhi used to say: If you want to change India, change the vil ages. Too high-minded social thinking for greed-based entrepreneurs? Hardly. The vil ages are where the mass market is in India. And if the country can crack the sachet equivalent of the digital revolution, it wil have a leg up on bridging the same divide in Africa, Southeast Asia, and any corner of the world where the Web is experienced over a pay-as-you-go monthly phone.

Endeavor Entrepreneurship: in emerging markets globalization of political ramifications U.S. history of Ericsson Estrin, Judy Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Facebook: employee cachet funding for in Indonesia as media giant PayPal role in social network Factory Girls (Chang) Fal ows, James FARC. See Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) Farmer, Paul Fast Company Federal Reserve Bank FedEx 56.com Financial Times Firefox Forbes “Midas List,” Foxconn Friendster Gandhi, Mohandas K. (Mahatma) Gandhi, Pravin Gates, Bil Gates Foundation GDP: Africa China-related Rwanda Singapore wages as share of U.S. world comparisons General Motors Geni Genocide, Rwandan Ghate, Ravi Giant Interactive Giuffrida, Fred Globalization Goldman Sachs Gomes, Marco Gondal, Vishal Google: ad build-out in China as competitor as copycat founder of funding for immigrant success story as innovator in Israel powerhouse vis-à-vis Tencent Web share YouTube acquisition Gourevitch, Philip Grant Thornton LLP Great Leap Forward (Mao) Greenfield opportunities: in Brazil in China defined in India in Israel venture capital and in Western world Groupon Grove, Andy Growth Enterprise Board G7 nations Gupta, Abhishek Gupta, Naren Habyarimana, Juvenal Hambrecht & Quist Hanna, Jack Harvard Business School He, Eric Hertz, Matt Hewlett-Packard Highland Capital Partners Hinduism, culture of Hiware Bazar (India) Ho, Roy Hole-in-the-Wal program Horsley Bridge Partners Hsieh, Tony Huawei Hulu ICQ IL&FS Image Café Immigrants: Brazilian as economic asset as entrepreneurs Indian to Indonesia role in Israel In U.S.


A Concise History of Modern India (Cambridge Concise Histories) by Barbara D. Metcalf, Thomas R. Metcalf

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, commoditize, demand response, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Silicon Valley, spice trade, telemarketer, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

With Gandhi they had a leader who could at once appeal effectively to those outside the narrow constituency of the educated, and yet contain any potential threat to their own predominance in society. t h e p ow e r o f g a n d h i ’ s n a m e : s u p p o rt e rs and opponents Although Gandhi by 1919 had found a responsive audience for a new political practice – as crowds turned out in their thousands to shout ‘Mahatma Gandhi ki jai’ (Long live the Mahatma) – his appeal was never uniform across India, and many, while following him, made of him the ‘mahatma’ they wanted. To understand Gandhian nationalism, therefore, it is necessary at the outset to take account of who supported him, and why, as well as who did not. Confronted with a lack of enthusiasm throughout much of India, Gandhi secured Congress approval of non-cooperation only by forming an alliance with the Muslim supporters of the Ottoman khilafat.

The price was often high, for Gandhi demanded the return of titles and government honours, the abandonment of often lucrative legal practices, and lengthy periods in jail. Yet the sacrifices were gladly made, for, as Jawaharlal Nehru wrote in his autobiography, we had a ‘feeling of satisfaction at doing effective political work which was changing the face of India before our eyes’, and even, he admitted, ‘an agreeable sense of moral superiority over our opponents’. In Bihar and UP the cry of ‘Mahatma Gandhi ki jai’ radiated outwards to the foothills of the Himalayas and down to the oppressed tenantry of the region’s great landlords. Yet in these remote areas, as it circulated among an impoverished peasantry, Gandhi’s message took on unexpected shapes. Gandhi, and his volunteer workers in the localities, had devised what they saw as an appropriate role for these peasant masses. They were meant to come out in their thousands and to receive darshan, in which the devotee enters the presence of the divine and secures his blessing, in this case that of the ‘mahatma’.

Yet others had lost all their relatives. As one woman told her ‘rescuer’, ‘I have lost my husband and have now gone in for another. You want me to go to India where I have got nobody.’ For the Indian and Pakistani governments, however, none of this mattered. Not until 1954 was forcible repatriation abandoned as official policy. t h e h i n du r i g h t a n d t h e as sas s i n at i o n of gandhi On 30 January 1948 Mahatma Gandhi was murdered by a Hindu zealot as he was leading a prayer meeting in New Delhi. Jawaharlal Nehru spoke for a grief-striken nation when he told India in a radio broadcast, ‘The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere.’ Despite the deep sense of loss the Mahatma’s death, at age seventy-eight, produced in India, Gandhi had become increasingly marginal to the Indian political scene ever since the end of the war.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hedonic treadmill, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

(If you haven’t seen it before you can take the test here: http://bit.ly/1gXmThe – it’s fun.) The flip side of this is “salience”, when something you have reason to pay attention to starts appearing everywhere you look. Thus if you buy a Lexus car, there may suddenly seem to be many more of them on the road than before. “Anchoring” is another way in which we are easily misled. If you ask people whether Mahatma Gandhi was older than 35 when he died and then ask them to guess his exact age when he died, they will give a lower answer than if your first question was whether he was over 100 when he died. (To save you looking it up, he was 78.) Some of our forms of bias are very damaging. How much better would our political processes be if we were not subject to “confirmation bias”, which makes us more attentive to data and ideas which confirm our existing viewpoints than to data and ideas which challenge them?

The idea that such an entity will forever remain constrained by instructions that we laid down at the outset, that it will never review its goals and think of improvements, is hard to swallow. The best we can hope for is that any evolution in the superintelligence’s goals takes them in directions we would approve of. Some people take comfort from the belief that if an entity starts off with benevolent motivations, it will not turn malevolent. Few people would disagree with the proposition that Mahatma Gandhi was a man of good will. If you had offered him a pill which would turn him into a murderer, he would have refused to take it, even if he believed that becoming a murderer would serve some noble purpose. There has been a fair amount of debate about whether Gandhi’s resolve to retain his moral probity could be diluted, but as far as I know, no method has yet been found to guarantee that a superintelligence could not alter its goals in such a way that it would end up harming us.


Evil Genes: Why Rome Fell, Hitler Rose, Enron Failed, and My Sister Stole My Mother's Boyfriend by Barbara Oakley Phd

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Barry Marshall: ulcers, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, impulse control, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, prisoner's dilemma, Richard Feynman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, twin studies, union organizing, Y2K

Never have I enjoyed such swearing before or since.”50 Years later, Thomas Jefferson dryly noted Washington's reaction to a provocation at a cabinet meeting: Washington became “much inflamed; got into one of those passions when he cannot command himself.”51 Yet, despite—and possibly related to—his passion and sometimes overwhelming efforts to master it, Washington managed to control and resist a temptation to remain in power that Julius Caesar, Oliver Cromwell, Napoleon, Lenin, Mao, and thousands of other leaders, great and small, have been unable to resist. An anguished Napoleon commented on his deathbed, “They wanted me to be another Washington.” But he wasn't. Washington wasn't alone in harboring a volatile side that he attempted to control even as he performed noble deeds. Spiritual master of nonviolence Mahatma Gandhi shared the same characteristic. (Beyond their shared temper, Gandhi, like Washington, wasn't above rewriting his own history to burnish his legend.)52 Biographer Louis Fischer, who knew Gandhi personally, reported, “He had a violent nature and his subsequent mahatma-calm was the product of long training in temperament-control.”53 Early on, it was Gandhi's wife who felt the brunt of his temper.

(As Philip Wankat notes in The Effective, Efficient Professor, “The most important single activity you can do to show students that you are interested in them is to learn and use their names.”) Famed Antarctic explorer Ernest Shackleton, popular with his crew (and consequently disliked by fellow explorer Robert Falcon Scott), delighted everyone with his wonderful memory and “amazing treasure of most interesting anecdote.”93 Many top political leaders with good or great reputations—and remarkable memories—include Mahatma Gandhi, Winston Churchill, Charles de Gaulle, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Margaret Thatcher,g.94 and Chinese president Hu Jintau, as well as business leaders such as Warren Buffett, Jack Welch, and Bill Gates. Other top business leaders with a different sort of reputation—but no less remarkable a memory—include indicted Hollinger CEO Conrad Black, convicted former Enron CEO Jeffrey Skilling, convicted CEO Martha Stewart, and (if you consider mob bosses to be business leaders), dreaded capo di tutti i capi Toto Riina.95 President Bill Clinton, with his marvelously retentive memory, could cover gaffes such as being given the wrong speech for his first State of the Union address through recollection and ad-libbing—no one ever guessed what was going on until later.

In some sense, the question is meaningless. Does a cat have a choice when she affectionately licks her kittens? Does a killer whale have a choice when it toys with a terrified seal pup? If I've learned anything through these many years of research, it's that Carolyn's choices were a bit like the choices a tree on a windy shoreline has in deciding how tall and how bent to grow. Sure, others, as for example, George Washington and Mahatma Gandhi, were probably able to produce real changes in their neurological makeup through their conscious choices—strengthening their top-down control even if they were unable to adjust their bottom-up passions. Research is in fact showing that extraordinary neural shifts can take place through long-term conscious efforts.7 But what of those, like Carolyn, who don't seem to have the requisite neural apparatus to understand that there is a problem, not with drinking, or with others, but rather, with themselves?


pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

From the Philippines and Haiti to Vietnam and Iraq, the natives’ reaction to U.S. efforts has taken Americans by surprise. Americans take justified pride in their own country—we call it patriotism—and yet are genuinely startled when other people are proud and possessive of theirs. In the waning days of Britain’s rule in India, its last viceroy, Lord Louis Mountbatten, turned to the great Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi and said in exasperation, “If we just leave, there will be chaos.” Gandhi replied, “Yes, but it will be our chaos.” That sense of being governed by one’s “own,” without interference, is a powerful feeling in emerging countries, especially those that were once colonies or quasi-colonies of the West. Zbigniew Brzezinski recently called attention to what he terms a “global political awakening.”

We did not even have a section for historical research until I created one. . . . Our policy therefore necessarily rested on the intuition of one man, who was Foreign Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru.” This meant that India’s early foreign policy was driven by Nehru’s principles and prejudices, which were distinctive. Nehru was an idealist, even a moralist. He was for nonalignment and against the Cold War. His mentor, Mahatma Gandhi, was an unyielding pacifist. “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth,” Gandhi used to say, “and soon the world will be blind and toothless.” The mahatma was revered in India almost like a god, and his strategy of nonviolence had brought down an empire. Like many of his followers, Nehru was determined to chart a new course in international affairs that lived up to those ideals. Nehru rooted India’s foreign policy in abstract ideas rather than a strategic conception of national interests.

They make the same critiques of government policy as those in London, Paris, and Washington. But these attitudes are most true of India’s English-speaking elite—still a minority in the country—that is in some ways more comfortable in the West’s world than in its own. (Ask an educated Indian businessman, scholar, scientist, or bureaucrat what was the last book he read in a language other than English.) Mahatma Gandhi was a more distinctly Indian figure. His foreign policy ideas were a mixture of Hindu nonviolence and Western radicalism, topped up with a shrewd practicality that was probably shaped by his merchant class background. When Nehru called himself the “last” Englishman to rule India, he sensed that as the country developed, its own cultural roots would begin showing more clearly and would be ruled by more “authentic” Indians.


pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

The politics of the future is the politics of meeting a billion aspirations, the weight of which will crush anyone who fails to deliver. Be tting big on technology: The trend is your friend Whenever Sanjay Sahni, a school dropout working as an electrician in New Delhi returned to his home village of Ratnauli in Bihar’s Muzaffarpur district, he would be besieged by complaints from villagers that they weren’t getting their dues under the government’s MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Generation Act) scheme, meant to provide guaranteed employment and wages to rural residents. Sahni used to store his tools in a New Delhi cybercafe; knowing nothing about computers, one day he impulsively typed ‘NREGA Bihar’ into Google, and found the official list of villagers who were supposedly beneficiaries. As it turned out, many of those listed hadn’t been given any work, and those who had didn’t get paid in full.

To begin with, it is not mandatory to possess an Aadhaar number—residents can choose to enrol voluntarily, and no government service or benefit is allowed to mandate the use of Aadhaar for identity verification. The second is its openness, exemplified by the fact that Aadhaar is designed as a platform providing a single service—identity verification—that can be easily plugged into any application requiring such a service. Today, Aadhaar is used to verify identity in a host of government schemes and services. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act now uses Aadhaar numbers to make payments; recipients can withdraw money through Aadhaar-linked microATMs. The subsidy for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is administered by linking a consumer’s information with their Aadhaar numbers. Banks have established e-KYC (electronic-Know Your Customer) processes using Aadhaar to open new bank accounts, and the government itself uses Aadhaar to track the attendance of employees.

Electronic payments were once considered a luxury for higher-end bank customers; now, they have become a utility that everyone can avail of. The basic banking infrastructure that will arise in every village of India will be the engine that powers further innovation in financial services for the benefit of every citizen; it will help create a truly integrated and inclusive economy. 4 Mending our Social Safety Nets There are people in the world so hungry, that God cannot appear to them except in the form of bread. —Mahatma Gandhi KRIPA SHANKAR IS a slight, moustachioed farmer from a small village near Amethi in the state of Uttar Pradesh. When Viral met him in 2012, he was pushing his bicycle by the side of a large highway, their conversation periodically drowned out by the ear-splitting honking of trucks as they roared past. A journalist, interviewing Kripa Shankar, pointed to a bag of fertilizer perched securely on his bicycle.


pages: 468 words: 150,206

The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our World by John Robbins

Albert Einstein, carbon footprint, clean water, complexity theory, double helix, Exxon Valdez, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Rosa Parks, telemarketer

The reality, according to Schmeiser, is that many of his neighbors are growing genetically engineered canola, and pollen from them is blowing everywhere. "It's in the ditches and the roadsides; it's in the shelterbelts; it's in the gardens; it's all over.... We're just touching the tip of the iceberg in contamination of fields by this Roundup genetic canola." s On October 2, 2000, the 131st anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi's birth, Gandhi's family gave this Canadian farmer the prestigious Mahatma Gandhi award. An enormous crowd of 300,000 Indian farmers gathered to listen to and support Percy Schmeiser. When I first learned that Monsanto was suing Percy Schmeiser because their crops had invaded his fields, I could hardly believe it. It seemed ludicrous. But then I remembered that this is the same Monsanto that sues dairies who dare to inform their customers that they don't use the corporation's genetically engineered bovine growth hormone.

By 1999, nations throughout the European community, including Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Ireland, Finland, Belgium, and the Netherlands, had enacted almost complete bans on veal crates.45 As well, in 1999, agriculture ministers from the European Union agreed to end all caged egg production in Europe by 2012, replacing it completely with free-range farming.46 In 2000, scientists from the United Kingdom called for an end to all factory farming in Europe as the only sure way to halt Mad Cow disease.47 And in 2001, the European Union proposed new animal welfare rules for pigs.48 Attorney David Wolfson commented, "The contrast is stark: the United States alters the law to allow cruel farming practices while Western European countries are banning cruel farming practices."49 Seeing such a dramatic contrast, I am reminded of the words of one of our world's great moral leaders, Mahatma Gandhi, who said, "The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated." Fortunately, there are voices within the U.S. meat industry who understand the wisdom of the direction the Europeans are taking. Rather than resisting the public's growing awareness, they say, it would be good business to take animal protection issues seriously. In 1999, the journal Feedstuffs carried a remarkably insightful piece titled, "Agribusiness Wise to Consider Animal Welfare," which stated, "The United States has lagged far behind other civilized countries in regard to faun animal welfare.

In the heart of our grief we can find our connection to each other, and our ability to act. Our strength lies in our kinship with life. Our power lies in our deepest human responses. Our power does not lie in looking the other way. Through history there have always been people who have chosen to be vegetarians because they did not feel it was right to kill animals for food when it was not necessary, when there was other nourishing food available. People like Mahatma Gandhi, Albert Einstein, and countless others have been ethical vegetarians for just such reasons. But today, because of the way animals are raised for market, the question of whether or not it's ethical to eat meat has a whole new meaning and a whole new urgency. Never before have animals been treated like this. Never before has such deep, unrelenting, and systematic cruelty been mass produced. Never before have the choices of each individual been so important.


pages: 215 words: 60,489

1947: Where Now Begins by Elisabeth Åsbrink

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, trade route

Der Weg has always supported the Arabs in their struggle for freedom and their just combat against the forces of darkness embodied by world Jewry, which have dared to rob the Palestinian Arabs of their forefathers’ ancestral homeland and to steal their property. Sirs, may you continue the struggle for justice with undiminished strength, and may it be crowned with success. New Delhi After evening prayers at home in Birla House, people gather to receive spiritual guidance. Mahatma Gandhi again speaks of the catastrophe that is still unfolding, the agony of India, partition, and the violence against women. He often speaks of women, of those who are being abducted and raped to death. This evening, his address concerns those who have been enslaved but survived, those who have returned without noses or arms, with humiliating words carved into their foreheads and bodies. We must welcome them back, he repeats again and again on this warm evening of December 26.

“The book is published by Karl-Heinz Priester of Wiesbaden…” Through the Eyes of the Mufti: the essays of Haj Amin, reviewed by Wolfgang G Schwanitz, at www.spme.org/​book-reviews/​book-review-through-the-eyes-of-the-mufti-the-essays-of-haj-amin. “According to information obtained by the Swedish Security Service, he works at the Ministry of Propaganda, organizing propaganda against Israel.” Swedish Security Service, file on von Leers, PM 8/10 1956. Der Weg’s tenth anniversary. Der Weg, No. 7/8, 1956. Gandhi’s speech of December 26, 1947. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, GandhiServe Foundation. The past is never dead. It’s not even past. — William Faulkner


pages: 196 words: 58,886

Ten Myths About Israel by Ilan Pappe

British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, WikiLeaks

However, even if this was true, it might have been possible to find a solution that was not restricted to the biblical map and that did not dispossess the Palestinians. This position was voiced by a quite a few well-known personalities, such as Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. These commentators tried to suggest that the Palestinians should be asked to provide a safe haven for persecuted Jews alongside the native population, not in place of it. But the Zionist movement regarded such proposals as heresy. The difference between settling alongside the native people and simply displacing them was recognized by Mahatma Gandhi when he was asked by the Jewish philosopher, Martin Buber, to lend his support to the Zionist project. In 1938, Buber had been asked by Ben-Gurion to put pressure on several well-known moral figures to show their public support for Zionism.


The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable by Amitav Ghosh

Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, carbon footprint, Donald Trump, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning

This is indeed the essence of humanity’s present derangement. 9 Imperialism was not, however, the only obstacle in Asia’s path to industrialization: this model of economy also met with powerful indigenous resistances of many different kinds. While it is true that industrial capitalism met with resistance on every continent, not least Europe, what is distinctive in the case of Asia is that the resistance was often articulated and championed by figures of extraordinary moral and political authority, such as Mahatma Gandhi. Among Gandhi’s best-known pronouncements on industrial capitalism are these famous lines written in 1928: ‘God forbid that India should ever take to industrialism after the manner of the West. If an entire nation of 300 millions [sic] took to similar economic exploitation, it would strip the world bare like locusts.’ This quote is striking because of the directness with which it goes to the heart of the matter: numbers.

A philosopher of this tradition, in responding to the argument that the moral imperative of climate change comes from the need to save the millions of lives in Asia, Africa, and elsewhere, might well quote David Hume: ‘’Tis not contrary to reason to prefer the destruction of the whole world to the scratching of my finger.’ Climate activists’ appeals to morality will not necessarily find much support here. Last, we already know, from the example of Mahatma Gandhi, that the industrial, carbon-intensive economy cannot be fought by a politics of sincerity. Gandhi invested himself, body and soul, in the effort to prevent India from adopting the Western, industrial model of economy. Drawing on many different traditions, he articulated and embodied a powerful vision of renunciatory politics; no reporter would have had the gall to ask him what he had sacrificed; his entire political career was based upon the idea of sacrifice.


pages: 375 words: 109,675

Railways & the Raj: How the Age of Steam Transformed India by Christian Wolmar

Beeching cuts, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial rule, James Dyson, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, Ponzi scheme, railway mania, strikebreaker, trade route, women in the workforce

They are often the first casualties of war since blowing up a line or causing a train to crash are relatively easy acts of sabotage with widespread consequences, as demonstrated by the activities of modern terrorists who routinely attack trains and stations. The fears of the British, therefore, may have been somewhat exaggerated as most Indians either supported or were indifferent to the advent of the railways, but they were well-founded. As we shall see in Chapter 7, Mahatma Gandhi, the leader of the Indian independence movement, made great play of the role of the railways as an instrument of imperial repression and was, at times, openly hostile to them. THREE CONTROLLING THE RAILWAYS WHILE THE GENEROUS arrangements that guaranteed the companies a rate of return may have been necessary to kick-start construction in the early days, they were neither sustainable nor practical in the long term.

The arrangement, which began in 1886, lasted for seven years and, as Ian Kerr points out, was an ‘ironic effort’: ‘The English firm that pioneered tourist travel (including the use of railways for excursions) in its modern form, a Christian firm (Thomas Cook was devout) headquartered in London, had been given the task of facilitating the performance of the hajj by South-Asian Moslems.’16 Thomas Cook’s involvement petered out when fewer pilgrims sought to use the company’s services. The privations of the journey did not prevent a significant increase in the numbers travelling to pay their respects to the gods once they were able to travel by train. The railways gave an opportunity for hundreds of thousands of new pilgrims, but, as we have seen, the companies made little effort to make the journeys of these pilgrims bearable. Mahatma Gandhi, in fact, was rather scathing about these new pilgrims, suggesting that, without going through the hardship of a long walk or journey on a bullock cart, the experience of worship was degraded. This seemed rather unfair. Holy places were now able to attract the old and the infirm who would not have been able to travel on the arduous roads. More women, too, became pilgrims because the trip took less time, ensuring they could return to their domestic duties more quickly, and because they could travel more safely.

In terms of action, the strike was amazingly successful. Most of the network ground to a halt, stations were empty, goods trains held up for lengthy periods and few passenger services operated. However, the reaction of the government was uncompromising. Nehru’s daughter, the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi (she had taken the name of her husband, Feroze Gandhi, born Gandhy, who was not related to Mahatma Gandhi), reacted strongly, arresting 30,000 railway workers under emergency preventative detention laws, and at least four protesting railway workers were killed during battles with the police. The strike was undermined by the use of strikebreakers from the Railway Territorial Army. This was an organization that had been created out of the Railway Volunteers, the not-so voluntary force of Europeans and Eurasians which, as mentioned in Chapter 6, Kipling had seen being trained.


pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

But during the 1950s and 1960s the governments of the United States, Britain and France realised that it could have power beyond their borders as well, and they began to wield it as a weapon in their foreign policy arsenal. They were worried about the progressive ideas that were bubbling up across the global South in the aftermath of colonialism. The leaders of the new independent nations were rejecting Truman’s story about global inequality. Drawing on insights from thinkers such as Karl Marx, Aimé Césaire and Mahatma Gandhi, they pointed out that underdevelopment in the global South was not a natural condition, but a consequence of the way Western powers had organised the world system over hundreds of years. They wanted to change the rules of the global economy to make it fairer for the world’s majority. They wanted to stop foreigners from plundering their resources, to take control of their own abundant raw materials and to build their own industries without Western interference.

The progressive political parties that began to take control in Europe after the Second World War had little appetite for colonialism as it conflicted with the growing discourse on equality, national sovereignty and human rights.9 Indeed, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the United Nations a few years after the war ended. Europe’s colonial subjects, who had committed immense resources and millions of troops essential to the success of the war effort, wondered why they too shouldn’t benefit from this new regime and receive equal rights alongside Europeans. Anti-colonial thinkers like Mahatma Gandhi and Marcus Garvey had been sowing the idea of independence for a number of decades, and in the middle of the century it began to bear fruit. After waves of powerful civil disobedience, the British finally withdrew from India in 1947. France retreated from Syria and Lebanon, and a revolution in Egypt put an end to British occupation in 1952. Five years later, Ghana won independence and set off a wave of decolonisation across British Africa.

While I too wrote mostly on the side, tending by day to my research and teaching obligations at the London School of Economics, this book ended up taking much longer than three months. Still, I owe Galeano for giving me the foolish courage to try. I also owe many others. To this day, when I sit down to re-read Aimé Césaire’s Discourse on Colonialism, I can’t help but feel that he said in 1950 everything that I have tried to say in this book, everything that has bubbled within me for so long, only more brilliantly. So too with figures like Frantz Fanon, Mahatma Gandhi, Walter Rodney, Julius Nyerere, and many others. And then there are those who said more with their lives than with their words – who risked everything in the struggle for a fairer world, and were killed for their efforts. From Patrice Lumumba to Salvadore Allende, all the way up to Berta Cáceres – I count them among my ancestors. They continue to guide and inspire me. Each chapter that appears in this book draws on thinkers and writers much greater than myself: Raúl Prebisch, Andre Gunder Frank, Gernot Köhler, Samir Amin, Sanjay Reddy, Frances Moore Lappé, Thomas Pogge, Peter Edward, David Woodward, Lant Pritchett, Mike Davis, Immanuel Wallerstein, Ellen Wood, David Harvey, Naomi Klein, Susan George, William Easterly, Joseph Stiglitz, Ha-Joon Chang, Nicholas Shaxson, Fred Pearce, Bill McKibben, David Graeber, Herman Daly, Vandana Shiva, and countless others whose names appear in the text and the notes.


pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

Heroes do what is good, just and right, and even though they may be ambiguous or flawed characters they often sacrifice themselves to show humanity at its best and most humane (www.filmsite.org/afi100 heroesvilla.html) Three British characters feature in the top 50: James Bond (Dr No); T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia); and Robin Hood (The Adventures of Robin Hood). Six British actors feature in the top 50: Sean Connery (James Bond, Dr No); Peter O’Toole (T. E. Lawrence, Lawrence of Arabia); Liam Neeson (Oskar Schindler, Schindler’s List); Ben Kingsley (Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi); Alec Guinness (Obi-Wan Kenobi, Star Wars); and Charlie Chaplin (The Tramp, City Lights). Oddly, only two of these roles are about genuinely British heroes from national history and literature: James Bond and T. E. Lawrence. Moreover, 134 BRIT-MYTH the actors employed to play them have an ambivalent relationship to British national identity. Sean Connery, the most famous Bond, is a prominent Scottish nationalist.

O’Toole was born and raised in Leeds; however, he holds an Irish passport and although resident in London for most of his life he has used his Irish heritage colourfully to signal distance from the sober values of the British. The remaining four British actors in Hollywood’s top six may bring national qualities to their performances, but the parts that they play are not heroes purported to distil the essence of British national life. Neeson, a Northern Irishman, plays Oskar Schindler, an ethnic German born in Austro-Hungary, with a Londonderry air of calculated insouciance and noblesse oblige; Kingsley’s Mahatma Gandhi is a scourge of the British in India; Alec Guinness’s Obi-Wan Kenobi is a creation of science fiction; and the Tramp, portrayed by Lambeth-born Charlie Chaplin, is a representation of the romantic, urban everyman. These actors aren’t portraying British characters. Nonetheless, their interpretation of the roles is recognized by audiences as bringing something recognizably heroic and British to the films.


pages: 215 words: 64,460

Shadows of Empire: The Anglosphere in British Politics by Michael Kenny, Nick Pearce

battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, corporate governance, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, informal economy, invention of the telegraph, Khartoum Gordon, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Nixon shock, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, trade route, Washington Consensus

Churchill was known as somebody ready to advocate military action by Britain to defend its imperial interests and willing to break with mainstream orthodoxy in defending such a stance. He urged a firm military response during the 1920s in the face of the growing nationalist movement in India, a position that was seen as defying credibility in official circles. And in 1931 he reacted with fury to the news of negotiations between the viceroy of India and Mahatma Gandhi for a political truce after the latter had launched a campaign of civil disobedience. In an address to the Council of the West Essex Unionist Association, he declared: It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr. Gandhi, an Inner Temple lawyer, now become a seditious fakir of a type well known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Palace, while he is still organizing and conducting a defiant campaign of civil disobedience. … The truth is that Gandhi-ism and all it stands for will have to be grappled with and finally crushed.6 These diehard motifs were important elements in his thinking about India in particular, and the British Empire more generally, but they were not the whole story.7 Churchill also held with some consistency to several key principles that tended to shape his various judgements about the imperial situations and issues with which he engaged.

Notes 1  Winston Churchill, A History of the English-Speaking Peoples (London: Folio Society, 2002). 2  See, for instance, Daniel Hannan, How We Invented Freedom and Why it Matters (London: Head of Zeus, 2013). 3  Srdjan Vucetic, The Anglosphere: A Genealogy of a Racialized Identity in International Relations (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011). 4  William Roger Louis, Speak for England: Leo Amery and the British Empire in the Age of Churchill (London: I. B. Tauris, 2013). 5  Richard Toye, Churchill's Empire: The World that Made Him and the World he Made (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2015). 6  ‘The “half-naked”, “seditious fakir”, Mahatma Gandhi's Writings, Philosophy, Audio, Video and Photographs, www.mkgandhi.org/students/thiswasbapu/144halfnakedfakir.htm. 7  Churchill's role in the Bengal famine of 1943 has long been the subject of considerable historical controversy and has been raised most recently by Shashi Tharoor, in ‘The ugly Briton’, Time, 29 November 2010; http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2031992,00.html. 8  Peter Clarke, The Locomotive of War: Money, Power, Empire and Guilt (London: Bloomsbury, 2017). 9  Chris Schoeman, Churchill's South Africa: Travels during the Anglo-Boer War (London: Zebra Press, 2014). 10  Carroll Kilpatrick, Mahan's foremost disciples, VQR: A National Journal of Literature & Discussion, 93/3 (2017), www.vqronline.org/mahan%E2%80%99s-foremost-disciples. 11  For a balanced discussion of his subsequently notorious views, see Toye, Churchill's Empire, p. 145. 12  John Ramsden, Man of the Century: Winston Churchill and the Legend since 1945 (London: HarperCollins, 2002); and John Charmley, Churchill: The End of Glory (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1993). 13  Christopher Hitchens, Blood, Class and Nostalgia: Anglo-American Ironies (London: Vintage, 1991), pp. 203–4. 14  Benn Steil, The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2014), p. 332. 15  John Darwin, The Empire Project (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011). 16  Charmley, Churchill. 17  Ramsden, Man of the Century, p. 508.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, twin studies, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

The driver, a well-known bigot named James Blake, told her to use the rear and started to push her off the bus. Parks asked him not to touch her. She would leave on her own, she said quietly. “Get off my bus,” Blake sputtered in response. Parks complied, but not before deliberately dropping her purse on her way out and sitting on a “white” seat as she picked it up. “Intuitively, she had engaged in an act of passive resistance, a precept named by Leo Tolstoy and embraced by Mahatma Gandhi,” writes the historian Douglas Brinkley in a wonderful biography of Parks. It was more than a decade before King popularized the idea of nonviolence and long before Parks’s own training in civil disobedience, but, Brinkley writes, “such principles were a perfect match for her own personality.” Parks was so disgusted by Blake that she refused to ride his bus for the next twelve years. On the day she finally did, the day that turned her into the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement,” she got back on that bus, according to Brinkley, only out of sheer absentmindedness.

But it’s my painting, and when somebody says, ‘Why don’t you use more red instead of blue?’ Good-bye. It’s my painting. And I don’t care what they sell it for. The painting itself will never be finished. That’s one of the great things about it.” Part Three DO ALL CULTURES HAVE AN EXTROVERT IDEAL? 8 SOFT POWER Asian-Americans and the Extrovert Ideal In a gentle way, you can shake the world. —MAHATMA GANDHI It’s a sunny spring day in 2006, and Mike Wei, a seventeen-year-old Chinese-born senior at Lynbrook High School near Cupertino, California, is telling me about his experiences as an Asian-American student. Mike is dressed in sporty all-American attire of khakis, windbreaker, and baseball cap, but his sweet, serious face and wispy mustache give him the aura of a budding philosopher, and he speaks so softly that I have to lean forward to hear him.

Experience has taught me that silence is part of the spiritual discipline of a votary of truth. We find so many people impatient to talk. All this talking can hardly be said to be of any benefit to the world. It is so much waste of time. My shyness has been in reality my shield and buckler. It has allowed me to grow. It has helped me in my discernment of truth. Soft power is not limited to moral exemplars like Mahatma Gandhi. Consider, for example, the much-ballyhooed excellence of Asians in fields like math and science. Professor Ni defines soft power as “quiet persistence,” and this trait lies at the heart of academic excellence as surely as it does in Gandhi’s political triumphs. Quiet persistence requires sustained attention—in effect restraining one’s reactions to external stimuli. The TIMSS exam (Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) is a standardized math and science test given every four years to kids around the world.


pages: 425 words: 116,409

Hidden Figures by Margot Lee Shetterly

affirmative action, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, New Journalism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, éminence grise

The US government went so far as to restrict or revoke these firebrands’ passports, hoping to blunt the impact of their criticism of American domestic policy in the newly independent countries that the United States was eager to persuade to join its side in the Cold War. Foreigners who traveled to the United States often experienced the caste system firsthand. In 1947, a Mississippi hotel denied service to the Haitian secretary of agriculture, who had come to the state to attend an international conference. The same year, a restaurant in the South banned Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi’s personal doctor from its premises because of his dark skin. Diplomats traveling from New York to Washington along Route 40 were often rejected if they stopped for a meal at restaurants in Maryland. The humiliations, so commonplace in the United States that they barely raised eyebrows, much less the interest of the press, were the talk of the town in the envoys’ home countries. Headlines like “Untouchability Banished in India: Worshipped in America,” which appeared in a Bombay newspaper in 1951, mortified the US diplomatic corps.

On the third day, sixty students converged upon the Woolworth’s, and by the fourth, three hundred had joined the demonstration. Participating were students from Bennett College, an all-black women’s college in Greensboro, as well as white students from Guilford College and the Women’s College of the University of North Carolina. Within a week, the protests, inspired by the nonviolent actions of India’s Mahatma Gandhi, spread to other cities in North Carolina, and then crossed the borders into Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. The students started calling their protests “sit-downs” or “sit-ins.” The prison sentences that often attended their activism did nothing to quell their ardor. “Dear Mom and Dad: I am writing this letter tonight from a cell in the Greensboro jail. I was arrested this afternoon when I went into a lily-white lunch room and sat down . . .” wrote a young Portsmouth woman who attended North Carolina A&T.

Joanne Cavanaugh Simpson, “Sound Reasoning,” Hopkins Magazine, September 2003. 102 Eastman Jacobs, known for his left-leaning sympathies: 102 hours questioning Pearl Young: Pearl Young interview. 102 “New York communist people”: Ibid. 102 “practically impossible New York Jews”: Ibid. 102 caused a scandal: Ibid. 102 a “black computer”: Sugenia Johnson interview. 102 Air Scoop published a long list of organizations: “List of groups compiled in Connection with Employees Loyalty Program,” Air Scoop, October 26, 1951. 103 denied service to the Haitian secretary of agriculture: Mary Dudziak, Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 871. 103 Mahatma Gandhi’s personal doctor: Ibid., 878. 104 “Untouchability Banished in India: Worshipped in America”: Ibid., 755. 104 At the start of the Korean War: “The Beginnings of a New Era for African Americans in the Armed Services,” State of New Jersey, http://www.nj.gov/military/korea/factsheets/afroamer.html. 104 were called up: “Tan Yanks Face Action in Korea,” Norfolk Journal and Guide, July 8, 1950. 104 “The laboratory has one work unit composed entirely of Negro women”: Johnson, “Fair Employment.” 105 science textbooks and racial harmony: Walter McDougall, The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History of the Space Age (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), 8. 105 Christine Richie: Christine Richie, personal interview, July 20, 2014. 105 through the college grapevine: Elizabeth Kittrell Taylor, personal interview, July 12, 2014.


pages: 297 words: 69,467

Dreyer's English: An Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style by Benjamin Dreyer

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, elephant in my pajamas, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Jane Jacobs, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities

His surname is correctly rendered “Du Bois” and not (as for Tennessee Williams’s Blanche) “DuBois.” And it’s pronounced not “doo-BWAH” (which would be correct for Blanche) but “doo-BOYZ.” T. S. ELIOT Person ultimately responsible for Cats. This is your reminder always to look up Eliots, Elyots, Elliots, and Elliotts. PHILEAS FOGG Hero of Jules Verne’s La tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours, a.k.a. Around the World in Eighty Days. Not “Phineas.” MAHATMA GANDHI Nonviolent revolutionary. Born Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. “Mahatma,” by the way, isn’t a name per se. It’s a Sanskrit honorific, meaning “great soul.” All that taken into account, the surname is not “Ghandi,” as it’s misspelled with dismaying frequency. THEODOR GEISEL A.k.a. Dr. Seuss. Cat in the Hat creator. Not a Theodore with a second e.*6 There are more Theodors out there than one might at first imagine, including the philosopher surnamed Adorno and the Zionist surnamed Herzl.*7 ALLEN GINSBERG Beat poet.

If I’ve inspired you to give it an extra thought every time you’re about to write or say the words “only” and “just,” I feel I’ve done my job. *2  Copy editor’s addendum: “For me, it was candles ‘guttering’ and ‘tang’ used for smell; both were used so often in literary fiction, I’d begun to think they were handed out with the MFA.” *3  Also, in no particular order, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Voltaire, Mahatma Gandhi, and (impudently and absurdly, given how easily traceable every word he ever wrote is) William Shakespeare. *4  “The very existence of self-help books is all the evidence you need that they don’t work,” a former colleague of mine once quipped—perhaps more cleverly than truthfully, but the quip business is built more on rat-a-tat effectiveness than on strict accuracy. *5  Did You Know?


From the Ruins of Empire: The Intellectuals Who Remade Asia by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, financial innovation, invention of the telegraph, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, young professional

Interestingly, al-Afghani did not speak of pan-Islamism to the Indian Muslim intelligentsia, which was growing conscious of its echoes around the Muslim world; he seemed aware that India’s large non-Muslim population could also be harnessed to his anti-imperialist cause. This was shrewd. As it turned out, Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan’s political influence over Indian Muslims would fade, and the more vigorous campaign in support of the Ottoman caliphate would come in the early 1920s in the form of a countrywide agitation – the first major mass movement of Muslim India – backed by the great Hindu leader, Mahatma Gandhi. As Akbar Illahabadi would write, explaining the joint campaign for the caliphate by Gandhi and the Indian Muslim leader Maulana Muhammad Ali: ‘Maulana has not blundered, nor has Gandhi hatched conspiracies / What blows them on the same course is the gale of Western policies.’94 Al-Afghani may have anticipated this nationalist moment by stressing the need for Hindu-Muslim unity in India. In the same vein, he also argued that linguistic ties were more profound than religious ones (a lesson Pakistan was to learn when the Bengali-speaking Muslims in East Pakistan seceded to form Bangladesh in 1971).

Ashis Nandy writes about Aurobindo with characteristic sensitivity in The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism (New Delhi, 1988). See also the chapter by Sugata Bose, ‘The Spirit and Form of an Ethical Policy: A Meditation on Aurobindo’s Thought’, in An Intellectual History for India (Delhi, 2010) edited by Shruti Kapila. The Aurobindo Ashram’s website has all his prose works in easily downloadable PDF format. And B. Parekh’s Colonialism, Tradition and Reform (London, 1989) and Dennis Dalton, Mahatma Gandhi: Non-Violent Power in Action (New York, 2000) still stand out from among the mass of books on this subject. 6. ASIA REMADE John D. Pierson’s Tokutomi Soh, 1863 – 1957: A Journalist for Modern Japan is an excellent introduction to Japan’s geopolitical trajectory in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Shogo Suzuki’s Civilization and Empire: China and Japan’s Encounter with European International Society (New York, 2009) analyses how Japan’s socialization into the European system of states was inevitably tainted with violence.

Metzger’s Escape from Predicament: Neo-Confucianism and China’s Evolving Political Culture (New York, 1986) is a provocative look at the Confucian underpinnings of Communist China. On the Confucian revival, see Daniel Bell, China’s New Confucianism: Politics and Everyday Life in a Changing Society (Princeton, 2008). Notes PROLOGUE 1 Quoted in Rotem Kowner (ed.), The Impact of the Russo-Japanese War (London, 2006), p. 20. 2 Gandhi, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. 4, http://www.gandhiserve.org/cwmg/VOL004.PDF, p. 470. 3 Jawaharlal Nehru, Autobiography (1936; repr. edn New Delhi, 1989), p. 16. 4 Ibid., p.18. 5 Marius B. Jansen, The Japanese and Sun Yat-sen (Princeton, 1970), p. 117. 6 John D. Pierson, Tokutomi Soh 1863 – 1957: A Journalist for Modern Japan (Princeton, 1980), p. 143. 7 Ibid., p. 279. 8 Benoy Kumar Sarkar, ‘The futurism of young Asia’, International Journal of Ethics, 28, 4 (July 1918), p. 536. 9 Quoted in Cemil Aydin, The Politics of Anti- Westernism: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought (New York, 2007), p. 76. 10 Quoted in Kowner (ed.), Impact of the Russo-Japanese War, p. 242. 11 Philip Short, Mao: A Life (London, 2004), p. 37. 12 Ibid., p. 38. 13 Kowner (ed.), Impact of the Russo-Japanese War, p. 230. 14 Sun Yat-sen, ‘Pan-Asianism’, China and Japan: Natural Friends – Unnatural Enemies (Shanghai, 1941), p. 143. 15 Gandhi, Collected Works, vol. 4, p. 471. 1.


pages: 649 words: 185,618

The Zionist Ideas: Visions for the Jewish Homeland—Then, Now, Tomorrow by Gil Troy

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, demand response, different worldview, European colonialism, financial independence, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Silicon Valley, union organizing, urban planning, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

If we want to be nothing but normal, we shall soon cease to be at all. The great values we have produced issued from the marriage of a people and a faith. We cannot substitute a technical association of nation and religion for this original marriage, without incurring barrenness. The values of Israel cannot be reborn outside the sphere of this union and its uniqueness. . . . An Open Letter to Mahatma Gandhi (1939) You, Mahatma Gandhi, who know of the connection between tradition and future, should not associate yourself with those who pass over our cause without understanding or sympathy. But you say—and I consider it to be the most significant of all the things you tell us—that Palestine belongs to the Arabs and that it is therefore “wrong and inhuman to impose the Jews on the Arabs.” . . . I belong to a group of people who from the time Britain conquered Palestine have not ceased to strive for the concluding of a genuine peace between Jew and Arab. . . .

“At the Inauguration of the Hebrew University (1925)” reproduced from The Zionist Idea, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, by permission of the University of Nebraska Press, copyright © 1997 Arthur Hertzberg (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society), 281–87. Berdichevski, Micah Joseph “Wrecking and Building,” “In Two Directions,” and “On Sanctity” all reproduced from The Zionist Idea, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, by permission of the University of Nebraska Press, copyright © 1997 Arthur Hertzberg (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society), 293–94, 295–96, and 293–94. Buber, Martin “Hebrew Humanism” and “An Open Letter to Mahatma Gandhi” both reproduced from The Zionist Idea, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, by permission of the University of Nebraska Press, copyright © 1997 Arthur Hertzberg (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society), 453–56 and 463–65. Schechter, Solomon “Zionism: A Statement” from Seminary Addresses and Other Papers, translated by Arthur Hertzberg (New York: 1915), reproduced from The Zionist Idea, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, by permission of the University of Nebraska Press, copyright © 1997 Arthur Hertzberg (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society), 91–104, 504–13.

In The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 517–22. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1959, 1997. Brenner, Joseph Hayyim. “Self-Criticism (1914).” In The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 307–13. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1959, 1997. Buber, Martin. “Hebrew Humanism” and “An Open Letter to Mahatma Gandhi.” In The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader, edited by Arthur Hertzberg, 453–56 and 463–65. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1959, 1997. Central Conference of American Rabbis. “A Statement of Principles for Reform Judaism,” May 1999. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/reform-judaism-modern-statement-of-principles-1999; “The Columbus Platform,” 1937. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/the-columbus-platform-1937; “A Centenary Perspective,” 1976. http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/100.htm.


pages: 1,088 words: 297,362

The London Compendium by Ed Glinert

1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nick Leeson, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket

The station closed in 1990 when the tunnel under Snow Hill was reopened and a new station, the clumsily named City Thameslink, was built a little further to the south to cater for trains running between Bedford and Brighton. City Temple, Holborn Viaduct at Shoe Lane Built in 1874, City Temple became the leading centre for Nonconformity in nineteenth-century London and was run by the Revd Joseph Parker, a radical firebrand whose telegraphic address was simply ‘Preacher, London’, who attracted the young Mahatma Gandhi to services. In the 1920s two of the first million-selling records, Master Ernest Luff’s ‘O for the Wings of a Dove’ and the Temple choir’s version of Mendelssohn’s ‘Hear My Prayer’, were recorded at the church. Martin Luther King Jnr spoke at City Temple about racial tyranny in December 1964 before going to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. St Andrew Rebuilt by Christopher Wren from 1684 to 1690 with a double-storeyed Portland stone exterior to frame what is his largest parish church, St Andrew was originally a wooden Saxon church, first mentioned in 951, and was where in 1808 the essayist William Hazlitt was married, his best man, the essayist Charles Lamb, having to be restrained several times from bursting out laughing.

Past members include the Elizabethan courtier Sir Walter Ralegh, the diarist John Evelyn, the playwright William Congreve and the novelists Henry Fielding, William Makepeace Thackeray and John Buchan. The Inner Temple lies further east and its sites are decorated with the winged horse, Pegasus. Past members include Dr Johnson’s biographer James Boswell, the playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the librettist W. S. Gilbert, Dracula author Bram Stoker and the Indian leaders Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. There are helpful maps on the walls (one by the porch on Middle Temple Lane and one by Carpmael Buildings), marked with sites of mostly literary interest. Inner Temple Lane Temple Church The first Gothic church to be built in London, erected between 1160 and 1185 in the style of the Church of the Sepulchre in Jerusalem, and consecrated by Heraclius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, in 1185, Temple Church was where in the thirteenth century initiation rites welcoming newcomers into the order of the Knights Templar, the warrior monks after whom the Temple is named, took place.

Tavistock Square Built in 1820 by Thomas Cubitt, the first London builder to use a permanent workforce, who was responsible for constructing parts of Barnsbury, Belgravia and Stoke Newington, and once a quiet residential enclave, Tavistock Square is now part of the main route between Holborn and Euston, dominated by the grotesque brickwork of the British Medical Association’s headquarters. It stands on the site of the house where Charles Dickens lived from 1851 to 1860 and wrote Bleak House (1853), Hard Times (1854), Little Dorrit (1857) and parts of A Tale of Two Cities (1859). The gardens opposite contain a memorial stone dedicated to conscientious objectors, unveiled by the composer Michael Tippett in 1994, and a statue of the Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi designed by the Polish born artist Fredda Brilliant. (ii) around the British Museum Bedford Square Bloomsbury’s oldest complete Georgian square, spoilt by over-zealous pedestrianization, Bedford Square was financed by the money that flowed into London after the 1763 Peace of Paris, a treaty which recognized the independence of the American colonies and, according to the 4th Duke of Bedford, ‘excited a rage for building’.


pages: 237 words: 74,966

The Sociopath Next Door by Martha Stout

Albert Einstein, estate planning, long peace, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, twin studies

Conscience protects the privileges of intimacy, makes friends keep their promises, prevents the angered spouse from striking back. It induces the exhausted doctor to pick up the phone for his frightened patient at three in the morning. It blows whistles against institutions when lives are endangered. It takes to the streets to protest a war. Conscience is what makes the human rights worker risk her very life. When it is combined with surpassing moral courage, it is Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi. In small and large ways, genuine conscience changes the world. Rooted in emotional connectedness, it teaches peace and opposes hatred and saves children. It keeps marriages together and cleans up rivers and feeds dogs and gives gentle replies. It makes individual lives better and increases human dignity overall. It is real and compelling, and it would make us crawl out of our skin if we devastated our neighbor.

Beginning in our genes and spiraling outward to all of our cultures, beliefs, and many religions, it is the shadow of the whisper of the beginning of an understanding that we are all one. And whatever its origins, this is the essence of conscience. The_Sociopath_Next_Door TEN bernie's choice: why conscience is better Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. —Mahatma Gandhi If you could be completely free of conscience—no moral scruples and no guilt at all—what do you think you would do with your life? When I ask people this question, as I often have, the typical response is, “Oh wow,” or “Oh my goodness,” followed by a silence during which they wrinkle their faces in mental effort, as if someone had asked them a question in a language they only half-understood.


pages: 240 words: 73,209

The Education of a Value Investor: My Transformative Quest for Wealth, Wisdom, and Enlightenment by Guy Spier

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Nelson Mandela, NetJets, pattern recognition, pre–internet, random walk, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, winner-take-all economy, young professional, zero-sum game

If so, it stands to reason that I should make a conscious effort to have the best possible people in my social networks. At first, I approached this idea in a calculated and self-serving manner, hoping that my attempts to build “social capital” would lead me to greater financial and professional success. But the relationships that I began to form were so life enriching that my cynical motives gradually receded. I’m not saying that I’m Mahatma Gandhi. But my deepening bonds with great people became a source of such sincere joy to me that I no longer needed any hidden agenda: these friendships became a wonderful end in themselves, not a means to self-advancement. Serendipitously, I’m writing these words in the Delamar Greenwich Harbor Hotel in Connecticut—the very place where I had my first dinner with Mohnish a decade ago, on February 11, 2004.

Or, A Good Hard Look at Wall Street by Fred Schwed Your Money and Your Brain: How the New Science of Neuroeconomics Can Help Make You Rich by Jason Zweig Literature 100 Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Hamlet by William Shakespeare Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values by Robert Pirsig Miscellaneous Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with the Truth by Mahatma Gandhi City Police by Jonathan Rubinstein Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage by Alfred Lansing Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela by Nelson Mandela Metaphors We Live By by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson Reagan: A Life in Letters by Ronald Reagan The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right by Atul Gawande The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The New British Constitution by Vernon Bogdanor The Power of Myth by Joseph Campbell with Bill Moyers Vor 1914: Erinnerungen an Frankfurt geschrieben in Israel by Selmar Spier Walden: or, Life in the Woods by Henry David Thoreau Why America Is Not a New Rome by Vaclav Smil Philosophy and Theology A Theory of Justice by John Rawls Anarchy, the State, and Utopia by Robert Nozick Destination Torah: Reflections on the Weekly Torah Readings by Isaac Sassoon Halakhic Man by Joseph Soloveitchik Letters from a Stoic by Lucius Annaeus Seneca Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl Meditations by Marcus Aurelius Pirke Avot: A Modern Commentary on Jewish Ethics by Leonard Kravits and Kerry Olitzky Plato, not Prozac!


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

India is still poor, but it’s growing at a feverish pace, and Bangalore, India’s fifth-largest city, is among the subcontinent’s greatest success stories. Bangalore’s wealth comes not from industrial might (although it still makes plenty of textiles) but from its strength as a city of ideas. By concentrating so much talent in one place, Bangalore makes it easier for that talent to teach itself and for outsiders, whether from Singapore or Silicon Valley, to connect easily with Indian human capital. Echoing antiurbanites throughout the ages, Mahatma Gandhi said that “the true India is to be found not in its few cities, but in its 700,000 villages” and “the growth of the nation depends not on cities, but [on] its villages.” The great man was wrong. India’s growth depends almost entirely on its cities. There is a near-perfect correlation between urbanization and prosperity across nations. On average, as the share of a country’s population that is urban rises by 10 percent, the country’s per capita output increases by 30 percent.

Galarneau, Diane, and René Morissette. “Immigrants’ Education and Required Job Skills.” Statistics Canada, Perspectives, Dec. 2008, www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2008112/pdf/10766-eng.pdf. Galatas, Roger, and Jim Barlow. The Woodlands: The Inside Story of Creating a Better Hometown. Washington, DC: Urban Land Institute, 2004. Galloni, Alessandra. “Miuccia and Me.” Wall Street Journal Magazine, Mar. 2010. Gandhi, Mahatma. Mahatma Gandhi: The Essential Writings, ed. Judith Margaret Brown. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Gans, Herbert J. The Levittowners: Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. Gari, L. “Arabic Treatises on Environmental Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century.” Environment and History 8, no. 4 (2002): 475-88. Gaspar, Jess, and Edward L.

“Theme Park Developers Turn Their Attention to Asia, Where Business Is Growing.” New York Times, Dec. 26, 2009, Business/Financial. Koskoff, David E. Joseph P. Kennedy: A Life and Times. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1974. Krueger, Alan B. “How Computers Have Changed the Wage Structure: Evidence from Microdata, 1984-1989.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 108, no. 1 (Feb 1993): 33-60. Kumar, Satish. “The Whole Truth of a Home Economy.” In Mahatma Gandhi: 125 Years, ed. Manmohan Choudhuri and Ramjee Singh. Varanasi, India: Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, Gandhian Institute of Studies, 1995. LaFranchi, Howard. “New Look on the Left Bank in Paris.” Christian Science Monitor, Aug. 14, 1989. Landau, Sarah Brandford, and Carl W. Condit. The Rise of the New York Skyscraper 1865-1913. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. Langley, Monica. Tearing Down the Walls: How Sandy Weill Fought His Way to the Top of the Financial World . . . and Then Nearly Lost It All.


pages: 510 words: 141,188

Bottle of Lies: The Inside Story of the Generic Drug Boom by Katherine Eban

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, global pandemic, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

He didn’t care what anyone thought of him. He relished the ire of the brand-name companies he battled. And then one day in 2001, he made an announcement that attached a whole new set of words to Indian drug makers: iconoclasts, visionaries, saviors. But Dr. Hamied’s story—and the launch of India’s modern-day pharmaceutical industry—really began a century ago, in an ashram. Not just any ashram, but the Sabarmati Ashram founded by Mahatma Gandhi in what today is Ahmedabad, in the western state of Gujarat. From there, India’s most revered activist set about trying to liberate India from British rule, through what became known as the noncooperation movement. Around 1920, Gandhi began urging all Indians to turn their backs on anything British. Civil servants abandoned government posts, Indian students left British-run universities, and civilians stayed home during the Prince of Wales’s visit in November 1921.

Indian companies could make mass quantities of effective drugs at bargain-basement prices, while still following all the good manufacturing practices required by Western regulators. As to how Indian companies could pull off such a feat, Dr. Raghunath Anant Mashelkar, a renowned evangelist for Indian science, advanced a theory: India’s scientists excelled at rethinking old processes and making them more efficient because of their engineering excellence and experience of destitution. The result, said Mashelkar, was “Gandhian innovation.” One of Mahatma Gandhi’s essential tenets held that the inventions of science should be for the public benefit. Because Indians had minimal resources, Mashelkar argued, they had developed a “clever way of doing things” that delivered more benefits to more people at a lower cost. Some still viewed Indian drug companies as bottom-feeders, living off the remnants of painstaking research and innovation. But Mashelkar explained that “affordable” did not necessarily mean “worse.”

The CDC confirmed that she had carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), a “nightmare bacteria” with no known cure, as Thomas Frieden, the CDC’s former director, described it at a news conference. In Nevada, there wasn’t much doctors could do to save the woman. Their bigger concern was saving other patients from the same fate. The hospital immediately set up an isolation room so that the infection wouldn’t spread, and the staff donned masks, gloves, and gowns while caring for the woman. In less than a month, she was dead. What started in Mahatma Gandhi’s ashram as a campaign of Indian self-reliance had morphed into a pharmaceutical rescue mission for the world’s most unfortunate patients. Dr. Hamied’s revolution, as it thundered along, offered generic drug companies the chance to act as global equalizers and make the same cures available to the wealthy and impoverished alike. But what Thakur had first documented on a spreadsheet at Ranbaxy, and what Baker observed in manufacturing plants throughout India, was not the fulfillment of that ideal.


pages: 1,000 words: 247,974

Empire of Cotton: A Global History by Sven Beckert

agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, imperial preference, industrial cluster, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, women in the workforce

For a very long time, in this remarkably diverse, fabulously vibrant, and economically important world of cotton, Europe was nowhere to be found. Europeans had remained marginal to networks of cotton growing, manufacturing, and consumption. Even after they began importing small quantities of cotton cloth during Greek and Roman times, they remained of little importance to the global cotton industry as a whole. People dressed, as they had since the Bronze Age, in clothing made from flax and wool. As Mahatma Gandhi put it, while India supplied Europe with cottons, Europeans themselves “were submerged in barbarism, ignorance and a state of wilderness.”36 Cotton, quite simply, was exotic to Europe. The fiber grew in faraway lands, and many Europeans reportedly imagined cotton as a mixture of a plant and an animal—a “vegetable lamb.” Stories circulated in medieval Europe about little sheep growing on plants, and bending down at night to drink water; other fables told of sheep attached to the ground by low stems.37 Cotton’s first serious incursion into Europe, as in West Africa, was the result of the spread of Islam.

The Commerce and Industries Department reported with some regret of “the difficulty of penetrating too many of the up-country markets, the effects of custom, of caste, of religious beliefs, of the barter system, and so on, has prevented the process from proceeding with the rapidity which it would otherwise have attained.” As late as 1920, there were still about 2.5 million handloom weavers remaining in India. Even Mahatma Gandhi, who made the devastating impact of colonialism on domestic industry a key aspect of his political campaigns, admitted in 1930 that “next to agriculture, hand-weaving is still the largest and most widespread industry throughout the whole of India”—not least because despite all the rapid advances, the capitalist reorganization of the countryside remained far from complete in the early twentieth century.32 If these adjustments did not suffice, weavers tried to reduce the costs of their product by moving production farther into the countryside and giving female household members a more prominent role in production.

And the United States also had its own class of global South capitalists who had, just like their Indian counterparts, accumulated wealth in the trade of raw cotton, ready to move some of it into manufacturing enterprises. The exceptional combination of extensive territory and limited political, economic, and social integration between North and South was the envy of European capitalists—and the first harbinger of the global fate of European cotton manufactures as well.28 The empire strikes back: Mahatma Gandhi visits Lancashire, chatting with British cotton workers, 1931. By 1910, the cotton manufacturing industry of the U.S. South was the world’s third largest, after that of Great Britain and the northern states of the Union. This was an amazing departure. At the end of the Civil War there had been hardly any significant cotton manufacturing in the states of the former Confederacy, and as late as 1879 there were seventeen times as many spindles in the North than in the South.


pages: 285 words: 83,682

The Lies That Bind: Rethinking Identity by Kwame Anthony Appiah

affirmative action, assortative mating, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, four colour theorem, full employment, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, luminiferous ether, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, precariat, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

Talk of identity really takes off in developmental psychology after the Second World War, with the influential work of the psychologist Erik Erikson. In his first book, Childhood and Society, published in 1950, he uses the term in more than one way; crucially, though, he recognizes the importance of social roles and group memberships in shaping one’s sense of self, which he called, in psychoanalytic language, an “ego identity.” Later on, Erikson explored the crises of identity in the lives of Martin Luther and Mahatma Gandhi, and published books with titles like Identity and the Life Cycle (1959), Identity: Youth and Crisis (1968), and Dimensions of a New Identity (1974). Erikson, who grew up in southwest Germany, told a tale of his own origins that sits right at the heart of our contemporary notions. My stepfather was the only professional man (and a highly respected one) in an intensely Jewish small bourgeois family, while I (coming from a racially mixed Scandinavian background) was blond and blue-eyed, and grew flagrantly tall.

Yet, in ways we’ll explore, these contrasting notions of culture are locked together in our concept of Western culture, which many people think defines the identity of modern Western people. In this final chapter, I’m going to talk about culture as a source of identity, and to try to untangle some of our confusions about the culture, both Tylorian and Arnoldian, of what we’ve come to call the West. You may have heard this story: someone asked Mahatma Gandhi what he thought of Western civilization, and he replied: “I think it would be a very good idea.” Like many of the best stories, alas, this one is probably apocryphal; but also like many of the best stories, it has survived because it has the flavor of truth. I have been arguing that many of our thoughts about the identities that define us are misleading, and that we would have a better grasp on the real challenges that face us if we thought about them in new ways.


pages: 286 words: 87,168

Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel

air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income

Instead of pursuing growth for its own sake and hoping that it will magically improve people’s lives, the goal must be to focus on improving people’s lives first and foremost – and if that requires or entails economic growth, then so be it. In other words, organise the economy around the needs of humans and ecology, rather than the other way around. This approach to development has a long history in the global South. It was championed by anti-colonial leaders including Mahatma Gandhi, Patrice Lumumba, Salvador Allende, Julius Nyerere, Thomas Sankara and dozens of other figures who insisted on a human-centred economics, with an emphasis on the principles of justice, welfare and self-sufficiency. But perhaps no one from that era expressed these ideas more succinctly than Frantz Fanon, the revolutionary intellectual from Martinique, when in the 1960s he penned these words that I think continue to resonate today: Come, then, comrades, the European game has finally ended; we must find something different.

Forbes, Philippe Descola, David Abrams, Kofi Klu, Bruno Latour, Suzanne Simard, Murray Bookchin, and Ursula Le Guin. Their works have been signposts along the way. But this list only barely scratches the surface. And I cannot leave out the towering figures whose words – and lives – I find myself returning to over and over again, for grounding and direction: Aimé Césaire, Frantz Fanon, Thomas Sankara, Berta Cáceres, Mahatma Gandhi, Patrice Lumumba, Samir Amin. They guide me as the ancestors. I am also grateful to the students I’ve engaged with while teaching: at Schumacher College, at the London School of Economics, at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, at Goldsmiths and elsewhere. I’ve encountered more than a few classrooms that have expanded my horizons and given me new ways to think and speak. I finished writing this book during the coronavirus lockdown in London.


pages: 475 words: 156,046

When They Go Low, We Go High: Speeches That Shape the World – and Why We Need Them by Philip Collins

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, Copley Medal, Corn Laws, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, invention of the printing press, late capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rosa Parks, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, Torches of Freedom, World Values Survey

An experiment with democracy perhaps even more extraordinary than the formation of the United States began on 15 August 1947. With a brief hiatus under a state of emergency in 1975, this nation of multiple languages and religions found a solvent in democracy. This achievement is owed in no small part to Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru was drawn into active political opposition to the British Raj, inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of an India reborn and his strategy of non-violent non-cooperation with the imperial rulers. In 1919 he joined the Indian National Congress, which was fighting for greater autonomy from the British. During the 1920s and 1930s he was repeatedly imprisoned by the British for civil disobedience. In 1929 he was elected president of the Congress Party. By the end of the Second World War, he had become Gandhi’s designated successor, though they drifted apart on a question of tactics.

Always one to practise what he preached, Aung San himself constantly demonstrated courage – not just the physical sort but the kind that enabled him to speak the truth, to stand by his word, to accept criticism, to admit his faults, to correct his mistakes, to respect the opposition, to parley with the enemy and to let people be the judge of his worthiness as a leader. It is for such moral courage that he will always be loved and respected in Burma – not merely as a warrior hero but as the inspiration and conscience of the nation. The words used by Jawaharlal Nehru to describe Mahatma Gandhi could well be applied to Aung San: ‘The essence of his teaching was fearlessness and truth, and action allied to these, always keeping the welfare of the masses in view.’ Gandhi, that great apostle of non-violence, and Aung San, the founder of a national army, were very different personalities, but as there is an inevitable sameness about the challenges of authoritarian rule anywhere at any time, so there is a similarity in the intrinsic qualities of those who rise up to meet the challenge.

After theological college in Pennsylvania, King received a doctorate from Boston University in 1955, in which year he was recruited to serve as spokesman for the Montgomery Bus Boycott, a campaign to force integration on the buses which had been started a year earlier by Rosa Parks. This led, in time, to a Supreme Court judgement that segregation on transport was unconstitutional. Taking up the presidency of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a position he held until his death, King became the most important of all the leaders of the civil rights movement. Drawing inspiration from his faith and the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr King resisted the calls to demand freedom by any means necessary. For that decision alone, Martin Luther King must be reckoned, in a time of tempest, as one of the greatest of politicians. To demand non-violent resistance and distinctly civil disobedience, seen to best effect in his Letter from a Birmingham Jail, was a historic choice for which Dr King merits the laurels of posterity. The provocation, we have to remember, was severe.


India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Induced demand, inflation targeting, invisible hand, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, obamacare, Pareto efficiency, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, school choice, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban sprawl, working-age population

It is hard to resist the conclusion that the TPDS is ripe for abolition if a more efficient substitute could be found; and this leads to the thought that the objective of ensuring food security would be better achieved by making cash transfers to people, which they could use to buy food in the market. The state could continue with price stabilization via buffer stocks but it could get out of the business of distribution, in which the private sector has a comparative advantage. Up to two-​thirds of government spending on food subsidies could thus be saved and used for other socially desirable purposes. The second pillar of the social protection framework is the Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), initiated by an Act in 2006 and rolled out across the country by 2008.10 It guarantees, S a f e t y N e t s a n d S o ci a l P r o t e c t i o n [ 203 ] 204 as a legislated right, up to 100 days of employment a year to any rural household at a specified minimum wage indexed to the cost of living. The work has to be made available within 15 days of application or the worker becomes entitled (in theory but not in practice) to unemployment benefit.

References [ 335 ] 336 ╇ 337 INDEX Aadhar card, 206, 207, 214, 304 and Aadhar-╉linked bank accounts, 207, 214, 287, 304 administration, see government administration advanced countries (ACs), 53, 65, 97, 129, 132, 141, 145, 188, 202, 255, 257, 262, 263–╉4, 266–╉8, 277, 298 Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), 269, 298 agriculture, 55, 67–╉70, 93, 100–╉4, 121, 126, 141–╉2, 163, 229, 248, 267, 292–╉3, 296, 309 exports, 103 marketing, 101, 293, 309 price controls in, 102 public investment in, 102, 293, 296, 309 reform in, 100–╉4, 292–╉3 share in GDP, 67–╉8 subsidies in, 102–╉3, 293, 296, 309 surplus labour from, 70 trade liberalization in, 103, 267 workers in, 66–╉7 Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMCs), 101 air quality, 124–╉6 ASEAN, 265 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 266, 298 backward states, 29 balance of payments, 22, 139–╉40, 155–╉9, 248–╉50, 254, 259, 299 Bangladesh, 28, 176, 186, 187 Bank Investment Company (BIC), 118, 295 bankruptcy, 7, 97–╉9, 154–╉5, 291, 294 Basel committee on Bank Regulation (BCBR), 258 Basel III standards, 258 basic income, 197, 210–╉15, 216–╉19, 285–╉8, 293, 303–╉4 cost of providing, 216–╉19 recommended magnitude of, 212, 214, 216–╉19 universal, 211, 212, 214–╉15, 216–╉19 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 22–╉3, 24–╉5, 227–╉8, 278, 311–╉12 -╉led NDA government, 117 see also Modi Government black money, 237–╉8 Board of Industrial and Financial Restructuring (BIFR), 97–╉8 business houses, 61, 62 capital, 26, 52–╉3, 69–╉70, 72, 105, 248, 258, 291 accumulation of, 52–╉3, 58–╉60, 312; see also investment -╉intensive sectors, 69, 80 markets, 97–╉9 movements, 155, 159, 252, 262, 267 of banks, 154, 258, 284, 295 per worker, 52, 52 physical capital, 52–╉3 reform of capital markets, 97–╉9, 291 see also human capital; investment; environment capital capital account convertibility (CAC), 155, 159, 253, 262 capital controls, 155–╉6, 262–╉3 capital flows, 157, 250, 254, 282 volatility of, 262 338 capital-​output ratio, 19 capitalism, 60–​2 carbon tax, 130 cash transfers, 91, 164, 206–​14, 288, 296 objections to, 208 technology of, 206–​10 universal, 214–​15 see also basic income Central Government Public sector enterprises (CPSEs), 113–​23 Central Vigilance commission (CVC), 115, 234 Centre and States, 161, 228, 313–​15 child/​infant mortality, 20, 72, 125, 186 nutrition, 28, 186, 189 China, 6, 8–​10, 25, 28, 29, 55, 70, 72, 73, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 163, 176, 179, 185, 186, 249–​50, 252, 254, 255, 256–​7 Churchill, Winston, 3 civil servants, 43, 151, 233, 308 climate change, 128–​33 and India, 129–​33, 256–​7 and low-​carbon strategies, 131 and Paris Conference, 131-​2 coal, 88, 89, 114, 122, 130, 132, 214, 285 collective action, 42, 97, 226, 229, 306 companies, 26, 52, 61, 72, 78, 79–​80, 97–​8, 114–​16, 148, 153–​4, 284 competition, 26, 42–​3, 61, 92–​4, 115–​17, 120–​2, 181, 183–​5, 290, 303, 268, 313–​14 Competition Commission, 93, 283, 290 concentration, 61 conditional cash transfers (CCTs), 209–​10 Congress Party, 18, 22–​3, 24, 24, 25, 114, 227–​8, 229, 235, 278, 295, 301 contracts, 41–​3, 119–​21, 123, 230, 237, 308 contract labour, 67, 79, 290 Contract Labour Act (CLA), 79, 81, 82 contract teachers, 179, 182, 301–​2 controls, 18, 19, 43, 44, 87–​91 coordination, 37, 39, 43, 92, 104, 120, 152, 256, 264, 292 [ 338 ] Index corporate: investment, 23, 26–​7, 56, 59–​61, 145–​8, 285 savings, 26, 27 sector, 58, 61–​2, 154, 284 corruption, 22, 44, 74, 79, 96, 105, 185, 207–​8, 235–​43, 307–​10 courts, 234–​5 credit, 19, 25, 27, 74, 76, 99, 118, 188, 280–​1, 284 access to, 75–​6, 253 bank, 153–​4, 276 directed, 75 for small firms, 75, 295 short-​term, 22 wilful defaulters and, 99 criminal politicians, 238 crisis, 22, 23, 30, 157–​9, 259, 260, 280, 315 of 1991, 26 crony capitalism, 7, 8, 62, 105, 235–​43, 277, 283, 306–​7, 310, 313 crop insurance, 296, 309 cross-​border outsourcing, 70, 250, 263 crowding out, 151, 160 current account deficit, 23, 27, 59, 139, 155, 156, 156–​7, 248–​9, 253, 280–​1 debt overhang, 148, 153–​5, 284 decentralization, 179, 185, 232–​3, 306, 308, 314–​15 ‘deep fiscal adjustment’, 165, 279, 285–​8, 290, 300, 309–​10, 314 and economic reform, 91–​2, 163–​5, 212–​14, 285–​8 and universal basic income 285–​7 Modi government and, 287–​8 democracy, 3–​4, 9, 10, 18, 35, 36, 141, 225–​6, 229, 232–​3, 306, 311–​12, 315–​17 demographic transition, 52, 59, 72–​3 deprivation, 27–​30, 35, 201 devaluation, 18, 23, 252, 254 developing countries (DCs), 15, 27, 44, 53–​4, 130, 132, 141, 176, 252, 256, 263–​4 diesel, 88–​9, 126, 164, 287, 288 disadvantaged: castes, 306 groups, 28–​9, 204, 226, 228, 339 Doha Development Agenda, 300 Draft National Health Policy, 305 droughts, 17–​18, 22, 104, 130, 139, 141, 316 Ease of Doing Business, 60, 74, 75, 77, 94, 105, 284, 289–​90, 308 see also World Bank East Asia, 55, 68, 70, 71, 105, 155, 157, 247, 253, 265 East Asian crisis, 157, 253, 262 economic development, 8, 16, 35, 44, 67, 72, 101, 225, 230, 243, 277–​8 economic reform/​reforms, 54, 77–​82, 87–​91, 92–​4, 94–​7, 101–​4, 104–​5, 117, 119–​23, 126–​7, 130–​1, 151–​3, 154, 159, 162–​5, 182–​5, 188–​91, 195–​7, 210–​15, 233, 240–​3, 263–​9, 275–​308 in 1980s, 22, 24, 26 in 1991, 4, 26, 27 education, 19–​20, 37, 42–​3, 53–​5, 175–​85, 212–​13, 229–​32, 300–​2, 304–​5, 310 enrolment in, 28–​9, 176, 184 ‘free and compulsory’, 181, 231–​2 government schools and, 42, 179–​83, 229, 232, 301–​2 higher, 29, 184–​6, 302 pedagogic practices in, 179, 301 primary, 28–​9, 42, 176–​83, 185, 300, 305 private providers in, 234 private schools in, 177, 172–​7, 301–​2 private universities in, 184, 185 quality of, 53, 179, 183, 301, 312 reform, 181–​5, 301–​2, 305 secondary, 29, 53, 71, 176–​83, 185, 300, 305 teacher accountability in, 179, 301–​2, 305 teacher effort in, 179 universal free, 304 vocational, 185 vouchers, 181 see also Right to Education Act election expenditures, 238, 241, 307–​8 electricity, 89–​90, 117, 121–​2, 214, 309 Electricity Act of 2003, 122 Emergency, 18 see also Gandhi, Indira employment, 19, 51, 65–​8, 71, 73, 77, 79–​82, 94, 203–​4, 288–​90, 300–​1 formal and informal, 67, 69 in organized and unorganized sectors, 66–​7 problem, 54, 65–​70, 77, 87, 288–​90, 297 sectoral shares, 68 see also labour ends of economic policy, 35–​6 energy, 88, 113, 128–​31, 254, 296 entrepreneurship, 40, 61, 62, 75, 313; see also corporate sector environment, 123–​33 capital, 123–​8 degradation of, 124, 126–​7, 312 Modi government and, 296 pollution, 124–​6, 296, 309 property rights and, 123–​4 protection of, 102, 113, 165, 229, 293 reform, 124–​8, 130–​3, 293, 296 exchange rate, 155–​6 and external payments regime, 155 policy, 155–​9, 282 reform of policy framework, 159 regime, 155, 282 exports, 23, 55, 69–​70, 72, 92, 103, 153, 159, 248–​9, 255, 281–​2, 297 external economic engagement, 257–​69, 297–​300 Modi Government and, 299–​300 external: balance, 140, 155–​9, 279, 282 liberalization, 253, 297 payments regime, 155–​9 see also balance of payments external effects/​externalities, 38, 39, 43, 124, 130, 191–​2, 286 factor markets: capital, 97–​9 finance 99–​100 labour, 77–​82, 94 land, 94–​7 Modi government and, 294 reform of, 94–​102, 291 Index [ 339 ] 340 farmers, 89–​91, 101–​3, 126–​7, 143–​5, 202, 228, 238, 293 and pricing of fertilizers, 90 and subsidies, 90 self-​sufficient, 103 see also agriculture federalism: competitive, 314 cooperative, 214, 314 see also Centre and States female labour force participation rate, 73 fertilizers, 90, 103, 164, 206, 212, 285, 290 Finance Commission, 161, 228, 281, 308, 313, 314–​15 financial: inclusion, 99–​100, 291, 309 institutions, 76, 100, 140, 258 repression, 152, 162, 282 sector reform, 99–​100, 294 firms: in unorganized sector, 76, 77 size-​distribution of, 71 see also small firms; companies fiscal: adjustment, 162, 165 balance, 159–​65 consolidation, 30, 59, 159, 161–​3, 281, 282, 309 crackdown, 18 deficits, 30, 139, 143, 148, 156, 157, 159–​65, 213, 280, 287 policy/​policies, 25–​6, 30, 142, 145, 151–​2, 159–​65, 281, 282 problem, 159, 280 reform, 92–​3, 159–​65, 282 sustainability, 160, 280 see also ‘deep fiscal adjustment’; subsidies Fiscal Responsibility Act ( 2003), 162 food: articles, 141, 143, 144 market, 142–​3, 144 security, 41, 203, 267 subsidies, 91, 143, 164, 202–​3, 205–​6, 212–​13, 288 see also public distribution system; issue prices; procurement prices Food Security Act (FSA), 164, 202, 231 [ 340 ] Index foreign: aid, 18, 256 borrowing, 23, 26, 30, 156 capital, 247 investment, 24, 247–​50, 255, 258–​9, 297–​8, 299–​300 relations, 8, 9 foreign direct investment (FDI), 93, 151, 250–​1, 253, 268, 284, 299 from China, 254 Indian diaspora’s role in, 254–​5 liberalization of, 229, 299 policy regime, 250 reform, 93, 299 foreign exchange: intervention, 156 reserves, 156, 157, 158, 249, 260; see also global reserve system forests, 127–​8 free capital mobility, 157; see also capital account convertibility Gandhi, Indira, 17–​18, 22, 26, 227, 229, 233, 237 Gandhi, Rajiv, 22–​3, 26 Gandhi, Sonia, 24 Gini Coefficient, 29, 30 global: ambition 8–​10 credit crisis, 25, 58–​9, 139, 160, 253, 258–​9, 277 economic issues, 257–​9 engagement, 247–​69 exchange rate system, 259 imbalances, 259–​60 manufacturing networks, 250 reserve system, 261–​2 slowdown, 25, 151; see also recession supply chains, 264 global credit/​financial crisis (GFC), 25, 27, 58–​9, 139, 253, 257–​9, 262, 277 global warming, see climate change globalization, 247, 254; see also global engagement goods and services, 41–​3, 92, 94, 113, 163, 206, 210, 247–​8, 257, 290–​1, 293 carbon-​intensive, 130 reform of markets in, 87–​91, 92–​4, 290 341 goods and services tax (GST), 92–​3, 291, 293–​4 government administration, 230–​5, 307, 308 consumption, 59 corruption in, 235–​43 debt, 160–​1 employees, 43, 239 expenditure, 163–​5 failures, 7, 39–​40, 44, 187–​8, 191–​2, 276, 304 interest payments, 165 intervention, 19, 40, 87, 91, 104, 144, 236 procurement, 236–​7, 241 services, 44 spending, 88, 102, 131, 148, 163, 203, 302 subsidies, 44, 87–​92, 102, 180 see also state gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 145 growth acceleration, 15, 16, 27, 55, 61 accounting, 54–​8 fast, 5–​6 high-​quality, 5, 8, 276, 279, 315–​17 Hindu rate of, 15, 100 of output per head/​per worker, 51–​4 rate of, 4, 5–​6, 15–​16, 19, 23, 26, 30, 36, 51, 53–​7, 101, 144, 151 rapid, 17, 19, 35, 51, 52, 54, 60, 65, 70, 73, 87, 93, 104, 119, 153, 230, 236, 240, 279, 297, 300, 302, 309 slow, 19–​20, 144, 275 slowdown, 25, 56, 144, 145, 153–​4, 281, 317 sources of, 51–​8 ‘super-​fast’, 6, 28, 139, 157, 297 sustainable, 35, 113, 123–​33, 279 health/​health care, 7, 19, 37, 43, 175, 186–​8, 188–​97, 300, 302–​3, 304–5, 310, 312, 313 future of, 195–​7 money follows patient scheme, 303 primary care, 19, 187, 191–​4, 195–​6, 302–​3, 305 public health and, 72, 186–​8, 302 quality of, 189, 191–​7 reform of, 195–7, 305 secondary care, 187, 189–​91, 195–​6, 302–​3, 304–​5 state intervention in, 187 universal, 195 health insurance, 39, 190, 205, 210, 303 high-​income countries, 4–​5, 51, 276, 316 Hinduism, extremist version of, 311–​12 Hirschman, A. 42 household savings, 58–​9 human capital, 21, 53, 66, 189, 254, 287, 289, 302 inclusion, 6, 30, 35, 91, 99, 113, 135, 175, 215, 293, 300 see also financial inclusion income: agricultural, 163 distribution, 29, 36–​7, 44, 256–​7 redistribution, 43, 88, 91–​2, 201–​19, 253 ‘India shining, ’ 24 Indian capitalism, 60–​2 Indian university system, 184; see also education, higher India’s global engagement evolution and extent, 247–​52 impact on India, 252–​5 impact on the world, 255–​7 India’s stance on global economic issues, 257–​69 Indradhanush initiative, 295 industry/​industries, 26, 55, 61, 67–​70, 88, 94, 97, 100, 101, 104–​5, 113–​14, 153, 158, 267 Industrial Disputes Act (IDA), 78–​82, 256 industrial policy, 104–​5, 284 reform of, 104–​5 industrialization, 105, 202, 253 inequality, 4, 29–​30, 226 regional, 29 inflation, 18, 23, 25, 27, 59, 139–​45, 151–​3, 157–​8, 162, 166–​8, 208, 279–​80 and government debt ratio, 162 and Modi government, 152, 280–​1 demand factors, 144–​5 high, 36, 59, 140, 144–​5, 148, 151, 162, 279 Index [ 341 ] 342 inflation (Cont.) supply-​side factors, 142–​4 targeting, 151, 166–​8, 279–​80 see also monetary policy information problems, 39 information technology (IT) sector, 61, 70, 233, 240, 249, 253, 298 infrastructure, 7, 24, 60, 113, 119–​23 and the Modi government, 295–​6 reform, 119–​23, 292, 295–​6 see also Public–​Private Partnerships Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 97–​8, 294; see also bankruptcy institutional decay, 226, 229, 230, 306–​7 Integrated Child Development services(ICDS), 189 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), 132 international: liquidity, 260–​1 migration, 252, 254–​5 money, 258–​63 reserves, 259, 299 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 18, 22, 23, 26, 253, 259–​62 international monetary system, 259, 260–​2 international trade, 18–​19, 78, 92–​4, 101, 103, 156–​7, 247–​8, 252–​5, 255–​7, 263–​9, 276–​7, 297–​300, 310 and ‘behind-​the-​border’ items, 264 between India and EU, 300 liberalization of, 18, 24, 38, 93, 103, 117, 163, 248, 253, 263, 290, 298 policies, 92–​3, 248, 256, 262–​3, 297 policy reform, 93, 263–​9, 297–​300 investment, 19–​20, 26–​7, 39–​40, 52–​3, 56, 60, 93-​5, 102, 145, 148, 153-​5, 250–​2, 282–​5 and Modi Government, 282–​5 climate, 60, 282–​5 corporate, 26, 59, 145–​8 household, 59 in infrastructure, 59, 95, 119, 120–​1, 163 in 1980s, 23 private, 59, 89–​91, 103, 119, 120, 123, 148, 162, 280–​1, 283, 287 public, 17, 22, 23, 59, 91, 102, 104, 119, 123, 213–​14, 292–​3, 296, 309 [ 342 ] Index reforms in climate for, 74–​6, 282–​5 revival, 284 risk-​premium on, 148 see also public–​private partnerships issue prices, 91, 143, 164, 202 Jan Dhan, 207 Janata party coalition government, 18 Judicial Appointments Bill, 235 justice, administration of, 43 Kashmir, 8, 227 kerosene, 88–​9, 164, 285, 288 labour, 7, 19, 39, 52, 54–​5, 65, 69–​74, 76–​8, 79–​80, 94, 104–​5, 176, 229, 257, 288–​91 as resource, 52, 55, 69 bias against use of, 69–​72 -​demanding growth, 76 -​intensive industries, 80, 253 -​intensive manufacturing, 70, 72, 250, 266, 298 -​intensive products, 70, 72, 73, 77, 80, 290 low-​skilled, 70–​2, 77, 254 reallocation of, 54 skilled, 77 shift from agriculture, 69, 70 training, 38, 185 see also contract labour; labour laws; labour market labour force participation rate, 73 labour laws/​regulations, 65, 77–​82, 94, 97, 253, 289–​90, 294, 299, 309 reform of, 77–​82, 294 studies on impact of, 80 labour market, 7, 39, 77–​82, 94, 290, 310 reform of, 81–​2, 294 labour productivity, 52, 54, 66–​9, 69, 72, 73, 76, 104, 288–​9 growth of, 55 in organized industry, 69 see also output per worker land, 55, 74, 76, 94–​7, 120, 211, 213, 236, 291, 294, 309–​10 Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (LARR), 95–​6, 294 343 land market 94 price-​discovery in, 96, 291 land law: reform, 95–​7, 294 liberal democracy, 35–​6, 279, 311–​12, 315–​16 liberalization, 7, 18, 22–​4, 26, 54, 61–​2, 104, 159, 215, 252–​5, 262 of foreign direct investment (FDI), 299 license raj, 27, 184, 307 licenses, 19, 40, 100, 122, 230, 235, 237–​9, 283 life expectancy, 20, 186 literacy, 28 adult, 20 female, 29 local government, 314–​15 low-​income countries, 28, 186, 256, 300, 302 macroeconomic stability, 7, 35, 37, 43, 53, 59, 139–​65, 279–​82 and external balance, 155–​9 and fiscal balance, 159–​65 and internal balance, 141–​55, 281–​2 Modi Government and, 280–​2 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) 203–​5, 210, 213, 215, 239 arguments for and against, 204–​5 description of, 203–​4 ‘Make in India’, 105, 310 managed floating, 155–​6, 280–​1; see also exchange rate policy Mandal commission, 22, 226–​7; see also reservations manufacturing, 68, 71–​2, 250, 310 share of employment in, 68 market/​markets, 7, 19–​20, 35–​41, 43–​4, 102–​4, 123–​4, 154, 187–​8, 276–​7, 288–​93 failures of, 37–​9, 40–​1, 44, 75, 94, 187–​8, 190, 191–​2, 276, 303–​4 for factors of production, 65–​72, 77–​82, 94–​102, 289, 291, 294 for goods and services, 87–​94, 290–​1, 293–​4 liberalization of, 36, 229 prices, 37, 41, 90–​1, 95, 143, 164, 202, 288 reform of, 77–​82, 87–​105, 290–​6 virtues of, 37 see also competition; natural monopoly Mayawati, 227 mega-​regional agreements, 297, 309 merit goods, 38, 213 Mid-​Day Meals scheme, 177, 206 middle class, 313 mobile banking, 207 Modi, Narendra, 25 foreign tours, 299 pan-​Indian electoral support for, 312 as RSS pracharak, 312 Modi government, 82, 96, 100, 105, 278, 280–​1, 299–​300, 304–​6, 307–​8, 310–​12 Monetary Framework Committee, 151, 281 monetary policy, 142, 144–​5, 151–​2, 166–​8, 281–​2 transmission of, 152, 281–​2 reform of policy framework, 151–​2, 166–​8, 281–​2 monopolistic exploitation, 39, 117 multi-​currency system, 261–​2 multilateral negotiations, 264 Narasimha Rao, P.V., 23, 26 National Rural Employment Guarantee, Act, 232; see also Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme nationalization, 40, 41 natural capital, 123–​8 natural monopoly, 38–​9, 117 Nayak, P.J., 118, 285, 295 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 4, 17–​18 non-​tradable goods, 117 nuclear agreement with US, 24 nutrition, 186, 189 oil prices, 18, 22, 89, 144, 152, 159, 288 oil-​related products, 88, 285 ‘Old India Model’, 275–​5 organized industry, 69–​70 Index [ 343 ] 344 organized sector, 65–​7, 69–​70, 73–​4, 76–​7, 79–​80, 94, 283, 288–​9 bias against labour in, 69–​72 definition of, 66 and demand for labour, 69–​72, 73–​82 labour productivity in, 69 output per worker, 52, 57, 69, 87, 288 ownership, 43–​4, 113–​18, 123, 211, 279, 288–​96, 299, 310 Pakistan, 8–​9, 17, 18 Paris conference on climate change, 131–​2 Partial Reform Model, 22–​7, 276 Patel, U., 151, 281 payments regime, see external payments regime per capita: growth, 5–​6, 306, 317 income, 4–​5, 6, 30, 51, 75, 240, 256, 276, 316 planning, 17, 39, 40 plurilateral agreements, 267, 269, 298 police, 234 political: awakening, 226, 228, 306 economy, 8, 30, 209, 225–​30, 278, 315, 317 political parties, 92, 227, 229, 237, 238, 241–​2, 306–​7, 308 financing of, 241, 307 pollution, 38, 124, 125–​6, 189, 235–​6, 293 population, 21, 27–​8, 52–​3, 72–​3, 77, 101, 105, 123, 163–​4, 210–​12, 215 age-​distribution of, 72 poverty, 4, 15, 21, 27–​30, 44, 53, 65, 66, 77, 88, 201, 210–​11 among disadvantaged groups, 28 extreme, 4, 28, 211, 215, 277, 286–​7, 300, 309 in states, 28 programmes, 205 power, 8–​10; see also electricity Pratham, 177, 180 preferential trade agreements (PTAs), 264–​7 price/​prices/​price system, 19, 42–​4, 87–​91, 96, 103, 122, 126, 128, 130, 141, 202–​3, 212, 214, 237, 285, 293 [ 344 ] Index price and output stability 141–​55 price controls, 7, 87–​91, 102, 236, 285 price stabilization, 203 price subsidies, 90, 206, 285, 300 reform, 87–​91, 92–​7, 101–​3, 121–​2, 125–​6, 130–​1, 285, 290, 292, 293, 294, 296 see also inflation; monetary policy; issue prices; procurement prices priority sector lending, 99 private: companies, 7, 61, 94, 95, 102, 114–​16, 119, 291 health insurance markets, 190–​1 ownership, 36, 101, 116 partners, 42, 119 providers, 43, 175, 190–​3, 234, 303–​4 sector, 17, 37, 41–​4, 62, 101, 191–​2, 194–​6, 232–​6, 292–​3, 302–​3, 306 privatization, 24, 41–​2, 92, 113–​18, 121, 165, 213, 287, 291, 295 and efficiency, 116 fiscal case for, 116 procurement prices, 91, 143, 145, 152 production, pattern of, 69 productivity, 23, 26, 27, 52, 53–​4, 60–​2, 66, 70, 87, 94, 233, 288–​9 growth of, 62, 87, 113, 116, 247, 253, 288, 290–​2, 297, 310, 312 see also labour productivity; total factor productivity promoter/​promoters, 62, 98, 128, 154, 308 prosperity, 4, 276 public and private providers, 43, 193, 303–​4 public distribution system (PDS), 41, 91, 143, 164, 202–​3, 209, 239, 253 reform of, 202–​3 public goods/​public services, 7–​8, 37–​8, 41–​3, 92, 175, 181, 201, 210, 228, 230, 242, 277, 313–​14 public health, see ‘traditional public health’; see also health/​health care public interest litigation, 125–​6 public–​private partnerships, 42, 59, 95, 119–​23, 292, 296, 309 reform of, 119–​20, 295–​6 Public Procurement Bill, 241 345 public sector, 7, 19–​20, 42–​3, 58, 66, 115, 119–​21, 180, 193, 196 public sector banks (PSBs), 118, 154–​5, 284, 295, 309 reform of, 118, 154, 295 public sector enterprises (PSEs), 19–​20, 24, 41, 93, 113–​18, 164–​5, 180, 213, 287, 291, 295, 309 and the Modi government, 294 reform of, 115–​18, 291, 295 public telecom companies, 114 Punjab, 30, 102, 127, 226, 227 separatist movement in, 22 purchasing power parity (PPP), 5, 276 pure public goods, 37–​8, 43, 102, 140, 164, 188, 191, 210, 212, 277, 285–​6 quantitative easing, 158, 262 Radical Reform Model, 276 -​308 Ram, K., 227 rail services, 90, 285 Rajan, R., 99, 152, 159 Rangarajan, C., 28, 210 Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), 191, 195–​6, 205, 303, 305 Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), 311–​12 real effective exchange rate (RER), 158, 281 recapitalization, 118, 154, 162, 285 recession, 18, 23, 36, 160; see also slowdown Reddy, Y.V., 157 reform/​reforms, see economic reform/​ reforms Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), 265, 266, 297 regulation, 7, 43–​4, 77–​8, 117–​18, 125, 240–​2, 258–​9, 276–​7, 288–​93, 303–​4, 307 remittances, 249, 254 reservations, 22, 72, 234, 276 Reserve Bank of India (RBI), 100, 145, 151–​2, 154, 156–​9, 162, 258, 279, 281–​2, 284, 295 resource/​resources allocation, 7, 36, 44, 87, 91–​3 degradation of, 124, 127 scarcity of, 38, 40, 236–​7, 260 Right to Education Act (RTEA), 181–​3, 231, 301; see also education Right to Information Act (RTIA), 240 rights, 18, 36, 38, 40, 43, 76, 95, 96, 98, 123–​4, 231–​2, 236–​7, 268, 293, 307, 311, 313, 315 sanitation, 28, 76, 126, 188–​9, 196, 201, 203, 302, 312 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, 177 savings, 19, 26–​7, 52–​3, 58–​9, 70, 73, 92, 152, 213, 282, 286–​7 domestic, 56, 156 household, 27, 58–​9 public, 58–​9, 148 scandals and scams, 25, 27, 62, 151, 191, 203, 237 security, 9–​10 services, 41–​3, 55, 67–​8, 70, 71, 72, 93–​4, 100, 104–​5, 247–​50, 266–​8, 290–​2, 298 shadow banks, 258 Shanta Kumar committee, 203 Shastri, Lal Bahadur, 17 Sick Industrial companies Act (SICA), 97–​8 Singh, Manmohan, 23–​5, 206 Singh, V.P. 22–​3; see also Mandal Commission; reservations skill/​skills, 77, 252, 310; see also human capital; vocational and technical education and training skill-​intensive sectors, 69–​70, 104–​5 small firms, 71, 72, 73–​7, 283, 295 small-​scale industry reservations, 72 social: awakening, 226, 306 democracy, 36, 201–​2, 300 security benefits, 66–​7 social enablement 163, 165, 201, 202, 300-​6 Modi government and, 304–​6 social protection, 163, 201–​22, 279, 300, 304 framework for, 202, 203, 210, 300–​4 Modi government and, 304 reform, 208-​15 schemes, 202, 206, 210, 300 social safety net, 201–​22, 239, 277 Index [ 345 ] 346 South Korea, 5, 6, 20, 68, 70, 157, 262, 265, 316 Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), 261–​2 state: accountability, 230–​5 capacity, 231–​5, 254 intervention, 7, 19, 36, 37-​44, 142, 187–​90, 192, 226, 228, 300, 302 and market relationship, 8, 36–​44 ownership, 18, 36, 40, 41, 113-​18, 163 political economy of, 225–​30 reform of, 233–​5, 241–​3, 247 state electricity boards (SEBs), 89–​90, 122, 309; see also UDAY state public sector enterprises (SPSEs), 114, 115, 116 states: deprivation in, 28 growth in, 27 inequality between, 29–​30 poverty in, 28 see also Centre and States sterilized intervention, 156 stressed assets, 122, 154, 284 subsidies, 30, 38, 43–​4, 87–​92, 101–​4, 163–​4, 205–​8, 212–​13, 230, 285–​8, 293–​4 elimination of, 214–​15, 230 explicit, 163–​4 hidden, 87, 92, 123, 164, 212, 285 problems in unwinding, 214 Subbarao, D., 158–​9 Subramanian, T.S.R., 127 Swachh Bharat, 306, 310 Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), see Public Distribution System tax/​taxes/​tax system, 35, 38, 40, 44, 89, 92–​3, 124–​5, 128, 131, 163, 286–​7, 290–​1 exemptions, 93, 163, 213, 284 indirect tax, 92–​3, 163, 290–​1 on international trade, 93, 247; see also trade liberalization minimum alternate tax, 299 reform, 92-​3, 162–​3, 291, 293 retrospective, 151, 299 and revenue, 35, 37, 51, 163 [ 346 ] Index see also government expenditure; subsidies teachers, 179–​83 telecom spectrum, 38, 236 Tendulkar, S., 28, 210–​11, 216 total factor productivity (TFP), 52, 53–​7, 72, 80, 87, 104; see also productivity tradable goods, 88, 117, 291 trade, see international trade Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), 264–​5 Trade in Services Agreement (TISA), 269, 298 trade unions, 66, 79, 82 and political parties, 82 teachers’ unions, 179, 183, 229 ‘traditional public health’ (TPH), 188–​9, 196, 303 tragedy of the commons, 38 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 265 Trans-​Pacific Partnership (TPP), 265–​6, 298 transparency, 44, 240 UDAY, 296 unemployment, 65 United Progressive Alliance (UPA), 24–​5, 95, 97, 117, 143, 164, 202, 283, 307–​8 United States, 8, 252, 255 and China rivalry, 10 gilded age, 240, 243 as ‘hyper-​power’, 9 and India, civil nuclear agreement, 9 University Grants Commission (UGC), 184–​5 unorganized sector, 66–​7, 69–​70, 76–​7, 78, 99, 288–​9 definition of, 66 low-​labour-​productivity in, 66 low-​quality jobs in, 73 output of, 67, 69 as ‘own account enterprises’, 76 workers in, 65 urban: infrastructure, 97, 120, 123, 292 land, 96, 131 urbanization, 96 347 Vajpayee, Atal Behari, 24 value-​added tax (VAT), 92–​3 vocational and technical education and training (VTET), 185 water, 75, 90–​1, 101–​3, 125–​7, 206, 212, 285, 290, 293, 309 over-​extraction of, 126 pricing, 126–​7 women, 29, 72, 73, 204, 205, 210, 233, 304, 311; see also female labour force participation rate; literacy, female workforce, 66–​7, 77, 80, 94, 292 income of organized, 145 informal, 67, 69 mal-​distributed, 66 non-​farm, 67 poor, 100 in unorganized sector, 66–​7 see also labour/​labour force World Bank, 28, 186 ‘Ease of Doing Business’ reports of, 74, 283 and foreign aid, 18 survey of Indian firms, 74 World Trade Organization (WTO), 263–​4, 267–​8 Yadav, Lalu Prasad, 227 Yadav, Mulayam Singh, 227 zamindari, abolition of, 226 Index [ 347 ] 348

References [ 335 ] 336 ╇ 337 INDEX Aadhar card, 206, 207, 214, 304 and Aadhar-╉linked bank accounts, 207, 214, 287, 304 administration, see government administration advanced countries (ACs), 53, 65, 97, 129, 132, 141, 145, 188, 202, 255, 257, 262, 263–╉4, 266–╉8, 277, 298 Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA), 269, 298 agriculture, 55, 67–╉70, 93, 100–╉4, 121, 126, 141–╉2, 163, 229, 248, 267, 292–╉3, 296, 309 exports, 103 marketing, 101, 293, 309 price controls in, 102 public investment in, 102, 293, 296, 309 reform in, 100–╉4, 292–╉3 share in GDP, 67–╉8 subsidies in, 102–╉3, 293, 296, 309 surplus labour from, 70 trade liberalization in, 103, 267 workers in, 66–╉7 Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees (APMCs), 101 air quality, 124–╉6 ASEAN, 265 Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), 266, 298 backward states, 29 balance of payments, 22, 139–╉40, 155–╉9, 248–╉50, 254, 259, 299 Bangladesh, 28, 176, 186, 187 Bank Investment Company (BIC), 118, 295 bankruptcy, 7, 97–╉9, 154–╉5, 291, 294 Basel committee on Bank Regulation (BCBR), 258 Basel III standards, 258 basic income, 197, 210–╉15, 216–╉19, 285–╉8, 293, 303–╉4 cost of providing, 216–╉19 recommended magnitude of, 212, 214, 216–╉19 universal, 211, 212, 214–╉15, 216–╉19 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 22–╉3, 24–╉5, 227–╉8, 278, 311–╉12 -╉led NDA government, 117 see also Modi Government black money, 237–╉8 Board of Industrial and Financial Restructuring (BIFR), 97–╉8 business houses, 61, 62 capital, 26, 52–╉3, 69–╉70, 72, 105, 248, 258, 291 accumulation of, 52–╉3, 58–╉60, 312; see also investment -╉intensive sectors, 69, 80 markets, 97–╉9 movements, 155, 159, 252, 262, 267 of banks, 154, 258, 284, 295 per worker, 52, 52 physical capital, 52–╉3 reform of capital markets, 97–╉9, 291 see also human capital; investment; environment capital capital account convertibility (CAC), 155, 159, 253, 262 capital controls, 155–╉6, 262–╉3 capital flows, 157, 250, 254, 282 volatility of, 262 338 capital-​output ratio, 19 capitalism, 60–​2 carbon tax, 130 cash transfers, 91, 164, 206–​14, 288, 296 objections to, 208 technology of, 206–​10 universal, 214–​15 see also basic income Central Government Public sector enterprises (CPSEs), 113–​23 Central Vigilance commission (CVC), 115, 234 Centre and States, 161, 228, 313–​15 child/​infant mortality, 20, 72, 125, 186 nutrition, 28, 186, 189 China, 6, 8–​10, 25, 28, 29, 55, 70, 72, 73, 124, 125, 130, 131, 132, 163, 176, 179, 185, 186, 249–​50, 252, 254, 255, 256–​7 Churchill, Winston, 3 civil servants, 43, 151, 233, 308 climate change, 128–​33 and India, 129–​33, 256–​7 and low-​carbon strategies, 131 and Paris Conference, 131-​2 coal, 88, 89, 114, 122, 130, 132, 214, 285 collective action, 42, 97, 226, 229, 306 companies, 26, 52, 61, 72, 78, 79–​80, 97–​8, 114–​16, 148, 153–​4, 284 competition, 26, 42–​3, 61, 92–​4, 115–​17, 120–​2, 181, 183–​5, 290, 303, 268, 313–​14 Competition Commission, 93, 283, 290 concentration, 61 conditional cash transfers (CCTs), 209–​10 Congress Party, 18, 22–​3, 24, 24, 25, 114, 227–​8, 229, 235, 278, 295, 301 contracts, 41–​3, 119–​21, 123, 230, 237, 308 contract labour, 67, 79, 290 Contract Labour Act (CLA), 79, 81, 82 contract teachers, 179, 182, 301–​2 controls, 18, 19, 43, 44, 87–​91 coordination, 37, 39, 43, 92, 104, 120, 152, 256, 264, 292 [ 338 ] Index corporate: investment, 23, 26–​7, 56, 59–​61, 145–​8, 285 savings, 26, 27 sector, 58, 61–​2, 154, 284 corruption, 22, 44, 74, 79, 96, 105, 185, 207–​8, 235–​43, 307–​10 courts, 234–​5 credit, 19, 25, 27, 74, 76, 99, 118, 188, 280–​1, 284 access to, 75–​6, 253 bank, 153–​4, 276 directed, 75 for small firms, 75, 295 short-​term, 22 wilful defaulters and, 99 criminal politicians, 238 crisis, 22, 23, 30, 157–​9, 259, 260, 280, 315 of 1991, 26 crony capitalism, 7, 8, 62, 105, 235–​43, 277, 283, 306–​7, 310, 313 crop insurance, 296, 309 cross-​border outsourcing, 70, 250, 263 crowding out, 151, 160 current account deficit, 23, 27, 59, 139, 155, 156, 156–​7, 248–​9, 253, 280–​1 debt overhang, 148, 153–​5, 284 decentralization, 179, 185, 232–​3, 306, 308, 314–​15 ‘deep fiscal adjustment’, 165, 279, 285–​8, 290, 300, 309–​10, 314 and economic reform, 91–​2, 163–​5, 212–​14, 285–​8 and universal basic income 285–​7 Modi government and, 287–​8 democracy, 3–​4, 9, 10, 18, 35, 36, 141, 225–​6, 229, 232–​3, 306, 311–​12, 315–​17 demographic transition, 52, 59, 72–​3 deprivation, 27–​30, 35, 201 devaluation, 18, 23, 252, 254 developing countries (DCs), 15, 27, 44, 53–​4, 130, 132, 141, 176, 252, 256, 263–​4 diesel, 88–​9, 126, 164, 287, 288 disadvantaged: castes, 306 groups, 28–​9, 204, 226, 228, 339 Doha Development Agenda, 300 Draft National Health Policy, 305 droughts, 17–​18, 22, 104, 130, 139, 141, 316 Ease of Doing Business, 60, 74, 75, 77, 94, 105, 284, 289–​90, 308 see also World Bank East Asia, 55, 68, 70, 71, 105, 155, 157, 247, 253, 265 East Asian crisis, 157, 253, 262 economic development, 8, 16, 35, 44, 67, 72, 101, 225, 230, 243, 277–​8 economic reform/​reforms, 54, 77–​82, 87–​91, 92–​4, 94–​7, 101–​4, 104–​5, 117, 119–​23, 126–​7, 130–​1, 151–​3, 154, 159, 162–​5, 182–​5, 188–​91, 195–​7, 210–​15, 233, 240–​3, 263–​9, 275–​308 in 1980s, 22, 24, 26 in 1991, 4, 26, 27 education, 19–​20, 37, 42–​3, 53–​5, 175–​85, 212–​13, 229–​32, 300–​2, 304–​5, 310 enrolment in, 28–​9, 176, 184 ‘free and compulsory’, 181, 231–​2 government schools and, 42, 179–​83, 229, 232, 301–​2 higher, 29, 184–​6, 302 pedagogic practices in, 179, 301 primary, 28–​9, 42, 176–​83, 185, 300, 305 private providers in, 234 private schools in, 177, 172–​7, 301–​2 private universities in, 184, 185 quality of, 53, 179, 183, 301, 312 reform, 181–​5, 301–​2, 305 secondary, 29, 53, 71, 176–​83, 185, 300, 305 teacher accountability in, 179, 301–​2, 305 teacher effort in, 179 universal free, 304 vocational, 185 vouchers, 181 see also Right to Education Act election expenditures, 238, 241, 307–​8 electricity, 89–​90, 117, 121–​2, 214, 309 Electricity Act of 2003, 122 Emergency, 18 see also Gandhi, Indira employment, 19, 51, 65–​8, 71, 73, 77, 79–​82, 94, 203–​4, 288–​90, 300–​1 formal and informal, 67, 69 in organized and unorganized sectors, 66–​7 problem, 54, 65–​70, 77, 87, 288–​90, 297 sectoral shares, 68 see also labour ends of economic policy, 35–​6 energy, 88, 113, 128–​31, 254, 296 entrepreneurship, 40, 61, 62, 75, 313; see also corporate sector environment, 123–​33 capital, 123–​8 degradation of, 124, 126–​7, 312 Modi government and, 296 pollution, 124–​6, 296, 309 property rights and, 123–​4 protection of, 102, 113, 165, 229, 293 reform, 124–​8, 130–​3, 293, 296 exchange rate, 155–​6 and external payments regime, 155 policy, 155–​9, 282 reform of policy framework, 159 regime, 155, 282 exports, 23, 55, 69–​70, 72, 92, 103, 153, 159, 248–​9, 255, 281–​2, 297 external economic engagement, 257–​69, 297–​300 Modi Government and, 299–​300 external: balance, 140, 155–​9, 279, 282 liberalization, 253, 297 payments regime, 155–​9 see also balance of payments external effects/​externalities, 38, 39, 43, 124, 130, 191–​2, 286 factor markets: capital, 97–​9 finance 99–​100 labour, 77–​82, 94 land, 94–​7 Modi government and, 294 reform of, 94–​102, 291 Index [ 339 ] 340 farmers, 89–​91, 101–​3, 126–​7, 143–​5, 202, 228, 238, 293 and pricing of fertilizers, 90 and subsidies, 90 self-​sufficient, 103 see also agriculture federalism: competitive, 314 cooperative, 214, 314 see also Centre and States female labour force participation rate, 73 fertilizers, 90, 103, 164, 206, 212, 285, 290 Finance Commission, 161, 228, 281, 308, 313, 314–​15 financial: inclusion, 99–​100, 291, 309 institutions, 76, 100, 140, 258 repression, 152, 162, 282 sector reform, 99–​100, 294 firms: in unorganized sector, 76, 77 size-​distribution of, 71 see also small firms; companies fiscal: adjustment, 162, 165 balance, 159–​65 consolidation, 30, 59, 159, 161–​3, 281, 282, 309 crackdown, 18 deficits, 30, 139, 143, 148, 156, 157, 159–​65, 213, 280, 287 policy/​policies, 25–​6, 30, 142, 145, 151–​2, 159–​65, 281, 282 problem, 159, 280 reform, 92–​3, 159–​65, 282 sustainability, 160, 280 see also ‘deep fiscal adjustment’; subsidies Fiscal Responsibility Act ( 2003), 162 food: articles, 141, 143, 144 market, 142–​3, 144 security, 41, 203, 267 subsidies, 91, 143, 164, 202–​3, 205–​6, 212–​13, 288 see also public distribution system; issue prices; procurement prices Food Security Act (FSA), 164, 202, 231 [ 340 ] Index foreign: aid, 18, 256 borrowing, 23, 26, 30, 156 capital, 247 investment, 24, 247–​50, 255, 258–​9, 297–​8, 299–​300 relations, 8, 9 foreign direct investment (FDI), 93, 151, 250–​1, 253, 268, 284, 299 from China, 254 Indian diaspora’s role in, 254–​5 liberalization of, 229, 299 policy regime, 250 reform, 93, 299 foreign exchange: intervention, 156 reserves, 156, 157, 158, 249, 260; see also global reserve system forests, 127–​8 free capital mobility, 157; see also capital account convertibility Gandhi, Indira, 17–​18, 22, 26, 227, 229, 233, 237 Gandhi, Rajiv, 22–​3, 26 Gandhi, Sonia, 24 Gini Coefficient, 29, 30 global: ambition 8–​10 credit crisis, 25, 58–​9, 139, 160, 253, 258–​9, 277 economic issues, 257–​9 engagement, 247–​69 exchange rate system, 259 imbalances, 259–​60 manufacturing networks, 250 reserve system, 261–​2 slowdown, 25, 151; see also recession supply chains, 264 global credit/​financial crisis (GFC), 25, 27, 58–​9, 139, 253, 257–​9, 262, 277 global warming, see climate change globalization, 247, 254; see also global engagement goods and services, 41–​3, 92, 94, 113, 163, 206, 210, 247–​8, 257, 290–​1, 293 carbon-​intensive, 130 reform of markets in, 87–​91, 92–​4, 290 341 goods and services tax (GST), 92–​3, 291, 293–​4 government administration, 230–​5, 307, 308 consumption, 59 corruption in, 235–​43 debt, 160–​1 employees, 43, 239 expenditure, 163–​5 failures, 7, 39–​40, 44, 187–​8, 191–​2, 276, 304 interest payments, 165 intervention, 19, 40, 87, 91, 104, 144, 236 procurement, 236–​7, 241 services, 44 spending, 88, 102, 131, 148, 163, 203, 302 subsidies, 44, 87–​92, 102, 180 see also state gross fixed capital formation (GFCF), 145 growth acceleration, 15, 16, 27, 55, 61 accounting, 54–​8 fast, 5–​6 high-​quality, 5, 8, 276, 279, 315–​17 Hindu rate of, 15, 100 of output per head/​per worker, 51–​4 rate of, 4, 5–​6, 15–​16, 19, 23, 26, 30, 36, 51, 53–​7, 101, 144, 151 rapid, 17, 19, 35, 51, 52, 54, 60, 65, 70, 73, 87, 93, 104, 119, 153, 230, 236, 240, 279, 297, 300, 302, 309 slow, 19–​20, 144, 275 slowdown, 25, 56, 144, 145, 153–​4, 281, 317 sources of, 51–​8 ‘super-​fast’, 6, 28, 139, 157, 297 sustainable, 35, 113, 123–​33, 279 health/​health care, 7, 19, 37, 43, 175, 186–​8, 188–​97, 300, 302–​3, 304–5, 310, 312, 313 future of, 195–​7 money follows patient scheme, 303 primary care, 19, 187, 191–​4, 195–​6, 302–​3, 305 public health and, 72, 186–​8, 302 quality of, 189, 191–​7 reform of, 195–7, 305 secondary care, 187, 189–​91, 195–​6, 302–​3, 304–​5 state intervention in, 187 universal, 195 health insurance, 39, 190, 205, 210, 303 high-​income countries, 4–​5, 51, 276, 316 Hinduism, extremist version of, 311–​12 Hirschman, A. 42 household savings, 58–​9 human capital, 21, 53, 66, 189, 254, 287, 289, 302 inclusion, 6, 30, 35, 91, 99, 113, 135, 175, 215, 293, 300 see also financial inclusion income: agricultural, 163 distribution, 29, 36–​7, 44, 256–​7 redistribution, 43, 88, 91–​2, 201–​19, 253 ‘India shining, ’ 24 Indian capitalism, 60–​2 Indian university system, 184; see also education, higher India’s global engagement evolution and extent, 247–​52 impact on India, 252–​5 impact on the world, 255–​7 India’s stance on global economic issues, 257–​69 Indradhanush initiative, 295 industry/​industries, 26, 55, 61, 67–​70, 88, 94, 97, 100, 101, 104–​5, 113–​14, 153, 158, 267 Industrial Disputes Act (IDA), 78–​82, 256 industrial policy, 104–​5, 284 reform of, 104–​5 industrialization, 105, 202, 253 inequality, 4, 29–​30, 226 regional, 29 inflation, 18, 23, 25, 27, 59, 139–​45, 151–​3, 157–​8, 162, 166–​8, 208, 279–​80 and government debt ratio, 162 and Modi government, 152, 280–​1 demand factors, 144–​5 high, 36, 59, 140, 144–​5, 148, 151, 162, 279 Index [ 341 ] 342 inflation (Cont.) supply-​side factors, 142–​4 targeting, 151, 166–​8, 279–​80 see also monetary policy information problems, 39 information technology (IT) sector, 61, 70, 233, 240, 249, 253, 298 infrastructure, 7, 24, 60, 113, 119–​23 and the Modi government, 295–​6 reform, 119–​23, 292, 295–​6 see also Public–​Private Partnerships Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 97–​8, 294; see also bankruptcy institutional decay, 226, 229, 230, 306–​7 Integrated Child Development services(ICDS), 189 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), 132 international: liquidity, 260–​1 migration, 252, 254–​5 money, 258–​63 reserves, 259, 299 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 18, 22, 23, 26, 253, 259–​62 international monetary system, 259, 260–​2 international trade, 18–​19, 78, 92–​4, 101, 103, 156–​7, 247–​8, 252–​5, 255–​7, 263–​9, 276–​7, 297–​300, 310 and ‘behind-​the-​border’ items, 264 between India and EU, 300 liberalization of, 18, 24, 38, 93, 103, 117, 163, 248, 253, 263, 290, 298 policies, 92–​3, 248, 256, 262–​3, 297 policy reform, 93, 263–​9, 297–​300 investment, 19–​20, 26–​7, 39–​40, 52–​3, 56, 60, 93-​5, 102, 145, 148, 153-​5, 250–​2, 282–​5 and Modi Government, 282–​5 climate, 60, 282–​5 corporate, 26, 59, 145–​8 household, 59 in infrastructure, 59, 95, 119, 120–​1, 163 in 1980s, 23 private, 59, 89–​91, 103, 119, 120, 123, 148, 162, 280–​1, 283, 287 public, 17, 22, 23, 59, 91, 102, 104, 119, 123, 213–​14, 292–​3, 296, 309 [ 342 ] Index reforms in climate for, 74–​6, 282–​5 revival, 284 risk-​premium on, 148 see also public–​private partnerships issue prices, 91, 143, 164, 202 Jan Dhan, 207 Janata party coalition government, 18 Judicial Appointments Bill, 235 justice, administration of, 43 Kashmir, 8, 227 kerosene, 88–​9, 164, 285, 288 labour, 7, 19, 39, 52, 54–​5, 65, 69–​74, 76–​8, 79–​80, 94, 104–​5, 176, 229, 257, 288–​91 as resource, 52, 55, 69 bias against use of, 69–​72 -​demanding growth, 76 -​intensive industries, 80, 253 -​intensive manufacturing, 70, 72, 250, 266, 298 -​intensive products, 70, 72, 73, 77, 80, 290 low-​skilled, 70–​2, 77, 254 reallocation of, 54 skilled, 77 shift from agriculture, 69, 70 training, 38, 185 see also contract labour; labour laws; labour market labour force participation rate, 73 labour laws/​regulations, 65, 77–​82, 94, 97, 253, 289–​90, 294, 299, 309 reform of, 77–​82, 294 studies on impact of, 80 labour market, 7, 39, 77–​82, 94, 290, 310 reform of, 81–​2, 294 labour productivity, 52, 54, 66–​9, 69, 72, 73, 76, 104, 288–​9 growth of, 55 in organized industry, 69 see also output per worker land, 55, 74, 76, 94–​7, 120, 211, 213, 236, 291, 294, 309–​10 Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act (LARR), 95–​6, 294 343 land market 94 price-​discovery in, 96, 291 land law: reform, 95–​7, 294 liberal democracy, 35–​6, 279, 311–​12, 315–​16 liberalization, 7, 18, 22–​4, 26, 54, 61–​2, 104, 159, 215, 252–​5, 262 of foreign direct investment (FDI), 299 license raj, 27, 184, 307 licenses, 19, 40, 100, 122, 230, 235, 237–​9, 283 life expectancy, 20, 186 literacy, 28 adult, 20 female, 29 local government, 314–​15 low-​income countries, 28, 186, 256, 300, 302 macroeconomic stability, 7, 35, 37, 43, 53, 59, 139–​65, 279–​82 and external balance, 155–​9 and fiscal balance, 159–​65 and internal balance, 141–​55, 281–​2 Modi Government and, 280–​2 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) 203–​5, 210, 213, 215, 239 arguments for and against, 204–​5 description of, 203–​4 ‘Make in India’, 105, 310 managed floating, 155–​6, 280–​1; see also exchange rate policy Mandal commission, 22, 226–​7; see also reservations manufacturing, 68, 71–​2, 250, 310 share of employment in, 68 market/​markets, 7, 19–​20, 35–​41, 43–​4, 102–​4, 123–​4, 154, 187–​8, 276–​7, 288–​93 failures of, 37–​9, 40–​1, 44, 75, 94, 187–​8, 190, 191–​2, 276, 303–​4 for factors of production, 65–​72, 77–​82, 94–​102, 289, 291, 294 for goods and services, 87–​94, 290–​1, 293–​4 liberalization of, 36, 229 prices, 37, 41, 90–​1, 95, 143, 164, 202, 288 reform of, 77–​82, 87–​105, 290–​6 virtues of, 37 see also competition; natural monopoly Mayawati, 227 mega-​regional agreements, 297, 309 merit goods, 38, 213 Mid-​Day Meals scheme, 177, 206 middle class, 313 mobile banking, 207 Modi, Narendra, 25 foreign tours, 299 pan-​Indian electoral support for, 312 as RSS pracharak, 312 Modi government, 82, 96, 100, 105, 278, 280–​1, 299–​300, 304–​6, 307–​8, 310–​12 Monetary Framework Committee, 151, 281 monetary policy, 142, 144–​5, 151–​2, 166–​8, 281–​2 transmission of, 152, 281–​2 reform of policy framework, 151–​2, 166–​8, 281–​2 monopolistic exploitation, 39, 117 multi-​currency system, 261–​2 multilateral negotiations, 264 Narasimha Rao, P.V., 23, 26 National Rural Employment Guarantee, Act, 232; see also Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme nationalization, 40, 41 natural capital, 123–​8 natural monopoly, 38–​9, 117 Nayak, P.J., 118, 285, 295 Nehru, Jawaharlal, 4, 17–​18 non-​tradable goods, 117 nuclear agreement with US, 24 nutrition, 186, 189 oil prices, 18, 22, 89, 144, 152, 159, 288 oil-​related products, 88, 285 ‘Old India Model’, 275–​5 organized industry, 69–​70 Index [ 343 ] 344 organized sector, 65–​7, 69–​70, 73–​4, 76–​7, 79–​80, 94, 283, 288–​9 bias against labour in, 69–​72 definition of, 66 and demand for labour, 69–​72, 73–​82 labour productivity in, 69 output per worker, 52, 57, 69, 87, 288 ownership, 43–​4, 113–​18, 123, 211, 279, 288–​96, 299, 310 Pakistan, 8–​9, 17, 18 Paris conference on climate change, 131–​2 Partial Reform Model, 22–​7, 276 Patel, U., 151, 281 payments regime, see external payments regime per capita: growth, 5–​6, 306, 317 income, 4–​5, 6, 30, 51, 75, 240, 256, 276, 316 planning, 17, 39, 40 plurilateral agreements, 267, 269, 298 police, 234 political: awakening, 226, 228, 306 economy, 8, 30, 209, 225–​30, 278, 315, 317 political parties, 92, 227, 229, 237, 238, 241–​2, 306–​7, 308 financing of, 241, 307 pollution, 38, 124, 125–​6, 189, 235–​6, 293 population, 21, 27–​8, 52–​3, 72–​3, 77, 101, 105, 123, 163–​4, 210–​12, 215 age-​distribution of, 72 poverty, 4, 15, 21, 27–​30, 44, 53, 65, 66, 77, 88, 201, 210–​11 among disadvantaged groups, 28 extreme, 4, 28, 211, 215, 277, 286–​7, 300, 309 in states, 28 programmes, 205 power, 8–​10; see also electricity Pratham, 177, 180 preferential trade agreements (PTAs), 264–​7 price/​prices/​price system, 19, 42–​4, 87–​91, 96, 103, 122, 126, 128, 130, 141, 202–​3, 212, 214, 237, 285, 293 [ 344 ] Index price and output stability 141–​55 price controls, 7, 87–​91, 102, 236, 285 price stabilization, 203 price subsidies, 90, 206, 285, 300 reform, 87–​91, 92–​7, 101–​3, 121–​2, 125–​6, 130–​1, 285, 290, 292, 293, 294, 296 see also inflation; monetary policy; issue prices; procurement prices priority sector lending, 99 private: companies, 7, 61, 94, 95, 102, 114–​16, 119, 291 health insurance markets, 190–​1 ownership, 36, 101, 116 partners, 42, 119 providers, 43, 175, 190–​3, 234, 303–​4 sector, 17, 37, 41–​4, 62, 101, 191–​2, 194–​6, 232–​6, 292–​3, 302–​3, 306 privatization, 24, 41–​2, 92, 113–​18, 121, 165, 213, 287, 291, 295 and efficiency, 116 fiscal case for, 116 procurement prices, 91, 143, 145, 152 production, pattern of, 69 productivity, 23, 26, 27, 52, 53–​4, 60–​2, 66, 70, 87, 94, 233, 288–​9 growth of, 62, 87, 113, 116, 247, 253, 288, 290–​2, 297, 310, 312 see also labour productivity; total factor productivity promoter/​promoters, 62, 98, 128, 154, 308 prosperity, 4, 276 public and private providers, 43, 193, 303–​4 public distribution system (PDS), 41, 91, 143, 164, 202–​3, 209, 239, 253 reform of, 202–​3 public goods/​public services, 7–​8, 37–​8, 41–​3, 92, 175, 181, 201, 210, 228, 230, 242, 277, 313–​14 public health, see ‘traditional public health’; see also health/​health care public interest litigation, 125–​6 public–​private partnerships, 42, 59, 95, 119–​23, 292, 296, 309 reform of, 119–​20, 295–​6 Public Procurement Bill, 241 345 public sector, 7, 19–​20, 42–​3, 58, 66, 115, 119–​21, 180, 193, 196 public sector banks (PSBs), 118, 154–​5, 284, 295, 309 reform of, 118, 154, 295 public sector enterprises (PSEs), 19–​20, 24, 41, 93, 113–​18, 164–​5, 180, 213, 287, 291, 295, 309 and the Modi government, 294 reform of, 115–​18, 291, 295 public telecom companies, 114 Punjab, 30, 102, 127, 226, 227 separatist movement in, 22 purchasing power parity (PPP), 5, 276 pure public goods, 37–​8, 43, 102, 140, 164, 188, 191, 210, 212, 277, 285–​6 quantitative easing, 158, 262 Radical Reform Model, 276 -​308 Ram, K., 227 rail services, 90, 285 Rajan, R., 99, 152, 159 Rangarajan, C., 28, 210 Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY), 191, 195–​6, 205, 303, 305 Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), 311–​12 real effective exchange rate (RER), 158, 281 recapitalization, 118, 154, 162, 285 recession, 18, 23, 36, 160; see also slowdown Reddy, Y.V., 157 reform/​reforms, see economic reform/​ reforms Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), 265, 266, 297 regulation, 7, 43–​4, 77–​8, 117–​18, 125, 240–​2, 258–​9, 276–​7, 288–​93, 303–​4, 307 remittances, 249, 254 reservations, 22, 72, 234, 276 Reserve Bank of India (RBI), 100, 145, 151–​2, 154, 156–​9, 162, 258, 279, 281–​2, 284, 295 resource/​resources allocation, 7, 36, 44, 87, 91–​3 degradation of, 124, 127 scarcity of, 38, 40, 236–​7, 260 Right to Education Act (RTEA), 181–​3, 231, 301; see also education Right to Information Act (RTIA), 240 rights, 18, 36, 38, 40, 43, 76, 95, 96, 98, 123–​4, 231–​2, 236–​7, 268, 293, 307, 311, 313, 315 sanitation, 28, 76, 126, 188–​9, 196, 201, 203, 302, 312 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, 177 savings, 19, 26–​7, 52–​3, 58–​9, 70, 73, 92, 152, 213, 282, 286–​7 domestic, 56, 156 household, 27, 58–​9 public, 58–​9, 148 scandals and scams, 25, 27, 62, 151, 191, 203, 237 security, 9–​10 services, 41–​3, 55, 67–​8, 70, 71, 72, 93–​4, 100, 104–​5, 247–​50, 266–​8, 290–​2, 298 shadow banks, 258 Shanta Kumar committee, 203 Shastri, Lal Bahadur, 17 Sick Industrial companies Act (SICA), 97–​8 Singh, Manmohan, 23–​5, 206 Singh, V.P. 22–​3; see also Mandal Commission; reservations skill/​skills, 77, 252, 310; see also human capital; vocational and technical education and training skill-​intensive sectors, 69–​70, 104–​5 small firms, 71, 72, 73–​7, 283, 295 small-​scale industry reservations, 72 social: awakening, 226, 306 democracy, 36, 201–​2, 300 security benefits, 66–​7 social enablement 163, 165, 201, 202, 300-​6 Modi government and, 304–​6 social protection, 163, 201–​22, 279, 300, 304 framework for, 202, 203, 210, 300–​4 Modi government and, 304 reform, 208-​15 schemes, 202, 206, 210, 300 social safety net, 201–​22, 239, 277 Index [ 345 ] 346 South Korea, 5, 6, 20, 68, 70, 157, 262, 265, 316 Special Drawing Rights (SDRs), 261–​2 state: accountability, 230–​5 capacity, 231–​5, 254 intervention, 7, 19, 36, 37-​44, 142, 187–​90, 192, 226, 228, 300, 302 and market relationship, 8, 36–​44 ownership, 18, 36, 40, 41, 113-​18, 163 political economy of, 225–​30 reform of, 233–​5, 241–​3, 247 state electricity boards (SEBs), 89–​90, 122, 309; see also UDAY state public sector enterprises (SPSEs), 114, 115, 116 states: deprivation in, 28 growth in, 27 inequality between, 29–​30 poverty in, 28 see also Centre and States sterilized intervention, 156 stressed assets, 122, 154, 284 subsidies, 30, 38, 43–​4, 87–​92, 101–​4, 163–​4, 205–​8, 212–​13, 230, 285–​8, 293–​4 elimination of, 214–​15, 230 explicit, 163–​4 hidden, 87, 92, 123, 164, 212, 285 problems in unwinding, 214 Subbarao, D., 158–​9 Subramanian, T.S.R., 127 Swachh Bharat, 306, 310 Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), see Public Distribution System tax/​taxes/​tax system, 35, 38, 40, 44, 89, 92–​3, 124–​5, 128, 131, 163, 286–​7, 290–​1 exemptions, 93, 163, 213, 284 indirect tax, 92–​3, 163, 290–​1 on international trade, 93, 247; see also trade liberalization minimum alternate tax, 299 reform, 92-​3, 162–​3, 291, 293 retrospective, 151, 299 and revenue, 35, 37, 51, 163 [ 346 ] Index see also government expenditure; subsidies teachers, 179–​83 telecom spectrum, 38, 236 Tendulkar, S., 28, 210–​11, 216 total factor productivity (TFP), 52, 53–​7, 72, 80, 87, 104; see also productivity tradable goods, 88, 117, 291 trade, see international trade Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), 264–​5 Trade in Services Agreement (TISA), 269, 298 trade unions, 66, 79, 82 and political parties, 82 teachers’ unions, 179, 183, 229 ‘traditional public health’ (TPH), 188–​9, 196, 303 tragedy of the commons, 38 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 265 Trans-​Pacific Partnership (TPP), 265–​6, 298 transparency, 44, 240 UDAY, 296 unemployment, 65 United Progressive Alliance (UPA), 24–​5, 95, 97, 117, 143, 164, 202, 283, 307–​8 United States, 8, 252, 255 and China rivalry, 10 gilded age, 240, 243 as ‘hyper-​power’, 9 and India, civil nuclear agreement, 9 University Grants Commission (UGC), 184–​5 unorganized sector, 66–​7, 69–​70, 76–​7, 78, 99, 288–​9 definition of, 66 low-​labour-​productivity in, 66 low-​quality jobs in, 73 output of, 67, 69 as ‘own account enterprises’, 76 workers in, 65 urban: infrastructure, 97, 120, 123, 292 land, 96, 131 urbanization, 96 347 Vajpayee, Atal Behari, 24 value-​added tax (VAT), 92–​3 vocational and technical education and training (VTET), 185 water, 75, 90–​1, 101–​3, 125–​7, 206, 212, 285, 290, 293, 309 over-​extraction of, 126 pricing, 126–​7 women, 29, 72, 73, 204, 205, 210, 233, 304, 311; see also female labour force participation rate; literacy, female workforce, 66–​7, 77, 80, 94, 292 income of organized, 145 informal, 67, 69 mal-​distributed, 66 non-​farm, 67 poor, 100 in unorganized sector, 66–​7 see also labour/​labour force World Bank, 28, 186 ‘Ease of Doing Business’ reports of, 74, 283 and foreign aid, 18 survey of Indian firms, 74 World Trade Organization (WTO), 263–​4, 267–​8 Yadav, Lalu Prasad, 227 Yadav, Mulayam Singh, 227 zamindari, abolition of, 226 Index [ 347 ] 348


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, starchitect, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Marcel Proust, Pleasures and Days1 Abram Games’ banned 1942 propaganda poster featuring the Finsbury Health Centre In blacked-out London’s grimy nights invisible figures armed with nothing more than tin hats and buckets full of sand watched from towers and rooftops – intently or with chilled boredom – for German incendiaries falling from the skies. One of these watchers in the dark was an Indian immigrant named Dr Chuni Lai Katial. Handsome, socialistically inclined and very well connected (a 1931 photograph shows him with Charlie Chaplin and Mahatma Gandhi), Dr Katial was shortly to become Britain’s first Asian mayor. Before the war he was chairman of the public health committee of Finsbury, a deprived inner-city borough of London, and his firewatching was given a special piquancy by the possibility that his own baby might be burned or blasted by the bombs, the child in question being the Finsbury Health Centre. Dr Katial had fought long and hard to open the centre in 1938, and now it stood half-buried in sandbags, a necessary precaution since its facade was largely made of those unmistakable signifiers of architectural modernity, glass bricks (the glass cracked under the weight, but otherwise the building survived the war unscathed).

Military and naval hospitals in eighteenth-century Britain inspired architects across Europe, and the dire treatment of wounded and sick soldiers during the Crimean War (1853–6) spurred Florence Nightingale’s long campaign to reform hospitals back home. Later, the poor health of volunteers for the Boer Wars (1880–1902) caused a national scandal in Britain: only two fifths were fit to fight, and fear of martial incompetence, and the resulting disintegration of empire, provided an impetus to improve the living conditions of the working class. Dr Katial (rear left) hosted a meeting of Charlie Chaplin and Mahatma Gandhi at his home in London’s East End in 1931 But although changes were made, the nation’s health remained in a parlous state well into the 1930s. The biggest killer was tuberculosis, responsible for 30,000–40,000 deaths a year, and the connection with overcrowding and unsanitary conditions was clear. Finsbury, for example, with its tightly packed impoverished population, was a breeding ground for the disease.


pages: 371 words: 93,570

Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans

"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K

To use one of Wendy’s examples, say I’m browsing the Mountbatten archive using her system, Microcosm, circa 1989. I’m interested in Mountbatten’s career in India, a two-year period during which he oversaw the country’s transition from colonial rule to independent statehood. This history has its recurring characters: his field marshal, the leader of the Indian National Congress, Jawaharlal Nehru, and of course, Mahatma Gandhi, whose name is everywhere in the source material. Say also that within the Microcosm linkbase, an instance of the name “Mahatma Gandhi” has been linked to some multimedia information—a video, perhaps, of a Gandhi speech. Because of the nature of Microcosm links, that connection isn’t isolated to a single, underlined, hyperlink-blue instance of those words. Rather, it’s connected to the idea of Gandhi, following the man wherever his name may turn up, across every document in the system.


pages: 288 words: 90,349

The Challenge for Africa by Wangari Maathai

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, deliberate practice, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

In the three decades since the Green Belt Movement began its work, some Africans have left the trenches to pursue their own interests and ambitions; others have become disappointed and tired. Some are languishing in their homes or jails; others are homeless or in refugee camps. Some are hoping for leadership to deliver them; others are waiting until it is clear to them that they must save themselves by, in the words of Mahatma Gandhi, being the change they wish to see in the world. Yet as I seek to show, the challenges before Africa not only stem from national and international policies (although these play an important part in determining Africa's future, as they have its past), but are also moral, spiritual, cultural, and even psychological in nature. As I also illustrate, the condition of Africa is bound to that of the world.

No nation has developed these three pillars without the people themselves chiseling them, sometimes at a great price. In Africa, independence movements throughout the continent struggled to free their fellow citizens from colonialism and imperialism—including those led by Jomo Kenyatta, Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkrumah, Nelson Mandela, and Walter Sisulu. One is reminded of the courage and determination of those who fought for women's suffrage in the early part of the twentieth century; Mahatma Gandhi's campaign for Indian independence, which mobilized hundreds of thousands of individuals in nonviolent resistance to British rule; and the civil rights movement in the United States, for which many people gave their lives. All these movements included in their ranks many whose names aren't recorded by history, or whose bones still lie unburied in the forests where they fell fighting for their land and freedom, or who are interred in unmarked graves.


pages: 98 words: 25,753

Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning

The telegraph was instrumental enough in how wartime communication took place; what if Lincoln or Churchill and Roosevelt had instant messaging? The Occupy movement has benefited enormously from being able to coordinate action and communicate its message on the backs of big-data systems. And, at both ends of the spectrum, imagine a data breach at Facebook: what would Hitler have done with that information? How would Mahatma Gandhi have utilized that kind of information about so many people? And because of the sheer velocity, volume, and variety of big data, as it evolves, it is introducing ethical challenges in places and ways we’ve never encountered before. To meet those challenges in those new and unexpected ways, we simply must learn to engage in explicit ethical discussion in new and unexpected environments—not only to protect ourselves from the risk of unintended consequences, but because there are legitimate and immediate benefits.


pages: 740 words: 236,681

The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever by Christopher Hitchens

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, Ayatollah Khomeini, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, David Attenborough, Edmond Halley, Georg Cantor, germ theory of disease, index card, Isaac Newton, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, phenotype, risk tolerance, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thales of Miletus, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics

there is no getting out of the mighty hand of God.” Apparently, however, Providence gave up all hope of curing Boston of its wickedness, for, though lightning rods became more and more common, earthquakes in Massachusetts have remained rare. Nevertheless, Dr. Price’s point of view, or something very like it, is still held by one of the most influential of living men. When, at one time, there were several bad earthquakes in India, Mahatma Gandhi solemnly warned his compatriots that these disasters had been sent as a punishment for their sins. Even in my own native island this point of view still exists. During the last war, the British Government did much to stimulate the production of food at home. In 1916, when things were not going well, a Scottish clergyman wrote to the newspapers to say that military failure was due to the fact that, with government sanction, potatoes had been planted on the Sabbath.

He does not see Reno, for you cannot be divorced in the sight of God. Registry offices are a doubtful point. I notice that respectable people, who would not call on anybody who lives in open sin, are quite willing to call on people who have had only a civil marriage; so apparently God does see registry offices. Some eminent men think even the doctrine of the Catholic Church deplorably lax where sex is concerned. Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi, in their old age, laid it down that all sexual intercourse is wicked, even in marriage and with a view to offspring. The Manicheans thought likewise, relying upon men’s native sinfulness to supply them with a continually fresh crop of disciples. This doctrine, however, is heretical, though it is equally heretical to maintain that marriage is as praiseworthy as celibacy. Tolstoy thinks tobacco almost as bad as sex; in one of his novels, a man who is contemplating murder smokes a cigarette first in order to generate the necessary homicidal fury.

Instead of each dropping their own foolish custom, they each adopted the foolish custom of the other, and the Chinese continued to wear pigtails until they shook off the dominion of the Manchus in the revolution of 1911. For those who have enough psychological imagination, it is a good plan to imagine an argument with a person having a different bias. This has one advantage, and only one, as compared with actual conversation with opponents; this one advantage is that the method is not subject to the same limitations of time or space. Mahatma Gandhi deplores railways and steamboats and machinery; he would like to undo the whole of the industrial revolution. You may never have an opportunity of actually meeting any one who holds this opinion, because in Western countries most people take the advantage of modern technique for granted. But if you want to make sure that you are right in agreeing with the prevailing opinion, you will find it a good plan to test the arguments that occur to you by considering what Gandhi might say in refutation of them.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Unlike the Brahmins of old who went to Oxford and adopted English tastes, Ambani prefers to speak his native tongue at home, loves the kind of Indian food that is sold on streetside carts, and relaxes with two or three Bollywood films a week.44 Offering an entrepreneurial speedup to the sluggish pace of social reform in India, Ambani embodies the spirit of the New India, its back firmly turned against its socialist past. Mahatma Gandhi and Mao Zedong—Two Men Cast Long Shadows over China and India Because capitalism impinges so closely upon attitudes, values, habits—the stuff of culture—it is worthwhile comparing China and India in yet one more way. Both countries found their venerable traditions challenged by a charismatic leader in the late 1940s. Perhaps some of their responses to capitalism can be traced back to the impact of those two giants, Mahatma Gandhi and Mao Zedong. Gandhi headed the movement for India independence from Great Britain from 1913 to 1948, when a Hindu extremist assassinated him six months after India had reacquired its autonomy.

A gifted mathematician, Naoroji developed statistics to prove his case, estimating that England was taking 200 million pounds sterling from India, where per capita income, measured in rupees, was 20, compared with 450 in Great Britain. The British reaction was to form a commission to study the issue, a classic delaying tactic. In 1885 Naoroji participated in the formation of the Indian National Congress. He also became the mentor of a young admirer named Mahatma Gandhi. At first working within the British system for reforms, the INC later led the anticolonial movement that achieved independence in 1947.34 From the perspective of capitalism’s history, India’s critics are significant for two reasons. They astutely perceived that British officials treated economics as though it were a natural system like physics instead of a social system created by human beings for their purposes.


pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Parag Khanna, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Apartheid’s Overreach: South Africa and Afrikaans Linguistic nationalism left enduring, perhaps unsolvable conflicts in Spain. Elsewhere, it may have even toppled at least one regime. South Africa’s Constitutional Court, in Pretoria, abounds in symbolism. In an unhappier, earlier era, it was a detention facility. It has the distinction of holding, at different times, two of the world’s most famously righteous freedom fighters: Mahatma Gandhi was held there by British authorities in the early twentieth century, and Nelson Mandela would be locked up there half a century later. Today, South Africa’s Constitutional Court is a symbol of reconciliation and justice. Some of the old brickwork has been kept as a reminder of what the building once was. But the rest is new. The ceiling is designed to evoke an outdoor setting beneath trees, making semiliteral a traditional African concept: “justice under the tree” is dispensed by elders in traditional communal gatherings.

Its chief political vehicle, India’s equivalent of the African National Congress, was the Congress Party. (In fact, Mandela and the ANC learned from the Indian experience.) In freeing their country, India’s independence leaders knew that they would also have to hold it together. The Congress Party’s leaders did not worry overmuch about language. They assumed that India’s biggest language, which they called “Hindustani,” would unite the free India they sought. These leaders included Mahatma Gandhi, a Gujarati-speaker who spoke Hindustani haltingly; Jawaharlal Nehru, who was descended from Kashmiris and spoke English best; and even the southern Tamil figure C.R. Rajagopalachari, who spoke no Hindustani at all. (Tamil is a Dravidian language, totally unrelated to the northern Indian languages, including Hindustani.) “Hindustani,” though, is these days a disputed concept. The languages now called Hindi and Urdu are its squabbling children.


pages: 415 words: 103,801

The Last Kings of Shanghai: The Rival Jewish Dynasties That Helped Create Modern China by Jonathan Kaufman

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Honoré de Balzac, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, old-boy network, plutocrats, Plutocrats, rent control, Steve Jobs, trade route

“I realize now how it pays to be a cripple,” an American officer told Victor the next morning. Both the original David Sassoon and Co. and E. D. Sassoon & Co. had boomed during the war, supplying cotton to the British army for uniforms and trading actively with China, India, and England. The end of the war meant slowing demand for Indian cotton in England. That was compounded by growing unrest among Indian workers, who were rallying around Mahatma Gandhi and his calls for self-rule. His symbol was Indian homespun cloth, which undercut the textile industry in which the Sassoons made much of their money now that the opium trade was illegal. Workers in India were demanding higher wages. Gandhi began launching boycotts against British goods. In China, Japan was starting to build factories of its own and flooding the Chinese market. To regain their edge, the Sassoons needed to raise capital to modernize their factories.

He supported a law that limited the workweek to sixty hours and raised the minimum age of child workers to twelve, over the objections of many of his fellow millionaires. “I don’t pretend to know anything about debating, as until I went to Delhi the only debate I had even listened to [was at university] and I have never set foot in the House of Commons,” he wrote to a friend. But with a few exceptions, he felt there was no one in the British colonial government he couldn’t outargue. Victor saw multiple threats looming on India’s political horizon: Mahatma Gandhi, socialism, Indian independence. In 1922 the handsome Prince of Wales—later to become King Edward VIII—visited New Delhi. Victor greeted him as he disembarked, along with other leaders. Gandhi’s supporters quickly organized riots and strikes to wreck the royal goodwill tour. Winston Churchill, a rising politician in London, dismissed Gandhi and his spreading campaign of civil disobedience as the “alarming and nauseating” efforts of a “seditious fakir . . . striding half-naked up the steps of the vice regal palace.”


pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Their leadership approach is focused on eliciting compliance and is particularly ineffective at generating widespread team member engagement and enthusiasm. Conscious companies are led by emotionally and spiritually mature leaders. Such conscious leaders are primarily motivated by service to the purpose of the business and its stakeholders, and not by the pursuit of power or personal enrichment. They develop and inspire, mentor and motivate, and lead by example. Rather than militaristic or mercenary, they are missionary leaders. They embody Mahatma Gandhi’s dictum “We must be the change we wish to see in the world.” Conscious leaders are strong individuals who possess exceptional moral courage and are able to withstand constant scrutiny and criticism from those who view business in a more traditional, narrow manner. Above all, conscious leaders view themselves as trustees of the business, seeking to nurture and safeguard it for future generations, not to exploit it for the short-term gains of themselves or current stakeholders.

Management is about efficiency and implementation. Leaders are the high-level architects, builders, and remodelers of the system, while managers ensure that the system works smoothly and take corrective actions when it doesn’t. Leaders have an inherent systemic sensitivity that enables them to understand both how a group of people will behave as a system and how to change the system in order to change its behavior. Mahatma Gandhi’s approach to nonviolence was once challenged by a history professor, who cited his “knowledge of history” to argue that Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence would never work. Gandhi replied, “Sir, your job is to teach history while mine is to create it.”4 Managers do not make history; conscious leaders do. They imagine and bring into existence that which did not exist before and which most thought could not be done.


The Future of Money by Bernard Lietaer

agricultural Revolution, banks create money, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, complexity theory, corporate raider, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, Golden Gate Park, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, price stability, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Future of Employment, the market place, the payments system, Thomas Davenport, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, working poor

Radical behavioural and attitudinal changes are explored too, but it turns out that these alone are not enough either - there is still a crash in the mid twenty-first century. It is only when both these kinds of changes are applied together that a crash is avoided. It is precisely such a combination, which is in fact already happening today. 1. The Value Shift Wave 'First they ignore you; Then they ridicule you; Then they attack you; Then you win.' Mahatma Gandhi The most detailed data set about changes in values over the past 20 years relates to the US. But there are preliminary indications that this process is in fact going on in the entire Western world, and possibly even globally. Paul Ray has carried out the largest up-to-date surveys of the changes in values over the past 20 years. These surveys covered scientific samples of 100,000 Americans, and were further refined with over 500 focus groups.

The three waves to Sustainable Abundance would enable this to happen. As Sir Eric Tilgner put it: 'Destiny is not a matter of chance. It is a matter ofchoice.' Just remember that we are doing: the choosing for your children, for your children's children, and for a significant part of the biosphere as well. Epilogue 'The great challenge of the Modem Age is not to remake our world. but to remake ourselves. Be the change you wish to see for the world' - Mahatma Gandhi 'A problem cannot be solved with the same type of thinking that created it.' - Albert Einstien 'We don’t see things as they are. We see them as we are.' – Anais Nin Humanity and Planet Earth are at a cross-roads. The next 20 years will either see an irretrievable loss of biodiversity and a deterioration of the quality of life for vast numbers of people, or we will have moved up the next evolutionary step.


Antonio-s-Gun-and-Delfino-s-Dream-True-Tales-of-Mexican-Migration by Unknown

Berlin Wall, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, trade route

People said he ate bread and sweets to excess and that this was one reason his moods swung so wildly and why he never quite won the battle with his paunch. His mother was supposed to have cared for comedian Richard Pryor after Pryor lighted himself on fire smoking cocaine. Robles’s father was supposed to have once been a Roman Catholic priest, leaving the priesthood to marry Robles’s mother. His father had an affinity for great philosophers. Robles’s brother was an ex-convict named Mahatma Gandhi Robles. What was undeniable was that by , Albert had assembled an impressive array of enemies: city unions and business owners, white seniors, and a good many Latino politicians; and soon, the editorial board of every newspaper in the area. Pastors at South Gate churches usually avoided politics. But Fr. John Provenza, the local Roman Catholic priest, eventually blessed a campaign kickoff of a Robles opponent.

Neighbors of a house in El Monte assured reporters that she lived at that house. Nevertheless, in filing to run for office, she had listed a South Gate apartment complex as her address. Apartment residents told visitors that she didn’t live there. “How people do ask about her,” said a woman who lived in the South Gate apartment Benavides claimed to occupy. Benavides was registered to vote at that address, but then so had Robles’s brother, Mahatma Gandhi Robles, and there was no evidence he lived there, either. Within two days of reporters inquiring about Benavides at the address, a white mailbox on a post was installed in fresh concrete by the side of the house with “Benavides” emblazoned on it in black letters for all to see. Curiously, too, Benavides seemed incapable of speaking in public. She hadn’t campaigned nor attended civic events.


pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Not long after setting out, his boat scraped a hidden sandbar, shearing off the propeller. Without power, he drifted for more than a day until a sport fisherman spotted him and hauled him back to shore. Yet as unsuccessful as his Cuban journey may have been, Fred Moore was destined to have a dramatic impact on the world. Intent on bringing about change simply by putting his body on the line, in the mold of Mahatma Gandhi, Moore ultimately was to alter both the world’s politics and technology. A year after his Cuban misadventure, Fred Moore came to Berkeley to study science. He had an obvious talent for math and engineering, interests that had been sparked in part by frequent weekend visits to the home of a maiden aunt, who always gave him a mental puzzle to work at. In an era when America was a conforming society outwardly, his appearance was like that of other entering freshmen.

It didn’t immediately matter, and though it would take several years to bear fruit, the idea for interactive page layout was now firmly etched in Tesler’s mind. In 1961, Larry Tesler had come to Stanford as a fairly apolitical freshman. During Tesler’s first year on campus, Ira Sandperl, the local pacifist and former Stanford student who worked at Kepler’s bookstore, came to campus to speak, accompanied by folksinger Joan Baez. Of course everyone wanted to see and hear Baez, a phenomenon at the time. Sandperl discussed at length the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, especially nonviolent resistance. The ideas resonated with Tesler but had little direct impact immediately. After he graduated, Vietnam and the Free University began to have an effect on his thinking. He had married after leaving Stanford and initially focused on his career and family. One of his partners in his small programming consulting business was a former Stanford student who was far more radical than Tesler and who urged him to get more involved in protesting the war.


pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn

agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

Think how much more effective a women’s rights movement could be if backed by an army of social entrepreneurs. The United Nations and the aid bureaucracies have undertaken a relentless search for technical solutions—including improved vaccines and new processes for boring wells—and those are important. But progress also depends on political and cultural remedies, and, frankly, on charisma. Often the key is a person with a knack for leadership: Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States, Mahatma Gandhi in India, and William Wilberforce in Britain. It’s important to invest in these emerging leaders as well as in processes, and aid organizations have largely missed the boat that Drayton launched with Ashoka. “It does seem to be a major blind spot in development and government efforts,” notes David Bornstein, who wrote an excellent book about social entrepreneurs called How to Change the World.

* One exception: Successful public health initiatives have sometimes been directed from the treetops. Examples include the eradication of smallpox, vaccination campaigns, and battles against river blindness and guinea worm disease. They are exceptional because they depend on research, materials, and knowledge that do not exist at the grassroots. CHAPTER FOURTEEN What You Can Do You must be the change you wish to see in the world. —MAHATMA GANDHI Americans knew for decades about the unfairness of segregation. But racial discrimination seemed a complex problem deeply rooted in the South’s history and culture, and most good-hearted people didn’t see what they could do about such injustices. Then along came Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. and the Freedom Riders, along with eye-opening books like John Howard Griffin’s Black Like Me.


pages: 382 words: 107,150

We Are All Fast-Food Workers Now: The Global Uprising Against Poverty Wages by Annelise Orleck

airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, Food sovereignty, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McJob, means of production, new economy, payday loans, precariat, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Skype, special economic zone, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

In both traditions, hunger strikers often fasted outside the door of the person they felt had cheated them. If the hunger strikers died before winning their due, the person at whose door the fast took place was dishonored before the community. Walmart workers’ fasts at the homes of Walton family members and CEOs fit that ancient frame. Women used hunger strikes in early twentieth-century Britain and the United States to demand the right to vote. Mahatma Gandhi completed seventeen fasts during the Indian independence struggle. Irish Republican Army activists launched prison fasts in the 1970s and early 1980s. (IRA leader Bobby Sands starved himself to death in 1981.) Since 2000, detainees at Guantanamo have gone on hunger strikes to protest violations of their human rights, as have Palestinian prisoners in Israel and women detainees at immigration prisons in Arizona and Texas.16 Maria Elena Durazo and UNITE HERE have long mounted hunger strikes.

Flores knew she had a legal right to organize and she was determined that managers not stop her from exercising it. So, she and sixteen colleagues went on hunger strike. They pitched tents outside the Palace Station, where they sat in 100-degree desert heat. For a week, they consumed only water as they explained to passing tourists why they were fasting. The press described the protesters as a cross between Occupy Wall Street, Cesar Chavez, and Mahatma Gandhi. Casino managers called the hunger strikers union terrorists. Not until March 2017, after numerous protests and an NLRB suit, did the Station Casinos agree to let their workers unionize. In March 2017, Norma Flores signed her first union contract.19 One month later, amid festivities for accepted students, Yale University graduate research and teaching assistants began a hunger strike in front of the office of university president Peter Salovey.


pages: 124 words: 39,011

Beyond Outrage: Expanded Edition: What Has Gone Wrong With Our Economy and Our Democracy, and How to Fix It by Robert B. Reich

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, banking crisis, business cycle, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, job automation, Mahatma Gandhi, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

One of my favorites, Dolores Huerta, co-founded (with Cesar Chavez) the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. In 1966, Huerta negotiated a contract between the farmworkers and the Schenley Wine Company; it was the first time farmworkers effectively negotiated a contract to improve their pay and working conditions. Or think of other great leaders who had no formal authority but changed the world—Martin Luther King Jr., Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela. Leaders get people to actively work on what needs to be done. To do this, leaders need to help people overcome the four “work-avoidance mechanisms” that most of the rest of us carry around in our heads. Those mechanisms are denial that a problem exists, the desire to escape responsibility even when we recognize the problem, the tendency to scapegoat others for causing it, and—worst of all—cynicism about the possibility of ever remedying the problem.


Small Change: Why Business Won't Save the World by Michael Edwards

Bernie Madoff, clean water, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, different worldview, high net worth, invisible hand, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Shuttleworth, market bubble, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs

Within this broad coalition, social entrepreneurs are people “who work in an entrepreneurial manner, but for public or social benefit, rather than to make money.”2 They are “transformative forces who will not take ‘no’ for an answer” in their efforts to solve large-scale social problems. In his book How to Change the World: Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas, David Bornstein includes Florence Nightingale, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, and even St. Francis of Assisi, as well as people who have become standard-bearers for this new movement, such as Mohammad Yunus of the Grameen Bank and Bill Drayton of Ashoka.3 What St. Francis would have thought about this designation is another matter, though someone who made a virtue out of humility hardly seems like a natural candidate. Still, Bornstein lists “a willingness to self-correct, break free of established structures, work quietly and develop strong ethical imperatives” as characteristics of successful social entrepreneurs, and the Italian certainly had all those in abundance.


pages: 123 words: 36,533

Keep It Real: Everything You Need to Know About Researching and Writing Creative Nonfiction by Lee Gutkind

In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan

Lorraine Adams, a columnist for the Washington Post, has dubbed this trend the rise of “the nobody memoir.” To trace the arc of memoir through the centuries, from St. Augustine to Mary Karr, would require a book-length manuscript. Memoirists have typically been heavy hitters: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Virginia Woolf, Henry David Thoreau, Walt Whitman, E. B. White, Gertrude Stein, Ulysses S. Grant, Mahatma Gandhi, Bill Clinton, Gore Vidal, George Orwell, Leon Trotsky, Benjamin Franklin, Mark Twain, Maya Angelou, Frederick Douglass, Black Elk, Helen Keller, Carl Jung, Jean-Paul Sartre, and on and on. But look beyond the list of notables, and you’ll find a genre that practically guarantees a populist platform. What critics overlook is that many notables would have remained nobodies if it weren’t for their self-directed gazes.


pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, zero-sum game

Per capita income is about $12,000 in Brazil and $1,400 in India. Lately India’s governing Congress Party has turned to generous spending in an effort to recover the political backing it had lost to an array of regional parties in recent decades. Brazil offered what was probably the emerging world’s most generous welfare program—the Bolsa Familia income supports—that is, until 2005, when the Congress Party in India pushed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which guarantees the rural poor one hundred days of public-sector employment each year, at an annual cost to the treasury of nearly $10 billion. It was easy enough for India to increase spending in the midst of a global boom, but the spending has continued to rise in the post-crisis period. Inspired by the popularity of the employment guarantees, the government now plans to spend the same amount extending food subsidies to the poor.

., 129 Kenya, 191, 205, 209 Keynes, John Maynard, 109 KGB, 86 Khodorkovsky, Mikhail, 87 Kia, 161, 162–63 kidnappings, 78–79, 190–91 Kim Jong Il, 170 Kinshasa, 205 Kirchner, Cristina, 89 Kirchner, Nestor, 89 Klaus, Vaclav, 108 Koç family, 125 “Korea Discount,” 167–69 “Korean Wave,” 122, 167 KOSPI index, 70, 153, 155, 156, 164, 165 K-pop, 122, 154, 167 Kuala Lumpur, 147, 148, 151 Kumar, Nitish, 50–51 Kuwait, 187–88, 214, 216, 218, 219 Kuznets curve, 76 labor market, 7, 17, 21–23, 27, 32, 38, 47, 55, 64, 65, 76, 77, 102, 103, 104, 164, 169–70, 174–75, 179, 180–81, 199, 203–4, 246–47 Lada, 86 Lafarge, 213 Lagos, 211, 212, 213 landlines, 207 land-use laws, 25, 168 Laos, 188 laptop computers, 158, 164 large numbers, law of, 7 Last Train Home, The, 22–23 Latin America, viii, 40–41, 42, 73–75, 81, 89, 246 see also specific countries Latvia, 101 Lavoisier, Antoine, 235–36 law, rule of, x, 50–51, 89, 96, 127, 181–82 lead, 19 Leblon neighborhood, 61 Lee Kwan Yew, 118, 148, 193 Lehman Brothers, 164 Le Thanh Hai, 203 Lewis, Arthur, 21 “Lewis turning point,” 21 LG, 158, 163 “Liberation Tigers” of Tamil Eelam, 192–93, 197 Liberty, 178 Libya, 127, 216 Limpopo River, 171 Linux, 238 liquidity, 9, 228–30 liquor stores, 126 literacy rate, 52 Lithuania, 101, 109 Lixin Fan, 22–23 loans, personal, 12, 24, 116, 125, 150 long-run forecasting, 1–14 L’Oréal, 31 Louis Vuitton, 31 Lugano, 40 Lula da Silva, Inácio, 59, 61, 66, 70, 210, 226, 248 luxury goods, vii–viii, 12, 25, 31, 236 Macao, 201 macroeconomics, 7–8, 13, 66, 67, 145–46, 188 “macromania,” 7–8, 188 Made in America, Again, 246–47 “made in” label, 155, 246–47 Madhya Pradesh, 52 maglev (magnetic levitation) trains, 15–16, 231 Magnit, 90–91 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 41–42 Malaysia, 146–52 in Asian financial crisis, 18, 131–32, 146–47, 149–50 banking in, 146, 149–50, 151, 252 currency of (ringgit), 131, 146–47, 149 economic planning in, 150–52, 161 economy of, 18, 118, 150–52, 161, 235 electronics industry of, 147–48 as emerging market, 10, 45, 118, 149, 161, 235 foreign investment in, 146–50, 151 foreign trade of, 6, 144, 147, 157 GDP of, 145, 147, 149 government of, 146, 148–52 growth rate of, 9, 147–48, 149, 244 income levels of, 138, 148 manufacturing sector in, 147–48, 150 political situation in, 146–49 Singapore compared with, 118 stock market of, 131, 235 Thailand compared with, 144, 145, 147 wealth of, 148 Mali, 208 Malta, 30, 106 Malthus, Thomas, 225, 231–32 Mandela, Nelson, 171, 172, 176 Manila, 130, 138, 139, 140, 141 Manuel, Trevor, 176 manufacturing sector, 17–18, 22–23, 28, 43, 54, 75, 80, 88–89, 90, 110, 124, 132, 147–48, 150, 155, 157, 158–59, 160, 161–66, 168, 170, 180, 221, 230, 235, 246–47, 265 Maoism, 37, 47 Mao Zedong, 21, 27, 29 Marcos, Ferdinand, 138, 139, 210 markets: black, 13–14, 96, 126 capital, 69, 70–71; see also capital flows commodity, 12, 13–14, 223–39 currency, 4, 9, 13, 28 domestic, 36, 43, 183 emerging, vii–x, 2–11, 37–38, 47, 64, 94, 185–91, 198–99, 242–49, 254–55, 259–62 free, x, 8–9, 96, 104 frontier, 89, 185–91, 213, 261–62 housing, 5–6, 16, 18, 24–25, 28–29, 31, 32, 61, 92, 103–4 labor, 7, 17, 21–23, 27, 32, 38, 47, 55, 64, 65, 76, 77, 102, 103, 104, 164, 169–70, 174–75, 179, 180–81, 199, 203–4, 246–47 see also stock markets Mato Grosso, 232 Mayer-Serra, Carlos Elizondo, 78 MBAs, 225 Mbeki, Thabo, 176, 206 Medellín drug cartel, 79 Medvedev, Dmitry, 95–96 Mercedes-Benz, 86, 144 Merkel, Angela, 108 Mexican peso crisis, 4, 9 Mexico, 73–82 antitrust laws in, 81–82 banking in, 81, 82 billionaires in, 45, 47, 71, 78–80 Brazil compared with, 71, 75 China compared with, 80, 82 consumer prices in, 75–76 corruption in, 76–77 currency of (peso), 4, 9, 73, 80, 131 drug cartels in, 79–80 economy of, 4, 12, 28, 73–82, 178, 183 emigration from, 79, 82 foreign exports of, 6, 75, 80, 158 GDP of, 76, 77, 81 government of, 76–78 growth rate of, 73–82, 244 income levels of, 8, 73–75, 76, 113 labor unions in, 76, 77 national debt of, 76, 80–81 nationalization in, 77–78 oil industry of, 75, 77–78, 82 oligopolies in, 73, 75, 76–82, 178 parliament of, 76–77 political situation in, 76–78, 82 population of, 73 stock market of, 73, 75, 76, 81 taxation in, 76 U.S. compared with, 75, 79, 80 Mexico City, 75 micromanagement, 151 middle class, 10, 19–20, 33, 42–43, 52–56, 182, 211, 236 Middle East, 38, 65, 68, 113, 116, 122, 123, 125, 166, 170, 189, 195, 214–21, 234, 246 middle-income barrier, 19–20, 144–45 middle-income deceleration, 20 Miller, Arthur, 223 minimum wage, 29, 63, 126, 137 mining industry, 44, 93, 154, 175, 176, 178–80 Miracle Year (2003), 3–6 misery index, 248–49 Mittal, Sunil Bharti, 204–5, 206, 209 mobile phones, 53, 86, 204–5, 207–8, 212, 237 Mohammed, Mahathir, 146–47, 148, 151 Moi, Daniel arap, 205 monetization, 225 Money Game, The (Smith), 234 Mongolia, 191 monopolies, 13, 73, 75–76, 178–79 Monroe, Marilyn, 129 Monte Carlo, 94 “morphic resonance,” 185 mortgage-backed securities, 5 mortgages, 5, 92, 105–6 Moscow, 12, 83, 84, 90, 91, 96, 136, 137, 232 mosques, 111 Mou Qizhong, 46 Mozambique, 184, 194–95, 198, 206 M-Pesa, 208 MTN, 212–13 Mubarak, Gamal, 218 Mubarak, Hosni, 92, 127, 218 Mugabe, Robert, 176, 181 Multimedia Supercorridor, 151 multinational corporations, 53, 73, 75, 81, 151, 158–59, 160, 184, 230 Mumbai, 43, 44, 79, 214, 244 Murder 2, 167 Murphy’s law, 11 Muslim Brotherhood, 127 Mutual, 178 mutual funds, 178–79 Myanmar, 30 Myspace, 41 Naipaul, V.


pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, twin studies, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

It is the issue of education to which we turn next. 5 Education and Empowerment We want to provide only such education as would enable the student to earn more. We hardly give any thought to the improvement of the character of the educated. The girls, we say, do not have to earn; so why should they be educated? As long as such ideas persist there is no hope of our ever knowing the true value of education. Mahatma Gandhi You are a young girl sitting outside a rude shelter, humble but home, in a Bangladeshi village, watching your baby brother play in the dirt – your parents are both at work – and daydreaming. The fairy godmother appears and asks: ‘How would you like a more secure future, better nutrition, a paid job, control over the decision if and when to get married, defence against being beaten by your husband, control over your sexuality and childbearing, increased chance that children you choose to have survive and grow in good health?

Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man [woman] whom you may have seen, and ask yourself, if the step you contemplate is going to be of any use to him [her]. Will he [she] gain anything by it? Will it restore him [her] to a control over his [her] own life and destiny? In other words, will it lead to swaraj [freedom] for the hungry and spiritually starving millions? Then you will find your doubts and your self melt away. Mahatma Gandhi ‘You are the first white man who spoke to me in a way I could believe in; what you said: did it include me?’ Then the Maori woman, in traditional Maori fashion, introduced herself by saying who her grandparents and parents were. She finished: ‘I think what you said includes me, but I want to hear from you that it is so.’ I had just given a lecture, covering some of the material in this book, at a big meeting in Auckland organised by the New Zealand Medical Association.


pages: 405 words: 112,470

Together by Vivek H. Murthy, M.D.

Airbnb, call centre, cognitive bias, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, crowdsourcing, gig economy, income inequality, index card, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, stem cell, twin studies, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft

The scientists who first recognized this vital function thought that perhaps, if we could learn to respond to loneliness (like we do to hunger and thirst), instead of surrendering to it, we might be able to reduce both its duration and negative effects and actually improve the overall quality of our lives. The first step was to study the tandem evolution of social connection and loneliness. Chapter 2 The Evolution of Loneliness With every true friendship, we build more firmly the foundations on which the peace of the whole world rests. —Mahatma Gandhi If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each other. —Mother Teresa One warm fall afternoon in 2017, while visiting my parents in Miami, I joined Iowa Public Radio by phone to speak with callers about loneliness. I was pacing outside on the driveway as I listened and talked, and my feet were bare, an old habit from childhood, when I would run through this very yard feeling the earth between my toes.

Humiliation, superiority, and dependence have no place in compassionate giving. Or, as sociologists Christian Smith and Hilary Davidson put it, in giving we receive, and in grasping we lose.7 The point that this makes is essential. The practice of service need not be onerous, distracting, or draining, but it must be kind. Ideally, through service this kindness becomes a deeper part of who we are, woven into our character. This is what India’s great spiritual leader Mahatma Gandhi meant when he said, “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”8 Researchers lately have picked up this thread from a neuroscientific perspective. One of them is Dr. Steve Cole.9 Service, Cole told me, is tied together with purpose and meaning, and all three play potent roles in social connectedness. But service, in particular, may offer a major key to healing the trauma of loneliness.


Migrant City: A New History of London by Panikos Panayi

Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, financial intermediation, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, multicultural london english, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white flight

It appears that every revolutionary leader of the period from the end of the eighteenth to the middle of twentieth century spent time in London, from Karl Marx, Lajos Kossuth and Giuseppe Garibaldi through to Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, Jomo Kenyatta, Mahatma Gandhi – and beyond that, a series of governments in exile which based themselves in London waiting for the defeat of the Nazis in Europe, perhaps most famously the Free French led by Charles de Gaulle. The presence of the conservative but nationalist French leader points to the fact that London has acted as home to political exiles from all parts of the political spectrum, beginning with those fleeing the French Revolution in the 1790s, although, while fascism may have had adherents in London, this city played little role in the evolution of this ideology. For some political thinkers spending time in the home of the mother of parliaments, their sojourn proved fundamental in the evolution of their ideas including, for example, Karl Marx and Mahatma Gandhi. While Gandhi may have moved to the imperial capital voluntarily for the purpose of his legal education, Marx resembles countless other refugees who essentially spent time in London because it proved the closest place to revolutionary activity taking place on the European continent.

Indian women, notably Sophia Duleep Singh, also became active in the Women’s Social and Political Union.107 The India League, which became the main organization campaigning for independence within Britain during the interwar years, came into existence in 1916 and brought together a wide range of Indians including seamen, students and professionals led by Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon, although it only had a membership of 180.108 The most famous Indian nationalist to visit London, Mahatma Gandhi, initially travelled to the imperial capital in order to study for the bar between 1888 and 1891 and interacted with the radical vegetarian movement and the theosophists, influenced by Indian religion. He returned in 1906 to lead a deputation to Parliament campaigning for the rights of Indians in South Africa and therefore established his reputation as a political campaigner in the heart of Empire.


You're a Horrible Person, but I Like You: The Believer Book of Advice by The Believer

Burning Man, haute cuisine, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, nuclear winter, Saturday Night Live

It comes from rigorous weight lifting and weight training. Some push-ups, but mostly weights. Fred … Dear Fred: I recently received an e-mail from a female friend whom I’d been romantically involved with over the summer. Things ended badly, and the e-mail was an apology for her jealous behavior. Should I accept her apology? Andrew McIntyre Washington, DC Dear Andrew: Here’s a quote from a speech by Mahatma Gandhi, 1945: “Breakups are hard. Breakups are hard. You say these things and it’s like … I don’t know. I don’t get jealous, you know? I just get mad sometimes. Like ‘What did that guy say to you?’ That kind of thing. A friend of mine is going through this and it’s like … I know what you’re going through. Really.” Hope it helps. Fred … Dear Fred: When she saw me attempting to clean my ears with a Q-tip, my mother would chide me and say, “The only thing you should put in your ear is your elbow.”


pages: 145 words: 41,453

You Are What You Read by Jodie Jackson

delayed gratification, Filter Bubble, framing effect, Hans Rosling, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, race to the bottom, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, yellow journalism

People who have high levels of hope are able to persevere thanks to their increased flexibility of thought; they can move around obstacles by creating alternative routes.13 Thomas Edison, America’s greatest inventor and father of the light bulb, famously said, ‘I have not failed; I’ve just found ten thousand ways that won’t work.’ Despite his continued setbacks, his committed belief in his ability to make a difference helped him persevere. In fact, all of the visionaries who have shaped the world we live in share a common trait: they have all created worlds beyond what reality suggested possible. Mahatma Gandhi, leader of India’s independence; Martin Luther King Jr., leader of the civil rights movement; Steve Jobs, creator of Apple; Marie Curie, the first woman to win a Nobel prize; the Wright brothers, aviation pioneers who have helped us travel at unimaginable speeds and unthinkable heights. These visionaries all had the ability to look beyond what is, to what could be. Hope, therefore, lies in our imagination; in seeing what is possible, rather than just what is probable.


pages: 413 words: 128,093

On the Grand Trunk Road: A Journey Into South Asia by Steve Coll

affirmative action, airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, yellow journalism

The subcontinent of 1992 would be familiar to today’s traveler, if he or she could find a way to move about safely—Afghanistan is still crippled by war, much of it waged covertly and influenced by outside powers; Kashmir is still troubled by youthful Islamist insurgents; Sri Lanka is still gripped by extrajudicial killings, although on a lesser scale than before; Nepal is still searching for a plausible democratic constitution. There has been one profound change from before, however: India’s rise as an economic power. Unshackled from its Nehruvian-socialist economic model, the country has birthed a new elite of conspicuous rich; a large, confident middle class with money to spend; and a media-soaked culture increasingly permissive about a style of conspicuous consumption that would astonish, and presumably pain, Mahatma Gandhi. There were glimmers of this possibility in 1992, but only that. “Shining India,” as the Hindu Nationalist political slogans today have it, is partly a mirage—poverty, illiteracy, profound income inequality, and backward infrastructure remain embedded behind the glare. Even so, India today is a markedly more stable and prosperous country than it was when I moved there to work fifteen years ago—and it is also the only country in South Asia of which that can be said.

Besides Abedi, dozens of other senior and mid-level BCCI managers were raised in or trace their roots to Mahmudabad. As Benazir learned about politics in Larkana, so Abedi first learned about finance, wealth, power, and law in Mahmudabad’s centuries-old feudal world. In Mahmudabad a series of bejeweled Muslim rajas administered great tracts of land from a gold and silver throne. They financed idealistic politicians such as the Mahatma Gandhi and Pakistan founder Mohammed Ali Jinnah. They doled out gifts to their subjects, paid stipends to renowned poets and intellectuals, plotted against the British Empire, and finally witnessed the birth of independent India and Pakistan in a bloody spasm of post-Partition riots. Abedi and nearly all of BCCI’s senior executives migrated as young adults from what is now India to newly independent Islamic Pakistan in 1947 and 1948, when the kingdoms that the British had employed to rule South Asia fell.


pages: 578 words: 131,346

Humankind: A Hopeful History by Rutger Bregman

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Broken windows theory, call centre, David Graeber, Donald Trump, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hans Rosling, invention of writing, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, placebo effect, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, universal basic income, World Values Survey

To quote Jesus again, ‘If you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? And if you greet only your brothers and sisters, what more are you doing than others?’2 The question is, can we take things a step further? What if we assume the best not only about our children, our co-workers, and our neighbours, but also about our enemies? That’s considerably more difficult and can go against our gut instincts. Look at Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr, perhaps the two greatest heroes of the twentieth century. They were pros at non-complementary behaviour, but then again they were extraordinary individuals. What about the rest of us? Are you and I capable of turning the other cheek? And can we make it work on a large scale – say, in prisons and police stations, after terrorist attacks or in times of war? 16 Drinking Tea with Terrorists 1 In a forest in Norway, about sixty miles south of Oslo, stands one of the strangest prisons in the world.

., ‘In Search of Homo Economicus: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies’, American Economic Review (No. 2, 2001). 34David Sloan Wilson and Joseph Henrich, ‘Scientists Discover What Economists Haven’t Found: Humans’, Evonomics.com (12 July 2016). 35Quoted in David Sloan Wilson, ‘Charles Darwin as the Father of Economics: A Conversation with Robert Frank’, The Evolution Institute (10 September 2015). 36Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner (1972), pp. 242–5. 37Saint Augustine, The Confessions of Saint Augustine, translated by Maria Boulding (2012), p. 12. 38Thomas Henry Huxley, The Struggle for Existence in Human Society (originally published in 1888). 39Herbert Spencer, Social Statistics, Chapter XVIII, paragraph 4 (1851). 40‘I refuse to believe that the tendency of human nature is always downward,’ said Mahatma Gandhi, the legendary leader of India’s independence movement, whom Churchill dismissed as a ‘half-naked fakir’. ‘Man’s goodness is a flame that can be hidden but never extinguished,’ said Nelson Mandela, who was imprisoned for twenty-seven years by a criminal regime. 41Emma Goldman, Anarchism and Other Essays (Stillwell, 2008), p. 29. Originally published in 1910. 42This was Marie Lindegaard, whom we’ll meet in Chapter 9. 2 The Real Lord of the Flies 1William Golding recalled this in the introduction to his audiotaped reading of the book produced in 1980s.


The Empire Project: The Rise and Fall of the British World-System, 1830–1970 by John Darwin

anti-communist, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive bias, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, labour mobility, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, railway mania, reserve currency, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Scientific racism, South China Sea, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, undersea cable

Curzon Papers F 112/208: Curzon to Milner, 3 January 1920. 65. The Seven Pillars of Wisdom was published for general circulation in 1935. 66. The title of the classic study by Elizabeth Monroe (1963). 67. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. XVII, p. 371: Gandhi to Home-Rule League, Navajivan, 2 May 1920. 68. R. Gordon, ‘Non-cooperation and Council-Entry, 1919–1920’, Modern Asian Studies, 7, 3 (1973), 458. 69. D. Page, Prelude to Partition: The Indian Muslims and the Imperial System of Control 1920–1932 (Oxford, 1982), p. 33. 70. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. XVIII, p. 253: Speech at Calcutta Congress, 8 September 1920. 71. Ibid., p. 350: Speech at Lucknow, 15 October 1920. 72. Ibid., vol. XVIII, p. 270: ‘Swaraj in One Year’, Young India, 22 September 1920. 73. BLIOC, Sir F.

Curtis, Letters, pp. 70–4. 134. Montagu, Indian Diary, p. 358: this was (Sir) William Marris, later governor of the United Provinces. 135. Report of the Indian National Congress Special Session, 29 August–1 September 1918. 136. Ibid., p. 103: this was B. C. Pal of Bengal. 137. Montagu Papers: Montagu to Chelmsford, 27 April 1918. 138. Montagu Papers: Notes prepared on the Rowlatt Act, n.d. 139. Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, vol. XIV, pp. 486–7: Gandhi to S. Sastri, 18 July 1918. 140. Recruiting Appeal, 22 June 1918, in M. Desai, Day to Day with Gandhi, vol 1, November 1917 to March 1919 (Eng. trans., Benares, 1968). Desai was Gandhi's personal secretary. 141. F. Robinson, Separatism among Indian Muslims (Cambridge, 1974), p. 289. 142. Montagu Papers: draft, Montagu to Lloyd George, 27 June 1917. 143. W. E.

Srinavasa Sastri, Speeches and Writings (Madras, n.d.). Congress Presidential Addresses, Second Series (Madras, 1934). M. Hasan (ed.), Mohamed Ali in Indian Politics: Selected Writings, vol. II (New Delhi, 1987). R. Kumar and H. D. Sharma (eds.), Selected Works of Motilal Nehru, 6 vols. (New Delhi, 1992–5). S. Gopal (ed.), Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru, First Series, 15 vols. (New Delhi, 1972–82). The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, 100 vols. (New Delhi, 1964–). Of the ever-increasing volume of material now available online, British Parliamentary Papers for the nineteenth and twentieth century, the Times Digital Archive, giving access to The Times since its first publication, The Mackenzie King Diaries, the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, the Australian Dictionary of Biography and the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography were particularly useful.


pages: 199 words: 43,653

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal

Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, IKEA effect, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator

Even though the world is becoming a potentially more addictive place, most people have the ability to self-regulate their behaviors. The role of facilitator fulfills the moral obligation for entrepreneurs building a product they will themselves use and that they believe materially improves the lives of others. As long as they have procedures in place to assist those who form unhealthy addictions, the designer can act with a clean conscience. To take liberties with Mahatma Gandhi’s famous quote, facilitators “build the change they want to see in the world.” 2. The Peddler Heady altruistic ambitions can at times outpace reality. Too often, designers of manipulative technology have a strong motivation to improve the lives of their users, but when pressed they admit they would not actually use their own creations. Their holier-than-thou products often try to “gamify” some task no one really wants to do by inserting run-of-the-mill incentives such as badges or points that don’t actually hold value for their users.


pages: 447 words: 141,811

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Graeber, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, global village, greed is good, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, personalized medicine, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, zero-sum game

In the intervening decades it retreated from most of its colonies in a peaceful and orderly manner. Though in some places such as Malaya and Kenya the British tried to hang on by force of arms, in most places they accepted the end of empire with a sigh rather than with a temper tantrum. They focused their efforts not on retaining power, but on transferring it as smoothly as possible. At least some of the praise usually heaped on Mahatma Gandhi for his non-violent creed is actually owed to the British Empire. Despite many years of bitter and often violent struggle, when the end of the Raj came, the Indians did not have to fight the British in the streets of Delhi and Calcutta. The empire’s place was taken by a slew of independent states, most of which have since enjoyed stable borders and have for the most part lived peacefully alongside their neighbours.

And since its borders cover the entire globe, the World Empire effectively enforces world peace. So, is the modern era one of mindless slaughter, war and oppression, typified by the trenches of World War One, the nuclear mushroom cloud over Hiroshima and the gory manias of Hitler and Stalin? Or is it an era of peace, epitomised by the trenches never dug in South America, the mushroom clouds that never appeared over Moscow and New York, and the serene visages of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King? The answer is a matter of timing. It is sobering to realise how often our view of the past is distorted by events of the last few years. If this chapter had been written in 1945 or 1962, it would probably have been much more glum. Since it was written in 2014, it takes a relatively buoyant approach to modern history. To satisfy both optimists and pessimists, we may conclude by saying that we are on the threshold of both heaven and hell, moving nervously between the gateway of the one and the anteroom of the other.


pages: 505 words: 127,542

If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Happy? by Raj Raghunathan

Broken windows theory, business process, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fundamental attribution error, hedonic treadmill, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Phillip Zimbardo, placebo effect, science of happiness, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Compare your counts with those of your partner. The closer the match, the more self-aware you are. Chapter 7B THE SEVENTH HABIT OF THE HIGHLY HAPPY: MINDFULNESS Imagine that you’re given the opportunity to be a fly on the wall for any event. Which event would you choose? Would it be for a surreptitious meeting between JFK and Marilyn Monroe? Or would it be for the meeting between Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Mountbatten on the night that India achieved freedom from Great Britain? Whatever event you choose, the idea of being a fly on the wall is that you are a disinterested observer. Not an uninterested observer, mind you, but a disinterested one. Uninterested means being bored and not interested. Disinterested, by contrast, means being unbiased, neutral. So one could be disinterestedly interested in something, which is what you would want to be if you were a fly on the wall for a momentous event.

However, that doesn’t mean it will make you soft and weak—unless you equate being compassionate with being soft and weak, which, unfortunately, many of us do. This is why, as my coauthors and I documented in a series of studies, many consumers believe ethical products (for example, tires made out of biodegradable materials) can’t be as durable. But the truth is, it is possible to be both compassionate and strong; in fact, some of the world’s most well-respected leaders, like Mahatma Gandhi, Mandela, Mother Teresa, and Martin Luther King, were the epitome of both strength and compassion. Of course, one can more readily think of leaders (like Steve Jobs or Jack Welch) who had the reputation of being uncaring. However, the theme that emerges from a larger number of data points, as we saw in chapter 3B, is that it is the leaders who are kind and compassionate (specifically, the “givers”) who are more likely to rise to the top of their organizations.


pages: 403 words: 132,736

In Spite of the Gods: The Rise of Modern India by Edward Luce

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, call centre, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, demographic dividend, energy security, financial independence, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, job-hopping, Kickstarter, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban planning, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K

The caste’s duties included being porters, messengers, watchmen, and guides for their social betters. Although there were other Dalit groups* required to perform more humiliating tasks, the Mahars were never permitted to enter temples or to draw water from the same well as the rest of the village. Ambedkar helped them to reject the role to which they were born. Other lower-caste leaders were agitating, along with Mahatma Gandhi, for Dalits to be given access to temples and wells. But Ambedkar was dismissive of the chances of bringing about any real change in the mentality of upper-caste Hindus. He declared that he did not want to enter their temples at all. “I was born a Hindu,” he said, “but I will not die a Hindu.” It took Ambedkar many years of studying before he chose Buddhism, which he believed was the most egalitarian of the world’s religions.

Earlier, during my unsatisfactory interview with the chief minister, Narendra Modi had said: “In Indonesia, which is a Muslim country, they have a picture of Ganesh on one of their currency notes. Why can’t India’s Muslims be more like that?” At the time I did not answer. But it struck me later that Hindus are a minority in Indonesia, just as Muslims are in India. If you were to follow Modi’s line of thinking, the accurate parallel would be for India to put an Islamic symbol on one of its notes. Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi in conversation, 1946 (Empics) Sonia Gandhi and her son Rahul at the twenty-first anniversary of the death of Indira Gandhi (Empics) Indira, 1979. The most formidable and ruthless leader India has yet seen (Getty Images) Manmohan Singh, India’s understated Prime Minister (Olivia Arthur) An Indian soldier launches a rocket at armed Muslim militants along the Line of Control, November 2001 (Getty Images) Pakistan’s President General Musharraf, September 2001 (Reuters/Corbis) Indian tanks parade on Republic Day, January 26, 2000 (Reuters/Corbis) Indian policemen form a security cordon around supporters of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) at a political rally (Emmanuel Dunand/AFP/Getty Images) Delhi’s new metro, September 2005 (Getty Images) Muslim women talk on their mobile phones outside a McDonald’s restaurant (Sohail Akbar) Old India: villagers draw water at a well (Getty Images) Bollywood megastar Amitabh Bachchan (far left) dances with Aishwarya Rai, Mumbai’s leading lady, and his son Abhishek Bachchan (Empics) One of modern India’s young couples (Olivia Arthur) Manmohan Singh and his wife, Gursharan Kaur, with President George W.


pages: 435 words: 136,906

The Gifted Adult: A Revolutionary Guide for Liberating Everyday Genius(tm) by Mary-Elaine Jacobsen

Albert Einstein, fear of failure, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, urban sprawl, Walter Mischel

Linguistic intelligence: A proficient and easy use of words and sensitivity to phrasing and the rhythm of language in poetry, song lyrics, and persuasive speaking, as with poet Walt Whitman, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison, musical wordsmith Bob Dylan, evangelist Billy Graham, and congressional orator Barbara Jordan Musical intelligence: A special sensitivity to tempo, pitch, timbre, and tone, and an ability to create and express musical arrangements that correspond to emotional experience, as in great composers, singers, and musicians such as conductor Arturo Toscanini, violinist Jascha Heifetz, legendary jazz composer Duke Ellington, and operatic diva Maria Callas Logical-mathematical intelligence: Powers of inductive and deductive reasoning in handling abstract relationship and predictions based on numbers and equations, so obvious in eminent economist John Kenneth Galbraith, the Harvard professor who administered the system of price controls during World War II; physicist Robert Goddard, father of modern space rocketry; statistician George Gallup, whose polls quantified public opinion; Arno Penzias, the Nobel laureate who confirmed the fabled big-bang theory of creation and pioneered new computer logic; and Lise Meitner, who coined the term “atomic fission” and solved extraordinary mathematical puzzles in her 1930s experiments with barium emission Spatial intelligence: The ability to visualize objects in the mind and transfer the information to something concrete, such as designing an airplane or laying out a movie set, as visible in phenoms such as Walt Disney; William Mulholland, the self-taught engineer whose photographic memory and “ditchdigger” genius developed the Los Angeles aqueduct system in the early 1900s; Howard Roark, the architect character in Ayn Rand’s The Fountainhead; and painter and sculptor Pablo Picasso Bodily (kinesthetic) intelligence: Exceptional body control and refined motion that permits skillful expression of ideas and feelings through movement, as with Martha Graham’s poignant choreography and dance, Michael Jordan’s superstar athleticism, and the classic slapstick antics of Charlie Chaplin Interpersonal intelligence: Advanced understanding of human relations and management of feelings, as in the revolutionary insights of Carl Jung, Clara Barton, Eleanor Roosevelt, Nobel laureate Martin Luther King Jr., and Mourning Dove, who possessed the spirit to chronicle her people’s honored traditions both as a folklorist and novelist Intrapersonal intelligence: A sharp understanding of one’s inner landscape, motivations, emotions, needs, and goals, as with Herman Hesse, Sigmund Freud, Mahatma Gandhi, Thomas Merton, and Ingmar Bergman Naturalist intelligence: A special ability to grasp the intricate workings and relationships within nature; an instinctive reverence for a connection with animals, plants, minerals, ocean, sky, desert, and mountain, as in Henry David Thoreau; John Muir, founder of the Sierra Club, who at age sixty-eight began a campaign to preserve the Yosemite Valley; and Isak Dinesen, whose years as a farmer on an East African highlands coffee plantation inspired her to write her celebrated memoir Out of Africa From this standpoint, hip-hop kids might be perceived as masters of musical, linguistic, and kinesthetic intelligences.

A gift from another realm, free and clear, and totally fulfilling. It’s a great ride! Personal experience is not the only value of intensity. Some experts in the area of leadership believe so-called dramatic individuals make the best leaders. They are charismatic models of loyalty to a cause who demonstrate unwavering commitment. One of our most valuable gifts is the ability to stir up enthusiasm in others. Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Eleanor Roosevelt took the moral high ground and relied on emotional response to fuel their campaigns for justice. Without our having an emotional response to them, our experiences are just commonplace experiences, and we in particular are equipped for what Maslow called “peak” experiences. We have, in his words, “this wonderful capacity to appreciate again and again, freshly and naively, the basic goods of life, with awe, pleasure, wonder, and even ecstasy, however pale these experiences may have become to others.”


The Naked Presenter: Delivering Powerful Presentations With or Without Slides by Garr Reynolds

deliberate practice, fear of failure, Hans Rosling, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

The real threat is not from others but from ourselves. In a presentation or meeting, we cannot control others, but we can work to remain balanced and steady. As Daisetsu Suzuki said, “There is harmony in our activity, and where there is harmony there is calmness.” (Images in slides from iStockphoto.) Chapter 6 End with a Powerful Finish 179 Wow! eBook <WoweBook.Com> My life is my message. — Mahatma Gandhi 180 The Naked Presenter Wow! eBook <WoweBook.Com> In Sum tWhen your ideas and energy are transferred to others and cause them to make a change, we can say that your message has resonance. However, sustaining a connection until the end of a presentation and delivering a powerful finish requires that you understand your audience well. tThe ideas and messages that stick best contain six common elements: Simplicity, Unexpectedness, Concreteness, Credibility, Emotions, and Stories.


pages: 162 words: 51,445

The Speech: The Story Behind Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. S Dream by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, immigration reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, urban decay, War on Poverty, white flight

In King’s acceptance of the Nobel Prize in 1964, he said: “Violence never brings permanent peace. It solves no social problem: it merely creates new and more complicated ones.” When Obama accepted his own Nobel Prize in 2009, he insisted: “There will be times when nations—acting individually or in concert—will find the use of force not only necessary but morally justified.” Obama went on to distinguish himself from King and Mahatma Gandhi in terms of the different roles they played within the polity. I make this statement mindful of what Martin Luther King Jr. said in this same ceremony years ago. . . . But as a head of state sworn to protect and defend my nation, I cannot be guided by their examples alone. I face the world as it is, and cannot stand idle in the face of threats to the American people. For make no mistake: Evil does exist in the world.


pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

This is what Toni Morrison had in mind when she wrote Beloved. This is what Dorothy Day had in mind when she embodied a dark and dangerous love. This is what Nelson Mandela had in mind when he opted for justice over revenge. This is what Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel had in mind when he spoke of the compassion of the Hebrew prophets. This is what Mahmoud Mohamed Taha had in mind when he preached of the mercy of Allah. This is what Mahatma Gandhi had in mind when he lived the loving soul force he talked about. This is what that first-century Palestinian Jew named Jesus had in mind when he commanded us to love our neighbor as ourselves. Lest we mislead you, this is not only about a loving heart; rather, it is also about finding loving social (structural and institutional) alternatives to the nightmare of poverty that can be the dawning of a new day for poor people everywhere.


pages: 172 words: 49,890

The Dhandho Investor: The Low-Risk Value Method to High Returns by Mohnish Pabrai

asset allocation, backtesting, beat the dealer, Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, call centre, cuban missile crisis, discounted cash flows, Edward Thorp, Exxon Valdez, fixed income, hiring and firing, index fund, inventory management, Mahatma Gandhi, merger arbitrage, passive investing, price mechanism, Silicon Valley, time value of money, transaction costs, zero-sum game

Life is a journey and the journey is the destination. Countless folks have made this journey simply fantastic. I owe my thanks to each and every one of you. Chapter 1 Patel Motel Dhandho Asian Indians make up about 1 percent of the population of the United States—about three million people. Of these three million, a relatively small subsection is from the Indian state of Gujarat—the birthplace of Mahatma Gandhi. And a very small subsection of Gujaratis, the Patels, are from a tiny area in Southern Gujarat. Less than one in five hundred Americans is a Patel. It is thus amazing that over half of all the motels in the entire country are owned and operated by Patels. What is even more stunning is that there were virtually no Patels in the United States just 35 years ago. They started arriving as refugees in the early 1970s without much in the way of education or capital.


pages: 197 words: 49,296

The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac

3D printing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, trade route, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

As we learned during our stewardship of the Paris Agreement, if you do not control the complex landscape of a challenge (and you rarely do), the most powerful thing you can do is change how you behave in that landscape, yourself a catalyst for overall change. All too often in the face of a task, we move quickly to “doing” without first reflecting on “being”—what we personally bring to the task, as well as what others might. And the most important thing we can bring is our state of mind. Mahatma Gandhi reminds us to be the change we want to see. The actions we pursue are largely defined by the mindset we cultivate in advance of the doing. When we’re faced with an urgent task, it may feel counterintuitive to first look inside ourselves, but it is essential. Attempting change while we are informed by the same state of mind that has been predominant in the past will lead to insufficient incremental advances.


pages: 225 words: 54,010

A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright

Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl

Nowadays, Washington claims to lead and safeguard “the civilized world,” a tradition in American rhetoric that began with the uprooting and exterminating of that country’s first inhabitants.5 The Roman circus, the Aztec sacrifices, the Inquisition bonfires, the Nazi death camps — all have been the work of highly civilized societies.6 In the twentieth century alone, at least 100 million people, mostly civilians, died in wars.7 Savages have done no worse. At the gates of the Colosseum and the concentration camp, we have no choice but to abandon hope that civilization is, in itself, a guarantor of moral progress. When Mahatma Gandhi came to England in the 1930s for talks on Indian self-rule, a reporter asked him what he thought of Western civilization. Gandhi, who had just visited the London slums, replied: “I think it would be a very good idea.”8 If I sound at times rather hard on civilization, this is because, like Gandhi, I would like it to fulfill its promise and succeed. I would rather live in a house than in a rockshelter.


pages: 184 words: 54,833

Why Orwell Matters by Christopher Hitchens

anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Etonian, hiring and firing, land reform, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes

If Lenin had not uttered the maxim ‘the heart on fire and the brain on ice’, it might have suited Orwell, whose passion and generosity were rivalled only by his detachment and reserve. Sir Victor Pritchett, as he later became, was among many to have configured Orwell as among the ‘saints’, albeit a secular member of that communion. Again we are confronted with spareness and the spectre of self-denial, instead of with the profane and humorous writer who said — of Mahatma Gandhi — that saints are always to be adjudged guilty until proven innocent. Speaking of another celebrated supposed Puritan, Thomas Carlyle wrote of his Cromwell that he had had to drag him out from under a mound of dead logs and offal before being able to set him up as a figure worthy of biography. This is not a biography, but I sometimes feel as if George Orwell requires extricating from a pile of saccharine tablets and moist hankies; an object of sickly veneration and sentimental overpraise, employed to stultify schoolchildren with his insufferable rightness and purity.


Pocket London Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, G4S, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, Skype

Founded in 1753 following the bequest of royal physician Hans Sloane’s ‘cabinet of curiosities’, the museum expanded its collection through judicious acquisitions and the controversial plundering of empire. Don’t Miss Great Court Covered with a spectacular glass-and-steel roof designed by Norman Foster in 2000, the Great Court is the largest covered public square in Europe. In its centre is the world-famous Reading Room, formerly the British Library, which has been frequented by all the big brains of history, from Mahatma Gandhi to Karl Marx. Ancient Egypt The star of the show at the British Museum is the Ancient Egypt collection. It comprises sculptures, fine jewellery, papyrus texts, coffins and mummies, including the beautiful and intriguing Mummy of Katebet (room 63). Perhaps the most prized item in the collection is the Rosetta Stone (room 4), the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics. Ancient Egypt collection, British Museum FEARGUS COONEY/LONELY PLANET IMAGES © Parthenon Sculptures Room 18 Another highlight of the museum is the Parthenon Sculptures (aka Parthenon Marbles).


pages: 175 words: 54,497

The Naked Eye: How the Revolution of Laser Surgery Has Unshackled the Human Eye by Gerard Sutton, Michael Lawless

Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela

What is your most treasured possession? My Sage 1 Ebony Black 7 weight fly fishing rod. I wish I had never worn… … leather pants.. I was at a Year 11 party totally convinced I looked very groovy, but after a barrage of unflattering comments from males and females I never wore them again. If you could invite five people from history to a barbecue at your place, who would they be, and why? I would like to have Mahatma Gandhi there because I believe he was one of the greatest figures of the 20th century. Gandhi somehow combined the spiritual side of life with politics and then created a revolution by non-violent means. My second guest would be Ben Chifley. He is probably the closest we have ever come, in this country, to having a Prime Minister who was genuinely a man of the people. His Light on the Hill speech, which talks about working for the betterment of mankind, says it all.


Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

.฀ All฀ its฀ Arab฀ territory฀ was฀ taken฀ away฀ at฀ the฀ Versailles฀ Conference,฀ and฀ the฀ sultan฀was฀made฀to฀sign฀the฀Treaty฀of฀Sèvres฀in฀.฀He฀did฀not฀ last฀ long.฀ There฀ was฀ a฀ move฀ to฀ divest฀ the฀ sultan฀ of฀ his฀ caliphate฀ and฀the฀caliphate฀was฀given฀to฀the฀sharif฀of฀Mecca,฀thus฀separating฀ for฀ the฀ first฀ time฀ the฀ caliphate฀ from฀ the฀ supreme฀ Muslim฀ ruler,฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ / causing฀some฀consternation฀among฀the฀faithful฀everywhere.฀There฀ was฀an฀agitation฀in฀India฀which฀was฀led฀by฀Mahatma฀Gandhi฀and฀ the฀ leaders฀ of฀ the฀ Muslim฀ community฀ in฀ India฀ –฀ Mohammad฀ Ali฀ and฀ Shaukat฀ Ali฀ –฀ to฀ stop฀ the฀ British฀ from฀ interfering฀ with฀ this฀ valuable฀heritage฀of฀Islam.฀The฀Khilafat฀agitation,฀as฀it฀was฀called฀ proved฀to฀be฀futile.฀Hussein,฀the฀sharif฀of฀Mecca฀who฀had฀betrayed฀ the฀sultan฀and฀become฀the฀new฀caliph,฀was฀defeated฀by฀the฀Saudi฀ family฀ who฀ did฀ not฀ take฀ up฀ the฀ caliphate฀ themselves.฀ The฀ sultan฀ was฀ overthrown,฀ and฀ a฀ republic฀ was฀ established฀ in฀ .฀ Kemal฀ Atatürk฀ was฀ a฀ moderniser,฀ and฀ he฀ decreed฀ a฀ secular฀ state฀ for฀ Turkey,฀as฀the฀remainder฀of฀the฀Ottoman฀Empire฀was฀to฀be฀called.฀ Far฀from฀the฀British฀interfering฀with฀the฀caliphate,฀it฀was฀Atatürk฀ who฀abolished฀it.


Lint by Steve Aylett

death of newspapers, Mahatma Gandhi, Norman Mailer, rolodex, Schrödinger's Cat

Curving north to Sarajevo, the bullet hit the Archduchess Sofia in the abdomen and Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary close to the heart before spanging southwest to the Mexican town of Chinameca where it looped through Emiliano Zapata, causing multiple wounds and continuing this spiral motion until its encounter with the sleeping Venustiano Carranza, president of Mexico—orbital inertia seems to have sent the bullet hurtling back across the Atlantic to Warsaw’s Palace of Fine Arts, where it blew three distinct wounds in President Gabriel Narutowicz of Poland and spent around four years following Benito Mussolini, occasionally darting at him like a wasp but without any lasting harm until heading Stateside again, blasting through the abdomen of Mayor of Chicago Anton Cermak and injuring four other bystanders in Bayfront Park Miami, but missing Franklin D. Roosevelt entirely, turning left in midair and hurtling to Vienna, where it connected with Engelbert Dollfuss, chancellor of Austria. The ricochet pattern continued as the round crossed the pond again to the outskirts of Mexico City, where it bounced cleanly in and out of Leon Trotsky’s skull, circling the globe to weave three wounds through Mahatma Gandhi and kill Liaquat Ali Khan, first prime minister of Pakistan, in Rawalpindi; narrowly missing Harry S. Truman in Washington, it fatally wounded Anastasio Somoza, president of Nicaragua, Carlos Castillo Armas, president of Guatemala, and Prime Minister Solomon Bandaranaike outside 3/18/05 3:57 PM Page 101 LINT Lint’s Magic Bullet (from Rigor Mortis). 02.ch11-20.lint 101 02.ch11-20.lint 102 3/18/05 3:57 PM Page 102 STEVE AYLETT his home in Sri Lanka—then set a course for the face of Dr.


How Will You Measure Your Life? by Christensen, Clayton M., Dillon, Karen, Allworth, James

air freight, Clayton Christensen, disruptive innovation, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, job satisfaction, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, Nick Leeson, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, working poor, young professional

Purpose must be deliberately conceived and chosen, and then pursued. When that is in place, however, then how the company gets there is typically emergent—as opportunities and challenges emerge and are pursued. The greatest corporate leaders are conscious of the power of purpose in helping their companies make their mark on the world. The same is true for leaders outside of the business sphere, too. People who have led movements for change, such as Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, and the Dalai Lama, have had an extraordinarily clear sense of purpose. So, too, have social organizations that have fought to make the world a better place, such as Médecins Sans Frontiers, the World Wildlife Fund, and Amnesty International. But the world did not “deliver” a cogent and rewarding purpose to them. And, unfortunately, it won’t “deliver” one to you, either.


pages: 470 words: 148,444

The World as It Is: A Memoir of the Obama White House by Ben Rhodes

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, demand response, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, intangible asset, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

* * * — A WEEK AFTER ESCALATING the war in Afghanistan, Obama flew to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize. To help him prepare the remarks he’d give at the ceremony, Obama had asked Jon Favreau and me to give him a selection of speeches and essays about war—John F. Kennedy speaking about the nature of peace and calling for a nuclear test ban treaty; Churchill, Roosevelt, and Lincoln at war; Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Reinhold Niebuhr. The two of us sat together and drafted a speech that mainly dealt with the tension of his getting the award at the beginning of his presidency. We sent it in to Obama and heard nothing back until ten on the morning we were going to board the plane for Oslo. He called us up to the Oval Office, along with Samantha Power. Without our knowing, she’d sent Obama a memo laying out sweeping ambitions for the speech, which she saw as a chance to address fundamental issues of war and peace.

When you show up as Barack Obama in India or Indonesia, no one there cares about the midterm results. This created a strange discordance between the somber bubble we traveled within and the enthusiasm outside it. I packed the schedule—Barack and Michelle Obama dancing with schoolchildren in Mumbai; Obama holding a town hall meeting with students; the first African American president paying tribute to Mahatma Gandhi in Delhi; Obama, the man who lived in Indonesia as a child, delighting a crowd with phrases in Indonesian. Those were always my favorite moments on trips—moments that connect a president to people in other countries, when people didn’t just see Obama but felt seen by him. I thought the trip was going great, but he was tired and increasingly cranky; much of our press was waiting to write that the world was souring on Obama just like the electorate back home.


Affluenza: When Too Much Is Never Enough by Clive Hamilton, Richard Denniss

call centre, delayed gratification, experimental subject, full employment, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, mega-rich, Naomi Klein, Own Your Own Home, post-materialism, post-work, purchasing power parity, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, wage slave

It is hard to avoid the conclusion, however, that much of this hostility betrays a dogin-the-manger attitude: ‘If I am stuck in a life of worries, stresses and overwork, everyone else should be too’. Growing numbers of Australians are deciding they will no longer allow such a view to determine their lives. 177 Chapter 11 A new politics First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win. ——Mahatma Gandhi The affluenza spiral The argument of this book can be summarised quite simply. Since the early 1990s Australia has been infected by affluenza, a growing and unhealthy preoccupation with money and material things. This illness is constantly reinforcing itself at both the individual and the social levels, constraining us to derive our identities and sense of place in the world through our consumption activity.


pages: 215 words: 59,188

Seriously Curious: The Facts and Figures That Turn Our World Upside Down by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blood diamonds, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, financial independence, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, invisible hand, job-hopping, Julian Assange, life extension, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mega-rich, megacity, Minecraft, mobile money, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, ransomware, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, South China Sea, speech recognition, stem cell, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

From contaminated groundwater, children pick up chronic infections that impair their bodies’ ability to absorb nutrients. Almost 44m children under five, says the bank, have stunted growth, and every year more than 300,000 die from diarrheal diseases. What can India do to change this grim reality? In 2014 the government pledged to end open defecation by 2019. That year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi, who considered sanitation to be sacred and “more important than political freedom”. Authorities have set aside $29bn for the nationwide programme, which claims to have constructed 49m household toilets to date, with another 61m still to go. Families get 12,000 rupees ($187) to build a toilet. The initiative is part of a long line of schemes that go back to the country’s first five-year plan of the early 1950s.


pages: 162 words: 61,105

Eyewitness Top 10 Los Angeles by Catherine Gerber

Berlin Wall, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, East Village, Frank Gehry, haute couture, Mahatma Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, transcontinental railway

A nostalgic curiosity is the Camera Obscura inside a seniors’ center. d Map C3 • Ocean end of Fuller St off Franklin Ave • 323-6665046 • Open until sunset (avoid after dark) Fellowship ) Self-realization Lake Shrine Bathed in an ambience of beauty and serenity, this hidden sanctuary was created in 1950 by Paramahansa Yogananda, an Indian-born spiritual leader. Wander over to the shrine to Mahatma Gandhi or the spring-fed lake, meditate inside a recreated 16th-century windmill, or study the Court of Religions that honors all of the world’s major religions. d Map B3 Ave between Santa Monica Pier & San Vincente Blvd • Open any time • Free D. Murphy * Franklin Sculpture Garden Tucked away in the northeastern corner of the UCLA campus, this delightful little oasis is dotted • 17190 Sunset Blvd • 310-454-4114 • Open 9am–4:30pm Tue–Sat, 12:30–4:30pm Sun • Free • www.yogananda-srf.org ( $ < 3DVDGHQD $/ ( (* )5 (( : 'RZQWRZQ $< 5 ( ( : $< (: $< 6 &MZTJBO 3 $ 1BSL NJMFT ( )5 2 1$ ' , %HYHUO\ +LOOV : , / 6+ , 5 ( % /9 ' ( 6 $ 1 7$ 0 2 1 , & $ % /9 ' :HVWZRRG 6 $ 1 7$ 0 2 1 , & $ ) * /( 1 ' ) 5 6$1 %UHQWZRRG (: +ROO\ZRRG *OHQGDOH 2' %HO$LU 7RSDQJD (SJGmUI 1BSL $' 2 :HVW +ROO\ZRRG 5PQBOHB 4UBUF1BSL 4BOUB.POJDB #BZ /< : ): < + 2/ 08/+2//$1''5 Los Angeles Top 10 with 70 sculptures by some of the greatest 19th- and 20thcentury European and American artists, Auguste Rodin and Alexander Calder among them.


pages: 184 words: 62,220

Slouching Towards Bethlehem by Joan Didion

Charles Lindbergh, Donner party, East Village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Joan Didion, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, profit motive, sealed-bid auction

Although all Baez activities tend to take on certain ominous overtones in the collective consciousness of Monterey County, what actually goes on at Miss Baez’s Institute for the Study of Nonviolence, which was allowed to continue operating in the Carmel Valley by a three-two vote of the supervisors, is so apparently ingenuous as to disarm even veterans of two wars who wear snap-on bow ties. Four days a week, Miss Baez and her fifteen students meet at the school for lunch: potato salad, Kool-Aid, and hot dogs broiled on a portable barbecue. After lunch they do ballet exercises to Beatles records, and after that they sit around on the bare floor beneath a photomural of Cypress Point and discuss their reading: Gandhi on Nonviolence, Louis Fischer’s Life of Mahatma Gandhi, Jerome Frank’s Breaking the Thought Barrier, Thoreau’s On Civil Disobedience, Krishnamurti’s The First and Last Freedom and Think on These Things, C. Wright Mills’s The Power Elite, Huxley’s Ends and Means, and Marshall McLuhan’s Understanding Media. On the fifth day, they meet as usual but spend the afternoon in total silence, which involves not only not talking but also not reading, not writing, and not smoking.


pages: 579 words: 164,339

Countdown: Our Last, Best Hope for a Future on Earth? by Alan Weisman

air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, David Attenborough, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, El Camino Real, epigenetics, Filipino sailors, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute couture, housing crisis, ice-free Arctic, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, liberation theology, load shedding, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Many of these urban warlords descend from the original farming families when Lyari was a village, long before Britain decided to build a major warm-water port on the Arabian Sea near a small fishing enclave called Kolachi, in what was then part of India. As the two villages grew and merged, farmers opened shops, consolidated, became community fixers, made land deals, and became powerful in a city where laws were scorned under colonial rule, and now exist mainly on paper. British rule in India ended in 1947, a triumph for Mahatma Gandhi’s gentle civil disobedience. But Muslims who feared living under a Hindu majority demanded independence, and Pakistan was born in two Muslim majority regions cleaved from eastern and western India. With its two halves separated by a thousand miles, governance in Pakistan was weakened from the start, and the division couldn’t last. In 1971, East Pakistan finally bolted. Following a civil war in which by some estimates 3 million died, it became Bangladesh.

So they sold the land, and agriculture dwindled into something weak. It’s a sad thing to say.” Outside the mental health shelter for women that she founded in 1985, a leaden sky signals the gathering monsoon. The storm that Sugathakumari fears, however, is one that has rained in from the Persian Gulf, flooding the streets of Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala’s capital—with capital. This once-serene city that Mahatma Gandhi praised for its jungle-like lushness is now a cacophony of relentless commerce, much of it involving jewelry and surprising numbers of expensive cars. It began with Kerala’s Muslims, once its poorest community. The decay of Kerala’s economy coincided with the rise of Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Doha, and the other Arab petro-capitals. As those cities grew—and grew more lavish—plentiful construction work was just a hop across the Arabian Sea, and soon Kerala’s Muslims were returning no longer poor: they were driving foreign cars and wearing enough gold that Kerala’s highly educated Hindus couldn’t help noticing.


pages: 201 words: 64,545

Let My People Go Surfing by Yvon Chouinard

air freight, business process, clean water, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Mahatma Gandhi, pushing on a string, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rubik’s Cube, urban sprawl

Their tithing assures the church will take care of them if they should lose the farm. For me, the solution to the world’s problems is easy: We have to take action, and if we can’t do it ourselves, we’ve got to dig into our pockets. The scariest moment is writing that first check, but you know what, the next day things go on: The phone still rings, there’s food on the table, and the world is a little bit better. As Mahatma Gandhi said, “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” SUMMARY Dante once said that the hottest places in hell are reserved for those who in times of great moral crisis maintain their neutrality. —JOHN F. KENNEDY The Zen master would say if you want to change government, you have to aim at changing corporations, and if you want to change corporations, you first have to change the consumers.


pages: 220 words: 66,518

The Biology of Belief: Unleashing the Power of Consciousness, Matter & Miracles by Bruce H. Lipton

Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, correlation does not imply causation, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Mars Rover, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell

That thought is a good entrée into the next chapter, in which I’ll detail how living in love and living in fear create opposite effects in the body and the mind. Before we leave this chapter, I’d just like to emphasize again that not only is there nothing wrong with going through life wearing the proverbial rose-colored glasses. In fact, those rose-colored glasses are necessary for your cells to thrive. Positive thoughts are a biological mandate for a happy, healthy life. In the words of Mahatma Gandhi: Your beliefs become your thoughts Your thoughts become your words Your words become your actions Your actions become your habits Your habits become your values Your values become your destiny CHAPTER 6 GROWTH AND PROTECTION Evolution has provided us with lots of survival mechanisms. They can be roughly divided into two functional categories: growth and protection. These growth and protection mechanisms are the fundamental behaviors required for an organism to survive.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

They chose the twenty-six-year-old Martin Luther King Jr. as their spokesman, a Baptist minister with a gift for oratory. He was ordered to pay a fine, for defying a state anti-boycott law. But this did not deter him. He would go on to be jailed fourteen times, he would be stabbed, have his home blasted by a shotgun and bombed, and would see a motel where he stayed bombed too. Whatever happened he would carry on with a campaign of peaceful civil disobedience, inspired by Henry David Thoreau and Mahatma Gandhi, and explained that America was founded on the Jeffersonian ideal that all men are created equal, with the same inalienable rights, and this must include blacks. In the end, he would be assassinated. The movement’s calm and dignified protests, carried to all Americans’ living rooms thanks to a novelty, television, exposed the brutality of Southern mayors and sheriffs who ordered attacks on demonstrators and looked the other way when the Ku Klux Klan beat them up.


pages: 202 words: 8,448

Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl

“At the beginning of June 1961”: “ ‘I Am Prepared to Die’: Nelson Mandela’s Opening Statement from the Dock at the Opening of the Defence Case in the Rivonia Trial,” United Nations website for Nelson Mandela Day, www.​un.​org/​en/​events/​mandeladay/​court_​statement_​ 1964.​shtml. 2. the Spear launched almost two hundred attacks: Janet Cherry, Spear of the Nation (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2012), 23. 3. “We should have the ability to defend ourselves”: Mahatma Gandhi, The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas (New York: Vintage, 2002), 109. 4. In a stellar book: Erica Chenoweth and Maria J. Stephan, Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Con ict (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011). 5. “There is more power in socially organized masses”: Martin Luther King, Jr., The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr., vol. 5, Threshold of a New Decade, January 1959–December 1960, ed.


pages: 223 words: 72,425

Puzzling People: The Labyrinth of the Psychopath by Thomas Sheridan

airport security, carbon footprint, corporate governance, double helix, Haight Ashbury, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, quantitative easing, Rosa Parks, Ted Kaczynski

Many of these ‘celebrity’ scientists who may have expertise in one discipline, are increasingly being called upon by mass media/governments to give their viewpoints on non-scientific issues and often with the most bizarre results – such as when Michio Kaku made the incredible and disgraceful accusation during a TV interview that people who question authority and the status quo are ‘terrorists’. Mahatma Gandhi, Rosa Parks, Crazy Horse, Monet and the Impressionists, Steve Biko, Mozart, John F. Kennedy, Lech Walesa and indeed Galileo Galilei would be deemed ‘terrorists’ using Michio Kaku’s yardstick to quantify who is and isn’t a danger to the status quo, yet the mainstream media let him get away with these shocking comments because they agree wholeheartedly with them. Professor Kaku demonstrates how when it comes to issues beyond their own expertise, in his case Theoretical Physics, scientists are the last people we should be listening to.


pages: 508 words: 192,524

The autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X; Alex Haley

desegregation, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, rent control, Rosa Parks, transatlantic slave trade

I read Herodotus, “the father of History,” or, rather, I read about him. And I read the histories of various nations, which opened my eyes gradually, then wider and wider, to how the whole world's white men had indeed acted like devils, pillaging and raping and bleeding and draining the whole world's non-white people. I remember, for instance, books such as Will Durant's story of Oriental civilization, and Mahatma Gandhi's accounts of the struggle to drive the British out of India. Book after book showed me how the white man had brought upon the world's black, brown, red, and yellow peoples every variety of the sufferings of exploitation. I saw how since the sixteenth century, the so-called “Christian trader” white man began to ply the seas in his lust for Asian and African empires, and plunder, and power.

Or I might say, “No one will ever know exactly what emotional ingredient made this relatively trivial incident a fuse for those Montgomery Negroes. There had been _centuries_ of the worst kind of outrages against Southern black people-lynchings, rapings, shootings, beatings! But you know history has been triggered by trivial-seeming incidents. Once a little nobody Indian lawyer was put off a train, and fed up with injustice, he twisted a knot in the British Lion's tail. _His_ name was Mahatma Gandhi!” Or I might copy a trick I had seen lawyers use, both in life and on television. It was a way that lawyers would slip in before a jury something otherwise inadmissable. (Sometimes I think I really might have made it as a lawyer, as I once told that eighth-grade teacher in Mason, Michigan, I wanted to be, when he advised me to become a carpenter.) I would slide right over the reporter's question to drop into his lap a logical-extension hot potato for him.


When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Kings and queens often commanded blind allegiance from their subjects down through the centuries, from Boadicea and Henry V to Peter the Great and Queen Victoria. Japanese samurai, in their allegiance to their lord, were faithful unto death and demonstrated that quality regularly, as indeed did the cavalry and foot soldiers of Napoleon Bonaparte. Great leaders captivated willing disciples through sheer charisma—Alexander the Great, Caesar, Tamerlane, Hernan Cortés, Simón Bolívar, Kemal Atatürk, Mahatma Gandhi, Winston Churchill, Chou-en-Lai and Nelson Mandela are a few who come to mind. In the modern era, business leaders have occasionally shown the charismatic and visionary leadership that attracts loyal followers; examples are Henry Ford, Akio Morita, Konosuke Matsushita and Richard Branson. Religion has also played a major role in mass-motivation throughout the historical era. Twenty-First Century Aspirations If you consider the main cultural categories I introduced in Chapter 3— linear-active, multi-active and reactive—you can discern differences in the motivational patterns of cultural groups in each category, both in terms of traditional features and developing aspirations as a new century of opportunity gets under way.

INDIA 439 How to Empathize with Indians Indians tend to complain openly about the injustices of the colonial period. If treated with respect, they quickly put the past behind them, especially where good business is in the offing. Play the Indians at their own game: be reasonable, solicitous and flexible. The country has a magnificent history, which should be referred to and admired. Learn all the basic facts about Mahatma Gandhi and avoid confusing him with Indira and Rajiv Gandhi’s family, to which he was not related. A knowledge of Hinduism is also advisable, as is an awareness of the geography of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Indians emanate and expect warmth, respect and properness. Do not risk joking with them—they tend to take things seriously. Be flexible at all times. Accept that there is a great deal of chaos, and remember that they manage it better than you do.


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

But the politicians supporting the “Bombay for Maharashtra” cause objected, saying that “everywhere the principle of language has been recognized, except in this one case.”12 In an effort to rescue the city from the linguistic battles, Nehru suggested that Bombay should become a separate, bilingual area directly administered by the central government, an idea supported by some Bombay politicians such as S. K. Patil. It was support they would soon regret. To put it mildly, the Maharashtrians did not welcome the idea. Mobs surged across the city’s streets, shouting, “Bombay is ours” and “Death to Nehru!” They smashed statues of Mahatma Gandhi—his identity as a Gujarati, in this period of mayhem, superseding that of national leader—and attacked Gujaratis across the state. The rioters tossed rocks and electric bulbs filled with acid—the latter a protest weapon of choice since the 1940s Calcutta riots—blockaded roads and railway lines and looted shops. And when a European photographer stopped to take a picture of Nehru’s vandalized posters, the crowds cheered: “Take it, take it, and show the world what we think of Nehru.”13 The government was forced to back down, and any suggestion that the city would be carved out from the state was abandoned.

The ideology of the planned economy and its fascination with heavy industry that India favored paid little heed to the environment, as was already obvious in Stalin’s vision of “building an iron and cement brotherhood”3 and Mao’s exhortation to “transform and conquer nature . . . move mountains to build farmland.”4 It may not have helped that India’s most prominent environmentalist at this time was Mahatma Gandhi. His concern for sustainability was both visionary and central to his thinking, but his views, when juxtaposed with his village-industry model for the economy, seemed quaint in the eyes of other Indian leaders. Postindependent India as a result took a black-and-white approach toward the environment, sidelining these concerns in its quest for growth.cz An outcast in times of growth The world’s history of industry-led growth has not been a very presentable one.


The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan by Robert Kanigel

Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, British Empire, computer age, Copley Medal, creative destruction, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filipino sailors, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, the market place, upwardly mobile

The fact that Ramanujan’s early years were spent in a scientifically sterile atmosphere, that his life in India was not without hardships, that under circumstances that appeared to most Indians as nothing short of miraculous, he had gone to Cambridge, supported by eminent mathematicians, and had returned to India with every assurance that he would be considered, in time, as one of the most original mathematicians of the century—these facts were enough, more than enough, for aspiring young Indian students to break their bonds of intellectual confinement and perhaps soar the way that Ramanujan had. In the India of the 1920s, he would say at another time, “We were proud of Mahatma Gandhi, of Nehru, of [the Nobel Prize-winning poet Rabindranath] Tagore, of Ramanujan. We were proud of the fact that anything we could do would equate to anything else in the world.” Within Indian mathematics, of course, Ramanujan’s influence extended correspondingly deeper. “I think it is fair to say,” Chandrasekhar would observe, “that almost all the mathematicians who reached distinction during the three or four decades following Ramanujan were directly or indirectly inspired by his example.”

The account of Ramanujan’s final days is drawn largely from interviews with Janaki and from various accounts she has given over the years. relatives stayed away. K. R. Rajagopalan, 51. Ramachandra Rao arranged the cremation. P. K. Srinivasan, 88. officially recorded his death. The Hindu, 3 January 1988. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. See Kameshwar C. Wali, Chandra (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). “I can still recall the gladness.” Andrews et al., 3. “We were proud of Mahatma Gandhi.” Muthiah, 6. “inspired by his example.” Andrews et al., 5. neglected his studies. S. R. Ranganathan, 20. “too deep for tears.” Letter, A. Ranganathan, 12 January 1981. Royal Society. “entirely under the control.” Letter, Lakshmi Narasimhan to Hardy, 29 April 1920. Trinity College. Death of Ramanujan’s father. Interview, V. Viswanathan. I have not learned when Ramanujan’s mother died, but a sister of V.


pages: 579 words: 183,063

Tribe of Mentors: Short Life Advice From the Best in the World by Timothy Ferriss

23andMe, A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, dematerialisation, don't be evil, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fear of failure, Gary Taubes, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Google Hangouts, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, helicopter parent, high net worth, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, index fund, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, non-fiction novel, Peter Thiel, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Tesla Model S, too big to fail, Turing machine, uber lyft, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

A complex system designed from scratch never works and cannot be patched up to make it work. You have to start over, beginning with a working simple system.”—John Gall “Whenever there is a hard job to be done, I assign it to a lazy man; he is sure to find an easy way of doing it.”—Walter Chrysler “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted.”—William Bruce Cameron “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.”—Mahatma Gandhi “Most of the wonderful places in the world were not made by architects but by the people.”—Christopher Alexander “I notice increasing reluctance on the part of marketing executives to use judgment. They are coming to rely too much on research, and they use it as a drunkard uses a lamp post: for support, rather than for illumination.”—David Ogilvy “Lose an hour in the morning, chase it all day.”

It was the best decision of my life. Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman: While reading this classic poetic ode to America and possibilities (“I am multitude!”) my gasket blew, and I became seized with an unstoppable urge to travel. I set the book down and bought a ticket to Asia. I roamed there, off and on, for eight years. It was my university. The Story of My Experiments with Truth by Mahatma Gandhi: This autobiography of Gandhi curiously led me to Jesus. Gandhi’s stance of radical honesty prompted me to attempt the same. It started my spiritual awakening. The Bible: Reading this all the way through, beginning to end, shattered all expectations I had of such a foundational text. It was weirder, stranger, more disturbing, and more powerful than I was led to believe. I’ve read it through several times more and it never fails to disturb me, in good ways and bad.


pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

Airbnb, Akira Okazaki, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, British Empire, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Costa Concordia, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Ferguson, Missouri, fundamental attribution error, Georg Cantor, George Akerlof, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Harrison: Longitude, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, land reform, liberation theology, lone genius, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, open economy, out of africa, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, rent control, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, spinning jenny, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, very high income, wage slave, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yogi Berra

The hard-left Indian writer Pankaj Mishra lists in parallel with Hobsbawm the usual antigrowth claims: “the cultural homogeneity, or the other Trojan viruses—uneven development, environmental degradation—built into the West’s operating software. . . . [And] the harshest aspects of American-style capitalism: the truncation of public services, de-unionization, the fragmenting and lumpenization of urban working classes, plus the ruthless suppression of the rural poor.”5 Thus Mahatma Gandhi admired the foot-treadle sewing machine but viewed it as one of the few good innovations. No electricity or flush toilets. Stop growth now. The antigrowth left, with the antigrowth right, is mistaken. (It does not mistake, though, that the fruits of the Great Enrichment have made the proletariat into a petty bourgeoisie, lamentably uninterested in revolution, and in its vulgar way now able to enjoy the goods and services formerly available only to the better sort of people.

From 2005 to 2008 even sub-Saharan Africa, for the first time since its independence from the colonial powers half a century earlier, shared on average in the betterment. Not all of the recent uplifting, that is, can be accounted for by neoliberalization’s top two success stories, China and India. Yet China’s success since 1978 (from $1 a day, not alleviated by the ideal of a communist society advocated by Mao) and India’s since 1991 (from a similar level, not alleviated by the ideal of swadeshi, or self-suffiency, advocated by Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru and the later Gandhis) do constitute a powerful anti–antiglobalization and anti-anti-Friedman argument. In 2013, for example, the new premier of China, Li Keqiang, no political liberal, hinted that if a new eleven-square-mile free-trade zone in Shanghai, one of twelve in prospect, worked as well as we Friedmanites think it will, the idea would be extended to the other places.4 If the four countries other than India and China among the BRIICS—Brazil, Russia, Indonesia, and South Africa, the BRIS—would adopt the Friedmanite ideas applied with such enthusiasm in India and China, they too would experience India’s and China’s transformative rates of growth in real per-person income, ranging annually from 5 to 12 percent.

The economist Nimish Adhia has shown that the leading Bollywood films changed their heroes from the 1950s to the 1980s from bureaucrats to businesspeople, and their villains from factory owners to policemen, in parallel with a similar shift in the ratio of praise for trade-tested betterment in the editorial pages of the Times of India. Adhia quotes the leaders of an newly independent India. Mahatma Gandhi declared that “there is nothing more disgraceful to man than the principle ‘buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest.’” Nehru agreed: “Don’t talk to me about profit. Profit is a dirty word.”15 Did the change from hatred to admiration of trade-tested betterment make possible the Indian reforms after 1991? Clearly without some sort of change in opinion the Congress Party would not in a democracy have been able to liberalize the economy.


pages: 1,073 words: 314,528

Strategy: A History by Lawrence Freedman

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Black Swan, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, circulation of elites, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, collective bargaining, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, defense in depth, desegregation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, endowment effect, Ford paid five dollars a day, framing effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, lateral thinking, linear programming, loose coupling, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mental accounting, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, social intelligence, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, ultimatum game, unemployed young men, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

., Civil Resistance & Power Politics: The Experience of Non-Violent Action from Gandhi to the Present (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 43–57. 7. Sean Scalmer, Gandhi in the West: The Mahatma and the Rise of Radical Protest (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 54, 57. 8. “To the American Negro: A Message from Mahatma Gandhi,” The Crisis, July 1929, 225. 9. Vijay Prashad, “Black Gandhi,” Social Scientist 37, no. 1/2 (January/February 2009): 4–7, 45. 10. Leonard A. Gordon, “Mahatma Gandhi’s Dialogues with Americans,” Economic and Political Weekly 37, no. 4 (January–February 2002): 337–352. 11. Joseph Kip Kosek, “Richard Gregg, Mohandas Gandhi, and the Strategy of Nonviolence,” The Journal of American History 91, no. 4 (March 2005): 1318–1348. Gregg published a number of books on nonviolence. The most influential was The Power of Non-Violence (London: James Clarke & Co., 1960).

Bo Wirmark, “Nonviolent Methods and the American Civil Rights Movement 1955–1965,” Journal of Peace Research 11, no. 2 (1974): 115–132; Akinyele Umoja, “1964: The Beginning of the End of Nonviolence in the Mississippi Freedom Movement,” Radical History Review 85 (Winter 2003): 201–226. 23. Scalmer, Gandhi in the West, 180. 24. The books referred to by King were: M. K. Gandhi, An Autobiography; or, The Story of My Experiments with Truth, translated by Mahadev Desai (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1927); Louis Fischer, The Life of Mahatma Gandhi (London: Jonathan Cape, 1951); Henry David Thoreau, “Civil Disobedience,” 1849; Walter Rauschenbusch, Christianity and the Social Crisis (New York: Macmillan Press, 1908); Richard B. Gregg, The Power of Non-Violence; Ira Chernus, American Nonviolence: The History of an Idea (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2004), 169–171. See James P. Hanigan, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Foundations of Nonviolence (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1984), 1–18. 25.


pages: 270 words: 75,473

Time Management for System Administrators by Thomas A.Limoncelli

8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, business cycle, Debian, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, Steve Jobs

He will spend extra effort helping you with your career path, you will increasingly receive first pick at the "fun" projects, and it opens the possibilities to small but important rewards such as cool equipment. Of course, it can't hurt your potential to receive better raises and bonuses. Best of all, if your boss is successful enough to receive a promotion, an ethical boss will take you with him. From that perspective, the ultimate criterion for how to prioritize your work is to center it around what will make your boss a success. Action expresses priorities. --Mahatma Gandhi Summary When you have a lot to do, prioritization becomes more important. When you have more to do than you have time for, prioritization is extremely important. When you have very little to do, any prioritization scheme works pretty well. Doing tasks in order works fine when you have a small number of tasks. Since older items bubble up to the top of the list, they will tend to get done.


pages: 275 words: 77,017

The End of Money: Counterfeiters, Preachers, Techies, Dreamers--And the Coming Cashless Society by David Wolman

addicted to oil, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, cashless society, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, greed is good, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, mental accounting, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, P = NP, Peter Thiel, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steven Levy, the payments system, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

In the arrivals hall at Indira Gandhi International, I made my way to a currency exchange window, set a few hundred dollars in the gray crater below the glass, and requested a mix of large and small bills. (As a tourist, I expect price gouging, but there’s no need to invite it by only carrying high-value notes.) The teller handed me a mountain of paper, and for a second I was seduced by the denomination effect. So many zeroes. A moment later the exchange-rate reality set in, and I saw the cash for what it was: a pain in the ass. No offense to Mahatma Gandhi, whose bespectacled face smiles on all of India’s paper money, but the softly worn banknotes renewed that whole suite of hygiene concerns, as if their very fibers were a preview of the humidity, dirt, and sweat of this megalopolis. For me, India’s dependence on cash was a mild inconvenience. For locals, it’s crushing. Cash not only perpetuates peoples’ exclusion from banking and the formal economy, it also has a knack for being spent.


pages: 293 words: 74,709

Bomb Scare by Joseph Cirincione

Albert Einstein, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, Yogi Berra

The most important actor in this battle, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri, quickly positioned himself against a nuclear weapons program. In 1964 Shastri said, “We cannot at present think in terms of making atomic bombs in India. We must try to eliminate the atomic bombs in the world rather than enter into a nuclear arms competition.”54 Clearly, “Shastri believed in this singular Indian mission, as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru had.”55 Bhabha, however, “loudly lobbied for development of nuclear weapons,” and took great pains to minimize the anticipated cost of such an effort, making an official estimate that excluded the expense of the nuclear reactors and plutonium separation plants.56 By the end of 1964, Shastri had compromised with Bhabha, agreeing to a “Peaceful Nuclear Explosives” program.


pages: 366 words: 76,476

Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One's Looking) by Christian Rudder

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Howard Zinn, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, p-value, pre–internet, race to the bottom, selection bias, Snapchat, social graph, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steve Jobs, the scientific method

., “The Evolution of Memes on Facebook,” January 18, 2014, facebook.com/notes/facebook-data-science/the-evolution-of-memes-on-facebook/10151988334203859. The post leaves it unclear how political bias was determined. My best guess is from users’ “like” patterns. 1In 1950 This paragraph discussing polarization in American politics is based on Jill Lepore, “Long Division,” The New Yorker, December 2, 2013. “It has always been a mystery” I read Life of Mahatma Gandhi by Louis Fisher (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950) in 2007, and this quote has stuck with me since. Chapter 10: Tall for an Asian To find out what’s actually special to a particular group The method for reducing a group’s collected profile text to the idiosyncratic essentials I present in this chapter is my own. However, the OkCupid blog post that inspired this work—“The Real Stuff White People Like”—used a different method, developed with help from Max Shron and Aditya Mukerjee.


pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, superconnector

The post told the story of the talisman the revered Indian leader once gave to his grandson Arun, which listed the seven “blunders” he believed led to violence: Wealth without work. Pleasure without conscience. Knowledge without character. Commerce without morality. Science without humanity. Religion without sacrifice. Politics without principle. Number six on the list soon became the most poignant; on his way to a prayer meeting shortly after he gave Arun the note, Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated. The same day that Pariser posted the Gandhi story on his blog, the top story on the hugely popular blog BuzzFeed was “20 Supporting Characters from ’90s TV Shows Then and Now”—a collection of embarrassing before-and-after pictures of goofy stars from shows like Clarissa Explains It All and Even Stevens. That post was shared by 30,000 people. It reached 800,000 viewers. This was the very phenomenon that drove Pariser, a mellow, unshaven author and activist from Maine, to start his blog: As more people used social networks like Facebook, the speed at which content—stories, videos, pictures—could spread to huge audiences, or “go viral,” was increasing.


pages: 280 words: 75,820

Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life by Winifred Gallagher

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Build a better mousetrap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, fundamental attribution error, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, music of the spheres, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

“You deliberately pay attention to your behavior and establish habits that eventually become second nature.” We tend to focus on virtue displayed in heroic circumstances: the bravery of John McCain in an enemy’s prison or the justice sought by Martin Luther King in the segregated South. In everyday life, however, most opportunities to build character are modest in scope and easily missed if you’re not paying attention. Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi may epitomize the quality of humanity, or unconditional love, but that doesn’t stop Peterson from his own pursuit of the virtue on a smaller scale. Offering an example, he says that while rushing home from the psych department one evening, he saw a distraught student clutching a late term paper in the hallway. He could have easily continued on his way, but instead of passing her by, he stopped to reopen the locked office and help her find the faculty mailbox she sought.


pages: 222 words: 76,854

Art of Learning by Josh Waitzkin

fear of failure, G4S, Mahatma Gandhi, pattern recognition, South China Sea

I hadn’t fully understood that he was inside of me, waiting, but surely all the work I had done for years had made him possible, perhaps inevitable. How did this new part of myself relate to the Josh I’d known my whole life, the kid who was once scared of the dark, the chess player, the young man who loves the rain and re-reading passages of Jack Kerouac? How did it fit in with my passion for Buddhism and the satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi? Honestly, these are questions that I am still sorting out. Do I want to explore more of this side of myself? Maybe. But perhaps in a different guise. Mainly what I felt after Taiwan was an urgent desire to get back to practice and shake off the idea that I had climbed my mountain. In the last two years I have started over. A new beginning. There are great adventures ahead. * * * The writing off this book has spanned an intense and unlikely stretch of years.


pages: 276 words: 78,061

Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence

It has three horizontal bands: saffron at the top, white in the middle and green at the bottom. In the middle is a blue wheel with twenty-four spokes called a chakra. It is the same design as the wheel found on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of the third-century BCE Emperor Ashoka, which went on to become the national emblem of India. The flag was adopted on 22 July 1947, shortly before independence, but not before Mahatma Gandhi had reminded the subcontinent just how important it was to get the symbolism right. He said: A flag is a necessity for all nations. Millions have died for it. It is no doubt a kind of idolatry which it would be a sin to destroy. For a flag represents an Ideal. The unfurling of the Union Jack evokes in the English breast sentiments whose strength it is difficult to measure. The Stars and Stripes mean a world to the Americans.


pages: 242 words: 73,728

Give People Money by Annie Lowrey

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, full employment, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, late capitalism, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, mobile money, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, post scarcity, post-work, Potemkin village, precariat, randomized controlled trial, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, total factor productivity, Turing test, two tier labour market, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

The family also received rations of reduced-price staples—rice, wheat, salt, sugar—from the country’s sprawling Public Distribution System (PDS). But they were supposed to be getting six rations, one for each member of the family, and were only receiving two. “We have only been getting ten kilos of rice,” Mahato, a farmer and laborer, complained, explaining that it sometimes left the family hungry. “We have been ten times to try to correct it.” Neither parent was receiving any income from the massive Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, meant to ensure wages to poor individuals willing to aid in local public-works projects. Moreover, though she was nursing an infant as she spoke with me, Mahato’s wife had never even heard of a cash benefit meant to go to impoverished women who were pregnant or breast-feeding. There seemed to be little question that in principle cash benefits would be better for poor families like the Mahatos, and better for the Indian government.


pages: 264 words: 76,643

The Growth Delusion: Wealth, Poverty, and the Well-Being of Nations by David Pilling

Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, call centre, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Hangouts, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, off grid, old-boy network, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, performance metric, pez dispenser, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, science of happiness, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Fast growth can alleviate poverty both by generating jobs—digging roads, constructing office blocks, or manning call centers—and by providing the government with tax revenue that it can use to redistribute wealth and build the physical and institutional infrastructure needed for more and better growth.4 Of course it can create other problems, pulling people from the countryside into urban slums or clogging up the roads with diesel-spewing vehicles. But unless you believe in the rural idyll, in very poor countries growth is the raw material from which better lives can be fashioned. That sounds like little more than a statement of the obvious, yet for decades the idea that India should prioritize growth was far from commonly accepted. Mahatma Gandhi, leader of the independence movement against British colonialism, held a romantic idea of life in the Indian villages. Those views influenced post-independence thinking, insinuating into national discourse the idea that there was something almost noble about poverty. Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister and a towering intellectual figure, was much more in favor of development and modernization than Gandhi, but he had a strong socialist and distributionist streak.


pages: 245 words: 72,893

How Democracy Ends by David Runciman

barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Internet of things, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, Yogi Berra

Parents got up in the night to wake their children and tell them how much they loved them. Then they slept better. Imagining the worst has a strange comfort. But it has no political power. The Road does not galvanise us into political action. It is an oddly consoling parable for a society of sleepwalkers and tightrope walkers. 3 Technological takeover! PEOPLE LAUGH WHEN Al Gore claims to have invented the internet. So they should. It wasn’t Gore. It was Mahatma Gandhi. Forster’s ‘The Machine Stops’ was first published in the Oxford and Cambridge Review in November 1909. Gandhi, then a youngish lawyer and civil rights activist living in South Africa, appears to have read the story on his sea journey home from London that month (the Review would have been in the ship’s library and everyone on board must have had time to kill, even Gandhi). He was clearly affected by it.


pages: 257 words: 77,030

A Manual for Creating Atheists by Peter Boghossian

Cass Sunstein, Filter Bubble, Henri Poincaré, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Ray Kurzweil, selection bias, Socratic dialogue, stem cell, the scientific method

Anyone witness to the intervention sees the proper treatment modality in action, and may go on to help others. Everyone is a potential Street Epistemologist. Interventions are not about winning or losing, they’re about helping people see through a delusion and reclaim a sense of wonder. On a personal level, you’ll likely find deeper satisfaction in helping people than in winning a debate. Model Behavior “If we could change ourselves, the tendencies in the world would also change.” —Mahatma Gandhi “Don’t just tell me what you want to do, show me.” —Matt Thornton, community activist If you are reading this book you probably already possess attitudes that predispose you to rationality, like a trustfulness of reason (American Philosophical Association, 1990, p. 2) and a willingness to reconsider (American Philosophical Association, 1990, p. 2). (For a list of the attitudinal dispositions and a definition of the ideal critical thinker, please see appendix A.)


pages: 491 words: 77,650

Humans as a Service: The Promise and Perils of Work in the Gig Economy by Jeremias Prassl

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, call centre, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market friction, means of production, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, pattern recognition, platform as a service, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, remote working, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Singh, software as a service, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, two tier labour market, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, working-age population

The audience would laugh and applaud. What chutzpah! So Disruptive! The truth is, what Silicon Valley still calls ‘Disruption’ has evolved into something very sinister indeed.31 In sharing-economy doublespeak, ignoring regulation might come to be seen as a virtue of the highest order, with platforms’ law-breaking likened * * * 40 Doublespeak to that of resistance heroes ranging from Mahatma Gandhi to Rosa Parks. Professors Frank Pasquale and Siva Vaidhyanathan have attacked these com- parisons and suggested a darker analogy, arguing that today’s: ‘corporate nullification’ follow[s] in the footsteps of Southern governors and legislatures [during the civil rights battles] in the United States who declared themselves free to ‘nullify’ federal law on the basis of strained and opportunistic constitutional interpretation . . .


pages: 274 words: 72,657

The Power of Moments: Why Certain Experiences Have Extraordinary Impact by Chip Heath, Dan Heath

Cal Newport, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, desegregation, fear of failure, Mahatma Gandhi, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, school choice, six sigma, Steve Ballmer

And their efforts grew into a defining moment for the nation. What’s less well known about this story is that the demonstrators didn’t just show courage. They practiced it. They rehearsed it. And this brings us to the story of a remarkable figure in the civil rights movement: James Lawson. Lawson, a Methodist minister, had traveled to India to learn the techniques of nonviolent resistance from the disciples of Mahatma Gandhi. When he moved to Nashville, he began to train many of the people who would become leaders in the civil rights movement: Lewis, Nash, and others. Lawson believed strongly in preparation for resistance: “You cannot go on a demonstration with 25 people doing whatever they want to do. They have to have a common discipline; that’s a key word for me. The difficulty with nonviolent people and efforts is that they don’t recognize the necessity of fierce discipline and training.”


Lonely Planet London by Lonely Planet

Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, East Village, Etonian, financial independence, haute couture, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, place-making, post-work, Skype, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent

Finally, you can download one- or three-hour itineraries from the museum’s website that take in various highlights. Great Court Covered with a spectacular glass-and-steel roof designed by Norman Foster in 2000, the Great Court is the largest covered public square in Europe. In its centre is the world-famous Reading Room , formerly the British Library, which has been frequented by all the big brains of history, from Mahatma Gandhi to Karl Marx. Ancient Egypt The star of the show at the British Museum is the Ancient Egypt collection. It comprises sculptures, fine jewellery, papyrus texts, coffins and mummies, including the beautiful and intriguing Mummy of Katebet (room 63). Perhaps the most prized item in the collection is the Rosetta Stone (room 4), the key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphics. Ancient Greece Another highlight of the museum is the Parthenon Sculptures (aka Parthenon Marbles; room 18).

There are displays of legal costumes scattered about the building. Inns of Court For all of the West End’s urban mania, the area hides some unexpected pockets of Zenlike calm. Clustered around Holborn and Fleet St are the Inns of Court, with quiet alleys, open spaces and a serene atmosphere. All London barristers work from within one of the four inns, and a roll-call of former members ranges from Oliver Cromwell and Charles Dickens to Mahatma Gandhi and Margaret Thatcher. It would take a lifetime working here to grasp the intricacies of the protocols of the inns – they’re similar to the Freemasons, and both are 13th-century creations with centuries of tradition. It’s best to just soak in the dreamy atmosphere and relax. Lincoln’s Inn Offline map Google map ( Lincoln’s Inn Fields WC2; grounds 9am-6pm Mon-Fri, chapel 12.30-2.30pm Mon-Fri; Holborn) Lincoln’s Inn is the most attractive of the four inns and has a chapel, pleasant square and picturesque gardens that invite a stroll, especially early or late in the day when the legal eagles aren’t flapping about.


pages: 237 words: 82,266

You Say Tomato, I Say Shut Up by Annabelle Gurwitch

Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Donald Trump, Donner party, Exxon Valdez, Joan Didion, Mahatma Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Yogi Berra

Try to enjoy the middle as much as you possibly can. And for the end, be sure to stock up on plenty of KY jelly. He Says If it wasn’t for the fact that I love pussy so much, I’d have given up on the whole marriage thing a long time ago. Ever since the birth of our son eleven years ago, I’ve been on a never-ending quest to get back to the pussy. My wife’s. But getting there is nearly a Herculean task demanding the patience of Mahatma Gandhi, the perseverance of a Chicago Cubs fan, the focus of Tiger Woods, and a mind so warped, so perverted, so single-minded in its pursuit, that it can withstand almost anything. Because what having a child does to your sex life is not unlike what happens when a majestic eagle is hit with a surface-to-air heat-seeking missile. No longer is there spontaneous, stepping-out-of-the-shower-I-have-to-have-you-on-the-bathroom-floor.


Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory, Policy and Practice by Molly Scott Cato

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, carbon footprint, central bank independence, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, energy security, food miles, Food sovereignty, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job satisfaction, land reform, land value tax, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, mortgage debt, passive income, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, the built environment, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

Simms (2000) Collision Course: Free Trade’s Ride on the Global Climate, London: New Economics Foundation, p. 3. GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE 137 11 Woodin and Lucas, Green Alternatives, p. 74; for a full discussion see Cato, Market Schmarket, ch. 4. 12 J. Porritt (2006) Capitalism as if the World Matters, London: Earthscan, p. 18. 13 M. K. Gandhi (1909) ‘New Year’, Indian Opinion, 2 January; reprinted in I. Raghavan (ed) The Essential Writings of Mahatma Gandhi, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991. 14 You can find out more about these movements in both historical and contemporary context from the websites of Diggers and Dreamers (www.diggersanddreamers.org.uk/) and The Land Is Ours (www.tlio.org.uk/). 15 UNDP (2007) Sufficiency Economy and Human Development: Thailand Human Development Report 2007, Bangkok: UNDP. 16 C. Hines (2000) Localisation: A Global Manifesto, London: Earthscan. 17 EU data for World Textile and Clothing Exports, 1962–2000, cited in C.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

“There’s one more thing I’d like to discuss: the morality of manipulation,” Eyal went on. “I know what that nervous laughter is about … I know some of you were thinking, ‘Is this kosher?’ If you had that response, bravo.” Eyal conceded that digital gadgets may be “the cigarettes of this century,” but said he was optimistic that these addictive products could be used for “good” and to “help people live healthier, happier, more productive” lives. Eyal wrapped up with a slide of Mahatma Gandhi, although El Chapo might’ve been a better choice. “I encourage you to build the change you wish to see in the world,” he concluded, then basked in applause. * * * As impoverished and self-serving as it was, Eyal’s lecture was the first and perhaps only time I heard the word “morality” emerge from the mouth of a Silicon Valley stage speaker. Most people in the industry were convinced that their work was moral because it increased consumer choice and therefore freedom.


pages: 294 words: 87,429

In Pursuit of Memory: The Fight Against Alzheimer's by Joseph Jebelli

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, double helix, epigenetics, global pandemic, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, phenotype, placebo effect, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, stem cell, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

But as I read the studies on lifestyle countermeasures–and there are many–it became clear to me that there is still cause for hope. Though much of the evidence is preliminary and inconclusive, and sometimes merely anecdotal, considerations for stress, diet, exercise, cognitive training and even sleep are gaining scientific ground. And so I stepped into the uncertain world of preventive healthcare with cautious optimism. 9 Stress There is more to life than increasing its speed. Mahatma Gandhi, attributed IN HIS TRAILBLAZING work The Stress of Life, published in 1956, endocrinologist Hans Selye explained how stressful experiences can make us sick. Before Selye, the notion that stress could influence our biology was practically unheard of. Today, we’re all too familiar with the toll modern-life stress exerts on our health. Depression and anxiety, headaches, insomnia, heart disease: the evidence linking them to stress is overwhelming.


pages: 333 words: 86,628

The Virtue of Nationalism by Yoram Hazony

Berlin Wall, British Empire, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, Mahatma Gandhi, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, urban planning, Westphalian system

Progressives regarded Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points and the Atlantic Charter of Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill as beacons of hope for mankind—and this precisely because they were considered expressions of nationalism, promising national independence and self-determination to enslaved peoples around the world. Conservatives from Teddy Roosevelt to Dwight Eisenhower likewise spoke of nationalism as a positive good, and in their day Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher were welcomed by conservatives for the “new nationalism” they brought to political life. In other lands, statesmen from Mahatma Gandhi to David Ben-Gurion led nationalist political movements that won widespread admiration and esteem as they steered their peoples to freedom.1 Surely, the many statesmen and intellectuals who embraced nationalism a few generations ago knew something about this subject, and were not simply trying to drag us back to a more primitive stage in our history, to war-mongering and racism. What, then, did they see in nationalism?


Lonely Planet London City Guide by Tom Masters, Steve Fallon, Vesna Maric

Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Clapham omnibus, congestion charging, dark matter, discovery of the americas, double helix, East Village, financial independence, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, Nelson Mandela, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, young professional

There’s a free guided tour every Wednesday at 1pm. * * * INNS OF COURT For all of the West End’s urban mania, the area hides some unexpected pockets of Zenlike calm. Clustered around Holborn and Fleet St are the Inns of Court, with quiet alleys, open spaces and a serene atmosphere. All London barristers work from within one of the four inns, and a roll call of former members ranges from Oliver Cromwell and Charles Dickens to Mahatma Gandhi, to Margaret Thatcher. It would take a lifetime working here to grasp the intricacies of the protocols of the inns – they’re similar to the Freemasons, and both are 13th-century creations with centuries of tradition – and it’s best to just soak in the dreamy atmosphere and relax. Gray’s Inn (Map; 7458 7800; Gray’s Inn Rd WC1; grounds 10am-4pm Mon-Fri, chapel 10am-6pm Mon-Fri; Holborn or Chancery Lane) This inn – destroyed during WWII, rebuilt and expanded – is less interesting than Lincoln’s Inn although the peaceful gardens are still something of a treat.

* * * BRITISH MUSEUM HIGHLIGHTS (AND CONTROVERSIES) The first and most impressive thing you’ll see is the museum’s Great Court, covered with a spectacular glass-and-steel roof designed by Norman Foster in 2000; it is the largest covered public square in Europe. In its centre is the world-famous Reading Room, formerly the British Library, which has been frequented by all the big brains of history: George Bernard Shaw, Mahatma Gandhi, Oscar Wilde, William Butler Yeats, Karl Marx, Vladimir Lenin, Charles Dickens and Thomas Hardy. The northern end of the courtyard’s lower level houses the terrific new Sainsbury African Galleries, a romp through the art and cultures of historic and contemporary African societies. Check out the 1820 King’s Library, the most stunning neoclassical space in London, which hosts a permanent exhibition ‘Enlightenment: Discovering the World in the 18th Century’.


Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

From my own personal experience in it, and that’s only a little piece of it obviously, I know who was doing the really important things, and I remember them—like, I remember that this student worked hard to set up that demonstration, and that’s why I had a chance to talk there; and they were bringing other people in to get involved; they were enjoying what they were doing, and communicating that to others somehow. That’s what makes popular movements work—but of course, that’s all going to be gone from history: what will be left in history is just the fluff on the top. MAN: I’m curious what you think about some of the more famous leaders of change—like Martin Luther King or Mahatma Gandhi, for instance. You don’t ever seem to mention them when you speak. Why is that? Well, let’s take Martin Luther King. See, I think Martin Luther King was an important person, but I do not think that he was a big agent of change. In fact, I think Martin Luther King was able to play a role in bringing about change only because the real agents of change were doing a lot of work. And the real agents of change were people working at the grassroots level, like S.N.C.C.

They’re certainly not going to invade anybody, that’s not even imaginable: if they ever made a move, the country gets destroyed tomorrow. So the only role that nuclear weapons could play for them is as a deterrent to attack—and that’s not totally unrealistic. I mean, it’s a pretty crazy country, and there’s not very much good—there’s nothing good—you can say about the government. But no matter who they were, if they were Mahatma Gandhi, they would be worried about a possible attack. I mean, the United States was threatening North Korea with nuclear weapons at least as late as the 1960s. 62 And after all, just remember what we did to that country—it was absolutely flattened. Here people may not be aware of what we did to them, but they certainly know it well enough. Towards the end of what we call the “Korean War”—which was really just one phase in a much longer struggle [beginning when the U.S. destroyed the indigenous nationalist movement in Korea in the late 1940s]—the United States ran out of good bombing targets.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

And maybe we’ll see a computer than can walk up the stairs to an elderly woman’s apartment, take her blood pressure, draw blood, and ask if she’s been taking her medication, all while putting her at ease instead of terrifying her. We don’t think any of these advances is likely to come any time soon, but we’ve also learned that it’s very easy to underestimate the power of digital, exponential, and combinatorial innovation. So never say never. “A policy is a temporary creed liable to be changed, but while it holds good it has got to be pursued with apostolic zeal.” —Mahatma Gandhi WHAT SHOULD WE DO to encourage the bounty of the second machine age while working to reduce the spread, or at least mitigate its harmful effects? How can we best encourage technology to race ahead while ensuring that as few people as possible are left behind? With so much science-fiction technology becoming reality now every day, it might seem that radical steps are necessary. But this is not the case, at least not right away.


pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

4chan, Airbus A320, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

It started simply enough by letting everyone know he was listening to the Beatles, the Apple chief’s favorite band—Jobs once told 60 Minutes that his “model for business is the Beatles.” But as time went on, Jack started to emulate Jobs’s appearance too. He experimented with Jobs’s round glasses and cloned the mantra of a daily uniform. One day he showed up to the office in blue jeans, a white buttoned-up shirt, and a black blazer. And from that moment on, he rarely wore anything else in public. Jack began talking about Mahatma Gandhi, the nonviolent leader of Indian nationalism, after he discovered that Jobs had traveled through India for several months in 1974 in search of enlightenment. Jack made a portrait of Gandhi the screen saver on his computer and then tweeted the picture. He also started walking new Square employees along a path through San Francisco that would begin at a statue of Ghandi. He copied many of Jobs’s decisions.


pages: 395 words: 94,764

I Never Knew That About London by Christopher Winn

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Clapham omnibus, Desert Island Discs, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, God and Mammon, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble

Built in 1826, it originally held just a lamp, but in 1926 Scotland Yard installed a telephone line and a light which the police could use to call for assistance. It no longer serves as a police box but is used for storage. Occupying over 45,000 sq ft (4,180 sq m) and spread over six floors on Regent Street, HAMLEY’S is THE WORLD’S LARGEST TOY-SHOP. BRITAIN’S FIRST INDIAN RESTAURANT, VEERASWAMY, was opened in Regent Street by Edward Palmer in 1927. Their most appreciative customer was the campaigner for Indian independence MAHATMA GANDHI. Britain’s smallest police box JACK SMITH introduced THE FIRST GRAPEFRUIT INTO ENGLAND on his market stall in Berwick Street in 1890. OXFORD CIRCUS is LONDON UNDERGROUND’S SECOND BUSIEST STATION after Victoria. The 100 CLUB at No. 100 Oxford Street, which opened in 1942, is THE OLDEST LIVE MUSIC VENUE IN LONDON and LONDON’S OLDEST JAZZ CLUB. SOHO is home to EUROPE’S BIGGEST CHINATOWN.


pages: 313 words: 91,098

The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Air France Flight 447, attribution theory, bitcoin, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, combinatorial explosion, computer age, crowdsourcing, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Ethereum, Flynn Effect, Hernando de Soto, hindsight bias, hive mind, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, libertarian paternalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator

The sixties was a time of significant cultural upheaval on many fronts, the best known being the country’s attitudes toward war, drugs, and sex. After all, 1967 was the Summer of Love. The civil rights movement was only one component of the social revolution that took place in the sixties. Martin Luther King Jr. was a primary activist in the civil rights movement and a great leader. But despite his cultural status, he did not single-handedly enact civil rights legislation. Yet he remains the face of the movement, as Mahatma Gandhi remains the face of Indian independence and Susan B. Anthony the face of women’s suffrage in America. All three were great leaders, but they would have achieved nothing without supportive communities behind them; they did not operate alone. The lionization of individuals, as well as our corresponding failure to appreciate the role of the communities they represent, is more than just a ruse to simplify complex histories.


pages: 257 words: 90,857

Everything's Trash, but It's Okay by Phoebe Robinson

23andMe, Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, crack epidemic, Donald Trump, double helix, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Tim Cook: Apple, uber lyft

This is notable for me because so often when people of color are invited to fancy things, the only other POCs there will be the waitstaff, holding a ratchet chimney sweeper broom. Oh, you have all this money and can’t afford a freaking Swiffer WetJet for your employees? SortYourLifeOut.com. Anyway, a couple of rich white people paid for a bunch of other white people to wait on me as we sailed around the ocean, so clearly Julia and Danny adhered to the famous Mahatma Gandhi quote “Be the reparations you wish to see in the world.” We sailed around parts of Croat-Croat for a bit before chilling off the coast of Hvar. Throughout the day, everyone jumped off the yacht, swam around, and basically had the time of their lives in the water. I, meanwhile, kept my black behind on the yacht, sipping wine and cracking jokes because I have no idea how to swim. I know, I KNOW!


pages: 293 words: 90,714

Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

The Germans at the highest level discussed whether or not bicycles should be banned altogether, as in the Netherlands. After much discussion, though, it was decided not to ban them. The Germans exploited Denmark as a breadbasket to feed their armies, and without bicycles Denmark would grind to a halt, which would negatively impact the production of food and risk riling up the population. The bicycle was considered dangerous … but kind of like Mahatma Gandhi was considered dangerous. Massive demonstration on City Hall Square in Copenhagen where citizens demanded safer cycling conditions in 1979. © Søren Svendsen We all owned cycling. It was universally anonymous. This continues today in countries like the Netherlands, Denmark, and Japan. Bicycles are tools. You invest in them, sure, with the purpose of using them, and of course it is frustrating if they get stolen—although it is often the sudden reduced mobility that is frustrating, rather than the loss of the object.


pages: 400 words: 88,647

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Conclusion Having addressed the “what” and “why” of frugal innovation, let us now turn to the “how” and begin with the first of our six principles: engage and iterate. 2Principle one: engage and iterate A customer is the most important visitor on our premises. He is not dependent on us. We are dependent on him. He is not an interruption in our work. He is the purpose of it. He is not an outsider in our business. He is part of it. We are not doing him a favour by serving him. He is doing us a favour by giving us an opportunity to do so. Mahatma Gandhi IN 1983, SCOTT COOK, who had worked in marketing at Procter & Gamble, a multinational consumer-products company, co-founded Intuit, a start-up that aimed to replace paper-and-pencil personal accounting with software applications that could run on personal computers. Cook was inspired to launch the applications after hearing his wife complain about the hassle of tracking and settling household bills.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

Critics allege that it does nothing to actually reduce emissions and may in fact increase them, due to complications related to rapidly lowering then increasing electricity output. The event does not factor in emissions from promoting and publicizing the occasion, nor does it tackle the issues of overconsumption of scarce resources and environmental damage. It is reminiscent of the observation by poet Sarojini Naidu that it cost a fortune to keep India's ascetic leader Mahatma Gandhi in poverty. In Greek mythology, two sea monsters, Scylla and Charybdis, guarded the Strait of Messina, posing a grave threat to seafarers. To avoid Scylla meant passing too close to Charybdis. Avoiding Charybdis meant passing too close to Scylla. Odysseus, in Homer's epic poem, is forced to choose which of these two monsters to confront while passing through the strait. Today, the world is trapped between Scylla, existing policies that promise stagnation and slow decline, and Charybdis, decisive action that leads to an immediate loss in living standards.


pages: 326 words: 88,905

Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt by Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban decay, wage slave, white flight, women in the workforce

The dancers fast for four days, only drinking sage tea. They appeal to Wakan Tanka, the Great Mystery, and make their offerings of flesh, some by hooking a train of buffalo skulls to ropes fixed onto their backs for relatives, friends, and the community. The dance is a ritual that demands sacrifice and purification. The dancers move off the field for a rest. One of the medicine men speaks to the families in a mixture of Lakota and English. “Mahatma Gandhi was one of the most powerful men in this world, but he was one of the most humble men that we ever met,” he says. “And that’s the way we teach here in the Lakota belief. It is sad that some people see that as a weakness. But in reality that’s a strength, and that’s what these Sun Dancers learn here. When they leave, when they are out there in the world, it is hard for them at times. They have to turn around and show that forgiveness and show that humility to wasushala, other people, even though they treat them bad.


pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky

Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Kuiper Belt, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe’s law, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra

(Amusingly, NutsOnline also hosted a page on the campaign, at www.nutsonline. com/jericho.) The antiwar flower protest in Michigan was a way of doing “something positive to deliver our message,” as one protester put it (“Flowers Used to Protest War,” www.statenews.com/index.php/article/2006/04/flowers_used_to_protest). Similarly, the flowers sent to the U.S. State Department were often referred to as Ghandigiri, which is to say “in the spirit of Mahatma Gandhi” (“Say It with Flowers: Gandhigiri for US Green Cards,” in.news.yahoo.com/070710/48/6hwnn.html ). In all these cases, the delivery of actual objects did triple duty: the physical delivery increased attention, the nature of the object underlined the message (opposition with the nuts, nonviolence with the flowers), and the cost of sending the object communicated real commitment on the part of the sender.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

"We'll keep it on loan." Abdicating his throne Every four years, new king cares for us. I will do everything in my power to drive, build and pursue progress and change. It would be naive to think that the problems plaguing mankind today can be solved with means and methods which were applied or seemed to work in the past. Mikhail Gorbachev You must be the change you wish to see in the world. Mahatma Gandhi I was taught that the way of progress was neither swift nor easy. Marie Curie How wonderful that we have met with a paradox. Now we have some hope of making progress. Niels Bohr Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything. George Bernard Shaw If you want to succeed you should strike out on new paths, rather than travel the worn paths of accepted success.


pages: 324 words: 93,606

No Such Thing as a Free Gift: The Gates Foundation and the Price of Philanthropy by Linsey McGoey

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, American Legislative Exchange Council, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, cashless society, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, effective altruism, Etonian, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, germ theory of disease, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school choice, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, wealth creators

Roy Prosterman’s Rural Development Institute works to secure land rights for marginalized populations. While there’s much to commend in these organizations, they’re not particularly new. Two of them are over forty years old, and all build upon infrastructures established through earlier development efforts implemented through the twentieth century. In the case of Barefoot College, founder Sanjit ‘Bunker’ Roy has often stressed that Mahatma Gandhi’s spirit of selfless service is the inspiration for his own non-profit work. And yet, despite the generality of the term, the many historical parallels, and the discomfort over whether Bunker Roy’s vision sits comfortably next to Lee Scott’s, proponents of social entrepreneurship continue to proclaim, without pointing to much evidence, that social entrepreneurship heralds a revolutionary break from past business practices.


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Theseus’s quest to claim his kingship in Athens vividly illustrates the lawlessness of Greece at the time, without any state institutions to keep order. As Plutarch has it: Thus Theseus . . . went on his way chastising the wicked, who were visited with the same violence from him, which they were visiting on others, and suffered justice after the manner of their own injustice. Theseus’s strategy was therefore very much “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” Athens was living Mahatma Gandhi’s “an eye for an eye makes the whole world blind.” Athenian kings didn’t last long, however. By the end of the Dark Ages the city was ruled by a group of Archons, or chief magistrates, who represented its rich families. These elites competed endlessly for power, a process which sometimes led to coups such as the one by Cylon in 632 BCE. Elites recognized that they needed to develop more orderly ways of dealing with conflicts in the city.

In 1892 an act stipulated that panchayats should be elected by the people “in any manner convenient,” while an act of 1911 passed in Madras allowed for the election of panchayats and listed a large number of tasks that they should undertake, including the lighting of public roads, cleaning public roads, drains, tanks, and wells, and establishing and maintaining schools and hospitals. It’s no coincidence then that Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of an ideal India was based on autarkic villages, what he called Hindu Swaraj, or Indian Home Rule. British colonial authority tried to tap into the same traditions. After independence, these village institutions were strengthened. Clause 243 of the Indian Constitution allows for the creation of a Gram Sabha, a village assembly consisting of adults qualified to vote who would democratically elect a panchayat to govern village affairs.


pages: 304 words: 22,886

Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness by Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein

Al Roth, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, availability heuristic, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, continuous integration, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, endowment effect, equity premium, feminist movement, fixed income, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, index fund, invisible hand, late fees, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mason jar, medical malpractice, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, pension reform, presumed consent, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, school choice, school vouchers, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Zipcar

Whether or not they have ever studied economics, many people seem at least implicitly committed to the idea of homo economicus, or economic man—the notion that each of us thinks and chooses unfailingly well, and thus fits within the textbook picture of human beings offered by economists. If you look at economics textbooks, you will learn that homo economicus can think like Albert Einstein, store as much memory as IBM’s Big Blue, and exercise the willpower of Mahatma Gandhi. Really. But the folks that we know are not like that. Real people have trouble with long division if they don’t have a calculator, sometimes forget their spouse’s birthday, and have a hangover on New Year’s Day. They are not homo economicus; they are homo sapiens. To keep our Latin usage to a minimum we will hereafter refer to these imaginary and real species as Econs and Humans. Consider the issue of obesity.


pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

15th August will Herald in the Independence of Hindustan & Pakistan With a Feast of Dance, Music, and Delicate Romance In JEEVAN PICTURES ALL INDIA PREMIERE ARSI Moviegoers could continue on for dinner at Mishat, which was planning to open on the same day, August 15, offering the “best Indian & European dishes” at the “only ideal & exclusive restaurant in the town.” The migrants were adopting a prosperous port city with a population of around four hundred thousand. Factories turned out chemicals, paper, and glass. People drove Chrysler sedans, and could order “home delivered” British Singer roadsters from a dealer on Mahatma Gandhi Street. A radio station was just opening for business, offering local songs of Sindh, the province that includes Karachi, as well as a program of “recorded Western music” called “The Birth of the Blues.” Newspapers catered to a sophisticated readership; some of the city’s elite had been educated in England. Pan Am Clippers arrived several times a week from Calcutta, big four-propeller airliners stopping to refuel on their way to points west.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, superconnector, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Dictators and despots oppress women, children, and minorities in secret, when few are watching. But, in the exponential times ahead, in a world of a trillion sensors, drones, satellites, and glass, someone will always be watching. While this raises serious concerns for privacy, it also offers us hope for the end of oppression and perhaps the beginning of an entirely new breed of moral global leadership. Who will be the Martin Luther King, Jr., or Mahatma Gandhi of the exponential age? Our history tells us that this breed of leaders is extremely rare and often underappreciated at first glance. Perhaps such leadership will materialize from experimentation in virtual worlds, or emerge from some crowdsourced competition, or be yielded over to a benevolent artificial intelligence. Each is, for the first time ever, a real possibility. Perhaps such leadership will arise the old-fashioned way, from those few concerned citizens willing to suffer the long and lonely hours it takes to see farther and hope further and build bridges across the seemingly vast chasms that still so frequently divide us.


pages: 315 words: 99,065

The Virgin Way: Everything I Know About Leadership by Richard Branson

barriers to entry, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, clean water, collective bargaining, Costa Concordia, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, index card, inflight wifi, Lao Tzu, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, trade route, zero-sum game

There is nothing wrong with cherishing and enjoying memories and hopefully learning from past experiences just as planning for the future is something we obviously all have to do as well – but what about today? All too frequently ‘now’ gets lost in the frenetic shuffle to rush ahead to tomorrow. Face it: these are ‘the good old days’ that you’ll be looking back on twenty years from now – so why not move heaven and earth to enjoy them while you’ve got them? Mahatma Gandhi is one of my all-time heroes, and a quote from him that I think I first read in a school history lesson has stuck with me ever since: ‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.’ This good advice has been popularly abbreviated to, ‘Live every day as if it were your last’, which is a wonderful sentiment even if it has frequently become a worldwide rallying cry for never-mind-the-consequences hell-raisers.


Work Less, Live More: The Way to Semi-Retirement by Robert Clyatt

asset allocation, backtesting, buy and hold, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, employer provided health coverage, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial independence, fixed income, future of work, index arbitrage, index fund, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, merger arbitrage, money market fund, mortgage tax deduction, passive income, rising living standards, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, working poor, zero-sum game

Churches could grow stronger if longtime and new members had the time and passion to begin their spiritual questing in earnest. And as men began to leave full-time career pursuits in numbers similar to women’s, their health and longevity could even begin to come in line with those women enjoy. People with more time chapter 8 | Make Your Life Matter | 323 to stop and talk—or even better, stop and listen—could help make life a little better for everyone. Pacifist icon Mahatma Gandhi said, “Be the change you want to see in the world.” As a semi-retiree you are uniquely blessed with the time, resources, and energy to take a stand and make a difference. If something is important to you, you can do something about it. Semi-Retirement Works While there are no large, academically rigorous studies assessing the impact of semi-retirement on the population, some smaller polls of semiretirees on the www.early-retirement.forum website were done for this book.


pages: 572 words: 94,002

Reset: How to Restart Your Life and Get F.U. Money: The Unconventional Early Retirement Plan for Midlife Careerists Who Want to Be Happy by David Sawyer

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, beat the dealer, bitcoin, Cal Newport, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Attenborough, David Heinemeier Hansson, Desert Island Discs, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, financial independence, follow your passion, gig economy, hiring and firing, index card, index fund, invention of the wheel, knowledge worker, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, passive income, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart meter, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Vanguard fund, Y Combinator

Glossophobia Let’s take public speaking, a common pastime for midlife careerists who are often called on to dig out the PowerPoint and present. Glossophobia is our number one fear, above death. “If you go to a funeral,” US comedian Jerry Seinfeld quipped, “you’re better off in the casket than doing the eulogy[50].” Warren Buffett, Eleanor Roosevelt, that British prime minister Harold MacMillan again, Julia Roberts[51], Jackie Kennedy, Princess Di[52], Mahatma Gandhi all hated public speaking, for one reason or another, before tackling their fears to convey their message. And if you’re still thinking that’s fine for them, they come from a background of wealth and privilege; millions of people, normal people such as you and me, overcome this fear every day, every week, every year. They come to realise that all they need is a good grasp of their subject matter and an intense desire to share their passion (admittedly difficult when you’re presenting the monthly sales figures, not freeing a nation).


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, private space industry, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

Even though America no longer dominates space exploration, former NASA administrator Michael Griffin said that when more people live off-Earth than live on it, “. . . we want their culture to be Western, because Western Civilization is the best we’ve seen so far in human history.” This is a jaw-dropping neocolonial statement to come from the mouth of such a high-ranking government official. He may have been unaware of a prior rebuttal by Mahatma Gandhi; when asked what he thought of Western Civilization, he’s reported to have said, “I think it would be a good idea.” One year earlier, X Prize Foundation Chairman Peter Diamandis said, “The Solar System is like a giant grocery store. It has everything we could possibly want. . . . The Solar System’s seemingly limitless energy and mineral resources will solve Earth’s resource shortages.”14 This is acquisitiveness dressed as utilitarianism—if it’s there and we want it, we’ll take it.


pages: 328 words: 97,711

Talking to Strangers: What We Should Know About the People We Don't Know by Malcolm Gladwell

Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, crack epidemic, Ferguson, Missouri, financial thriller, light touch regulation, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, Snapchat

One of his critics would later compare him to a priest entering a pub for the first time, blind to the difference “between a social gathering and a rough house.” But this pattern isn’t confined to Chamberlain. It also afflicted Lord Halifax, who would go on to become Chamberlain’s foreign secretary. Halifax was an aristocrat, a superb student at Eton and Oxford. He served as Viceroy of India between the wars, where he negotiated brilliantly with Mahatma Gandhi. He was everything Chamberlain was not: worldly, seasoned, deeply charming, an intellectual—a man of such resolute religiosity that Churchill dubbed him the “Holy Fox.” Halifax went to Berlin in the fall of 1937 and met with the German leader at Berchtesgaden: he was the only other member of England’s ruling circle to have spent time with the Führer. Their meeting wasn’t some meaningless diplomatic reception.


pages: 307 words: 102,734

The Black Nile: One Man's Amazing Journey Through Peace and War on the World's Longest River by Dan Morrison

airport security, colonial rule, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Potemkin village, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley

But the authorities said, ‘No, they are weak Muslims. They will change.’ They said that when the Comboni Brothers come we will all be making the sign of the cross. I was here before God. When did you come here? I was here six thousand years. Before religion. Before God.” I mentioned that Mohammed Wardi, the Nubian singer, had talked about armed resistance in Nubia. Bitek shook his head. “I respect Mahatma Gandhi. Mr. Nehru, he sees a cow, he bows down. That’s his belief. Those who speak of armed resistance should come and see. Come and see the situation here. Where are the people? This area is not suitable for guerrilla warfare.” Halfa was a Nubian city, he said, but its institutions—the banks, the police and the major businesses—were all in the hands of the Muslim Brotherhood. “They control the economy.”


pages: 410 words: 101,260

Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World by Adam Grant

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, double helix, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, George Santayana, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, women in the workforce

What are the habits of the people whose originality extends beyond appearance to effective action? The Right Stuff To be an original, you need to take radical risks. This belief is embedded so deeply in our cultural psyche that we rarely even stop to think about it. We admire astronauts like Neil Armstrong and Sally Ride for having “the right stuff”—the courage to leave the only planet humans have ever inhabited and venture boldly into space. We celebrate heroes like Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr., who possessed enough conviction to risk their lives for the moral principles they held dear. We idolize icons like Steve Jobs and Bill Gates for having the audacity to drop out of school and go for broke, holing up in garages to will their technological visions into existence. When we marvel at the original individuals who fuel creativity and drive change in the world, we tend to assume they’re cut from a different cloth.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Existing centers of elite power must now open their worldview to understanding some of the processes that they’ve dismissed as “irrational” or “post-truth,” and to throw their considerable influence behind a different social and economic settlement. An idea that might help such a thought experiment is that of nonviolence. This is not the same thing as “freedom of speech,” “rationality,” “human rights,” or any of the other totemic values of Western civilization. “Nonviolence” typically refers to forms of activism and protest, in the tradition of Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr. It means actively and physically intervening in society, to both publicize and protect human and nonhuman bodies that are under threat. One could include various rescue services within this, in which experts and brave individuals act rapidly to prevent harm. By recognizing that people must be mobilized, it shows where political hope must lie for the future. The mistake of progressive policy tools, such as statistics and economics, is to assume that human action is reducible to hedonistic impulses, seeking more and more contentment.


Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How It Changed the World by Laura Spinney

Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, dark matter, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, experimental subject, Francisco Pizarro, global pandemic, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, trade route, urban renewal

In March 1919, Koreans rose up in an independence movement that the Japanese quickly crushed (Koreans finally gained their independence after the Second World War), and in the same month Egyptians and Sudanese people revolted against their British ‘protectors’–a revolution that would lead to Egypt gaining its independence in 1922. By March 1919, meanwhile, tensions in India had reached breaking point, in large part due to the flu. In that country, however, they wouldn’t come to a head until the following month. GANDHI AND THE GRASS ROOTS Throughout the summer of 1918, Mahatma Gandhi was busy recruiting Indian troops to the British war effort. By the autumn he was worn out, and while at his ashram on the outskirts of Ahmedabad, he suffered what he thought was a mild attack of dysentery. He made up his mind to starve the alien force out of his body, but gave into temptation and ate a bowl of sweet porridge that his wife Kasturba had prepared for him. ‘This was sufficient invitation to the angel of death,’ he wrote later.


pages: 365 words: 96,573

Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art by James Nestor

Albert Einstein, epigenetics, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Khan Academy, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell

He spoke eleven languages, ate mostly nuts, fruits, and apple juice, and claimed to have hardly any material possessions. “At six-feet-one-inch and 170 pounds, and with a lot of energy for debate and persuasion, he was a formidable figure,” wrote a staff member. By the age of three, Rama was practicing yoga and breathing techniques around his home in northern India. He’d later move to Himalayan monasteries and study secret practices alongside Mahatma Gandhi, Sri Aurobindo, and other Eastern luminaries. In his 20s, he headed west to attend Oxford and other universities, then eventually set off around the world to teach the methods he’d learned from the masters to anyone who cared to listen. In the spring of 1970, Rama was sitting at a wooden desk in a small, pictureless office at the Menninger Clinic with an EKG over his heart and EEG sensors on his forehead.


pages: 339 words: 112,979

Unweaving the Rainbow by Richard Dawkins

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Arthur Eddington, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Mahatma Gandhi, music of the spheres, Necker cube, p-value, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steven Pinker, Zipf's Law

London: Macmillan. * * * Index Numbers in brackets refer to relevant works numbered in the bibliography. * * * * Correcting copy in August 1998, I cannot let this pass without sadly reflecting that Nehru would feel India's decision to carry out nuclear tests, unilaterally and in defiance of world opinion, to be a shocking abuse of science and a desecration of his memory and that of Mahatma Gandhi. [back] *** * Colour is a rich source of philosophical speculation, which is often scientifically under-informed. A laudable attempt to rectify this is C. L. Hardin's 1988 book, Color for Philosophers: Unweaving the Rainbow. I am embarrassed to say that I discovered this book, and in particular its excellent subtitle, only after mine had gone off to the publishers. Doctor Dolittle, by the way, may be hard to find, as he is now often banned by pompously correct librarians.


pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

The answer is self-evident: greed and envy demand continuous and limitless economic growth of a material kind, without proper regard for conservation, and this type of growth cannot possibly fit into a finite environment. We must therefore study the essential nature of the private enterprise system and the possibilities of evolving an alternative system which might fit the new situation.” — from Small is Beautiful The NEW VILLAGE GREEN 127 “ One of the fascinating aspects of the sustainability revolution is that, unlike Mahatma Gandhi who led the Non-Violence movement and Martin Luther King, Jr., who led the Civil Rights movement, there is no single leader. Instead, hundreds of thousands of community leaders and citizens from around the world are taking action through ecological, economic and social projects to improve people’s lives and protect the environment. Some of the visionary leaders who are redefining the relationship between humans and the environment are William McDonough, Janine Benyus, Ray Anderson, Paul Hawken, Vandana Shiva, and Sim Van der Ryn


pages: 361 words: 110,905

Rocket Men: The Daring Odyssey of Apollo 8 and the Astronauts Who Made Man's First Journey to the Moon by Robert Kurson

Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, low earth orbit, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics

More than sixteen thousand Americans had died in the war in 1968, by far the bloodiest year to date by a factor of almost 50 percent. At their offices in New York City, the editors of Time magazine decided on its Man of the Year. Their criteria did not include virtue—only that the selected person be the one who most affected the news and embodied what was important about the year. Previously, the magazine had named luminaries such as John F. Kennedy, Winston Churchill, and Mahatma Gandhi. For 1968, they chose THE DISSENTER. JUST EIGHT MINUTES AFTER THE THIRD-STAGE engine cutoff, Apollo 8 burst through the altitude record of 853 miles set by Gemini 11 in 1966. But there was little time to celebrate, or even notice, the achievement. The spacecraft needed to separate from the spent third-stage booster, the S-IVB. To make it happen, Borman turned a T-shaped handle that triggered a set of explosives, cutting loose the expired third stage in a spectacle of pyrotechnics.


pages: 410 words: 106,931

Age of Anger: A History of the Present by Pankaj Mishra

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, informal economy, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, Republic of Letters, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Kahn, Political Theology: Four New Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty (New York, 2011), and Emilio Gentile, Politics as Religion (Princeton, 2006). Akeel Bilgrami, Secularism, Identity, and Enchantment (Cambridge, MA, 2014), makes some enlightening connections. 5. Regaining My Religion I. Nationalism Unbound Godse’s remarkable courtroom testament is now available in a revised edition: Nathuram Vinayak Godse, Why I Assassinated Mahatma Gandhi (Delhi, 2014). On Savarkar’s connection to Gandhi’s assassination, see A. G. Noorani, Savarkar and Hindutva: The Godse Connection (New Delhi, 2002). Naipaul’s early views of India are contained in the essays in The Writer and the World (London, 2002) and India: A Wounded Civilization (London, 1977). For Nirad Chaudhuri’s choleric assessment of modern Hindus, see The Continent of Circe: Being an Essay on the Peoples of India (London, 1965).


pages: 353 words: 110,919

The Road to Character by David Brooks

Cass Sunstein, coherent worldview, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, follow your passion, George Santayana, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, New Journalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile

“There is, especially in the National Office, an unhealthy degree of leader-worship of Mr. Randolph,” one outside analyst of the 1941 March on Washington organization observed, “which paralyzes action and prevents an intelligent working out of policy.”13 But Randolph had one more important contribution to make to the civil rights movement. In the 1940s and 1950s he was among those who championed nonviolent resistance as a tactic to advance the civil rights cause. Influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and some of the early labor movement tactics, he helped form the League of Non-Violent Civil Disobedience Against Military Segregation in 1948.14 Against most of the established civil rights groups, which advocated education and reconciliation over confrontation and contention, Randolph argued for restaurant sit-ins and “prayer protests.” As he told the Senate Armed Services Committee in 1948, “Ours would be [a movement] of non-resistance….


pages: 353 words: 106,704

Choked: Life and Breath in the Age of Air Pollution by Beth Gardiner

barriers to entry, Boris Johnson, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, connected car, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Hyperloop, index card, Indoor air pollution, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, white picket fence

“My kids do say, ‘Why are we here, why don’t we just leave?’ And I say, ‘If we leave, it doesn’t solve the problem. If we leave, your grandparents are here, your cousins are still here. Let’s stay and try to fix it. And in the meantime, wear masks.’” * * * Most Indians, of course, don’t have the choice. On a concrete island in the middle of an eight-lane highway, near a stretch of south Delhi road named for Mahatma Gandhi, I meet Mohammad and Babli Yunus. They’re raising their five children on this patch of pavement, surrounded on three sides by the highway and pressed on the fourth against a tall metal fence. Above them, an overpass carries several more lanes of traffic. The family’s possessions hang from the fence’s spikes: a plastic bucket, bundles wrapped in patterned cloth, a few blankets, a shirt. Beside the curb, a baby and a toddler sleep on a dirty green mat, a shawl covering their faces.


pages: 338 words: 104,684

The Deficit Myth: Modern Monetary Theory and the Birth of the People's Economy by Stephanie Kelton

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, COVID-19, Covid-19, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discrete time, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, floating exchange rates, Food sovereignty, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, liquidity trap, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, urban planning, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, zero-sum game

Within three years, half of the participants had left the program, most for jobs in the private sector.37 In 2003, at its annual Growth and Development Summit, South Africa’s government formalized a commitment to “more jobs, better jobs, [and] decent work for all.”38 The Expanded Public Works Program (EPWP) grew out of that commitment. The program created “temporary work for the unemployed to carry out socially useful activities.”39 Two years later, the Indian government instituted the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS). The program was motivated by a desire to narrow disparities between rural and urban incomes. To create opportunities for those living where unemployment was high, the government guaranteed one hundred days of minimum wage work—with wages equal for men and women—for any rural household. India’s job guarantee remains targeted (rather than universal), but it’s one of the largest federally funded employment guarantee programs in the world.


pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, yield curve

Viewers of networks such as CNN and the BBC saw a seemingly literate, articulate, often English-speaking, and smartly dressed (though minimally and even provocatively hijab observant) group of young people demonstrate a great deal of courage and political sophistication. Chants of “Death to America” and “Long live the Ayatollah” were replaced by “Where is my vote?” (which some Americans could empathize with), “Everyone…a Martin Luther King,” and “Everyone…a Mahatma Gandhi.” This was a savvy bunch of activists who were committed to nonviolence, making limited yet achievable demands, and never surrendering the moral high ground. And the images were there to verify that Iranians were exercising their modern subjectivity. The physical backdrop to all of this was a country with modern cities, boulevards, and infrastructure. The world learned that Persian, after English and Mandarin, is the third most used language for blogging, even though the population of Iran is only about seventy million.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

There are even vain attempts to dress up capital itself in the humanist garb of what some corporate leaders like to call Conscious Capitalism, a species of entrepreneurial ethics that looks suspiciously like conscience laundering along with sensible proposals to improve worker efficiency by seeming to be nice to them.5 All the nasty things that happen are absorbed as unintentional collateral damage in an economic system motivated by the best of ethical intentions. Humanism is, however, the spirit that inspires countless individuals to give of themselves unstintingly and often without material reward to contribute selflessly to the well-being of others. Christian, Jewish, Islamic and Buddhist humanisms have spawned widespread religious and charitable organisations, as well as iconic figures like Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Mother Teresa and Bishop Tutu. Within the secular tradition there are many varieties of humanist thought and practice, including explicit currents of cosmopolitan, liberal, socialist and Marxist humanism. And, of course, moral and political philosophers have over the centuries devised a variety of conflicting ethical systems of thought based in a variety of ideals of justice, cosmopolitan reason and emancipatory liberty that have from time to time supplied revolutionary slogans.


pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

activist lawyer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate raider, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, undersea cable, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

It marked the first anniversary of a successful demonstration at a provincial court, when some five hundred villagers had demanded the release from custody of their local leader. You Tho had been charged with inciting them to protest and to commit arson after a previous demonstration outside the company’s offices. You Tho, a soft-spoken man in his sixties, seemed an unlikely hothead. He was wearing a T-shirt with a picture of the Indian pacifist Mahatma Gandhi on it. He told me that some three hundred families in eleven villages in the Omlaing commune were threatened with losing at least some of their land to Ly Yong Phat’s sugar plantation, as it expanded down the valley. Their situations varied. In one village, people had been told their houses would be bulldozed. In another, every family had lost rice fields. “They will have nothing to eat this year,” said women at the meeting.


pages: 382 words: 115,172

The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat by Tim Spector

biofilm, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, David Strachan, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, Kickstarter, life extension, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Steve Jobs, twin studies

She has concocted a range of diets and cookbooks and the thirty-bananas-a-day diet is widely promoted, with reports of both spectacular successes and failures. Before you sign up for her health plan you should know that she also believes that losing your periods from dieting for nine months is good for you, and that fruit not chemotherapy is the treatment for cancer.4 Other fruitarian advocates were the late Steve Jobs, whose company was clearly influenced by his diet, Mahatma Gandhi and reputedly Leonardo da Vinci, though mangoes and bananas may have been hard to get in Renaissance Florence. There are even several ultra-marathon runners who eat only fruit and claim it gives them special powers. But for many, this lifestyle is a modern form of eating disorder. Juicing and detox miracles ‘I look like I swallowed a sheep.’ It was 2007, and a Sydney stock market trader named Joe Cross looked in the mirror and realised he was very fat.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Goerner, S. (2015) Regenerative Development: The Art and Science of Creating Durably Vibrant Human Networks, Connecticut: Capital Institute, available at: http://capitalinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/000-Regenerative-Devel-Final-Goerner-Sept-1-2015.pdf 29. Goerner, S. et al. (2009) ‘Quantifying economic sustainability: implications for free-enterprise theory, policy and practice’, Ecological Economics 69, p. 79. 30. The Asia Floor Wage, available at http://asia.floorwage.org/ 31. Pizzigati, S. (2004) Greed and Good. New York: Apex Press, pp. 479–502. 32. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005. http://www.nrega.nic.in/netnrega/home.aspx 33. Basic Income Earth Network (BIEN) http://www.basicincome.org/ 34. Alperovitz, G. (2015) What Then Must We Do? White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, p. 26. 35. Landesa, http://www.landesa.org/resources/suchitra-deys-story/ 36. ‘Educating the People’, Ottawa Free Trader, 7 August 1914, p. 3. 37.


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Rather, it is estimated that the urban population in Africa and Asia will double by 2030; for example, the population of Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, currently stands at about 8.75 million; by 2025 this will have risen to 15.04 million. China will continue to urbanise, and in the next twenty years over 350 million will settle in new cities, more than the entire population of the US. India, a nation that its liberating founder Mahatma Gandhi claimed had its soul in the village, will, by 2030, be a country of sixty-eight cities of over 1 million, thirteen cities with over 4 million and six mega-cities with a population each of over 10 million, with the capital at New Delhi reaching 46 million, twice as large as the total population of Australia. What will these mega-cities feel like? In many ways, they have already arrived and one only needs to visit Mexico City or Nairobi to experience the impact of so many bodies crammed into one place together.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

A Christian may be a capitalist as easily as a socialist, and even though a few things Jesus said smack of downright communism, during the Cold War good American capitalists went on reading the Sermon on the Mount without taking much notice. There is just no such thing as ‘Christian economics’, ‘Muslim economics’ or ‘Hindu economics’. Not that there aren’t any economic ideas in the Bible, the Quran or the Vedas – it is just that these ideas are not up to date. Mahatma Gandhi’s reading of the Vedas caused him to envision independent India as a collection of self-sufficient agrarian communities, each spinning its own khadi cloths, exporting little and importing even less. The most famous photograph of him shows him spinning cotton with his own hands, and he made the humble spinning wheel the symbol of the Indian nationalist movement.1 Yet this Arcadian vision was simply incompatible with the realities of modern economics, and hence not much has remained of it save for Gandhi’s radiant image on billions of rupee notes.


pages: 412 words: 113,782

Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, business cycle, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K

You just don’t do that to an addict; • a federal highway system that guaranteed our slavery to the automobile; • subsidies to purchasers of SUVs under the guise of helping the small-business person who needs a truck in her or his business; • governments that happily hand out money to some farmers to keep agricultural land fallow … • … while handing out money to encourage other farmers to overload other croplands to the point of erosion, compaction, and chemical poisoning; • subsidies for ethanol production that ultimately drive the cost of food up by supporting plant-based “refineries” that use almost as much energy as they yield; • in Germany, the coal industry is so heavily subsidized by the state that it would be far cheaper, according to one economist, to shut the mines down and send all the miners home at full salary for the rest of their lives than to continue to operate them; • India spends a full 14 percent of its gross domestic product—about $40 billion a year—for agricultural and industrial subsidies; • in the United States, the Price-Anderson Act legislates away our nuclear industry’s liability problem by placing artificially low limits on what people can collect from a nuclear utility in the event of a catastrophic accident. It’s an insurance policy our government (that’s you and I) provides at no cost to the nuclear industry—not a penny in liability premiums is collected. Take the subsidy away and no right-thinking board would ever approve a nuclear investment. Think about that when you hear someone mention grid parity, or say, “Renewables can’t compete with nuclear energy on price.” You know, when Mahatma Gandhi was asked what he thought of Western civilization, he wryly answered, “It would be a very good idea.” The same might be said about our “free” market. It, too, would be a very good idea. But a strange and perverse hybrid that is called “free” and is anything but is the one we’ve got. Call it Market 1.0. What about Market 2.0? What do we mean when we say we want to “redesign” commerce? For one, Market 2.0 focuses on delivering services and value in a closed-loop, waste-equals-food fashion that emulates nature rather than endlessly making, delivering, and discarding new products made from irreplaceable, nonrenewable raw materials.


pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, twin studies, uber lyft, women in the workforce

In 1965 Edwin West, a British economist at Newcastle University who later moved to Canada, published his now famous account of private education, Education and the State, in which he argued that the imposition of a state education system from 1870 in Britain, with compulsion from 1880, in effect simply displaced a growing and healthy private schooling system that would have continued to develop. In West’s vivid phrase, the government merely ‘jumped into the saddle of a horse that was already galloping’. Much the same was true of India, where a survey in the 1820s found a widespread privately-funded school system reaching more boys than was the case in some European countries, long before the British introduced a public education system in the subcontinent. Mahatma Gandhi complained later that the British had ‘uprooted a beautiful tree’ and left India more illiterate than it had been, in displacing the indigenous private school network with a disastrously unsuccessful public one, centralised, unaccountable and open to caste exclusion. The British furiously disputed this, of course, but the evidence suggests they were wrong to do so. Between 1818 and 1858 enrolment in private schools in England quadrupled.


pages: 573 words: 115,489