congestion charging

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pages: 389 words: 98,487

The Undercover Economist: Exposing Why the Rich Are Rich, the Poor Are Poor, and Why You Can Never Buy a Decent Used Car by Tim Harford

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, collective bargaining, congestion charging, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, invention of movable type, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, new economy, Pearl River Delta, price discrimination, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, random walk, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Shenzhen was a fishing village, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Vickrey auction

Furthermore, since the rich do more of most things, externality charges often redistribute money in a desirable way. In the case of congestion charging, the truth is striking: in the United Kingdom, poor people do not drive—they bicycle, walk, or take the bus. The poorest tenth of the population spends almost seven times less on fuel than the richest tenth, as a percentage of their much smaller income. The total spending on fuel by the richest 10 percent is at least thirty times more than by the poorest 10 percent. The conclusion is that congestion charging not only improves efficiency, it also redistributes money by raising more tax from the rich. That’s nice for the defenders of congestion charging in Britain, but useless in the United States, where the poor still drive a lot and so pay larger amounts of tax as a percentage of their incomes.

In the case of roads, the government could scrap the vehicle ex-cise duty, which is a large up-front tax, while starting to levy congestion charges on each trip. This would capture the efficiency benefits of a congestion charge without having major effects on distribution. It is possible to neutralize much of the redistribution caused by the externality charge, while keeping its efficiency-boosting effects. This is a variant of the lump-sum tax on Tiger Woods proposed in chapter 3: we can use lump-sum taxes to redistribute without destroying efficiency. Having met the attack from the redistributive flank, the economist must face the other way and deal with the enthusiastic charge from the moral high ground of environmentalism. Not every environmentalist opposes pollution and congestion charges, but some do. The reason is that they feel that pollution should simply be illegal, rather than illegal for the poor and affordable for • 89 • T H E U N D E R C O V E R E C O N O M I S T the rich.

It is true that the rich are more likely to be able to pay a congestion charge, but they will not ignore it. Perhaps they will be careful to make one trip to the store rather than two, or even walk to the local shop rather than drive to somewhere farther away. Externality charges make other alternatives look more attractive, both to rich and to poor. More fundamentally, we must not confuse the strictness of the externality regulation with the method of the regulation. A congestion charge can be set at one dollar a day, or ten dollars a day, or a thousand dollars a day. What we know is that whatever society decides about the seriousness of the externality, externality charges are the most efficient way to deal with it. Well-designed congestion charges, for instance, are the most efficient way to achieve any given reduction of road use.

pages: 251 words: 88,754

The politics of London: governing an ungovernable city by Tony Travers

active transport: walking or cycling, congestion charging, first-past-the-post, full employment, job satisfaction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, urban sprawl

In the preparation of budgets and key policies, the board only found out about key The Greater London Authority 103 decisions after they had been made by the mayor’s office in conjunction with senior officers at TfL. GLA officers were also by-passed by mayoral advisers. The development of the Mayors’s congestion charging policy provides a good case study. A consultation paper was worked up and published by the late summer of 2000 by a small number of GLA and TfL staff tightly controlled by the mayor’s closest advisers. The consultation paper was published before the board of TfL had seen or approved it. Subsequent development work was undertaken within TfL by officials working closely with the mayor. Neither the TfL board nor the overwhelming majority of GLA staff were involved in the propagation and early implementation of congestion charging. Similarly, when the mayor – as chair of TfL – decided to change key TfL staff, such as the original head of street management and the equivalent bus director, he did so operating through his office not via the board.

The major reports during 2000 to 2003 were skewed towards the environment (topics included graffiti; the mayor’s waste strategy; the mayor’s green spaces policy; the transportation of nuclear waste; recycling; and the mayor’s air quality strategy) and transport (including: congestion charging (twice); buses in outer London; safer routes home; bus services more generally; and the mayor’s transport strategy). There were also reports on regeneration funding, London weighting, housing for key workers; the GLA elections; future priorities for the Underground and the organization of major events. This issue is further considered in Chapter 8. Clearly some of the assembly’s work was driven by the need to consider mayoral initiatives (such as congestion charging) or policies (such as the strategies). Scrutiny was also possible at question time with the mayor and in other forums. However, there is no doubt the assembly found it difficult to find a role for itself that caught the public imagination.

Because the assembly and the mayor made an unofficial deal about their respective staffing needs (that is, the assembly allowed the mayor to create an office which was far larger than the legislation had envisaged, while the assembly received additional staff support) there was little public scrutiny of key mayoral appointments. Finally, there was clearly a reasonable amount of goodwill within the assembly towards the mayor who clearly had a complex job in setting up the new authority. Scrutiny committees that concentrated on published mayoral policy such as congestion charging and the draft transport policy found it easier to challenge the mayor and his functional bodies than those that undertook more general inquiries. The scrutiny of congestion charging had the advantage of massive expertise in its appointment of external adviser (it chose Martin Richards, who had been managing director of a company that had specialized in official research projects about road pricing). The committee took evidence from TfL and GLA officers, experts in a range of disciplines and, finally, from the mayor.

Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory, Policy and Practice by Molly Scott Cato

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, carbon footprint, central bank independence, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, energy security, food miles, Food sovereignty, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job satisfaction, land reform, land value tax, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, mortgage debt, passive income, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, the built environment, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

For many proponents of a land tax it can be a single tax, simply because of the vast sums it can generate. GREEN TAXATION 163 BOX 10.1 THE LONDON CONGESTION CHARGE The congestion charge in London was motivated more by irritation at the slow pace of traffic in the city than by environmental concern, but it has none the less been an important example of how traffic can be reduced in one of the world’s largest cities. By the 1990s traffic was moving more slowly in the UK’s capital than it had been at the beginning of the 20th century before cars had been invented! Following his election as mayor in 2000, Ken Livingstone launched an 18-month period of public consultation and the outcome was a decision to introduce a congestion charge based on area licensing rather than parking levies. Considerable research and modelling were undertaken to predict the correct level of the charge to deter the desired number of people (30 per cent) from continuing to drive into the capital.

The reduction in vehicle usage within the charging zone was greater than expected, leading to less revenue than had been predicted. The London Congestion Charge appears to have been a political and environmental success. It has encouraged changes in behaviour towards less polluting forms of transport, reducing CO2 emissions. It is also an example of a tax which is flexible, since the rate can be increased or decreased depending on the relative balance of traffic and public transport desired by the city’s residents. Table 10.2 Impact of the congestion charge on traffic in London Type of vehicle Cars Vans Trucks Taxis Buses Motorcycles Bicycles All vehicles % change -34 -5 -7 +22 +21 +6 +28 -12 Source: J. Leape (2006) ‘The London congestion charge’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20/4: 157–76. Robertson’s calculation for the potential revenue from site-value tax on land in the UK was between £50 billion and £90 billion annually in 1994.17 Other taxes in the green economist’s knapsack can be justified on the basis of being taxes on commons.

Citizens’ Income and people’s pensions A health service, not an illness service 171 171 173 176 179 181 183 12 Land and the Built Environment Land and economics Taxing land Building on land Growing on the land 187 187 190 193 197 13 Summary and Further Resources 205 Index 219 List of Photographs, Figures, Tables and Boxes PHOTOGRAPHS 1.1 2.1 The men who devised the existing financial system 4 James Robertson with his wife and co-worker Alison Pritchard 22 2.2 Richard Douthwaite 28 3.1 The author modelling a ‘bioregional hat’ 43 3.2 The convivial economy: Stroud farmers’ market 44 4.1 Crests of the London livery companies associated with textiles 67 5.1 Labour note as used at Owen’s Equitable Labour Exchange in 1833 73 5.2 Chiemgauer note, showing the stamps that have to be added to preserve its value over time 82 6.1 Conviviality: Building the bread oven at Springhill co-housing, June 2008 100 9.1 Stroud farmers’ market 144 9.2 The Cuban ‘camel’: Improvised urban public transport in Havana 153 12.1 Springhill Co-housing, Stroud 197 12.2 Stroud Community Agriculture: Weeding in the cabbage path 200 FIGURES 1.1 2.1 2.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 5.1 Widening the consideration of economics beyond the classical economists’ ‘circular flow’ Hazel Henderson’s illustration of the love economy The relationship between economic activity and carbon dioxide emissions Three is a magic number: Re-imaging the relationship between society, economy and environment Permaculture flower Rainwater harvesting system for a domestic property Total debt service of low- and middle-income countries, 1990–2005 6 27 29 37 47 49 76 x 5.2 6.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2 8.3 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 10.1 11.1 11.2 11.3 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 GREEN ECONOMICS Growth in broad money (M4) compared with growth in the economy (GDP), UK, 1970–2001 The carbon cycle The Passivhaus Illustration of the contraction and convergence model for global CO2 emissions reductions Sharing of ‘universal dividend’ from sale of carbon permits and its impact on incomes in different groups of the US population A comparison of GDP and ISEW in the UK, 1950–2002 Fair trade sales in the leading consumer countries in 2006 and 2007 Relationship between growth in trade and growth in CO2 emissions Production grid illustrating trade subsidiarity Trade gap in agricultural products in the UK, 1990–2005 Comparison of wage rates in a selection of countries, based on purchasing power parities, 2005 NEF’s image of the ‘leaky bucket’ local economy Margaret Legum’s design for building prosperity globally Revenues from environmentally related taxes as a percentage of GDP in various OECD countries Relationship between infant mortality and carbon dioxide emissions Human well-being and sustainability: Ecological footprint and Human Development Index compared, 2003 Illustration of the ability to provide for one’s individual needs over the productive life-course Equity creation through a CLT Agricultural and economic systems of sustainable agriculture Percentage of energy used in different aspects of food production and distribution The turning of the year: The annual cycle of growing and celebration on the land source 79 99 108 111 112 118 129 130 132 141 142 146 154 167 175 178 183 196 198 199 201 TABLES 1.1 1.2 1.3 3.1 Comparison of different strands of economics with a concern for the environment Ecological footprinting and shadow pricing compared The negative consequences of economic growth for quality of life Comparison between the HE (hyper-expansionist) and SHE (sane, humane, ecological) possible futures 8 9 10 41 LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS, FIGURES, TABLES AND BOXES 3.2 3.3 6.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 12.1 Indicators of consumption and population in different regions of the world Valuation of activities and functions within the patriarchal economy Success of various sectors within a low-carbon economy Percentage of firms engaged in various waste-management activities in UK and Germany, 2001 Comparison of costs to society of various psychological ‘escape routes’ compared with spending in various areas, UK c. 2001 Additions and subtractions from GDP to arrive at the ISEW HDI and HPI rankings for the G8 countries and other nations with high gross GDP Changes in the terms of trade of some country groups, 1980–1982 to 2001–2003 Share of UK wealth owned by different sectors of the population Impact of the congestion charge on traffic in London Examples of environmental taxes and charges Types of installations resulting in tax credits for Oregon citizens in 2006 Examples of ecotaxes in a range of EU countries Revenue from environmental taxes in the UK, 1993–2006 Experiences with LVT in various countries xi 45 46 99 109 116 118 120 127 160 163 165 166 166 167 192 BOXES 1.1 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Inequality in the UK, 1994–2004 Sustainability values Douthwaite’s criteria for ‘green’ growth Creating a million extra jobs through a green industrial revolution Policies to encourage voluntarism and self-help The expansion of worker cooperatives in Argentina Traditional money in Vanuatu The parable of the South African talents The Chiemgauer local currency in Chiemgau, Germany New Zealand’s complementary currencies Shell and CSR: A cynical view Cooperation for sustainability: The alternative food economy in the UK Principles of production to match the metabolism of the natural world Principles for achieving sustainability according to the Natural Step 3 36 40 58 64 65 77 81 82 84 93 95 97 100 xii 7.1 7.2 8.1 8.2 8.3 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 10.1 10.2 10.3 11.1 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 GREEN ECONOMICS The European Union Packaging Directive Norway’s experience with national resource accounting Trade and inequality The fight-back: Trade-related direct action in India Key provisions of the General Agreement on Sustainable Trade Provisions of the UK’s Sustainable Communities Act (2007) Essential features of a sustainable territory The Thames Gateway Development as an example of a non-self-reliant community A sufficiency economy in Thailand Kirkpatrick Sale’s essential elements to guide a bioregional economy The London congestion charge Energy tax credit programme in Oregon, US Pesticide taxation in Scandinavia Enduring terrors: The war against terror in global context MST: The land rights campaign in Brazil Land tax in Australia Co-housing in Denmark The principles of permaculture Stroud Community Agriculture 109 119 127 133 135 145 147 148 149 151 163 166 167 179 189 192 197 199 200 Acknowledgements My first and deepest gratitude must be for all those, named and unnamed, who have taxed their minds and spirits to clear the path towards a way of living more comfortably within our environment.

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Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

For forty years since William Vickrey introduced the idea, congestion charging has appealed to economists who think that people should pay for the social costs of their actions. One person’s driving creates congestion for everyone, so a tax on driving is a good way to use roads more wisely. Ken Livingstone was fearless, as usual, and congestion charges appealed to him for reasons beyond the economists’ customary love of efficiency. Livingstone saw congestion charging as a means of helping the environment by moving people out of cars and into subways. He also saw it as progressive legislation, as drivers tend to be rich and bus riders tend to be poor. By taxing drivers and spending the proceeds on public transit, Livingstone was playing to less wealthy supporters. The congestion charge immediately had a dramatic impact on London’s streets.

Census Bureau, Census 2000, H30, Units in Structure, Summary File 3, generated using American FactFinder. 215 only 17 percent of Poundbury’s homes are apartments: Watson, Learning from Poundbury, 19. 215 pay £5 each time they entered an inner corridor of London: Leape, “London Congestion Charge.” 215 congestion charging has appealed to economists: For instance, Vickrey, “Congestion Theory,” 251; Vickrey, “Pricing of Urban Street Use”; Vickrey, “Pricing in Urban and Suburban Transport”; and Walters, “Private and Social Cost of Highway Congestion.” 215 by moving people out of cars and into subways: Behar, “Livingstone Wins Fight.” 215 He also saw it as progressive legislation: Giles, “A Logical Effort to Ease the London Gridlock”; see also: “Traffic Decongestant,” Economist, Feb. 15, 2003. 216 greater than 20 percent reduction in driving: Lewis Smith, “Traffic Still Light.” 216 congestion dropped by 30 percent over the next two years: Leape, “London Congestion Charge.” 216 postmodernist Number 1 Poultry Building: Lillyman et al., Critical Architecture, 143. 216 Climate Group’s Low Carbon Champions Award: “London Leaders Lauded,”

Vickrey’s insight, inspired by the city around him, is another example of self-protecting urban innovation. Decades before E-ZPass, Vickrey recommended an electronic system for imposing these congestion charges, and he suggested that charges rise during rush hours, when congestion is worse. Decades of experience have proven Vickrey right. Building more roads almost never eliminates traffic delays, but congestion pricing does. In 1975, Singapore adopted a simple form of congestion pricing, charging motorists more for driving in the central city. Now the system is electronic and sophisticated and keeps that city traffic-jam free. In 2003, London adopted its own congestion charge and also saw traffic drop significantly. So why is congestion pricing so rare in the United States? Because politics trumps economics. Imposing a new fee on thousands of motorists is unpopular, and as a result, millions of hours of valuable time are needlessly lost by drivers stalled in traffic.

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Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

All these alternatives to the car are much more efficient in terms of space use and it is desirable to encourage the more efficient space users and at the same time discourage the less efficient. This can be done by introducing a congestion charge. London introduced congestion charging in February 2003. It was introduced against a background of considerable controversy and media opposition by a strong mayor (Ken Livingstone) supported by an election victory in the mayoral race where congestion charging was a declared aim. It is now regarded as a great success and is currently being implemented in Stockholm. The recently published three-year review of the congestion charge provides evidence of the main results. Congestion levels are down by 30% when the 2004/5 situation is compared with 2002. Bus service reliability is up. Bus patronage is up 14%.

Unless solutions are found to congestion problems in Beijing, Delhi, Shanghai and Mumbai, the economy of these cities will suffer serious loss of productivity and competitive advantage and will cease to be an attractive proposition for inward investment. Congestion is a problem that can be managed and the model for effective intervention is London. The recommendation That Beijing and Delhi adopt a London-style congesting charging regime as soon as possible and that this be then rolled out to the largest 5 cities in each country. The rationale Congestion is largely the result of an increase in demand for an underpriced resource. In this case the resource is road space. It is also the result of public policy that produces large allocations of public finance for road space, e.g. Beijing’s 5 ring roads. A congestion charge or road pricing regime acts as a price signal to encourage a different pattern of use of road space. In many urban areas of the world (including Beijing) average trip length is less than 10km and can easily be achieved by public transport and, in some case, by walking and cycling.

Higher levels of mobility do confer benefits but it can never be acceptable to promote the interest of the mobile above all other interests regardless of the consequences. A second case study illustrates the same point. Congestion in London is a major headache for businesses, motorists and the Mayor of London who quite understandably wants to be associated with alleviating such a serious problem. The London congestion charge has made a difference and reduced vehicle numbers and congestion but congestion is creeping up again and giving the Mayor severe reputational problems. His response has been to reduce crossing times for pedestrians at over 500 traffic light controlled pedestrian crossings: “Green Man time has been reduced at 568 crossings across London since 2010. Reduced crossing times encourage pedestrians to take greater risks.

The Making of a World City: London 1991 to 2021 by Greg Clark

Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, congestion charging, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial intermediation, global value chain, haute cuisine, housing crisis, industrial cluster, intangible asset, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rent control, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

The international business community tends to have high regard for the city’s internal mobility and the ongoing upgrades to communications and copper or super-fast broadband infrastructure (Cushman & Wakefield, 2011). Swedish firm Ericsson has recently found that London is the third most ICT mature city of 25 world cities, and the third most successful at commercialising this ICT infrastructure, behind only New York and Stockholm (Ericsson, 2012). The city’s electronic Oyster card system and the congestion charge zone are widely praised in international studies for being positive examples of transport-led innovation. Beyond Europe, the congestion charge in particular continues to be viewed as an inspiring example of a major city trying to enforce a behaviour-changing mechanism (Clark and Moonen, 2010). As detailed in Chapter 9, London now offers strong air and rail connections to clients and markets throughout the UK, Europe and the rest of the world. In 2015, its air system is positively compared to that of New York and Paris because of the range of airports all within swift proximity to the CBD.

International students in UK higher education: key statistics. Available at Accessed 2013 Feb 27. Urban Land Institute, PricewaterhouseCoopers (2013). Emerging Trends in Real Estate® Europe 2013. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute. US News and World Report (1994). Easing gridlock, European style. Sep 12. Vol. 117. p. 82–83. Valentine J (2013). Congestion charge after ten years: it’s time to be bolder. City A.M. Feb 18. Available at Accessed 2013 Feb 24. Wall R (2009). Netscape: Cities and Global Corporate Networks. PhD submitted to the Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Available at http:// Accessed 2013 Mar 30. Wedderburn M and Centre for London (2013). Bypassing Boris’ Billion-Pound Infrastructure Bill.

Under the GLA Group, London’s business credentials and economic development agendas have been vigorously promoted. Less than 25 years ago London: World City regretted London’s inability to “act as ambassador in the global urban community” (LPAC, 1991: 192). Today, the London Mayor provides a globally recognised focus for London, with powerful tools to effect internationally acclaimed changes, from the Congestion Charge Zone, Tech City and South Bank revival, to the regeneration of East London and creation of the Olympic Park. But just as London has secured a degree of metropolitan authority and autonomy, other governance challenges persist that were unspecified in London: World City. The report did not identify the absence or need for a joined-up strategic approach for the growing functional economic region of the Greater South East.

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Are Trams Socialist?: Why Britain Has No Transport Policy by Christian Wolmar

active transport: walking or cycling, Beeching cuts, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, BRICs, congestion charging, Diane Coyle, financial independence, full employment, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Network effects, railway mania, trade route, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, Zipcar

Because the rules governing the influx of new private hire drivers, the definition that covers Uber, are so lax, Transport for London does not have the ability to control numbers. The technology that has allowed the creation of Uber has therefore led to a sharp increase in traffic in central London as Uber drivers, who are exempt from the congestion charge, hang about, like prostitutes in Amsterdam doorways, waiting for business and cluttering up the streets, reversing a trend that has seen traffic in central London steadily decline or remain static in most of the years since the introduction of the congestion charge in 2003. So while Uber may have brought down fares somewhat, it has also caused major disruption. And if the taxi trade were to be wiped out by the newcomer, would those fares remain low? None of these examples represents a transport revolution. Much of the recent technological development is about making systems more efficient, rather than creating totally new forms of mobility.

For that reason, the low-cost airlines are not always low cost – try booking a summer August Saturday on Ryanair or easyJet to a Mediterranean resort! Yet the most obvious use of this technology would be for road pricing. Roads are a scarce resource, which, as mentioned previously, are free at the point of use: a practice that makes any self-respecting economist tear their hair out. There are exceptions, of course, such as the London and Stockholm congestion charge zones, motorways in countries like Italy and France, various bridges and tunnels, and even the odd turnpike in the US, but they represent a tiny fraction of the world’s road network. However, for the most part, roads suffer from the tragedy of the commons. Rationing is by congestion rather than price. Their usefulness in economic terms is eroded away by congestion and overuse. Free roads ensure that transport provision is suboptimal.

It already had a fantastic network of transport infrastructure, but thanks to devolution and being given control over its finances (plus the added advantage of being able to bully national politicians by arguing that London is a great growth generator and that transport is vital to that growth), it has, since the mayoralty was created in 2000, created a new network of railways (London Overground), massively improved bus services, imposed a congestion charge to help finance improvements, established a large network of hire bikes, created a series of ‘cycle superhighways’, obtained a promise to be given control of much of the suburban rail network, and has two massive rail investment schemes due to be completed before the end of the decade (Thameslink and Crossrail). This cannot be replicated easily in any provincial cities, obviously, though Manchester – with its greatly expanded tram network and the soon to be realized assumption of control over its bus network – is showing the way.

pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser,, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

estimated 30 percent: Transport for London, Central London Congestion Charging: Impacts Monitoring, Fourth Annual Report, June 2006, 2, accessed August 6, 2015, decreased greenhouse gases: C40, “London’s Congestion Charge Cuts CO2 Emissions by 16%,” November 3, 2011, accessed August 6, 2015, in increasing numbers: Todd Litman, Victoria Policy Institute, London Congestion Pricing: Implications for Other Cities, November 24, 2011, 5, accessed August 12, 2015, Again, traffic decreased: Association for European Transport, “The Stockholm Congestion Charging System: An Overview of the Effects After Six Months,” 2006, 6, accessed August 6, 2015,

“Cities without plans tend to be politically disenfranchised with fragmented governments,” says Transport for London’s commissioner, Sir Peter Hendy, knighted in part for his success managing the city’s transportation plan during the 2012 Summer Olympics. “As a result, they don’t have any long-term purpose, don’t have any long-term plan, and haven’t done much. Whereas [in London] we have this massive population and economic growth, and it’s fueled by all sorts of policies being executed alongside congestion charging—cycling, renewal of the subway—which then make the plan work. I think that is an incredible lesson here and for the rest of the world.” One of the first urban planning frameworks in the United States was established in Oregon more than forty years ago, and it has served as a great model and impressive success story. Inspired by urban development models from early-twentieth-century England and led by visionary governor Tom McCall, the state legislature in 1973 required Oregon cities to establish urban boundaries outside of which commercial and residential development is prohibited.

In the early 2000s European planners started to pick up on the quiet, pocketbook power of charging people to drive. To reduce congestion and vehicle emissions, London officials in 2003 introduced a fee for drivers coming into the city center on weekdays. By 2006 the plan reduced congestion within the zone by an estimated 30 percent and decreased greenhouse gases by 16 percent. Meanwhile, Londoners walked and took buses in increasing numbers. Stockholm, Sweden, introduced a pilot congestion charge program, one that it made permanent in 2006, within months of PlaNYC’s launch. Again, traffic decreased. From my first day in office I was thrust into this, the most controversial issue in the city. Joined frequently by Bruce Schaller and Rit Aggarwala, I became one of the public faces of the battle at public hearings and testimony in front of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, the city council, and other public meetings required before a policy can take effect.

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Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, low cost airline, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional

Since then, little new road capacity has been created, which has limited further car use even as the population has grown. In fact, bus and cycle lanes and pedestrian areas have reduced space for cars; parking controls in both in the inner suburbs and central area constrain car use since you can’t drive unless you’re sure of somewhere to park at the end—which makes supermarkets with parking attractive for the weekly shop; and in central London a pioneering congestion charging zone levies a fixed fee for entry during working hours. So despite increasing numbers of people and rising incomes, the net result is that number of car trips in London has held steady at about ten million a day over the past twenty years. And because the population has increased, this means that the proportion or share of all trips that are by car has declined from 50 per cent in the early 1990s to 38 per cent in 2011.

Accordingly, it is generally accepted that to ‘lock in’ the traffic reduction arising from smarter choices initiatives, it is necessary to put in place some ‘hard’ measures, the effect of which cannot be avoided, such as reduction in road space for cars through more pavement for pedestrians or more lanes for buses and bicycles. Other possibilities are adjusting traffic signals to constrain traffic, and congestion charging, as in central London. Of course, if you reduce road space for cars you don’t get the benefit of congestion reduction, although you do achieve reduced carbon emissions. Whatever measures adopted to lock in the traffic reduction, the question that remains is why bother with the ‘soft’ smarter choice measures, given it is the ‘hard’ constraints that do the job? In London, where the share of journeys by car is on a long‑run downward trend, as explained in Chapter 2, it has been the ‘hard’ impact of limited road space that has been responsible, with more pedestrian space particularly popular.

The Newbury Bypass, built in 1995‑98 after vigorous resistance by protestors, was probably the last new major road to be constructed across greenfield land. So the philosophy then changed to ‘demand management’. We could not build our way out of congestion, it was generally agreed, so we would need to manage demand for road travel (more on this in Chapter 6). The main idea for achieving this is ‘road pricing’, also known as ‘congestion charging’ and implemented in central London. By charging for use of road space, particularly when congested with traffic, some people decide not to travel, or to travel at others times, leaving more room for those who travel needs are more pressing. Air travel already uses something like demand management to set fares—known as ‘yield management’, the now familiar flexible pricing introduced by the budget airlines and adopted generally for short‑haul flights.

pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The San Francisco parking scheme aims to have 85 per cent of all parking bays occupied at any given time, and clear real-time information to allow drivers to find their spot without inconvenience. This will certainly clear some of the congestion, yet it is the cost of driving itself that will dissuade people from bringing their cars into the city in the first place. Congestion charging is also a way of hitting drivers where it most hurts. The first such urban scheme was in Singapore in 1975 and was one of the first policies used to develop the city state as the business capital of the Far East. The effects were dramatic. Before the scheme, in June 1975, 32,000 vehicles were registered as entering the city each day, a figure which dropped to 7,700 as soon as the congestion charge was imposed. Similar schemes have been introduced into other cities including Rome, Stockholm, Milan and, in 2003, London. The scheme was first introduced in Stockholm in 2007 and it was calculated that within three years inner-city traffic volume had reduced by 20 per cent and traffic jams by 30 per cent.

So congestion continues to be a big problem in the city and traffic speeds continue to fall. In 2011 it was estimated that £2–4 billion in revenue was being lost every year because of traffic. In addition, air pollution was getting worse. At least 4,000 deaths a year are said to be attributable, at least in part, to the city’s poor air quality. Congestion charging cannot work by itself, for while cost might dissuade some drivers from getting into their cars, the city cannot function unless people can travel freely, get to work or home at every time of the day. As a strategy for getting cars off the road, the congestion charge affects the poor more than the rich, and becomes an issue about the right to the city. As a green policy, for improving air quality and pollution levels, the jury is still out. However, in some circumstances, no traffic is even worse for the city than gridlock.

But there have been huge advances in making public transport more efficient and encouraging people to use both the subway and buses. In addition, the transfer of the traditional yellow cabs to green fuel is moving apace, with 30 per cent of the total fleet running on biofuels. A new fleet of 18,000 apple-green cabs – Boro Taxis – will be able to pick up passengers outside Manhattan. There have also been attempts to combat congestion. Mayor Bloomberg first announced in 2007 that he would promote congestion charging and the news was welcomed by many groups, businesses and residents on the island. Reports were written, feasability tests made, proposals put forward for an $8 levy to be raised on any private vehicle, and a map was drawn up introducing a cordon across South Manhattan between 6 am and 6 pm on weekdays. However, in the following years negotiations with the city council and then the state assembly became more complicated, as objections were raised by Brooklyn, Queens and the Bronx as well as the state beyond the city.

Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, crossover SUV, Donald Davies, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, mass immigration, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men

But here, one recent example is not so reassuring. Since 2003, London has levied a modest “congestion charge” on vehicles driving into the central business district. The idea is to pare traffic and boost use of public transportation. Under the Geneva Conventions governing diplomatic immunity that also gave us our parking tickets data, diplomats are not obliged to pay this charge, but most diplomats in London do so, nonetheless. One major exception is the U.S. diplomatic corps, which has the dubious honor of accumulating the greatest number of outstanding fines for nonpayment of the congestion charge—a cumulative total far exceeding $1 million since 2003. And which countries are the United States’s peers in the game of dodging the congestion charge? Nigeria, Angola, and Sudan—all high-corruption countries that fall in the top fifteen in New York City parking tickets.

See also under Darfur Suharto, Bambang, 23 Suharto, Mandala Putra (Tommy), 22–24; Bimantara Citra and, 33–36; Lamborghini and, 40–41 Suharto, President, 22, 33–36, 40 Suharto, Tutut, 23 Tanzania, 139–46 tariffs: China and, 60–64, 221n4, 221n6; dispersion of, 72–73; smuggling and, 58–64, 220n3; United States and, 73–74 Tehelka, 21 Tilford, Earl, 169 Transparency International, 18, 66, 66b, 81, 216n11 Tuareg, 126–27 Udry, Chris, 126 Uganda, 115–16, 142, 175, 208 United Kingdom, political connections in, value of, 48–49 239 I N DEX United States: attitudes towards, 96–100; Canada and, 94–95; Civil War and, 173–74, 230n12; Defense Security Cooperation Agency, 164–65; global warming and, 127–29; London congestion charge and, 96; political connections in, value of, 49–52, 219n15, 219n17; smuggling and, 73–75; Vietnam bombing and, 159–61, 164–70 Vietnam, 159–74; literacy and, 171; postwar recovery and, 167–73, 229n7; U.S. bombing of, 159–61, 164–70, 228n3. See also Quang Tri (Vietnam) West End Corporation (WEC), 21, 26–27 White Man’s Burden (Easterly), 13–14 witch killing, 139–46; economic factors and, 141–46; elderly women and, 139; pensions and, 144–45; South Africa and, 144, 227n10; traditional healers and, 145–46; young children and, 142–43 Wizard of the Crow (Ngugi), 1 Wolfowitz, Paul, 102, 157, 197 World Bank, 197; Chad and, 156–58; corruption index of, 84, 87–89 Yang, Dean, 199–200 Wei, Shang-Jin, 61–62 Weinstein, David, 162 Zoellick, Robert, 197 240

Lonely Planet London City Guide by Tom Masters, Steve Fallon, Vesna Maric

Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Clapham omnibus, congestion charging, dark matter, discovery of the americas, double helix, East Village, financial independence, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, Nelson Mandela, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, young professional

If you are making many journeys during the day, you will never pay more than the appropriate Travelcard (peak or off peak) once the daily ‘price cap’ has been reached. When leaving tube stations, you must also touch the card on a reader, so the system knows your journey was only, say, a zone 1 and 2 journey. Regular commuters can also store weekly or monthly Travelcards on their Oyster cards. * * * CONGESTION CHARGE London was the world’s first major city to introduce a congestion charge to reduce the flow of traffic into its centre from Monday to Friday. While the traffic entering the ‘congestion zone’ has fallen as a result, driving in London can still be very slow work. The original congestion charge zone (Euston Rd, Pentonville Rd, Tower Bridge, Elephant & Castle, Vauxhall Bridge Rd, Park Lane and Marylebone Rd) has been extended to encompass Bayswater, Notting Hill, High St Kensington, North and South Kensington, Knightsbridge, Chelsea, Belgravia and Pimlico.

Return to beginning of chapter GREEN LONDON The most serious environmental problem facing the centre of London, the pollution and chronic congestion caused by heavy traffic, has been partially alleviated since 2003, when former mayor Ken Livingstone’s congestion charge was introduced, whereby every car entering the city centre had to pay £5 (now £8) for the privilege. Livingstone’s other environmental achievements include introducing buses running on hydrogen fuel cells (admittedly only in their trial stages) and introducing a Low Emissions Zone in February 2008 that sees additional charges levied on heavy-polluting vehicles entering Greater London. New mayor Boris Johnson worried many when campaigning for the job as his environmental program formed only a small part of his manifesto. Green groups have been disappointed by several of his actions so far, such as scrapping the third phase of London’s Low Emissions Zone and cancelling the Western extension of the congestion charge zone, though at the time of writing it was still too early to judge Johnson’s overall environmental record as mayor.

Londoners were incensed at Blair’s attempts to parachute his close ally Frank Dobson into the position, and when Livingstone stood as an independent candidate he stormed the contest. However, realising that this was a man too significant to have outside the tent, Blair’s savvy and pragmatic Labour machine quickly brought Livingstone into the party fold. For London, this meant great change. Livingstone introduced a very successful congestion charge and began tackling the mammoth task of bringing London’s chronically backward public transport network into the 21st century. London’s resurgence as a great world city seemed to be going from strength to strength, culminating with the announcement on 6 July 2005 that the International Olympic Committee had awarded London the 2012 games, making it the first triple Olympic city in history. However, London’s buoyant mood was shattered the very next morning when terrorists detonated a series of bombs on the city’s public transport network, killing 52 innocent people.

Lonely Planet London by Lonely Planet

Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, East Village, Etonian, financial independence, haute couture, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, place-making, post-work, Skype, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent

Driving Road Rules » Get a copy of Highway Code , available at Automobile Association (AA) and Royal Automobile Club (RAC) outlets, as well as some bookshops and tourist offices. » A foreign driving licence is valid in Britain for up to 12 months from the time of your last entry into the country. » If you bring a car from Europe, make sure you’re adequately insured. » All drivers and passengers must wear seatbelts, and motorcyclists must wear a helmet. Congestion Charge London was the world’s first major city to introduce a congestion charge to reduce the flow of traffic into its centre. For full details log on to » The congestion charge zone encompasses Euston Rd, Pentonville Rd, Tower Bridge, Elephant & Castle, Vauxhall Bridge Rd, Marylebone Rd and Park Lane. » As you enter the zone, you will see a large letter ‘C’ in a red circle. » If you enter the zone between 7am and 6pm Monday to Friday (excluding public holidays), you must pay the £10 charge (payable in advance or on the day) or £12 on the first charging day after travel to avoid receiving a fine (£120 or £60 if paid within two weeks). » You can pay online, at newsagents, petrol stations or any shop displaying the ‘C’ sign, by telephone on 0845 900 1234 and even by text message/SMS once you’ve registered online.

Bicycle The Barclays Cycle Hire Scheme (Click here) is excellent value, and free for short hops. Taxi Black cabs can be hailed on the street when the yellow light is lit. Boat Good for such destinations as Hampton Court Palace and Kew Gardens, but slow. Walking A lot of central sightseeing is best done on foot. Car hire It’s generally better to use a combination of the above; if you drive, beware the congestion charge (Click here). For much more on Getting Around, Click here. Sleeping Hanging your hat in London can be expensive and as the city is busy at the best of times, you’ll need to book your room well in advance to secure your top choice. Decent, centrally located hostels are easy enough to find and also offer reasonably priced double rooms. Bed and breakfasts are a dependable and inexpensive, if rather simple, option.

The Conservatives were atomised, and the Blair era had begun. Most importantly for London, Labour recognised the legitimate demand the City had for local government, and created the London Assembly and the post of mayor. Former leader of the GLC Ken Livingstone stood as an independent candidate and stormed the contest. For London, this meant big change. Livingstone introduced a successful congestion charge and sought to bring London’s backward public transport network into the 21st century. Championed by Tony Blair as a 'triumph of confidence over cynicism, boldness over blandness, excellence over mediocrity', the Millennium Dome on the Greenwich Peninsula failed to match the hype when it opened in 2000. Designed by Richard Rogers and sometimes mockingly referred to as the Millennium Tent, the dome eventually triumphed when rebranded as the O2 in 2007.

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

They ensnare buses, stealing time and certainty from transit riders. They squeeze bicycles and endanger pedestrians. Cities intent on building more variety, freedom, sharing, and sustainability in mobility have no choice but to confront the privilege of private cars. Demand, Supply, and Surprise Some brave cities have tinkered with the economics of demand. In 2003 the London mayor Ken Livingstone adopted the world’s most geographically extensive congestion charge on vehicles entering the heart of the city on weekdays.* The system uses automatic license plate recognition cameras to identify and charge most private vehicles entering the city core, with exemptions for emergency vehicles, taxis, and residents. The fee started at a hefty £5 but has since been bumped to £10. After three years, the charge had reduced traffic in the core by a quarter and was pulling in £122 million a year.

It showed that travel behavior really is elastic: when people start paying the true cost of driving (which, in London’s case, includes pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and the burden imposed on other users by drivers using a disproportionate share of road space), they find other ways of moving. Demand management is catching on around the world. In Stockholm, the charge for driving into the core climbs as you approach rush hour and falls back to nothing during slack hours. This encourages people to delay their drive until road space is not so scarce. The alternative—public transit—is financed in part by those road and congestion charges. After a brief experiment, in 2006 the citizens of Stockholm voted to make the system permanent because it made their lives easier. Meanwhile, the southern Chinese powerhouse of Guangzhou has introduced an auction and lottery system for license plates that is expected to halve the number of new cars on the road. This represented a real sacrifice, considering the fact that Guangzhou is one of China’s main auto manufacturing hubs, but its problems of pollution and congestion were too great to ignore any longer.

Not one of its programs was directed at the crisis of climate change, but the city offered tangible proof of the connection between urban design, experience, and the carbon energy system. It suggested that the green city, the low-carbon city, and the happy city might be exactly the same destination. Other cities have also realized that boosting quality of life and reducing their environmental footprints are complementary goals and should be part of the same plan. You can experience one without realizing you are accomplishing the other. Take London’s congestion charge, which has been touted as a powerful greenhouse-gas-reduction strategy.† But this was not its purpose. The charge was a response to a host of issues that Londoners felt were much more pressing than future climate change. There was so much traffic that people couldn’t get to work. It was killing Londoners’ quality of life and costing the city in productivity. People were incredibly frustrated about spending so much time on the road.

pages: 723 words: 98,951

Down the Tube: The Battle for London's Underground by Christian Wolmar

congestion charging, iterative process, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, profit motive, transaction costs

There was no formal deal, no signing of a peace treaty between Brown and Prescott, but, instead, a stand-off that included a series of ‘understandings’ over a range of issues which affected the two. Brown wanted the privatisation of National Air Traffic Services to go ahead, Prescott wanted councils to be able to keep revenue from congestion charges so that they could reinvest it in improving public transport. The issue of local authority-owned airports being able to borrow money to invest in expansion without the money counting against the Public Sector Borrowing Requirement also became part of the series of trade-offs between the Deputy Prime Minister and Brown. On those side issues, which actually were potentially very important, Prescott obtained key concessions. Local authorities were allowed to keep the money from congestion charges, though ironically, by 2002 the only area with a well-developed scheme to begin charging was London, run by mayor Ken Livingstone, Brown’s political enemy; airports got the right to borrow money; Brown was able to flog off NATS, though the private component, 46 per cent, went to a consortium of airlines which promptly had to be bailed out with extra government cash after September 11; and London got the PPP and an extra £365m grant to London Transport over the next two years in order to enable it to keep investing until the PPP kicked in, which was supposed to be by 2000, in time for it to be handed to what would then be the newly created Transport for London.

Indeed, Byers effectively confirmed this when he met Livingstone, who says: ‘At my first one-to-one meeting with Byers, I said I have fourteen issues I wish to raise, and he said let’s leave the Tube to last. We agreed on the first thirteen, and then he said, “We've got two minutes, I have to tell you I am not authorised in any way to vary the PPP, so we should put it to one side and get on with working together.” And that’s what we did. We made good progress on everything else, on capital projects, the congestion charge. The PPP was further up the food chain. I liked his honesty. But he had been told when he took that job, the PPP was fixed as an issue.’* Interestingly, Byers felt so constrained in what he could do on the PPP that he never even bothered to meet Kiley privately during his whole year at the Department of Transport. While Blair was agnostic about the PPP, he wanted to see the issue resolved as quickly as possible.

.’* Byers was, as we have seen, a prisoner of the Treasury who was being disingenuous when he told the select committee that the decision ‘will rest with myself’.* There was a brief flurry of activity during Brown’s absence for a few weeks in January 2002 while he was in mourning for the death of his baby daughter, with John Spellar, the junior transport minister, suggesting to Livingstone that changes might be made to the PPP should he ditch congestion charging, but the mayor would not accept the plan and, in any case, the idea petered out on Brown’s return. Byers was already in deep water with the Treasury which had been infuriated by his behaviour after the decision to stop funding Railtrack and force it into administration. While that move, in October 2001, had been sanctioned by both No. 10 and No. 11 Downing Street, Byers had tried to make himself popular in the parliamentary Labour Party by stressing that Railtrack shareholders would never receive any public money to compensate for the losses arising from the suspension of the shares.

pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

The 2000 Transport Act gave councils the same power to charge for road use that London’s new government had: any revenues produced had to be spent on public transport. But when pro-charging Ken Livingstone declared himself a candidate for London mayor, the official Labour candidate Frank Dobson (following the Number Ten line) did a swerving volte-face and took against congestion charging. Blair emphasized the risks of using the very powers his government had introduced. Once the London congestion charge worked, he changed his mind. By then precious momentum had been lost. Votes on charging schemes came and went in Manchester and Edinburgh where, in a welter of local circumstances, residents rejected opportunities to reconcile urban living with reduced emissions. At least roads were safer. The downward trend in accidents continued.

The Office of Fair Trading later found that the big five operators, including Stagecoach and Arriva, were overcharging as they carved up territories. Such cities as Leeds, Aberdeen and Cardiff became the fiefdoms of a single company. The cost of bus and coach fares rose 17 per cent above inflation between 1997 and 2010. London showed how successful an overarching public transport authority with power and money could be. Mayor Livingstone expanded the bus network and improved frequencies, spending the proceeds from his new congestion charge and then some. In the capital, Margaret Thatcher’s silly adage about anyone over twenty-six using a bus being a failure was disproved: many more people of all social groups took to the bus. Use rose by a third in the five years from 2000. Labour was on course to meet its target of achieving 12 per cent growth in bus and light rail use in England by 2010, but only because the number of bus journeys was increasing in London (which accounted for 44 per cent of bus use in England).

., 1 Gallagher, Liam, 1 Gallagher, Noel, 1 gambling, 1 gangmasters, 1, 2 gas, 1 Gates, Bill, 1 Gateshead, 1 Gaza, 1 GCHQ, 1 GCSEs, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gehry, Frank, 1 Geldof, Bob, 1 gender reassignment, 1 General Teaching Council, 1 genetically modified crops, 1 Germany, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 economy and business, 1, 2, 3, 4 and education, 1, 2 and health, 1, 2 Ghana, 1 Ghandi’s curry house, 1 Ghent, 1 Gladstone, William Ewart, 1, 2 Glaister, Professor Stephen, 1 Glasgow, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gleneagles summit, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 globalization, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and crime, 1 and foreign policy, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 and migration, 1, 2 Gloucester, 1 Goldacre, Ben, 1 Good Friday agreement, 1 Goodwin, Sir Fred, 1 Goody, Jade, 1 Gormley, Antony, 1 Gould, Philip, 1 grandparents, and childcare, 1 Gray, Simon, 1 Great Yarmouth, 1 Greater London Authority, 1, 2 Greater London Council, 1 green spaces, 1 Greenberg, Stan, 1 Greengrass, Paul, 1 Greenspan, Alan, 1, 2 Greenwich, 1 Gregg, Paul, 1 Guardian, 1, 2, 3 Guizot, François, 1 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, 1 Gummer, John, 1 Gurkhas, 1 Guthrie of Craigiebank, Lord, 1 Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospital, 1 habeas corpus, suspension of, 1 Hacienda Club, 1 Hackney, 1 Hale, Baroness Brenda, 1 Hallé Orchestra, 1 Ham, Professor Chris, 1 Hamilton, Lewis, 1 Hammersmith Hospital, 1 Hammond, Richard, 1 Hardie, Keir, 1 Hardy, Thea, 1 Haringey, 1, 2 Harman, Harriet, 1 Harris of Peckham, Lord, 1 Harrison, PC Dawn, 1, 2 Harrow School, 1 Hartlepool, 1, 2 Hastings, 1, 2 Hatfield rail crash, 1 Hatt family, 1, 2, 3, 4 health, 1 and private sector, 1, 2 and social class, 1 spending on, 1, 2 Health Action Zones, 1 Health and Safety Executive, 1 Heathcote, Paul, 1 Heathrow airport, 1, 2, 3, 4 Hellawell, Keith, 1 Hennessy, Professor Peter, 1 Henry, Donna Charmaine, 1, 2, 3 heroin, 1 Hewitt, Patricia, 1, 2 Higgs, Sir Derek, 1 Hills, Professor John, 1, 2, 3 Hirst, Damien, 1 HMRC, 1, 2, 3 Hogg, John, 1, 2, 3 Hoggart, Richard, 1 Holly, Graham, 1 homelessness, 1, 2 Homerton Hospital, 1 homosexuality, 1, 2, 3 ‘honour’ killings, 1 Hoon, Geoff, 1 hospital-acquired infections, 1 hospitals and clinics, 1, 2, 3, 4 A&E units, 1, 2 closures, 1, 2, 3 foundation trusts, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and PFI, 1 House of Commons reforms, 1, 2 House of Lords reforms, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing market, 1, 2, 3 housing policies, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Howe, Elspeth, 1 Hoxton, 1 Huddersfield, 1 Hudson, Joseph, 1 Hull, 1, 2, 3 Human Rights Act, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Humber Bridge, 1 hunting ban, 1 Hussein, Saddam, 1, 2, 3, 4 Hutton, John, 1 Hutton, Will, 1, 2 identity cards, 1, 2 If (Kipling), 1 Imperial War Museum North, 1 income inequalities, 1, 2, 3 gender pay gap, 1, 2 and high earners, 1 and social class, 1 Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC), 1 Independent Safeguarding Authority, 1 independent-sector treatment centres (ISTCs), 1 Index of Multiple Deprivation, 1 India, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 individual learning accounts, 1 inflation, 1 and housing market, 1, 2 International Criminal Court, 1 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 1, 2, 3 internet, 1, 2, 3 and crime, 1 and cyber-bullying, 1 file sharing, 1 gambling, 1 and sex crimes, 1 Iran, 1, 2, 3 Iraq, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 arms supplies, 1 Chilcot inquiry, 1, 2, 3, 4 and Territorial Army, 1 and WMD, 1 Ireland, 1, 2, 3 Irish famine, 1 Irvine of Lairg, Lord, 1, 2 Ishaq, Khyra, 1 Islamabad, 1 Isle of Man, 1 Isle of Wight, 1, 2 Israel, 1 Italy, 1, 2, 3 and football, 1 Ivory Coast, 1 Japan, 1, 2, 3, 4 Jenkins, Roy, 1, 2 Jerry Springer: The Opera, 1 Jobcentre Plus, 1, 2 John Lewis Partnership, 1, 2 Johnson, Alan, 1, 2, 3, 4 Johnson, Boris, 1, 2 Judge, Lord (Igor), 1 Judge, Professor Ken, 1 Julius, DeAnne, 1 jury trials, 1, 2 Kabul, 1 Kapoor, Anish, 1, 2 Karachi, 1 Karadžic, Radovan, 1 Kashmir, 1 Kaufman, Gerald, 1 Keegan, William, 1 Keep Britain Tidy, 1 Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, 1 Kensit, Patsy, 1 Keynes, John Maynard, 1 Keys, Kenton, 1 Kidderminster Hospital, 1 King, Sir David, 1, 2 King, Mervyn, 1 King Edward VI School, 1 King’s College Hospital, 1 Kingsnorth power station, 1 Kirklees, 1 Knight, Jim, 1 knighthoods, 1 knowledge economy, 1 Kosovo, 1, 2, 3, 4 Kynaston, David, 1 Kyoto summit and protocols, 1, 2, 3 Labour Party membership, 1 Lacey, David, 1 Ladbroke Grove rail crash, 1 Lamb, General Sir Graeme, 1 Lambert, Richard, 1 landmines, 1 Lansley, Andrew, 1 lapdancing, 1 Las Vegas, 1 Lawrence, Stephen, 1 Lawson, Mark, 1 Layard, Professor Richard, 1 Le Grand, Professor Julian, 1 Lea, Ruth, 1 Lea Valley High School, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Leahy, Sir Terry, 1, 2 learndirect, 1 Learning and Skills Council, 1 learning difficulties, 1, 2 learning mentors, 1 Leeds, 1, 2, 3, 4 legal reforms, 1 Leigh, Mike, 1 Lenon, Barnaby, 1 Lewes, 1 Lewisham, 1 Liberty, 1 licensing laws, 1, 2 life expectancy, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Life on Mars, 1 Lincoln, 1 Lindsell, Tracy, 1, 2 Lindsey oil refinery, 1 Lisbon Treaty, 1 Liverpool, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Liverpool FC, 1 living standards, 1, 2 living wage campaign, 1, 2 Livingstone, Ken, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Livni, Tzipi, 1 Loaded magazine, 1 local government, 1, 2, 3 and elected mayors, 1 Lockerbie bomber, 1 London, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 bombings, 1, 2 congestion charge, 1, 2 detention of foreign leaders, 1 G20 protests, 1 Iraq war protests, 1, 2 mayoral election, 1, 2 and transport policy, 1, 2, 3 London Array wind farm, 1 Longannet, 1 Longfield, Anne, 1 Lord-Marchionne, Sacha, 1 Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 1 lorry protests, 1, 2 Lowry Museum, 1 Lumley, Joanna, 1 Luton, 1, 2, 3, 4 Lyons, Sir Michael, 1 Macfadden, Julia, 1 Machin, Professor Stephen, 1, 2 Maclean, David, 1 Macmillan, Harold, 1 Macmillan, James, 1 McNulty, Tony, 1 Macpherson, Sir Nick, 1 Macpherson, Sir William, 1 McQueen, Alexander, 1 Madrid, 1, 2, 3 Major, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Malaya, 1 Malloch Brown, Mark, 1 Manchester, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 club scene, 1, 2 and crime, 1, 2 Gorton, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and local government, 1 and transport policy, 1, 2, 3 Manchester Academy, 1 Manchester United FC, 1, 2 Manchester University, 1 Mandelson, Peter, 1, 2 Manpower Services Commission, 1 manufacturing, 1, 2, 3 Margate, 1 ‘market for talent’ myth, 1 marriage rate, 1 Martin, Michael, 1 maternity and paternity leave, 1, 2 Mayfield, Charlie, 1 Medical Research Council, 1 mental health, 1, 2, 3, 4 mephedrone, 1 Metcalf, Professor David, 1 Metropolitan Police, 1, 2, 3 Mexico, 1, 2 MG Rover, 1 Michael, Alun, 1 Middlesbrough College, 1, 2 migration, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Milburn, Alan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Miliband, David, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Miliband, Ed, 1, 2, 3 Millennium Cohort Study, 1, 2 Millennium Dome, 1, 2, 3 Miloševic, Slobodan, 1 Milton Keynes, 1 minimum wage, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Mitchell, Senator George, 1 modern art, 1 Mohamed, Binyam, 1 Monbiot, George, 1 Moray, 1 Morecambe, 1, 2 Morecambe Bay cockle pickers, 1 Morgan, Piers, 1 Morgan, Rhodri, 1 mortgage interest relief, 1 Mosley, Max, 1 motor racing, 1 Mowlam, Mo, 1 Mozambique, 1 MPs’ expenses, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 MRSA, 1 Mugabe, Robert, 1 Muijen, Matt, 1 Mulgan, Geoff, 1 Mullin, Chris, 1 Murdoch, Rupert, 1, 2, 3 Murphy, Richard, 1 museums and galleries, 1, 2, 3 music licensing, 1 Muslims, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mutualism, 1 Myners, Paul, 1 nanotechnology, 1, 2, 3 National Air Traffic Control System, 1 National Care Service, 1 national curriculum, 1 national debt, 1 National Forest, 1 National Health Service (NHS) cancer plan, 1 drugs teams, 1 and employment, 1, 2 internal market, 1 IT system, 1 league tables, 1 managers, 1, 2 NHS direct, 1 primary care, 1 productivity, 1, 2 and public satisfaction, 1 staff numbers and pay, 1 and targets, 1, 2, 3 waiting times, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 National Heart Forum, 1 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 1, 2 National Insurance, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 National Lottery, 1, 2, 3 National Offender Management Service, 1 National Savings, 1 National Theatre, 1 Natural England, 1, 2 Nazio, Tiziana, 1 Neighbourhood Watch, 1 Netherlands, 1, 2 neurosurgery, 1 New Deal, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 New Deal for Communities, 1, 2 New Forest, 1 Newcastle upon Tyne, 1, 2 Newham, 1, 2 newspapers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Nigeria, 1 Nightingale, Florence, 1 non-doms, 1 North Korea, 1 North Middlesex Hospital, 1 North Sea oil and gas, 1 Northern Ireland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Northern Rock, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Norway, 1 Nottingham, 1, 2 NSPCC, 1 nuclear power, 1 Number Ten Delivery Unit, 1 nurses, 1, 2, 3, 4 Nutt, Professor David, 1 NVQs, 1 O2 arena, 1 Oakthorpe primary school, 1, 2 Oates, Tim, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2 obesity, 1, 2 Octagon consortium, 1 Office for National Statistics, 1, 2 Office of Security and Counter Terrorism, 1 Ofsted, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Ofwat, 1 Oldham, 1, 2, 3, 4 O’Leary, Michael, 1 Oliver, Jamie, 1, 2 Olympic Games, 1, 2, 3 Open University, 1 O’Reilly, Damien, 1, 2 orthopaedics, 1 Orwell, George, 1, 2 outsourcing, 1, 2, 3, 4 overseas aid, 1, 2 Oxford University, 1 paedophiles, 1, 2, 3 Page, Ben, 1, 2 Pakistan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Palestine, 1, 2 parenting, 1 absent parents, 1 lone parents, 1, 2 teenage parents, 1 Paris, 1, 2 Park Lane, 1 Parkinson, Professor Michael, 1 particle physics, 1 party funding, 1, 2, 3 passport fraud, 1 Passport Office, 1 Patch, Harry, 1 Payne, Sarah, 1, 2 Peach, Blair, 1 Pearce, Nick, 1 Peckham, 1, 2 Aylesbury estate, 1 Peel, Sir Robert, 1 pensioner poverty, 1, 2 pensions, 1, 2 occupational pensions, 1, 2 pension funds, 1, 2 private pensions, 1 public-sector pensions, 1 state pension, 1, 2 Persian Gulf, 1 personal, social and health education, 1 Peterborough, 1 Peugeot, 1 Philips, Helen, 1 Phillips, Lord (Nicholas), 1, 2 Phillips, Trevor, 1 Pilkington, Fiona, 1 Pimlico, 1 Pinochet, Augusto, 1 Plymouth, 1, 2 Poland, 1, 2 police, 1 and demonstrations, 1 numbers, 1, 2, 3 in schools, 1, 2, 3 pornography, 1 Portsmouth FC, 1, 2 Portugal, 1 post offices, 1 Postlethwaite, Pete, 1 poverty, 1, 2, 3 see also child poverty; pensioner poverty Premier League, 1 Prescott, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 press officers, 1 Preston, 1 Prevent strategy, 1 Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), 1, 2 prisons, 1, 2 Private Finance Initiative (PFI), 1, 2 probation, 1, 2 property ownership, 1 prostitution, 1, 2, 3 Public Accounts Committee, 1 public sector reform, 1, 2 public service agreements, 1 public spending, 1, 2, 3 and the arts, 1 and science, 1 Pugh, Martin, 1 Pullman, Philip, 1 QinetiQ, 1 Quality and Outcomes Framework, 1 quangos, 1, 2 Queen, The, 1 Quentin, Lieutenant Pete, 1, 2 race relations legislation, 1 racism, 1, 2 RAF, 1, 2, 3 RAF Brize Norton, 1 railways, 1 Rand, Ayn, 1 Rawmarsh School, 1 Raynsford, Nick, 1 Reckitt Benckiser, 1 recycling, 1 Redcar, 1 regional assemblies, 1, 2 regional development agencies (RDAs), 1, 2, 3 regional policy, 1 Reid, John, 1 Reid, Richard, 1 religion, 1, 2 retirement age, 1, 2 right to roam, 1 Rimington, Stella, 1 Rio Earth summit, 1 road transport, 1 Rochdale, 1, 2 Roche, Barbara, 1 Rogers, Richard, 1 Romania, 1, 2 Rome, 1 Rooney, Wayne, 1 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1 Rosetta Stone, 1 Rosyth, 1 Rotherham, 1, 2, 3 Royal Opera House, 1 Royal Shakespeare Company, 1 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, 1 Rugby, 1 rugby union, 1 Rumsfeld, Donald, 1 rural affairs, 1, 2 Rushdie, Salman, 1 Russia, 1, 2 Rwanda, 1 Ryanair, 1, 2 Sainsbury, Lord David, 1 St Austell, 1 St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1, 2 St Pancras International station, 1 Salford, 1, 2, 3, 4 Sanchez, Tia, 1 Sandwell, 1 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 1, 2 Savill, Superintendent Paul, 1 Saville, Lord, 1 savings ratio, 1 Scandinavia, 1, 2, 3 Scholar, Sir Michael, 1 school meals, 1, 2 school uniforms, 1 school-leaving age, 1 schools academies, 1, 2, 3, 4 building, 1 class sizes, 1 comprehensive schools, 1, 2 faith schools, 1, 2, 3, 4 grammar schools, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 nursery schools, 1 and PFI, 1, 2, 3 police in, 1, 2, 3 primary schools, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 private schools, 1, 2 secondary schools, 1, 2, 3 in special measures, 1 special schools, 1 specialist schools, 1 and sport, 1 science, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scotland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 electricity generation, 1 and health, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scottish parliament, 1, 2 Section 1, 2 security services, 1 MI5, 1, 2, 3 Sedley, Stephen, 1 segregation, 1 self-employment, 1 Sellafield, 1 Serious Organized Crime Agency, 1 sex crimes, 1 Sex Discrimination Act, 1 Shankly, Bill, 1 Sharkey, Feargal, 1 Shaw, Liz, 1 Sheen, Michael, 1 Sheffield, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Sheringham, 1 Shetty, Shilpa, 1 Shipman, Harold, 1 shopping, 1 Short, Clare, 1 Siemens, 1 Siena, 1 Sierra Leone, 1, 2 Skeet, Mavis, 1 skills councils, 1 slavery, 1 Slough, 1 Smith, Adam, 1 Smith, Chris, 1 Smith, Jacqui, 1, 2 Smith, John, 1, 2 Smithers, Professor Alan, 1, 2 smoking ban, 1, 2 Snowden, Philip, 1 social care, 1, 2, 3 Social Chapter opt-out, 1 social exclusion, 1, 2 Social Fund, 1 social mobility, 1, 2 social sciences, 1 social workers, 1 Soham murders, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solihull, 1, 2 Somalia, 1, 2 Souter, Brian, 1 South Africa, 1 South Downs, 1 Spain, 1, 2, 3 special advisers, 1 speed cameras, 1 Speenhamland, 1 Spelman, Caroline, 1 Spence, Laura, 1 sport, 1, 2 see also football; Olympic Games Sri Lanka, 1, 2 Stafford Hospital, 1 Staffordshire University, 1 Standard Assessment Tests (Sats), 1, 2, 3 Standards Board for England, 1 statins, 1, 2, 3 stem cell research, 1 STEM subjects, 1 Stephenson, Sir Paul, 1 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 1, 2 Stevenson, Lord (Dennis), 1 Stevenson, Wilf, 1 Steyn, Lord, 1 Stiglitz, Joseph, 1 Stockport, 1 Stonehenge, 1 Stoppard, Tom, 1 Straw, Jack, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 student fees, 1 Stuff Happens, 1 Sudan, 1, 2 Sugar, Alan, 1 suicide bombing, 1 suicides, 1 Sun, 1, 2 Sunday Times, 1, 2 Sunderland, 1, 2 supermarkets, 1, 2 Supreme Court, 1, 2 Sure Start, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 surveillance, 1, 2 Sutherland, Lord (Stewart), 1 Swansea, 1 Sweden, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Swindon, 1 Taliban, 1, 2 Tallinn, 1 Tanzania, 1 Tate Modern, 1 Taunton, 1 tax avoidance, 1, 2, 3 tax credits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 council tax credit, 1 pension credit, 1, 2, 3 R&D credits, 1 taxation, 1, 2 10p tax rate, 1 capital gains tax, 1, 2 corporation tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 council tax, 1, 2 fuel duty, 1, 2, 3 green taxes, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 income tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 inheritance tax, 1, 2 poll tax, 1 stamp duty, 1, 2, 3 vehicle excise duty, 1 windfall tax, 1, 2, 3 see also National Insurance; VAT Taylor, Damilola, 1 Taylor, Robert, 1 teachers, 1, 2, 3 head teachers, 1, 2 salaries, 1, 2 teaching assistants, 1, 2 teenage pregnancy, 1, 2, 3 Teesside University, 1 television and crime, 1 and gambling, 1 talent shows, 1 television licence, 1, 2, 3 Territorial Army, 1 terrorism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Terry, John, 1 Tesco, 1, 2, 3, 4 Tewkesbury, 1 Thames Gateway, 1 Thameswey, 1 Thatcher, Margaret, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Thatcherism, 1, 2, 3 theatre, 1 Thornhill, Dorothy, 1 Thorp, John, 1 Tibet, 1 Tilbury, 1 Times, The, 1 Times Educational Supplement, 1, 2 Timmins, Nick, 1 Titanic, 1 Tomlinson, Mike, 1 Topman, Simon, 1, 2 torture, 1, 2 trade unions, 1, 2, 3 Trades Union Congress (TUC), 1, 2, 3 tramways, 1 transport policies, 1, 2 Trident missiles, 1, 2, 3 Triesman, Lord, 1 Turkey, 1, 2 Turnbull, Lord (Andrew), 1 Turner, Lord (Adair), 1, 2, 3 Tweedy, Colin, 1 Tyneside Metro, 1 Uganda, 1 UK Film Council, 1 UK Sport, 1 UK Statistics Authority, 1 unemployment, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 United Nations, 1, 2, 3 United States of America, 1, 2 Anglo-American relationship, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and child poverty, 1 and clean technologies, 1 economy and business, 1, 2, 3 and education, 1, 2, 3 and healthcare, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 and internet gambling, 1 and minimum wage, 1 universities, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and migration, 1 and terrorism, 1 tuition fees, 1 University College London Hospitals, 1 University for Industry, 1 University of East Anglia, 1 University of Lincoln, 1 Urban Splash, 1, 2 Vanity Fair, 1 VAT, 1, 2, 3 Vauxhall, 1 Venables, Jon, 1 Vestas wind turbines, 1 Victoria and Albert Museum, 1 Waitrose, 1 Waldfogel, Jane, 1 Wales, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 Walker, Sir David, 1 walking, 1, 2 Walsall, 1 Wanless, Sir Derek, 1 Wanstead, 1 Warm Front scheme, 1 Warner, Lord Norman, 1 Warsaw, 1 Warwick accord, 1 water utilities, 1 Watford, 1 welfare benefits child benefit, 1, 2 Employment Support Allowance, 1 and fraud, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing benefit, 1 incapacity benefit, 1, 2 Income Support, 1 Jobseeker’s Allowance, 1, 2, 3 and work, 1, 2 Welsh assembly, 1, 2 Wembley Stadium, 1 Westfield shopping mall, 1 Wetherspoons, 1 White, Marco Pierre, 1 Whittington Hospital, 1 Wiles, Paul, 1 Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Pickett, 1 Williams, Professor Karel, 1 Williams, Raymond, 1 Williams, Rowan, 1 Wilson, Harold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Wilson, Sir Richard, 1 wind turbines, 1, 2 Winslet, Kate, 1 winter fuel payments, 1 Wire, The, 1 Woking, 1, 2 Wolverhampton, 1 Woolf, Lord, 1 Wootton Bassett, 1, 2 working-class culture, 1 working hours, 1, 2 World Bank, 1 Wrexham, 1 Wright Robinson School, 1, 2, 3 xenophobia, 1 Y2K millennium bug, 1 Yarlswood detention centre, 1 Yeovil, 1 Yiewsley, 1 York, 1, 2, 3, 4 Young Person’s Guarantee, 1 Youth Justice Board, 1 Zimbabwe, 1, 2 About the Author Polly Toynbee is the Guardian’s social and political commentator.

pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

‘Will it come as any surprise that after [Combat Zones That See] is battle tested abroad’, asks Packer, ‘it may very well be implemented in the US?’118 Anticipatory vigilance and surveillance which are targeted to car use in homeland cities will be much easier to implement when those cities are already building the large surveillance systems necessary for road-pricing and congestion-charging initiatives. In London, for example, a highly successful congestion charge has done much to reduce car traffic, promote cycling, and improve air quality and the quality of urban life in central London. On the ‘polluter pays’ principle, it is also being used as a mechanism to penalize SUV drivers. Simultaneously, however, some ‘mission creep’ is going on: the surveillance infrastructure that makes road pricing in London possible has now been drafted into the UK’s apparently insatiable appetite for new means of digital surveillance by the state.

CITIZEN SOLDIERS The fifth key trait of the new military urbanism is the way its claims to legitimacy are fused with militarized veins of popular, urban, electronic and material culture. Very often, for example, the military tasks of tracking, surveillance and targeting do not require completely new technological systems. Instead, they simply appropriate the systems that operate in cities to sustain the latest means of digitally organized travel and consumption. Thus, as in central London, congestion-charging zones quickly morph into security zones. Internet interactions and transactions provide the basis for data-mining in efforts to root out supposedly threatening behaviours. Dreams of smart cars help bring into being robotic weapons systems. Satellite imagery and GPS support new styles of civilian urban life based on the use of the very US Air Force structures that facilitate ‘precision’ urban bombing.

Crucially, the volume of data in this ‘calculative background’ is so vast that only automated algorithms can deem what or who is considered normal and thus deserving of protection, and what or who is considered abnormal and thus a malign threat to be targeted. Such control technologies increasingly blur into the background of urban environments, urban infrastructures and urban life. Layered over and through everyday urban landscapes, bringing into being radically new styles of movement, interaction, consumption and politics, in a sense they become the city. Examples include new means of mobility (congestion charging, smart highways, Easyjet-style air travel), customized consumption (personalized pages) and ‘swarming’ social movements (social networking, smart and flash mobs). Discussions about ‘homeland security’ and the high-tech transformation of war emphasize the need to use some of those very techniques and technologies – high-tech surveillance, data-mining, computerized algorithms – to try to continually track, identify and target threatening Others within the mass of clutter presented by our rapidly urbanizing and increasingly mobile world.

pages: 385 words: 121,550

Three Years in Hell: The Brexit Chronicles by Fintan O'Toole

airport security, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Downton Abbey, Etonian, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, full employment, income inequality, l'esprit de l'escalier, labour mobility, late capitalism, open borders, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, technoutopianism, zero-sum game

Wouldn’t it be funny if it is the actual Marxists in Labour who get to reverse it on to more solid ground? 3 March 2018 With the publication of the EU’s draft legal text, the implications begin to sink in. But the British government and the unionists of the DUP continue to cling to the hope that some as yet uninvented technologies can keep the border invisible even while the UK leaves the customs union and single market. Boris Johnson explains that it can all be done as simply as the congestion charge in London. Many unionist politicians are people of deep faith. After this week’s momentous European Union proposal for a legal text on Britain’s withdrawal from the EU, they had better pray for a miracle. A miracle, that is, of technology. Last July, the DUP MP Jeffrey Donaldson spoke in tones of pure rapture about the fabulous scientific solutions that would make the problem of the Irish border after Brexit disappear: ‘Technology is a wonderful thing.’

He (it would definitely be a he) has been working away in a basement on a magical formula for creating frictionless borders. His colleagues have been sneering at him. But now his hour has come. He will save unionism. And this is about as plausible as most 1950s sci-fi movies. To understand this, consider Boris Johnson’s claims on BBC Radio 4 last Tuesday that the Irish border could be just like the border between Camden and Westminster. As motorists cross that line, incurring a congestion charge, they are monitored by technology ‘anaesthetically and invisibly [taking] hundreds of millions of pounds from the accounts of people travelling between those two boroughs without any need for border checks whatever’. Leaving aside the obvious problem that an external EU border is not exactly like a London borough division, there is still an enormous difficulty here. For Johnson seems to have read neither his own government’s position paper on Ireland and Brexit, published last summer, or the agreement that Theresa May signed in December.

For Johnson seems to have read neither his own government’s position paper on Ireland and Brexit, published last summer, or the agreement that Theresa May signed in December. Both of these documents commit the British, not just to having no personal border checks in Ireland but, in the British government’s own words, to ‘avoid any physical border infrastructure in either the United Kingdom or Ireland, for any purpose’. London’s congestion charge works because it has a very large physical infrastructure: 646 cameras mounted on big gantries at 203 different sites. Even if number plate recognition were the solution for Ireland (which it is not), there would have to be many more cameras to cover the 110 million annual trips across 300 different border crossings. And the erection of those big gantries is exactly what the British government, entirely of its own volition, has pledged not to do.

pages: 428 words: 134,832

Straphanger by Taras Grescoe

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar

Montezuma believed the only way to stem the defection of bus riders to private transportation was to charge drivers entering the city a fee, similar to London’s congestion charge, that would be used to subsidize better TransMilenio service. (He also favored replacing the polluting TransMilenio buses with rubber-tired electric trolleys, powered by Colombia’s abundant hydroelectric power—an elegant, if dauntingly expensive, solution.) TransMilenio was caught in the same trap the New York subway had been in the 1920s, when the contractually guaranteed nickel fare brought overcrowding and declining service, and led compressed straphangers to defect to automobiles. Dario Hidalgo told me that using a congestion charge, parking revenues, or increased gas taxes to subsidize TransMilenio’s operating costs would give the private operators the financial leeway to run more buses, which might be enough to stem the overcrowding that was tarnishing the system’s image.

“But Aarhus, Denmark’s second city, is as hilly as Seattle or Portland, and they have twenty-five percent of the population riding bikes. Look,” he pursued, “we can’t talk about bikes without talking about the sacred bull in society’s china shop: the automobile. We go around bubble-wrapping cyclists, making people wear helmets, when what we should be doing is taming the bull. It can be done easily, through traffic calming, congestion charges, giving priority to cyclists at intersections.” He insisted he wasn’t fanatically anti-automobile. “At a lecture in Washington, somebody said to me, ‘Here in the United States, we go for bike rides on the weekend, what do you do in Denmark?’ I told her: we go for car rides. A lot of my friends own cars. The difference is, in Copenhagen, we get our first car when we’re like thirty-five, after we’ve had a couple of kids.

For cities without historic rail networks, bus rapid transit systems, complete with dedicated lanes, signal priority, and express service could link not only the suburbs to downtown but also office parks, malls, and edge cities on the metropolitan fringes to one another. All this means we’ll have to be creative about funding sources. Raising gas taxes might mean career suicide for politicians these days, but transit can be subsidized with parking and congestion charges, highway and bridge tolls, a payroll tax for larger companies, a carbon tax—or all of the above. (Already a few transit agencies, among them Los Angeles’s Metro, are taking the lead in developing commercial and residential properties close to transit, rather than selling off property to private developers.) For transit to remain sustainable, we’re going to have to ignore the zealots who call for its complete privatization, which has proven such a disaster in Britain and Australia.

The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

On the one hand, such information can be used to track vehicles as they cross a city and provide inputs into intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and on the other to cross-reference details to a database of vehicle owners in order to administer fines and penalties for traffic violations. For example, in relation to the latter, the licence plate details of all vehicles entering the congestion charge zone in London are scanned and matched to a database of those that have paid the congestion charge. Those who have not paid within a 24-hour period are automatically fined through a process of automated management (the system has the autonomy to issue fines free of human oversight). The system can similarly be used in conjunction with speed cameras to issue tickets to speeding drivers. In other cases, automated surveillance has been facilitated by the use of machine-readable identification codes to enrol what were anonymous activities into the net of surveillance.

One of the clearest examples related to governance is control creep. Control creep is where the data generated for one form of governance is appropriated for another (Innes 2001). This has mostly clearly occurred with respect to security, particularly in the post 9/11 era, with airline industry data and government administrative data being repurposed for profiling and assessing the security risk of passengers (Lyon 2003b). Similarly, road traffic and congestion charge cameras in London have been repurposed for security tasks, rather than simply monitoring traffic offences (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a). A commercial example of control creep is in-car navigation systems in rental vehicles being repurposed from helping drivers find their way to monitoring and fining those that drive out of state or off-road (Elliott 2004). Control creep systematically undermines the rationale for data minimisation and its roll-out poses clear threats to civil liberties, with all citizens – both innocent and guilty – subject to its gaze and disciplinary action.

pages: 304 words: 90,084

Net Zero: How We Stop Causing Climate Change by Dieter Helm

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Boris Johnson, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demand response, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, fixed income, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, market design, means of production, North Sea oil, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, remote working, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Thomas Malthus

Unlike carbon taxes, regulation is easy to capture, and it usually is captured.[14] Urban regulation and planning The other pollutants from transport are mainly local in their impacts. Nowhere is this more obvious than in towns and cities. Emissions from cars and lorries damage people’s lungs and shorten lives. Pricing mechanisms can make some difference, and urban congestion charges have a part to play. They ration the supply of road space and can reduce traffic. By calibrating these charges according to engine size and vintage (and hence pollution), the more polluting ones can be priced off the road. Congestion charges will, however, never be sufficient, and the regulatory and planning options have to come into play. Banning cars from certain areas and turning road space over to cycling and walking are increasingly policies of choice in developed countries. Restricting hours for goods vehicles and deliveries both rations road space and can concentrate emissions at times when fewer people are on the streets.

acid rain 25, 194 Africa xiv, xv, 2, 25, 30, 38, 44, 45, 47, 48, 51, 137, 229 agriculture 2, 6, 12, 13, 14, 23, 35–6, 43, 44–5, 70, 76, 86, 87–8, 95, 100, 102, 109, 116, 146–7, 149, 159, 163–80, 181, 183, 192, 197, 198, 206, 220 baseline, the 164–8 biodiversity loss and 2, 5, 100, 164, 165, 168, 169, 171, 172, 174, 180 biofuels and 197–8 carbon emissions and 2, 12, 13, 35–6, 76–7, 146–7, 163–80 carbon price and 167–70, 171, 172, 173, 180 China and 28–9, 35, 45, 180 economics of 76, 165, 166–7, 171, 174 electricity and 13, 166, 168, 174, 178, 180 fertiliser use see fertiliser lobby 14, 110, 164, 165, 169, 170, 197 methane emissions 23, 84, 177, 178, 179 net gain and 172–4 net value of UK 76, 166 new technologies/indoor farming 87–8, 174–9, 180, 213 peat bogs and 2, 179 pesticide use see pesticides petrochemicals and 166 polluter-pays principle and 76, 168–70, 172, 173 pollution 36, 86, 163, 165–6, 168–70, 172, 173, 177–8, 230 public goods, agricultural 170–4, 180 sequestering carbon and 12, 95, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173–4, 177, 179, 180 soils and 2, 146, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 179 subsidies 14, 76, 102, 109, 116, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 172, 180, 228 25 Year Plan and 179–80 Agriculture Bill (2018), UK 170 air conditioning 135–6, 224, 233 air quality xiii, 13, 25, 46, 52, 61, 70, 135, 153, 177, 180, 201, 216, 230, 232 air transport 3–4, 6, 11, 13, 22, 50, 53, 73, 87, 88, 92, 107, 125, 128, 129, 132, 133, 134, 149, 156–7, 186, 195, 201, 203–5 aluminium 7, 117 Amazon rainforest 2, 34, 35, 95, 145, 149–50, 151, 155, 229, 230 ammonia 35, 137, 191 anaerobic digesters 35, 165, 230 animal welfare 167, 177 antibiotics 93, 165, 174 Arctic 26, 46, 114, 178 artificial intelligence (AI) 32, 175, 220, 231 autonomous vehicles 13, 129, 132, 175, 189–90, 231 Balkans 137–8 Bank of England 121 batteries 6, 31, 131, 135, 141, 183, 184, 185–90, 191, 199, 204, 213, 214, 219, 220, 221, 225, 231 beef 5, 95, 116, 117, 167, 230 Berlin, Isaiah 104 big 5 polluter products 117–18, 120 bin Salman, Mohammad 27 biocrops 36 biodiversity xiv, 2, 5, 12, 13, 28, 35, 51, 76, 94, 100, 148, 149, 152, 153, 158, 159, 164, 165, 168, 169–70, 171, 172, 174, 180, 227, 233 bioenergy 31, 34–5, 36 biofuels 21, 35, 49, 50, 67, 70, 95, 135, 183, 184, 197–8, 210, 230 biomass 32, 34, 49, 50, 67, 69, 109, 146, 147, 151, 210, 217 bonds, government 220 BP 27, 149, 187, 199 Deepwater Horizon disaster, Gulf of Mexico (2010) 147 Brazil 2, 35, 38, 44–5, 47, 95, 145, 149–50, 155, 198 Brexit 42, 47, 56, 117, 165 British Gas 102, 139 British Steel x, 194 broadband networks 6, 11, 90, 92, 125, 126, 127–8, 130–1, 132–3, 135, 140–1, 199, 201, 202, 205, 211, 214, 231, 232 Brundtland Commission 45 BT 127–8, 141 Openreach 214 Burn Out (Helm) ix, xiv Bush, George W. 36, 48, 53, 103 business rates 76, 165 Canada 52, 191, 193 capitalist model 26, 42, 99, 227 carbon border tax/carbon border adjustment xii, 11, 13, 60, 80, 115–20, 194–6, 204 carbon capture and storage (CCS) xiv, 12, 75–6, 95, 109, 146, 147–8, 149, 154, 159, 203–4, 207, 209, 222, 223 Carbon Crunch, The (Helm) ix, xiv, 221 carbon diary 4–5, 8, 10, 11, 64–6, 83, 86, 116, 143, 144, 155, 156, 167, 180, 181, 185, 203, 205 carbon emissions: agriculture and see agriculture by country (2015) 30 during ice ages and warm periods for the past 800,000 years 21 economy and 81–159 electricity and see electricity global annual mean concentration of CO2 (ppm) 19 global average long-term concentration of CO2 (ppm) 20 measuring 43–6 since 1990 1–14, 17–37 transport and see individual method of transport 2020, position in 36–7 UN treaties and 38–57 unilateralism and 58–80 see also unilateralism carbon offsetting xiii–xiv, 4, 5, 12, 34, 45, 72, 74, 79, 94–6, 97, 105, 143–59, 192, 201, 203, 207, 214, 222, 223, 234 for companies 148–50 for countries 151–5 for individuals 155–7 markets 71–2, 110–13, 117, 144, 157–9, 208 travel and 156, 201–3 see also sequestration carbon permits 71–2, 79, 110–13, 117, 144, 208 carbon price/tax xii, xiii, xv, 8, 11, 12, 13, 26, 60, 61, 71, 72, 77, 79, 80, 84, 85–6, 102–3, 105, 106–24, 134, 143, 146, 147, 150, 151–4, 157, 159, 192, 197, 198, 199, 203, 227–30, 232, 234 agriculture and 167, 168, 169–70, 171, 173, 180 domain of the tax/carbon border adjustment xii, 11, 13, 60, 80, 115–20, 121, 124, 192, 194–6, 197, 204, 227 electric pollution and 216–18 ethics of 107–10 floor price 115, 117, 208 for imports 11, 13 prices or quantities/EU ETS versus carbon taxes 110–13 setting 113–15 transport and 192–9 what to do with the money 121–4 where to levy the tax 119–20 who fixes the price 120–1 carbon sinks 2, 5, 166, 169, 203 carboniferous age 34 cars 1, 3, 4, 7, 20, 22, 36, 44, 70, 73, 114, 129, 181, 182, 183, 184–5, 190, 191, 193, 196, 197, 198, 199 see also electric vehicles cartels 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 47, 56 cattle farming 35, 36, 95, 150, 166, 167, 173, 177, 198 Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) 102, 139, 218 cement 6, 7, 26, 29, 34, 87, 117, 171 charging networks, electric vehicle 91, 129–30, 141–2, 184, 185–90, 199, 200, 202, 219 Chernobyl 78 China xi, xv, 1–2, 5, 8, 18, 42, 46, 47, 48, 64, 66, 74, 101, 180, 229 Belt and Road Initiative 28, 45 coal use 1–2, 8, 23–4, 24, 28, 31, 38, 117, 154, 206, 208 Communist Party 2, 27, 42, 46 demand for fossil fuels/carbon emissions 1–2, 8, 18, 20, 22, 23–4, 24, 25, 27–31, 36, 38, 51, 73, 117, 154, 206, 208 export market x–xi, 5, 9, 64, 66, 117, 155, 194 fertiliser use 35 GDP xv, 27, 29 nationalism and 42 petrochemical demand 22 renewables companies 9, 32, 73, 74, 77, 79 Tiananmen Square 42 unilateralism and 58, 59 UN treaties and 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 55, 58, 59 US trade war 56, 118 Churchill, Winston 183 citizen assemblies 99–101 climate change: carbon emissions and see carbon emissions 1.5° target 38, 57 2° target 1, 10, 22–3, 28, 30, 38, 39, 45, 47, 54, 55, 57, 108, 122, 155, 206 see also individual area of climate change Climate Change Act (2008) 66, 74–7 Clinton, Bill 40, 48 Club of Rome 98 coal 1–2, 5, 8, 13, 20, 23–5, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 36, 38, 50, 52, 53, 60–1, 67, 72, 77, 78–9, 101, 109, 112, 116, 117, 119, 134, 136, 145, 147, 148, 151, 154, 155, 182, 183, 194, 196, 206–9, 210, 212, 214, 216, 217, 218, 229, 230 coastal marshes 146, 159 colonialism 45 Committee on Climate Change (CCC), UK x–xi, 7, 74–5, 120, 164, 166, 169, 217, 235 ‘Net Zero: The UK’s Contribution to Stopping Global Warming’ report x–xi conference/video calls 6, 129, 156, 202, 205 Conference of the Parties (COP) xii, 10, 48, 50, 53–4, 55, 59, 205 congestion charges 198 Copenhagen Accord 48, 53–4, 59 Coronavirus see Covid-19 cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 71, 108, 110, 114, 138 cost of living 116 Covid-19 x, xi–xii, 1, 3, 6, 9, 18, 19, 22, 25, 27, 30, 37, 44, 46, 50, 57, 65, 69, 80, 89, 93, 129, 135, 148, 171, 201, 202, 204, 232 CRISPR 176 crop yields 172, 177 dams 2, 36, 52–3, 179 DDT (Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) 100 deforestation 2, 5, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 44, 47, 55, 87, 95, 145, 146, 149–50, 155, 172–3, 179, 197–8, 229 Defra (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs) 170 deindustrialisation x, 29, 46, 52, 54, 59, 72–4, 218 Deng Xiaoping 27 Denmark 69–70, 136–7 desalination 135–6, 179 diesel 4, 20–1, 70, 76, 86, 109, 119, 121, 129, 132, 164, 165, 166, 174, 175, 178, 179, 181, 182, 185, 186, 191, 192, 196–7, 208, 217, 230 ‘dieselgate’ scandal 196–7 digitalisation 1, 8, 11, 13, 33, 92, 117, 136, 174, 175, 180, 206, 211, 215, 221, 228–9, 231 DONG 69 Drax 147, 151, 154, 218 economy, net zero 10–12, 81–159 delivering a 96–103 intergenerational equity and 96–7 markets and 103–5 net environmental gain see net environmental gain political ideologies and 98–101 polluter-pays principle see polluter-pays principle public goods, provision of see public goods, provision of technological change and 98 EDF 139, 218 Ehrlich, Paul 98 electricity 1–2, 4, 6, 11, 12, 13, 23, 31, 32, 49, 53, 61, 65, 66, 68, 70, 73, 77, 78, 79, 91, 92, 101, 102, 109, 117, 125, 127, 128, 129–30, 131–2, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 141, 149, 158, 166, 168, 174, 178, 180, 182, 183, 228, 229, 231, 232, 234, 235 coal, getting out of 206–7 electric pollution and the carbon price 216–18 electric vehicles 4, 6, 13, 20, 23, 49, 61, 91, 92, 94, 121, 125, 128, 129–30, 131–2, 134, 141, 183–92, 193, 194, 197, 200, 201, 202, 206, 219, 228 equivalent firm power auctions and system operators 210–16 future of 206–25 gas, how to get out of 207–9 infrastructure, electric 185–90, 218–20 low-carbon options post-coal and gas 209–10 net gain and our consumption 222–5 R&D and next-generation renewables 220–2 renewable see renewables Energy Market Reform (EMR) 219 equivalent firm power (EFP) 212–16, 217, 220 ethanol 35, 71, 95, 197 eucalyptus trees xiv, 152 European Commission 60, 71, 72, 112 European Union (EU) xiv, 2, 7, 8, 9, 37, 42, 44, 46, 47, 117, 137, 165, 166, 197; baseline of 1990 and 51–2 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 76, 165 competition regime and customs union 56 deindustrialisation and 46, 52, 54, 59, 72–4 directives for 2030 66 Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) 71–2, 73, 79, 110–13, 117, 144, 208 importing carbon emissions 59 Internal Energy Market (IEM) 68, 71 Kyoto and 9, 51, 59, 66–7 Mercosur Agreement 44, 95 net zero target for 2050 66, 115, 143, 155, 167, 180 Paris and 54 Renewable Energy Directive 68–71, 73, 109 2020 targets signed into law 66 2020–20–20 targets 67, 69, 74 unilateralism and 59, 66–71, 80 Eurostar 133 externalities 104, 170, 180, 196 Extinction Rebellion 6 farmers 14, 26, 35, 36, 43, 71, 76, 86, 95, 102, 109, 110, 146–7, 164, 165, 166, 169, 170, 174, 175, 196, 197, 198 fertiliser 4, 6, 7, 26, 29, 35, 61, 73, 86, 87, 116, 117, 119, 163, 165, 169, 174, 175, 178, 179, 191, 194, 197 fibre/broadband networks 6, 11, 90, 92, 125, 126, 127–8, 130–1, 132–3, 135, 140–1, 201, 202, 205, 211, 214, 231, 232 financial crisis (2007/8) 1, 19, 69 first-mover advantage 75 First Utility 199 flooding 13, 77, 149, 152, 153, 159, 170, 233 food miles 167 food security 170–1 food waste 178, 180, 231 Forestry Commission xiv Formula One 186, 196 fossil fuels, golden age of 20–5 see also individual fossil fuel France 46, 47, 52, 56, 73, 78, 101, 113, 130, 136, 138 free-rider problem 39–40, 43, 62–4, 106, 119 fuel duty 121, 195–6 fuel efficiency 197 fuel prices 26, 112–13, 209 fuel use declaration 195 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (2011) 52, 78 Fukuyama, Francis: The End of History and the Last Man 40–1 gardens 6, 43, 143, 156 gas, natural ix, 2, 5, 8, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 31, 32, 36, 50, 52, 68, 69, 79, 102, 109, 117, 119, 129, 136, 137, 146, 147–8, 149, 183, 190, 193, 194, 207–9, 210, 211, 214, 216–17 G8 47 gene editing 172, 176, 231 general election (2019) 121 genetics 98, 172, 174–6, 231 geoengineering 177 geothermal power 137, 178 Germany 9, 30, 47, 52, 59, 60, 62, 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77–80, 83, 91, 101, 112, 136, 137, 138, 144, 206, 208, 209 Energiewende (planned transition to a low-carbon, nuclear-free economy) 59, 69, 77–80, 112, 144, 208 Gilets Jaunes 101, 113 GMOs (genetically modified organisms) 176, 177 Great Northern Forest, Britain 151 Green and Prosperous Land (Helm) xiii, xiv, 165, 169, 234 greenbelt 173 greenhouse effect 17 green new deal 90, 102, 234 green parties/green votes 69, 77, 78 green QE (quantitative easing) 102–3 green walls 153, 231 greenwash 156 gross domestic product (GDP) xii, xv, 1, 25, 27, 29, 41, 57, 59, 73, 76, 83, 93, 98, 103, 133, 165, 207, 227, 229, 233 growth nodes 133 G7 47 G20 47 Haber-Bosch process 35, 163 Hamilton, Lewis 186 ‘hands-free’ fields 175 Harry, Prince 6 Heathrow 133, 134 hedgerow 76, 166, 167, 172 Helm Review (‘The Cost of Energy Review’) (2017) ix, 120, 141, 200, 210, 212, 215, 217, 220, 238 herbicide 163 home insulation 102 House of Lords 170 housing 101, 223–4 HS2 92, 125, 132–4, 138, 202 Hume, David 49 hydrogen 13, 49, 92, 125, 128, 135, 137, 183, 184, 190–2, 199, 200, 204, 206, 213, 228 hydro power 31, 35, 36, 50, 52–3, 70, 136, 137, 191 Iceland 137, 178 imports x–xi, xiii, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 62, 68, 70, 117–18, 155, 167, 178, 173, 180, 196, 227 income effect 72, 111 income tax 121, 122, 232 India xiv, xv, 25, 30, 31, 38, 43, 44, 47, 48, 51, 54, 55, 57, 154, 229 individuals, net zero for 155–7 Indonesia 2, 35 indoor farming 87–8, 177–8, 180, 213 indoor pollutants 223, 232 Industrial Revolution 1, 18, 19, 25, 47, 116, 145 INEOS Grangemouth petrochemical plant xi information and communications technology (ICT) 117, 202, 231 infrastructures, low-carbon xiii, xiv, 11–12, 14, 28, 60, 62, 65, 66, 90, 91–4, 96, 105, 109, 123, 125–42, 143, 147, 151, 154, 159, 171, 184, 186, 187, 190, 199–200, 214, 218–20, 228, 230, 231–2, 234–5 centrality of infrastructure networks 128–30 electric 125–41, 218–20 making it happen 141–2 net zero national infrastructure plan 130–6 private markets and 125–8, 141–2 regional and global infrastructure plan 136–7 state intervention and 126, 127–8, 141–2 system operators and implementing the plans 138–41 inheritance tax 76, 165 insects 164, 177, 231 insulation 102, 224 Integrated Assessment Models 114 intellectual property (IP) 75 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 17–18, 47, 55, 57, 108, 172 internal combustion engine 13, 22, 181–2, 183, 184, 200, 221, 228 Internal Energy Market (IEM) 68, 71, 138 International Energy Agency (IEA) 25, 207 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 51 internet banking 131, 213 internet-of-things 128, 175 Iran 27, 42, 113, 137 Iraq 56, 192 Ireland 43, 157 Italy 137, 182 Japan 27, 28, 30, 52, 73, 78, 101, 185 Jevons Paradox 224 Johnson, Boris 89–90 Kant, Immanuel 104 Keynes, John Maynard 89, 102, 103, 105 Kyoto Protocol (1997) xii, 2, 7, 9, 13, 17–18, 37, 38, 39, 40–1, 47–8, 49, 51, 52–3, 59, 66–7, 119 laissez-faire 104, 138, 188 land use 35, 61, 95, 172, 237 LED (light-emitting diode) lighting 87, 178, 179, 180, 213 liquefied natural gas (LNG) 136, 183 lithium-ion battery 185 lobbying 10, 14, 33, 69, 71, 109, 110, 111–12, 115, 121, 157, 169, 170, 187, 197, 209, 223, 227, 228 location-specific taxes 194 maize 35, 165, 197 Malaysia 2, 229 Malthus, Thomas 98 Mao, Chairman 27, 42 meat xi, 65, 164, 177, 180, 232 Mekong River 2, 28, 179, 229 Mercosur Agreement 44, 95 Merkel, Angela 78 methane 4, 23, 84, 177, 178, 179, 216 microplastics 22 miracle solution 49–50, 55, 209 mobile phone 5, 125, 185 National Farmers’ Union (NFU) 110, 164, 165, 169, 170, 171 National Grid 139, 141, 189, 200, 211, 214, 219 nationalisations 101–2, 126–7 nationalism 41, 43, 55, 56, 138 nationally determined contributions (NDCs) 54–5 natural capital xiii, 14, 33–6, 51, 85, 86, 88, 90, 94, 97, 154, 158, 168, 171, 173–4, 236 Nature Fund 123, 169, 234 net environmental gain principle xiii, xiv, 10, 12, 62, 84, 94–6, 105, 143–59, 169, 172–4, 192, 201–3, 222–5 agriculture and 169, 172–4 carbon offsetting and see carbon offsetting electricity and 222–5 principle of 94–6, 143–4 sequestration and see sequestration transport and 192, 201–3 Netherlands 138 Network Rail 214 net zero agriculture and see agriculture defined x–xv, 3–14 economy 10–12, 81–159 see also economy, net zero electricity and see electricity transport and see individual method of transport 2025 or 2030 target 89 2050 target x, xi, 5, 59, 66, 74, 75, 115, 120, 135, 143, 155, 167, 169, 180, 184, 216, 217, 222, 226, 230, 231, 232 unilateralism and see unilateralism NHS 65 non-excludable 91, 93, 126, 170 non-rivalry 91, 93, 126, 170 North Korea 42 North Sea oil/gas 9, 40, 75, 97, 102, 137, 139, 147, 148, 193 Norway 130, 137, 191 nuclear power 5, 9, 12, 18, 23, 52, 60, 73, 77–9, 109, 125, 128, 129, 136, 140, 178, 194, 199, 206, 207, 208, 209–10, 212, 214, 216, 218, 219, 222, 228 Obama, Barack 48, 53, 54, 59 oceans 2, 14, 22, 33, 85, 86, 88, 148, 163, 231 offsetting see carbon offsetting offshore wind power 31, 69, 75–6, 208, 212, 219, 221 Ofgem 220 oil ix, 2, 20, 22–3, 25, 26, 27, 31, 32, 33, 36, 39, 40, 50, 67, 69, 86, 97, 117, 119, 129, 136, 137, 146, 147, 148–9, 150–1, 152, 181–3, 184, 185, 187, 189, 190, 192–4, 196, 197, 199, 206, 209, 210, 216–17, 229 OPEC 39, 40, 193 Orbán, Viktor 41, 42 organic food 61, 87, 178 Ørsted 70 palm oil 2, 5, 6, 35, 36, 66, 71, 167, 173, 197–8, 230 pandemic see Covid-19 Paris Climate Change Agreement (2015) xii, 2, 10, 13, 18, 30, 37, 38, 39, 48, 49, 54–5, 56, 57, 58, 66, 80, 105, 106, 118, 119, 227 peat bogs xiv, 2, 13, 14, 33, 35, 36, 43, 109, 146, 169, 179 pesticides 4, 26, 61, 163, 165, 169, 174, 178, 231 petrochemicals xi, 7, 8, 20, 22–3, 29, 73, 80, 86, 117, 166, 182 petrol 4, 86, 119, 121, 129, 185, 186, 187, 191, 192, 199 photosynthesis 34, 197 plastics 1, 22, 28, 35, 43, 66, 86, 87, 119, 143, 166, 184, 231 polluter-pays principle xiii, xv, 84–90 agriculture and 76, 168–70, 172, 173 carbon price and see carbon price/tax generalised across all sources of pollution 86 identifying polluters that should pay 86 importance of 10–11, 13, 61, 62, 65 intergenerational balance and 96–7 net environmental gain and 94 sequestration and see sequestration, carbon sustainable economy and 96–7, 105, 106 transport and 192–5, 198–9 see also individual type of pollution population growth 93, 97, 177, 178, 179, 232 privatisation 127, 140, 218–19, 220 property developers 94 public goods, provision of xiii, 10, 11–12, 62, 75, 84, 90–4, 96, 104, 105, 109, 122, 123, 126, 128, 141, 147, 151, 153, 159, 164, 168, 173–4, 180, 192, 199–200, 202, 218, 229, 230 agricultural 170–4, 180 low-carbon infrastructures see infrastructures, low-carbon research and development (R&D) see research and development (R&D) Putin, Vladimir 27, 41, 42, 89 railways 11, 13, 13, 87, 91, 92, 94, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132–3, 138, 139, 156, 182, 183, 187, 202, 212, 214, 232 rainforest 2, 5, 34, 35, 36, 38, 44, 47, 55, 87, 95, 145, 149, 155, 173, 179–80, 197, 229 rationalism 40–1 Reagan, Ronald 103 red diesel 76, 109, 164, 165, 196 regulated asset base (RAB) 127, 141, 215, 220 remote working 128, 156, 201–2, 205 renewables ix, 6, 8, 9–10, 18, 19, 21, 26, 31–5, 36, 49, 50, 55, 61, 67, 72, 77, 79, 85, 86, 109, 110, 112, 123, 125, 128, 131, 135, 138, 140, 144, 149, 178, 188, 191, 194, 197, 199, 207, 209–10, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 219, 220–2, 224, 228 Chinese domination of market 9, 32, 73, 74, 77, 79 cost-competitiveness of 9–10, 49, 51, 61, 68 failure of, 1990-now 19, 31–3, 36 modern global renewable energy consumption measured in TWh per year 32 miracle solution and 49–51 Renewable Energy Directive 68–71, 73, 109 subsidies ix, 9, 10, 50, 68–9, 71, 79, 80 see also individual renewable energy source Renewables UK 110 research and development (R&D) xiv, 12, 13, 14, 62, 65, 66, 90, 93–4, 104, 109, 123, 165, 172, 192, 200, 218, 220–2, 223, 228, 234 reshoring businesses 8, 204 rivers 2, 22, 28, 86, 128, 152, 165, 169, 179, 214, 230 roads 11, 28, 45, 91, 92, 125, 129, 131–2, 140, 165, 182, 189, 194, 198, 202, 232 robotics 32, 175, 204, 206, 231 Rosneft 26 Royal Navy 183 Russia 26, 27, 30, 40, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52, 55, 56, 192, 193 RWE 139, 218 Ryanair 156–7 rye grass 35 salmon 169, 177 Saudi Arabia 26, 33, 40, 42, 50, 137, 192, 193 Saudi Aramco 26, 50 seashells 34 sequestration, carbon xi, xiv, 12, 61, 66, 85, 90, 95, 143–59, 228, 229, 231, 232 agriculture and 12, 163, 166, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176–7, 179, 180 baseline definition and 146–7 biofuels and 35, 146, 217 carbon capture and storage (CCS) xiv, 12, 75–6, 95, 109, 146, 147–8, 149, 154, 159, 203–4, 207, 209, 222, 223 companies, net zero for 148–51 countries, offsetting for 151–5 electricity and 222, 223 gas and 207 individuals, net zero for xi, xiv, 155–7 markets, offsetting 157–9 natural capital destruction and 2, 19, 33–6, 44, 45, 51 natural sequestration xi, xiii, 2, 7, 12, 14, 33–6, 37, 45, 52, 66, 85, 90, 94–6, 105, 143–59, 163, 168, 171, 173, 176–7, 179, 180, 203, 206, 207, 222, 223 net gain principle and 143–4, 146, 149–50 offsetting principle and 143–5 peat bogs and see peat bogs principle of xi, xiii, 2, 7, 12–13 soils and see soils transport and 185, 190, 203 tree planting and see trees, planting/sequestration and types of 145–8 wetlands/coastal marshes and 146, 159, 233 shale gas 8, 208 Shell 27, 149, 199 shipping 8, 13, 22, 28, 36, 49, 114, 125, 137, 181, 182–3, 191, 194–5, 203–5, 217 Siberia 2, 46 smart appliances 128, 129, 132 smart charging 11, 13, 128, 129, 130, 139, 214, 219 soils xiii, 2, 5, 7, 12, 14, 33, 35, 36, 43, 55, 76, 109, 146, 149, 152, 156, 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 171, 172, 175, 179, 203, 228 solar panels/solar photovoltaics (PV) 5, 6, 9, 12, 13, 21, 31, 32, 33, 49, 53, 68, 69, 71, 74, 79, 87, 91, 135, 136, 137, 178, 179, 188, 204, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 221, 222, 223, 224–5 Sony 185 Soviet Union 18, 40, 52, 67–8, 89 soya 95 Spain 69, 130, 137 sport utility vehicles (SUVs) 106, 121, 192 spruce xiv, 152, 170 standard of living xv, 1, 5, 8, 10, 11, 14, 229, 233 staycations 201 steel x–xi, 6, 7, 8, 26, 28, 29, 53, 66, 73, 80, 87, 116, 117, 118, 119, 171, 184, 194–5 Stern, Nicholas: The Economics of Climate Change 41, 63 subsidies ix, 9, 10, 14, 32, 50, 51, 52, 53, 69, 71, 76, 79, 80, 89, 102, 109, 110, 113, 116, 123, 140, 154, 164, 165, 166, 167, 169, 170, 172, 180, 193, 196, 198, 209, 215, 221, 222, 228, 230 sugar cane 35, 71, 95, 197, 198 sulphur pollution 22, 25, 28, 78, 191, 194, 197, 230 sustainable economic growth xv, 10, 12, 14, 61, 83, 92, 94, 97, 98, 105, 227, 233 Taiwan 42 taxation xii, 11, 62, 71, 72, 76, 80, 87, 89, 90, 91, 92, 97, 101, 102, 103, 106–24, 126, 127, 130, 133, 147, 150, 151–2, 153–4, 157, 159, 165, 169, 170, 192–6, 197, 198, 199, 203, 232, 234 technological change 98, 127, 141, 174–5, 221 Thatcher, Margaret 17 Thompson, Emma 6 3D printing 175, 204 Thunberg, Greta 6, 205 tidal shocks 159 top-down treaty frameworks 13, 38–57, 80, 110, 119 tourism/holidays 6, 22, 36, 88, 94, 107, 114, 128, 156, 201, 204–5 transport, reinventing 181–205 aviation 195, 201, 203–5 see also air transport batteries and charging networks 185–90 biofuels 196–8 electric alternative 183–5 hydrogen and fuel cells 190–2 innovation, R&D and new infrastructures 199–200 internal combustion engine 181–2 net gain and offsets (reducing travel versus buying out your pollution) 201–3 oil 183–4 polluter pays/carbon tax 192–6 shipping 203–5 urban regulation and planning 198–9 vehicle standards 196–8 see also individual type of transport Treasury, UK 120–2 trees, planting/sequestration and xi, xiii, xiv, 2, 7, 13, 14, 33, 34, 45, 76, 85, 94–6, 146, 148, 149–51, 152–3, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 168, 169, 172, 179, 203, 231 trophy project syndrome 133 Trump, Donald 2, 8, 41, 42, 48, 89, 99, 103, 121 25 Year Environment Plan xiii, 153, 170, 179–80 UK 47, 69 agriculture and 164, 166, 167, 173 carbon emissions (2015) 30 carbon price and 115, 120 Climate Change Act (2008) 66, 74–7 coal, phasing out of 24–5, 60–1, 77, 208 Committee on Climate Change (CCC) x–xi, 7, 74–6, 120, 164, 166, 169, 217, 235 deindustrialisation and 72–4 80 per cent carbon reduction target by 2050 74 electricity and 206, 208, 218, 219, 224 Helm Review (‘The Cost of Energy Review’) (2017) ix, 120, 141, 200, 210, 212, 215, 217, 220, 238 infrastructure 125, 132–3, 134, 137, 139–40 net zero passed into law (2019) 66 sequestration and 145, 150, 153, 154, 155, 156 transport and 195–6, 197, 198 unilateralism and 58–9, 60–1, 65, 66, 69, 72–7, 80 unilateralism xi, 8, 10, 11, 25, 58–80, 83, 105, 106, 119, 125, 143, 144, 155, 164, 167, 197, 203, 227 in Europe 66–80 incentive problem and 58–60 morality and 62–6 no regrets exemplars and/showcase examples of how decarbonisation can be achieved 60–2 place for 80 way forward and 80, 83 United Nations xi, xii, 6, 10, 17, 37, 38, 118 carbon cartel, ambition to create a 39–40, 43, 45, 46–7, 56 climate treaty processes xi, 6, 10, 13, 17–18, 36, 37, 38–57, 59, 80, 110, 118, 119, 204–5 see also individual treaty name Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 17–18, 36, 38, 59 miracle solution and 50–1 origins and philosophy of 41 Security Council 46, 47, 57 United States 8, 74, 139, 206 agriculture in 175, 176, 197 carbon emissions 8, 29, 30 China and 27–8, 42, 118 coal and 2, 24, 28, 29, 208 economic imperialism 45 energy independence 50 gas and 8, 20, 23, 24, 29, 50, 208 oil production 40, 50, 193 pollution since 1990 29 unilateralism and 58, 59, 74 UN climate treaty process and 38, 40–1, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 56 universal service obligations (USOs) 92, 126, 131, 202 utilitarianism 41, 63–4, 108, 110 VAT 117, 119–20, 121, 122, 232 Vesta 69 Volkswagen 196–7 water companies 76, 214, 230 water pollution/quality xiv, 12, 22, 61, 76, 152, 153, 165, 169, 170, 171, 172, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180, 232 Wen Jiabao 53, 59 wetlands 159, 233 wildflower meadow 164, 184 wind power 5, 9, 12, 21, 31, 32, 33, 49, 53, 68, 69–70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 91, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 178, 188, 191, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214–15, 216, 217, 219, 221, 222 wood pellets 67, 217, 230 Woodland Trust 156, 158 World Bank 51 World Trade Organization (WTO) 52, 56, 118 World War I 183 World War II (1939–45) 78, 90, 92, 101, 106, 171 Xi Jinping 27, 41, 42 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS So much is now discussed, written and published about climate change that it is impossible to keep track of all the ideas and conversations that have influenced my understanding of the subject.

Pocket London Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, G4S, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, Skype

Bus The bus network is extensive but slow-going except for short hops; fares are good value if used with an Oyster card and there are plentiful night buses and 24-hour routes. Taxi Black cab drivers always know where they are going, but fares are steep unless you’re in a group. Bicycle Barclays Bikes are everywhere around central London and great for short hops. Car & Motorcycle As a visitor, it’s unlikely you’ll need to drive in London. Disincentives include extortionate parking charges, congestion charges, traffic jams, high price of petrol, efficient traffic wardens and wheel clampers. But if that doesn't put you off, numerous car hire operations can be found across town from self-service, pay-as-you-drive vehicles to international firms (such as Avis and Hertz, Click here). For more information, see Survival Guide ( Click here ) Currency Pound sterling (£). 100 pence = £1 Language English (and over 300 others) Visas Not required for US, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand or South African visitors for stays up to six months.

Boat Best for…views › Thames Clippers ( boats are fast and you’re always guaranteed a seat and a view. › Boats run from 6am to just after 10pm, every 20 to 30 mins, running from London Eye Millennium Pier to Woolwich Arsenal Piers and points in between. Fares cost £3.50 to £5.50 for adults, £1.70 to £2.80 for children; discounts for Oyster card holders and travel card holders. › See Click here for details on sightseeing boat tours on the Thames, including boats to Hampton Court Palace and Kew Gardens. Car & Motorcycle Best for… independence. › London was the world’s first major city to introduce a congestion charge to reduce the flow of traffic into its centre. For full details log on to › The following agencies have several branches across the capital: easyCar (, Avis (, Hertz ( Book in advance for the best fares, especially at weekends. › If you need a car for just a couple of hours or half a day, try the self-service pay-as-you-go scheme, Streetcar ( 0845 644 8475; › Cars drive on the left in the UK. › All drivers and passengers must wear seatbelts and motorcyclists must wear a helmet. › Expensive parking charges, traffic jams, high petrol prices, efficient traffic wardens and wheel clampers make car hire unattractive for most visitors.

pages: 352 words: 104,411

Rush Hour: How 500 Million Commuters Survive the Daily Journey to Work by Iain Gately

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, corporate raider, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, global pandemic, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, lateral thinking, low skilled workers, Marchetti’s constant, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise

Anyone hoping that people will abandon their cars for recumbent tricycles or their latter-day equivalent is deluded. Most commuters in the developed world travel on four wheels. The figure ranges from 87 per cent in America to 39 per cent in Japan. Over two-thirds of Britons commute by car, and only 16.4 per cent of them use public transport, with the remainder walking, cycling or riding motorbikes. Even in London, which introduced congestion charging in 2003 to deter drivers, 29.8 per cent of its commuters travelled by car in 2013, which is more than on any other single form of transport.*3 This isn’t simply because of perverse desires to expend hydrocarbons and cook the planet: driving, more often than not, is the only way. Here’s an example from life. I live in Bishop’s Waltham, a medieval market town in Hampshire. It was once the seat of the Bishops of Winchester, in whose palace Henry V prepared himself before leaving for France and the Battle of Agincourt, and where Queen Mary I waited for King Philip of Spain to arrive in the country for their wedding.

Index a Achen Motor Company 315 Acton 43, 46 Acts of Parliament 17 Acworth, Sir William Mitchell 73 aeroplanes 307 America cars 90–101 commuting 224–5 railways 66–80 American Automobile Association (AAA) 198, 209–10 American Bicycle Co. 91 American Motors 120 American School Bus Council (ASBC) 236 Andrade, Claudio 279, 280 Apple 295–6 Australia 232 autobahn 103, 109, 151, 166 b Bagehot, Walter 59 Balfour, A.J. 65 Barter, David Obsessive Compulsive Cycling Disorder 168 Bazalgette, Joseph 60 Beeching, Dr Richard cuts 137, 146, 158, 313, 328 Beerbohm, Max 58 Beijing 160, 161 Metro 160, 162 Benz, Karl 90 Bern, Switzerland 86, 87 Besant, Sir Walter 57 Best Friend of Charleston crash 69 Betjeman, John 109, 135, 272–3 bicycle Boris bikes 167 Brompton 167 commuting in Britain 101, 138–9, 166–8, 216–17 commuting in Europe 166, 222 Flying Pigeon 161–2 penny farthing 101 Raleigh 139 Rover 101–2 Birmingham HS2 329 number 8 bus 141 Birt, William 61 Bishop’s Waltham 313, 327 Blake, William Marriage of Heaven and Hell 104 Booth, Henry 27 Boris bikes 167 Boston 69, 97 Boston and Worcester Line 72 Botley station, Hampshire 1, 2, 3–5, 7, 313, 334 Bowser, Sylvanus Freelove 95 Brazil 279 British Telecom 291–3 Bromley 23, 46 Brompton bike 167 Brunel, Isambard Kingdom 331 Buchanan, Professor Sir Colin Traffic in Towns 145–6 buses 48, 140–41, 235–6, 275–6 c California High Speed Rail (CHSR) 330, 331 Callan Automobile Law 95 carriages (railway) 29–30, 54, 55 in America 71–3 in France 83–4 WCs 33, 72, 226–7 women-only 188–9 ‘workmen’s trains’ 33–4, 60, 61, 83 cars 89–92, 195 commuting in America 101, 113, 116–17 in Britain 107, 142–4, 249–52 in communist countries 151–2 in Italy 149–50 congestion 192–5 congestion charge 312 driverless 316–17, 320–27 ownership 97–8, 100, 103, 125 radio 119, 255–8 SUVs 204–8 Central Railroad of Long Island 76 C5 (electric tricycle) 309–11 Chaplin, William James 15 Cheap Trains Act 61 Chesterton, G.K. 57, 105, 109 Chicago Automobile Club 96–7, 256 Great Fire of 1871 79 Oak Park suburb 79–80 Park Forest suburb 113–15 China 160–62, 314–15 Chrysler 119, 160 Churchill, Winston 308–9 City and South London Railway 54–5, 62 Clean Air Act 286–7 Cobbett, William 334 Collins, Wilkie Basil 52 commuting (car) see cars commuting (cycling) see cycling commuting (rail) comic representation of 137 commuter etiquette 72–3, 82, 249 extreme commuting 233–4 in America 66–80 in France 81–7 in Germany 80, 86–7 in Japan 177–84 in the 1950s 136 in Victorian times 33–9, 42 food in England 36–7, 247 in France 84–5 origin of the term 67 overcrowding 171–83 coronations 140 County Durham 14 Coventry 102 Crawshay, William 35 Croton Falls 66 Croydon 56 Cultural Revolution (China) 161 Cunarders 140 cycling commuting in Britain 101, 138–9, 166–8, 216–17 commuting in Europe 166, 222 Cyclists’ Touring Club 102–3 d Dagenham 107 Dahl, Roald 129, 135–6 Daimler, Gottlieb 90 Dalai Lama 210 Darwin, Charles 13, 32 Daudet, Alphonse 83–4 Daumier, Honoré The Third-Class Carriage 83 The New Paris 86 Landscapists at Work 86 Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 317, 318 Delhi 211–13 Deng Xiaoping 161, 162 Denmark 222, 288 Detroit 110, 121, 123–4 ‘Detroit by the Volga’ 153 Dickens, Charles 12, 25, 50 food 36–7, 84–5, 247 Mugby Junction 84–5 Great Expectations 12 Our Mutual Friend 50 train travel in America 70, 71, 74 Diggins, John 3 Docklands Light Railway (DLR) 279 Downing, Andrew Jackson 66 driverless cars 316–17, 320–27 driving schools 215–16 driving tests New York State 94–5 UK 216 Duluth, Minnesota 79–80 e Ealing, London 38, 40, 42, 46, 56 Eden, Emily 58 Edinburgh 13, 14, 16, 329 Edmondson, Brad 314 Einstein, Albert 87 Eliot, William G.

Proctor 78–9 Kobbé, Gustav 76–7 KPMG (multinational firm) 321, 322, 325 l Lambretta 150 Lancaster, Sir Osbert Pillar to Post 108–9 Lardner, Dionysius 22 Levassor, Emile Constant 90 Levitt, William Jaird 112 Levittown, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 122, 123, 158, 224 Lewes 18 List, Friedrich 80 Liverpool 15, 22, 26, 223 Liverpool, Crosby & Southport Railway 22 Liverpool and Manchester Railway 15, 24, 27 Liverpool Street Station 34 Local Government Act 63 locomotives 21, 30, 70, 134 Best Friend of Charleston 69 Iron Duke 4–2–2 Sultan38, 70 Rocket 24 tank engine 28 Locomotives on Highways Act 89 London 13, 15, 16, 18–19, 20 congestion charge 312 cycling to work 166–8 North Circular road 108, 147 orbital roads 147 Second World War 129–34 traffic jams 192–5 Tube 242–3, 245, 261–79 London Bridge station 24 London City Council Act 64 London and Birmingham Railway 12, 26 London and Greenwich Railway 21 London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) 134 London and Southampton Railway 15 London and South Western Railway (LSWR) 16–17, 21–2, 26, 43 Richmond Line 34 workmen’s tickets 62 London Transport 129 London Waterloo station 1, 4, 130, 277, 334, 335–6 Long Island 75–6 m Maglevs 231–2, 329 Manchester 13–14, 15, 138 trams 140 Mao Zedong 148, 160 Marchetti, Cesare 230–32, 329 Meiji Restoration 177–8 Mercedes 326 Metropolitan Line 53–6, 171–6 Metropolitan and District Line 54 Metropolitan Railway 53–4, 62–3 Extension 55 Mexico City 192–3 migalkas 214, 215 Mills, Magnus 264, 268–9, 276–7 Milton Keynes 321 Milwaukee 315 Mini 144, 150 Mitchell, William 282 mobile phones, use of on trains 238, 239 Morris 106, 107, 151 Moscow cars 156 public transport 157 motor scooters 149–50 Vespa 149–50 Lambretta 150 motorbikes 162–4 motorways in Britain 145 Mumbai 184–91 Mumbai Southern Railway 184–8 Mumford, Lewis 122 Musk, Elon 330–32 n Nahum the Elkoshite 192 Nash Motors 119 National City Lines 99 Necropolis Line 335 Nederlandse Spoorwegen 227, 246 Nelson, Brendan 267–8 New Jersey 259 New Jersey Railroad 76–7 New York 66–9 cholera 67 driving tests 94 horse-drawn transport 93–4 Levittown 112–14, 122–3 road rage 199 subway 246 White Plains 116 New York and Harlem Railroad 66 Newcastle 245–6 Nilles, Jack 283–5, 290 Nizhny Novgorod 153 North Circular 108, 147 Northampton 18 o omnibuses 46–8 ‘man at the back of the’ 59 Okunakayama Kogen station 183 Oshkosh machine 90, 91 p Paddington station 37 Pascal, Blaise 218 Passenger Focus (UK rail watchdog) 226, 262 Paterson and Hudson River Railroad 67 Peach, Samuel 39 Pecqueur, Constantin 86 Pennsylvania Main Line 75 penny-farthing 101 Perth 232 Philadelphia 75 Piaggio, Enrico 149 Pichette, Patrick 294–5, 319 Pisarski, Dr Alan 315 Pittsburgh Spur 127 Plymouth 118 pneumatic railways 331 Poincaré, Henri 86–7 Pope, Colonel Albert A. 91 pornography 184, 243, 244 Porter, Roy 41 Pullman Palace Car Company private carriages 73 r Rae, John B. 110 railways (see also underground railways and entries for individual railway companies) coming of 14 nationalization 133–5 passenger journeys 21 pneumatic 331 railway sandwich 36–7, 85, 247 railway time 26–7, 85–7 resentment of 18–20 vocabulary and expressions 39 Railway Passengers’ Assurance Company 224 Railway Regulation Act 33 Raleigh 139 Rapaille, Clotaire 205–6 reading (on trains) 32, 36, 73, 82, 130, 240 Japanese text novels 240 Kindle 241 Reading station 23 Rickenbacker, Eddie 307–8 road rage 192–217 Romney, George 120 Rover bicycles 101–2 cars 102 Scarab 107 Roy, Raman 289–90, 305 Ruskin, John 20, 51, 93 Russia 152–60 cars 152–7 Moscow Metro 157 railways 158 reverse commuting 159 road rage 213–15 RYNO (single-wheeled scooter) 312 s San Francisco 128, 224, 289, 330, 331 season ticket 23, 46, 56, 67, 75, 136, 220, 223 Second Great Awakening 79 Second World War 109, 110, 111, 129–34 Blitz 129 poster campaign 130–31, 193 Segway Personal Transporter 311–12 sexual harassment 180, 181, 188–9 Shap 18 Shillibeer, George 47 Shrewsbury 16 Sinclair, Sir Clive 309–10 Sloan, Alfred P. 118 Slough 109 Smiles, Samuel 12 SNCF 329 Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) 105, 106–7, 142 South Devon Railway Company 331 South West Rail 3 South West Trains 271 Southend Arterial Road 108 Southport 22–3 SpaceX 330 Special Roads Bill 139, 145 Staplehurst rail disaster 25 Starley, John Kemp 101 steam trains 15, 17, 18 carriages 29–30, 54, 55 locomotives Best Friend of Charleston 69 Iron Duke 4–2–2 Sultan 38, 70 Rocket 24 tank engine 28 workmen’s trains 33–4, 60, 61, 83 steamboats 21 Steinbeck, John East of Eden 94 The Grapes of Wrath 100 Stephenson, George Rocket 24 Stern, Howard 257, 259 Stevenson, Robert Louis 336 Stewart, Alexander T. 76 Stockton and Darlington Railway 14–15, 24 Stockwell station 55 Surbiton 43, 46 Suez Crisis 143 Surrey 44, 223 SUVs 204–8, 330 Swedish ‘moose test’ 325–6 t Tanzania Hazda tribe 232, 238 telecommuting 282-96, 302, 315, 319 Tesla Motors 330 Tessimond, Arthur Seymour John 136 texting 239 TGV 329 Thailand 164–5 Thomas, T.M. 49 Thoreau, Henry David 71 Tocqueville, Alexis de 306 Toffler, Alvin 285–6 Tottenham 62 traffic light 125 Trafford Park Ford factory 103 train crashes Best Friend of Charleston 69 Staplehurst 25 Versailles 81–2 trams 64–5, 80, 104 models of 140 nationalization 139–40 Tramways Act 64 Transport for London 166, 248 Trollope, Anthony 36 Tube, the 242–3, 245, 261–79 Turcotte, Martin 225–6 u underground railways 53–6, 171–6 Beijing Metro 160, 162 Moscow Metro 157–8 New York subway 246 Osaka Metro 181 Paris RER 329 São Paulo Metro 279 Tokyo Metro 178–83 Tube (London) 242–3, 245, 261–79 Union Ferry Company 68 v Vanderbilt, Tom 250 Vaughan, Paul 135 Verma, Rakesh 211 Versailles train crash 81–2 Vespa 149–50 Victoria Line 278, 279 Volga 155 Volkswagen 151 Volvo 318, 321 w Wales 291 walking 216–17, 231, 232 Waterloo station 1, 4, 130, 277, 334, 335–6 Webb, Philip 44 Webb, Thomas 4 Wells, H.G. 88–9, 307 Wemmick, John 12–13 West Ashfield 273–4 West Japan Line 184 Westmorland 18 Whitman, Walt 67–8 Whyte, William H. 113 Willesden 55–6 Wilson, Charles Erwin 100 Wonder Coach (between London and Shrewsbury) 16, 26 Wordsworth, William 18, 236 workmen’s trains 33–4, 60, 61, 83 Wright, Frank Lloyd 79 y Yahoo 296–8 YouTube 179, 213, 319 About this Book Each working day 500 million people across the planet experience the miracle and misery of commuting.

pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

In San Diego, refuse trucks run on methane extracted from the landfills they deliver to. Reykjavik is pioneering hydrogen-powered public transport. In Germany, they are greening the roofs of their tower blocks to grow food, encourage birdlife, collect rainfall and cool the streets below. Toronto air-conditions its buildings in summer with cold water from the depths of Lake Ontario. My city, London, has its congestion charge to end gridlock and reduce its carbon footprint. New York plans to copy it. And the developing world isn’t far behind. The southern Brazilian city of Curitiba pioneered bus-only roads, and then recruited the city’s poor to recycle its garbage by offering groceries and bus passes in exchange. The air in two of south Asia’s biggest and most polluted mega-cities, Delhi and Dhaka, has been transformed by switching tens of thousands of buses and motorized rickshaws to compressed natural gas.

abortions, Manila 154 Abramovitch, Roman 222 Acer 160, 163, 165 Africa Darfur droughts 335 desertification 108, 334–8 fertility rates 366 Homo sapiens evolution 328–9 land management 334 tourism 320–1 Agarwal, Ravi 291 Agnes 71–2 Agrocel 129, 131 AIDS clinics 73–4 demographic effects 72–3, 366 elderly carers 71–2, 73–4 societal effects 72–3 air freighting organic food 102 plant food imports 101, 111–12 air travel Buncefield fuel depot explosion 236 CO2 emissions 233, 236–7 Kyoto Protocol 236–7 reducing 357 short-haul flights 233 total emissions 306–7 UK airports 236–7 Akter, Nazma 143 Alaska caribou migration routes 217–20 climate changes 218–19 oil 214–20 Prudhoe Bay 214–20 racial issues 216–17 Albania, sage 57–8 Alexander, Christopher 347 allotments 342 aluminium environmental footprint 195–6 properties 191–2 recycling 199–200, 256, 285–6 Rio Tinto Aluminium 192–4 smelting 192, 194–7, 226 Ambrose, Stanley 327, 329–30 AMG Resources, steel recycling 256 Amnesty International 276 Anglo American, metal mining 203 antimony, China 205 apples, Kazakhstan 90–1 Aquaculture Certification Council 69 Aral Sea climate change 150 drying up 146–7 pollution 150 Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) cocoa 96 palm oil 78 Asda 142 Associated British Foods 80 Association for Responsible Mining 246–7 Asustek 161–4 auctions coffee 31–2 fish 49 Australia aluminium 192–8 Brisbane 303–4 coal 230 cotton 119–22 droughts 120 eco-projects 345 Gladstone 192–7 Kyoto Protocol 198 Melbourne 345 tea tree oil 59–60 Ausubel, Jesse 347–8 Awaj Foundation 141–2 Badger brewery see Hall and Woodhouse bananas 84, 86–9 Banc d’Arguin marine national park 50–2 fishing permits 51–2 WWF 51, 54 Bangladesh Awaj Foundation 141–2 banking system 68 child labour 143 corruption in 65 deltas 62–3, 66, 70 Dhaka 138–45, 345 family sizes 364 female emancipation 144–5 garment workshops 138–44 Khulna 63–4, 67–8 King prawns 62–70 land grabbing 64–5 wages 142–3 Bangladesh Frozen Food Exporters Association 67 barley malts, beer 38–9 Barry Callebaut 96 Bazalgette, Joseph 254 beaches, over-cleansing 263 Beckton sewage treatment works 254 beer barley malts 38–9 brewery closures 37 Hall and Woodhouse 37–9 herb 39 ingredients 38–9 local brews 36–7 summer ales 39 water for 38 yeasts 39 Bertrand, Nick 350 BHP Billiton 203 Bihar 289 bio-capacities 317–18 biodiesel, European Union laws 77 Biodiversity (formerly International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) 84 biodiversity loss, and sugar 83 biofuels 82, 355 burying CO2 with 357 and palm oil 77 threat of 341 bismuth 207 black tiger prawns see king prawns books carbon footprint 312–13 research for 313 Borneo, rainforest clearances 169, 172 Box, John 350 BP, targetneutral scheme 305 Brasilia 347 bread Lighthouse 42 processes 42 stoneground wholemeal flour 42–4 yeasts 42 breweries, closures 37 Brisbane 303–4 British Airways, carbon offsets 304–5 British Trust for Ornithology 262 Broadacre City, Lloyd Wright 346–7 Brown, Gordon, eco-cities 350 brownfield sites development of 351 wildlife 350–1 ‘built environment’ emissions CO2 emissions 242 domestic greenhouse gases 242–4 Buncefield fuel depot explosion 236 Bunting, Madeleine 365–6 Burden, Graham 122, 128 cabbages 89 Cafédirect coffee 27–30 and fairtrade philosophy 35 prices paid 31–2 CAI (Computer Aid International) 299–300 Caldwell, Jack 365 Cameron, David 45, 103, 359 Cameron, Ray 219–20 Cameroon cocoa 94–7 cotton 136 slash-and-burn agriculture 95 carbon footprint books 312–13 calculating 371 publishing 313 carbon offsets see also CO2 emissions aircraft emissions 303–4, 306–8 availability 304–5 British Airways 304–5 Climate Care 308, 310, 312 costs 308 definitions 305 forest maintenance 308–9 Kyoto Protocol 304, 311 Orbost estate 305–6 programme range 304–5 Sky 305 Carbon Trust 241–2 CarbonNeutral Company 305–6, 311 cardamom 58 Cargill cocoa 96 cotton 123 palm oil 78 Sun Valley chickens 78–9 caribou, migration routes 217–20 cement 240 cereals, for meat production 340 CETC (China Electronics Technology Group Corporation) 272 Chang, Mage 165 charities, textile recycling 266–9 cheese 40–1 Chen, David 162, 163–4 Cheng, Sammy 159, 163–4, 165, 371 Cheng, Shengchan 280–2 Cheung, Yan 284–5, 371 chickens free-range organic 39–40, 41 soya fed 79 child labour Bangladesh 143 computer recycling 288–90 cotton industry 124 India 124, 288–91 Ivory Coast 97 Pakistan 124 China see also Shenzhen; Suzhou aluminium recycling 285–6 antimony 205 computer industry 160–1, 165, 167 deforestation 171–2 ginger 58 mobile phones 271–2 one-child policy 364 paper recycling 280–2, 284–5 plastic bottle recycling 256–7, 282–3 power stations 358 Qiaotou 179 recycling ethos 282–4 small commodities markets 177–80 tin 205 traditional medicines 181–3 Yiwu 177–80 Zhangjiagang 169, 171 zinc 205 China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) 272 Chinatext, cotton 123 Chococo 99 chocolate see also cocoa fairtrade 98 gourmet 99 UK introduction 93–4 world-wide consumption 94 Christmas decorations 178 chromium, Kazakhstan 205 cinnamon 58 cities see London; mega-cities; urban farming city metabolism 239–40 civil wars 208–10 Clean Air – Cool Planet 305 Climate Care 308, 310, 312 climate changes Alaska 218–19 economic implications 358 Mount Toba eruption 326–7 cloves 58 CO2 emissions see also carbon offsets accumulation 316 air travel 233, 236–7 built environment’ 242–4 burying with biofuels 357 cement 240 coaches and buses 235 coal-fired power stations 228–9, 356 global reductions 370–1 global warming 354–5 Heathrow airport 235–6 targets 357 train travel 232–3 coaches and buses 235 coal-fired power stations 228, 356 CO2 emissions 228–9, 356 Drax 228–30 imports for 229–31 Coastal Development Partnership, Kulna 63 Cockerill, Ian 19 cocoa Archer Daniels Midland 96 Barry Callebaut 96 Cameroon 94–7 Cargill 96 fairtrade 98 history 93–4 Ivory Coast 97 middlemen 96–7 Nestlé 96 price crashes 96 processing 98 smallholdings 94–6 western discovery of 93 coffee auctions 31–2 Cafédirect 27–30 cooperatives 28–30 fairtrade 32–4 global trading 31 Kilimanjaro 27–9 organic farming 30 prices 28–9, 31–3 roasting 33–4 shipments to London 33 Starbucks 30 coltan see tantalum community projects fairtrade coffee 32 fairtrade cotton 131, 133–4 Compal 165–6 Computer Aid International (CAI) 299–300 computer components 160–4, 161–4 metals for 205, 207–8 computer recycling 288–91 child labour 288–90 copper recovery process 288–90 illegal imports 291–2 computers, reuse 297–300 Computers for Schools Kenya 297–300 conferences, ecological footprints 318 congestion charge, London 345 Congo 276–7 conservation, herbs 56 consumption, globalized 7–10 contraception Philippines 153–5 religious attitudes to 153–4, 364–5 cooking, energy expenditure 103 copper production 203, 204 recovery 288–90 Cory, household waste management 251–3, 261 cotton Australia 119–22, 124 Cameroon 136 Chinatext 123 Cragill 123 Dreyfus 123 Dunavant 123 fairtrade 128–30, 134 genetic modification 125, 132–3 India 124–5, 128–31, 133 Maral Overseas 133–4, 135–7 Marks & Spencer 122, 132 Pakistan 124 Plexus 123 Reinhart 123 social costs 126–7 spinning and knitting 136–7 USA 124–6 Uzbekistan 124, 147–8, 151 world production 123–4 Cotton Australia 120 Crossness sewage treatment works 254–5 Culham nuclear-fusion research reactor 226 Cure, Lynne 251 Dairy Crest 40 dairy industry, depression of 40 Dar es Salaam innovative enterprises 278–9 Milonge brothers 264–7 mitumba 264–7 Phones for Africa 278 textiles recycling 266–9 wildlife sculptures 278–9 debt slavery, Mauritania 186 deforestation consequences, China 171–2 Delhi computer recycling 292 LNG transport 345 Mandoli 287–92 Dell computers 160, 163, 165, 166 demography see also population growth AIDS 72–3 and migration 367–8 desertification 334–5 reversals 108, 335–8 Dhaka garment workshops 138–45 LNG transport 345 Dickens, Charles, Our Mutual Friend 253–4 domestic environment greenhouse gases 242–4 zero-carbon homes 244 domestic recycling 251 Drax coal-fired power station 228–30 Dreyfus, cotton 123 Driefontein goldmine 15–18 droughts Australia 120 Darfur 335 Dubai electronic waste trading 291 gold smuggling 21 mitumba trading 266 dump, burn and offset 303–4 Dunavant, cotton 123 Duncan, Anne 194 Dyson, Tim 365 e–waste brokers, Environment Agency 296 Earth, ecological statistics 315 eco-efficiency 316 town planning 349 eco-projects mega-cities 345 urban transport 345 ecological footprints see also CO2 emissions conferences 318 European 317 global 317–18 Homo sapiens 333 urban 314–15 Edwards, Rob 305 elderly carers, South Africa 71–2, 73–4 electricity see also power stations aluminium smelting 192, 196–7, 199, 226 cooking 103 domestic use 242 from incinerators 261 ‘green tariffs’ 311 imported 227 National Grid 226–7 renewable sources 227–8 world–wide consumption 315–16 electronic waste European Union directive 277, 293–4, 296 landfill 287 metals recovery 288–92 UK recycling 293–6 Ely 184–7 EMR (European Metal Recycling) 295 endangered species, traditional medicines 181–3 energy intensive production, agribusiness 102–3 Environment Agency, e-waste brokers 296 Environment and Development, International Institute for 103, 339 environmental footprint mega-cities 344–5 personal contributions 242–4 public services 241–2 environmental impact aluminium smelting 195–6 metal mining 203–4 oil extraction 220–2 environmental protectionism 359 Essissima, Joseph 94–5 ethical trading, supermarkets 70 Europe fertility rates 366–7 global footprint 317 European Metal Recycling (EMR) 295 European Union beaches directive 263 biofuel additives 77 electronic waste directive 277, 293–4, 296 fishing rights 53 sugar beet 81–2 waste export ban 258–9 Eurostar 232–3 Evans, Dicky 104 evolution, Homo sapiens 328–31 Excel Crop Care, G.

Shroff 131–2 extremism, humanity 5 fairtrade 371 brands 32 chocolate 98 coffee 34 community projects 32 cotton 128–30, 134–5 jewellery 245–7 Fairtrade Foundation 32, 103–4 famines, inefficient dealing with 340 farming see also urban farming energy intensive production 102–3 livestock 211 Nigeria 335–6 water usage 341 favelas Brasilia 347 Rio 114–16, 349 women’s power in 114–16 female emancipation Bangladesh 144–5 population growth 369–70 fertility rates Africa 366 Bangladesh 364 China 364 Europe 366–7 global decline 369 Iran 364 Muslim states 366 fertilizer, from sewage 255 fishing depletion of natural stocks 49, 50, 51, 53 fresh-fish auctions 49 Mauritania 50–2, 53–4 poaching 51–2 preference for line 54 Senegal 52–3, 54 ‘sustainable’ 53 trawlers vs pirogues 52 world-wide 49–50 flour stoneground wholemeal 42–4 wheat for 43–4 Fonebak 277 food see also plant foods cooking 103 imports 100–2 ‘food patriotism’, David Cameron 45, 103, 359 food production, and population growth 340 Forest Stewardship Council approved paper 312 tropical hardwoods 175 Forest Trends 170, 175 forests as carbon offsets 309 maintenance 308–9 Foundation for Adolescent Development 154 Fox, Richard, Homegrown 111 Foxconn, mobile phones 271–2 Friends of the Earth 101, 350 Frison, Emile 84 fruit pickers, immigrant 46–7 fuels, greenest 355–7 Gala, coffee roasting 33–4 Gandhi, Mahatma 360 Gap 141, 142 garlic 89 garment workshops Dhaka 138–44 H&M 140 gas domestic use 242 power stations 227 Siberia 223–5 storage projects 227 gas power, public transport 345 Gazprom 222–4 UK takeovers by 224 gemstones, finance for corrupt regimes 208–9 genetic modification bananas 88–9 cotton 125, 132–3 genetic resources, plant foods 89–92 ginger, China 58 Girardet, Herbert 239–40 Gladstone aluminium smelting 193–7 ecology 192–3 power station 193, 196–7 glass, recycling 255–6 global footprints comparative 317–18 world-wide 317 global warming CO2 emissions 354–5 threat of 354–5 globalization coffee trading 31 consumption 7–10 gold certificates of origin 247 ethically sourced 245–7 extraction process 18 in history 20–1 hoarding 21–2, 134 origins 15 power of 21–2 prices 19, 21 smuggling 21 South Africa 14–22, 205 gold mining access shafts 14–15 Fanakalo language 17 quartz containing 22 recruitment for 17–18 safety 16–17 smuggling 17 Gold Standard 21 Goodall, Chris, How to Live a Low-Carbon Life 244 Gottmann, Jean 351 gourmet chocolate 99 grain growing, water for 211 green beans food miles issue 111–12 Homegrown 104–6, 108–11 hygiene 107 Machakos 104–13 Marks & Spencer 105, 107, 109 smallholdings 104–6, 109 traceability 107, 112–13 Green Gold 246 greenhouse gases see CO2 emissions; nitrogen oxides Grimsby, fresh-fish auctions 49 Grosvenor, paper reprocessing 257–60 Gujarat Agrocel 129–31 organic cotton 129–32 water supplies 130–1 H&M 140, 142 hafnium 208 Hall, Peter 347, 349 Hall and Woodhouse brewery 37–9 Hammond, Geoff 317 Hanson, Jim 355 Harris, Frances 336 Haupt, Melville 19 heat-island effect 348 Heathrow airport CO2 emissions 235–7 fuel supplies 236 land use efficiency 237–8 noise issues 238 HelpAge International 72 herbs in beers 39 conservation 56 oregano 55–6 sage 57–8 thyme 56 Hewitt, Geoff 119–21 Hewlett-Packard 160, 163, 165 Hickey, Dan 120 Hindu philanthropy 133–4 ‘hobbits’ (Homo floresiensis) 325, 328, 331 extinction 332 Homegrown, green beans 104–6, 108–11 hominids see Homo erectus; Homo floresiensis; Homo sapiens; Neanderthals Homo erectus 325, 327, 331 extinction 332 Homo floresiensis (‘hobbits’) 325, 328, 331 extinction 332 Homo sapiens African evolution 328–9 artistic evolution 330–1 common characteristics 5–6 conspicuous consumption 333 cultural evolution 329–30 ecological footprint 333 future of 372 geographical spread 331–2 ice age survival 332–3 social evolution 330 survival skills 332 urbanization 344 virtual extinction 325, 328–9 volcanic winters 325, 328–30, 331 household waste see also sewage collections 251 food growing on 341 landfill sites 261 Thames barge transport 252–3 transfer stations 251–2 How to Live a Low-Carbon Life, Chris Goodall 244 human rights see also child labour Mauritania 184–5 Uzbekistan 147, 151–2 humanity, extremism 5 Humphries, Rick 193–4, 197–8 Hurn airport 237–8 hydroponics 342 IBM 163, 165 ice ages, Homo sapiens’ survival 332–3 immigrant fruit pickers conditions 46–7 pay 47 imports air miles 101 carbon footprints 101–2 plant foods 100–2 incinerators electricity generation from 261 pollution from 260–1 India Bihar 289 cardamom 58 child labour 124 computer recycling 288–92 cotton 124–5, 129–31, 133–5 Delhi 287–92 gold hoarding 134 Hindu philanthropy 133–4 Maral Overseas 133–4, 133–5, 135–7 Toxics Link 290–1 water shortages 130–1, 133 indium, uses 207 Indonesia palm oil 76–7 rainforest clearances 172–3 innovative enterprises, Tanzania 278–9 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 354–5 International Crisis Group 151 International Institute for Environment and Development 103, 339 International Institute for Tropical Agriculture 95, 335 Iqbal Ahmed see also king prawns business empire 61–2, 68–70 Iran, family sizes 364 iron see also steel extraction 205 Italy, rocket 56, 90 Ivory Coast, cocoa 97 JCPenney 141 jewellery, fairtrade 245–7 Joynson-Hicks, Paul, Phones for Africa 277–8 just-in-time assembly 166 retailing 106 Kazakhstan apples 90–1 chromium 205 Keen, David 209–10 Kenya coffee 27–34 Computers for Schools 297–300 desertification reversals 108, 338–9 farm outputs 338–9 German presence in 34–5 green beans 104–13 Khosa, Veronica, AIDS clinics 73–4 Khulna, king prawn industry 63–4, 67–8 Kilimanjaro coffee 27–30 Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union (KNCU) 30–3 king prawns certification scheme needed 69 fry hatcheries 65–6 introduction to UK 62 landowner threats 64–5 middlemen 66–8 organic farming 64 processing plants 67 Seamark 62, 68 sustainability 69–70 Kinyua, Patrick 106–7 Kirkham, Ruth 40 Klor, Babubhai 131 KNCU (Kilimanjaro Native Cooperative Union) 30–3 Kombe, Jackson 29–30 Kyoto Protocol air travel 236–7 Australia 198 carbon offsets 304, 311 Ministry of Defence 242 Lagavulin, Islay single malt Scotch 44–5 Lamb, Harriet 103–4 land, multiple functions for 316 landfill sites heavy metals 287 household waste 261 Lea Valley 349 Leach, Matthew 260 Letterewe, Scotland 321–2 Lighthouse bakery 42 line-fishing 54 Lister, John 43–4 livestock farming 211 Lloyd Wright, Frank, Broadacre City 346–7 local food 36–7, 45 Logitech 160–1 London congestion charge 345 greenhouse gases 242 household waste 251–3, 261 Lea Valley 349 materials recycling 255–6 MI6 headquarters 241 public services 241–2 sewage 23–4, 254, 261–3 Wandsworth Prison 241 water ring-main 241 London Wildlife Trust 350 Ma, Cheng Liang 352–3 McDonald’s 79, 102–3 Machakos desertification reversals 338–9 green beans from 104–13 Macharia, John 108–9 Madagascar, vanilla 58–9 Mahesh, Priti 290–1 Makinga, Norman 297–9 Malaysia, palm oil 76–7 malnutrition 340 Mandela, Nelson 320 Mandoli, computer recycling 288–91 Manila abortions 154 contraception 153–5 Foundation for Adolescent Development 154 prostitution 153, 155 manures, changes to natural 335–6 Marakele wildlife park 320 Maral Overseas, cotton 133–4, 135–7 margarine from palm oil 76 from whale oil 75 marine national parks, Banc d’Arguin 50–2 Marks & Spencer Blue Horizon jeans 145 cotton 122, 132, 142, 145 fairtrade coffee 32 fairtrade cotton 128, 134–5 green bean imports 105, 107, 109 materials ‘rucksacks’ 204–5 Mauritania debt slavery 186 fishing 50–4 racial structure 185–6 slavery 184–5 meat production 340 mega-cities 344 absorption of urban centres 351–3 eco-projects 345 environmental footprint 344–5 recycling mantra, necessity for 346 wildlife in 349–50 Melbourne, eco-projects 345 Melgar, Junice 154–5 metals see also aluminium; gold antimony 205 bismuth 207 chromium 205 copper 203, 204 global corporations 203 hafnium 208 indium 207 iron/steel 205 materials ‘rucksacks’ 204–5 mining footprint 203–4 mobile phones 273–5 palladium 207 platinum 205, 207 recycling 210, 256, 288, 290–1, 295 rising demands 206 ruthenium 207–8 tantalum 273–6 terbium 208 tin 205, 276–7 waste ores 204–5 world demand for 202–3 zinc 205 Mgase, Jacob Rumisha 28–9 middlemen traders cocoa 96–7 king prawns 66–8 Milonge, Boniface 264 Milonge, Geoffrey market sales 266–7 mitumba imports 264–5 Urafiki market 267–8 Milton Keynes 347 Ministry of Defence, Kyoto Protocol 242 mitumba Dar es Salaam 264–7 Dubai 266 mobile phones assembly 271–2 Foxconn 271–2 Nokia 271, 272 Phones for Africa 277–8 reuse 277–8 toxic chemicals in 272–5 world-wide usage 270–1 money laundering, International Crisis Group 151 Morocco, phosphates 206 Morris, Tim 37–9 Mortimore, Michael 338 Moshi coffee auctions 31–2 curing plant 33 motherboards 161–4 motor cars catalytic converters 207 and urban design 346–7 Motorola 276 Murray, Craig 147–8 Musili, Tom, Computers for Schools Kenya 297–300 Muslim states, fertility rates 366 Musyoki, Jacob 104–6, 113 National Grid 226–7 natural resources, consumption rates 314–15 Neanderthals 325, 328 extinction 332 and Homo sapiens 329 Nellie, Flower-stall Girl 153, 155, 371 Nestlé cocoa 96 fairtrade coffee 32 New Guinea, tropical hardwoods 170, 171 Nicholson-Lord, David 348 Niemeijer, David 337, 339 Niger, reversing desertification 337 Nigeria, crop/livestock integration 335–6 Nine Dragons, paper recycling 284–5 nitrogen oxides, ozone production 307 NKD 143 Nokia, mobile phones 271, 272, 276 Novelis, aluminium recycling 199–200 Noyabr’sk, oilfields 221–2 nuclear power stations 227, 355–6 waste from 356 nuclear-fusion research reactors, Culham 226 offices, ecological footprints 315 oil Alaska 215–20 Siberia 220–2 Orbost, carbon offsets 305–6 oregano 55–6 organic farming bananas 87 coffee 30 crop/livestock integration 336 king prawns 64 Nigeria 335–6 organic food, air freighted 102 overconsumption 360 Padulosi, Stefano 56, 90–2 Pakistan, cotton 124 palladium, source 207 palm oil 75–8 and biofuels 77 rainforest clearances for 76–7 paper burning 260 Chinese recycling 280–2, 284–5 Forest Stewardship Council approved 312 manufacture 260 recycling 257–60 sustainable sources 312 Papua New Guinea, rainforest clearances 169, 173–5 pathogen risks, urban farming 343 Paul Reinhart 123 peanuts 89–90 Pendolinos 233 people smuggling, to Canary Islands 55 personal footprints 4–5, 242–4, 318 city metabolism 240 pesticides banana diseases 87 cotton 124–5, 130 natural 87, 130 Pethick, John 262 Philippines see Manila Phones for Africa, Tanzania 278 phosphates fertilizers 205–6 Morocco 206 phthalates, mobile phones 273 pineapples 89 pistachios 91 plankton, carbon offsets 310 plant foods see also foods by name air-miles issues 111–12 ancient varieties 89–90 benefits of local 45 carbon footprint 101–2 energy intensive production 102–3 extinctions 84 genetic resources 89–92 mutations 85–6 seasonality 100, 105 UK imports 100–2, 111–12 wild 55–60, 89–90 plastic bottles (PET), recycling 256–7, 282–3 platinum South Africa 205 uses for 207 Plexus, cotton 123 plywood Chinese originated 175–6 from illegal logging 169, 174–5 poaching, fisheries 51–2 pollution imprint of 333 incinerators 260–1 Siberia 221–2 pomegranates, Turkmenistan 91–2 population growth average family size 361, 362 family-planning policies 364–5 female attitudes 365–6 female emancipation 369–70 fertility rates 366–7 and food production 340 limiting 360–1 longevity 362–3 mortality rates 366, 367 potential diminution 363–4 stabilization 368–9 twentieth century 361–2 power stations China 358 coal-fired 228–31, 356 natural gas 227 nuclear 227, 355–6 tidal 355 wave 355 wind 355 Poynton, Scott 175, 176 prawns see king prawns prostitution, Manila 153, 155 Prudhoe Bay 214–20 public services, environmental footprint 241–2 public transport, gas powered 345 publishing, carbon footprint 313 Qiaotou 179 rainforest clearances Borneo 172 consequences 77–8 illegal logging 170–1 Indonesia 172–3 logging concessions 173–4 for palm oil 76–7 Papua New Guinea 170, 173–5 slash-and-burn agriculture 95 for soya beans 78 ‘sustainability’ audits 174 tropical hardwoods 169–70, 175 recycling 10 see also reuse aluminium 199–201, 256, 285–6 centres 255 computers 288–91 domestic 251 economics 210 electronic waste 294–5 ethos 282–4 glass 255–6 metals 210, 256, 288, 290–1, 295 paper 257–60 plastic bottles 256–7 steel 210, 256 textiles 264–9 Rees, William 315 Register, Roger 347 Rehfish, Mark 262 Renner, Michael 209 retailing just-in-time 106 traceability 107 reuse computers 297–300 mobile phones 277–8 Rhine, damaged ecology 321 Rimbunan Hijau, logging concessions 173–4 Rio de Janiero favelas 114–16, 349 Rosinha 114 Rio Tinto, metal mining 203 Rio Tinto Aluminium environmental claims 198 Gladstone 192–4 Tasmania 197 rivers, wildlife in clean 262–3 Rivoli, Pietra 269 Roberts, Tony 299–300 rocket, Italian 56, 90 Rosinha, Women’s Association of 114–16 Roszak, Theodore 368 Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation 80–1 rubbish see household waste Russia coal exports 229–30 gas 224–5 oil 220–2 Siberia 220–1 ruthenium 207–8 S & A Produce, strawberry pickers 46–8 sage, Albanian 57–8 Sahara, efforts to reverse spread 334 Sainsbury’s 47 Salam, M.

pages: 256 words: 79,075

Hired: Six Months Undercover in Low-Wage Britain by James Bloodworth

Airbnb, Berlin Wall, call centre, clockwatching, collective bargaining, congestion charging, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, gig economy, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Network effects, new economy, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, post-work, profit motive, race to the bottom, reshoring, Silicon Valley, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, working poor, working-age population

James Farrar summed up the situation well when he told me that TFL were ‘licensing like confetti from nine till five, and then from five till nine they’re sending out their enforcement officers to harangue you for what amounts to symptoms of overcrowding’. You could deduct another £100 a month for the fines, and that was if you were careful. Both TFL and Uber were also pushing for drivers to shoulder the cost of the London Congestion Charge at some point in the future. The extra data you used on your phone added another £5 a week and the respective annual TFL inspection and biannual MOT cost a further £200 altogether over the year. The biggest lump sum of cash disappeared on renting a car. The Ford Focus I was driving cost me £201.77 a week, or £10,492 a year. This was the cheapest car available from the rental garage at the time.

.: These Poor Hands 23, 149, 190 courier firms 211, 215, 217, 223, 236, 244–7, 250, 256, 257 Cwm, Wales 147, 148, 187, 190, 195, 196, 197 Cwmbran, Wales 143 Daily Express 124–5 Daily Mail 66, 134, 188 Dan (bicycle courier) 248, 249 Dangerfield, George 72 Davies, Idris 148–9 Gwalia Deserta (Wasteland of Wales) 148 ‘The Angry Summer’ 174 debt 62, 69, 146, 151, 153 Deliveroo 215, 217, 223, 250, 256, 257 democratic socialists 192 Department for Work and Pensions 133 Dickens, Charles 29, 205, 210, 249; Hard Times 138–9 Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) 88–90, 109–10, 214 Dorothy (housemate of JB) 203, 204–5 DriveNow 217 Dropit 217 Eastern Europe, migrant workers from 11, 13, 15, 21, 24, 26–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 45, 57, 61–2, 75, 114–16, 128–9, 154, 203–4, 260–1 see also under individual nation name Ebbw Vale, Wales 147, 149, 154; legacy of de-industrialisation in 187–200 Elborough, Travis 93 emergency housing 96 employment agencies 1, 16, 19, 20, 23, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 56, 65–6, 70, 72, 73, 82, 86, 127, 130, 158, 189, 194 see also under individual agency name Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) 248 employment contracts/classification: Amazon 19–20, 53, 58 care sector 87–8, 107–8, 116 Uber 214–15, 222, 229–35, 243, 245, 250–2, 257 zero-hours see zero-hours contracts employment tribunals 38, 229–30, 243–4 English seaside, debauchery and 92–3 Enterprise Rent-A-Car 214 ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) programmes 115–16 European Economic Community (EEC) 195 European Referendum (2016) 61, 195–6 Evening Standard 208, 241 Express & Star 59–60 Fabian Society 109 Farrar, James 229–31, 232, 233, 234, 236, 238, 240, 241–2, 250, 254, 255–6 Fellows of the Academies of Management 17 Fernie, Sue 182 financial crisis (2008) 1, 2, 45, 125, 195, 209 Flash (former miner) 165–8, 170, 171–2, 174, 175, 176–8, 179, 188, 196 Fleet News 246 Foot, Michael 149 football 56, 58, 92, 94, 97, 98, 126, 135, 169 fruit picking 61 FTSE 123, 262 Gag Mag 122 Gallagher, Patrick 246 Gary (homeless man, Blackpool) 96–104, 105 Gaz (Gag Mag seller, Blackpool) 122 GDP 146 General Election (2015) 109 General Strike (1926) 148, 149, 173 gentrification 219 Geoff (former miner) 189, 190, 191, 193 ‘gig’ economy 2, 208–10, 217–18, 232, 236, 242, 243–4, 248, 249–50, 252, 257 see also Uber Gissing, George: New Grub Street 64 GMB union 36 grammar schools 261 Guardian 5, 235 Hamstead Colliery, Great Barr 169 Hazel (home carer) 110–11, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119 Heller, Joseph: Catch-22 235–6 Hemel Hempstead 54, 70 Henley, William Ernest: ‘England, My England’ vii Hoggart, Richard: The Uses of Literacy 45 home care worker (domiciliary care worker): Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) checks 88–90, 109–10 employment contracts 87–8, 107–8, 116, 118, 120 length of home care visits 108–9, 110 local authority budget cuts and 107–10 MAR (Medication Administration Record) sheets 114, 115 migrant workers as 114–16 negligent 86–7 privatisation of social care and 106–8, 109 recruitment 82–4 ‘shadowing’ process 88, 109–10 societal view of 106 staffing crisis 85–6, 119 suicide rate among 100 typical day/workload 110–14, 118 unions and 88 view job as vocation 86–7 wages/pay 107–8, 117, 118–19, 159 Home Instead 119 homelessness 95–105, 138, 187, 208 hostels 95, 96, 101, 102 housing/accommodation: Amazon workers, Rugeley 20–2, 24–6 Blackpool 80, 124, 137–8 buy-to-let housing market 24 emergency housing 96 homelessness and 95, 96, 101, 102, 137–8 hostels 95, 96, 101, 102 inability to buy 62 landlords and 12, 21, 24, 39, 67, 69, 95–6, 137–8, 164, 204, 206, 258 London 203–8 migrant workers and 20–2, 24–6, 197–8 social housing 62, 206 Swansea 124, 150 housing benefit 96, 137–8, 248 immigration 26–7, 61, 115–16, 128–9, 144, 193, 197–9, 236, 259–61 see also migrant workers 83–4 independent contractors 209, 248, 251–2 Independent Workers Union of Great Britain (IWGB) 230, 257 inequality 18, 73, 123, 125, 207–8, 226, 238, 262, 263 inflation 2, 122 job centres 19, 96, 133–6, 139–40, 156, 158 Joe (housemate of JB) 22 John Lewis 23, 83 Joseph Rowntree Foundation 70, 159 June (call centre employee) 181–2, 183, 184 Kalanick, Travis 215, 228, 229, 233, 235 Kelly, Kath 66 Khan, Sadiq 256 Koestler, Arthur: The God that Failed 228 Labour Party 7, 57, 59, 61, 109, 144, 149, 150, 173, 174 Ladbroke Road, Notting Hill, London 219 Lamb, Norman 109 Lancashire Evening Post 104–5 landlords, private 12, 21, 24, 39, 67, 69, 95–6, 137–8, 164, 204, 206, 258 Lea Hall Colliery, Staffordshire 31–2, 54, 55, 56, 57 Lea Hall Miners’ Social Club, Staffordshire 55, 56, 74 Len (step-grandfather of JB) 143–4 Lili (London) 203–4 living wage 1, 85, 160, 246 Lloyd George, David 172 loan sharks 151, 156 local councils 104–5, 164 London 201–57 accommodation/housing in 65, 203–8, 218 gentrification in 219 ‘gig’ economy in 208–57, 263 homelessness in 95 migrant labour in 205–6, 213, 239 wealth divide in 207–8, 238 London Congestion Charge 254 London Courier Emergency Fund (LCEF) 247 London Metropolitan Police 90 London, Jack 205 low-skilled jobs, UK economy creation of 153 Lydia (Amazon employee) 70 Macmillan, Harold 3 manufacturing jobs, disappearance of 59, 139 Marine Colliery, Cwm, Wales 190 Mayhew, Henry 4, 205 McDonald’s 52, 68, 83 Merkel, Angela 196 Metcalf, David 182 middle-class 6, 39, 51, 67, 68, 69, 72–3, 74, 75, 149, 178, 205, 258, 259, 260, 262, 263 migrant labour: Amazon use of 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 44, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 61–2, 65, 71–5, 258, 260–1 care home workers 114–16 ‘gig’ economy and 203–6, 213, 239 restaurant workers 154 retail sector and 128–9 Miliband, Ed 109 mining see coal mining Miners’ Federation of Great Britain (MFGB) 173 Miners’ Strike (1984–5) 3, 174–7 minimum wage 1, 7, 55, 62, 84, 107, 108, 118, 135, 155, 159, 173, 189–90, 209, 212, 235, 236, 245, 250, 262 Morecambe, Lancashire 137–8 Morgan family 156–8 Morgan, Huw: How Green Was My Valley 147 Moyer-Lee, Jason 257 National Coal Board (NCB) 54, 170, 171 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 108 National Union of Miners (NUM) 174, 176 New York Times 222 NHS (National Health Service) 106, 108, 247 Nirmal (Amazon employee) 45–6, 51 Norbert (Amazon employee) 71–5 nostalgia 3, 60, 93–4, 216 Nottingham 2, 151–2 objectivism 228 oil crisis (1973) 122–3 Oliver, Jamie 154 Orwell, George 56, 169 Palmer, William 29 pay see wages and under individual job title and employer name payday loans 156 PayPal 216 Pimlico Plumbers 251–2 platform capitalism 215 PMP Recruitment 19, 189–90 Poland, migrant workers from 128–9, 130, 135, 197–8 ‘poor, the’ 145 Port Talbot, Wales 166, 176, 190, 196 ‘post-truth’ discourse 199 ‘post-work’ world 165 poverty: Blackpool and 132, 137 class and 4 darkness and 96 diet/weight and 137 ease of slipping into 5 Eastern Europe and 26 monthly salary and 156 as a moral failing 188–9 press treatment of 66–7 time and 67 working poor living in 194 Preston, Lancashire 100, 105, 138–9 private school system 123 progressive thought 262 Public Accounts Committee (PAC) 107 Putin, Vladimir 71 Rand, Ayn 228–9, 235, 236; The Fountainhead 228, 229 recession (2008) 1, 45, 104, 121, 125, 156 ‘regeneration’ 55, 60–1, 146 rent-to-own 157–8 retirement, working in 58–9 Reve, Gerard: The Evenings 160 Robin (Cwm) 196, 197 Rochelle (home care worker) 117–19 Romania, migrant workers from 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 32, 44, 46, 51, 53, 61, 65, 71–5, 203, 206, 258 Ron (former miner) 170, 195 Royal London 59 Royal London pub, Wolverhampton 71 Royal Mail 151 Rugeley, Staffordshire 28–35 Amazon distribution centre in 11–76, 79, 86, 119, 127, 128, 159, 258 decline of coal mining industry in 31–2, 54–6, 57, 169 disappearance of manufacturing jobs from 54–63 high street 28–35 immigration and 30–4, 193–4 Tesco and 58–9, 62–3 Scargill, Arthur 175 scientific management theories 17 Scotland Yard 90 self-employment: ’gig’ economy and 214–15, 222, 229–30, 234, 243–4, 245, 246, 249, 250–1 increase in numbers of workers 2, 209 ‘independent contractors’ and 209, 248, 251–2 Selwyn (former miner) 175, 178, 179, 263–4 Senghenydd, Glamorgan pit explosion (1913) 169–70 Shelter 104 Shirebrook Colliery, Derbyshire 55 Shu, William 250 Silicon Valley, California 210, 232 Sillitoe, Alan: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning 2, 3, 94 Sky Sports News 126 social democracy 3, 263 social housing 62, 206 socialism 7, 56, 131, 144, 148, 149, 173 social mobility 58, 199, 261 South Wales Miners’ Museum, Afan Argoed 166, 196 South Wales Valleys 141–200 accommodation in 150, 197 Amazon in 145–6 beauty of 148 call centre jobs in 153–64, 180–6 coal industry and 143–4, 147–9, 165–79, 180, 188, 189, 190–1, 193, 195, 196 immigration and 197–9 JB’s family history and 143–4 legacy of de-industrialisation in 187–200 nostalgia and 147 radical history of 149–50 see also under individual place name ‘spice’ 95 Sports Direct 55 squatting 96, 99 steel industry 176, 180, 188, 189, 190, 196–7 Steven (housemate of JB) 124, 126, 127–31 Stoke-on-Trent 58–9 suicide 99–100 Sunday Times 175 ‘Best Companies to Work For’ 154 Rich List 125 Swansea, Wales 145–6, 150–2, 154–64, 176, 178, 197, 205 Tata Steel 190 tax 65, 69, 70, 118, 146, 158, 159, 163, 164, 212, 229, 244, 246, 248, 251, 255 Taylor, Frederick W.: The Principles of Scientific Management 17 Tesco 35, 57, 58–9, 62–3 Thatcher, Margaret 122, 123, 146, 174–5, 193, 207, 263–4 Thorn Automation 57 Thorn EMI 59 trade unions: Amazon and 36 B&M and 130, 131 call centres and 160, 181, 184–5, 186 care sector and 88 coal industry decline and 55–6, 173, 174, 263–4 decline of 2, 3, 35 ‘gig’ economy and 230, 257, 261 objectivism and 228 oil crisis (1973) and 122 Thatcher and 123, 174, 193, 263–4 Wales and 144, 149 see also under individual union name Trades Union Congress (TUC) 173 transgender people 40–1 Transline Group 19, 20, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 65–6, 86 Transport for London (TFL) 211, 212–13, 214, 233, 254, 256 Tredegar Workmen’s Medical Aid Society 247 Trefil, Wales 149 Trump, Donald 7 Uber 207, 211–57 ‘account status’ 221 clocking in at 218 corporation tax and 229 customers 221, 222, 226–7, 237–41, 244, 257 driver costs/expenses 214, 217, 233, 241, 246, 253–5 driver employment classification/contract 214–15, 222, 229–35, 243, 245, 250–2, 257 driver hours 221, 226, 230, 232, 233, 236, 246, 253, 255 driver numbers 211–13, 233–5 driver wages/pay 212, 218, 221, 229–30, 235, 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 246, 252–5 employment tribunal against (2016) 229–34 flexibility of working for 213–14, 218, 230–3, 248, 250–1 James Farrar and see Farrar, James migrant labour and 213, 236 ‘Onboarding’ class 224–5, 238, 241, 256 opposition to 215–17 philosophy of 228–9, 235, 236 psychological inducements for drivers 222–3 rating system 225–7, 232, 238, 239, 243, 253 rejecting/accepting jobs 221–2, 224–5 ride process 219–21 surge pricing 237, 238, 253 TFL and 211, 212–13, 214, 233, 254, 256 Travis Kalanick and see Kalanick, Travis UberEATS 256 UberPOOL 225, 240–2, 253, 255–6 UberX 212, 225, 240, 241, 255 VAT and 229 vehicle requirements 214 unemployment 2, 32, 36, 62, 121–3, 132, 138, 148, 157, 172, 178, 179, 189–95, 199, 218 Unison 88, 108 Unite 55, 160 United Private Hire Drivers 230, 257 university education 3, 6, 61, 62, 123, 150–1, 152, 153–4 USDAW 130–1 Vettesse, Tony 138 Vicky (care sector supervisor) 86, 87 Wade, Alan 121, 123–4 wages: Amazon 18, 19, 37–9, 42–3, 65–6, 68, 69, 70, 159 call centre 155–6, 158–60, 164, 180 care sector 107–8, 117, 118–19, 159 living wage 1, 85, 160, 246 minimum wage 1, 7, 55, 62, 84, 107, 108, 118, 135, 155, 159, 173, 189–90, 209, 212, 235, 236, 245, 250, 262 Uber 212, 218, 221, 229–30, 235, 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 246, 252–5 wage stagnation 2 see also under individual employer, job and sector name Wealth and Assets Survey 207–8 wealth inequality 18, 73, 123, 125, 207–8, 238 Wells, H.

Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking About Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives by Jarrett Walker

Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, congestion charging, demand response, iterative process, jitney, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, Silicon Valley, transit-oriented development, urban planning

For that reason, transit in wealthy countries relies on government subsidies, which must be justified based on transit’s benefit to the community as a whole, not just to its riders. A similar calculation can be made for private cars. While transit riders pay fares, motorists pay a range of fees or taxes tied directly to their driving (distinct from other taxes that people pay as citizens). All motorists pay for vehicle registration and taxes added to the cost of fuel. Some urban motorists also pay tolls or congestion charges to use high-demand facilities. All of those charges add up to the total “user fee” of driving, just as fares are the user fee of transit. If the true costs of a mode exceed the user fees collected J. Walker, Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking about Public Transit Can Enrich 135 Our Communities and Our Lives, DOI 10.5822/978-1-61091-174-0_11, © 2012 Jarrett Walker 136 | HUMAN TRANSIT for it, that mode is being subsidized, usually by taxpayers in general, and in that case it is fair to ask why.

., 41–42 237 238 | INDEX Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 137 Chapman, Tracy, 97 Choice (discretionary) riders, 42–43 Chokepoints, 50–52, 51f Circuitousness, 48, 48f, 49 Civil rights, access and, 14 Civility, 29–30 Clarity, legibility and, 31–32 Clock headways, 164 Collaboration, 14 Commuter rail. See Rail transit Complexity, 144, 153–158 Comprehensive planning, 217 Conductors, 78 Congestion, 101, 210–211 Congestion charges, 135 Connection penalties, 160 Connection points, 176–177, 190 Connections costs of avoidance, 158–161 fares and, 141–142 frequency and, 149–153, 149f, 151f, 152t geometrically required, 159, 174 grid, 167–174, 168f, 169f, 170f, 172f, 173f networks without, 147–148 overview of, 147–148 politically required, 174–175 pulse, 164–165, 165f, 166f simplicity and, 153–158 smartcards and, 140 technologically required, 175 transit-oriented development and, 176–179, 179f Connective Option, 150–153, 151f, 152t Connectivity, 28, 34 Connotations, 44–46 Contactless payments, 139 Corvallis, Oregon, 161 Costs.

City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse,, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

Then central government policy was reversed in favour of motor cars. ‘Let’s build roads to get rich’ runs a current Communist Party slogan.51 Now cycling has dropped from 40 to 25 per cent of all journeys and bicycles have even been banned on certain city streets.52 The result? Traffic jams and choking levels of air pollution. Today Shanghai is considering introducing a congestion charge for road users. Singapore was the first city to introduce congestion charging in 1975. In the northern hemisphere, road pricing has become a popular way of managing car use. London began charging car users in the city centre from 2003. Bus use and cycling have now increased significantly, the latter by 83 per cent since 2000. There are currently an estimated 480,000 cycle journeys and an estimated 5.7 million walking journeys each day in the United Kingdom’s capital.53 London also charges more for those vehicles that produce higher levels of pollutants.

There are currently an estimated 480,000 cycle journeys and an estimated 5.7 million walking journeys each day in the United Kingdom’s capital.53 London also charges more for those vehicles that produce higher levels of pollutants. The revenues generated are reinvested in public transport. A reduction of eighty thousand cars per day in London has been achieved, although it still has a relatively high rate of car use (36 per cent) compared to New York City (30 per cent) or Istanbul (13 per cent).54 Congestion charging has been adopted in Stockholm, Milan and Rome, but Mayor Bloomberg’s 2008 proposal for congestion pricing in New York was not implemented. Currently, weekday traffic in Manhattan’s business district moves at an average of 9.5mph, which, as the New York Times says, is ‘about the speed of a farmyard chicken at full gallop’.55 And this is in the city that has the lowest automobile-to-resident ratio of any city in the United States: over three-quarters of Manhattan’s households don’t own a car.

pages: 505 words: 133,661

Who Owns England?: How We Lost Our Green and Pleasant Land, and How to Take It Back by Guy Shrubsole

back-to-the-land, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, congestion charging, deindustrialization, digital map, do-ocracy, Downton Abbey, financial deregulation, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, housing crisis, James Dyson, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, linked data, loadsamoney, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, openstreetmap, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, web of trust, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Usually, however, Peel Holdings tends not to show its hand in public. Like many companies, it prefers its forays into public political debate to be conducted via intermediary bodies and corporate coalitions. In 2008, it emerged that Peel was a dominant force behind a business grouping that had formed to lobby against Manchester’s proposed congestion charge. The charge was aimed at cutting traffic and reducing the toxic car fumes choking the city. But Peel, as owners of the out-of-town Trafford Centre shopping mall, feared that a congestion charge would lose them ‘customers who make long car journeys through central Manchester’. Their lobbying paid off: voters rejected the charge in the local referendum, and the proposal was dropped. But decisions about the use of public space are seldom subject to popular vote; rather, they’re determined through the much more arcane planning process.

His one act ‘John Whittaker – the publicity shy billionaire’, Telegraph, 24 November 2010. Whittaker built ‘Profile: John Whittaker’, Scotsman, 28 March 2010. acrimonious takeover battle ‘Peel Holdings milestones’, Manchester Evening News, 30 June 2005. a row of gaudy Oliver Wainwright, ‘“Final warning”: Liverpol’s Unesco status at risk over docks scheme’, Guardian, 1 July 2017, customers who make Andrew Bounds, ‘Manchester congestion charge divides business’, Financial Times, 20 October 2008. disguising its true intentions Jack Straw MP, House of Commons debate, ‘Peel Holdings’, Hansard, 16 May 2012, col. 662, https://publications­.parliament­.uk/pa­/cm201213­/cmhansrd­/cm120516­/debtext­/120516-0004.­htm well in excess of 300 ExUrbe, ‘Peel and the Liverpool City Region: Predatory Capitalism or Providential Corporatism?’, March 2013,­/ugd//440­822_22c6­5849313bcedd­42dc15d57­426cd04.pdf­ Peel (Knowlmere) Company See­/companies/im/006301C­.

pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Cycling among Londoners jumped 20 percent and air pollution fell about 12 percent. The fee has already generated over a billion dollars in revenue, much of which has been invested in mass transit. London now has hundreds of new buses, providing almost thirty thousand more daily trips than before the charge. Bus reliability has jumped by 30 percent and bus delays have dropped by 60 percent.37 Before introduction of the congestion charge, Londoners were evenly divided on the concept. When last polled, pros beat cons by 35 percent.38 And in the subsequent mayoral election, largely a referendum on the pricing scheme, Livingstone was reelected by a broad margin. London is not alone in its embrace of congestion pricing. São Paulo, Shanghai, Singapore, Stockholm, and Sydney39 have all introduced similar measures, with varying, but all generally positive, results.

Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 9. 31. Ibid., 13. 32. Newman, Beatley, and Boyer, 117. 33. Jeff Mapes, Pedaling Revolution, 81. 34. Witold Rybczynski, Makeshift Metropolis, 83. 35. Jeff Speck, “Six Things Even New York Can Do Better.” 36. Ken Livingstone, winner commentary by Mayor of London, World Technology Winners and Finalists. 37. Data taken alternately from two sources: Ibid., and Wikipedia, “London Congestion Charge.” 38. Ibid. 39. Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Discipline, 71. 40. Wikipedia, “New York Congestion Pricing.” 41. Ibid. 42. Ibid. 43. Nozzi, op. cit. 44. Bernard-Henri Lévy, American Vertigo. 45. Ivan Illich, Toward a History of Needs. 46. Ibid., 119. 47. Duany, Plater-Zyberk, and Speck, 91n. 48. Catherine Lutz and Anne Lutz Fernandez, Carjacked, 145. STEP 2: MIX THE USES 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 10. 2.

pages: 472 words: 80,835

Life as a Passenger: How Driverless Cars Will Change the World by David Kerrigan

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, butterfly effect, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chris Urmson, commoditize, computer vision, congestion charging, connected car, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, edge city, Elon Musk,, future of work, invention of the wheel, Just-in-time delivery, loss aversion, Lyft, Marchetti’s constant, Mars Rover, megacity, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, Nash equilibrium, New Urbanism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In an effort to keep the city more habitable, Caesar even outlawed vehicles in the city for the first 10 hours of each day, unless they were involved in the building of a temple. Mitigating congestion is not easy. With the exception of congestion charging in cities like London, Singapore and Stockholm, most road owners/policy makers have chosen not to apply the concept of scarce resource pricing to most peak time travel. For road users, the cost of using the road typically remains the same regardless of the time - unlike the peak models applied to numerous sectors such as airlines, hotel rooms, holidays and telephone calls. Congestion charging works because it forces people to make a conscious decision if the trip is “worth it” with indisputable benchmark pricing, but is not politically popular, and can be seen as a harsh tax. On the other hand, the negative impacts of traffic are vast: lost time, increased pollution, people having to get up earlier, lost time with family, stress.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

In the UK, a similar government-run system: James Bridle (18 Dec 2013), “How Britain exported next-generation surveillance,” Medium, Jennifer Lynch and Peter Bibring (6 May 2013), “Automated license plate readers threaten our privacy,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, It enforces London’s: The police also get access to the data. Hélène Mulholland (2 Apr 2012), “Boris Johnson plans to give police access to congestion charge cameras,” Guardian, automatic face recognition: Dan Froomkin (17 Mar 2014), “Reports of the death of a national license-plate tracking database have been greatly exaggerated,” Intercept, the FBI has a database: US Federal Bureau of Investigation (15 Sep 2014), “FBI announces full operational capability of the next generation identification system,”

They’re looking for stolen vehicles and drivers with outstanding warrants and unpaid tickets. Already, the states’ driver’s license databases are being used by the FBI to identify people, and the US Department of Homeland Security wants all this data in a single national database. In the UK, a similar government-run system based on fixed cameras is deployed throughout the country. It enforces London’s automobile congestion charge system, and searches for vehicles that are behind on their mandatory inspections. Expect the same thing to happen with automatic face recognition. Initially, the data from private cameras will most likely be used by bounty hunters tracking down bail jumpers. Eventually, though, it will be sold for other uses and given to the government. Already the FBI has a database of 52 million faces, and facial recognition software that’s pretty good.

On the Wrong Line: How Ideology and Incompetence Wrecked Britain's Railways by Christian Wolmar

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Beeching cuts, congestion charging, joint-stock company, profit motive, railway mania, the built environment, yield management, zero-sum game

Prescott, in need of allies, instead wooed Gordon Brown, the chancellor, and won some key concessions from him - but at a heavy price. Prescott managed to persuade Brown to allow councils the right to spend any money they raised through congestion charging on local investment schemes for transport, including rail and bus as well as roads. He even obtained a promise from Brown that any future revenue from the fuel tax escalator would be earmarked (hypothecated) for national transport spending, but this was to prove a Pyrrhic victory, since the automatic escalator was abolished in the 2000 budget and then buried by the fuel tax protests that autumn. Moreover, congestion charging was a long-term prospect and needed legislation before it could be introduced.² The price Brown extracted was Prescott’s agreement to two controversial part-privatisations, of the London Underground and National Air Traffic Services.

Prescott wanted to present it as a radical shift away from the old emphasis on roads, but he could not be seen to be too radical because of Blair’s fear that Labour would be labelled anti-motorist. The use of public transport, walking and cycling were to be encouraged, whilst, overall, the need for travel would be reduced through better land-use planning and technological innovation. The White Paper announced plans to allow congestion charging and taxes on company car parking, and there were plenty of other good ideas and suggestions, but it was short on firm commitments. While the White Paper represented a marked shift away from the ‘predict and provide’ model of road building - whose ultimate logic was the paving over of much of southern England - a few radical edges had been knocked off on Downing Street’s orders, such as a suggestion to tax supermarket car park users.

pages: 326 words: 93,522

Underground, Overground by Andrew Martin

bank run, Boris Johnson, congestion charging, garden city movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, traveling salesman, V2 rocket

Livingstone wanted the job, to the annoyance of Blair, whose idea of a London mayor was a benign elder statesman who had outgrown political squabbling. Frank Dobson was selected as the official Labour candidate for mayor, but in the election of 2000 Livingstone stood against him as an independent, and won. Here he was in charge of transport again. He had the power to set fares and to introduce road pricing for London, and this he did, by his introduction of the central London Congestion Charge, with the money raised going into public transport. The Tube being ‘at capacity’, he improved the bus network so as to accommodate as many as possible of the motorists who would now leave their cars at home. (London buses now provide a de luxe service – they’re regular and well maintained – and almost half the people using them pay nothing to do so, being under eighteen or of pensionable age.

C. 20–1, 85, 101, 127, 128, 132 Barlow, Peter William 95 Barlow, William Henry 95 Barman, Christian 157, 160–1, 179, 186, 213 Barnes, Julian 72, 259 Barnett, Henrietta 176 Baron’s Court 60 bars 39, 40 Battersea 274 Battersea Power Station 141 Bayswater 36, 57, 114 see also Queensway Bayswater, Paddington & Holborn Bridge Railway 26 Beaumont, Maureen 196 Beck, Harry 66, 199–203, 270 Behave Yourself (Roberts) 214–15 Bell, John 44 Belsize Park 220, 230 Bendy Bus 242 Bennett, Arnold xi, 30, 80–1, 166, 172, 280 Berger, John 153–4 Bethnal Green 229–30, 255 Betjeman, John 267 Aldersgate station 33 Central Line 119 City & South London 104 commuters 167 District Line 59 Epping-Ongar line 209 Marylebone station 75, 78 Metroland 169, 170–2, 174 South Kentish Town 264 Betjeman (Wilson) 170 Betjeman Country (Delaney) 172–3 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 42 Big Tube 105, 120–5, 130, 158, 159, 182, 191, 206 Birmingham, Peggy and Jack 232 Bishop’s Road 37 Bishopsgate 57 see also Liverpool Street Black, Jeremy 166 Black, Misha 270 Blackfriars 61, 111 Blackpool 84 Blair, Tony 249, 251, 252, 259 Blake, Neil 268 Blake Hall 209 Blakemore Hotel 58 Bleeding London (Nicholson) 165 Blomfield, Arthur 54–5 Boat Race 60, 80 bombs air-raid shelters 224–33 Edgware Road 69 Bond Street 117, 274 Borough 104 Boston Manor 189 Bradley, Simon 55 Bramwell MD 153 Brent Cross 178 bridges 52, 54, 55, 60, 80, 81 Briggs, Thomas 16–17 Brighton 84 British Gas 249 British Museum 152, 263 British Rail 76, 113, 123 British Railways 234 British Transport Commission 233–4, 239 Brittain, Vera 232–3 Bromley 244 Bromley-by-Bow 59, 244 Brompton & Piccadilly Circus Railway 150 see also Great Northern Piccadilly and Brompton Railway Brompton Road 183 Brown, Mike 277 Bruce-Partington Plans, The (Conan Doyle) 63 Brunel, Isambard Kingdom 42, 86, 88, 89 Brunel, Marc 86–90, 95 Buchanan Report 242–3 Buckhurst Hill 208 Buckingham Palace 261 Buffalo Bill’s British Wild West (Gallop) 60 Bull & Bush 144, 176 Bulwer-Lytton, Edward 97 Burnt Oak 178 Bus We Loved, The (Elborough) 17–18, 157 buses East London Line 92 Gladstone 34 horse-drawn 20–1, 84–5 Livingstone 252 London Transport 192 petrol-driven 148, 149 Pick 223 Routemaster 242 Shillibeer 18–20, 102 UERL 158, 191 Bushey Heath 206 C cable railways 94, 99 Calson Old Face 161 Camden 146, 175, 177, 178, 274 Camden Town 144, 230, 274 Canada Water 93, 250 Canary Wharf (complex) 249, 251 Canary Wharf (station) 250, 251 Canning Town 250 Cannon Street 48 car ownership 240 carriages 1938 stock 211 Big Tube 122 Central Line 114, 116, 117 City & South London Railway 99, 102–3, 104 Metropolitan Railway 38, 51, 77–8 Waterloo & City Railway 112 Yerkes Tubes 147 see also seats Carvel, John 241 Cassel, Sir Ernest 115–16 Castle, Barbara 239 Castling, Harry 82 celebrities 259 Central Line 4, 9, 113–20 Bank 105, 106, 220, 221 colour 199 and Crossrail 275 Epping 76 Epping-Ongar 201, 208–10 Holborn 263 on map 204 New Works programme 205, 207–8, 233 postcards 117 smell 119 stations 116–17, 207–8 Stratford 250 train frequency 115, 118 trains 114–15, 137, 147, 211 Tube Upgrade 255–6 and Waterloo & City Line 113 Central London Railway 101, 113, 114, 115–19, 133, 157–8, 159 Chalfont & Latimer 76, 77 Chalk Farm 146, 220 Chambers, Ajit 263 Chancery Lane 115, 116, 230 Channel tunnel 75 Chapman, Herbert 117 Charing Cross 48, 144, 152, 217 Jubilee Line 153, 240, 247, 249 music 228 Northern Line xii, 133, 175, 181 see also Embankment Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway 129, 130, 133, 144, 148, 157–8, 175 and City & South London 177–81 Golders Green 175–7 South Kentish Town 263–4 see also Northern Line Charmley, Keith 260 Cheap Trains Act 1883 47 Chelsea 274 Chelsea Monster 134, 139–41, 143 Chemin de Fer du Nord 73 Chesham 76–7, 150 Children of Light (Weightman) 83 Chiltern Court 172–3 Chiltern Railways 78 Chorleywood 76 Christie, Agatha 137–8 church interval 142 Churchill, Winston 80, 156, 192, 222–3, 231 Circle Line 48, 52, 66–7 Baker Street 37 colour 66–7 cut-and-cover 28 direction of travel 67 and District Line 61 Edgware Road 68–9 and Hammersmith & City Line 49 Leinster Gardens 59 on map 200 Paddington 37 train frequency 67–8 urban myths 67 see also Inner Circle Citizen Ken (Carvel) 241 City & South London Railway 98–108, 148, 157–8, 159, 175 centenary 271 crest 3 and Hampstead Tube 177–81 Moorgate 3, 122 trains 147 tunnelling 131 see also Northern Line City of London 11, 12, 13, 16, 21, 106, 166 Big Tube 121 Central Line 116 Metropolitan Railway 26–7, 35 Morgan Tube 133 New Road 17–18 Pearson’s plan 25–6 City of London & Southwark Subway 98–9 City Thameslink 57 City Widened Lines 51–7, 121 Clapham 99 Clapham Common 81, 105, 179, 230 Clapham North 105, 230 Clapham South 230 classes 38, 45–7, 101, 123 Clouded Yellow, The 153 Cockfosters 182, 279 Colindale 178, 179 Coming Race, The (Bulwer-Lytton) 97 Coming Up for Air (Orwell) 170 Commercial Railway 13 Conan Doyle, Arthur 63 Congestion Charge 252 Connor, J. E. 263 Conspirator 153 Cooper, Austin xiii Corporation of London 10, 13, 22, 25, 27, 110, 113 Covent Garden xiii, 165, 261 Cowan, Paul 196–7 Cranley Gardens 206 Creep 137, 249 Cromwell Curve 62–3 Croome, Desmond F. 123, 127, 147, 261 Cross, Mr 257–8 Crossrail 17, 255, 274–5 Crouch End 205, 206 culex molestus 228 Cunningham, Granville C. 97, 119 Curwen, Harold 161 cut-and-cover lines v, 6, 28 air-raid shelters 228–9 District Line 79 electrification 134 glass roofs 31, 33 on map 204 Metropolitan Railway 28, 75 pigeons 259–60 trains 33, 45 tunnels 35–6 Cutler, Horace 241 D Daily Express 149 Daily Mail 41, 101, 118 Davies, Philip 22 Day, Robin 197 Day (Epstein) 188–9 de Vries, Jean 202–3 dead man’s handle 103–4 Death Line xiv, 153 deep-level lines see Tubes Delaney, Frank 172–3 Demuth, Tim 198 Deptford Power Station 84 Design and Industries Association 160, 161, 186 Designed for London (Green) 187 Development (Loan Guarantees and Grants) Act 1929 182 Diary of a Nobody, The (Grossmith) 167 Dickens, Charles 13–14, 15, 22 Dickens, Monica 242 disability discrimination legislation 213, 216 Discoveries and Inventions of the Nineteenth Century (Routledge) 36 ‘District Dave’s London Underground Site’ 45 District Line v, 8–9, 28, 59–62, 134, 158 bomb 69 Brunel tunnel 90 and Circle Line 68 colour 199, 200 and Crossrail 275 and East London Railway 91 Edgware Road 68 electrification 126, 135 expansion 71, 79–81, 179 Gladstone’s funeral train 33 Hammersmith 50 Heathrow 184 hustlers 214 Inner Circle 64–6, 91 Leinster Gardens 59 on maps 66 and Metropolitan Railway 57 moquette 6, 270 Paddington 37 passenger numbers 64, 84 and Piccadilly Line 182 roundel 159 Southend 198 trains 210, 212 Westminster 261 “District Line, The” (Milburn) 59 District Railway see Metropolitan District Railway Dobson, Frank 252 Docklands 249 Docklands Light Railway (DLR) 92, 250, 277, 279 Doddinghurst 209–10 Dollis Brook Viaduct 205 Dollis Hill xii, 247 Dombey and Son (Dickens) 13–14, 15 Doré, Gustave 52, 54 Dover Street 231 see also Green Park Down Street 183, 231–2 Drain, The see Waterloo & City Line Drayton Park 121, 122, 124, 125 Dreiser, Theodore 141 drinking 73 bars 39, 40 drunks 258 drivers communications 216, 217 Victoria Line 235–6 E Ealing Broadway 66, 71, 80, 120, 207 Earl’s Court xiii, 60, 79, 217, 261 Early Tube Railways (Pennick) 131 East Finchley 179 East London Line 64, 90–4 East London Railway Company 90 East Putney 81 Eastenders 59 Edgware 69, 178, 206 Edgware Road (Bakerloo Line) 69, 143, 232 Edgware Road (Circle, District and Hammersmith & City Lines) 68–70 Edgware Road (Metropolitan Railway) 18, 31 Eisenhower, General 230 Elborough, Travis 17–18, 157 Electric Lighting Act 1882 84 Electrical Multiple Units 112–13, 119, 147, 211 electricity 82–3 Betjeman 171–2 Central Line 118–19 Chelsea Monster 139–41 electrocution 137–9 signalling 136–7 electrification 86, 125, 134, 135–6 City & South London Railway 99–101, 103 East London Railway 91 Epping-Ongar line 209 LNER 205–6 Metropolitan Line 44, 56, 76, 126, 135, 141, 171, 233 Elephant & Castle 98, 99, 130, 143, 261 Eleven Minutes Late (Engel) 15 Elgin Marbles 152 Eliot, T.

pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

A group of private investors has partially resuscitated the high-speed connection between Miami and Tampa that Florida’s governor opted not to support. But the most effective way to fund new transit and high-speed rail is to redirect a larger share of the gas tax toward such projects. It is time to level the playing field for mass transit by reducing the outright subsidy we give to the car in the form of roads and highways. Cities in other parts of the world, including London, have begun to institute congestion charges, which make drivers pay for their use of busy roads to help alleviate traffic, sprawl, and pollution. New developments like self-driving cars, electric vehicles, and on-demand digital delivery systems, such as Uber and Lyft, will certainly play a big role in the city of the future. But we still need mass transit to provide the connective fiber that will increase clustering and enable the development of a larger number of dense, mixed-use clustered neighborhoods that are affordable to more people.

See creative class; middle class; service class; working class class divide, xix, 5 economic segregation and, 121–123 gentrification and, 78 geography of, 12, 121–122, 149 in Patchwork Metropolis, 12, 122–124 in suburbs, 121–122, 154, 162–163 in superstar cities, 123–124 Clinton, Hillary, xx, 164, 185, 188 clustering back-to-the-city movement and, 124 in capitalism, 33 contradictions of, 8–9, 33 economic growth from, 166, 191 factors in, 123–124 of firms and industries, 21, 33 New Urban Luddism limiting, 28 of talent, xiv, xvii–xviii, xx, 8, 15, 21, 33, 42, 149 in winner-take-all urbanism, 13–14 working for all, 11, 191–195 CMU. See Carnegie Mellon University college graduates educational segregation of, 103–104, 105 (table), 111, 219 middle class and, 203 variable of, 220 colleges, 66 Coming Apart (Murray), 121–122 commuting, 158–160 Composite Inequality Index, 88, 89 (fig.), 192, 218 congestion charges, 198 connectivity, 181–183 conservatism, 112, 190, 204, 222 Cook, Philip J., 14 corporations, real estate owned by, 39 cost of living minimum wage and, 205 in superstar cities, 18–19 Council of Cities, 211 Cowen, Tyler, 192 crabgrass frontier, 190 creative class advantages of, xviii, 108, 149 attacks on, xvi defined, 217 economic segregation of, 104–108, 106 (table), 111, 149, 219 elites and, 36 gentrification and, 60 housing costs and, 37–38, 48, 55 location of, xiv, 108, 123, 149 in New York City, 35–37 in Patchwork Metropolis, 122–124, 129–149 race and, 115 rise of, xiv, 46, 48, 115, 142 specific occupations of, 221 in startup cities, 46–48 wages of, 31–32 creativity higher-paying service jobs promoting, 206 in startup cities, 46–47, 50–55, 52 (fig.)

pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk,, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

World Bank, “Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must Be Avoided,” report for the World Bank by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and Climate Analytics, November 1, 2012. 19. Ibid. 20. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report.” 21. Jim Robbins, “Building an Ark for the Anthropocene,” New York Times, September 27, 2014. 22. “London Congestion Charge,” Wikipedia, 23. “Living Sustainably,” Cornell University, 24. U.S. PIRG Education Fund, “Millennials in Motion: Changing Travel Habits of Young Americans and the Implications for Public Policy,” October 14, 2014, 25. INET Logistics, “The Next Gold Mine: The Industrialisation of Road Freight Transport,” 26. uShip website, 27.

pages: 512 words: 165,704

Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (And What It Says About Us) by Tom Vanderbilt

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, call centre, cellular automata, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, congestion charging, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, DARPA: Urban Challenge, endowment effect, extreme commuting, fundamental attribution error, Google Earth, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, Induced demand, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, megacity, Milgram experiment, Nash equilibrium, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, statistical model, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, traffic fines, ultimatum game, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor

After all, as Vickrey pointed out in 1963, hotels charge more for in-season rooms, railways and airlines charge more for peak travel periods, and telephone companies charge more during the times when more people are likely to call—why should roads not cost more when more people want to use them? (Vickrey was a bit ahead of his time: Told in the early 1960s that there was no way to track where people drove, or how much they drove, Vickrey, the story goes, built a cheap radio transmitter and installed it in his car, displaying the results to friends.) Congestion charging, in cities like London and Stockholm, has been shown to work because it forces people to make a decision about—and gives them a precise benchmark against which to measure—whether a given trip is “worth it.” We may have been paying before, in time—which hardly helps fund the roads—but the human mind handles time differently than money. We seem less sensitive to the value of time, even if, unlike money, time can never be regained.

Alfredo Hernández García, executive director of traffic control and engineering at the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública of the Gobierno del Distrito Federal, opened up the city’s Traffic Management Center in the Colonia Obrera. Thanks also to Claudia Adeath at Muévete por tu Ciudad, which deserves kudos for trying to calm Mexico City’s often hostile traffic. In England, thanks to Malcolm Murray-Clark, Director of Congestion Charging in London, and Phil Davis, at Transport for London’s London Traffic Control Centre. Peter Weeden of the Royal Kensington Borough Council graciously offered his time and expertise. John Adams, professor emeritus at University College London, offered his always trenchant thoughts on risk. At the Transport Research Laboratory in Wokingham, Janet Kennedy shared her expertise and the lab’s driving simulator.

Fisman and Edward Miguel, “Cultures of Corruption: Evidence from Diplomatic Parking Tickets,” NBER Working Paper No. W12312 (June 2006). Retrieved at the city of London: Retrieved from Channel Four News Online, tops+45m/569892. pays the charge: Nicola Woolcock, “Nations Unite to Join a Boycott of Congestion Charge,” Times (London), February 21, 2007. norms regarding them: This is why we can often see compliance with traffic laws differing even within a country. In Italy, corruption is more endemic in the south than the north, for reasons, as mentioned in an earlier note, having to do with varying degrees of civic culture. And so as the state seems to gradually wither away the farther south you go, so too does the traffic behavior come to have less to do with the law.

Driverless Cars: On a Road to Nowhere by Christian Wolmar

Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, BRICs, carbon footprint, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, deskilling, Diane Coyle, don't be evil, Elon Musk, high net worth, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Tesla Model S, Travis Kalanick, wikimedia commons, Zipcar

As I suggest in the final chapter, there are solutions that are not dependent on the future development of technology that would better address the problems of the congestion and pollution caused by our obsession with the private car. Indeed, they could be introduced tomorrow if politicians were brave enough. Some cities are already travelling in the right direction. As I write xii Preface this preface, Oxford has announced that it is seeking to be the first British city to ban all petrol and diesel cars and vans from its city centre by 2020. London’s congestion charge, introduced more than a decade ago, has reduced the numbers of cars going into the centre, and could easily be extended. Further afield, many European cities, such as Hamburg and Helsinki, have strategies to cut car use, and Paris recently announced that it will ban all non-electric cars by 2030. Expect many more such initiatives, which are a far more realistic response to urban transport problems than the one promoted by the advocates of driverless cars.

pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden,, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks 13. 31 October 2014. ‘ICICI Bank, Axis Bank tie up for electronic toll collection programme’. The Hindu Business Line. 14. ‘Congestion Charge’. Transport for London. ‘Electronic Road Pricing’. Land Transport Authority, Singapore government. 15. 1 November 2005. ‘Road Transport Service Efficiency Study’. World Bank. NOV2005.pdf 8.

pages: 124 words: 38,034

Journey to Crossrail by Stephen Halliday

active transport: walking or cycling, Ada Lovelace, Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, wikimedia commons

An existing depot at Ilford will be used instead. The line will be operated by MTR Corporation (Crossrail) Ltd on behalf of Transport for London, which is also responsible, under the Mayor of London, for the London Underground, the London bus services, taxis, river transport, the Docklands Light Railway and the suburban rail routes into the capital known as London Overground. It also administers the congestion charge and the so-called Boris Bikes (actually the brainchild of Ken Livingstone, Boris Johnson’s predecessor as Mayor), which are now sponsored by Santander. Services will begin from the central area in December 2018 and the entire system, from Reading and Heathrow to Shenfield and the rebuilt Abbey Wood station, is expected to be in operation by December 2019. The so-called Boris bikes, which were actually conceived by Boris Johnson’s predecessor as Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, as a low-tech, pollution-free answer to London’s congested streets.

pages: 161 words: 38,039

The Serious Guide to Joke Writing: How to Say Something Funny About Anything by Sally Holloway

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, congestion charging, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Kickstarter, lateral thinking

Do kids with toy cars get traffic jams in their rooms? That’s a nice idea. Then go down another level and start thinking of other things to do with traffic jams and see if they apply to kids playing with toy cars. My kid has got so many cars that his bedroom looks like the M25 during rush hour. He’s six. He’s already got road rage. Mind you I did dock his pocket money to pay the congestion charge. As you can see, this is a much more fruitful way of using joke-webs. Question: Why do I find it hard to make joke-webs work when I’m on my own? Answer: That might be because when you do a group joke-web, you talk each stage through, which makes you think each stage through. If you do a joke-web on your own and just glance at the result you could miss loads of jokes. The answer is to be a crazy joke writer, say things out loud even if you are on your own and the joy is, because you’re on your own no-one is judging you.

Berlitz Pocket Guide Stockholm by Berlitz

centre right, congestion charging, low cost airline, Lyft

Car hire (see also Budgeting for your trip) In reality, visitors to Stockholm and the numerous attractions in its immediate vicinity will find that having a car is more of a hindrance than assistance. The public transport system is superb and the numerous boats that ply the waters of the archipelago and Lake Mälaren are an attraction in their own right. Besides that, car hire, like petrol, is not inexpensive, with an average minimum overnight rate of 1,000kr, and the penalties for speeding and other restrictions are severe. There is also a congestion charge for entering the city centre reaching SEK35 at peak hours. However, notwithstanding that, if you are planning to tour around the country, or just feel you want a car, then hiring a car before you go can avoid any uncertainties. There are Avis, Rent a Car, Europcar, Budget and Hertz car hire offices at Arlanda Airport. If you decide to hire once you are in Stockholm, then you can contact Avis, tel: 010-49 48 050; Europcar, tel: 08-21 06 50; Budget, tel: 8503 83 333; or Hertz, tel: 08 454-62 50.

pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, twin studies, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

The planet-shaped hole is the book that needs to be written on bringing the environmental and social determinants of health agendas together. Sustainable development has taught us the importance of equity between generations as well as within. And I would argue that discussions on preserving the planet must take equity within this generation into account – within and between countries. For example, congestion charging – charging you if you drive your car into the central city – is a good ‘green’ tax. But like all consumption taxes it tends to be regressive, in that it takes a higher proportion of a poor person’s income than of a rich person’s. I have raised this in environmental circles and been told: don’t spoil a perfectly good tax by worrying about equity. I am tempted to retort: don’t damage equity with your perfectly good taxes.

., here Colombia, here, here Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, here Commission on Global Governance for Health, here, here Commission on Macroeconomics and Health (CMH), here Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here see also Closing the Gap; European Review of Social Determinants and the Health Divide; Fair Society, Healthy Lives communism, and health outcomes, here congestion charging, here contraception, here, here cooking stoves, here Copenhagen, here cortisol, here, here Costa Rica, here, here life expectancy, here, here, here, here, here, here pre-school education, here cotton farmers, here, here Coubertin, Baron Pierre de, here crèches, here crime, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here fear of, here, here, here see also delinquency; gangs Cuba, here life expectancy, here, here, here, here, here, here pre-school education, here, here cultural sensitivity, here Czech Republic, here, here, here Daily Mail, here Daily Telegraph, here Deaton, Angus, here debt repayments, here, here delinquency, here, here, here, here dementia, here democracy, and freedom, here Democratic Republic of Congo, here Denmark, here, here, here social mobility, here, here depression, here, here, here deprivation, European measure of, here, here development states, here diabetes, here, here, here, here and adverse childhood experience, here, here in Australian aboriginals, here Dickens, Charles, here, here, here, here, here, here diet and disease, here Mediterranean, here ‘difference principle’, here disability, and life expectancy, here disempowerment, here, here, here, here Dominican Republic, here, here, here Dostoevsky, Fyodor, here Drèze, Jean, here, here, here, here drug regimens, adherence to, here drug use, here, here, here, here, here, here and adverse childhood experience, here Duflo, Esther, here, here, here Dylan, Bob, here Easterly, William, here Ebola, here economic growth, here, here economic inequality, see income inequalities Economist, here, here, here education and cash-transfer schemes, here and fertility rates, here Finnish system,, here, here, here, here gender equity in, here and intimate partner violence, here and life expectancy, here, here and material deprivation, here and measures of ill-health, here pre-school, here, here, here, here social gradient in, here university education, here, here, here, here, here, here, here women and secondary education, here women and tertiary education, here Egypt, obesity levels, here, here, here, here Eisenhower, Dwight D., here employment conditions, here see also unemployment empowerment, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and education, here and health behaviours, here political, here and social participation, here England, see United Kingdom English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), here, here English Review, see Fair Society, Healthy Lives epigenetics, here equality of opportunity, here, here, here Estonia, here, here Ethiopia, here, here European Central Bank, here, here, here European Review of Social Determinants and the Health Divide, here, here, here, here, here, here Evans, Robert, here Evelyn, John, here Everington, Sam, here exercise, see physical activity Experience Corps, here Fair Society, Healthy Lives, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here fairness (definition), here fecklessness, here, here, here, here fertility rates, here Financial Times, here Finland, here, here, here, here education system, here, here, here, here gender equity in education, here fire fighters, here, here, here Fitzgerald, F.

World Cities and Nation States by Greg Clark, Tim Moonen

active transport: walking or cycling, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, business climate, cleantech, congestion charging, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent control, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

The Greater London Authority Act that set up the new mayoral system left many opportunities for central government to intervene in city government activity (for example, to impose a minimum budget for police or for transport). Central government also gave only modest funding to the London Development Agency (now closed down) and the surrounding Regional Development Agencies. But it did also create legislation allowing the city to introduce a Congestion Charge scheme and agree a ten‐year transport investment plan to pay for major rail and bus improvements. In the past decade the UK government has decided to manage the stresses of London’s world city growth path rather than intervene to change the formula for success. It has focused on promoting London as an international city and sought to manage the growth it brings by improving public service delivery, high‐capacity transport, social inclusion and quality of life.

In return, London did not challenge the growing net fiscal outflows (in the region of £15 billion +/− £5 billion in most years since 1990) to the rest of the UK that resulted from its success. The post‐2000 citywide government system has fostered an increase in innovation in the way major projects are financed. Although the new transport authority (TfL) has received central government grants, it has also been authorised to ­borrow without the consent of central government (but within ‘prudential’, official rules), and has been able to use the city’s Congestion Charge to generate net revenue of over £1 billion. A new funding structure was agreed for the £15 billion cost of Crossrail – one‐third central government grant, 30% from London business rates and an infrastructure levy, and almost all the rest from the city government (GLA) and TfL. Even the £9 billion public sector funding for the London Olympics was only two-thirds provided by central government, with the city government and National Lottery paying the rest.

pages: 195 words: 52,701

Better Buses, Better Cities by Steven Higashide

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, business process, congestion charging, decarbonisation, Elon Musk, Hyperloop, income inequality, intermodal, jitney, Lyft, mass incarceration, Pareto efficiency, performance metric, place-making, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart cities, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

After my family moved to the suburbs of New Jersey, I didn’t take a public bus again until high school, when my friends and I visited Manhattan. Like many people, I mostly found buses confusing but easy to ignore. How buses worked was secret knowledge, written down in obscure pamphlets I never tried to track down. That changed when I spent a college semester in London. By 2006, London was in the midst of an incredible transformation of its transportation network. Three years earlier, the city had introduced a “congestion charge,” tolling private vehicles entering busy central neighborhoods. It vastly expanded its bus network to prepare for the change and carpeted its streets with miles of red bus-only lanes. The buses were fast, cruising past lines of taxis and trucks. They were easy to use, with a quick tap of the “Oyster” smartcard granting access. They felt ubiquitous, arriving often and seemingly going to every place.

pages: 872 words: 259,208

A History of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr

air freight, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Beeching cuts, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brixton riot, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, congestion charging, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, loadsamoney, market design, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open borders, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Piper Alpha, Red Clydeside, reserve currency, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War

By 1970 there were 12 million and by the end of the century, more than 24 million, ten times as many in half a century. This only gives part of the picture, because these cars are also used much more, going further and for longer. In the last fifteen years of the century, car journeys increased by nearly 30 per cent. Year by year, despite propaganda for a healthier lifestyle, high fuel taxes, congestion charging and widespread worry about global warming, the British drive more and walk, cycle or use buses less. In the days of Marples it was believed that such an increase would also mean vastly more Britons being killed and maimed on the roads. This is one gloomy prediction that has been robustly disproved. Safety campaigns from the Tufty Club of the fifties to the Green Cross Code have had their effect but the real reason is that the British, who think of themselves as lovers of liberty, have allowed their freedom to be drastically curtailed on the roads.

When they first appeared in the early nineties, gazing beadily down from a few high-security buildings, these remotely staring cameras were pointed out as novelties. They are now in almost every sizeable store, looking down at key points in most big streets, in railway and underground stations, buses, housing estates and even from the fronts of private homes. Londoners are said to be picked up on CCTV cameras on average 300 times a day; their cars are filmed and tracked by the cameras set up for the capital’s congestion charge. The Home Office has spent three-quarters of its crime prevention budget on CCTV cameras and the face-recognition and ‘smart’ technology that goes with them. The number of mobile phones is now equivalent to the number of people in Britain; with global satellite positioning chips, they can show where their users are, and the same of course goes for GPS systems in cars (by 2007 Britons were losing the art of map-reading).

Meanwhile, to enjoy the consumer economy, the British were borrowing: the average adult had credit card, finance-deal and unsecured personal loans amounting to more than £4,500. Apart from generous planning laws, the shopping boom required the ‘great car economy’ lauded by Margaret Thatcher, which was now restrained only by rising petrol prices and congestion. London had deployed its own congestion charge and a national debate had begun about road pricing. Car use was huge by historic standards. At the beginning of the sixties when supermarkets first took off, there were 9 million vehicles on the roads; by the mid-2000s, there were 30 million. It was not all shopping, of course. Commuting by car had become mundane and the number of journeys to school by car had doubled in ten years. By the standards of the forties or fifties, the British now led strikingly privatized lives.

pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

In many cities the taxi industry is slow to change, but the fact that taxis are managed at a city level does mean that the service can be tuned for the demands and traditions of each city, so that taxis have become iconic in cities such as New York and London. The taxi service is just one part of a larger traffic management problem that cities continually struggle with, and municipal governance allows it to be balanced with other parts of the urban transit landscape such as bus services and subway services, and to fit in with other management techniques such as congestion charging. The sheer number of cities around the world also means that transit innovations can be and are imitated from city to city, such as the municipal car-sharing and bike-sharing programs that have blossomed in cities around the world over the last decade. From balancing consumer and driver interests, to providing predictable pricing, to ensuring individual cars are safe and that the system as a whole fits into the puzzle that is urban traffic, there is more to transit than a simple market exchange.

pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

There will still be peak times for journeys, so even if most journeys are undertaken in communal cars, many of them will be parked up during off-peak hours. And traffic will still have to halt at intersections every now and then if pedestrians are ever going to be able to cross the road. Not every pedestrian crossing can have a bridge or an underpass. Nevertheless, machine-driven cars will be more efficient consumers of road space than human drivers. Traffic conditions are not fixed fates which once imposed can never improve. A congestion charge has significantly reduced traffic flows in London, and the switch to almost-silent hybrid taxis has made walking the streets of Manhattan an even better experience than it used to be.[cxcix] In any case, more efficient road use is not required to justify the introduction of self-driving cars. The horrendous death and injury toll imposed by human drivers is sufficient, together with the liberation from the boredom and the waste of time caused by commuting.

pages: 265 words: 74,941

The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

“If we could shift all the cities in the Midwest closer to each other,” writes Avent, “and then pick them up and move them nearer to the northeastern corridor, we would go a long way toward restoring the economic viability of many Midwestern cities.” And here is the role of high-speed rail. “We can’t literally do that,” he adds, “but we can effectively accomplish something similar by improving physical links within the Midwest and between it and other regions. We could decongest highways and airports with congestion charges, for instance, and plow the proceeds into high-speed passenger and freight rail connections among Midwestern cities and between the Midwest and the northeastern corridor as well as healthy Canadian metropoles.” High-speed rail offers a mechanism for breathing life back into great industrial cities. It not only shrinks the time it takes to get back and forth between these cities, it also provides a framework for future in-fill development along its corridors.

pages: 235 words: 73,873

Half In, Half Out: Prime Ministers on Europe by Andrew Adonis

banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, congestion charging, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Dominic Cummings, eurozone crisis, imperial preference, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, oil shock

Faced with the not particularly controversial question of giving the proposed Scottish Parliament modest tax-raising powers, Tony imposed a second question in the Scottish devolution referendum in order to avoid an argument with the Tories and the right-wing media on higher taxes north of the border. Later there were referendums on the London mayoralty and a regional assembly for the north-east – essentially matters of local government reorganisation – and even on a proposal for a congestion charge in Manchester. After all this referendumitis, it was going to be hard to avoid an in/out referendum on Europe at some point, particularly with the 1975 precedent, the regular referendums in the rest of the EU, and the rise of UKIP, a party which grew out of the Referendum Party, whose sole policy was an in/out referendum on the EU. Tony led a long way towards this by coming out for a referendum on membership of the euro as one of his first acts of leadership in 1994.

pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics,, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Another scheme, GoLoco, aims to use the power of social networking to revive the flagging culture of sharing cars for commuting. At the moment we have just either very public forms of mass transit – buses and trains – or private cars and cycles. Zipcar and GoLoco’s approach, allowing people to make flexible use of shared transport resources, will become more attractive as more US cities introduce congestion charges to reduce car usage. In the Netherlands, a police inspector in Utrecht has created a system for citizens to help the police in solving crimes, not unlike the approach Rob McKewan took at Goldcorp, and a social-networking site has been created to help people look after one another’s ageing parents: you can sign up to look up someone’s parents in Rotterdam and someone else in the network will reciprocate by looking in on yours in Maastricht.

pages: 309 words: 85,584

Nine Crises: Fifty Years of Covering the British Economy From Devaluation to Brexit by William Keegan

banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, congestion charging, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial thriller, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, inflation targeting, Just-in-time delivery, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shock, Parkinson's law, Paul Samuelson, pre–internet, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, transaction costs, tulip mania, Winter of Discontent, Yom Kippur War

In the 1970s, we were encouraged to get out and about, and lunches with the great and the good were considered an essential part of the work. However, I began to feel I needed a contrast to the daily round of economic statistics, and developed the habit of disappearing from the FT at lunchtime, driving home for a quick lunch to nearby Islington, and spending half an hour or so in my study writing what I hoped would be a bestselling comic novel. In those days there was no congestion charge and parking near the office was cheap and easy. At lunchtime there was very little traffic, and I could be home within ten minutes, and back at the office by 3 p.m. What a leisurely existence it now sounds! At the FT in those days one did not have to show one’s face until 11 a.m., and could disappear after the editor’s morning conference. I seldom worked later than 7 p.m. Under Gordon Newton, my editor for the earlier period, accuracy was prized above scoops.

pages: 301 words: 85,263

New Dark Age: Technology and the End of the Future by James Bridle

AI winter, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, congestion charging, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Snowden, fear of failure, Flash crash, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, late capitalism, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, oil shock, p-value, pattern recognition, peak oil, recommendation engine, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, sorting algorithm, South China Sea, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stem cell, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, Uber for X, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Thus, a kind of dérive for the network: a process of psychogeography intended to discover not some reflection of my own pathology, but that of a globalised, digital collective. As part of a project called ‘The Nor’, I undertook several journeys to map these digital networks,2 starting with the system of surveillance devices that surround the centre of London: sensors and cameras monitoring the Congestion Charge and Low Emission Zones – which track every vehicle entering the city – as well as those scattered more widely by Transport for London and the Metropolitan Police, and the flocks of private cameras installed by businesses and other authorities. In two day-long walks I photographed more than a thousand cameras, enduring a citizen’s arrest and a police caution for my troubles.3 We will return to this theme of surveillance, and the strange atmosphere it generates, later in this book.

pages: 207 words: 86,639

The New Economics: A Bigger Picture by David Boyle, Andrew Simms

Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delayed gratification, deskilling,, energy transition, financial deregulation, financial exclusion, financial innovation, full employment, garden city movement, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, land reform, light touch regulation, loss aversion, mega-rich, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working-age population

Just over a century later, research across all the European capitals into traffic speed put London at the bottom of the league. The average traffic speed, door to door, was 11.8mph.2 The extraordinary aspect of this loss of 0.2mph in a century is that it comes, not just after billions spent on traffic management and urban motorways – on the North and South Circular roads and the M25 – but after the congestion charge introduced by Mayor Ken Livingstone in 2003. Traffic speeds in cities are one of the jokes of the modern age. There is hardly a city in the world where traffic has not choked people’s road space and lungs. But the amazing consistency of London traffic speed implies that, despite all that spending, some other factor is at work here – some other hidden hand. The man who helped uncover what it was and helped to popularize the answer was one of the most 66 THE NEW ECONOMICS unusual transport planners of the century.

pages: 388 words: 211,074

Pauline Frommer's London: Spend Less, See More by Jason Cochran

Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, David Attenborough, Etonian, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Nelson Mandela, Skype, urban planning

Some taxis accept credit cards, but mostly, they are a cash-only concern. Taxis are often called “black cabs,” although in fact 12 colors are registered for them, including “thistle blue” and “nightfire red.” If you need to call a cab, One Number (% 087/1871-8710) pools all the companies, with a surcharge of £2. RENTING A CAR Don’t. Rare is the local who drives in central London, where there’s a mandatory daily “congestion charge” of £8 (don’t believe me? See, and where daily parking fees are several times that. Streets, many of which were cramped even back in medieval times, aren’t much improved today, and are dogged with one-way rules. You’ll go crazy and broke, so why do it? LONDON’S NEIGHBORHOODS The beauty of so many of London’s neighborhoods is that they were laid out and named during a period of wagon and foot traffic, when districts were defined in narrower terms than we define them today; indeed, for centuries people often 06_308691-ch02.qxp 12/23/08 9:53 PM Page 17 London’s Neighborhoods 17 lived complete lives without ever seeing the other side of town.

Considering the high cost of British fuel, the rarity of British parking, and the narrowness of British streets, driving a car is not recommended, but if you are silly enough to do it, make sure you learn how to drive a stick shift before you leave home. Cars with automatic transmissions are inevitably much more expensive than manuals. Driving on the left is easy after a few minutes of pulse-racing acclimation. But if you insist upon wheels to get out of the city, there are rental garages everywhere, although reserving ahead from home yields the best prices. Try to return your car outside the congestion-charge zone to avoid charges and aggravation. You will find similar rates among Nova Car Hire (, Auto Europe (, Europe By Car (, Europcar (, and Holiday Autos ( Also check the major names like Avis, Hertz, and Budget, in case they can do better. Air conditioning, something you won’t need, adds about £4 to the daily bill.

pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

In 1999, Newman and Kenworthy, citing a 1995 study published in the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, concluded that “there is no guarantee that congestion pricing will simultaneously improve congestion and sustainability.” They mentioned several ways in which congestion pricing can defy the expectations of its supporters, among them by causing motorists to “drive exactly as they always have if the congestion charge is covered by their firms (e.g., a majority of London’s peak-hour commuters have company cars and perks)” and by causing them to “drive more as they shift to ‘rat-running’ through suburban streets to avoid congestion-priced streets.”46 Advocates of congestion pricing usually argue that traffic jams waste gasoline, since cars stalled in traffic burn fuel when they’re not moving.j That’s true, but the energy waste and carbon output attributable to idling cars is vastly smaller than the energy waste and carbon output attributable to the overall transportation network, which generates waste both directly (by encouraging unnecessary driving) and indirectly (by encouraging forms of development that can be sustained only through huge new energy inputs and an ever-expanding web of energy-hungry infrastructure).

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage,, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Kintinuous Kiva Klapper, Leora Kline, Patrick Knack Kochan, Tom Kopecky, Karen Kremer, Michael Krieger, Mike Krueger, Alan Krugman, Paul Kurzweil, Ray Kuznets, Simon labor: capital replacement of churn in crowdsourcing of demand elasticity and digital partnerships with digitization and; see also “winner-take-all” markets incentives for input limits on non-digitized recessions and skill matrix for see also employment; productivity; wages labor, skilled: benefits of technology for contribution of immigration to creation of labor, unskilled: declining wages of technology’s replacement of Laeven, Luc Lakhani, Karim land taxes Leiserson, William Leonard, John Leontief, Wassily Levine, Uri Levy, Frank Lickel, Charles LIDAR Liebling, A. J. Lindbergh, Charles LinkedIn Lionbridge living standards, calculation of Lohr, Steve London, congestion charging in Longitude Prize Loria, Roberto Luca, Michael Ludd, Ned Luddite Fallacy Lusardi, Annamaria Lyft machine-to-machine (M2M) communication Macintosh Madigan, Kathleen Mandel, Michael Mankiw, Greg manufacturing: automation in importance of infrastructure to inelastic demand in organizational coinventions in U.S. employment in wages in maps, digital Marberry, Mike Marbles, Jenna Mariel boatlift Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl massive online open courses (MOOCs) McAfee, Andrew McCarthy, John McDevitt, Ryan McFadden, Daniel McKinsey Mechanical Turk medicine: AI use in automation in diagnostic Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center “meta-ideas,” Michel, Jean-Baptiste Microsoft Milgrom, Paul military, U.S., robot use by Minsky, Marvin MIT, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab at Mitchell, Tom Mitra, Sugata MITx Montessori, Maria Monthly Labor Review Moore, Gordon Moore’s Law in business in computing persistence of spread of Moravec, Hans Moravec’s paradox Morris, Ian mortgages Mullis, Kary multidimensional poverty index Munster, Gene Murnane, Richard Murray, Charles music, digitization of Nader, Ralph Narrative Science NASA National Academy of Sciences National Association of Realtors National Bureau of Economic Research National Review Nature of Technology, The (Arthur) Neiman, Brent New Digital Age, The (Schmidt and Cohen) New Division of Labor, The (Levy and Murnane) Newell, Al new growth theory New York Times Next Convergence, The (Spence) Nike Nixon, Richard Nordhaus, William numbers: development of large Occupy movement oDesk Oh, Joo Hee Olshansky, S.

pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, longitudinal study, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

He had read it and peppered me about congestion pricing. He didn’t like it, or so it seemed. It was unfair, unworkable, and likely would hurt business. I countered and parried and thought I gained some ground but it was hard to tell. His first term came and went with nary a mention of congestion pricing. In 2003, however, things changed. Mayor Ken Livingstone turned London into the first Western city to implement congestion charging, as they called it.f I was jealous, of course. Congestion pricing was invented in New York decades before by a professor at Columbia but London beat us to it. Competition is a powerful thing, especially to a man like Mike Bloomberg. After London beat New York in the competition for hosting the 2012 Olympics, the mayor got, shall we say, motivated. In 2007 he took up the cause. He got about as far as anyone, which is to say, not very far.

pages: 297 words: 95,518

Ten Technologies to Save the Planet: Energy Options for a Low-Carbon Future by Chris Goodall

barriers to entry, carbon footprint, congestion charging, decarbonisation, energy security, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, land tenure, load shedding, New Urbanism, oil shock, profit maximization, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, undersea cable

Many people still say that the demise of this car, the EV 1, was hastened by the opposition of the oil industry, but the unfortunate reality was that this vehicle was simply not good enough—it didn’t have the performance of the Roadster or the simplicity of the glorified electric golf carts that trundle around some California communities. The second major market for electric cars is in England. Fuel taxation is high by international standards, so electric propulsion looks like particularly good value. Car owners also have to pay a yearly tax on their vehicle, but low-carbon cars pay little or nothing. Perhaps most importantly, the “congestion charge” imposed on vehicles entering and leaving central London exempts electric cars. Unsurprisingly, then, the world’s small band of electric car manufacturers has made the city a focus for their sales efforts. The Indian manufacturer of the G-Wiz has sold over a thousand of its spectacularly ugly electric cars to London’s commuters. Until recently, this manufacturer used the old-fashioned lead-acid battery (the type that powers the starter motors in gas cars), and this limits the range of the car to a few tens of miles.

pages: 293 words: 90,714

Copenhagenize: The Definitive Guide to Global Bicycle Urbanism by Mikael Colville-Andersen

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, car-free, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Enrique Peñalosa, functional fixedness, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, out of africa, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, sharing economy, smart cities, starchitect, transcontinental railway, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

Prioritizing cycling, it turns out, is good for the city—and your personal brand. CURB THE PARASITES In prioritizing cycling, we have to identify where, how but also who. When I was working in Ferrara, Italy, I was studying a map with a colleague who works for the City. He was filling me in about the various bicycle-friendly initiatives in place. For example, Ferrara doesn’t have a congestion charge for its historic center—it has a congestion ban. Nonresidents are not allowed to enter by car, and trucks transporting goods must pay a fee. Eight cameras are installed around the city to photograph number plates. If you’re caught in the city without a permit, you are fined €100. Ah, simplicity. Ferrara enjoys a bicycle modal share of around 30 percent. My colleague was telling me about a main route through the city—outside the historic center—and the plans to tackle the motorists who use it.

The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good by Robert H. Frank

carbon footprint, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, congestion charging, corporate governance, deliberate practice, full employment, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, smart grid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, winner-take-all economy

Jacoby, “Probabilistic Forecast for 21st Century Climate Based on Uncertainties in Emissions (without Policy) and Climate Parameters,” MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Report 169, January 2009. 5. “Climate Change Policy and CO2 Emissions from Passenger Vehicles,” Congressional Budget Office, October 6, 2008, 6. 7. Jonathan Leape, “The London Congestion Charge,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(4), Fall 2006: 157–176. 8. Henry Goldman, “New York City Council Approves Manhattan Traffic Fees,”, April 1, 2008, 7y4&pid=newsarchive. 9. Keith Bradsher, High and Mighty, New York: Public Affairs, 2002. 10. Jonathan Gruber and Sendhil Mullainathan, “Do Cigarette Taxes Make Smokers Happier?”

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

The most obvious way to offer a social contract is to commit to a period of budget deficit reduction associated with the ring-­fencing of expenditure that might benefit younger generations: that means continued support for education, infrastructure and children’s health but a serious reduction in public 244 4099.indd 244 29/03/13 2:23 PM Avoiding Dystopia spending elsewhere, including a substantial reduction in, say, defence spending or social benefits. That won’t be easy: either services will shrink or, instead, they will have to be paid for privately (indeed, with the spread of new technologies, services that hitherto have been provided out of the public purse could easily be charged for: London’s Congestion Charge could not possibly have worked without the technologies that automatically read number plates and charge (and fine) drivers according to their trips into central London). Ultimately, however, it’s a choice between benefits today – which will damage our long-­term prospects – or investment for tomorrow. A NEW MONETARY FRAMEWORK Monetary policy alone cannot solve the Western world’s economic ills.

pages: 279 words: 90,888

The Lost Decade: 2010–2020, and What Lies Ahead for Britain by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, centre right, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Attenborough, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy transition, Etonian, first-past-the-post, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Dyson, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, moral panic, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Right to Buy, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, smart meter, Uber for X, urban renewal, working-age population

Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield forged post-industrial identities, some enthusiastically led by newly elected mayors. Croydon, hurt by the 2011 disturbances, regrouped. In the midst of austerity, some councils took courageous steps: Birmingham expanded pedestrian zones in the centre; Edinburgh announced monthly car-free days; Nottingham put a levy on workplace parking; Bath and Bristol moved towards congestion charging, Oxford towards a central-area car ban. Raising the Take Civic renewal has a long way to go. So much depends on reforming another legacy of the 2010s: the rickety financial underpinnings of councils. Tory policy forced them to rely entirely on what they could raise through council tax and their shaky business rates. But places differ markedly in their prosperity and taxable capacity, so, as Peter Kenway of the New Policy Institute warned, this policy would break the link between a place’s need and its ability to raise funds.

The Rough Guide to England by Rough Guides

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bike sharing scheme, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, Columbine, congestion charging, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Downton Abbey, Edmond Halley, Etonian, food miles, haute cuisine, housing crisis, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, period drama, plutocrats, Plutocrats, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl

You then get the first 30min on a bike free, so if you hop from docking station to docking station you don’t pay another penny. Otherwise, it’s £2 for each additional 30min. For more details see Bike rental London Bicycle Tour Company, 1a Gabriel Wharf on the South Bank (020 7923 6838,, has bikes for rent (£3.50–4/hr; £20–24/day). The congestion charge All vehicles entering central London on weekdays between 7am and 6pm are liable to a congestion charge of £11.50 per vehicle (£10.50 if you sign up online to pay automatically each time you travel in the zone; vehicles that don’t meet certain emission standards have to pay an additional £10/day emissions surcharge). Pay the charge online or over the phone (lines open Mon–Fri 8am–10pm, Sat 9am–3pm; 0343 222 2222,, before midnight; paying the following day costs £14; 24 hours later, you’ll be liable for a £130 Penalty Charge Notice (reduced to £65 if you pay within fourteen days).

Snow, ice, fog and wind can cause havoc – and there has been major flooding in the past few years – and driving conditions, on motorways as much as in rural areas, can deteriorate quickly. Local radio stations feature regularly updated traffic bulletins, as does the Highways Agency ( or England just has one Toll Road, the M6 in the Midlands, as well as tolls on the Dartford crossing and various bridges, but congestion charges apply in London. Fuel is pricey – unleaded petrol (gasoline) and diesel in particular. Out-of-town supermarkets usually have the lowest prices, while the highest prices are charged by motorway service stations. Parking in towns, cities and popular tourist spots can be a nightmare and often costs a small fortune. A yellow line along the edge of the road indicates parking restrictions; check the nearest sign to see exactly what they are.

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, linked data, low cost airline, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Norwich Union is already conducting trials of a similar idea in the UK, whereby risks are calculated in real time and payment is made monthly in arrears bundled up with other services such as route planning and emergency roadside assistance. Another idea already taking off is the pay-as-you-go car. The notion that everyone needs their own vehicle is beginning to sound faintly ridiculous, especially in cities, where lack of parking spaces and congestion charging are making other forms of public or group transport more logical. A number of companies are springing up offering car-sharing services of one type or another. In the US companies like Zipcar are growing at breakneck speed, partly because small organizations and businesses are trying to cut costs, and car 168 FUTURE FILES sharing makes more sense than traditional auto rental or taxis. In Switzerland 2% of drivers already use such schemes, while in the UK organizations like City Car Club are renting cars to people for as little as £4 ($8) an hour — including fuel.

pages: 350 words: 103,988

Reinventing the Bazaar: A Natural History of Markets by John McMillan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, Deng Xiaoping, experimental economics, experimental subject, fear of failure, first-price auction, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, George Gilder, global village, Hernando de Soto, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job-hopping, John Harrison: Longitude, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, lone genius, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market design, market friction, market microstructure, means of production, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, ought to be enough for anybody, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, proxy bid, purchasing power parity, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Stewart Brand, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, yield management

Increasing the alcohol tax, the data show, significantly reduces highway fatalities.2 “If you drive a car I’ll tax the street,” goes a line in the Beatles song “Taxman.” Even congestion can be taxed. In 1963, William Vickrey, who later won the Nobel Prize in economics for his work on auctions, proposed a plan for pricing urban car travel in Washington, D.C. Roadside receptors would scan each car that passed, sending the data to a central computer, which would calculate the congestion charge and bill the driver.3 The fee would be larger when the congestion was greater, and zero when there was none. Futuristic as the proposal seemed at the time, technology has caught up with Vickrey’s imagination. Singapore has put Vickrey’s idea into practice, charging drivers for the use of certain roads at peak times. Every car contains a dashboard unit into which the driver inserts a prepaid card.

Lectures on Urban Economics by Jan K. Brueckner

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, congestion charging, Edward Glaeser, invisible hand, market clearing, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Economic Geography, profit maximization, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, urban sprawl

What Drives Third World City Growth? Princeton University Press. Kling, Jeffrey R., Jeffrey B. Liebman, and Lawrence F. Katz. 2007. Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects. Econometrica 75: 83–119. Krol, Robert, and Shirley Svorny. 2005. The effect of rent control on commute times. Journal of Urban Economics 58: 421–436. Krugman, Paul. 1992. Geography and Trade. MIT Press. Leape, Jonathan. 2006. The London Congestion Charge. Journal of Economic Perspectives 20: 157–176. Lee, Kangoh, and Santiago Pinto. 2009. Crime in a Multi-Jurisdictional Model with Public and Private Crime Prevention. Journal of Regional Science 49: 977–996. LeRoy, Stephen F., and Jon Sonstelie. 1983. Paradise Lost and Regained: Transportation Innovation, Income, and Residential Location. Journal of Urban Economics 13: 67–89. Levitt, Steven D. 1997.

pages: 370 words: 112,602

Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo

Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Cass Sunstein, charter city, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, experimental subject, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, land tenure, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, microcredit, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, urban planning

Inspired by the example of Hong Kong, developed with great success by the British and then handed back to China, he developed the concept of “charter cities.” Countries would hand over an empty strip of territory to a foreign power, who would then take the responsibility for developing a new city with good institutions. Starting from scratch, it is possible to establish a set of good ground rules (his examples range from traffic congestion charges to marginal cost pricing for electricity, and of course include legal protection of property rights). Because no one was forced to move there and all new arrivals are voluntary—the strip was empty to start with—people would not have any reason to complain about the new rules. One minor drawback with this scheme is that it is unclear that leaders in poorly run countries would willingly enter into an agreement of this sort.

pages: 339 words: 105,938

The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred

airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, new economy, Pareto efficiency, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, Thomas Bayes, trade liberalization, ultimatum game

This is true, but it does not support the argument for increasing overall happiness by extending freedom of choice. On the contrary, when individual choices have external effects, governments regularly intervene to restrict or override consumer sovereignty. Smoking has harmful external effects on non-smokers, so cigarettes are heavily taxed; my decision to drive into central London increases the traffic level others must suffer, so I must pay a ‘congestion charge’ tax. And there is a distinctive type of external effect that is almost unique to the public services. Normally we consume goods or services only up to the point where the perceived benefit outweighs the price. But public services are often free, so there is no incentive for self-restraint. The resulting tendency to overuse free services imposes costs on others. When hypochondriacs rush to their doctor at the onset of a cold, this reduces the amount of time the doctor has to deal with more serious illnesses.

pages: 366 words: 107,145

Fuller Memorandum by Stross, Charles

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Beeching cuts, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, congestion charging, dumpster diving, finite state, Firefox, HyperCard, invisible hand, land reform, linear programming, MITM: man-in-the-middle, peak oil, post-work, security theater, sensible shoes, side project, Sloane Ranger, telemarketer, Turing machine

I am not, myself, a witness: so this is, to some extent, a work of imaginative reconstruction. Visualize the scene: a side street not far from Piccadilly Circus in London, an outrageously busy shopping district crammed on both sides with fashion chains and department stores. Even the alleys are lined with bistros and boutiques, tidied up to appeal to the passing trade. Pedestrians throng the pavements and overflow into the street, but vehicle traffic is light--thanks to the congestion charge--and slow--thanks to the speed bumps. Here comes a red-haired woman, smartly dressed in a black skirt, houndstooth-check jacket, medium heels. She's holding a violin case in one hand, her face set in an expression of patient irritation beneath her makeup: a musician heading to a recital, perhaps. She looks slightly uncomfortable, out-of-sorts as she weaves between a pair of braying office workers, yummy mummies pushing baby buggies the size of lunar rovers, a skate punk in dreads, and a beggar woman in hijab.

pages: 416 words: 106,582

This Will Make You Smarter: 150 New Scientific Concepts to Improve Your Thinking by John Brockman

23andMe, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, biofilm, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, data acquisition, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, hive mind, impulse control, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, market design, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, microbiome, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, open economy, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, placebo effect, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, randomized controlled trial, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, Satyajit Das, Schrödinger's Cat, security theater, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, twin studies, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

The concept of externalities is useful because it directs our attention to such unintended side effects. If you weren’t focused on externalities, you might think that the way to reduce traffic congestion was to build more roads. That might work, but another way, and a potentially more efficient way, is to implement policies that force drivers to pay the cost of their negative externalities by charging a fee to use roads, particularly at peak times. Congestion charges, such as those implemented in London and Singapore, are designed to do exactly that. If I have to pay to go into town during rush hour, I may stay home unless my need is pressing. Keeping externalities firmly in mind also reminds us that in complex, integrated systems, simple interventions designed to bring about a particular desirable effect will potentially have many more consequences, both positive and negative.

pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

The exponential curve of this technology means that there will be close to 100 million self-driving cars on the road just ten years after that. Figure 8.2: Business Intelligence projections on self-driving vehicles (Credit: BI) Within 15 years, we can expect that major cities and local authorities will be giving strong preferences to self-driving cars. Within 20 years, cities like London and New York won’t just have congestion charges, there will also be charges for traditional, human piloted vehicles to enter the city centres, or more probably even banning them from city streets. While there will be some protests against banning “human drivers”, remember that the generations making these governance decisions will be Gen Y and Gen Z, not the likes of the baby boomers who grew up with gas guzzlers, V8 engines and the oil boom.

Discover Great Britain by Lonely Planet

British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, G4S, global village, Haight Ashbury, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, New Urbanism, Stephen Hawking

Recently TFL ( launched the Barclays Cycle Hire scheme, with 6000 cycles available to hire from self-service docking stations within Zone 1 (£1/6/15/35/50 for up to one/two/three/six/24 hours, plus £1 access fee). Car London was recently rated western Europe’s second-most congested city (congratulations Brussels). Don’t even think about driving within it: traffic is heavy, roadwork continuous, parking is either impossible or expensive, and wheel-clampers keep busy. If you drive into central London from 7am to 6pm on a weekday, you’ll need to pay an £8 per day congestion charge (visit for payment options) or face a hefty fine. If you’re hiring a car to continue your trip, take the tube to Heathrow and pick it up from there. London’s Oyster Diet To get the most out of London, you need to be able to jump on and off public transport like a local, not scramble to buy a ticket at hefty rates each time. You can do this with an Oyster card , a reusable smartcard on which you can load credit to be deducted as you go.

pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

If you visit busy stations like Kings Cross, you can see dozens of cameras covering the turnstiles and stuck to the roof like colonies of hanging fruit bats. The London "ring of steel" was originally built to defend against IRA attacks on the capital. It has morphed over time from physical measures against car bombers to today's all-seeing blanket of cameras. Part of the infrastructure came together with the congestion charge in 2003, which gave the city the motive and opportunity to track every car's movement. At the time, tracking cars by reading their plates was cutting edge technology. Today it's cheap and widespread. If you drive, you are tracked. On CCTV, Privacy International says: CCTV is a seductive technology. In a public policy domain which is notoriously rubbery, CCTV has a solid, "Sexy," and powerful image.

pages: 386 words: 122,595

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

The policy was later dropped in favor of a mandatory emissions test.7 Good policy uses incentives to some positive end. London has dealt with its traffic congestion problems by applying the logic of the market: It raised the cost of driving during the hours of peak demand. Beginning in 2003, the city of London began charging a £5 ($8) congestion fee for all drivers entering an eight-square-mile section of the central city between 7:00 a.m. and 6:30 p.m.8 In 2005, the congestion charge was raised to £8 ($13), and in 2007, the size of the zone for which the fee must be paid was expanded. Drivers are responsible for paying the charge by phone, Internet, or in selected retail shops. Video cameras were installed in some 700 locations to scan license plates and match the data against records of motorists who have paid the charge. Motorists caught driving in central London without paying the fee are fined £80 ($130).

pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Cities Can Prepare for Atomic War,” Life, December 18, 1950, 85. 73Light, From Warfare to Welfare, 164. 74Galison, “War Against the Center,” 14–26. 75World Energy Outlook 2011 (Paris: International Energy Agency, 2011). 76Realizing the Potential of Energy Efficiency: Targets, Policies, and Measures for G8 Countries (Washington, DC: United Nations Foundation, 2007), 77Buno Berthon, “Smart Cities: Can They Work?,” The Guardian Sustainable Business Energy Efficiency Hub, blog, June 1, 2001, 78Blake Alcott, “Jevons’ Paradox,” Ecological Economics 45, no. 1 (2005): 9-21. 79Robert Cervero, The Transit Metropolis (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998), 169. 80Michele Dix, “The Central London Congestion Charging Scheme—From Conception to Implementation,” 2002,, 2. 81Robert J. Gordon, “Does the ‘New Economy’ Measure up to the Great Inventions of the Past?” (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000), Chapter 10. A New Civics for a Smart Century 1Oscar Wilde, The Soul of Man under Socialism (Portland, ME: Thomas B.

India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, financial intermediation, financial repression, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Induced demand, inflation targeting, invisible hand, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, moral hazard, obamacare, Pareto efficiency, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, school choice, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban sprawl, working-age population

This is because there was much less public agitation for water quality than for air quality (presumably since it is easier for the vocal classes to take private action to purify the water they drink).34 Also, in the case of water, lines of authority were muddled and steady backing O w n e r s h i p, I n f r a s t r u c t u r e , a n d t h e E n v i r o n m e n t [ 125 ] 126 by the Supreme Court was missing. More recently, air quality has again worsened steeply. For example, in Delhi, India’s capital city, the hard-​ earned gains secured by PILs have been lost due to uncontrolled growth of diesel-​guzzling cars, absence of congestion charges, neglect of building bypass roads to siphon off transport trucks from the city centre, and persistent deficiencies in public transport. The lesson is that the environment requires continuous policy focus and enforcement, if reversals are to be avoided. The water situation in India is a dreadful combination of scarcity and pollution, and these two features have to be tackled simultaneously.

pages: 505 words: 147,916

Adventures in the Anthropocene: A Journey to the Heart of the Planet We Made by Gaia Vince

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, bank run, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Google Earth, Haber-Bosch Process, hive mind, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mars Rover, Masdar, megacity, mobile money, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, supervolcano, sustainable-tourism

People will also have to curb the use of energy-guzzling electronics, or use renewable recharging methods – in Britain alone, electricity consumption from domestic appliances has doubled since the 1970s, even while products have become more efficient. While suburbia was built around the automobile, the city of the Anthropocene needs to be built around efficient, low-emitting mass transit. In central areas, it makes sense to ban private cars altogether – something that is gradually being encouraged by the heavy congestion commuters face, expensive parking and by specific taxes for vehicle drivers, such as London’s congestion charge. In Bogotá, for example, cars are banned from the city on Sundays, when the streets fill with pedestrians, cyclists and roller-bladers. Americans, who currently spend an average nine years of their lives sitting in their cars, may have now passed ‘peak car’, with car ownership and driving rates dropping.21 Even in China, the world’s biggest car market (where ownership has risen twentyfold since 2000), ‘peak car’ could come sooner than the two decades estimated to reach saturation: fuel prices are escalating, the cities’ brand new six-lane highways are already clogged with traffic and car fumes, and with more of the population living in dense cities and ‘meeting’ on social networks, car ownership is increasingly becoming an inconvenience.

Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities by Alain Bertaud

autonomous vehicles, call centre, colonial rule, congestion charging, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser,, extreme commuting, garden city movement, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land tenure, manufacturing employment, market design, market fragmentation, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Pearl River Delta, price mechanism, rent control, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, trade route, transaction costs, transit-oriented development, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

The price to pay for a hotel room depends on its location, its size, the date of rental, and how long it is rented. Ideally, matching supply and demand perfectly would require that a similar rental system be applied to vehicles using urban roads. The charge, as it is practiced for hotel rooms, should be adjusted to maintain as close to full road occupancy as possible. In the case of urban roads, the objective of the congestion charge is not to maximize a city’s income but to prevent congestion above a set level. A car should therefore be charged for the increased travel time imposed on all other drivers due to its presence on the road. Congestion pricing adjusts demand for roads in two ways: it discourages driving during peak hours for trips that could be done at other hours, and it encourages using vehicles more efficiently, either by increasing occupancy, sharing vehicles, or using less road-intensive means of transport (e.g., motorcycles or public transport).

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Return to beginning of chapter TRAVELLING RESPONSIBLY Britons share their compact and increasingly crowded island with around 33 million cars, vans, buses and lorries – that’s more than one vehicle for every two people. Traffic congestion and carbon emissions are serious problems that are only now beginning to be tackled head-on. In the past, the government’s response to overcrowded roads has been to build more of them; today, politicians have been forced to look at other approaches. While London has its congestion charge, Sustrans ( – a group focused on sustainable transport – is busy creating a national network of cycle routes; and Worcester, Peterborough and Darlington have been chosen as showcase sustainable transport towns, with government-funded projects to promote cycling, walking and public transport as realistic alternatives to car use. * * * COSTS FOR KIDS Taking your children into museums and historic sites can be absolutely free, half-price, or just a bit cheaper than the adult cost, so we’ve detailed kids’ rates (as well as adult prices) throughout this book.

In 2000 the modern metropolis got its first Mayor of London (as opposed to the Lord Mayor of the City of London), an elected role covering the City and all 32 urban boroughs. The position was taken in 2008 by Boris Johnson, a Conservative known for his unruly shock of blond hair, appearances on TV game shows and controversial editorials in Spectator magazine. One thing the bicycle-riding mayor will have to contend with is the city’s traffic snarls. A congestion charge on cars entering the central city had initial success when introduced by his predecessor, but rush-hour congestion has now increased to pre-charge levels. July 2005 was a roller-coaster month for London. Snatching victory from the jaws of Paris (the favourites), the city won its bid to host the 2012 Olympics and celebrated with a frenzy of flag-waving. The following day, the party abruptly ended as suicide bombers struck on three tube trains and a bus, killing 52 people.

EasyBus ( minibuses head from Victoria and Baker St to Luton (return from £12, allow 1¼ hours, departing every 30 minutes). A black taxi costs around £95 to/from central London, minicabs around £55. Car Don’t even think about it. Driving in London is a nightmare: traffic is heavy, parking is either impossible or expensive and wheel-clampers keep busy. If you drive into central London from 7am to 6pm on a weekday, you’ll need to pay an £8 per day congestion charge (visit register) or face a hefty fine. If you’re hiring a car to continue your trip, take the tube to Heathrow and pick it up from there. Public Transport Although locals love to complain about it, London’s public transport is excellent, with tubes, trains, buses and boats conspiring to get you anywhere you need to go. Transport for London (TFL; is the glue that hinges the network together.

England by David Else

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

In 2000 the modern metropolis got its first Mayor of London (as opposed to the Lord Mayor of the City of London), an elected role covering the City and all 32 urban boroughs. The position was taken in 2008 by Boris Johnson, a Conservative known for his unruly shock of blond hair, appearances on TV game shows and controversial editorials in Spectator magazine. One thing the bicycle­-riding mayor will have to contend with is the city’s traffic snarls. A congestion charge on cars entering the central city had initial success when introduced by his predecessor, but rush-hour congestion has now increased to precharge levels. July 2005 was a roller-coaster month for London. Snatching victory from the jaws of Paris (the favourites), the city won its bid to host the 2012 Olympics and celebrated with a frenzy of flag waving. The following day, the party abruptly ended as suicide bombers struck on three tube trains and a bus, killing 52 people.

London Waterbus Company (Map; 7482 2660;, single/return £6.50/9) and Jason’s Trip (Map; 7286 3428;; opposite 60 Blomfield Rd W9; single/return £7.50/8.50) both run canal boat journeys between Camden Lock and Little Venice; see websites for times. London has some 40 miles of inner-city ­canals, mostly built in the 19th century. Return to beginning of chapter Car Don’t even think about it. Driving in London is a nightmare: traffic is heavy, parking is either impossible or expensive and wheel-clampers keep busy. If you drive into central London from 7am to 6pm on a weekday, you’ll need to pay an £8 per day congestion charge (visit to register) or face a hefty fine. If you’re hiring a car to continue your trip, take the tube to Heathrow and pick it up from there. Return to beginning of chapter Outdoor England * * * WALKING CYCLING OTHER ACTIVITIES * * * A post box welcomes you to Great LangdaleClick here, Lakes District National Park What’s the best way to get off the beaten track as you travel around England?

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The Best of Best New SF by Gardner R. Dozois

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, Columbine, congestion charging, dark matter, Doomsday Book, double helix, Extropian, gravity well, lateral thinking, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent, Y2K, zero-sum game

“Jesus, what the hell is that?” “Proper Russian vodka, comrade,” she smiled, and took another. “Nathan went through to join Murray last week,” she said sourly. “Nathan? Your brother Nathan?” “Only by DNA, and I’m not even certain of that after this. Little prick. Mary and the kids went with him.” “Why?” “Why do any of them go? War in Iraq, crap public transport, psycho Bush threatening North Korea, the congestion charge, council tax. The real world, in other words, that’s what he’s running away from. He thinks he’s going to be living in some kind of tropical tax haven with fairies doing all the hard work, the dumb shit.” “I’m sorry. What did your mum say? She must be devastated.” Abbey growled, and took another slug. “She says she’s glad he’s gone; that he and the grandkids deserve a fresh start somewhere nice.

Frommer's England 2011: With Wales by Darwin Porter, Danforth Prince

airport security, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, congestion charging, double helix, Edmond Halley, George Santayana, haute couture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Murano, Venice glass, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Sloane Ranger, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, sustainable-tourism, the market place, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, young professional

Call the 24-hour hot line (& 020/7222-1234) for bus schedule and fare information. 114 08_615386-ch05.indd 11408_615386-ch05.indd 114 8/24/10 2:07 PM8/24/10 2:07 PM By Taxi By Car Don’t drive in congested London. It’s easy to get around without a car; traffic and parking are nightmares; and, to top it off, you have to drive on the left side of the road. It all adds up to a big headache. Another disincentive is that you will have to pay a Congestion Charge of £8 to drive in most of central London between 7am and 6pm Monday to Friday. Larger gas-guzzling cars are charged £25. By Bicycle Fast Facts: London To avoid heavy and potentially dangerous traffic in central London, bikers should stick to the designated paths along the streets. One of the most popular bike-rental shops is On Your Bike, 52–54 Tooley St., London Bridge, SE1 (& 020/7378-6669;; Tube: London Bridge), open Monday to Friday 7:30am to 7pm, Saturday 10am to 6pm, and Sunday 11am to 5pm.

Italy by Damien Simonis

active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, bike sharing scheme, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, Frank Gehry, haute couture, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, large denomination, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, period drama, Peter Eisenman, Skype, spice trade, starchitect, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

While sulphur dioxide levels have been reduced in recent years, primarily by substituting natural gas for coal, much of the smog and poor air quality can be attributed to the fact that Italy has one of the highest per-capita levels of car ownership in the world. In an attempt to tackle this car-dependency, municipal authorities have introduced a series of initiatives. In January 2008, Milan introduced Italy’s first congestion charge, while several cities including Milan and Rome have initiated bike-sharing schemes. On a national level, in 2009 the Italian government committed itself to building four nuclear power plants in an attempt to reduce dependence on oil and gas and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. * * * The official parks website ( offers comprehensive information on Italy’s national and regional parks, marine reserves and designated wetlands, as well as details of local wildlife and educational initiatives