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Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The Urban Equity Doctrine When Mockus quit his post to run for president in 1997, the murder, crime, and accident rates had begun to fall, but Bogotá’s physical and functional problems—congestion; pollution; and a critical lack of schools, safe streets, and public space—were still acute. The city had begun to change its mind, but it was being held back by its body. Enrique Peñalosa, who finally won the mayor’s seat on his third try, insisted that there was an inherent connection between urban form and culture. It was not enough, he felt, to teach people a new citizenship of respect. The city itself had to manifest that philosophy in its forms, systems, and services. “Only a city that respects human beings can expect citizens to respect the city in return,” he said in his inauguration speech. He promised that he would use his term to build that respect into the city, using concrete, steel, leaf, and lawn. At the start of this book I credited Enrique Peñalosa with a big and simple idea: that urban design should be used to make people happier. Peñalosa is indeed a student of the happiness economists, but his program for Bogotá was grounded in a specific interpretation of well-being that, by its nature, threatens to make many urbanites uncomfortable.
He hollered with the hurried fervor of a preacher. He wore the kind of close-trimmed beard favored by men who don’t like to waste time shaving. He jogged through the building’s basement parking deck in a long-legged canter, like a center forward charging for a long pass. Two bodyguards trotted behind him, their pistols jostling in holsters. There was nothing remarkable about that, given his profession—and his locale. Enrique Peñalosa was a perennial politician on yet another campaign, and this was Bogotá, a city with a spectacular reputation for kidnappings and assassination. What was unusual was this: Peñalosa didn’t climb into the armored SUV typical of most public figures in Colombia. Instead, he hopped on a knobby-tired mountain bike and quickly cranked his way up a ramp into the searing Andean sunlight. Then he was off, jumping curbs and potholes, riding one-handed, weaving across the pavement, and barking into his cell phone while his pin-striped trousers flapped in the breeze.
But we can design the city to give people dignity, to make them feel rich. The city can make them happier.” There it was, the declaration I have seen bring tears to so many eyes with its promise of urban revolution and redemption. * * * It’s been six years since my ride with the Mayor of Happy, but the memory has remained with me, as vivid as the Andean sun. That was the day the journey began. You may never have heard of Enrique Peñalosa. You may not have been among the crowds that gave him a hero’s welcome in New York, Los Angeles, Singapore, Lagos, or Mexico City over the last decade. You may never have seen him raise his arms like an evangelist or holler his philosophy over the noise of a hundred idling car engines. But his grand experiment and his even grander rhetoric inspire an urbanist fervor wherever he goes. Peñalosa has become one of the central figures in a movement that is changing the structure and soul of cities around the world.
How Cycling Can Save the World by Peter Walker
active transport: walking or cycling, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, car-free, correlation does not imply causation, Enrique Peñalosa, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, New Urbanism, post-work, publication bias, the built environment, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, urban planning
CHAPTER 3 1 Peter Walker, “Utrecht’s Cycling Lessons for Migrants: ‘Riding a Bike Makes Me Feel More Dutch,’” The Guardian, April 28, 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/apr/28/utrecht-cycling-lessons-refugees-riding-bike-feel-dutch. 2 Interview with the author. 3 UK Office for National Statistics. 4 Center for Transit Oriented Development, 2008 study. 5 2011 UK census, car or van availability by local authority. 6 Enrique Peñalosa TED talk, September 2013. http://www.ted.com/talks/enrique_penalosa_why_buses_represent_democracy_in_action. 7 UK National Travel Survey. 8 League of American Bicyclists. 9 John Pucher and Ralph Buehler, City Cycling (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press), 2012. 10 2011 census, analysis: cycling to work. 11 Pucher and Buehler, City Cycling. 12 TransAlt, “Fifth and Sixth Avenue Bicycle and Traffic Study,” 2015, https://www.transalt.org/sites/default/files/news/reports/2015/TransAlt_5th_6th_Avenue_Report.pdf. 13 Rosamund Urwin, “Why Are Female Cyclists More Vulnerable to London’s Lorries?”
More than this, the external social costs of driving tend to fall predominantly on the less prosperous, who are more likely to live near a main road, enduring noise and smog, with their community bisected by busy traffic. This happens almost everywhere, and most people don’t even notice it. In my area of inner southeast London, census figures show about 60 percent of households don’t own a motor vehicle.5 And yet the streets are dominated by vehicles, whether parked or driving past, pumping out fumes, creating noise and danger, to the detriment of everyone. Enrique Peñalosa, the mayor of Colombia’s sprawling, chaotic capital city of Bogotá, built hundreds of miles of protected bike lanes, arguing that they are vital to equality. “They are a right, just as sidewalks are,” he said. “They are a powerful symbol of democracy. They show that a citizen on a thirty-dollar bicycle is equally important to one in a thirty-thousand-dollar car.”6 A Dawn of Emancipation One of the more curious-seeming social justice divides in cycling is gender.
Lisa Bender, who cofounded the Minneapolis Bicycle Coalition before jumping the fence to become an elected city council member, says these are designed to run to poorer, more distant neighborhoods, as well as the better-off inner suburbs. Bender explains that earlier in her career, she worked for a nonprofit organization that carried out transport projects in developing nations. As part of this, she was taken on a tour of a newly rebuilt former slum area of Bogotá by none other than Enrique Peñalosa. He proudly pointed out that there was a smooth, paved route for bikes and pedestrians, but just a dirt road for cars, Bender says: “Enrique made the point: ‘We made this choice intentionally. Cars don’t need paving, and this is a poor area—most people don’t drive anyway. So we prioritized putting the money into the bicycle and pedestrian lanes.’” Bender adds: “It was a moment that really stuck with me.
Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
* In China, a shocking collision between two bullet trains in the summer of 2011, which killed forty people, has led Beijing to cut back maximum speeds and temporarily halt new rail construction. 8. The Revenge of the Loser Cruiser Bogotá, Colombia The twentieth century was a horrible detour in the evolution of the human habitat. We were building more for cars’ mobility than children’s happiness. — Enrique Peñalosa, 2008 When it comes to modernist architecture and modern cities, form follows function. At least that’s what I thought I knew, and every place I’d been so far seemed to confirm the idea that cities are structured by their transportation networks. New York, though it came close to being undone by Robert Moses’s parkways and expressways, had clearly grown up dense and vertical around elevateds and subways.
Middle-class Filipinos almost never ride the slow, crowded, and laborintensive jeepneys, which crowd busy avenues but rarely serve the suburbs. Jeepneys and busetas are the libertarian ideal of competition-in-the-market made manifest: public transport is left to the free market, with a minimum of public oversight. As picturesque as they can be, such systems are a disaster for any major city, causing exponential increases in congestion, pollution, and carbon emissions. Enrique Peñalosa, the man who created TransMilenio, has vivid memories of the chaotic Bogotá of the ‘90s. “I have never been in a city where people had less self-confidence,” he told me from behind a desk in a penthouse office that offered a spectacular view of the Andes. White-haired and white-bearded, with a booming voice, Peñalosa is a tall man with a commanding presence. “Bogotanos used to constantly deprecate their own city.
There was no denying TransMilenio’s efficiency, but I pointed out there didn’t seem to be much residential development on the street; we were standing in front of a flood-lit soccer pitch, for example, whose forecourt had been converted into a private parking lot. Hidalgo said: “The city could have used real estate development as a funding mechanism to build transit infrastructure, as they do in Hong Kong and Singapore. When he was mayor, Enrique Peñalosa asked us to do urban development around TransMilenio stations. But we had only three years to implement the system, so we had to ask him: ‘Do you want a perfect city or something?’ “ Unlike Curitiba’s BRT, which was built in tandem with specially designed roads, TransMilenio was retrofitted into major arteries that had existed for decades. “Maybe we missed an opportunity to do transit-oriented development.
The Slow Fix: Solve Problems, Work Smarter, and Live Better in a World Addicted to Speed by Carl Honore
Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Broken windows theory, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, clean water, clockwatching, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, drone strike, Enrique Peñalosa, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Exxon Valdez, fundamental attribution error, game design, income inequality, index card, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, lateral thinking, lone genius, medical malpractice, microcredit, Netflix Prize, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game, urban renewal, War on Poverty
When it came to forging a Slow Fix for Bogotá, the city leaned heavily on two visionary mayors who served back-to-back terms starting in 1995. The first was Antanas Mockus, an eccentric mathematician and philosopher with a flair for the theatrical. Among his stunts, he donned a superhero costume and dubbed himself “Supercitizen” to promote a “culture of citizenship” as part of the city’s transformation. His successor, Enrique Peñalosa, is a sparky, well-travelled economist with a Marxist past. Less colourful than Mockus, who once resigned as rector of the National University after mooning a lecture hall full of rowdy students, Peñalosa nevertheless rammed through most of the reforms that redrew the urban landscape of Bogotá, including the TransMilenio. To explore the role of a single, catalytic figure in the Slow Fix, I arrange to spend some time with Peñalosa.
Study after study shows that when we disengage emotionally from our job we become less creative and productive. On days when employees feel happy, they come up with more new ideas. Someone content with her job is more likely to let work problems simmer at the back of her mind outside the office, and then come back in the next morning with a clever solution that has incubated overnight. We have already seen emotion at work in many Slow Fixes. Remember how Enrique Peñalosa made the members of his team feel cherished, how treating prisoners with dignity helps combat recidivism in Norway and Singapore, and how much it means to the students of Locke High School that staff treat them like family. “It’s like there’s a positive attitude every day,” says Price. “Even on a bad day you walk in that gate and it’s like, ‘Man, there are people everywhere encouraging me, how can you get mad in an environment that’s so loving?’
How Green Dot put Locke High School on the road to recovery by addressing its many failings holistically. How focusing on the long-term goal of rehabilitating prisoners delivers enviably low recidivism rates in Norway. How the rockers of Van Halen used M&Ms to focus minds on the small stuff. How David Edwards pulled together a multidisciplinary team to invent a new drinking vessel at Le Laboratoire. How Iceland is using crowdsourcing to reboot democracy. How Enrique Peñalosa played a catalytic role in the transformation of Bogotá. How Ricardo Pérez became a better coffee farmer by taking charge of his own business. How Dr Juan Carlos Robles uses his heart as well as his head to persuade Spanish families to donate the organs of their loved ones. How Chile tackled Chagas Disease by adjusting its campaign to fit changing circumstances. How games like Chore Wars and Foldit and designers like Jane McGonigal are harnessing the play instinct to solve problems.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
As we saw back in Chapter 6, the frequent network is a very well thought-out response to a very difficult set of problems. But it isn’t the only route to transportation equity. Even if resources are finite, they aren’t fixed. When they can be increased, it makes it a whole lot easier to improve equity; it’s easier to slice a larger pie evenly than a smaller one. That’s the philosophy of what has to be the world’s most inspiring municipal leader on the subject of transportation equity, Enrique Peñalosa, the former mayor of Bogotá, Colombia. Sometimes transportation equity is best studied in a place where inequality of all sorts is off the charts. That certainly describes Colombia’s capital city, whose seven million residents suffer from the greatest disparity between rich and poor in all of South America. Differential access to transportation is, of course, not the only reason for the gap between Bogotá’s rich and poor, which was in place from the time of the city’s sixteenth-century founding as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on a narrow plateau bordered by the Andes Mountains on the east and the Bogotá River on the west.
In 1993 alone, the city recorded more than four thousand homicides, which made it one of the most dangerous large cities in the world. Then, in the middle of the 1990s, two successive mayoral administrations turned the city around, partly by improved policing and security, partly by better financial administration, but also by rethinking the city’s transportation system. The list of transportation innovations begun by Antanas Mockus when he was elected Bogotá’s mayor in 1995, and expanded by his successor Enrique Peñalosa from 1998 to 2001 (Mockus would, in turn, succeed Peñalosa, and serve until 2003), is nothing if not impressive. The most significant, in terms of passenger miles, was the Bus Rapid Transit system known as the TransMilenio, a network built around a thousand 160-passenger articulated vehicles that covered the city’s longest and most traveled avenues on dedicated busways with elevated stations placed on road medians, with bus and station floors at a level for both convenience and safety.
Between 1970 and 2000, the world’s urban areas grew by about 22,300 square miles, but in the three decades between 2000 and 2030, they are expected to grow by 590,000 square miles, and house nearly one-and-a-half billion more people than today. All those Millennials and Boomers migrating to big cities are just the leading edge of an avalanche. On the other hand, all that action is causing a powerful reaction. When Enrique Peñalosa lost his bid for reelection in 2000, he was followed by three successively more conservative administrations, and it’s not too much to describe what they’ve done to some of his signature transportation initiatives as sabotage. In the United States, the reactionaries pushing back the hardest on urban public transportation systems are led by the billionaire brothers David and Charles Koch, and their umbrella advocacy organization, Americans for Prosperity.
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
CHAPTER 11: SORRY TO INTERRUPT, BUT WE HAVE TO TALK ABOUT BUSES 561,000 . . . 30 percent: Global BRT Data, EMBARQ, accessed August 8, 2015, http://brtdata.org/location/latin_america/brazil/curitiba. 194 cities . . . 32 million daily passengers along 3,200 miles of streets: Ibid. “An advanced city”: “Enrique Peñalosa: ‘América Latina debe mirar más a Amsterdam que a Miami,’” Semana, January 13, 2011, accessed August 8, 2015, www.semana.com/vida-moderna/articulo/enrique-penalosa-america-latina-debe-mirar-mas-amsterdam-miami/234025-3. around 5 percent of a new metro system: Lars Friberg, “Innovative Solutions for Public Transport; Curitiba, Brazil,” Sustainable Development International 3 (2000): 154, accessed August 8, 2015, http://infohouse.p2ric.org/ref/40/39732.pdf. 2.2 million daily: Global BRT Data, EMBARQ, accessed August 8, 2015, http://brtdata.org/location/latin_america/colombia/bogota. 5,667-bus fleet: Metropolitan Transportation Authority, “The MTA Network,” accessed August 23, 2015, http://web.mta.info/mta/network.htm. 792 million . . . 2.5 million passengers: Metropolitan Transportation Authority, “MTA New York City Transit Bus Ridership at a Glance,” accessed August 8, 2015, http://web.mta.info/nyct/facts/ridership/#intro_b.
A Bogotá tradition since its origins in the 1970s, Ciclovía (Spanish for bikeway) is simply the act of closing streets to cars, in Bogotá’s case from seven a.m. to two p.m. every Sunday and also on holidays, and letting city residents take to the streets on foot, on bikes and roller skates, roller blades—however they wanted to get around. The Ciclovía idea didn’t take hold until the early 2000s, when Bogotá mayor Enrique Peñalosa’s brother, Gil Peñalosa, left a lucrative post heading a television station to become the city’s parks commissioner. At the time, Gil Peñalosa told me, Ciclovía was “just a few miles and a few thousand people,” unloved by the transportation department that ran the car-free event. Department engineers were afraid that expanding the event would only underscore its unpopularity and cause traffic problems.
Cost is why so much of this innovation came from less economically developed nations, which have fewer resources and greater incentive for planners to design efficient, inexpensive networks. Bus Rapid Transit station in Curitiba, Brazil. Passengers enter and depart like a surface subway onto high-capacity buses, paying their fare beforehand and boarding via all doors. Mariana Gil/EMBARQ Brasil Bogotá’s bus rapid transit system, TransMilenio, was a pillar of Mayor Enrique Peñalosa’s administration, and its effects resonate beyond the bus route. In his first term, Peñalosa combined TransMilenio with strategies to increase public space, reduce car circulation on city streets, and improve traffic in Bogotá. “An advanced city is not one where poor people drive cars,” Peñalosa says, “but where rich people take public transportation.” TransMilenio operates like a train, with buses moving in dedicated lanes separated by barriers that keep out general traffic.
Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus
Also in Brazil, we might cite Curitiba, where in the 1970s and 80s Mayor Jaime Lerner (an architect) brought in a series of often unorthodox policies that transformed its public transportation and made the city, in current parlance, more sustainable. Most famous of these is the so-called Bus Rapid Transit system, which revolutionised mobility in the city, but his reforms also included offering slum dwellers free bus passes and groceries in return for collecting their own trash. The Curitiba experience was highly influential on Mayor Enrique Peñalosa’s implementation of the TransMilenio bus service in Bogotá, just as Antanas Mockus’s programme of civic education in Bogotá helped pave the way for the rehabilitation of the public realm that was so transformative in Medellín. This exchange of ideas between Brazil and Colombia, along with the unexpected use of cable car systems in the slums of Caracas, Medellín and now Rio, and the experimental housing methods introduced in Chile and Argentina, are all evidence of a continent-wide programme of reform.
In a country that was mired in wars against the drug cartels and paramilitary guerrillas, and plagued by rampant violence, poverty and a corrupt political class, three politically independent mayors were able to offer hope of a new reality. The first, Mockus, was mayor of Bogotá twice, in 1995–97 and 2000–03, taking an unruly city and using his unique pedagogical style to instil a sense of civic culture. The second was Enrique Peñalosa, who, between Mockus’s two terms, drastically improved Bogotá’s transport infrastructure, building the TransMilenio bus service, hundreds of miles of bicycle lanes, public spaces, libraries and schools. Together, Mockus and Peñalosa made Bogotá a byword for urban transformation. The third was a former mathematics professor called Sergio Fajardo. As mayor of Medellín from 2004–07, he took what was then the murder capital of the world and used new public spaces and transport links to the barrios to return it to sanity.
In a sense, the scarcity of municipal resources forced him to innovate, but he was also looking for different outcomes than other mayors. Less interested in infrastructure and a visible legacy (and with little money for either) he focused on changing people’s behaviour. And the fact that his pedagogical methods were also highly cost-effective led directly to a dramatic physical transformation of Bogotá under the next mayor. A Man of Action When Enrique Peñalosa was elected in 1998, he not only had a vision of what Bogotá should be, he had the money in the coffers to make it a reality. And he wasted no time. If Mockus was the professor, Peñalosa was the man of action. He was a builder, a ribbon-cutting mayor in the finest tradition, but his instincts were deeply egalitarian. For Peñalosa, Bogotá’s endless traffic jams and poor public transport were symptoms of inequality.
Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis
Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
In 1998, on the back of his successes in Bogotá, Mockus stood for election as Columbia’s president, which he lost. As mayor he was succeeded by Enrique Peñalosa, leader of the local Liberal party. Peñalosa inherited a city that was in the process of social transformation but also on a solid financial footing: Mockus left a budget surplus of $700 million. As a result Peñalosa was able to continue the progressive social agenda but also invest in structural change within the city – in particular reinventing the role of transit as a means of addressing inequality. As he announced: ‘Urban transport is a political and not a technical issue. The technical aspects are very simple. The difficult decisions relate to who is going to benefit from the models adopted.’13 Enrique Peñalosa on his bike For Peñalosa, the modern city should be rebuilt with the poor and children in mind, and as a result it needs a radical new way of thinking about public spaces and how people travel around: ‘Everything we did we tried to increase equality, to maximise integration.
At the same time it is calculated that the programme has replaced 27 million car journeys a year, and as a result Curitiba uses 30 per cent less petrol than any other Brazilian city and enjoys the lowest air pollution. As the city prospered during the 1990s, new neighbourhoods were designed with the transport system in mind in order to cope with growth as the suburbs grow. The social impact of a smart transit policy is made even clearer in the example of Bogotá, Colombia, and the story of another series of visionary mayors – Antanas Mockus and Enrique Peñalosa – who saw the importance of using public transport to ensure access to the city for all. Mockus first came to prominence when he was forced to resign from his position as Rector of the National University, having mooned his students in order to get their attention. The act of ‘symbolic violence’ encouraged him to stand for mayor, refusing to join any party but rather to stand on a policy of ‘No Ps’: no publicity, no politics, no party and no plata (money), pronouncing, ‘You can’t fix Bogotá by putting “I love Bogotá” stickers on your car.
In 2006 the American National BRT Institute produced a report looking into whether the success of the TransMilenio could be replicated in the US, concluding that while the benefits of the scheme are manifest, the popular ignorance of those benefits and the social stigma of carlessness would make such a project difficult. In short, US cities lack mayors like Lerner and Peñalosa who are willing to make the case for the relationship between social change and transit.16 Public transit is not the only way to think about the relationship between the city and transportation. The impact of walking has long been ignored, and is only now being revealed as one of the key components in developing a happy city. As Enrique Peñalosa says: ‘God made us walking animals – pedestrians. As a fish needs to swim, a bird to fly, a deer to run, we need to walk, not in order to survive, but to be happy.’17 I first became interested in cities by walking, sometimes lost and without purpose, later coming to learn the urban ways and rhythms until it became a place called home. Walking is still the way that I wish to encounter any new city on arrival.
City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional
Neil Takemoto, ‘Shanghai’s eclectic new ped-only urban village’, Cool Town Studios (20 October 2009) <http://www.cooltownstudios.com/site/shanghais-revitalized-ped-only-urban-village> Accessed 21 October 2009. 64. ‘Calming traffic on Bogotá’s killing streets’, Science, 319 (8 February 2008), 742–3. 65. The American Community Survey, US Census Bureau, June 2007 (data for 2005). 66. Darryl D’Monte, ‘Cities should be for people, not cars: Enrique Peñalosa’, Infochange (December 2009) <http://infochangeindia.org/Environment/Eco-logic/Cities-should-be-for-people-not-cars-Enrique-Penalosa.html> Accessed 16 December 2009. 67. ‘Annex – Managing car use in cities’, in Urban Age, Cities and Social Equity (Urban Age/LSE, 2009), 166–8. 68. ‘The Metropolitan Subterranean Railway,’ The Times (30 November 1861), 5. 69. Christian Wolmar, The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever (London: Atlantic Books, 2005), 5. 70.
In the southern hemisphere, Bogotá, the capital of Colombia, has pioneered bus rapid transit (BRT) schemes that have revolutionised transport in the city in a way comparable to the railways in nineteenth-century British cities. Bogotá is a city of seven million people. Since 1997 it has vigorously pursued a campaign to improve safety on its streets, investing in public transport and redesigning streets rather than in new urban motorways. It is now held up as a model to the rest of the world. Thanks to the policies of mayors Antanas Mockus and Enrique Peñalosa, who ran the city from 1995 to 2003, the number of deaths from traffic accidents in Bogotá has been almost halved, falling from 914 fatalities in 1998 to 553 in 2006. Mayor Mockus even employed mime artists to draw attention to bad driving. The sight of mime artists pretending to pull vehicles that were dangerously parked became common on Bogotá’s streets. Most importantly, Mayor Peñalosa brought in a new bus rapid transit system (called TransMilenio), with dedicated lanes, modelled on the successful one at Curitiba, Brazil.
‘Annex – Managing car use in cities’, in Urban Age, Cities and Social Equity (Urban Age/LSE, 2009), 166–8. 49. Ray LaHood, ‘My view from atop the table at the National Bike Summit’, Fast Lane (15 March 2010) <http://fastlane.dot.gov/2010/03/my-view-from-atop-the-table-at-the-national-bike-summit.html> Accessed March 2010. 50. ‘Annex – Managing car use in cities’, in Urban Age, Cities and Social Equity (Urban Age/LSE, 2009), 166–8. The point is made by Enrique Peñalosa. 51. Collectif Argos, Climate Refugees (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2010), 238. 52. Knoflacher et al. (2007), 345. 53. ‘Mayor unveils programme to transform cycling and walking in London’, Greater London Authority press release, 11 February 2008 <http://mayor.london.gov.uk/view_press_release.jsp?releaseid=15612> Accessed March 2010. 54. See ‘How People Move’, in Burdett and Sudjic (2007), 262, and ‘Travelling to Work’ in Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic, Living in the Endless City (London: Phaidon, 2011), 288-9. 55.
Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
.”■ Like most writers on the subject, Buettner and his sources neglect to discuss how these “lifestyle” choices are inevitably a function of the design of the built environment. They may be powerfully linked to place—the Blue Zones are zones, after all—but there is scant admission that walking to the store is more possible, more enjoyable, and more likely to become habit in some places than in others. It is those places that hold the most promise for the physical and social health of our society. Enrique Peñalosa, the former mayor of Bogotá, Colombia, sees things in a much simpler light: “God made us walking animals—pedestrians. As a fish needs to swim, a bird to fly, a deer to run, we need to walk, not in order to survive, but to be happy.”38 That thought is beautiful, perfectly obvious, and probably impossible to prove. But we do know that we need to be active in order to be healthy and that walking is the easiest way for most humans to be usefully active.
Given the environmental and health benefits of turning drivers and riders into bikers—and the very real public savings associated with those benefits—that six thousand dollars is a better deal than it looks. All the more so when you consider the free publicity these systems bring. DON’T GET GREEDY There is no doubt in my mind that many bicycle advocates will find this chapter’s prescriptions woefully inadequate. What, five feet for a bike lane? They will remind me of Copenhagen’s eight-footers, and quote Bogotá’s Enrique Peñalosa, “If a bike lane isn’t safe for an eight-year-old child, it isn’t really a bike lane.”52 Some will bemoan my suggestion that separated paths and bike boulevards are best kept out of commercial areas. These complaints are certainly valid, and also correct—from the perspective of a bicycle advocate. But bicycle advocates are specialists. Like the highway specialists who reamed out our cities with freeways, they are often focused myopically on the one aspect of the public realm that concerns them, sometimes at the expense of all the others.
The Nation City: Why Mayors Are Now Running the World by Rahm Emanuel
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, blockchain, carbon footprint, clean water, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Filter Bubble, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Lyft, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor
For decades, however, it has been losing African American families to the suburbs. Bronzeville, Woodlawn, and Washington Park show a new way forward for all of us. * * * One of the most important building blocks we installed in Woodlawn, though, was a modernized L station. Mass transit is the lifeblood of any city, and good mass transit is a sign of a healthy, vibrant city. As former Bogotá mayor Enrique Peñalosa once said, “An advanced city is not one where poor people use cars, but one where rich residents use public transport.” People need to get around a city, for work and for play, in a swift and safe manner. Mass transit helps reduce congestion and pollution. Most important, though, a good mass transit system that interconnects a city—its neighborhoods, business areas, recreational areas, airports—is a literal vehicle for wealth creation.
Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl
Compare that with the 20 to 35 per cent of trips taken by bike in the European Union and 50 per cent in China. (Unfortunately, the trend is reversing in China as the country embraces car culture.) Shifting from car dependence will take action at the individual level, with more people simply deciding to get on their bikes, but governments must also do more to make it easier for people to ride bikes. And they can. In just three years, from 1998 to 2001, Mayor Enrique Peñalosa of Bogotá, Colombia, turned his city of 6.5 million from a gridlocked parking lot into a city where public spaces live up to their name. He did this by restricting car use, increasing gas taxes, and building hundreds of kilometres of bike and pedestrian paths, as well as investing in buses. Making our streets safer for cyclists by giving them space to ride is an essential first step. The investment required is far less than that required for infrastructure for cars.
Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra
He was instrumental in creating the first cykelpakke—“bicycle package”—which earmarked €4 million (US$4.7 million) for improving the development, quality, comfort, and connectivity of the Copenhagen bicycle network. While the City had a budget for maintaining the infrastructure and adding to it, this extra injection of funds was exciting and it kickstarted many of the projects I’ll explore in the chapter, “Design and Innovation.” Because of his work in his own city for his own fellow citizens, Bondam is invited to speak around the world about his work and legacy. Elsewhere, Enrique Peñalosa had a massive impact on improving the quality of life in Bogotá, Colombia, when he was mayor between 1998 and 2000. In a transport context, he developed better public transport and constructed bicycle infrastructure with an impressive vision and drive. His brother, Gil Peñalosa, was appointed commissioner of parks, and both brothers are still asked to speak about their work. Enrique was again elected mayor in 2016, and Gil heads the 8 80 Cities NGO out of Toronto.
One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Bicycling, in John pucher’s terms, must be made “irresistible.”29 in conjunction with traffic-calming measures in residential areas, the development of car-free urban spaces, and the implementation of strategies to reduce overall levels of driving, off-road bikeways and separated bike lanes are the best long-term investments for promoting cycling and for making it easier, and more enjoyable, not to drive. yet, at the risk of minimizing the profound need for a comprehensive overhaul of transportation priorities and infrastructure in the United States, it should be clear by now that one can “never make transportation an issue unto itself.”30 as former Bogotá mayor Enrique peñalosa notes, “it is not for traffic engineers to decide how we are going to solve transportation problems, it is a political decision.”31 peñalosa, who is credited with revitalizing both public transportation and public spaces in Colombia’s capital city, urges us to ask a more poignant and profound set of questions when framing the issue of mobility: “How do we want our city to be? How do we want to live?”