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Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine
23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
., https://web.archive.org/web/20170808233941/https://twitter.com/puellavulnerata /status/678015551780888580; Andrea (@puellavulnerata), Twitter post, December 19, 2015, 1:03 p.m., https://web.archive.org/web/20170808234142/https://twitter.com/puellavulnerata/status/678168846897934340. 3. Roger Dingledine, Jacob Appelbaum, and Laura Poitras, “State of the Onion,” 31c3, December 30, 2014, https://media.ccc.de/v/31c3_-_6251_-_en_-_saal_1_-_201412301400_-_state_of_the_onion_-_jacob_-_arma. 4. Roger Dingledine, Jacob Appelbaum, Mike Perry, Shari Steele, and Alison Macrina, “State of the Onion,” 32c3, December 28, 2015, https://media.ccc.de/v/32c3-7307-state_of_the_onion#video. 5. Nicole Perlroth, “Tor Project Confirms Sexual Misconduct Claims against Employee,” New York Times, July 27, 2016. 6. Jacob Appelbaum’s most recent salary information comes from a separation agreement Tor Project sent to him following the sexual harassment allegations, a document that was subsequently leaked to Cryptome.org.
Nathaniel Rich, “The American WikiLeaks Hacker,” Rolling Stone, December 1, 2010. 84. Amy Goodman, “Part 2: Daniel Ellsberg and Jacob Appelbaum on the NDAA, WikiLeaks and Unconstitutional Surveillance,” Democracy Now, February 6, 2013, https://www.democracynow.org/2013/2/6/part_2_daniel_ellsberg_and_jacob _appelbaum_on_the_ndaa_wikileaks_and_unconstitutional_surveillance. 85. Rich, “American WikiLeaks Hacker.” 86. The American Civil Liberties Union partnered with Tor (“Privacy Groups Announce Developer Challenge for Mobile Apps,” press release, ACLU of Northern California, February 4, 2011, https://www.aclunc.org/news/privacy-groups-announce-developer-challenge-mobile-apps). Teach-in at Whitney Museum featuring “Jacob Appelbaum, computer security researcher, privacy advocate, hacker, and human rights activist” (“Laura Poitras: Surveillance Teach-In,” Whitney Museum, April 20, 2012, http://web.archive.org/web/20170521210801/http://whitney.org/Events/LauraPoitrasObservationAndTrust). 87.
He did not want to use his righteous hacker skills to take down a good, honest man, so he helped foil the plot and saved the president instead. “They asked me to build a mass surveillance system to tap the entire country of Ecuador,” he said. “I told them to go fuck themselves, and I reported them to the presidency. I think you are proposing a coup. I have your names—you’re fucked.” A few people on stage look embarrassed, not believing a word. But the audience laps it up. They love Jacob Appelbaum. Everyone at 32c3 loves Jacob Appelbaum. Appelbaum is the most storied member of the Tor Project. After Edward Snowden and Julian Assange, he is arguably the most famous personality in the Internet privacy movement. He is also the most outrageous. For five years he’s played the role of a self-facilitating media node and counterculture Ethan Hunt, a celebrity hacker who constantly changes his appearance, travels the world to speak at conferences and conduct teach-ins, and fights injustice and censorship wherever they rear their ugly government heads.
This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and Their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers by Andy Greenberg
Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, computerized markets, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, domain-specific language, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, hive mind, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Mahatma Gandhi, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Mohammed Bouazizi, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, X Prize, Zimmermann PGP
“When they pull, so do we” E-mail from Julian Assange to John Young, January 7, 2007, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm thirty times the size of every text article stored on Wikipedia Wikipedia: Database download, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Database_download “let it flower into something new” Julian Assange to John Young, January 7, 2007, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm spreading free software like a hacker Johnny Appleseed Jacob Appelbaum. “Personal experiences bringing technology and new media to disaster areas.” Speech at the Chaos Communication Congress, December 2005, available here: http://events.ccc.de/congress/2005/fahrplan/events/478.en.html “As an American, I found myself feeling pretty awful about what we’d contributed to” Ibid. grabbed the remote, turned up the volume, and refused to change the channel Ibid. A man beaten in the shower. Nightly curfews, women raped. Xeni Jardin interview with Jacob Appelbaum. “Katrina: ‘Rape, murder, beatings’ in Astrodome, say evacuees.” BoingBoing.net, September 7, 2005. “The same thing, over and over again. The disconnection. The lack of humanity.” Jacob Appelbaum. “Personal experiences bringing technology and new media to disaster areas.”
JULF HELSINGIUS Finnish systems administrator and privacy advocate, Helsingius created the Penet anonymous remailer and faced legal pressure from the Church of Scientology that demanded he turn over the identity of one of his users. JIM BELL Engineer and libertarian whose 1997 essay “Assassination Politics” described a system of using encryption to facilitate anonymous, untraceable, and crowd-funded contract killings. JACOB APPELBAUM Activist, hacker, and developer for the Tor anonymity network who befriended Julian Assange and became the WikiLeaks’ primary American associate. PAUL SYVERSON Logician and cryptographer in the Naval Research Laboratory who is credited with inventing the anonymous communications protocol known as “onion routing.” NICK MATHEWSON AND ROGER DINGLEDINE Two MIT researchers who worked with Syverson to develop onion routing into a usable tool and then a nonprofit known as the Tor Project.
And he points out that the message may have also been a honey trap designed to ensnare him and put him in prison. But more frankly, May says, he simply didn’t care. He was, and remains, a hard-core libertarian looking out for his own Randian self-interest, not a whistleblower advocate trying to expose corruption. “I’m not concerned about things like that. Let the Africans kill each other,” he says flatly. “I don’t have those kinds of political interests.” When I later ask Jacob Appelbaum, one of the only Americans to associate openly with WikiLeaks, about his thoughts on BlackNet, he sees things more simply. “Tim May is a fucking racist,” he says. “And it’s really a shame. Because if he weren’t, he could have created WikiLeaks himself and made a real difference in the world.” When I repeat Appelbaum’s comment to May, he chuckles. “I call ’em as I see ’em,” he says. “If I see blacks driving themselves into the gutter, I call it as it is.”
The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan
active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day
Hayden and Barton Gellman, “National Security Agency and Privacy Debate,” American University School of Public Affairs event, Washington, DC, April 3, 2014. The staged debate can be viewed on C-Span, https://www.c-span.org/video/?318674-1/debate-nsa-privacy-laws. 60. theshadowbrokers, “OH LORDY! Comey Wanna Cry Edition.” 61. theshadowbrokers, “OH LORDY!” 62. Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert, and Christian Stoecker, “Shopping for Spy Gear: Catalog Advertises NSA Toolbox,” Der Spiegel, December 29, 2013. 63. Jacob Appelbaum, Nikolaus Blome, Hubert Gude, Ralf Neukirch, et al., “Embassy Espionage: The NSA’s Secret Spy Hub in Berlin,” November 4, 2013; Jacob Appelbaum, A. Gibson, J. Goetz, V. Kabisch, et al., “NSA Targets the Privacy-Conscious,” Das Erste, July 3, 2014. For more on these non-Snowden leaks, see Peter Koop, “Leaked Documents That Were Not Attributed to Snowden,” Electrospaces, December 13, 2015; Peter Koop, “Are the Shadow Brokers Identical with the Second Source?
For more on system vulnerabilities, see “Weapon Systems Cybersecurity: DOD Just Beginning to Grapple with Scale of Vulnerabilities,” US Government Accountability Office, October 19, 2018. 36. “BYZANTINE HADES: An Evolution of Collection,” National Security Agency presentation to SIGDEV conference, published alongside Jacob Appelbaum, Aaron Gibson, Claudio Guarnieri, Andy Müller-Maguhn, et al., “The Digital Arms Race: NSA Preps America for Future Battle,” Der Spiegel, January 17, 2015, 3. 37. “Chinese Exfiltrate Sensitive Military Technology,” National Security Agency presentation deck, published alongside Jacob Appelbaum, Aaron Gibson, Claudio Guarnieri, Andy Müller-Maguhn, et al., “The Digital Arms Race: NSA Preps America for Future Battle,” Der Spiegel, January 17, 2015, 3. 38. “Inquiry into Cyber Intrusions Affecting U.S. Transportation Command Contractors,” Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate Report 113–258, September 18, 2014, 7–10. 39.
“BYZANTINE HADES: An Evolution of Collection,” National Security Agency presentation to SIGDEV conference, published alongside Jacob Appelbaum, Aaron Gibson, Claudio Guarnieri, Andy Müller-Maguhn, et al., “The Digital Arms Race: NSA Preps America for Future Battle,” Der Spiegel, January 17, 2015, 3. 8. The Five Eyes use hop points, as well, which they call Operational Relay Boxes. Two or three times per year, some Five Eyes employees conduct a one-day push to obtain access to as many of these machines in non-Five Eyes countries as they can for use in future operations. “What Is HACIENDA?” UK Government Communications Headquarters internal presentation, published online alongside Jacob Appelbaum, Monika Ermert, Julian Kirsch, Henrik Moltke, Laura Poitras, and Christian Grothoff, “The HACIENDA Program for Internet Colonization,” Heise / c’t Magazin, August 15, 2014. 9.
Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day
He later deleted it, saying that he did not want to further divide the security community. An archive of the original is here: https://web.archive.org/web/20160606222408/https://medium.com/@nickf4rr/hi-im-nick-farr-nickf4rr-35c32f13da4d. “most serious public statement in more than a decade”: “CULT OF THE DEAD COW Statement on Jacob Appelbaum / ioerror” (press release), June 6, 2016, http://w3.cultdeadcow.com/cms/2016/06/cult-of-the-dead-cow-statement-on-jacob-appelbaum-ioerror.html. “In a personal post on Medium”: Oxblood Ruffin, “Public Figures & Anonymous Victims,” Medium, June 8, 2016, https://medium.com/@oxbloodruffin/public-figures-anonymous-victims-543f0b02d684. “quote the emails between WikiLeaks and its real source”: “Read Mueller Probe Indictment of 12 Russians for Hacking Democrats,” Washington Post, n.d., http://apps.washingtonpost.com/g/documents/national/read-mueller-probe-indictment-of-12-russians-for-hacking-democrats/3087/.
Joseph Menn > THE PLAYERS Cult of the Dead Cow Kevin Wheeler / Swamp Rat Bill Brown / Franken Gibe Psychedelic Warlord Carrie Campbell / Lady Carolin Jesse Dryden / Drunkfux Paul Leonard / Obscure Images Chris Tucker / Nightstalker Dan MacMillan / White Knight Misha Kubecka / Omega John Lester / Count Zero Luke Benfey / Deth Vegetable Sam Anthony / Tweety Fish Peiter Zatko / Mudge Laird Brown / Oxblood Ruffin Josh Buchbinder / Sir Dystic Christien Rioux / Dildog Adam O’Donnell / Javaman Jacob Appelbaum / IOerror Kemal Akman / Mixter Patrick Kroupa / Lord Digital cDc Ninja Strike Force Chris Wysopal / Weld Pond Window Snyder / Rosie the Riveter Limor Fried / Lady Ada Legion of Doom Chris Goggans Scott Chasin Masters of Deception Elias Ladopoulos / Acid Phreak Mark Abene / Phiber Optik @stake Alex Stamos Rob Beck David Litchfield Katie Moussouris > CHAPTER 1 > AN EVENING IN SAN FRANCISCO ON A TUESDAY evening in October 2017, three dozen friends and acquaintances gathered in the San Francisco townhouse of security engineer Adam O’Donnell for a political fundraiser.
In Boston, Mudge fronted the pro-security or “white hat” hacking group called the L0pht (pronounced “loft”), pioneers for warning software companies about security flaws in their wares, rather than just exploiting them to break into users’ machines. Then Mudge’s squad turned the L0pht into the first big consulting group of star hackers, called @stake; later he led the cybersecurity efforts at the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), powering both US military defense and still-undisclosed offensive hacks that headed off worse violence in the Middle East. Even more famous in recent years has been Jacob Appelbaum, alias IOerror. The charismatic American face of Tor, the most important tool for preserving privacy on the net, Jake served as one of the last loyal aides to WikiLeaks leader Julian Assange, and he personally revealed hacking tools developed by the National Security Agency. When his own acolytes exposed Jake for sexual harassment, the Cult of the Dead Cow publicly booted him out. But probably the most influential cDc member in steering hacker culture is Laird Brown, known to most by his handle, Oxblood Ruffin.
Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin
AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
But so far their efforts to reform the law have not been successful. The few instances where we have learned that companies fought government surveillance have not ended well. Consider just two cases—a small Internet provider, Sonic.net, and Internet giant Yahoo!. In 2011, Sonic.net went public with the fact that it had fought—and lost—a secret court order demanding the e-mail addresses of people who had corresponded with a WikiLeaks volunteer, Jacob Appelbaum, in the course of two years. Challenging the order was “rather expensive, but we felt it was the right thing to do,” said Sonic’s chief executive, Dane Jasper. By speaking to me, Jasper was defying the court’s gag order that prevented him from discussing the government’s request. (Jasper later said that he was unaware that the gag order remained in force when he spoke to me.) As for Yahoo!
All my transactions would haunt me forever, stalking me and informing the choices that were presented to me. And so, until I could find a better way, I was going to have to rely on Ida and my masked identities to settle my debts. 10 POCKET LITTER I was standing under the world clock tower on Alexanderplatz in Berlin, feeling nervous. I had just arrived in the city and had arranged to meet Jacob Appelbaum, the computer security researcher whose e-mail had been secretly investigated by the U.S. government after his involvement as a volunteer for WikiLeaks was publicly disclosed in 2010. But I didn’t have any way to get in touch with him—no cell phone number, no street address, nothing. I simply had to wait to see if he would show up at our planned meeting point. I’d flown halfway around the world for this meeting.
To use Off-the-Record, I had to download three different software programs and then convince them to cooperate with one another. First, I used Tor’s anonymizing software to connect to the Internet. Then I signed up for a Jabber instant messaging account. Then I downloaded an instant messaging program called Adium that contains the Off-the-Record messaging protocol. Then I configured Adium to work with Tor and Jabber. The only reason I was able to do any of this is because the computer security researcher Jacob Appelbaum walked me through each step and told me where to click and what to type in the settings. And yet this cobbled-together mash of free software was actually the state of the art for encrypted communications. I found that many of my sensitive journalistic sources would talk to me only over the combination of Tor, Jabber, and Off-the-Record messaging. For the most sensitive sources, actually, I sometimes used Tor, Jabber, and Off-the-Record on a clean computer that I had booted using a thumb drive containing The Amnesic Incognito Live System (Tails) operating system.
The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding
4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, post-work, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.
As Assange shifted from school to school he was targeted by bullies as the outsider: “His only real saviour in life or his own bedrock in life was this computer. His mother, in fact, encouraged him to use this computer … It had become an addictive instrument to him at a very early age.” Galbally describes Assange as “super smart”; not a nerdy hacker but someone unusual and flamboyant. Interestingly, some of the world’s most talented programmers come from broken families. Jacob Appelbaum, who would become WikiLeaks’ representative in the US, says he was the son of a paranoid schizophrenic mother and heroin addict father. He spent much of his boyhood in a children’s home. As a boy, he discovered a woman convulsing in his father’s bathroom with a needle sticking out of her arm. Appelbaum told Rolling Stone magazine that programming and hacking allowed him, however, “to feel like the world is not a lost place.
This uncompromising attitude appealed to Domscheit-Berg: “PRQ has a track record of being the hardest ISP you can find in the world. There’s just no one that bothers less about lawyers harassing them about content they’re hosting.” WikiLeaks’ own laptops all have military-grade encryption: if seized, the data on them cannot be read, even directly off the disk. The volunteer WikiLeaks hacker, Seattle-based Jacob Appelbaum, boasts that he will destroy any laptop that has been let out of his sight, for fear that it might have been bugged. None of the team worries deeply about the consequences of losing a computer, though, because the lines of code to control the site are stored on remote computers under their control – “in the cloud” – and the passwords they need for access are in their heads. Popular for day-by-day in-house conversations is the internet phone service Skype, which also uses encryption.
Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (2 Jul 2014), “Report on the surveillance program operated pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act,” http://www.pclob.gov/All%20Documents/Report%20on%20the%20Section%20702%20Program/PCLOB-Section-702-Report.pdf. Jennifer Granick (11 Feb 2014), “Eight questions PCLOB should ask about Section 702,” Just Security, https://justsecurity.org/7001/questions-pclob-section-702. the NSA targets people: Jacob Appelbaum et al. (3 Jul 2014), “NSA targets the privacy-conscious,” Panorama, http://daserste.ndr.de/panorama/aktuell/nsa230_page-1.html. the NSA chains together hops: Marcy Wheeler (15 Oct 2013), “About that May 2007 FISC opinion,” Empty Wheel, http://www.emptywheel.net/2013/10/15/about-that-may-2007-fisc-opinion. the same location as a target: Marcy Wheeler (16 May 2014), “The ‘automated query’ at the telecoms will include ‘correlations,’” Empty Wheel, http://www.emptywheel.net/2014/05/16/the-automated-query-at-the-telecoms-will-include-correlations.
Leaksource (30 Dec 2013), “NSA’s ANT Division catalog of exploits for nearly every major software/hardware/firmware,” http://leaksource.info/2013/12/30/nsas-ant-division-catalog-of-exploits-for-nearly-every-major-software-hardware-firmware. Der Spiegel (29 Dec 2013), “Inside TAO: Documents reveal top NSA hacking unit,” Der Spiegel, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-nsa-uses-powerful-toolbox-in-effort-to-spy-on-global-networks-a-940969.html. Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert, and Christian Stöcker (29 Dec 2013), “Shopping for spy gear: Catalog advertises NSA toolbox,” Der Spiegel, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/catalog-reveals-nsa-has-back-doors-for-numerous-devices-a-940994.html. 80,000 computers worldwide: Matthew M. Aid (15 Oct 2013), “The NSA’s new code breakers,” Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/10/15/the_nsa_s_new_codebreakers.
Los Angeles police even: Cyrus Farivar (8 Apr 2014), “LAPD officers monkey-wrenched cop-monitoring gear in patrol cars,” Ars Technica, http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2014/04/lapd-officers-monkey-wrenched-cop-monitoring-gear-in-patrol-cars. declining half-life of secrets: Peter Swire (5–6 Jun 2014), “The declining half-life of secrets and the future of signals intelligence,” 7th Privacy Law Scholars Conference, Washington, D.C., http://www.law.berkeley.edu/plsc.htm. the NSA spied on the cell phone: Jacob Appelbaum et al. (23 Oct 2013), “Berlin complains: Did US tap Chancellor Merkel’s mobile phone?” Der Spiegel, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/merkel-calls-obama-over-suspicions-us-tapped-her-mobile-phone-a-929642.html. Ian Traynor, Philip Oltermann, and Paul Lewis (23 Oct 2013), “Angela Merkel’s call to Obama: Are you bugging my mobile phone?” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/23/us-monitored-angela-merkel-german.
The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding
affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, undersea cable, web application, WikiLeaks
Western intelligence agencies also spied, albeit with fewer resources than the NSA. They worked closely with the US intelligence community, and had done so for decades. Germany’s domestic intelligence body, the BND, for example, shared information with Fort Meade including metadata and had even handed over copies of its two digital spy systems, Mira4 and Veras. Snowden himself flagged these close connections, telling the journalist and internet freedom activist Jacob Appelbaum that the NSA was ‘under the same roof’ as the Germans, and ‘most other western states’. The extent of this collaboration could be confusing. One BOUNDLESS INFORMANT slide, shared by Greenwald with the Norwegian tabloid Dagbladet, suggests the NSA is hoovering up 1.2 million Norwegian telephone calls daily. Norway’s military intelligence service, however, said the slide had been misread. It said Norway itself collected the calls from Afghanistan, and passed them on to Fort Meade.
He signed off: ‘I look forward to speaking with you in your country when the situation is resolved and thank you for your efforts in upholding the international laws that protect us. ‘With my best regards ‘Edward Snowden’ Days later, Harrison said goodbye to Snowden and flew to Berlin. She had been with him in Moscow for four months. On what was said to be legal advice, she declined to return to the UK. The German capital and East Berlin in particular was now a hub for a growing number of Snowden exiles: Poitras, journalist Jacob Appelbaum and Harrison. For anyone with a sense of history this was ironic. Stasiland had become an island of media freedom. Greenwald, meanwhile, announced his resignation from the Guardian to join a new media venture backed by the eBay billionaire Pierre Omidyar. What were Snowden’s prospects of exiting Moscow for a new life in western Europe? Left-leaning politicians, intellectuals and writers called on the German government to grant him asylum.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
The Foucauldian disciplinary model describes a mode of spatial power predicated on the securing of subjects in place (securing a negative freedom of movement and a positive freedom from movement). 16. The problematics and potential of the urban operating system are well articulated by Matthew Fuller and Usman Haque in Urban Versioning System v.1.0, Situated Technologies Pamphlet series, 2008, http://www.situatedtechnologies.net/. The conflicts involved, however, are impossible to tally in real time. In their book Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet, Julian Assange, Jacob Appelbaum, and Andy Muller-Maguhn are alarmed that “Siemens is marketing a platform for intelligence agencies that does actually produce automated actions. So when target A is within a certain number of meters of target B according to their mobile intercept records, and target A receives an email mentioning something—a keyword—then an action is triggered.” For them the User-versus-Cloud arms race is tilted by the widespread use of cryptographic systems (including perhaps the Cryptophone, http://www.cryptophone.de/en/products/mobile/).
Katherine Harmon, “Undead-End: Fungus That Controls Zombie-Ants Has Own Fungal Stalker,” Scientific American, November 8, 2012, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/zombie-ant-fungus-parasite/. The line, “animal living inside of animal living inside animal” is Ed Keller's. III The Projects The Stack to Come Secrets are lies. —The Circle, company policy1 Surveillance is theft. —Writers against Mass Surveillance2 Autonomy is abstraction. —Chris Anderson, 3D Robotics3 Convenience means not secure. —Jacob Appelbaum, Tor project4 Fear is awareness. —Charles Manson5 68. Seeing The Stack We Have, Stacks to Come The Stack we have means: borderlines are rewritten, dashed, curved, erased, automated; algorithms count as continental divides; the opposition of chthonic versus geometric territory is collapsed by computation; interfaces upon interfaces accumulate into networks, which accumulate into territories, which accumulate into geoscapes (territories comprising territories, made and so entered into, not entered into and so made); the embedded is mobilized and the liquid is tethered down into shelter and infrastructure; the flat, looping planes of jurisdiction multiply and overlap into towered, interwoven stacks; the opaque is transcribed and the transparent is staged, dramatized, and artificialized; irregular allegiances are formalized (the enclave and exclave, for diasporic and satellite expatriates); both futurist and medievalist scenarios confiscate, one from another, the program of supercomputational utopias; and the incomplete(able) comprehensiveness of Earth's archives is folded back on itself as a promiscuous, ambient geopolitics of consumable electrons.
Dave Eggers, The Circle (San Francisco: McSweeney's, 2013). 2. Writers Against Mass Surveillance, “A Stand for Democracy in the Digital Age,” a collectively signed petition at https://www.change.org/p/a-stand-for-democracy-in-the-digital-age-3. First published December 10, 2013. 3. From Chris Anderson's talk at Google, Authors@Google: Chris Anderson (2012), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3grzYoJ2oPQ. 4. Jacob Appelbaum, “Art as Evidence” (panel at Transmediale, Haus Der Kulturen Der Welt, Berlin, January 30, 2014), http://www.transmediale.de/content/presentation-by-jacob-applebaum-at-transmediale-2014-keynote-art-as-evidence. 5. Charles Manson, “Lie,” recorded August 9, 1968, Phil Kaufman, 1970, vinyl recording. 6. A sectional tracking shot, as in Hitchcock's Rear Window, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (Paramount, 1954).
Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War by Fred Kaplan
Cass Sunstein, computer age, data acquisition, drone strike, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, game design, hiring and firing, index card, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, national security letter, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Y2K, zero day
Aid, “Inside the NSA’s Ultra-Secret China Hacking Group,” Foreign Policy, June 10, 2013. One device, called LoudAuto: The names of these programs come from a fifty-eight-page TAO catalogue of tools and techniques, among the many documents leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. No U.S. newspaper or magazine reprinted the list (the reporters and editors working the story considered it genuinely damaging to national security), but Der Spiegel did, in its entirety (Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert, and Christian Stöcker, “Shopping for Spy Gear: Catalog Advertises NSA Toolbox,” Dec. 29, 2013), and computer security analyst Bruce Schneier subsequently reprinted each item, one day at a time, on his blog. As hackers and spies discovered vulnerabilities: “Inside TAO.” In the ensuing decade, private companies: For more on zero-day exploits, see Neal Ungerleider, “How Spies, Hackers, and the Government Bolster a Booming Software Exploit Market,” Fast Company, May 1, 2013; Nicole Perlroth and David E.
One week after the failed summit: Lana Lam and Stephen Chen, “Exclusive: Snowden Reveals More US Cyberspying Details,” South China Morning Post, June 22, 2013, http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1266777/exclusive-snowden-safe-hong-kong-more-us-cyberspying-details-revealed?page=all. Soon came newspaper stories: For summary, see Kaplan, “Why Snowden Won’t (and Shouldn’t) Get Clemency.” Fort Meade’s crown jewels: Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert, and Christian Stocker, “Shopping for Spy Gear: Catalog Advertises NSA Toolbox,” Der Spiegel, Dec. 29, 2013, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-nsa-uses-powerful-toolbox-in-effort-to-spy-on-global-networks-a-940969.html. Under the surveillance system described: The potential extent of surveillance, covered by three hops, is most clearly explained in Liberty and Security in a Changing World: Report and Recommendations of the President’s Review Group on Intelligence and Communication Technologies (White House, Dec. 12, 2013), 103, https://www.google.com/webhp?
WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry
1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks
In the days after the State Department cables starting leaking, not only did Senator Joe Lieberman intimidate major Internet companies into kicking WikiLeaks oﬀ their services without any serious review, the government told its own employees that they shouldn’t look at references to WikiLeaks from government computers or their home computers, and even public resources like the Library of Congress started ﬁltering searches on its computers and Wi-Fi to prevent people from reading news articles about the cables.7 The Oﬃce of Management and Budget circulated a fourteen-page memo to all government agencies requiring them to tighten their security procedures, which included suggestions that they employ psychiatrists and sociologists to measure employee “despondence and grumpiness as a means to gauge waning trustworthiness,” “capture evidence of pre-employment and/ or post-employment activities or participation in on-line media data mining sites like WikiLeaks or Open Leaks,” and require all employees to report their contacts with the media.8 It was quite an about-face from the OMB’s Open Government Directive of a year earlier, which called on agencies to “create an unprecedented and sustained level of openness and accountability.”9 And the Justice Department began pursuing a criminal investigation against WikiLeaks, demanding that Twitter turn 139 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY over the subscriber account information—including personal addresses, connections made to and from the account, IP addresses used, means of payment (though Twitter is free)— for Julian Assange, Bradley Manning, and three other people who had been involved with the group around the time that the Collateral Murder video came out: Icelandic MP Birgitta Jonsdottir, Dutch hacker Rop Gonggrijp, and American anticensorship hacker Jacob Appelbaum. This is an extremely worrisome development. For there is nothing that WikiLeaks has done that is diﬀerent from any other newspaper or media outlet that has received leaked government documents, veriﬁed their authenticity, and then published their contents and analysis. If WikiLeaks can be prosecuted and convicted for its acts of journalism, then the foundations of freedom of the press in America are in serious trouble.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
“We will systematically take on each repressive country that censors its people,” he told Newsweek in August, “We have a list. Don’t piss off hackers who will have their way with you. A mischievous kid will show you how the Internet works.” But as it turned out, he didn’t have the skills to back up his claims. Though he purported to deal in cryptography, Austin turned out to be nothing but a cipher himself. After Evgeny’s piece for Foreign Policy, the code fell into the hands of Jacob Appelbaum, a hacker of considerable pedigree who had spoken on behalf of WikiLeaks at a US conference in July while Julian was in hiding (and who, for his troubles, was subsequently detained at the airport the next time he flew into the US). Appelbaum’s verdict was unequivocal, delivered via Twitter on 14 September: “Haystack is the worst piece of software I have ever had the displeasure of ripping apart.
Active Measures by Thomas Rid
1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day
Russian authorities in turn interpreted American and European attempts at deescalating the crisis as the opposite, as an escalation and as “meddling” in the Russian sphere of influence.24 American intelligence agencies began to prioritize intelligence collection in Ukraine. A shadow war was on the rise. Four days later, another highly damaging NSA document appeared. In Hamburg, the annual congress of the Chaos Computer Club was under way. On December 29, the activist Jacob Appelbaum revealed the Advanced Network Technology list, known as the ANT catalog.25 The ANT catalog outlined custom-designed NSA hardware and software hacking used to penetrate devices produced by U.S. companies, including Apple, Dell, Cisco, Juniper Networks, and others. The document was released alongside a Spiegel story on the NSA’s elite hacking division, then known as Tailored Access Operations.
Manning later changed gender, and took the first name Chelsea. 9. See Charlie Savage, “Was Snowden a Russian Agent?” New York Review of Books, February 9, 2017. 10. For implementation dates, see “SecureDrop,” Wikipedia, https://web.archive.org/web/20190107195518/https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SecureDrop 11. Bruce Schneier, “The U.S. Intelligence Community Has a Third Leaker,” Schneier on Security, August 7, 2014. 12. Jacob Appelbaum, Holger Stark, Marcel Rosenbach, and Jörg Schindler, “Merkel beschwert sich bei Obama,” Der Spiegel, October 23, 2013. 13. Marcel Rosenbach, conversation with Thomas Rid, May 8, 2017. 14. Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark, “Von Mielke zu Merkel,” Der Spiegel 39 (September 27, 2010), pp. 30–31. 15. Glenn Greenwald, conversation with Thomas Rid, May 10, 2019. 16. Rüdiger Ditz, “Karriere einer Abschrift,” Der Spiegel, December 13, 2014. 17.
Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP
January 28, 2013—As “Citizen Four,” Snowden sends his first substantive email to Poitras. January 31, 2013—Poitras, writing from Berlin, asks to meet me, saying she needs advice. February 2, 2013—At a New York café, Poitras tells me about her source and his (still vague) story. I offer to help her validate it. According to her journal, she is also asking advice from privacy advocate and technologist Jacob Appelbaum in Berlin. March 30, 2013—Citizen Four sends Poitras a link to an encrypted file called “astro_noise,” but not the key to open it. April 19, 2013—Poitras learns that Greenwald is visiting New York. She asks to meet and shows him two emails from Citizen Four, suggestive but still vague about the story. April 22–28, 2013—Poitras meets twice more with Greenwald, joined the second time by Appelbaum and ACLU lawyer Jameel Jaffer.
“I had a blue force tracker”: Confidential source, interview with author, 2018. The source worked in a comparable expeditionary role, not in Unit S3283. not going to write about those things: I am not sure I would have described the unit at all, given the risks, if its work and equipment had not been made public in more detail in a widely reproduced article and original NSA document called the ANT Catalog. Jacob Appelbaum and Christian Stöcker, “Shopping for Spy Gear: Catalog Advertises NSA Toolbox,” Der Spiegel, December 29, 2013, www.spiegel.de/international/world/catalog-reveals-nsa-has-back-doors-for-numerous-devices-a-940994.html. ROOFIE: Slang for Rohypnol, roofie is the street name for a notorious drug that sexual predators use to incapacitate women. Fact Sheet, “Date Rape Drugs,” Office on Women’s Health, U.S.
Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar
FURTHER RESOURCES LAUNCH EVENT “Platform Cooperativism: The Internet, Ownership, Democracy,” The New School (November 2015), video archive: http://platformcoop.net/2015/video READINGS Trebor Scholz, “Platform Cooperativism vs. the Sharing Economy,” Medium (December 5, 2014), https://tinyurl.com/oj8rna2 Nathan Schneider, “Owning Is the New Sharing,” Shareable (December 21, 2014), http://shareable.net/blog/owning-is-the-new-sharing Janelle Orsi, Frank Pasquale, Nathan Schneider, Pia Mancini, Trebor Scholz, “5 Ways to Take Back Tech,” The Nation (May 27, 2015), http://thenation.com/article/5-ways-take-back-tech Trebor Scholz, Platform Cooperativism: Challenging the Corporate Sharing Economy (Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, New York Office, 2016, with additional translations in Spanish, French, Portuguese, German, Italian, and Chinese), http://platformcoop.net/about/primer Trebor Scholz, Uberworked and Underpaid: How Workers are Disrupting the Digital Economy (Polity, 2016) WEBSITES Platform Cooperativism portal, http://platformcoop.net Platform Cooperativism Consortium, http://platformcoop.newschool.edu The Internet of Ownership, http://internetofownership.net Shareable, http://shareable.net Sustainable Economies Law Center, http://theselc.org OR Books PUBLISHING THE POLITICS OF THE INTERNET What’s Yours is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy TOM SLEE Black Ops Advertising: Native Ads, Content Marketing, and the Covert World of the Digital Sell MARA EINSTEIN Splinternet: How Geopolitics and Commerce are Fragmenting the World Wide Web SCOTT MALCOLMSON Lean Out: The Struggle for Gender Equality in Tech and Start-Up Culture ELISSA SHEVINSKY, EDITOR When Google Met WikiLeaks JULIAN ASSANGE The Big Disconnect: Why the Internet Hasn’t Transformed Politics (Yet) MICAH L. SIFRY Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet JULIAN ASSANGE WITH JACOB APPELBAUM, ANDY MüLLER-MAGUHN, AND JéRéMIE ZIMMERMANN Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet DAVID MOON, PATRICK RUFFINI, AND DAVID SEGAL, EDITORS For more information, visit our website at www.orbooks.com
What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
But it is sadly typical of Silicon Valley’s outlook. There are many who still see open source software as a social movement rather than as a part of the commercial world, who believe in the liberating possibilities of open source software, and who cast a baleful glare towards the giants of Silicon Valley.13 For example, in the fallout from the Snowden revelations about NSA spying on the Internet, computer security researcher Jacob Appelbaum gave a keynote about the surveillance state at the 29C3 (“Chaos Communication Congress”) hacker conference in December 2012 and included this ringing encomium for open source development: It is possible to make a living making free software for freedom, instead of closed source proprietary malware for cops . . . Everyone that’s worked on free software and open source software . . . these are things we should try to focus on . . .
The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino
3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
NBC New York. Accessed February 6, 2016. http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/Schumer-Calls-on-Feds-to-Shut-Down-Online-Drug-Marketplace-123187958.html. 11 Jeong, Sarah. “Criminal Charges Against Agents Reveal Staggering Corruption in the Silk Road Investigation.” Forbes. March 31, 2015. Accessed June 22, 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/sarahjeong/2015/03/31/force-and-bridges/. 12 Assange, Julian, Jacob Appelbaum, Andy Müller-Maguhn and Jérémie Zimmermann. Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet. New York: OR Books, 2012. 13 Greenberg, Andy. “An Interview With A Digital Drug Lord: The Silk Road’s Dread Pirate Roberts (Q&A).” Forbes. August 14, 2013. Accessed June 22, 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/an-interview-with-a-digital-drug-lord-the-silk-roads-dread-pirate-roberts-qa/. 14 Cubrilovic, Nik.
Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann
active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP
References 105  “Improper SSL certificate issuing by CAs”, Kurt Seifried, posting to the mozilla.dev.tech.crypto newsgroup, message-ID firstname.lastname@example.org, 1 April 2010.  “Investigate incident with RapidSSL that issued SSL certificate for portugalmail.pt”, Reed Loden, 1 April 2010, https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=556468.  “Breach of Trust”, Kurt Seifried, Linux Magazine, Issue 114 (May 2010), p.24.  “Who’s letting me become ssladmin?”, Kurt Seifried, 17 April 2010, http://keyboardcowboy.ca/2010/04/whos-letting-me-become-ssladmin/.  “Detecting Certificate Authority compromises and web browser collusion”, Jacob Appelbaum, 22 March 2011, https://blog.torproject.org/blog/detecting-certificate-authority-compromises-and-web-browsercollusion.  “Report of incident on 15-MAR-2011”, 23 March 2011, Comodo, http://www.comodo.com/Comodo-Fraud-Incident-2011-03-23.html.  “The Recent RA Compromise”, Phillip Hallam-Baker, 23 March 2011, http://blogs.comodo.com/it-security/data-security/the-recent-cacompromise/.
“Microsoft’s continuing work on digital certificates”, Gerardo Di Giacomo and Jonathan Ness, 10 July 2012, http://blogs.technet.com/b/srd/archive/2012/07/10/microsoft-s-continuing-work-on-digitalcertificates.aspx.  “Microsoft Revokes Trust in 28 of Its Own Certificates”, Dennis Fisher, 10 July 2012, http://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/microsoft-revokestrust-28-its-own-certificates-071012.  “Detecting collusion between vendors and CAs: Revocation isn’t enough and everyone knows it”, Jacob Appelbaum, 18 March 2011, https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=643056.  “Firefox Blocking Fraudulent Certificates”, Mozilla Security Blog, 22 March 2011, https://blog.mozilla.com/security/2011/03/22/firefoxblocking-fraudulent-certificates/.  “Comodo Certificate Issue — Follow Up”, 25 March 2011, http://blog.mozilla.com/security/2011/03/25/comodo-certificateissue-follow-up/.  “Mozilla Says It Erred in Not Disclosing Comodo Attack Earlier”, Dennis Fischer, 25 March 2011, https://threatpost.com/en_us/blogs/mozillasays-it-erred-not-disclosing-comodo-attack-earlier-032511.  “Just Another proof from Comodo Hacker”, ‘ComodoHacker’, 28 March 2011, http://pastebin.com/CvGXyfiJ.  “Deal with bogus certs issued by Comodo partner”, Rob Stradling, 18 March 2011, https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?
, Brian Smith, panel session at the 20th Usenix Security Symposium (Security’11), August 2011.  “RE: IP: SSL Certificate "Monopoly" Bears Financial Fruit”, Lucky Green, posting to the email@example.com mailing list, message-ID 002901c228b4$14522fb0$6501a8c0@LUCKYVAIO, 11 July 2002.  “Re: Has any public CA ever had their certificate revoked?”, Dan Geer, posting to the firstname.lastname@example.org mailing list, message-ID 20090503205759.D7C2E34378@absinthe.tinho.net, 3 May 2009.  “Detecting Certificate Authority compromises and web browser collusion”, Jacob Appelbaum, 22 March 2011, https://blog.torproject.org/blog/detecting-certificate-authority-compromises-and-web-browsercollusion.  “Results after 30 days of (almost) no trusted CAs”, Nasko Oskov, 7 May 2010, http://netsekure.org/2010/05/results-after-30-days-ofalmost-no-trusted-cas/.  “Most common trusted root certificates”, Nasko Oskov, 7 April 2010, http://netsekure.org/2010/04/most-common-trusted-rootcertificates/
Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman
activist lawyer, Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust
We talked about how to work around the infamous XCB bug with Java and also about the future of X including OpenGL support.”32 Other hackers, who had hoped to get a significant amount of work done, entirely fail to do so, perhaps because socializing, sightseeing, nightclubs, and the occasional impromptu concert (after fixing an old church organ) prove a greater draw than late-night hacking. FIGURE 1.5. Hackers on Planet Earth, New York Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0), https://secure.flickr.com/photos/ioerror/196443446/in/set-72157594211715252 (accessed August 2, 2011). Photo: Jacob Appelbaum. Most hackers, however, intermix play with hacking, giving themselves ample opportunity to see the sights, dance the dances, play the games, eat the local cuisine, hit the parks and beaches, and stay put with computers on their laps, hacking away next to others doing the same, generally into the early morning. During hacker cons, there is a semiotic play of profound sameness and difference.
The Perfect Weapon: War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age by David E. Sanger
active measures, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, computer age, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, ransomware, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, WikiLeaks, zero day
Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat,” New York Times, March 23, 2014, www.nytimes.com/2014/03/23/world/asia/nsa-breached-chinese-servers-seen-as-spy-peril.html?. In late 2013, Der Spiegel published the “ANT catalog”: Spiegel Staff, Documents Reveal Top NSA Hacking Unit, December 29, 2013. www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-nsa-uses-powerful-toolbox-in-effort-to-spy-on-global-networks-a-940969.html; Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert, and Christian Stöcker, “Shopping for Spy Gear: Catalog Advertises NSA Toolbox,” Der Spiegel, December 29, 2013, www.spiegel.de/international/world/catalog-reveals-nsa-has-back-doors-for-numerous-devices-a-940994.html. The catalog revealed: I had been aware of these technologies in 2012, when I first published accounts of Olympic Games, in which they were important.
Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman
1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, do-ocracy, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, low cost airline, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day
Manning was sentenced by a military judge to thirty five years in prison, and is now at Fort Leavenworth, having spent almost a year in solitary confinement before he was sentenced.5 At the 2010 HOPE conference, there was palpable tension in the air. Rumors were swirling that Julian Assange was going to give the keynote. In a last-minute switch-up, it was not Assange who stepped out on stage, but the American hacker Jacob Appelbaum. Appelbaum gave a riveting talk and effectively outed himself, in front of everyone in attendance (including the inevitable federal agents), as an affiliate of the embattled organization. It was a bold move, given the tactics of silencing, prosecution, and intimidation leveled against the organization by US authorities. His talk contextualized WikiLeaks historically into what is now commonly called “the fifth estate”: the hackers, leakers, independent journalists, and bloggers who serve the critical role that once fell to “the fourth estate,” the mainstream media.
We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory by Christine Lagorio-Chafkin
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, East Village, game design, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technoutopianism, uber lyft, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator
He was a hacker with a heart—a man who’d sought to change the world, and who’d actually made a dent in the free flow of information online, starting at age fourteen, when he’d helped create the framework for RSS. He’d been the impetus behind rewriting Reddit into the programming language Python. Now he was dead, at age twenty-six. On Reddit on January 12, the top post was a photo posted by Erik Martin, titled simply “AaronSW,” Swartz’s Reddit username. It was a sharp portrait, taken by Jacob Appelbaum, a hacker, security researcher, and friend of Swartz. In the image, Swartz’s face is scruffy, but his brown eyes clear. He’s closed-lipped, smiling warmly, in a dark hoodie. Appelbaum later posted on Twitter, “I’m pretty upset but so is the entire internet—@aaronsw touched a lot of people. It isn’t wrong to say how we will all personally miss him.” Around the world, on newsstands and screens, press articles detailed (through accounts from Swartz’s friends, lawyers, and mentors) the debilitating stress he had suffered while under federal investigation, and the terrible threats of outsized punishments wielded by prosecutors against this young, good-hearted man who’d caused little harm.